WorldWideScience

Sample records for depot tetracosactrin spironolactone

  1. Spironolactone in cardiovascular disease: an expanding universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, John W

    2017-01-01

    Spironolactone has been marketed for over half a century as a 'potassium-sparing diuretic', used primarily in patients with ascites. With the realization that primary aldosteronism is the most common (5-13%) form of secondary hypertension, it has become widely used as a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. More recently, in the wake of the RALES trial, spironolactone in addition to standard therapy has been shown to be very beneficial in heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction. Despite the failure of the TOPCAT trial, spironolactone is being increasingly used in diastolic heart failure (i.e. with a preserved ejection fraction). The third currently accepted role for spironolactone is in hypertension resistant to three conventional antihypertensives including a diuretic, where it has been proven to be effective, in contra-distinction to renal artery denervation. Finally, brief consideration will be given to 'areas in waiting' - pulmonary hypertension/fibrosis, cancer - where spironolactone may play very useful roles.

  2. Spironolactone-Induced Agranulocytosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hwa Hsiao

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma was admitted for the chief problem of ascites. Laboratory data revealed a leukocyte count of 3.8 × 109/L on the second day of admission. Spironolactone was prescribed for diuresis beginning on the third day. Routine blood tests on the tenth day disclosed marked leukopenia (1.8 × 109/L. Four days later, the leukocyte count was still 1.8 × 109/L and a differential count revealed agranulocytosis (neutrophils, 0.25 × 109/L. Eight days after withdrawal of spironolactone, the leukocyte count returned to normal (leukocytes, 4.9 × 109/L; neutrophils, 1.76 × 109/L. On review of the patient's clinical condition, concurrent medication, and previous reports, we highly suspected that this episode of agranulocytosis was caused by spironolactone. Unlike four previously reported cases, this one did not involve furosemide, which is reported to be associated with leukopenia and agranulocytosis.

  3. [Spironolactone in patients with resistant hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José A; Pérez-Lahiguera, Francisco; González, Carmen; Pascual, José M

    2008-10-04

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of adding spironolactone to hypertensive resistant (HTR) patients and characterize those who respond effectively. Observational retrospective study on outpatients with HTR (being treated with at least 3 drugs at full doses, one of these being a diuretic) not achieving blood pressure (BP) goals, with normal creatinine values (< 1.6 mg/dl for males and < 1.4 mg/dl in women). A total of 95 patients (70% male), average (standard deviation) age of 66 (12) years (40% diabetics), were treated with spironolactone during 4 months (range: 2-13). Mean systolic and diastolic BP fell from 170/86 (20/14) mmHg, by 29/12 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], 25 to 33/10 to 14 mmHg; p = 0.001). At the end of follow-up, 38% of all patients achieved the goal of BP control. Initial systolic BP < 165 mmHg (odds ratio [OR] = 3,97; 95% CI, 1.52-10.37; p = 0.005), and diabetes (OR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13-0.86; p = 0.02) were the only independent factors related to BP control in a logistic regression analysis. The addition of spironolactone effectively lowers BP in patients with HTR treated with 3 drugs. BP control is more difficult to achieve in diabetics.

  4. Role of Spironolactone Chalcone in the Prevention of Peritoneal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The study was designed to investigate the effects of a novel spironolactone chalcone in the prevention of peritoneal fibrosis. Methods: Wistar rats (n = 30) were randomly assigned to 3 groups: bacteria (B), spironolactone amide treatment (S), and control (C) groups. C group received only dextran beads while S and ...

  5. The effect of spironolactone on experimental periodontitis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauballe, M.C.B.; Bentzen, B.H.; Bjornsson, M.

    2005-01-01

    Elevated levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) have been found in patients with adult periodontitis. Animal studies have shown that TNF plays an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. New findings suggest that the aldosterone-inhibitor spironolactone possesses an anti-TNF effect....... The purpose of the study was to determine the anti-TNF effect of spironolactone in an endotoxic shock rat model and to disclose the effect of oral administration of spironolactone on the development of experimental periodontitis in rats....

  6. Spironolactone use and the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmez, Sinem E; Lassen, Annmarie T; Aalykke, Claus

    2008-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT * Recent studies have suggested an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) in spironolactone users. * We conducted this population-based case-control study to confirm the association between spironolactone use and acute nonvaricose UGB alone...... is not modified by high cumulative doses or by concurrent use of antithrombotic or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. AIMS Recent studies have suggested an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) in spironolactone users. The aim was to confirm the association, identify the risk factors...

  7. Factors predicting hyperkalemia in patients with cirrhosis receiving spironolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Z.; Mumtaz, K.; Salam, A.; Jafri, W.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors leading to hyperkalemia in patients with cirrhosis receiving spironolactone. Results: Patients with hyperkalemia (K>5 mmol/l) had higher blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and bilirubin levels (p=0.004, 0.001 and 0.044 respectively). Their serum sodium and albumin levels were lower (p=0.000 and 0.017 respectively). They had advanced cirrhosis with high Pugh score (p=0.003). These patients were on higher dose of spironolactone (p=0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that dose of spironolactone > 100 mg/day, serum creatinine >1.3 mg/dl, persistence of ascites and edema, and female gender were important predictors of development of hyperkalemia. Conclusion: Patients with cirrhosis receiving high dose of the diuretic, having edema, ascites and high serum creatinine are at the greater risk of developing hyperkalemia during spironolactone therapy. (author)

  8. Makahiki+WattDepot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Philip M.; Xu, Yongwen; Brewer, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    to consumers. Since 2009, we have been designing, implementing, and evaluating an open source software "stack" to facilitate this research. This software stack consists of two custom systems called WattDepot and Makahiki, along with the open source components they rely upon (Java, Restlet, Postgres, Python...

  9. Spironolactone and doxazosin treatment in patients with resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José A; Pérez-Lahiguera, Francisco; Baldó, Emilio; González, Carmen; Pascual, José M

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of spironolactone and doxazosin as treatment for patients with resistant hypertension. This retrospective study involved 181 outpatients with resistant hypertension (defined as a failure of blood pressure [BP] control despite treatment with three drugs, one of which was a diuretic) who received additional spironolactone (n=88) or doxazosin (n=93). Mean systolic BP in the spironolactone group fell by 28 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], 24-32 mmHg; P< .001) and mean diastolic BP fell by 12 mmHg (95% CI, 9-14 mmHg; P< .001). The corresponding falls in the doxazosin group were 16 mmHg (95% CI, 13-20 mmHg; P< .001) and 7 mmHg (95% CI, 5-9 mmHg; P< .001), respectively. The decrease was significantly greater with spironolactone for both systolic (P< .001) and diastolic (P=.003) pressures. At the end of follow-up, 30% of all patients had achieved BP control, with control being more frequent with spironolactone (39%) than doxazosin (23%; P=.02). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the only factors that significantly influenced the achievement of BP control were diabetes (odds ratio=0.17; 95% CI, 0.08-0.39; P< .001) and baseline systolic BP <165 mmHg (odds ratio=2.56; 95% CI, 1.11-5.90; P=.03). In patients with resistant hypertension, the addition of either spironolactone or doxazosin resulted in a significant decrease in BP, though the decrease appeared to be greater with spironolactone. The presence of diabetes complicated BP control.

  10. Spironolactone in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, C; Mendoza-Ruiz de Zuazu, H F; Formiga, F; Manzano, L; Ceresuela, L M; Carrera-Izquierdo, M; González Franco, Á; Epelde-Gonzalo, F; Cerqueiro-González, J M; Montero-Pérez-Barquero, M

    2015-01-01

    Aldosterone inhibitors have been shown to be beneficial for patients with systolic heart failure. However, the evidence from patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is limited. We evaluated the role of spironolactone in the prognosis of a cohort of patients with HFPEF. We analyzed the outcomes of patients hospitalized for HFPEF in 52 departments of internal medicine of the Spanish RICA registry according to those who did and did not take spironolactone. We recorded the posthospital mortality rate and readmissions at 1 year and performed a multivariate survival analysis. We included 1212 patients with HFPEF, with a mean age of 79 years (standard deviation, 7.9), (64.1% women), the majority of whom had hypertensive heart disease (50.7%). The patients treated with spironolactone, compared with those who were not treated with this diuretic, had a more advanced functional class, a higher number of readmissions (44.3 vs. 29.1%; p<0.001) and a higher rate in the combined variable of readmissions/mortality (39.0 vs. 29.0%; p=0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the administration of spironolactone was associated with an increase in readmissions (RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.16-1.78; p=0.001). For patients with HFPEF, the administration of spironolactone was associated with an increase in all-cause readmission, perhaps due to the higher rate of hyperpotassemia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  11. Spironolactone in chronic hemodialysis patients improves cardiac function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Shahram; Mortazavi, Mojhgan; Shahidi Shahrzad; Seirafian, Shiva; Pourmoghadas, Ali; Garakyaraghi, Mohammad; Eshaghian, Afrooz; Ghassami, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    We performed this study to assess whether low dose spironolactone could be administered in hemodialysis (HD) patients with moderate to severe heart failure to improve cardiovascular function and reduce hospitalization without inducing hyperkalemia. We enrolled 16 chronic HD patients with moderate to severe heart failure and left ventricle ejection fraction :5 45%. In a double blinded randomized placebo controlled study, one group of 8 patients received 25 mg of spironolactone after each dialysis session within six months, and the rest received a placebo. Echocardiography was performed on all the patients to assess ejection fraction and left ventricular mass during 12 hours after completion of hemodialysis at the beginning and the end of study. Serum potassium was measured predialysis every 4 weeks. The mean ejection fraction increased significantly more in spironolactone group during the study period than in the placebo group (6.2 + - 1.64 vs. 0.83 + - 4.9, P0.046). The mean left ventricular mass decreased in the spironolactone group, but increased significantly in the placebo group during the period (-8.4 + - 4.72 vs. 3 + -7.97. 95%, P= 0.021). The incidence of hyperkalemia was not significantly increased in the study or controlled groups. In conclusion, we found in this study that administration of spironolactone in chronic HD patients with moderate to severe heart failure substantially improved their cardiac function and decreases left ventricular mass without development of significant hyperkalemia. (author)

  12. The effect of low-dose spironolactone on resistant hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engbaek, Mette; Hjerrild, Mette; Hallas, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    with three classes of antihypertensive drugs. The effect on blood pressure was estimated by office measurements together with serum potassium and adverse effects. The data were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 544 patients were identified; 200 were excluded because of secondary hypertension, other......Our objective was to estimate the effect of addition of low-dose spironolactone to previous antihypertensive therapy in patients with resistant hypertension. Patients had 25 to 50 mg of spironolactone once daily added to the treatment of hypertension that was uncontrolled despite previous treatment...... indications for spironolactone than hypertension, previous antihypertensive therapy with less than three drugs unless demonstrated intolerance to a third drug, insufficient compliance, and lack of follow-up data. Thus, 344 cases were included in the analysis. The population was 62.1 ± 12.8 years old, 45...

  13. Role of Spironolactone Chalcone in the Prevention of Peritoneal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Spironolactone chalcone treatment at a dose of 30 mg/kg body ... fibrosis in PD patients using various drugs and ... Rockville, Maryland, USA) cultures in a brain– ... mL blood samples were collected from the vena .... The transport barrier in intraperitoneal therapy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2005; 288: F433-. 442.

  14. Preparation and characterization of spironolactone nanoparticles by antisolvent precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuancai; Ng, Wai Kiong; Shen, Shoucang; Kim, Sanggu; Tan, Reginald B H

    2009-06-22

    Due to low aqueous solubility and slow dissolution rate, spironolactone, a synthetic steroid diuretic, has a low and variable oral bioavailability. Nanoparticles were thus prepared by antisolvent precipitation in this work for accelerating dissolution of this kind of poorly water-soluble drugs. Effects of surfactant type/concentration and feed drug concentration on the precipitated particle size were evaluated. It was found that introduction of spironolactone solution in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) to the antisolvent water can produce the particles in the submicron range with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as the stabilizer. The particle size decreased with the increase of HPMC concentration from 0 to 0.125% (w/v), further increase of which did not affect the size significantly. Increasing feed drug concentration from 10 to 100 mg/ml resulted in the particle size decrease. In comparison with raw drug, the chemical structure of nanosized spironolactone was not changed but the crystallinity was reduced. Dissolution of spironolactone nanoparticles in 0.1M HCl was 2.59 times faster than raw drugs in 60 min.

  15. Metabolomics for Informing Adverse Outcome Pathways: Androgen Receptor Activation and the Pharmaceutical Spironolactone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Metabolite Input Files for Determining Biochemical Pathways Impacted by Spironolactone Exposures of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) Using the Mummichog...

  16. Genomic and nongenomic effects of aldosterone in the rat heart: why is spironolactone cardioprotective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Chai (Wenxia); I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); U. Arulmani (Udayasankar); R.G. Schoemaker (Regien); J.M.J. Lamers (Jos); A.H.J. Danser (Jan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstract1. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism with spironolactone reduces mortality in heart failure on top of ACE inhibition. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we compared the actions of both aldosterone and spironolactone to those of angiotensin (Ang) II in the rat heart. 2.

  17. Effect of spironolactone on 30-day death and heart failure rehospitalization (from the COACH Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisel, Alan; Xue, Yang; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Voors, Adriaan A; Jaarsma, Tiny; Pang, Peter S; Butler, Javed; Pitt, Bertram; Clopton, Paul; de Boer, Rudolf A

    2014-09-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of spironolactone on 30-day outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and the association between treatment and outcomes stratified by biomarkers. We conducted a secondary analysis of the biomarker substudy of the multicenter COACH (Co-ordinating Study Evaluating Outcomes of Advising and Counseling in Heart Failure) trial involving 534 AHF patients for 30-day mortality and HF rehospitalizations. Spironolactone therapy was initiated and terminated at the discretion of the treating physician; 30-day outcomes were compared between patients who were treated with spironolactone and those who were not. Outcomes with spironolactone therapy were explored based on N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, ST2, galectin-3, and creatinine levels. Spironolactone was prescribed to 297 (55.6%) patients at discharge (158 new and 139 continued). There were 19 deaths and 30 HF rehospitalizations among 46 patients by 30 days. Patients discharged on spironolactone had significantly less 30-day event (hazard ratio 0.538, p = 0.039) after adjustment for multiple risk factors. Initiation of spironolactone in patients who were not on spironolactone before admission was associated with a significant reduction in event rate (hazard ratio 0.362, p = 0.027). The survival benefit of spironolactone was more prominent in patient groups with elevations of creatinine, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, ST2, or galectin-3. In conclusion, AHF patients who received spironolactone during hospitalization had significantly fewer 30-day mortality and HF rehospitalizations, especially in high-risk patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Depot Maintenance: Executed Workload and Maintenance Operations at DOD Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-03

    in turn enable testing of helicopter rotor blades. The Army has also made investments in logistics software at all of its depots. According to the...maintenance and repair of structural helicopter airframes and blades; advanced composite technologies; flight controls and control surfaces; and...level maintenance on a wide range of vehicles and other military assets, including helicopters , combat vehicles, ships, aircraft, engines, and software

  19. Controlled antisolvent precipitation of spironolactone nanoparticles by impingement mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuancai; Ng, Wai Kiong; Shen, Shoucang; Kim, Sanggu; Tan, Reginald B H

    2011-05-30

    Continuous antisolvent precipitation of spironolactone nanoparticles were performed by impingement mixing in this work. In the range of Reynolds numbers (Re) 2108-6325 for the antisolvent water stream and 1771-5313 for the solvent stream, i.e. acetonic drug solution, 302-360 nm drug nanoparticles were achieved. Increasing drug concentration from 25 to 50 and 100 mg/ml led to a significant size increase from 279.0±2.6 to 302.7±4.9 and 446.0±17.3 nm, respectively. "Two-step crystallization" was first observed for spironolactone in the water/acetone system: the drug was precipitated initially as spherical cluster, which rearranged into ordered cuboidal nanocrystals finally. The nanoformulation showed faster dissolution rate in comparison with the raw drug. By combining the impingement mixing and an on-line spray drying, a fully continuous process may be developed for mass-production of dried drug nanoparticles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Spironolactone on Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of enzymes important for the resorption of extracellular matrices, control of vascular remodeling and repair. Increased activity of MMP2 has been demonstrated in heart failure, and in acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF a decrease in circulating MMPs has been demonstrated along with successful treatment. Objective: Our aim was to test the influence of spironolactone in MMP2 levels. Methods: Secondary analysis of a prospective, interventional study including 100 patients with ADHF. Fifty patients were non-randomly assigned to spironolactone (100 mg/day plus standard ADHF therapy (spironolactone group or standard ADHF therapy alone (control group. Results: Spironolactone group patients were younger and had lower creatinine and urea levels (all p < 0.05. Baseline MMP2, NT-pro BNP and weight did not differ between spironolactone and control groups. A trend towards a more pronounced decrease in MMP2 from baseline to day 3 was observed in the spironolactone group (-21 [-50 to 19] vs 1.5 [-26 to 38] ng/mL, p = 0.06. NT-pro BNP and weight also had a greater decrease in the spironolactone group. The proportion of patients with a decrease in MMP2 levels from baseline to day 3 was also likely to be greater in the spironolactone group (50% vs 66.7%, but without statistical significance. Correlations between MMP2, NT-pro BNP and weight variation were not statistically significant. Conclusion: MMP2 levels are increased in ADHF. Patients treated with spironolactone may have a greater reduction in MMP2 levels.

  1. Effects of Spironolactone and Losartan on Diabetic Nephropathy in a Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Young Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhile there is an evidence that the anti-inflammatory properties of spironolactone can attenuate proteinuria in type 2 diabetes, its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in diabetic nephropathy have not been clearly defined. In this study, we examined the effects of spironolactone, losartan, and a combination of these two drugs on albuminuria, renal VEGF expression, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in a type 2 diabetic rat model.MethodsThirty-three Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima-Fatty (OLETF rats were divided into four groups and treated with different medication regimens from weeks 25 to 50; OLETF diabetic controls (n=5, spironolactone-treated (n=10, losartan-treated (n=9, and combination of spironolactone- and losartan-treated (n=9.ResultsAt week 50, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly decreased in the losartan and combination groups compared to the control OLETF group. No decrease was detected in the spironolactone group. There was a significant reduction in renal VEGF, transforming growth factor (TGF-β, and type IV collagen mRNA levels in the spironolactone- and combination regimen-treated groups. Twenty-four hour urine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels were comparable in all four groups but did show a decreasing trend in the losartan and combination regimen groups. Twenty-four hour urine malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased in the spironolactone- and combination regimen-treated groups.ConclusionThese results suggest that losartan alone and a combined regimen of spironolactone and losartan could ameliorate albuninuria by reducing renal VEGF expression. Also, simultaneous treatment with spironolactone and losartan may have protective effects against diabetic nephropathy by decreasing TGF-β and type IV collagen expression and by reducing oxidative stress in a type 2 diabetic rat model.

  2. Spironolactone and risk of upper gastrointestinal events: population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); G. Mosis (Georgio); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To confirm and quantify any association between spironolactone and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: A primary care information database in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: All people on the

  3. Network technology for depot modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, C.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

  4. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support a new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid and Mars Missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched on current 5 meter diameter ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, L1 Depot and missions beyond L1; a new reusable lunar lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface; and Mars orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, developments of new reusable in-space vehicles and development of a multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.

  5. Storage depot for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulinski, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson

  6. DEPOT database: Reference manual and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancey, P.; Logg, C.

    1991-03-01

    DEPOT has been developed to provide tracking for the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system equipment. For each piece of equipment entered into the database, complete location, service, maintenance, modification, certification, and radiation exposure histories can be maintained. To facilitate data entry accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, barcoding technology has been used extensively. DEPOT has been an important tool in improving the reliability of the microsystems controlling SLC. This document describes the components of the DEPOT database, the elements in the database records, and the use of the supporting programs for entering data, searching the database, and producing reports from the information

  7. Spironolactone in cardiovascular disease: an expanding universe? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Funder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Spironolactone has been marketed for over half a century as a ‘potassium-sparing diuretic’, used primarily in patients with ascites. With the realization that primary aldosteronism is the most common (5-13% form of secondary hypertension, it has become widely used as a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. More recently, in the wake of the RALES trial, spironolactone in addition to standard therapy has been shown to be very beneficial in heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction. Despite the failure of the TOPCAT trial, spironolactone is being increasingly used in diastolic heart failure (i.e. with a preserved ejection fraction. The third currently accepted role for spironolactone is in hypertension resistant to three conventional antihypertensives including a diuretic, where it has been proven to be effective, in contra-distinction to renal artery denervation. Finally, brief consideration will be given to ‘areas in waiting’ – pulmonary hypertension/fibrosis, cancer – where spironolactone may play very useful roles.

  8. Spironolactone Treatment and Effect on Survival in Chronic Heart Failure Patients with Reduced Renal Function: A Propensity-Matched Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubnova, Viera; Os, Ingrid; Grundtvig, Morten; Atar, Dan; Waldum-Grevbo, Bård

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Spironolactone may be hazardous in heart failure (HF) patients with renal dysfunction due to risk of hyperkalemia and worsened renal function. We aimed to evaluate the effect of spironolactone on all-cause mortality in HF outpatients with renal dysfunction in a propensity-score-matched study. Methods A total of 2,077 patients from the Norwegian Heart Failure Registry with renal dysfunction (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) not treated with spironolactone at the first visit at the HF clinic were eligible for the study. Patients started on spironolactone at the outpatient HF clinics (n = 206) were propensity-score-matched 1:1 with patients not started on spironolactone, based on 16 measured baseline characteristics. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to investigate the independent effect of spironolactone on 2-year all-cause mortality. Results Propensity score matching identified 170 pairs of patients, one group receiving spironolactone and the other not. The two groups were well matched (mean age 76.7 ± 8.1 years, 66.4% males, and eGFR 46.2 ± 10.2 mL/min/1.73 m2). Treatment with spironolactone was associated with increased potassium (delta potassium 0.31 ± 0.55 vs. 0.05 ± 0.41 mmol/L, p < 0.001) and decreased eGFR (delta eGFR −4.12 ± 12.2 vs. −0.98 ± 7.88 mL/min/1.73 m2, p = 0.006) compared to the non-spironolactone group. After 2 years, 84% of patients were alive in the spironolactone group and 73% of patients in the non-spironolactone group (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.92, p = 0.020). Conclusion In HF outpatients with renal dysfunction, treatment with spironolactone was associated with improved 2-year survival compared to well-matched patients not treated with spironolactone. Favorable survival was observed despite worsened renal function and increased potassium in the spironolactone group. PMID:28611786

  9. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-Alpha-Hydroxylase-Dependent Stimulation of Renal Klotho Expression by Spironolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Alesutan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Klotho, a transmembrane protein, protease and hormone mainly expressed in kidney, is required for the suppression of 1,25(OH2D3-generating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp27b1 by FGF23. Conversely, 1,25(OH2D3 stimulates, by activating the vitamin D3 receptor (Vdr, the expression of klotho, thus establishing a negative feedback loop. Klotho protects against renal and vascular injury. Klotho deficiency accelerates aging and early death, effects at least partially due to excessive formation of 1,25(OH2D3 and subsequent hyperphosphatemia. Klotho expression is inhibited by aldosterone. The present study explored the interaction of aldosterone and DOCA as well as the moderately selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone on klotho expression. Methods: mRNA levels were determined utilizing quantitative RT-PCR in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293 or in renal tissues from mice without or with prior mineralocorticoid (aldosterone or DOCA and/or spironolactone treatment. In HEK293 cells, protein levels were determined by western blotting. The experiments in HEK293 cells were performed without or with silencing of CYP27B1, of vitamin D3 receptor (VDR or of mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2. Results: In HEK293 cells aldosterone and in mice DOCA significantly decreased KLOTHO gene expression, effects opposed by spironolactone treatment. Spironolactone treatment alone significantly increased KLOTHO and CYP27B1 transcript levels in HEK293 cells (24 hours and mice (8 hours or 5 days. Moreover, spironolactone significantly increased klotho and CYP27B1 protein levels in HEK293 cells (48 hours. Reduced NR3C2 expression following silencing did not significantly affect KLOTHO and CYP27B1 transcript levels in presence or absence of spironolactone. Silencing of CYP27B1 and VDR significantly blunted the stimulating effect of spironolactone on KLOTHO mRNA levels in HEK293 cells. Conclusion: Besides blocking the effects of

  10. [Benefits of spironolactone as the optimal treatment for drug resistant hypertension. Pathway-2 trial review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, J C; Ruilope, L M; Segura, J

    Pathway-2 is the first randomised, double-blind and crossover trial that compares spironolactone as a fourth drug with alfa-blocker, beta-blocker and placebo. This study shows that spironolactone is the drug with more possibilities of success for the management of patients with difficult-to-treat hypertension in patients with a combination of three drugs and poor control. The results validate the widespread treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in resistant hypertension. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. EFFECT OF SPIRONOLACTONE ON HEART RATE VARIABILITY (HRV IN DIABETIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Heydari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic and endocrine disease. Depressed Heart Rate Variability (HRV is an early warning sign of diabetic neuropathy. In numerous studies, spironolactone improved HRV and decreased mortality in Congestive Heart Failure (CHF. This study was performed to assess the effect of spironolactone on HRV in diabetic patients. methods: This prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed on 62 diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy at Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center. Baseline HRV was measured with time domain and frequency domain methods using a Valiance system manufactured by US Biomedical Systems Inc. (2000. The patients were then randomly placed in case and control groups. The control group was given placebo and the case group was given 25mg spironolactone twice daily for two months. HRV was measured at the end of this period and data were analyzed using SPSS. HRV before and after medication was compared with t-test, paired t-test, Wilcoxon test, and Mann-Whitney test. results: Twenty-nine patients in the control group and thirty-three patients in the case group were assessed. HRV was measured before and after the study. T-test and Mann-Whitney test revealed no significant difference between HRV in the two groups. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon test did not show any significant difference of HRV within the two groups. Discussion: In this study, spironolactone did not improve HRV in diabetic patients. 

  12. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, Femke; Rienstra, Heleen; Boer, Mark Walther; Zandvoort, Andre; Rozing, Jan; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    Waanders F, Rienstra H, Walther Boer M, Zandvoort A, Rozing J, Navis G, van Goor H, Hillebrands JL. Spironolactone ameliorates transplant vasculopathy in renal chronic transplant dysfunction in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1072-F1079, 2009. First published February 25, 2009;

  13. Low dose spironolactone reduces blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg Oxlund, Christina; Henriksen, J. E.; Tarnow, L.

    2013-01-01

    frequent adverse event leading to dose reduction in three cases and discontinuation in one, whereas gynaecomastia was not reported.Conclusion:Low dose spironolactone exerts significant BP and urinary albumin creatinine ratio lowering effects in high-risk patients with resistant hypertension and type 2...

  14. Effect of Spironolactone on 30-Day Death and Heart Failure Rehospitalization (from the COACH Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maisel, Alan; Xue, Yang; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Pang, Peter S.; Butler, Javed; Pitt, Bertram; Clopton, Paul; de Boer, Rudolf A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of spironolactone on 30-day outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and the association between treatment and outcomes stratified by biomarkers. We conducted a secondary analysis of the biomarker substudy of the multicenter COACH

  15. Identification of a novel androgen receptor agonist (or “androgen mimic”) of environmental concern: spironolactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spironolactone is a pharmaceutical that acts as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in humans to treat certain conditions such as hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female pattern hair loss. The drug is also used to treat hypertension as a diuretic. With this commo...

  16. Renal Denervation vs. Spironolactone in Resistant Hypertension: Effects on Circadian Patterns and Blood Pressure Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Pareja, Julia; Armario, Pedro; Barrera, Ángela; Yun, Sergi; Vázquez, Susana; Sans, Laia; Pascual, Julio; Oliveras, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Sympathetic renal denervation (SRD) has been proposed as a therapeutic alternative for patients with resistant hypertension not controlled on pharmacological therapy. Two studies have suggested an effect of SRD in reducing short-term blood pressure variability (BPV). However, this has not been addressed in a randomized comparative trial. We aimed to compare the effects of spironolactone and SRD on circadian BP and BPV. This is a post-hoc analysis of a randomized trial in 24 true resistant hypertensive patients (15 men, 9 women; mean age 64 years) comparing 50mg of spironolactone (n = 13) vs. SRD (n = 11) on 24-hour BP. We report here the comparative effects on daytime (8 am-10 pm) and nighttime (0 am-6 am) BP, night-to-day ratios and BP and heart rate variabilities (SD and coefficient of variation of 24-hour, day and night, as well as weighted SD and average real variability (ARV)). Spironolactone was more effective than SRD in reducing daytime systolic (P = 0.006), daytime diastolic (P = 0.006), and nighttime systolic (P = 0.050) BP. No differences were observed in the night-to-day ratios. In contrast, SRD-reduced diastolic BPV (24 hours, daytime, nighttime, weighted, and ARV; all P < 0.05) with respect to spironolactone, without significant differences in systolic BPV. Spironolactone is more effective than SRD in reducing ambulatory BP. However, BPV is significantly more reduced with SRD. This effect could be important in terms of potential prevention beyond BP reduction and deserves further investigation. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Comparative study of acetazolamide and spironolactone on body fluid compartments on induction to high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M. V.; Jain, S. C.; Rawal, S. B.; Divekar, H. M.; Parshad, Rajinder; Tyagi, A. K.; Sinha, K. C.

    1986-03-01

    Studies were conducted on 29 male healthy subjects having no previous experience of living at high altitude. These subjects were divided into three groups, i.e., subjects treated with placebo, acetazolamide and spironolactone. These subjects were first studied in Delhi. The drug schedule was started 24 hour prior to the airlift of these subjects to an altitude of 3,500 m and was continued for 48 hour after arrival at high altitude. Total body water, extra cellular water, plasma volume, blood electrolytes, pH, pO2, pCO2 and blood viscosity were determined on 3rd and 12th day of their stay at high altitude. Total body water, extra cellular water intracellular water and plasma volume decreased on high altitude exposure. There was a further slight decrease in these compartments with acetazolamide and spironolactone. It was also observed that spironolactone drives out more water from the extracellular compartment. Loss of plasma water was also confirmed by increased plasma osmolality. Increase in arterial blood pH was noticed on hypoxic exposure but the increase was found less in acetazolamide and spironolactone cases. This decrease in pH is expected to result in better oxygen delivery to the tissues at the low oxygen tension. It was also confirmed because blood pO2 increased in both the groups. No significant change in plasma electrolytes was observed in subjects of various groups. Blood viscosity slightly increased on exposure to high altitude. The degree of rise was found less in the group treated with spironolactone. This study suggests that both the drugs are likely to be beneficial in ameliorating/prevention of AMS syndrome.

  18. Spironolactone treatment attenuates vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO/GC signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Alves Barbosa Da Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (DM2 increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aldosterone, which has pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system, is positively regulated in DM2. We assessed whether blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR with spironolactone decreases ROS-associated vascular dysfunction and improves vascular NO signaling in diabetes. Leptin receptor knockout [LepRdb/LepRdb (db/db] mice, a model of DM2, and their counterpart controls [LepRdb/LepR+, (db/+ mice] received spironolactone (50 mg/kg body weight/day or vehicle (ethanol 1% via oral per gavage for 6 weeks. Spironolactone treatment abolished the endothelial dysfunction and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS phosphorylation (Ser1177, determined by acetylcholine-induced relaxation and Western Blot analysis, respectively. MR antagonist therapy also abrogated augmented ROS-generation in aorta from diabetic mice, determined by lucigenin luminescence assay. Spironolactone treatment increased superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 and catalase expression, improved sodium nitroprusside (SNP and BAY 41-2272-induced relaxation, as well as increased soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC subunit β protein expression in arteries from db/db mice. Our results demonstrate that spironolactone decreases diabetes-associated vascular oxidative stress and prevents vascular dysfunction through processes involving increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and sGC. These findings further elucidate redox-sensitive mechanisms whereby spironolactone protects against vascular injury in diabetes.

  19. Spot urine sodium excretion as prognostic marker in acutely decompensated heart failure: the spironolactone effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João Pedro; Girerd, Nicolas; Medeiros, Pedro Bettencourt; Santos, Mário; Carvalho, Henrique Cyrne; Bettencourt, Paulo; Kénizou, David; Butler, Javed; Zannad, Faiez; Rossignol, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Loop diuretic resistance characterized by inefficient sodium excretion complicates many patients with acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in natriuretic doses may improve spot urine sodium excretion and outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess the association of high-dose spironolactone with short-term spot urine sodium excretion, and our secondary aim was to determine if this higher short-term spot urine sodium excretion is associated with reduction in the composite clinical outcome (of cardiovascular mortality and/or ADHF hospitalization) event rate at 180 days. Single-centre, non-randomized, open-label study enrolling 100 patients with ADHF. Patients were treated with standard ADHF therapy alone (n = 50) or oral spironolactone 100 mg/day plus standard ADHF therapy (n = 50). Spot urine samples were collected at day 1 and day 3 of hospitalization. Spironolactone group had significantly higher spot urine sodium levels compared to standard care group at day 3 (84.13 ± 28.71 mmol/L vs 70.74 ± 34.43 mmol/L, p = 0.04). The proportion of patients with spot urinary sodium spot urinary sodium and urinary sodium/potassium ratio of >2 at day 3 (both, p spot urine sodium levels were associated with a lower event rate [HR for urinary sodium >100 mmol/L = 0.16 (0.06-0.42), p Spot urinary sodium levels >60 mmol/L and urinary sodium/potassium ratio >2 measured at day 3 of hospitalization for ADHF are associated with improved mid-term outcomes. Spironolactone is associated with increased spot urinary sodium and sodium/potassium ratio >2.

  20. ALDOSTERONE ANTAGONISTS. MODERN VIEWS ON THE MECHANISM OF ACTION AND EFFECTS OF SPIRONOLACTONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Podzolkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in pathogenesis of different clinical conditions is studied well. The key role of aldosterone receptor blockers, particularly spironolactone, in treatment of such conditions as primary hyperaldosteronism, resistant hypertension, edematous syndrome in congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, and portal cirrhosis is considered in the article. Development of ideas about cardio-, vaso- and nephroprotective effects of these drugs is highlighted as well as their influence on patient prognosis.

  1. Follicular delivery of spironolactone via nanostructured lipid carriers for management of alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Shamma, Rehab Nabil; Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Rehab Nabil Shamma, Mona Hassan AburahmaDepartment of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Spironolactone (SL) is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of hypertension and various edematous conditions. SL has gained a lot of attention for treating androgenic alopecia due to its potent antiandrogenic properties. Recently, there has been growing interest for follicular targeting of drug molecules...

  2. Increased serum estrone and estradiol following spironolactone administration in hypertensive men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyatake, A; Noma, K; Nakao, K; Morimoto, Y; Yamamura, Y [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1978-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate long-term effects of spironolactone on basal serum estrone, estradiol, testosterone, LH and prolactin concentrations in hypertensive male patients. Serum prolactin response to TRH was also evaluated. There were two groups, (a) six males with essential hypertension given 75 - 150 mg spironolactone daily for 12 weeks, and (b) two males with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism given 300 mg daily for over 40 weeks. In the conventional-dosage group, serum estrone concentrations significantly increased (P < 0.01) at 12 weeks serum estradiol gradually increased but not statistically significantly (P < 0,2). Basal serum testosterone, LH and prolactin concentrations did not show significant changes. There was no increase in serum prolactin response to TRH. In the high-dosage group, serum estrone levels remained high, and serum estradiol increased with the development of gynaecomastia. Serum testosterone, LH and prolactin concentrations showed no marked changes. The elevations in circulating oestrogens could well explain the oestrogenic side-effects of spironolactone treatment.

  3. Increased serum oestrone and oestradiol following spironolactone administration in hypertensive men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, A.; Noma, K.; Nakao, K.; Morimoto, Y.; Yamamura, Y.

    1978-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate long-term effects of spironolactone on basal serum oestrone, oestradiol, testosterone, LH and prolactin concentrations in hypertensive male patients. Serum prolactin response to TRH was also evaluated. There were two groups, (a) six males with essential hypertension given 75 - 150 mg spironolactone daily for 12 weeks, and (b) two males with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism given 300 mg daily for over 40 weeks. In the conventional-dosage group, serum oestrone concentrations significantly increased (P < 0.01) at 12 weeks serum oestradiol gradually increased but not statistically significantly (P < 0,2). Basal serum testosterone, LH and prolactin concentrations did not show significant changes. There was no increase in serum prolactin response to TRH. In the high-dosage group, serum oestrone levels remained high, and serum oestradiol increased with the development of gynaecomastia. Serum testosterone, LH and prolactin concentrations showed no marked changes. The elevations in circulating oestrogens could well explain the oestrogenic side-effects of spironolactone treatment. (author)

  4. Association between spironolactone added to beta-blockers and ACE inhibition and survival in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction: a propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, L; Katus, H A; Grundtvig, M; Hole, T; de Blois, J; Schellberg, D; Atar, D; Zugck, C; Agewall, S

    2013-10-01

    Heart failure (CHF) guidelines recommend mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for all symptomatic patients treated with a combination of ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and beta-blockers. As opposed to both eplerenone trials, patients in RALES (spironolactone) received almost no beta-blockers. Since pharmacological properties differ between eplerenone and spironolactone, the prognostic benefit of spironolactone added to this baseline combination therapy needs clarification. We included 4,832 CHF patients with chronic systolic dysfunction from the Norwegian Heart Failure Registry and the heart failure outpatients' clinic of the University of Heidelberg. Propensity scores for spironolactone receipt were calculated for each patient and used for matching to patients without spironolactone. During a total follow-up of 17,869 patient-years, 881 patients (27.0 %) died in the non-spironolactone group and 445 (28.4 %) in the spironolactone group. Spironolactone was not associated with improved survival, neither in the complete sample (HR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.64-1.07; HR 1.03; 95 % CI 0.88-1.20; multivariate and propensity score adjusted respectively), nor in the propensity-matched cohort (HR 0.98; 95 % CI 0.82-1.18). In CHF outpatients we were unable to observe an association between the use of spironolactone and improved survival when administered in addition to a combination of ACE/ARB and beta-blockers.

  5. Spironolactone release from liquisolid formulations prepared with Capryol™ 90, Solutol® HS-15 and Kollicoat® SR 30 D as non-volatile liquid vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkordy, Amal Ali; Tan, Xin Ning; Essa, Ebtessam Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to enhance dissolution of spironolactone as a model hydrophobic drug through application of liquisolid technology. Spironolactone is prepared as liquisolid formulations, and its dissolution property is evaluated and compared to that of conventional spironolactone tablets and pure spironolactone. Three non-volatile liquid vehicles were used in the design of spironolactone liquisolid formulations, Capryol™ 90, Synperonic® PE/L61 in combination with Solutol® HS-15 at a ratio of 1:1, and Kollicoat® SR 30 D. Spironolactone liquisolid formulations were tested according to British Pharmacopoeia (BP) quality control tests. Furthermore, the prepared liquisolid powder formulations were evaluated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy. Also, liquisolid formulations were subjected to testing of storage stability at high relative humidity. The results indicated that most of liquisolid tablets met the BP requirements. Dissolution results indicate that release of spironolactone was significantly increased (PSolutol® HS-15 showed highest dissolution. DSC thermograms from liquisolid formulations revealed that drug endothermic peak was disappeared after processing. Dissolution, DSC and FT-IR data after storage demonstrated that there were no significant changes in the formulations after storage. In conclusion, the liquid vehicles used within spironolactone liquisolid formulations enhanced drug dissolution rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  7. Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac·eptive Preparation. Basil Bloch. Abstract. Experience with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate as a contraceptive preparation in 7 335 patients for a total of 38 714 months over a 3-year period is described. The discontinuation rate was 18.3% and the ...

  8. SPIRONOLACTONE IN BIOFEEDBACK SESSIONS IN THE LOOP OF PACED BREATHING AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nazarenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 7 conditionally healthy volunteers, aged from 19 to 21 years (average age is 19,53 ± 1,55 years, influence of spironolactone on alterations of regulatory systems state of the organism combined with biofeedback (BFB sessions in the loop of paced breathing (PB and heart rate variability (HRV parameters was evaluated. All volunteers were conducted 2 series of everyday BFB sessions in analyzed loop for 5 days with a 3 months interval between them, 2nd series of sessions were conducted 6 hours after oral application of 25 mg spironolactone. The data was analyzed using non-parametric statistical methods. Optimization of regulatory systems state under influence of BFB sessions in the loop of PB and HRV parameters was found. Spironolactone in studied dose had no significant effect on optimization of regulatory systems state.

  9. Low-dose spironolactone reduces plasma fibulin-1 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and resistant hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg Oxlund, Christina; Cangemi, Claudia; Henriksen, J E

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic patients with hypertension are at particularly high risk of vascular damage and consequently cardiovascular and renal disease. Fibulin-1, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, is increased in arterial tissue and plasma from individuals with type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate...... whether antihypertensive treatment with spironolactone changes plasma fibulin-1 levels. In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 119 patients with type 2 diabetes and resistant hypertension were included. A dose of spironolactone 25 mg or matching placebo was added to previous....... Treatment with low-dose spironolactone reduced plasma fibulin-1 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and resistant hypertension. This supports the hypothesis that the antihypertensive effect of the mineralocorticoid receptor blocker in part may be due to regression of vascular remodeling....

  10. Predicting albuminuria response to spironolactone treatment with urinary proteomics in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Morten; Persson, Frederik; Oxlund, Christina

    2018-01-01

    to either spironolactone 12.5-50 mg/day (n = 57) or placebo (n = 54) for 16 weeks. Patients were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and resistant hypertension. Treatment was an adjunct to renin-angiotensin system inhibition. Primary endpoint was the percentage change in urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR......BACKGROUND: The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone significantly reduces albuminuria in patients with diabetes. Prior studies have shown large between-patient variability in albuminuria treatment response. We previously developed and validated a urinary proteomic classifier...... be used to identify individuals with type 2 diabetes who are more likely to show an albuminuria-lowering response to spironolactone treatment. These results suggest that urinary proteomics may be a valuable tool to tailor therapy, but confirmation in a larger clinical trial is required....

  11. Effect of spironolactone on renal and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in Type 2 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Suwan; Li Sumei; Zhai Fei; Zhang Li; Zhang Rong; Ru Yan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influence of spironolactone on the serum and urine intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) level, and the change of renal structure and function of type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: 30 healthy male SD rats were chosen 10 of them were randomly selected as normal controls (group NC) n=10; Then these rats were randomly divided into type 2 diabetes group (group DM) n=10 and type 2 diabetes + spironolactone treated group (group SPI) n=10. After 8 weeks, the levels of blood glucose, serum lipids, urine biochemical, renal pathological changes were examined; while the serum and urine ICAM-1 levels changes were also detected. Results: 1. Compared with group NC, the levels of fBG and HbA1c were significantly increased in group DM and group SPI (P 0.05). 2. After 8 weeks,the levels of ACR, URBP, UICAM-1, SICAM-1 and kidney/body weight ratio in group DM and group SPI were higher than group NC (P<0.05); the five indexes were significantly lower in group SPI compared with group DM (P<0.05). In addition, UICAM-1 excretion rate and SICAM-1 level showed positive correlations with ACR, URBP excretion rate and kidney/body weight ratio (P<0.01). 3. Pathology showed that the extent of glomerular lesions in rats in group SPI apparently reduced, ICAM-1 expression was decreased compared with that in group DM (P<0.01). Conclusion: Spironolactone can definitely protect type 2 diabetic kidney,and this protective effect was independent on the hypoglycemic effect. The mechanisms might be associated with its inhibition effect on ICAM-1 expression and its excretion. (authors)

  12. Ligand Depot: a data warehouse for ligands bound to macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zukang; Chen, Li; Maddula, Himabindu; Akcan, Ozgur; Oughtred, Rose; Berman, Helen M; Westbrook, John

    2004-09-01

    Ligand Depot is an integrated data resource for finding information about small molecules bound to proteins and nucleic acids. The initial release (version 1.0, November, 2003) focuses on providing chemical and structural information for small molecules found as part of the structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank. Ligand Depot accepts keyword-based queries and also provides a graphical interface for performing chemical substructure searches. A wide variety of web resources that contain information on small molecules may also be accessed through Ligand Depot. Ligand Depot is available at http://ligand-depot.rutgers.edu/. Version 1.0 supports multiple operating systems including Windows, Unix, Linux and the Macintosh operating system. The current drawing tool works in Internet Explorer, Netscape and Mozilla on Windows, Unix and Linux.

  13. Metabolomics for informing adverse outcome pathways: Androgen receptor activation and the pharmaceutical spironolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Ekman, D.R.; Skelton, D.M.; LaLone, C.A.; Ankley, G.T.; Cavallin, J.E.; Villeneuve, D.L.; Collette, T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Metabolomics identified potential key events in an androgen receptor activation AOP. • Metabolomics indicate spironolactone may elicit effects via multiple nuclear receptors. • Spironolactone exposure may elicit interactive effects in multi-stressor environments. - Abstract: One objective in developing adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) is to connect biological changes that are relevant to risk assessors (i.e., fecundity) to molecular and cellular-level alterations that might be detectable at earlier stages of a chemical exposure. Here, we examined biochemical responses of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to inform an AOP relevant to spironolactone’s activation of the androgen receptor, as well as explore other biological impacts possibly unrelated to this receptor. Liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (LC–MS) was used to measure changes in endogenous polar metabolites in livers of male and female fish that were exposed to five water concentrations of spironolactone (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 50 μg L"−"1) for 21 days. Metabolite profiles were affected at the two highest concentrations (5 and 50 μg L"−"1), but not in the lower-level exposures, which agreed with earlier reported results of reduced female fecundity and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. We then applied partial least squares regression to assess whether metabolite alterations covaried with changes in fecundity, VTG gene expression and protein concentrations, and plasma 17β-estradiol and testosterone concentrations. Metabolite profiles significantly covaried with all measured endpoints in females, but only with plasma testosterone in males. Fecundity reductions occurred in parallel with changes in metabolites important in osmoregulation (e.g., betaine), membrane transport (e.g., L-carnitine), and biosynthesis of carnitine (e.g., methionine) and VTG (e.g., glutamate). Based on a network analysis program (i.e., mummichog), spironolactone also affected

  14. Metabolomics for informing adverse outcome pathways: Androgen receptor activation and the pharmaceutical spironolactone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.M., E-mail: davis.john@epa.gov [U.S. EPA, National Exposure Research Laboratory, 960 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Ekman, D.R., E-mail: ekman.drew@epa.gov [U.S. EPA, National Exposure Research Laboratory, 960 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Skelton, D.M. [U.S. EPA, National Exposure Research Laboratory, 960 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30605 (United States); LaLone, C.A.; Ankley, G.T.; Cavallin, J.E.; Villeneuve, D.L. [U.S. EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, 6201 Congdon Blvd., Duluth, MN 55804 (United States); Collette, T.W. [U.S. EPA, National Exposure Research Laboratory, 960 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30605 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Metabolomics identified potential key events in an androgen receptor activation AOP. • Metabolomics indicate spironolactone may elicit effects via multiple nuclear receptors. • Spironolactone exposure may elicit interactive effects in multi-stressor environments. - Abstract: One objective in developing adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) is to connect biological changes that are relevant to risk assessors (i.e., fecundity) to molecular and cellular-level alterations that might be detectable at earlier stages of a chemical exposure. Here, we examined biochemical responses of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to inform an AOP relevant to spironolactone’s activation of the androgen receptor, as well as explore other biological impacts possibly unrelated to this receptor. Liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (LC–MS) was used to measure changes in endogenous polar metabolites in livers of male and female fish that were exposed to five water concentrations of spironolactone (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 50 μg L{sup −1}) for 21 days. Metabolite profiles were affected at the two highest concentrations (5 and 50 μg L{sup −1}), but not in the lower-level exposures, which agreed with earlier reported results of reduced female fecundity and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. We then applied partial least squares regression to assess whether metabolite alterations covaried with changes in fecundity, VTG gene expression and protein concentrations, and plasma 17β-estradiol and testosterone concentrations. Metabolite profiles significantly covaried with all measured endpoints in females, but only with plasma testosterone in males. Fecundity reductions occurred in parallel with changes in metabolites important in osmoregulation (e.g., betaine), membrane transport (e.g., L-carnitine), and biosynthesis of carnitine (e.g., methionine) and VTG (e.g., glutamate). Based on a network analysis program (i.e., mummichog), spironolactone also

  15. Autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate during spironolactone treatment in hypertensive patients with type 1 diabetes: a randomized crossover trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoedt, K.J.; Christensen, P.K.; Jorsal, A.

    2009-01-01

    if spironolactone affects the ability to autoregulate GFR. METHODS: Sixteen hypertensive type 1 diabetic patients with persistent normoalbuminuria (presumed normal autoregulation) completed this randomized, double-masked, crossover trial. After a 4-week wash-out period, patients received spironolactone 25 mg o...... correlated with diabetes duration (R = 0.67, P type 1 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria. Our data......BACKGROUND: Autoregulation of GFR, i.e. maintenance of relative constancy of GFR despite variations in mean arterial pressure (MAP) >80 mmHg, is impaired in diabetic kidney disease; furthermore, some antihypertensive drugs may jeopardize autoregulation. The aim of our study was to establish...

  16. [Dissociation of antihypertensive and metabolic response to losartan and spironolactone in experimental rats with metabolic sindrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Hussen; Pinheiro, Helady Sanders; Terra, Marcella Martins; Guerra, Martha de Oliveira; de Paula, Rogerio Baumgratz; Peters, Vera Maria

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of arterial hypertension (AH) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) is a challenge, since non drug therapies are difficult to implement and optimal pharmacological treatment is not fully established. To assess the blockade of the rennin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) in blood pressure (BP) in renal function and morphology in an experimental model of MS induced by high fat diet. Wistar rats were fed on high fat diet from the fourth week of life, for 20 weeks. The groups received Losartan or Spironolactone from the eighth week of life. We weekly evaluated the body weight and BP by tail plethysmography. At the end of the experiment oral glucose tolerance, lipid profile, creatinine clearance tests, and the direct measurement of BP were performed. A morphometric kidney analysis was performed. The administration of high-fat diet was associated with the development of MS, characterized by central fat accumulation, hypertension, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. In this model there were no changes in renal histomorphometry. The blockade of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor AT1 prevented the development of hypertension. The mineralocorticoid blockage did not have antihypertensive efficacy but was associated with reduction of abdominal fat. The dissociation of the antihypertensive response to the blockades of Ang II receptors and mineralocorticoid indicates the involvement of Ang II in the pathogenesis of hypertension associated with obesity. Reduction of central obesity with Spironolactone suggests the presence of mineralocorticoid adipogenic effect.

  17. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.V., E-mail: dodson@wsu.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Vierck, J.L. [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Hausman, G.J. [USDA-ARS, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Station, Athens, GA 30604 (United States); Guan, L.L. [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2P5 Canada (Canada); Fernyhough, M.E. [The Hartz Mountain Corporation, Secaucus, NJ 07094 (United States); Poulos, S.P. [The Coca-Cola Company, Research and Technology, Atlanta, GA 30313 (United States); Mir, P.S. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, CA T1J 4B1 (United States); Jiang, Z. [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2010-04-02

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  18. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.V.; Vierck, J.L.; Hausman, G.J.; Guan, L.L.; Fernyhough, M.E.; Poulos, S.P.; Mir, P.S.; Jiang, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  19. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...... depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0....

  20. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0.......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...

  1. Spironolactone versus sympathetic renal denervation to treat true resistant hypertension: results from the DENERVHTA study – a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, Anna; Armario, Pedro; Clarà, Albert; Sans-Atxer, Laia; Vázquez, Susana; Pascual, Julio; De la Sierra, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Both renal denervation (RDN) and spironolactone have been proposed for the treatment of resistant hypertension. However, they have not been compared in a randomized clinical trial. We aimed to compare the efficacy of spironolactone versus RDN in patients with resistant hypertension. Methods: A total of 24 patients with office SBP at least 150 mmHg and 24-h SBP at least 140 mmHg despite receiving at least three full-dose antihypertensive drugs, one a diuretic, but without aldosterone antagonists, were randomized to receive RDN or spironolactone (50 mg) as add-on therapy. Primary endpoint was change in 24-h SBP at 6 months. Comparisons between treatment groups were performed using generalized linear models adjusted by age, sex, and baseline values. Results: Spironolactone was more effective than RDN in reducing 24-h SBP and 24-h DBP: mean baseline-adjusted differences between the two groups were −17.9 mmHg (95%CI −30.9 to −4.9); P = 0.010 and −6.6 mmHg (95%CI −12.9 to −0.3); P = 0.041, for 24-h SBP and 24-h DBP, respectively. As regards changes in office blood pressure, mean baseline-adjusted differences between the two groups were −12.1 mmHg (95%CI −29.1 to 5.1); P = 0.158 and of −5.3 mmHg (95%CI −16.3 to 5.8); P = 0.332, for office SBP and office DBP, respectively. Otherwise, the decrease of estimated glomerular filtration rate was greater in the spironolactone group; mean baseline-adjusted difference between the two groups was −10.7 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (95%CI −20.1 to −1.4); P = 0.027. Conclusion: We conclude that spironolactone is more effective than RDN to reduce 24-h SBP and 24-h DBP in patients with resistant hypertension. Therefore, spironolactone should be the fourth antihypertensive drug to prescribe if deemed well tolerated’ in all patients with resistant hypertension before considering RDN. PMID:27327441

  2. Spironolactone versus sympathetic renal denervation to treat true resistant hypertension: results from the DENERVHTA study - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, Anna; Armario, Pedro; Clarà, Albert; Sans-Atxer, Laia; Vázquez, Susana; Pascual, Julio; De la Sierra, Alejandro

    2016-09-01

    Both renal denervation (RDN) and spironolactone have been proposed for the treatment of resistant hypertension. However, they have not been compared in a randomized clinical trial. We aimed to compare the efficacy of spironolactone versus RDN in patients with resistant hypertension. A total of 24 patients with office SBP at least 150 mmHg and 24-h SBP at least 140 mmHg despite receiving at least three full-dose antihypertensive drugs, one a diuretic, but without aldosterone antagonists, were randomized to receive RDN or spironolactone (50 mg) as add-on therapy. Primary endpoint was change in 24-h SBP at 6 months. Comparisons between treatment groups were performed using generalized linear models adjusted by age, sex, and baseline values. Spironolactone was more effective than RDN in reducing 24-h SBP and 24-h DBP: mean baseline-adjusted differences between the two groups were -17.9 mmHg (95%CI -30.9 to -4.9); P = 0.010 and -6.6 mmHg (95%CI -12.9 to -0.3); P = 0.041, for 24-h SBP and 24-h DBP, respectively. As regards changes in office blood pressure, mean baseline-adjusted differences between the two groups were -12.1 mmHg (95%CI -29.1 to 5.1); P = 0.158 and of -5.3 mmHg (95%CI -16.3 to 5.8); P = 0.332, for office SBP and office DBP, respectively. Otherwise, the decrease of estimated glomerular filtration rate was greater in the spironolactone group; mean baseline-adjusted difference between the two groups was -10.7 ml/min per 1.73 m (95%CI -20.1 to -1.4); P = 0.027. We conclude that spironolactone is more effective than RDN to reduce 24-h SBP and 24-h DBP in patients with resistant hypertension. Therefore, spironolactone should be the fourth antihypertensive drug to prescribe if deemed well tolerated' in all patients with resistant hypertension before considering RDN.

  3. Spironolactone use and higher hospital readmission for Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction 73 m(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inampudi, Chakradhari; Parvataneni, Sridivya; Morgan, Charity J; Deedwania, Prakash; Fonarow, Gregg C; Sanders, Paul W; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Butler, Javed; Forman, Daniel E; Aronow, Wilbert S; Allman, Richard M; Ahmed, Ali

    2014-07-01

    Although randomized controlled trials have demonstrated benefits of aldosterone antagonists for patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), they excluded patients with serum creatinine >2.5 mg/dl, and their use is contraindicated in those with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the present analysis, we examined the association of spironolactone use with readmission in hospitalized Medicare beneficiaries with HFrEF and advanced CKD. Of the 1,140 patients with HFrEF (EF 73 m(2)), 207 received discharge prescriptions for spironolactone. Using propensity scores (PSs) for the receipt of discharge prescriptions for spironolactone, we estimated PS-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for spironolactone-associated outcomes. Patients (mean age 76 years, 49% women, 25% African-American) had mean EF 28%, mean eGFR 31 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and mean potassium 4.5 mEq/L. Spironolactone use had significant PS-adjusted association with higher risk of 30-day (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.90) and 1-year (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.63) all-cause readmissions. The risk of 1-year all-cause readmission was higher among 106 patients with eGFR 73 m(2) (HR 4.75, 95% CI 1.84 to 12.28) than among those with eGFR 15 to 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.61, p for interaction 0.003). Spironolactone use had no association with HF readmission and all-cause mortality. In conclusion, among hospitalized patients with HFrEF and advanced CKD, spironolactone use was associated with higher all-cause readmission but had no association with all-cause mortality or HF readmission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Controlled treatment of primary hypertension with propranolol and spironolactone. A crossover study with special reference to initial plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlberg, B E; Kågedal, B; Tegler, L; Tolagen, K; Bergman, B

    1976-03-31

    Twenty-seven patients with hypertension were randomly allocated to a 10 month crossover study. Treatment consisted of spironolactone (200 mg/day for 2 months), propranolol (320 mg/day for 2 months) and combined administration of both drugs at half the dosage. Between treatment periods placebo was given for 2 months. Fourteen patients were previously untreated. The average pretreatment blood pressure for the entire group was 188/114 +/- 16/7(mean +/- standard deviation) mm Hg supine and 188/118 +/- 20/9 mm Hg standing. Both spironolactone and propranolol reduced blood pressure significantly in both the supine and standing positions. Upright plasma renin activity was determined by radioimmunoassay of angiotensin I. The average initial level was 1.9 +/- 1.2 (range 0.4 to 5.0) ng/ml/hr. There was a close correlation between plasma renin activity and the effects of the drugs: With increasing renin level the response to propranolol was better whereas the opposite was true for spironolactone. The combination of spironolactone and propranolol decreased the blood pressure still further in the supine and standing positions, irrespective of initial plasma renin activity. All patients achieved a normal supine pressure. Blood pressure and plasma renin activity returned toward pretreatment values during placebo administration. It is concluded that pretreatment levels of plasma renin activity can predict the antihypertensive response to propranolol and spironolactone. The combination of the two drugs, which have different modes of action, will effectively reduce blood pressure in hypertension. The results support the concept that the renin-angiotensin-aldo-sterone system may be involved in primary hypertension.

  5. Expandable Cryogenic Tankage for On Orbit Depot Storage, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed expandable depot storage tanks would make it possible to have an on-orbit tank larger in volume than any existing or planned launch vehicles. The size...

  6. Spatial Analysis of Depots for Advanced Biomass Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, Michael R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, Erin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez Gonzalez, Maria I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work was to perform a spatial analysis of the total feedstock cost at the conversion reactor for biomass supplied by a conventional system and an advanced system with depots to densify biomass into pellets. From these cost estimates, the conditions (feedstock cost and availability) for which advanced processing depots make it possible to achieve cost and volume targets can be identified.

  7. Spironolactone induces apoptosis in human mononuclear cells. Association between apoptosis and cytokine suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Martin; Sønder, S U; Nersting, J

    2006-01-01

    Spironolactone (SPIR) has been described to suppress accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, the suppression of TNF-alpha in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mononuclear cell cultures was confirmed. However, SPIR was also found to induce apoptosis, prompting the investigations...... of a possible association between the two effects: The apoptosis-inducing and the cytokine-suppressive effects of SPIR correlated with regard to the effective concentration range. Also, pre-incubation experiments demonstrated a temporal separation of the two effects of ... preceding apoptosis. An association between the two effects was also seen when testing several SPIR analogues. Contrary to TNF-alpha, the levels of IL-1beta increased in SPIR-treated cultures. However, the amount of IL-1beta in the supernatants depended upon the order of SPIR and LPS addition, as IL-1beta...

  8. Spironolactone induces apoptosis and inhibits NF-kappaB independent of the mineralocorticoid receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønder, Søren Ulrik Salling; Woetmann, Anders; Odum, Niels

    2006-01-01

    mononuclear cells (MNC). To elucidate the mechanism behind SPIR's apoptotic effect, we investigated the relation between apoptosis and cytokine suppression for SPIR along with the apoptosis-inducing and antiinflammatory drug sulfasalazine (SFZ). Using human MNC, we found that SPIR and SFZ, at concentrations...... 10 and 1000 muM, respectively, significantly increased both apoptosis and cell death. Production of inflammatory cytokines was significantly reduced by 3 to 30 muM SPIR and by 300 to 1000 muM SFZ. We also found that 0.4 muM SPIR and 300 muM SFZ significantly reduced the activity of NF......-kappaB, a transcription factor involved in both apoptosis and immunoinflammation. ALDO, the MR antagonist, eplerenone, and the SPIR metabolite, 7alpha-thiomethyl-spironolactone, slightly reduced NF-kappaB activity, but they did not interfere with SPIR's effect, showing that MR binding is not involved in SPIR...

  9. Follicular delivery of spironolactone via nanostructured lipid carriers for management of alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamma RN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rehab Nabil Shamma, Mona Hassan AburahmaDepartment of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Spironolactone (SL is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of hypertension and various edematous conditions. SL has gained a lot of attention for treating androgenic alopecia due to its potent antiandrogenic properties. Recently, there has been growing interest for follicular targeting of drug molecules for treatment of hair and scalp disorders using nanocolloidal lipid-based delivery systems to minimize unnecessary systemic side effects associated with oral drug administration. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to improve SL efficiency and safety in treating alopecia through the preparation of colloidal nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs for follicular drug delivery. SL-loaded NLCs were prepared by an emulsion solvent diffusion and evaporation method using 23 full factorial design. All of the prepared formulations were spherical in shape with nanometric size range (215.6–834.3 nm and entrapment efficiency >74%. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and X-ray diffractograms revealed that SL exists in amorphous form within the NLC matrices. The drug release behavior from the NLCs displayed an initial burst release phase followed by sustained release of SL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the potential of delivering the fluorolabeled NLCs within the follicles, suggesting the possibility of using SL-loaded NLCs for localized delivery of SL into the scalp hair follicles.Keywords: spironolactone, androgenic alopecia, nanostructured lipid carriers, follicular targeting, confocal laser scanning microscopy

  10. Spironolactone lowers portal hypertension by inhibiting liver fibrosis, ROCK-2 activity and activating NO/PKG pathway in the bile-duct-ligated rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Luo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aldosterone, one of the main peptides in renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS, has been suggested to mediate liver fibrosis and portal hypertension. Spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist, has beneficial effect on hyperdynamic circulation in clinical practice. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the role of spionolactone on liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. METHODS: Liver cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL. Spironolactone was administered orally (20 mg/kg/d after bile duct ligation was performed. Liver fibrosis was assessed by histology, Masson's trichrome staining, and the measurement of hydroxyproline and type I collagen content. The activation of HSC was determined by analysis of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression. Protein expressions and protein phosphorylation were determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis, Messenger RNA levels by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR. Portal pressure and intrahepatic resistance were examined in vivo. RESULTS: Treatment with spironolactone significantly lowered portal pressure. This was associated with attenuation of liver fibrosis, intrahepatic resistance and inhibition of HSC activation. In BDL rat liver, spironolactone suppressed up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6. Additionally, spironolactone significantly decreased ROCK-2 activity without affecting expression of RhoA and Ras. Moreover, spironolactone markedly increased the levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, phosphorylated eNOS and the activity of NO effector-protein kinase G (PKG in the liver. CONCLUSION: Spironolactone lowers portal hypertension by improvement of liver fibrosis and inhibition of intrahepatic vasoconstriction via down-regulating ROCK-2 activity and activating NO/PKG pathway. Thus, early spironolactone therapy might be the optional therapy in cirrhosis and

  11. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. To achieve this result, we reduce k-LocVRP to the following generalization of k median, which might be of independent interest. Given a metric (V, d), bound k...... median forest, which leads to a (12+E)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant E > 0. The algorithm for k median forest is t-swap local search, and we prove that it has locality gap 3 + 2 t ; this generalizes the corresponding result for k median [3]. Finally we consider the k median......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to k-LocVRP is a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k vehicles each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so...

  12. The effect of spironolactone in patients with resistant arterial hypertension in relation to baseline blood pressure and secondary causes of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaclavik, Jan; Sedlak, Richard; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Kocianova, Eva; Taborsky, Milos

    2013-03-01

    There are currently limited data about whether the effect of spironolactone in patients with resistant arterial hypertension depends on baseline blood pressure and the presence of a secondary cause of hypertension. Patients with office systolic blood pressure (BP) >140 mmHg or diastolic BP >90 mmHg, despite treatment with at least 3 antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic, were randomly assigned to receive spironolactone or a placebo for 8 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial (ASPIRANT). Analyses were done with 55 patients treated with spironolactone. The degree of BP reduction after 8 weeks of spironolactone treatment did not differ significantly between the three tertiles of baseline systolic BP and patients with and without a secondary cause of hypertension. The reduction of office systolic, office diastolic BP and office pulse pressure was significantly lower in the highest tertile with baseline diastolic BP > 97 mmHg. Spironolactone treatment is effective to a similar extent both in patients with and without a secondary cause of hypertension and regardless of the baseline value of systolic BP. Less effect of spironolactone was found in patients with the highest baseline diastolic BP.

  13. Architecture Study for a Fuel Depot Supplied from Lunar Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Thomas M.; Casler, James G.

    2016-01-01

    This architecture study sought to determine the optimum architecture for a fuel depot supplied from lunar assets. Four factors - the location of propellant processing (on the Moon or on the depot), the depot location (on the Moon, L1, GEO, or LEO), the propellant transfer location (L1, GEO, or LEO), and the propellant transfer method (bulk fuel or canister exchange) were combined to identify 18 candidate architectures. Two design reference missions (DRMs) - a commercial satellite servicing mission and a Government cargo mission to Mars - created demand for propellants, while a propellant delivery DRM examined supply issues. The study concluded Earth-Moon L1 is the best location for an orbiting depot. For all architectures, propellant boiloff was less than anticipated, and was far overshadowed by delta-v requirements and resulting fuel consumption. Bulk transfer is the most flexible for both the supplier and customer. However, since canister exchange bypasses the transfer of bulk cryogens and necessary chilldown losses, canister exchange shows promise and merits further investigation. Overall, this work indicates propellant consumption and loss is an essential factor in assessing fuel depot architectures.

  14. Do Diuretics have Antinociceptive Actions: Studies of Spironolactone, Eplerenone, Furosemide and Chlorothiazide, Individually and with Oxycodone and Morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Viljami; Lilius, Tuomas; Laitila, Jouko; Niemi, Mikko; Kambur, Oleg; Kalso, Eija; Rauhala, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Spironolactone, eplerenone, chlorothiazide and furosemide are diuretics that have been suggested to have antinociceptive properties, for example via mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism. In co-administration, diuretics might enhance the antinociceptive effect of opioids via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic mechanisms. Effects of spironolactone (100 mg/kg, i.p.), eplerenone (100 mg/kg, i.p.), chlorothiazide (50 mg/kg, i.p.) and furosemide (100 mg/kg, i.p.) were studied on acute oxycodone (0.75 mg/kg, s.c.)- and morphine (3 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced antinociception using tail-flick and hot plate tests in male Sprague Dawley rats. The diuretics were administered 30 min. before the opioids, and behavioural tests were performed 30 and 90 min. after the opioids. Concentrations of oxycodone, morphine and their major metabolites in plasma and brain were quantified by mass spectrometry. In the hot plate test at 30 and 90 min., spironolactone significantly enhanced the antinociceptive effect (% of maximum possible effect) of oxycodone from 10% to 78% and from 0% to 50%, respectively, and that of morphine from 12% to 73% and from 4% to 83%, respectively. The brain oxycodone and morphine concentrations were significantly increased at 30 min. (oxycodone, 46%) and at 90 min. (morphine, 190%). We did not detect any independent antinociceptive effects with the diuretics. Eplerenone and chlorothiazide did not enhance the antinociceptive effect of either opioid. The results suggest that spironolactone enhances the antinociceptive effect of both oxycodone and morphine by increasing their concentrations in the central nervous system. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  15. Role of Adding Spironolactone and Renal Denervation in True Resistant Hypertension: One-Year Outcomes of Randomized PRAGUE-15 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ján; Widimský, Petr; Waldauf, Petr; Lambert, Lukáš; Zelinka, Tomáš; Táborský, Miloš; Branny, Marian; Toušek, Petr; Petrák, Ondřej; Čurila, Karol; Bednář, František; Holaj, Robert; Štrauch, Branislav; Václavík, Jan; Nykl, Igor; Krátká, Zuzana; Kociánová, Eva; Jiravský, Otakar; Rappová, Gabriela; Indra, Tomáš; Widimský, Jiří

    2016-02-01

    This randomized, multicenter study compared the relative efficacy of renal denervation (RDN) versus pharmacotherapy alone in patients with true resistant hypertension and assessed the effect of spironolactone addition. We present here the 12-month data. A total of 106 patients with true resistant hypertension were enrolled in this study: 52 patients were randomized to RDN and 54 patients to the spironolactone addition, with baseline systolic blood pressure of 159±17 and 155±17 mm Hg and average number of drugs 5.1 and 5.4, respectively. Twelve-month results are available in 101 patients. The intention-to-treat analysis found a comparable mean 24-hour systolic blood pressure decline of 6.4 mm Hg, P=0.001 in RDN versus 8.2 mm Hg, P=0.002 in the pharmacotherapy group. Per-protocol analysis revealed a significant difference of 24-hour systolic blood pressure decline between complete RDN (6.3 mm Hg, P=0.004) and the subgroup where spironolactone was added, and this continued within the 12 months (15 mm Hg, P= 0.003). Renal artery computed tomography angiograms before and after 1 year post-RDN did not reveal any relevant changes. This study shows that over a period of 12 months, RDN is safe, with no serious side effects and no major changes in the renal arteries. RDN in the settings of true resistant hypertension with confirmed compliance is not superior to intensified pharmacological treatment. Spironolactone addition (if tolerated) seems to be more effective in blood pressure reduction. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Supply Inventory Management: Accountability and Control of Materiel at the Naval Air Depot, North Island

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... of the $6.8 billion was for operation of three Naval Air Depots. A significant portion of the $1.5 billion was for purchasing materiel used in repair and overhaul processes at the depot maintenance facilities...

  17. Supply Inventory Managment: Accountability and Control of Materiel at the Naval Air Depot, North Island

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    2002-01-01

    ... of the $6.8 billion was for operation of three Naval Air Depots. A significant portion of the $1.5 billion was for purchasing materiel used in repair and overhaul processes at the depot maintenance facilities...

  18. Pengembangan Merek dan Pengkajian Strategi Pemasaran di Depot Rasa Suka Kediri

    OpenAIRE

    Raharjo, Rini; Surjani, Rosita Meitha; Rinawiyanti, Esti Dwi

    2013-01-01

    Depot Rasa Suka is a culinary business that provides a variety of Indonesian dishes. However people still do not know and yet loyal to Depot Rasa Suka due to the unavailability of parking space, quite a long serving time, hot room, less attractive promotion and room design. Therefore Depot Rasa Suka need to devise strategies to develop brands through brand equity analysis and improvement of brand elements as well as designing a marketing strategies. The goal of this research is to make Depot ...

  19. Effect of low-dose spironolactone on resistant hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial in a sub-Saharan African population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoumessi, Romance Nguetse; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Kaze, Francois Folefack; Essouma, Mickael; Menanga, Alain Patrick; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2016-03-23

    Low-dose spironolactone has been proven to be effective for resistant hypertension in the general population, but this has yet to be confirmed in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. We assessed the efficacy of a low-dose spironolactone on resistant hypertension in a sub-Saharan African population of T2DM patients from Cameroon. This was a four-week single blinded randomized controlled trial in 17 subjects presenting with resistant hypertension in specialized diabetes care units in Cameroon. They were randomly assigned to treatment with a daily 25 mg of spironolactone (n = 9) or to an alternative antihypertensive regimen (n = 8), on top of any ongoing regimen and prevailing lifestyle prescriptions. They were seen at the start of the treatment, then 2 and 4 weeks later. The primary outcome was change in office and self-measured blood pressure (BP) during follow-up, and secondary outcomes were changes in serum potassium, sodium, and creatinine levels. Compared with alternative treatment, low-dose spironolactone was associated with significant decrease in office systolic BP (-33 vs. -14 mmHg; p = 0.024), and in diastolic BP (-14 vs. -5 mmHg; p = 0.006). After 1 month of spironolactone, all the patients were controlled based on BP below 130/80 mmHg, with significant office BP reduction from 158 ± 17/86 ± 11 to 125 ± 11/72 ± 8, vs. 158 ± 8/94 ± 8 to 144 ± 17/89 ± 12 mmHg in the alternative treatment group. There was no significant variation in sodium and creatinine levels in both groups, but a mild increase of potassium levels in the spironolactone group. Add-on low-dose spironolactone was effective in reducing BP to optimal levels in T2DM Cameroonian patients despite mild increase in serum potassium. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02426099. Date of registration April 2015.

  20. DEPOT: Database for electronics parts and other things

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logg, C.A.; Clancey, P.W.; Crane, G.

    1990-01-01

    DEPOT has been developed to provide tracking for the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system equipment. For each piece of equipment entered in the database, a complete service, maintenance, modification, certification, location history, and, optionally, a radiation exposure history, can be maintained. To facilitate data entry accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, barcoding technology has been used extensively. DEPOT has been an important tool in improving the reliability of the microsystems controlling SLC. It is now being adopted by other systems at SLAC. 6 refs., 6 figs

  1. NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) - The application of ATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Lorenz G.; Jenkins, Henry C.; Mauceri, A. Jack

    1990-01-01

    The concept of the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) developed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Program is described. The function of the NSLD at Cape Canaveral is to perform the acceptance and diagnostic testing of the Shuttle's space-rated line-replaceable units and shop-replaceable units (SRUs). The NSLD includes a comprehensive electronic automatic test station, program development stations, and assorted manufacturing support equipment (including thermal and vibration test equipment, special test equipment, and a card SRU test system). The depot activities also include the establishment of the functions for manufacturing of mechanical parts, soldering, welding, painting, clean room operation, procurement, and subcontract management.

  2. Endocrine and haemodynamic changes in resistant hypertension, and blood pressure responses to spironolactone or amiloride: the PATHWAY-2 mechanisms substudies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bryan; MacDonald, Thomas M; Morant, Steve V; Webb, David J; Sever, Peter; McInnes, Gordon T; Ford, Ian; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Caulfield, Mark J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Mackenzie, Isla S; Salsbury, Jackie; Brown, Morris J

    2018-04-11

    In the PATHWAY-2 study of resistant hypertension, spironolactone reduced blood pressure substantially more than conventional antihypertensive drugs. We did three substudies to assess the mechanisms underlying this superiority and the pathogenesis of resistant hypertension. PATHWAY-2 was a randomised, double-blind crossover trial done at 14 UK primary and secondary care sites in 314 patients with resistant hypertension. Patients were given 12 weeks of once daily treatment with each of placebo, spironolactone 25-50 mg, bisoprolol 5-10 mg, and doxazosin 4-8 mg and the change in home systolic blood pressure was assessed as the primary outcome. In our three substudies, we assessed plasma aldosterone, renin, and aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) as predictors of home systolic blood pressure, and estimated prevalence of primary aldosteronism (substudy 1); assessed the effects of each drug in terms of thoracic fluid index, cardiac index, stroke index, and systemic vascular resistance at seven sites with haemodynamic monitoring facilities (substudy 2); and assessed the effect of amiloride 10-20 mg once daily on clinic systolic blood pressure during an optional 6-12 week open-label runout phase (substudy 3). The PATHWAY-2 trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2008-007149-30, and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02369081. Of the 314 patients in PATHWAY-2, 269 participated in one or more of the three substudies: 126 in substudy 1, 226 in substudy 2, and 146 in substudy 3. Home systolic blood pressure reduction by spironolactone was predicted by ARR (r 2 =0·13, p<0·0001) and plasma renin (r 2 =0·11, p=0·00024). 42 patients had low renin concentrations (predefined as the lowest tertile of plasma renin), of which 31 had a plasma aldosterone concentration greater than the mean value for all 126 patients (250 pmol/L). Thus, 31 (25% [95% CI 17-33]) of 126 patients were deemed to have inappropriately high aldosterone concentrations. Thoracic fluid content was reduced by 6·8% from

  3. Follicular delivery of spironolactone via nanostructured lipid carriers for management of alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Rehab Nabil; Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Spironolactone (SL) is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of hypertension and various edematous conditions. SL has gained a lot of attention for treating androgenic alopecia due to its potent antiandrogenic properties. Recently, there has been growing interest for follicular targeting of drug molecules for treatment of hair and scalp disorders using nanocolloidal lipid-based delivery systems to minimize unnecessary systemic side effects associated with oral drug administration. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to improve SL efficiency and safety in treating alopecia through the preparation of colloidal nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for follicular drug delivery. SL-loaded NLCs were prepared by an emulsion solvent diffusion and evaporation method using 23 full factorial design. All of the prepared formulations were spherical in shape with nanometric size range (215.6-834.3 nm) and entrapment efficiency >74%. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and X-ray diffractograms revealed that SL exists in amorphous form within the NLC matrices. The drug release behavior from the NLCs displayed an initial burst release phase followed by sustained release of SL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the potential of delivering the fluorolabeled NLCs within the follicles, suggesting the possibility of using SL-loaded NLCs for localized delivery of SL into the scalp hair follicles.

  4. Influence of spironolactone on the excretion of 203Hg2+ in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cikrt, M.; Tichy, M.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of spironolactone (SPL) on 203 Hg 2+ excretion was studied in rats with a special emphasis in biliary excretion. No correlation was found between the number of doses of SPL pretreatment (1-5 doses of 5 mg/100 g body weight) and the biliary excretion of 203 Hg 2+ within 6 hours after intravenous administration of 120 μg Hg 2+ per rat. After the SPL pretreatment there was a significantly increased mercury stool excretion 24 hours after intravenous administration. Concurrent oral administration of SH-groups containing sorbent had no effect on mercury stool excretion. Repeated administration of 203 Hg 2+ (5 hours after the first dose) induced significantly increased biliary excretion of mercury in rats pretreated with SPL. On the other hand, repeated administration of SPL (4 hours after intravenous administration of mercury) did not influence the biliary excretion of mercury. The results indicate that the effect of SPL on biliary excretion of mercury could be limited by the level of ''mercury available'' in the organism and might be determined by a direct interaction of mercury molecule with the molecule of SPL

  5. Computer-aided acquisition and logistics support (CALS): Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, N.C.; Greer, D.K.

    1993-04-01

    This CALS Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance provides the foundation strategy and the near term tactical plan for CALS implementation in the depot maintenance environment. The user requirements enumerated and the overarching architecture outlined serve as the primary framework for implementation planning. The seamless integration of depot maintenance business processes and supporting information systems with the emerging global CALS environment will be critical to the efficient realization of depot user's information requirements, and as, such will be a fundamental theme in depot implementations.

  6. Orbiting Depot and Reusable Lander for Lunar Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A document describes a conceptual transportation system that would support exploratory visits by humans to locations dispersed across the surface of the Moon and provide transport of humans and cargo to sustain one or more permanent Lunar outpost. The system architecture reflects requirements to (1) minimize the amount of vehicle hardware that must be expended while maintaining high performance margins and (2) take advantage of emerging capabilities to produce propellants on the Moon while also enabling efficient operation using propellants transported from Earth. The system would include reusable single- stage lander spacecraft and a depot in a low orbit around the Moon. Each lander would have descent, landing, and ascent capabilities. A crew-taxi version of the lander would carry a pressurized crew module; a cargo version could carry a variety of cargo containers. The depot would serve as a facility for storage and for refueling with propellants delivered from Earth or propellants produced on the Moon. The depot could receive propellants and cargo sent from Earth on a variety of spacecraft. The depot could provide power and orbit maintenance for crew vehicles from Earth and could serve as a safe haven for lunar crews pending transport back to Earth.

  7. New Insights into Drug Absorption from Oil Depots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalicharan, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Sustained delivery formulations are used in order to prolong the pharmacological activity of a drug. A commonly used parenteral sustained delivery formulation is an oil depot which consists of a solution of lipophilic molecules in a vegetable oil. These are normally administered either

  8. Whole tree transportation system for timber processing depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Lancaster; Tom Gallagher; Tim  McDonald; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand for alternative energy has led those who are interested in producing sustainable energy from renewable timber to devise new concepts to satisfy those demands. The concept of timber processing depots, where whole stem trees will be delivered for future processing into wood products and high quality energy fuel, has led to the re-evaluation of our...

  9. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    60. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of Boer goats and the response to varying levels of maize meal. N.H. Casey" and W.A. van Niekerk. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture,. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. xTo whom correspondence should be ...

  10. Redistributing Stock in Library Systems with a Depot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Gerlach; Roodbergen, Kees Jan; van Foreest, Nicky

    Public library organizations often utilize depots for carrying out shipments to libraries in case of stock-outs and for storing low demand rental items at low cost. Similar systems may be employed by rental companies for other rental products such as tools, DVDs, and jewelry. Since shipments deplete

  11. Master Environmental Plan: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, Gallup, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.A.; Yuen, C.R.; Biang, R.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    The master environmental plan is based on an environmental assessment of the areas requiring environmental evaluation (AREEs) at Fort Wingate Depot Activity near Gallup, New Mexico. The Fort Wingate Depot Activity is slated for closure under the Base Closure and Realignment Act, Public Law 100--526. The MEP assesses the current status, describes additional data requirements, recommends actions for the sites, and establishes a priority order for actions. The plan was developed so that actions comply with hazardous waste and water quality regulations of the State of New Mexico and applicable federal regulations. It contains a brief history of the site, relevant geological and hydrological information, and a description of the current status for each AREE along with a discussion of the available site-specific data that pertain to existing or potential contamination and the impact on the environment. 35 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  12. Radiological Final Status Survey of the Hammond Depot, Hammond, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkus, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    ORISE conducted extensive scoping, characterization, and final status surveys of land areas and structures at the DNSC's Hammond Depot located in Hammond, Indiana in multiple phases during 2005, 2006 and 2007. This report provides a detailed discussion of the radiological survey planning, survey implementation, remediation, and the results for these activities supporting the conclusion that radioactive contamination previously identified at the Hammond Depot (HD) has been reduced to levels such that the site may be released without radiological restrictions. The objective of the radiological final status survey (FSS) was to obtain the data necessary to demonstrate compliance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved site-specific derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for both structural surfaces and outdoor areas (ORISE 2006a and NRC 2007). The DCGLs were modeled such that any residual licensed material would not exceed the NRC's basic dose limit for license termination of 25 millirem per year (mrem/y)

  13. Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and fracture risk

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Christian; Brauchli, Yolanda B.; Jick, Susan S.; Kraenzlin, Marius E.; Meier, Christoph R.

    2010-01-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), which has a high rate of use among teenagers in Europe and the United States, has been associated with impaired bone mineral acquisition during adolescence and accelerated bone loss in later life. Studies on the association between DMPA use and fracture risk are limited.; We aimed at evaluating the relationship between use of hormonal contraceptives, specifically DMPA, and fracture risk.; We conducted a case-control analysis using the United Kingdom-b...

  14. Process and Energy Optimization Assessment, Tobyhanna Army Depot, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-17

    assembly of electronic-communication components, different welding processes are performed at TYAD. It uses shielded arc, metal inert gas (MIG...tungsten inert gas ( TIG ), and silver braz- ing oxygen/acetylene cutting plasma arc methods to complete mission re- quirements. Major welding jobs are...ER D C/ CE R L TR -0 6 -1 1 Process and Energy Optimization Assessment Tobyhanna Army Depot, PA Mike C.J. Lin, Alexander M. Zhivov

  15. Occupational Exposure of Petroleum Depot Workers to BTEX Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezazadeh Azari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX are the most important toxic volatile compounds in the air and could be easily absorbed through the respiratory tract. In recent years, the risk of exposure to BTEX compounds, especially benzene as a carcinogen, has been considered in petroleum depot stations. Objective: To assess the occupational exposure of petroleum depot workers in Iran to BTEX compounds. Methods: After completing a questionnaire and assessing occupational exposure to BTEX compounds, 78 (46 exposed and 32 non-exposed depot workers were randomly selected to participate in this study. Air sampling and analysis of BTEX was conducted according to the NIOSH method No. 1501. Analysis of urinary hippuric acid, as an indicator of toluene exposure, was carried out according to NIOSH method No. 8300. Personal monitoring of the high exposure group to BTEX compounds was repeated to verify the results obtained in the first phase of the monitoring. Results: Among the 9 operating groups studied, occupational exposure to benzene and toluene was higher in quality control and gasoline loading operators—the median exposure ranged from 0.16 to 1.63 ppm for benzene and 0.2 to 2.72 ppm for toluene. Median exposure of other group members to BTEX compounds was below the detection limit of analytical method (0.07, 0.06, 0.05, and 0.05 ppm, respectively. The level of toluene exposure measured showed correlation with neither post-shift urinary hippuric acid (Spearman's rho=0.128, p=0.982 nor with the difference between post- and pre-shift urinary hippuric acid (Spearman's rho=0.089, p=0.847 in depot operational workers. Conclusion: Gasoline loading operators are exposed to a relatively high level of benzene.

  16. [Treatment of Adult Schizophrenic Patients With Depot Antipsychotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; García Valencia, Jenny; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Ávila-Guerra, Mauricio; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    To determine the indications of long-acting antipsychotic injection and what its effectiveness and safety in adult patients with schizophrenia during the treatment maintenance phase. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The literature review shows that the evidence has moderate to low quality. 8 articles were used. The risk of relapse was lower with depot risperidone and paliperidone palmitate when compared with placebo. For the risk of hospitalizations comparing depot antipsychotics (APD) versus oral AP, the result is inconclusive. Globally the second-generation APD had a lower risk of discontinuation when compared with placebo. The second generation AP had higher risk of extrapyramidal syndromes than placebo, as in the use of antiparkinsonian. The comparison of second-generation AP injections versus placebo showed an increased risk of early weight gain. The use of depot antipsychotics in the maintenance phase of adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is recommended if there is no adherence to oral antipsychotics as the patient's preference. It is not recommended depot antipsychotics in the acute phase of schizophrenia in adults. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Depot Maintenance: Improvements to DODs Biennial Core Report Could Better Inform Oversight and Funding Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    military depots, and not workload performed by the private - sector . MDA officials told us that OSD guidance does not explain how to calculate the...military depots2—public- sector facilities that are government-owned and government-operated—and private - sector contractors. Depots have a key role...the public or private sectors . 3Pub. L. No. 98-525 § 307 (1984). This section was originally codified at 10 U.S.C. § 2304 (note). Letter

  18. Evaluation of Uniform Cost Accounting System to Fully Capture Depot Level Repair Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    RD-RI65 522 EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY i/I CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA D R...8217.LECTE B ,- THESIS EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 0TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS Jby __jDavid Richmond O’Brien lj,,, December...Include Security Classification) EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) O’Brien- David

  19. Enhancement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in estuarine invertebrates by surface runoff at a decommissioned military fuel depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A.K.; Roster, N.

    1999-01-01

    Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) and shore crabs (Hemigrapsus sp.) at a recently closed military fuel depot in central San Francisco Bay, California. In April 1996, during a period of above average precipitation, specimens were collected at the depot, near the depot, and at sites 10 and 20 km south of the depot. Four weeks after the rains ended, blue mussels were again collected at the depot, and at two additional sites in the central Bay region. In April, total PAHs in mussels from the depot were significantly higher only than that in mussels collected 20 km from the depot; however, seven specific, substituted PAHs were higher at the depot than at all other sites. In June, only two of the 38 PAHs common in mussels in April were detected at the depot; these concentrations were comparable to ambient concentrations in mussels at the Bay. It seemed that bioavailability of PAHs at the depot was enhanced by rainfall, probably due to the mobilization of PAHs via groundwater into the Bay. Concentrations in mussels from chronically contaminated sites were about five times higher than mussels collected from the depot. Low PAH concentrations were detected in shore crabs near the depot, and the highest levels were not associated with the depot. Observed PAH concentrations are discussed in relation to upper trophic organisms.

  20. Analysis of Tobyhanna Army Depot's Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Pilot Program: RFID as an Asset Management Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miertschin, Keith W; Forrest, Brian D

    2005-01-01

    ...) used for inventory and asset management at the Tobyhanna Army Maintenance Depot. Tobyhanna Army Depot recently partnered with WhereNet Corporation for a pilot program to incorporate a real-time locating system that uses RFID...

  1. Improving Air Force Depot Programming by Linking Resources to Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    thank Rick Grisenthwaite at Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Jamie Jeter at Okla- homa City Air Logistics Center, and Glen Brown at Ogden Air...consistency, we use the term block cycle instead of SCU in our F-16 discussions. 4 8 Im p ro vin g A ir Fo rce D ep o t Pro g ram m in g b y Lin kin...Requirements RAND TR905-B.8 Figure B.9 Depot Purchased Equipment Maintenance Model Output: Projected Aircraft Availability RAND TR905-B.9 A ir cr af t av

  2. Depot Maintenance Air Force Faces Challenges in Managing to 50-50 Ceiling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, David

    2000-01-01

    ... that is being moved from the closing Sacramento, California, and San Antonio, Texas, depots to other military depots or private sector sources. As you requested, my testimony today focuses on the basis for the waiver and the likelihood that the Air Force will need additional waivers in the future.

  3. Adipose tissue in muscle: a novel depot similar in size to visceral adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, D.; Kuznia, P.; Heshka, S.; Albu, J.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Visser, M.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The manner in which fat depot volumes and distributions, particularly the adipose tissue (AT) between the muscles, vary by race is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to quantify a previously unstudied and novel intermuscular AT (IMAT) depot and subcutaneous AT, visceral AT (VAT), and

  4. A hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for the multi-depot covering tour vehicle routing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allahyari, S.; Salari, M.; Vigo, D.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a generalization of themulti-depot capacitated vehicle routing problem where the assumption of visiting each customer does not hold. In this problem, called the Multi-Depot Covering Tour Vehicle Routing Problem (MDCTVRP), the demand of each customer could be satisfied in two different

  5. Measuring Customer Satisfaction of Depot Maintenance: An Analysis of Customer Satisfaction of F/A-18 Maintenance at Naval Aviation Depot North Island, CA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forsyth, Brian

    1997-01-01

    .... A key focus of commercial practices is delivering customer satisfaction. To this extent, it is imperative that DoD depots understand and properly measure their customer's concerns if they wish to improve their performance...

  6. Modeling and Solving the Multi-depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window by Considering the Flexible end Depot in Each Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the multi-depot vehicle routing problem with time window in which each vehicle starts from a depot and there is no need to return to its primary depot after serving customers. The mathematical model which is developed by new approach aims to minimizing the transportation cost including the travelled distance, the latest and the earliest arrival time penalties. Furthermore, in order to reduce the problem searching space, a novel GA clustering method is developed. Finally, Experiments are run on number problems of varying depots and time window, and customer sizes. The method is compared to two other clustering techniques, fuzzy C means (FCM and K-means algorithm. Experimental results show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Does the aldosterone: renin ratio predict the efficacy of spironolactone over bendroflumethiazide in hypertension? A clinical trial protocol for RENALDO (RENin-ALDOsterone study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McInnes Gordon T

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High blood pressure is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Treated hypertensives do not attain a risk level equivalent to normotensives. This may be a consequence of suboptimal blood pressure control to which indiscriminate use of antihypertensive drugs may contribute. Indeed the recent ALLHAT1study suggests that thiazides should be given first to virtually all hypertensives. Whether this is correct or whether different antihypertensive therapies should be targeted towards different patients is a major unresolved issue, which we address in this study. The measurement of the ratio of aldosterone: renin is used to identify hypertensive subjects who may respond well to treatment with the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone. It is not known if subjects with a high ratio have aldosteronism or aldosterone-sensitive hypertension is debated but it is important to know whether spironolactone is superior to other diuretics such as bendroflumethiazide in this setting. Methods/design The study is a double-blind, randomised, crossover, controlled trial that will randomise 120 hypertensive subjects to 12 weeks treatment with spironolactone 50 mg once daily and 12 weeks treatment with bendroflumethiazide 2.5 mg once daily. The 2 treatment periods are separated by a 2-week washout period. Randomisation is stratified by aldosterone: renin ratio to include equal numbers of subjects with high and low aldosterone: renin ratios. Primary Objective – To test the hypothesis that the aldosterone: renin ratio predicts the antihypertensive response to spironolactone, specifically that the effect of spironolactone 50 mg is greater than that of bendroflumethiazide 2.5 mg in hypertensive subjects with high aldosterone: renin ratios. Secondary Objectives – To determine whether bendroflumethiazide induces adverse metabolic abnormalities, especially in subjects with high aldosterone: renin ratios and if baseline renin measurement

  8. Combined oral contraceptives plus spironolactone compared with metformin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a one-year randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpañés, Macarena; Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to compare a combined oral contraceptive (COC) plus the antiandrogen spironolactone with the insulin sensitizer metformin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We conducted a randomized, parallel, open-label, clinical trial comparing COC (30 μg of ethinylestradiol and 150 μg of desogestrel) plus spironolactone (100 mg/day) with metformin (850 mg b.i.d.) for one year in women with PCOS (EudraCT2008-004531-38). The composite primary outcome included efficacy (amelioration of hirsutism, androgen excess and menstrual dysfunction) and cardiometabolic safety (changes in the frequencies of disorders of glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and hypertension). A complete anthropometric, biochemical, hormonal and metabolic evaluation was conducted every three months and data were submitted to intention-to-treat analyses. Twenty-four patients were assigned to COC plus spironolactone and 22 patients to metformin. Compared with metformin, COC plus spironolactone caused larger decreases in hirsutism score (mean difference 4.6 points, 95% CI: 2.6-6.7), total testosterone (1.1 nmol/L, 0.4-1.7), free testosterone (25 pmol/L, 12-39), androstenedione (5.5 nmol/L, 1.8-9.2) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (2.7 μmol/L, 1.4-4.0). Menstrual dysfunction was less frequent with COC plus spironolactone (OR: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.02-0.23). No differences were found in frequencies of abnormal glucose tolerance (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.7-4.4), dyslipidemia (OR: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.2-1.8) or hypertension (OR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.5-2.0). No major adverse events occurred and biochemical markers were similarly safe with both treatments. COC plus spironolactone was more effective than metformin for symptoms of PCOS showing similar safety and overall neutral effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. Financial incentives for antipsychotic depot medication: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Dirk

    2007-04-01

    Giving money as a direct incentive for patients in exchange for depot medication has proved beneficial in some clinical cases in assertive outreach (AO). However, ethical concerns around this practice have been raised, and will be analysed in more detail here. Ethical concern voiced in a survey of all AO teams in England were analysed regarding their content. These were grouped into categories. 53 of 70 team managers mentioned concerns, many of them serious and expressing a negative attitude towards giving money for depot adherence. Four broad categories of ethical concern following Christensen's concept were distinguished: valid consent and refusal (n = 5), psychiatric paternalism (n = 31), resource allocation (n = 4), organisational relationships (n = 2), with a residual category others and unspecified (n = 11). The main concerns identified are discussed on the background of existing ethical theories in healthcare and the specific problems of community mental health and AO. Points for practice are derived from this discussion. A way forward is outlined that includes informed consent and an operational policy in the use of incentives, further randomised controlled trials and qualitative studies, and continuing discussions with all stakeholders, especially service users.

  10. Artificial immune algorithm for multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongyi; Wang, Donggen; Xia, Linyuan; Chen, Xiaoling

    2008-10-01

    In the fast-developing logistics and supply chain management fields, one of the key problems in the decision support system is that how to arrange, for a lot of customers and suppliers, the supplier-to-customer assignment and produce a detailed supply schedule under a set of constraints. Solutions to the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems (MDVRP) help in solving this problem in case of transportation applications. The objective of the MDVSP is to minimize the total distance covered by all vehicles, which can be considered as delivery costs or time consumption. The MDVSP is one of nondeterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) problem which cannot be solved to optimality within polynomial bounded computational time. Many different approaches have been developed to tackle MDVSP, such as exact algorithm (EA), one-stage approach (OSA), two-phase heuristic method (TPHM), tabu search algorithm (TSA), genetic algorithm (GA) and hierarchical multiplex structure (HIMS). Most of the methods mentioned above are time consuming and have high risk to result in local optimum. In this paper, a new search algorithm is proposed to solve MDVSP based on Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), which are inspirited by vertebrate immune systems. The proposed AIS algorithm is tested with 30 customers and 6 vehicles located in 3 depots. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system algorithm is an effective and efficient method for solving MDVSP problems.

  11. Levels of NT-proBNP, markers of low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction during spironolactone treatment in patients with diabetic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine; Schjoedt, Katrine J; Rossing, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    with spironolactone 25 mg and placebo daily for 60 days.Outcome measures:Changes in inflammatory (hsCRP, s-ICAM, TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, Serum amyloid A, IL1β), endothelial dysfunction (sE-selectin, s-ICAM1, s-VCAM1, VWF, p-selectin, s-thrombomodulin) and NT-proBNP after each treatment period. RESULTS: During...

  12. Organ damage changes in patients with resistant hypertension randomized to renal denervation or spironolactone: The DENERVHTA (Denervación en Hipertensión Arterial) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, Anna; Armario, Pedro; Sans, Laia; Clarà, Albert; Vázquez, Susana; Molina, Luis; Pareja, Júlia; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Pascual, Julio

    2018-01-01

    Renal denervation and spironolactone have both been proposed for the treatment of resistant hypertension, but their effects on preclinical target organ damage have not been compared. Twenty-four patients with 24-hour systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg despite receiving three or more full-dose antihypertensive drugs, one a diuretic, were randomized to receive spironolactone or renal denervation. Changes in 24-hour blood pressure, urine albumin excretion, arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular mass index were evaluated at 6 months. Mean baseline-adjusted difference between the two groups (spironolactone vs renal denervation) at 6 months in 24-hour systolic blood pressure was -17.9 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI], -30.9 to -4.9; P = .01). Mean baseline-adjusted change in urine albumin excretion was -87.2 (95% CI, -164.5 to -9.9) and -23.8 (95% CI, -104.5 to 56.9), respectively (P = .028). Mean baseline-adjusted variation of 24-hour pulse pressure was -13.5 (95% CI, -18.8 to -8.2) and -2.1 (95% CI, -7.9 to 3.7), respectively (P = .006). The correlation of change in 24-hour systolic blood pressure with change in log-transformed urine albumin excretion was r = .713 (P < .001). At 6 months there was a reduction in albuminuria in patients with resistant hypertension treated with spironolactone as compared with renal denervation. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Serous Retinal Detachment Associated with Dome-Shaped Macula and Staphyloma Edge in Myopic Patients before and after Treatment with Spironolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernández-Vega Sanz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Serous retinal detachment (SRD is a common anatomical complication associated with dome-shaped macula (DSM and staphyloma margin in myopic patients. Here we described the anatomical and functional outcomes obtained with the use of oral spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid antagonist, in the management of myopic patients with SRD associated with DSM and staphyloma margin. Methods. We evaluated both eyes of twelve myopic patients with long-standing SRD associated with DSM or staphyloma margin. The patients were treated daily for six months with oral spironolactone 50 mg. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and central retinal thickness (CRT, determined by optical coherence tomography, were evaluated on the first day and on monthly follow-up visits. Results. Pretreatment BCVA (mean ± standard deviation was 0.406 ± 0.324 LogMAR, and posttreatment BCVA was 0.421 ± 0.354 LogMAR (P=0.489. Pretreatment CRT was 323.9 ± 78.6 μm, and after six months of treatment it was significantly lower, 291.2 ± 74.5 μm (P=0.010. There were no treatment-related complications. Conclusions. We evaluated a novel treatment for SRD associated with DSM and staphyloma margin in myopic patients. After six months of treatment with the mineralocorticoid antagonist spironolactone, the subretinal fluid and CRT were significantly reduced; however, there was no improvement in BCVA.

  14. The Linehaul-Feeder Vehicle Routing Problem with Virtual Depots and Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Kuo Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the linehaul-feeder vehicle routing problem with virtual depots and time windows (LFVRPTW. Small and large vehicles deliver services to customers within time constraints; small vehicles en route may reload commodities from either the physical depot or from the larger vehicle at a virtual depot before continuing onward. A two-stage solution heuristic involving Tabu search is proposed to solve this problem. The test results show that the LFVRPTW performs better than the vehicle routing problem with time windows in terms of both objective value and the number of small vehicles dispatched.

  15. An Analysis of the Cost Accounting System for the Depot Maintenance Service, Air Force Industrial Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    AN A NALYSIS OF THE COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM FOR THE DEPOT 1/1 MRINTENANCE SERVI..(U) MIR FORCE INST OF TECH IIGHT-PTTERSON RFB OH SCHOOL OF SYST.. 0 L...I "VV h S~ ~~i FiLE COV, THSI CIO ~OF AN ANALYSIS OF THE COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM FOR THE DEPOT MAINTENANCE SERVICE, AIR FORCE INDUSTRIAL FUND...Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ~ p~UOW~~ ’ I ~ 1 12 02 0 AFIT/GLM/LSY/87S-83 AN ANALYSIS OF THE COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM FOR THE DEPOT MAINTENANCE SERVICE, AIR

  16. Policies for Positioning Empty Containers in an Inland Multi-depot System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Yun, Won-Young

    2011-01-01

    -container management are as follows: a coordinated (s, S) inventory policy for overseas positioning, (ri, Ri) policy at each depot for inland positioning; and a simple leasing policy with zero lead-time. For inland positioning policy, four different methods are proposed to reposition empty containers between depots....... Customer demands and returning containers in depots and lead-time for positioning from overseas are considered as uncertain factors. The objective is to obtain the optimal policy in order to minimize the expected total cost including inventory holding, overseas positioning, inland positioning and leasing...

  17. Biotransformation of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists spironolactone and canrenone by human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2: Characterization of the products and their influence on mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Lina; Müller, Anne-Rose; Hobler, Anna; Brixius-Anderko, Simone; Zapp, Josef; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Spironolactone and its major metabolite canrenone are potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and are, therefore, applied as drugs for the treatment of primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension. We report that both compounds can be converted by the purified adrenocortical cytochromes P450 CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, while no conversion of the selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone was observed. As their natural function, CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 carry out the final steps in the biosynthesis of gluco- and mineralocorticoids. Dissociation constants for the new exogenous substrates were determined by a spectroscopic binding assay and demonstrated to be comparable to those of the natural substrates, 11-deoxycortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone. Metabolites were produced at preparative scale with a CYP11B2-dependent Escherichia coli whole-cell system and purified by HPLC. Using NMR spectroscopy, the metabolites of spironolactone were identified as 11β-OH-spironolactone, 18-OH-spironolactone and 19-OH-spironolactone. Canrenone was converted to 11β-OH-canrenone, 18-OH-canrenone as well as to the CYP11B2-specific product 11β,18-diOH-canrenone. Therefore, a contribution of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 to the biotransformation of drugs should be taken into account and the metabolites should be tested for their potential toxic and pharmacological effects. A mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation assay in antagonist mode revealed 11β-OH-spironolactone as pharmaceutically active metabolite, whereas all other hydroxylation products negate the antagonist properties of spironolactone and canrenone. Thus, human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 turned out to metabolize steroid-based drugs additionally to the liver-dependent biotransformation of drugs. Compared with the action of the parental drug, changed properties of the metabolites at the target site have been observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hotline Allegations Involving Contracts for Programmed Depot Maintenance of KC-135 Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    Introduction. We performed the audit in response to 15 allegations made to the Defense Hotline involving two contracts on the Programmed Depot Maintenance of the KC-135 Aircraft, which Oklahoma City Air logistics...

  19. Treatment patterns and clinical characteristics prior to initiating depot typical antipsychotics for nonadherent schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery William

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonadherence with antipsychotic medication is an important clinical and economic problem in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study identified treatment patterns and clinical characteristics that immediately precede the initiation of depot typical antipsychotics in the usual treatment of schizophrenia patients with a recent history of nonadherence with oral antipsychotic regimens. Methods Data were drawn from a large, multisite, 3-year prospective noninterventional observational study of persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States, which was conducted between 7/1997 and 9/2003. The analytical sample included patients who, in the 6 months prior to enrollment, were considered nonadherent with oral antipsychotics and were not treated with depot antipsychotics (N = 314. Patients who were subsequently initiated on typical depots during the 3-year follow-up were compared with patients who continued therapy with only oral antipsychotic agents. Group comparisons were made on patient baseline characteristics and precedent variables that were assessed 1 to 6 months prior to depot initiation. Patient assessments were made at predetermined intervals throughout the 3-year study using standard psychiatric measures, a patient-reported questionnaire, and medical record information. Results A small proportion of patients (12.4% who were recently nonadherent with oral antipsychotics were subsequently initiated on depot therapy during the 3-year study. Compared to patients treated with only oral antipsychotics, those subsequently initiated on a depot were significantly more likely to be hospitalized at depot initiation or the previous 30 days, to have recent involvement with the criminal justice system (arrests, recent illicit drug use, recent switching or augmentation of oral antipsychotics, and recent treatment with oral typical antipsychotics. Conclusion Despite prior nonadherence with oral antipsychotic medication, only a

  20. Multiple depots vehicle routing based on the ant colony with the genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunYing Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the distribution routing plans of multi-depots vehicle scheduling problem will increase exponentially along with the adding of customers. So, it becomes an important studying trend to solve the vehicle scheduling problem with heuristic algorithm. On the basis of building the model of multi-depots vehicle scheduling problem, in order to improve the efficiency of the multiple depots vehicle routing, the paper puts forward a fusion algorithm on multiple depots vehicle routing based on the ant colony algorithm with genetic algorithm. Design/methodology/approach: to achieve this objective, the genetic algorithm optimizes the parameters of the ant colony algorithm. The fusion algorithm on multiple depots vehicle based on the ant colony algorithm with genetic algorithm is proposed. Findings: simulation experiment indicates that the result of the fusion algorithm is more excellent than the other algorithm, and the improved algorithm has better convergence effective and global ability. Research limitations/implications: in this research, there are some assumption that might affect the accuracy of the model such as the pheromone volatile factor, heuristic factor in each period, and the selected multiple depots. These assumptions can be relaxed in future work. Originality/value: In this research, a new method for the multiple depots vehicle routing is proposed. The fusion algorithm eliminate the influence of the selected parameter by optimizing the heuristic factor, evaporation factor, initial pheromone distribute, and have the strong global searching ability. The Ant Colony algorithm imports cross operator and mutation operator for operating the first best solution and the second best solution in every iteration, and reserves the best solution. The cross and mutation operator extend the solution space and improve the convergence effective and the global ability. This research shows that considering both the ant colony and genetic algorithm

  1. Development of self-forming doxorubicin-loaded polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system for liver cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittayacharn, Pinunta; Nasongkla, Norased

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop self-forming doxorubicin-loaded polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system for liver cancer chemotherapy and studied the release profiles of doxorubicin (Dox) from different depot formulations. Tri-block copolymers of poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(D,L-lactide) and poly(ethylene glycol) named PLECs were successfully used as a biodegradable material to encapsulate Dox as the injectable local drug delivery system. Depot formation and encapsulation efficiency of these depots were evaluated. Results show that depots could be formed and encapsulate Dox with high drug loading content. For the release study, drug loading content (10, 15 and 20% w/w) and polymer concentration (25, 30, and 35% w/v) were varied. It could be observed that the burst release occurred within 1-2 days and this burst release could be reduced by physical mixing of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) into the depot system. The degradation at the surface and cross-section of the depots were examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In addition, cytotoxicity of Dox-loaded depots and blank depots were tested against human liver cancer cell lines (HepG2). Dox released from depots significantly exhibited potent cytotoxic effect against HepG2 cell line compared to that of blank depots. Results from this study reveals an important insight in the development of injectable drug delivery system for liver cancer chemotherapy. Schematic diagram of self-forming doxorubicin-loaded polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system and in vitro characterizations. (a) Dox-loaded PLEC depots could be formed with more than 90% of sustained-release Dox at 25% polymer concentration and 20% Dox-loading content. The burst release occurred within 1-2 days and could be reduced by physical mixing of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) into the depot system. (b) Dox released from depots significantly exhibited potent cytotoxic effect against human

  2. Performance Gains of Propellant Management Devices for Liquid Hydrogen Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen, John B.; Chato, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents background, experimental design, and preliminary experimental results for the liquid hydrogen bubble point tests conducted at the Cryogenic Components Cell 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the test series was to investigate the parameters that affect liquid acquisition device (LAD) performance in a liquid hydrogen (LH2) propellant tank, to mitigate risk in the final design of the LAD for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission, and to provide insight into optimal LAD operation for future LH2 depots. Preliminary test results show an increase in performance and screen retention over the low reference LH2 bubble point value for a 325 2300 screen in three separate ways, thus improving fundamental LH2 LAD performance. By using a finer mesh screen, operating at a colder liquid temperature, and pressurizing with a noncondensible pressurant gas, a significant increase in margin is achieved in bubble point pressure for LH2 screen channel LADs.

  3. ATTITUDES OF SHOP FLOOR EMPLOYEES TOWARD WOMEN MANAGERS IN FUEL DEPOTS: A CASE OF THE FUEL DEPOTS IN LUBUMBASHI, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N. M. Nzuve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Labour Organization and all organizations of human rights advocate against any form of negative attitude in employment based on gender, its terms, promotion and relations. Shop floor employees play a very important role in the daily advancement and profitability of an organisation. The purpose of this study was to establish the attitude of shop floor employees toward women managers in fuel depots in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with the population consisting of one hundred and ninety three (193 shop floor employees. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. In total one hundred and twenty one (121 shop floor employees responded yielding a response rate of sixty three percent (63%. The findings of this study indicate that a negative attitude toward woman managers is prevalent in the Fuel Depots of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. At the fuel depots, the number of women working was less than a third of the males. In spite of this, women managers are rated higher in management qualities and are considered to be more honest, diligent, compassionate, creative and intelligent when compared to their male counterparts. The study recommends a culture change among employees in fuel depots in Lubumbashi in order to enable them perceive women as equal partners at the work place.

  4. Measurement of ground and nearby building vibration and noise induced by trains in a metro depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chao; Wang, Yimin; Wang, Peng; Guo, Jixing

    2015-12-01

    Metro depots are where subway trains are parked and where maintenance is carried out. They usually occupy the largest ground areas in metro projects. Due to land utilization problems, Chinese cities have begun to develop over-track buildings above metro depots for people's life and work. The frequently moving trains, when going into and out of metro depots, can cause excessive vibration and noise to over-track buildings and adversely affect the living quality of the building occupants. Considering the current need of reliable experimental data for the construction of metro depots, field measurements of vibration and noise on the ground and inside a nearby 3-story building subjected to moving subway trains were conducted in a metro depot at Guangzhou, China. The amplitudes and frequency contents of velocity levels were quantified and compared. The composite A-weighted equivalent sound levels and maximum sound levels were captured. The predicted models for vibration and noise of metro depot were proposed based on existing models and verified. It was found that the vertical vibrations were significantly greater than the horizontal vibrations on the ground and inside the building near the testing line. While at the throat area, the horizontal vibrations near the curved track were remarkably greater than the vertical vibrations. The attenuation of the vibrations with frequencies above 50 Hz was larger than the ones below 50 Hz, and the frequencies of vibration transmitting to adjacent buildings were mainly within 10-50 Hz. The largest equivalent sound level generated in the throat area was smaller than the testing line one, but the instantaneous maximum sound level induced by wheels squeal, contact between wheels and rail joints as well as turnout was close to or even greater than the testing line one. The predicted models gave a first estimation for design and assessment of newly built metro depots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) use after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Clarissa; Murthy, Amitasrigowri S

    2016-01-01

    In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m 2 and 29.9 kg/m 2 ) or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m 2 ). In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The obesity-associated increase in VTE should be mitigated by surgically induced weight loss. The concurrent use of DMPA in the post bariatric surgical period should not further increase the risk of VTE.

  6. Artificial intelligence technology assessment for the US Army Depot System Command

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, K A

    1991-07-01

    This assessment of artificial intelligence (AI) has been prepared for the US Army's Depot System Command (DESCOM) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The report describes several of the more promising AI technologies, focusing primarily on knowledge-based systems because they have been more successful in commercial applications than any other AI technique. The report also identifies potential Depot applications in the areas of procedural support, scheduling and planning, automated inspection, training, diagnostics, and robotic systems. One of the principal objectives of the report is to help decisionmakers within DESCOM to evaluate AI as a possible tool for solving individual depot problems. The report identifies a number of factors that should be considered in such evaluations. 22 refs.

  7. Preparation and in vitro characterization of SN-38-loaded, self-forming polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaspon, Chawan; Hongeng, Suradej; Boongird, Atthaporn; Nasongkla, Norased

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of anticancer-loaded injectable polymeric depots that consisted of D,L-lactide (LA), ε-caprolactone (CL), and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or [poly(ε-caprolactone)-random-poly(D,L-lactide)]-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-[poly(ε-caprolactone)-random-poly(D,L-lactide)] (PLEC) copolymers for malignant gliomas treatment. PLECs were polymerized with different percentages of LA to deliver 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), a highly potent anticancer drug. SN-38-loaded depots could form directly in phosphate buffer saline with more than 98% encapsulation efficiency. The release rate of SN-38 from depots was found to depend on the amount of LA in PLECs, loading content of SN-38 in the depots, and depot weight. Encapsulation of SN-38 inside depots could enhance the stability of SN-38 where all of SN-38 released after 60 days was in an active form. Depots without SN-38 were evaluated as noncytotoxic against U-87MG, whereas SN-38-loaded depots showed cytotoxic effect as a function of concentration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Male bovine GH transgenic mice have decreased adiposity with an adipose depot-specific increase in immune cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benencia, Fabian; Harshman, Stephanie; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Lubbers, Ellen R; List, Edward O; Householder, Lara; Al-Naeeli, Mawadda; Liang, Xiaoyu; Welch, Lonnie; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2015-05-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is composed of mature adipocytes and a stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which contains a variety of cells, including immune cells that vary among the different WAT depots. Growth hormone (GH) impacts immune function and adiposity in an adipose depot-specific manner. However, its effects on WAT immune cell populations remain unstudied. Bovine GH transgenic (bGH) mice are commonly used to study the in vivo effects of GH. These giant mice have an excess of GH action, impaired glucose metabolism, decreased adiposity, increased lean mass, and a shortened lifespan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the WAT depot-specific differences in immune cell populations in the presence of excess GH in vivo. Three WAT depots were assessed: inguinal (sc), epididymal (EPI), and mesenteric (MES). Subcutaneous and MES bGH WAT depots showed a significantly higher number of total SVF cells, yet only MES bGH WAT had higher leukocyte counts compared with control samples. By means of flow cytometry analysis of the SVF, we detected greater macrophage and regulatory T-cell infiltration in sc and MES bGH WAT depots compared with controls. However, no differences were observed in the EPI WAT depot. RNA-sequencing confirmed significant alterations in pathways related to T-cell infiltration and activation in the sc depot with fewer significant changes in the EPI bGH WAT depot. These findings collectively point to a previously unrecognized role for GH in influencing the distribution of WAT immune cell populations in a depot-specific manner.

  9. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clarissa Lam,1 Amitasrigowri S Murthy2,3 1New York University School of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University School of Medicine, 3New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m2 and 29.9 kg/m2 or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2. In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE. The

  10. Clinical outcome of one-third-dose depot triptorelin is the same as half-dose depot triptorelin in the long protocol of controlled ovarian stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Appropriate dosage of the long-acting depot gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH agonist has not been determined in long protocol for IVF, and one-third-dose depot triptorelin was compared with half-dose in a luteal long protocol of in-vitro fertilization/ intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI treatment in this study. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, open clinical trial. 100 patients were randomized into two groups. Group I received one-third-dose (1.25 mg depot triptorelin. Group II received half-dose (1.87 mg. The clinical and experimental parameters were compared between the two groups. Results: There was no premature luteinizing hormone (LH surge in both groups. On Day 3-5 of menstrual cycle after down-regulation, fewer patients showed low-level LH (<1.0 IU/L and estradiol (<30 pg/mL in group I (P <0.05. There were fewer oocytes retrieved (P =0.086, fewer total embryos and available embryos for cryopreservation in Group I (P <0.05, while good-quality embryo rate was higher in group I (P <0.05. The length and dose of ovarian stimulation was lower in Group I, but not significantly. The clinical pregnancy (52% versus 40%, implantation (48% versus 37.5%, delivery (46% versus 32%, or live birth (42% versus 32% rates and the abortion (8% versus 20% rates showed no significant differences. Conclusion: Depot triptorelin 1.25 mg can be successfully used with reduced pituitary suppression and lower cost in a long protocol for in-vitro fertilization.

  11. Multicenter clinical trial of leuprolide acetate depot (Luphere depot 3.75 mg for efficacy and safety in girls with central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Jin Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWe evaluated the efficacy, safety and psychological aspect of monthly administrations of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa, leuprolide acetate depot (Luphere depot 3.75 mg, in patients with precocious puberty.MethodsA total of 54 girls with central precocious puberty were administered with leuprolide acetate (Luphere depot 3.75 mg every four weeks over 24 weeks. We evaluated the percentage of children exhibiting a suppressed luteinizing hormone (LH response to GnRH (LH peak≤3 IU/L, peak LH/follicle stimulating hormone (FSH ratio of GnRH stimulation test less than 1, change in bone age/chronologic age ratio, change in the Tanner stage and change in eating habit and psychological aspect.Results(1 The percentage of children exhibiting a suppressed LH response to GnRH, defined as an LH peak≤3 IU/L at 24 weeks was 96.3 % (52/54. (2 The percentage of children exhibiting peak LH/FSH ratio<1 at 24 weeks of the study was 94.4 % (51/54. (3 The ratio of bone age and chronological age significantly declined from 1.27±0.07 to 1.24±0.01 after the 6 months of the study. (4 The mean Tanner stage manifested a significant change 2.3±0.48 at baseline, down to 1.70±0.61 at 24 weeks. (5 Based on the questionnaires, the score for eating habits showed a significant change from the baseline 34.0±6.8 to 31.3±6.8. (6 The psychological assessment did not exhibit a significant difference except with scores for sociability, problem behavior total score and other problems.ConclusionThe leuprolide 3.75 mg (Luphere depot is useful and safety for treating children with central precocious puberty.

  12. Inflammation and race and gender differences in computerized tomography-measured adipose depots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beasley, L.E.; Koster, A.; Newman, A.B.; Javaid, M.K.; Ferucci, L.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Kuller, L.H.; Pahor, M.; Visser, M.; Rubin, S.M.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Everhart, J.E.; Harris, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has consistently shown a correlation between obesity and chronic subclinical inflammation. It is unclear whether the size of specific adipose depots is more closely associated with concentrations of inflammatory markers than overall adiposity. This study investigated the

  13. Clay Nanoparticles Elicit Long-Term Immune Responses by Forming Biodegradable Depots for Sustained Antigen Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyu; Zuo, Huali; Li, Bei; Duan, Chengcheng; Rolfe, Barbara; Zhang, Bing; Mahony, Timothy J; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2018-05-01

    Nanomaterials have been widely tested as new generation vaccine adjuvants, but few evoke efficient immunoreactions. Clay nanoparticles, for example, layered double hydroxide (LDH) and hectorite (HEC) nanoparticles, have shown their potent adjuvanticity in generating effective and durable immune responses. However, the mechanism by which clay nanoadjuvants stimulate the immune system is not well understood. Here, it is demonstrated that LDH and HEC-antigen complexes form loose agglomerates in culture medium/serum. They also form nodules with loose structures in tissue after subcutaneous injection, where they act as a depot for up to 35 d. More importantly, clay nanoparticles actively and continuously recruit immune cells into the depot for up to one month, and stimulate stronger immune responses than FDA-approved adjuvants, Alum and QuilA. Sustained antigen release is also observed in clay nanoparticle depots, with 50-60% antigen released after 35 d. In contrast, Alum-antigen complexes show minimal antigen release from the depot. Importantly, LDH and HEC are more effective than QuilA and Alum in promoting memory T-cell proliferation. These findings suggest that both clay nanoadjuvants can serve as active vaccine platforms for sustained and potent immune responses. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Pharmacodynamic effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administered to lactating women on their male infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virutamasen, P; Leepipatpaiboon, S; Kriengsinyot, R; Vichaidith, P; Muia, PN; SekaddeKigondu, CB; Mati, JKG; Forest, MG; Dikkeschei, LD; Wolthers, BG; dArcangues, C

    Normal postpartum women, who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of one full-term male infant, free of congenital abnormalities and other diseases, were recruited for this study. Thirteen women received 150 mg depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), intramuscularly on days 42 + 1 and 126 + 1

  15. Verspreiding van zout bij het terugwinnen van zeezand uit een depot in het Haringvliet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1991-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een beknopte analyse van de verdunning en verspreiding van zout vanuit een gepland depot voor ontzilt zeezand in het Haringvliet. Beschouwd zijn de initiële menging van het zout bij terugwinnen van het zand, de verspreiding door stroming en turbulentie bij geopende spuisluis, en de

  16. Safety Extension Study Of Leuprolide Acetate (Lupron Depot) In The Treatment Of Central Precocious Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-08

    Precocious; Leuprolide Acetate; Luteinizing Hormone (LH); Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone Agonist (GnRHa); Tanner Staging; Depot Formulation; Suppression of LH; Central Precocious Puberty (CPP); Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone (GnRH); Lupron; GnRH Analog; Pediatrics Central Precocious Puberty

  17. Sustained release of antibiotics from injectable and thermally responsive polypeptide depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Samuel B; Shamji, Mohammed F; Nettles, Dana L; Hwang, Priscilla; Setton, Lori A

    2009-07-01

    Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds are of interest for delivering antibiotics to local sites of infection in orthopaedic applications, such as bone and diarthrodial joints. The objective of this study was to develop a biodegradable scaffold with ease of drug loading in aqueous solution, while providing for drug depot delivery via syringe injection. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) were used for this application, biopolymers of repeating pentapeptide sequences that were thermally triggered to undergo in situ depot formation at body temperature. ELPs were modified to enable loading with the antibiotics, cefazolin, and vancomycin, followed by induction of the phase transition in vitro. Cefazolin and vancomycin concentrations were monitored, as well as bioactivity of the released antibiotics, to test an ability of the ELP depot to provide for prolonged release of bioactive drugs. Further tests of formulation viscosity were conducted to test suitability as an injectable drug carrier. Results demonstrate sustained release of therapeutic concentrations of bioactive antibiotics by the ELP, with first-order time constants for drug release of approximately 25 h for cefazolin and approximately 500 h for vancomycin. These findings illustrate that an injectable, in situ forming ELP depot can provide for sustained release of antibiotics with an effect that varies across antibiotic formulation. ELPs have important advantages for drug delivery, as they are known to be biocompatible, biodegradable, and elicit no known immune response. These benefits suggest distinct advantages over currently used carriers for antibiotic drug delivery in orthopedic applications. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The contribution of the in-vivo fate of an oil depot to drug absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalicharan, R. W.; Oussoren, C; Schot, Peter; Rijk, de, E.; Vromans, H.

    2017-01-01

    Sustained release of lipophilic compounds can be achieved with oil depots. These parenteral formulations are generally injected in the vastus lateralis and deltoid muscle. It is known that the absorption rate differs between these two muscles. The reason for this is not fully understood. The aim of

  19. Field Demonstration/Validation of Electrolytic Barriers for Energetic Compounds at Pueblo Chemical Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    measuring the intensity of fluorescence at 517 nm using an Ocean Optics USB-2000TM spectrometer and an Ocean OpticsTM custom six-around-one fiber ...Umatilla Army Depot, OR Demilitarization (washout) Basalt Deep (>50 feet) NRC (2005) Installation Action Plan for UAAP March 2001 Hawthorne

  20. Implementation of Geographical Information System for Bacteriological Contamination Analysis on Refill Drinking Water Depot (Study in Tembalang District)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmitha, Amelia; Utami, Endang Sri; Sitohang, Marya Yenita

    2018-02-01

    People used refilled-drinking-water for household and food stall because its efficient and low cost. Based on Indonesian Health Ministry regulation, it should not have any coliform bacteria. This study aimed to describe the bacteriological contamination of refilled drinking water using geographical information system (GIS). In this research, it was used an analytic observational method. The samples were from all available (37) depots in Tembalang district, one form each depot took used a sterile bottle. Contamination of bacteria was identified by Most Probable Number (MPN) method lactose broth media, Mac Conkey media, and IMVIC media. The depot samples were then plotted on (GIS). This study showed 95% samples were not feasible to consume since they contamined coliform. All sub-district had one that contaminated by coliform, 75% sub-districts had depots that contaminated Escherichia coli, while 55% sub-districts had depots that contaminated with other bacteria. The internal risk factors of the contamination were the absence of hygiene-sanitation worthy certificate (95%), depots location near to pollution sources (5%), and the misused of UV light. The external risk factor was lack of quality control that was not as the sterilization from office health Semarang city. Policy reinforcement should be done to all of the depots.

  1. Cost-Utility Analysis of Depot Atypical Antipsychotics for Chronic Schizophrenia in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukic, Vlado; Jakovljevic, Miro; Filipcic, Igor; Herceg, Miroslav; Silic, Ante; Tomljanovic, Tatjana; Zilbershtein, Roman; Jensen, Rasmus C D; Hemels, Michiel E H; Einarson, Thomas R

    As a nation with a developing economy, Croatia is faced with making choices between pharmaceutical products, including depot injectable antipsychotics. We conducted a pharmacoeconomic analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of atypical depots in Croatia. A 1-year decision-analytic framework modeled drug use. We determined the average direct cost to the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance of using depot formulations of paliperidone palmitate long-acting injectable (PP-LAI), risperidone LAI (RIS-LAI), or olanzapine LAI (OLZ-LAI). An expert panel plus literature-derived clinical rates populated the core model, along with costs adjusted to 2012 by using the Croatian consumer price index. Clinical outcomes included quality-adjusted life-years, hospitalization rates, emergency room treatment rates, and relapse days. Robustness of results was examined with one-way sensitivity analyses on important inputs; overall, all inputs were varied over 10,000 simulations in a Monte Carlo analysis. Costs (quality-adjusted life-years) per patient were €5061 (0.817) for PP-LAI, €5168 (0.807) for RIS-LAI, and €6410 (0.812) for OLZ-LAI. PP-LAI had the fewest relapse days, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Results were sensitive against RIS-LAI with respect to drug costs and adherence rates, but were generally robust overall, dominating OLZ-LAI in 77.3% and RIS-LAI in 56.8% of the simulations. PP-LAI dominated the other drugs because it had the lowest cost and best clinical outcomes. Compared with depots of olanzapine and risperidone and oral olanzapine, PP-LAI was the cost-effective atypical LAI for treating chronic schizophrenia in Croatia. Using depot paliperidone in place of either olanzapine or risperidone would reduce the overall costs of caring for these patients. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Hypoxia induced VEGF synthesis in visceral adipose depots of obese diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaru, Ana Marina; Pisoschi, Cătălina Gabriela; Bold, Adriana; Taisescu, C; Stănescu, R; Hîncu, Mihaela; Crăiţoiu, Stefania; Baniţă, Ileana Monica

    2012-01-01

    VEGF is one the pro-inflammatory adipokines synthesized by the "adipose secretoma" of obese subjects as a response to hypoxic conditions; but the main function of VEGF is angiogenesis, being recognized as the most important factor increasing blood capillaries in the adipose tissue by stimulating endothelial cell growth. In this paper, we propose a comparative study of the vascular response to VEGF synthesis in the subcutaneous and central-peritoneal adipose depots in lean, obese and obese diabetic patients. We used CD31 to label the endothelial cells in order to evaluate the response of the vascular network to VEGF synthesis. Our results showed an increase of VEGF protein synthesis in obese and obese-diabetic patients compared to lean subjects where the protein was absent. The positivity for VEGF in obese diabetic samples was observed in numerous structures from the adipose depots, both in the stromal vascular fraction--blood vessels and stromal cells--as well as in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Positivity in the vascular wall was observed more frequently in areas of perivascular and intralobular fibrosis. Obese and diabetic patients showed similar incidence of CD31 immunoreactivity with lean subjects in both subcutaneous and peritoneal depots. In conclusion, human adipose depots show a different incidence of VEGF positive cells in relation with their disposal and the metabolic status. VEGF synthesis in visceral adipose tissue is inefficient being not followed by angiogenesis to counterbalance tissue hypoxia. We suggest that may be a pathogenic link between the degrees of intralobular fibrosis in adipose depots and VEGF expression.

  3. RATIONAL RECOVERY MODEL OF DEPOT PROCESSING EQUIPMENT AT THE INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kapitsa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The problem of the maximum resources recovery of rolling stock repair depot of industrial enterprise with limited resources consumption, which are used in the system is today’s topical question.The main factors that affect the repair depot operation of industrial enterprise are reviewed. The most significant factors, affecting the quality of the repair depot, are emphasized for further study, specifically - the state of the major repair equipment of a sector. There is a need to minimize the impact of the unsatisfactory state of this factor. Methodology. The formed task of major equipment rational repairing in the mathematical sense is based on the solution of a vector optimization problem. In this case the target functions are the monetary funds spending and time expenditure for repairing. Findings. The mathematical model of optimal equipment maintainability of the repair department at the industrial enterprise was developed by the authors. On the example the choice model of optimal path for equipment repairing of enterprise repair department is described. Originality. As a result of the conducted research the repairing system of major equipment of industrial enterprise sectors was improved. As the mathematical model of rational system recovery of industrial enterprise repair depot we recommend apparatus of class problems of vector optimization. Practical value. Using the proposed model of major equipment repair system of the repair depot at the industrial enterprise will improve the quality of the department by increasing the efficiency of primary resources - time and monetary funds - which are spent by the sector in order to repair its techniques.

  4. Pengaruh Kepuasan Dan Kepercayaan Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Ulang Pada Depot Air Minum Tris Water Reverse Osmosis System (Ro)

    OpenAIRE

    Fitria, Ika

    2011-01-01

    Kind of this survey is asociative survey which watch influence of customer satisfaction and trust to re-purchase decision on Depot Air Minum Tris Water Reverse Osmosis System (RO) and test of hypothesis use Multiple Linear Regression Analysist on α=5%. This survey used SPSS 16.00 version for windows. Research population is consumers of Depot Air Minum Tris Water Reverse Osmosis System (RO). Sample was used in this survey from customers of Depot Air Minum Tris Water Reverse Osmosis System (RO)...

  5. Experiences gained in the conditioning of radioactive wastes from regional depots by example of Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, and recommendations for the establishment of regional depots in the new Federal States of unified Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, W.

    1992-01-01

    Details are given about radioactive waste management and radioactive waste management fundamentals as well as about the respective methods applied by the Baden-Wuerttemberg radioacive waste depot. The waste treatment, quality assurance and internal inspection methods applied by Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB), Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) are described, and recommendations are given for the establishment of regional depots in the new provinces of the Federal Republic of Germany. These recommendations which are based on Western German standards before unification suggest regional depots with combined administrative systems which watch over the depot use and charges, the foundation of a waste management association responsible for the disposal, transport, intermediate storage and conditioning of radioactive wastes in the new provinces, and the establishment of a facility to be run by the proposed waste management association for the intermediate storage of conditioned waste packages intended for final disposal. (orig.) [de

  6. Maternal obesity programs increased leptin gene expression in rat male offspring via epigenetic modifications in a depot-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lecoutre

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with the DOHaD hypothesis, persistent epigenetic remodeling occurs at regulatory regions especially within intergenic sequences, linked to higher leptin gene expression in adult HF offspring in a depot-specific manner.

  7. Financial Reporting Procedures for Defense Distribution Depots - Defense Logistics Agency Business Area of the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1994-01-01

    In our audit of the FY 1993 Financial Statements for the Distribution Depots--Defense Logistics Agency Business Mea of the Defense Business Operations Fund, we evaluated procedures and controls used...

  8. Examining a Paradigm Shift in Organic Depot-Level Software Maintenance for Army Communications and Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-30

    scalable application of cutting edge technologies. 20 4. Responding to changing resources—With likely significant resource reductions the depot...deal with underutilized organic capability while continuing to increase outsourcing of depot workload. In addition the study states that a...the unique organic skills that TYAD could 40 bring to the software sustainment mission could be valuable based on the specific type of software

  9. Depot-medication compliance for patients with psychotic disorders: the importance of illness insight and treatment motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordraven, Ernst L; Wierdsma, André I; Blanken, Peter; Bloemendaal, Anthony Ft; Mulder, Cornelis L

    2016-01-01

    Noncompliance is a major problem for patients with a psychotic disorder. Two important risk factors for noncompliance that have a severe negative impact on treatment outcomes are impaired illness insight and lack of motivation. Our cross-sectional study explored how they are related to each other and their compliance with depot medication. Interviews were conducted in 169 outpatients with a psychotic disorder taking depot medication. Four patient groups were defined based on low or high illness insight and on low or high motivation. The associations between depot-medication compliance, motivation, and insight were illustrated using generalized linear models. Generalized linear model showed a significant interaction effect between motivation and insight. Patients with poor insight and high motivation for treatment were more compliant (94%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.821, 3.489) with their depot medication than patients with poor insight and low motivation (61%) (95% CI: 0.288, 0.615). Patients with both insight and high motivation for treatment were less compliant (73%) (95% CI: 0.719, 1.315) than those with poor insight and high motivation. Motivation for treatment was more strongly associated with depot-medication compliance than with illness insight. Being motivated to take medication, whether to get better or for other reasons, may be a more important factor than having illness insight in terms of improving depot-medication compliance. Possible implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  10. Intrinsic differences in adipocyte precursor cells from different white fat depots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macotela, Yazmín; Emanuelli, Brice; Mori, Marcelo A

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and body fat distribution are important risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence has accumulated that this risk is related to intrinsic differences in behavior of adipocytes in different fat depots. In the current study, we demonstrate...... that adipocyte precursor cells (APCs) isolated from visceral and subcutaneous white adipose depots of mice have distinct patterns of gene expression, differentiation potential, and response to environmental and genetic influences. APCs derived from subcutaneous fat differentiate well in the presence of classical...... induction cocktail, whereas those from visceral fat differentiate poorly but can be induced to differentiate by addition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 or BMP-4. This difference correlates with major differences in gene expression signature between subcutaneous and visceral APCs. The number of APCs...

  11. Understanding of empty container movement: A study on a bottleneck at an off-dock depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Rosmaizura Mohd; Rahman, Mohd Nizam Ab; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Saibani, Nizaroyani

    2014-09-01

    Port not only function as connections between marine and land transportation but also as core business areas. In a port terminal, available space is limited, but the influx of container is growing. The off-dock depot is one of the key supply chain players that hold empty containers in the inventory. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the main factors of bottlenecks or congestion that hinder the rapid movement of empty containers from the off-dock depot to the customers. Thirty interviews were conducted with individuals who are key players in the container supply chain. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software and the analytic hierarchy process to rank the priority factors of bottlenecks. Findings show that several pertinent factors act as barriers to the key players in the container movement in the day-to-day operations. In future studies, strategies to overcome fragmentation in the container supply chain and logistics must be determined.

  12. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality.

  13. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junchen

    2016-01-01

    The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED) is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality. PMID:27436998

  14. On the multiple depots vehicle routing problem with heterogeneous fleet capacity and velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanum, F.; Hartono, A. P.; Bakhtiar, T.

    2018-03-01

    This current manuscript concerns with the optimization problem arising in a route determination of products distribution. The problem is formulated in the form of multiple depots and time windowed vehicle routing problem with heterogeneous capacity and velocity of fleet. Model includes a number of constraints such as route continuity, multiple depots availability and serving time in addition to generic constraints. In dealing with the unique feature of heterogeneous velocity, we generate a number of velocity profiles along the road segments, which then converted into traveling-time tables. An illustrative example of rice distribution among villages by bureau of logistics is provided. Exact approach is utilized to determine the optimal solution in term of vehicle routes and starting time of service.

  15. Formative Evaluation of a Sociotechnical System Intervention at an Army Maintenance Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    periodically reassess itself to determine if the balance between the technical and social systems remains adaptive and responsive to the requirements...developed a comprehensive set of recommendations for improving the balance between the social and technical systems of the depot. During 1983, most of...ity and quality of worklife . However, the nature and extent of the impact is highly elusive and resistant to quantification. 1-4 FORMATIVE

  16. DoD Depot-Level Reparable Supply Chain Management: Process Effectiveness and Opportunities for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Parts MIS Materiel Information Systems MRP material requirement planning NAVAIR Naval Air Systems Command viii DoD Depot-Level Reparable Supply...planning ( MRP ), which is run on the 15th of the month. The output of MRP is a time-phased buy and repair induction plan based on pro- jected demands...nine months in advance of the FY, planners begin work on the command schedule for the following year. From March through August, the monthly MRP

  17. DEPOT system for the creation of a translator from the COC language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehnig, Kh.; Lehttsch, Yu.; Nefed'eva, L.S.; Shtiller, G.

    1976-01-01

    Approaches to the creation of specialized languages and their translators are given. The DENOT system for developing translators from various specialized languages is described. Use of the system was made to translate the STS (spectra treatment system) language into the FORTRAN language.The language of STS was realized with help of DEPOT on the BESM-6 computer. The DEROT system installed at various computer provides for simple and rapid transition from one computer to the other

  18. Tooele Army Depot Revised Final Site-Wide Ecological Risk Assessment. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    which is immediately east of the depot. Properties to the north of TEAD are used primarily for pasture and cultivation , and to the west and south, for...for the TEAD facility, the types of contaminants present, and the ecotoxicological effects that could be expected due to contaminant exposure. This...questions: • Were the analytical detection limits low enough to be ecotoxicologically relevant (i.e., to be protective of ecological receptors with

  19. Obesity associated disease risk: the role of inherent differences and location of adipose depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jessica H; Solt, Claudia; Foster, Michelle T

    2018-03-16

    Obesity and associated metabolic co-morbidities are a worldwide public health problem. Negative health outcomes associated with obesity, however, do not arise from excessive adiposity alone. Rather, deleterious outcomes of adipose tissue accumulation are a result of how adipocytes are distributed to individual regions in the body. Due to our increased understanding of the dynamic relationship that exists between specific adipose depots and disease risk, an accurate characterization of total body adiposity as well as location is required to properly evaluate a population's disease risk. Specifically, distinctive tissue depots within the body include the lower body, upper body and abdominal (deep and superficial) subcutaneous regions, as well as visceral (mesenteric and omental) regions. Upper body and visceral adipose tissues are highly associated with metabolic dysfunction and chronic disease development, whereas lower body gluteofemoral subcutaneous adipose tissue imparts protection against diet-induced metabolic derangement. Each adipose depot functions distinctly as an endocrine organ hence it has a different level of impact on health outcomes. Effluent from adipose tissue can modulate the functions of other tissues, whilst receiving differential communication from the rest of the body via central nervous system innervation, metabolites and other signaling molecules. More so, adipose depots contain a diverse reservoir of tissue-resident immune cells that play an integral part in both maintaining tissue homeostasis, as well as propagating metabolically-induced inflammation. Overall, the conceptualization of obesity and associated risks needs updating to reflect the complexities of obesity. We review adipose tissue characteristics that are linked to deleterious or beneficial adipose tissue distributions.

  20. Implementation of Improved Management Control of Aviation Depot Level Repairable Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    for comparing and testing. Pf ter Drucker states that ". . . control is an ambiguous word. It means the abiliti to direct oneself and one’s work. It...Frequency 50 LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Drucker , Peter F., The Practice of Management , Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1954. 2. Terry, George R., Principles of...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOLMonterey, California 0- 6~~VI E1B9 87THESIS I IMPLEMENTATION OF IMPROVED MANAGEMENT CONTROL OF AVIATION DEPOT LEVEL

  1. Sustained Release of Antibiotics from Injectable and Thermally Responsive Polypeptide Depots

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Samuel B.; Shamji, Mohammed F.; Nettles, Dana L.; Hwang, Priscilla; Setton, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds are of interest for delivering antibiotics to local sites of infection in orthopaedic applications, such as bone and diarthrodial joints. The objective of this study was to develop a biodegradable scaffold with ease of drug loading in aqueous solution, while providing for drug depot delivery via syringe injection. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) were used for this application, biopolymers of repeating pentapeptide sequences that were thermally triggered to u...

  2. Control of Adipocyte Differentiation in Different Fat Depots; Implications for Pathophysiology or Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuquan eMa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipocyte differentiation and its impact on restriction or expansion of particular adipose tissue depots has physiological and pathophysiological significance in view of the different functions of these depots. Brown or beige fat [BAT] expansion can enhance thermogenesis, lipid oxidation, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance; conversely expanded visceral fat [VAT] is associated with insulin resistance, low grade inflammation, dyslipidaemia and cardiometabolic risk. The largest depot, subcutaneous white fat [WAT], has important beneficial characteristics including storage of lipid out of harms way and secretion of adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, with positive metabolic effects including lipid oxidation, energy utilisation, enhanced insulin action and an anti-inflammatory role. The absence of these functions in lipodystrophies leads to major metabolic disturbances. An ability to expand WAT adipocyte differentiation would seem an important defence mechanism against the detrimental effects of energy excess and limit harmful accumulation of lipid in ectopic sites, such as liver and muscle.Adipocyte differentiation involves a transcriptional cascade with PPARg being most important in WAT but less so in VAT, with increased angiogenesis also critical. The transcription factor, Islet1, is fairly specific to VAT and in vitro inhibits adipocyte differentiation. The physiological importance of Islet1 requires further study. Basic control of differentiation is similar in BAT but important differences include the effect of PGC-1a on mitochondrial biosynthesis and upregulation of UCP1; also PRDM16 plays a pivotal role in expression of the BAT phenotype.Modulation of the capacity or function of these different adipose tissue depots, by altering adipocyte differentiation or other means, holds promise for interventions that can be helpful in human disease, particularly cardiometabolic disorders associated with the world wide explosion of

  3. Evidence for Environmental Contamination in Residential Neighborhoods Surrounding the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Warrick

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary environmental assessment team from the Howard University Environmental Justice Partnership (HUEJP conducted a site visit and assessment of the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee in February of 2000. This depot was built in the late 1940’s for storage of numerous chemicals and munitions. As the years progressed, many Memphis citizens have grown to believe that the activities and chemical stockpile located at this site have negatively affected the health environment of their residents. There is anecdotal evidence and documentation of numerous cancers and other illnesses in those local territories, and specifically, at the Memphis Depot site. Currently, this depot is closed and in remediation by the local government. Particularly, citizens of the Rozelle community have started a campaign to investigate any signs of exposure pathways to noted health risks. The HUEJP was contacted and asked to investigate the community concerns. Obliging to the request, we aimed to sample at three drainage sites and a residential site, talk to local citizens, and gain any additional information that would be helpful in relieving anxiety in the Rozelle community. Soil, sediment, and water samples were collected and analyzed for total organic carbon, inorganic anions, and heavy metals. These data show that for the four sites sampled, the highest concentrations of organic compounds and heavy metals were located either within a residential area or in an area with a direct transport pathway to the community. Atomic absorption analysis revealed detectable amounts of cadmium, lead and chromium metals at all sites with direct transport pathways into the residential community, with chromium concentrations being far in excess of the EPA standard limits.

  4. Employing organizational modeling and simulation of the KC-135 depot's flight controls repair cell

    OpenAIRE

    Paskin, Matthew A.; Trevino, Alice W.; Ferrer, Geraldo; Dillard, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Today’s environment of increased operations tempo is stressing the KC- 135 Stratotanker fleet. With an 80-year life span expectancy, effectively maintaining these aircraft is challenging. This research modeled the KC- 135 programmed depot maintenance (PDM) flight controls repair cell to identify improvement opportunities within the repair process. Computational organizational modeling (COM) incorporates the human element along with organizational design theory. By employing ...

  5. HALF-DOSE DEPOT TRIPTORELIN COMPARABLE TO REDUCED DAILY BUSERELIN: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Safdarian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary suppression by depot GnRH agonist may be excessive for ovarian stimulation. This study compares the efficacy of a single half-dose depot triptorelin and reduced-dose daily buserelin in a long protocol ICSI/ET. METHODS: A total of 182 patients were randomized into two groups using sealed envelopes. Pituitary desensitization was obtained in group 1 (91 patients with half-dose (1.87 mg depot triptorelin in the mid-luteal phase of their menstrual cycle, and in group 2 (91 patients with standard daily dose (0.5 mg buserelin, which was then reduced to 0.25 mg at the start of human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG stimulation. RESULTS: No significant differences were found among those who received HCG in terms of clinical pregnancy rate (34.4% in both groups, implantation rate (14.8% in group 1 versus 11.1% in group 2, fertilization rate (93.3 versus 95.6%, poor response rate (11.1 versus 6.7%, and miscarriage rate (11.1 versus 7.8%. No significant differences were seen in number of HMG ampoules used, follicles at HCG administration, and oocytes retrieved. The number of days of stimulation was significantly reduced in group 2 (11.2 +/- 1.8 in group 1 versus 10.6 +/- 1.9, p = 0.030. CONCLUSION: A half-dose of depot triptorelin can be successfully used in ovarian stimulation instead of reduced-dose daily buserelin, with more patient comfort and reduced stress and cost of injections.

  6. The relationship between fat depot-specific preadipocyte differentiation and metabolic syndrome in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Mazurina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статьи The relationship between fat depot-specific preadipocyte differentiation and metabolic syndrome in obese women. Park HТ, Lee ES, Cheon EP, Lee DR, Yang K-S, Kim YT, Hur JY, Kim SH, Lee KW, Kim T. Clinical Endocrinology 2012; 76, 59-66.

  7. AUTOMATED DETECTION OF OIL DEPOTS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGES: A NEW PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original approach to identify oil depots from single high resolution aerial/satellite images in an automated manner. The new approach considers the symmetric nature of circular oil depots, and it computes the radial symmetry in a unique way. An automated thresholding method to focus on circular regions and a new measure to verify circles are proposed. Experiments are performed on six GeoEye-1 test images. Besides, we perform tests on 16 Google Earth images of an industrial test site acquired in a time series manner (between the years 1995 and 2012. The results reveal that our approach is capable of detecting circle objects in very different/difficult images. We computed an overall performance of 95.8% for the GeoEye-1 dataset. The time series investigation reveals that our approach is robust enough to locate oil depots in industrial environments under varying illumination and environmental conditions. The overall performance is computed as 89.4% for the Google Earth dataset, and this result secures the success of our approach compared to a state-of-the-art approach.

  8. Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to depot naltrexone in unemployed opioid-dependent adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, Jeffrey J; DeFulio, Anthony; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Donlin, Wendy D; Aklin, Will M; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-07-01

    Naltrexone can be used to treat opioid dependence, but patients refuse to take it. Extended-release depot formulations may improve adherence, but long-term adherence rates to depot naltrexone are not known. This study determined long-term rates of adherence to depot naltrexone and whether employment-based reinforcement can improve adherence. Participants who were inducted onto oral naltrexone were assigned randomly to contingency (n = 18) or prescription (n = 17) groups. Participants were offered six depot naltrexone injections and invited to work at the therapeutic workplace on week days for 26 weeks, where they earned stipends for participating in job skills training. Contingency participants were required to accept naltrexone injections to maintain workplace access and to maintain maximum pay. Prescription participants could work independently of whether they accepted injections. The therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based intervention for drug addiction and unemployment. Opioid-dependent unemployed adults. Depot naltrexone injections accepted and opiate-negative urine samples. Contingency participants accepted significantly more naltrexone injections than prescription participants (81% versus 42%), and were more likely to accept all injections (66% versus 35%). At monthly assessments (with missing urine samples imputed as positive), the groups provided similar percentages of samples negative for opiates (74% versus 62%) and for cocaine (56% versus 54%). Opiate-positive samples were more likely when samples were also positive for cocaine. Employment-based reinforcement can maintain adherence to depot naltrexone. Future research should determine whether persistent cocaine use compromises naltrexone's effect on opiate use. Workplaces may be useful for promoting sustained adherence to depot naltrexone. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Randomized comparison of renal denervation versus intensified pharmacotherapy including spironolactone in true-resistant hypertension: six-month results from the Prague-15 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ján; Widimský, Petr; Toušek, Petr; Petrák, Ondřej; Čurila, Karol; Waldauf, Petr; Bednář, František; Zelinka, Tomáš; Holaj, Robert; Štrauch, Branislav; Šomlóová, Zuzana; Táborský, Miloš; Václavík, Jan; Kociánová, Eva; Branny, Marian; Nykl, Igor; Jiravský, Otakar; Widimský, Jiří

    2015-02-01

    This prospective, randomized, open-label multicenter trial evaluated the efficacy of catheter-based renal denervation (Symplicity, Medtronic) versus intensified pharmacological treatment including spironolactone (if tolerated) in patients with true-resistant hypertension. This was confirmed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring after excluding secondary hypertension and confirmation of adherence to therapy by measurement of plasma antihypertensive drug levels before enrollment. One-hundred six patients were randomized to renal denervation (n=52), or intensified pharmacological treatment (n=54) with baseline systolic blood pressure of 159±17 and 155±17 mm Hg and average number of drugs 5.1 and 5.4, respectively. A significant reduction in 24-hour average systolic blood pressure after 6 months (-8.6 [95% cofidence interval: -11.8, -5.3] mm Hg; Pblood pressure (-12.4 [95% cofidence interval: -17.0, -7.8] mm Hg; Pblood pressure comparable with intensified pharmacotherapy. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Resolution of foveal detachment in dome-shaped macula after treatment by spironolactone: report of two cases and mini-review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirani A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ali Dirani,1 Alexandre Matet,1 Talal Beydoun,2 Irmela Mantel,1 Francine Behar-Cohen1–3 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Lausanne, Jules Gonin Eye Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hôtel-Dieu de Paris Hospital, Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France; 3Inserm UMRS872, Physiopathology of Ocular Diseases: Therapeutic Innovations, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France Abstract: Dome-shaped macula (DSM was recently described in myopic patients as a convex protrusion of the macula within a posterior pole staphyloma. The pathogenesis of DSM and the development of associated serous foveal detachment (SFD remain unclear. The obstruction of choroidal outflow and compressive changes of choroidal capillaries have been proposed as causative factors. In this paper, we report two cases of patients with chronic SFD associated with DSM treated with oral spironolactone. After treatment, there was a complete resolution of SFD in both patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of SFD in DSM by a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Keywords: serous foveal detachment, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, dome-shaped macula, treatment

  11. Six-month gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH agonist depots provide efficacy, safety, convenience, and comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips JM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available E David Crawford, Jason M PhillipsUniversity of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Two different 6-month GnRH agonist depot formulations approved for palliative treatment of advanced and metastatic prostate cancer in the United States – leuprolide acetate 45 mg and triptorelinpalmoate 22.5 mg – provide patients with efficacy and safety comparable to those of existing 1-, 3-, and 4-month GnRH agonist depots. However, the 6-month formulations can increase patient convenience, comfort, and compliance by reducing the number of physician visits and injections required. At the conclusion of their pivotal trials, the 6-month formulations demonstrated efficacy rates in achieving chemical castration (serum testosterone #50 ng/dL that ranged between 93% and 99%. As with existing GnRH agonist depot formulations, hot flashes represented the most common adverse event reported in trials of 6-month leuprolide acetate or triptorelin. As such, these products may prove useful not only for their labeled indication, but also as adjuncts to other treatments such as radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. We recommend further research, including head-to-head trials between the 6-month GnRH depots, to refine our understanding of these products.Keywords: prostate cancer, leuprorelin, leuprolide, triptorelin, 6-month depot, testosterone

  12. Eradicating hepatitis C virus ameliorates insulin resistance without change in adipose depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, K-L; Jenkins, A B; Trenell, M; Tid-Ang, J; Samocha-Bonet, D; Weltman, M; Xu, A; George, J; Chisholm, D J

    2014-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is associated with lipid-related changes and insulin resistance; the latter predicts response to antiviral therapy, liver disease progression and the risk of diabetes. We sought to determine whether insulin sensitivity improves following CHC viral eradication after antiviral therapy and whether this is accompanied by changes in fat depots or adipokine levels. We compared 8 normoglycaemic men with CHC (genotype 1 or 3) before and at least 6 months post viral eradication and 15 hepatitis C antibody negative controls using an intravenous glucose tolerance test and two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp with [6,6-(2) H2 ] glucose to assess peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy quantified abdominal fat compartments, liver and intramyocellular lipid. Peripheral insulin sensitivity improved (glucose infusion rate during high-dose insulin increased from 10.1 ± 1.6 to 12 ± 2.1 mg/kg/min/, P = 0.025), with no change in hepatic insulin response following successful viral eradication, without any accompanying change in muscle, liver or abdominal fat depots. There was corresponding improvement in incremental glycaemic response to intravenous glucose (pretreatment: 62.1 ± 8.3 vs post-treatment: 56.1 ± 8.5 mm, P = 0.008). Insulin sensitivity after viral clearance was comparable to matched controls without CHC. Post therapy, liver enzyme levels decreased but, interestingly, levels of glucagon, fatty acid-binding protein and lipocalin-2 remained elevated. Eradication of the hepatitis C virus improves insulin sensitivity without alteration in fat depots, adipokine or glucagon levels, consistent with a direct link of the virus with insulin resistance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The nuclear retinoid-related orphan receptor RORα controls circadian thermogenic programming in white fat depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Chloé; Auclair, Martine; Le Cam, Gala; Garcia, Marie-Pauline; Antoine, Bénédicte

    2018-04-01

    The RORα-deficient staggerer (sg/sg) mouse is lean and resistant to diet-induced obesity. Its thermogenic activity was shown to be increased not only in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but also in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) where UCP1 content was enhanced, however, without Prdm16 coexpression. Our observation of partial multilocular lipid morphology of WAT in sg/sg mice both in the inguinal and perigonadal sites led us to focus on the phenotype of both fat depots. Because RORα is a nuclear factor acting in the clock machinery, we looked at the circadian expression profile of genes involved in thermogenesis and browning in WAT and BAT depots of sg/sg and WT mice, through real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting. This 24-h period approach revealed both a rhythmic expression of thermogenic genes in WAT and an increased browning of all the WAT depots tested in sg/sg mice that indeed involved the canonical browning process (through induction of Pgc-1α and Prdm16). This was associated with an enhanced isoproterenol-induced oxygen consumption rate of WAT explants from sg/sg mice, which was reproducible in WT explants by treatment with a RORα inverse agonist SR 3335, that induced a parallel increase in the UCP1 protein. Inhibitors of browning differentiation, such as TLE3 and RIP140, could be new targets of RORα that would be rather implicated in the whitening of adipocytes. Our study showed the pivotal role of RORα as an inhibitor of the thermogenic program in WAT, the role that could be counteracted in vivo with the RORα antagonists currently in development. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  14. Abdominal fat sub-depots and energy expenditure: Magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty, Dana; Rein, Michal; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Bril, Nitzan; Cohen, Noa; Shemesh, Elad; Sarusi, Benjamin; Kovsan, Julia; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Golan, Rachel; Witkow, Shula; Henkin, Yaakov; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess the association between the distinct abdominal sub-depots and resting energy expenditure (REE). We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify abdominal visceral-adipose-tissue (VAT), deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (deep-SAT), and superficial-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (superficial-SAT). We measured REE by indirect-calorimetry. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) [1-3 metabolic equivalents (METs)] and exercise thermogenesis (activities of 4+MET S ) were estimated based on 6-days of accelerometry to assess total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). We studied 282 participants: 249 men [mean age = 47.4 years, body-mass-index (BMI) = 31 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 34.5%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 24.3%] and 33 women (mean age = 51.2 years, BMI = 30.1 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 22.8%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 37.8%). As expected, women had lower REE [by 32.4% (1488 ± 234 kcal/day vs. 1971 ± 257 kcal/day; p abdominal VAT was the dominant proportional depot, had higher REE (1964 ± 297 kcal/day vs. 1654 ± 352 kcal/day; p Abdominal fat distribution patterns are associated with varying levels of resting energy expenditure, potentially reflecting different metabolic rates of adipose sub-depots and providing an anatomic/anthropometric link to physiological obese sub-phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Direct Evidence of Brown Adipocytes in Different Fat Depots in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstroh, Denise; Landgraf, Kathrin; Wagner, Isabel Viola; Gesing, Julia; Tauscher, Roy; Lakowa, Nicole; Kiess, Wieland; Bühligen, Ulf; Wojan, Magdalena; Till, Holger; Blüher, Matthias; Körner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested the persistence of brown adipocytes in adult humans, as opposed to being exclusively present in infancy. In this study, we investigated the presence of brown-like adipocytes in adipose tissue (AT) samples of children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years and evaluated the association with age, location, and obesity. For this, we analysed AT samples from 131 children and 23 adults by histological, immunohistochemical and expression analyses. We detected brown-like and UCP1 positive adipocytes in 10.3% of 87 lean children (aged 0.3 to 10.7 years) and in one overweight infant, whereas we did not find brown adipocytes in obese children or adults. In our samples, the brown-like adipocytes were interspersed within white AT of perirenal, visceral and also subcutaneous depots. Samples with brown-like adipocytes showed an increased expression of UCP1 (>200fold), PRDM16 (2.8fold), PGC1α and CIDEA while other brown/beige selective markers, such as PAT2, P2RX5, ZIC1, LHX8, TMEM26, HOXC9 and TBX1 were not significantly different between UCP1 positive and negative samples. We identified a positive correlation between UCP1 and PRDM16 within UCP1 positive samples, but not with any other brown/beige marker. In addition, we observed significantly increased PRDM16 and PAT2 expression in subcutaneous and visceral AT samples with high UCP1 expression in adults. Our data indicate that brown-like adipocytes are present well beyond infancy in subcutaneous depots of non-obese children. The presence was not restricted to typical perirenal locations, but they were also interspersed within WAT of visceral and subcutaneous depots. PMID:25706927

  16. Army Depot Maintenance: More Effective Use of Organic and Contractor Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-04

    terkerrny (PA) RRAD Red River (TX) IBAD Lexingtor).Bluegrass (KY) 3MPUAD Pueblo (CO) 2000 ANAD CCAD TEAD TOAD SAAO LEAD FMD LBAD PUAfl j] Aut)’onzed Onboard...until it is received by the contractor. That problem could be eliminated by redesigning the process. Specifically, the FTA document that notifies the...should revise CCSS to allow the FTM document to generate an image to LCA, the FTA to create a due-in to the contractor, and CCSS to determine the depot

  17. Combined use of Dexa-Scheroson and Primobolan-Depot in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, J [Shizuoka Rosai Hospital (Japan)

    1976-05-01

    Dexa-Scheroson and Primobolan-Depot were used together with radiation therapy (Linac therapy) required in 13 cases. The following results were obtained. The decrease in white cell counts, which often occurs in radiation therapy, was inhibited by the drugs. There was no case in which radiation therapy should necessarily withdraw because the number of leuckocytes was decreased to less than 3,000. The patients whose liver function was poor should be treated with both drugs at the beginning of radiation therapy. It was found that the combined use of the drugs is effective in the prevention and the treatment of cerebral edema in radiation therapy of intracranial lesion.

  18. KANDUNGAN Pb, Cd, Hg DALAM AIR MINUM DARI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG DI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, DAN BEKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Athena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study on chemical quality of drinking water from reffil depots was done in Jakarta, Tangerang, and Bekasi in 2003 to determine the contents of heavy metals such as lead (Pb, cadmium, (Cd, and Mercury (Hg. A total of 38 refill depots was selected as samples. Data were collected by water sampling collection and water analysis, and interview with operators and association personal using questionairs. Water samples were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS to examine the contents of their heavy metals based on raw water and drinking water standards. The results showed that the treatment processed were filtration and disinfection. However, the contents of heavy metals in the two types of water samples still complied with the standards stated in Health Ministerial Decree no 906 in the year 2002.   Keywords: heavy metals, drinking water, drinking water refill depots

  19. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of physiological variations between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots under different nutritional regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Moura Romao

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8 or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8. Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245 was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics

  20. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of physiological variations between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots under different nutritional regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romao, Josue Moura; Jin, Weiwu; He, Maolong; McAllister, Tim; Guan, Le Luo

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old) fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8) or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8). Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245) was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics observed between

  1. A constructive heuristic for time-dependent multi-depot vehicle routing problem with time-windows and heterogeneous fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the time-dependent multi-depot vehicle routing problem. The objective is to minimize the total heterogeneous fleet cost assuming that the travel time between locations depends on the departure time. Also, hard time window constraints for the customers and limitation on maximum number of the vehicles in depots must be satisfied. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming model. A constructive heuristic procedure is proposed for the problem. Also, the efficiency of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on 180 test problems. The obtained computational results indicate that the procedure is capable to obtain a satisfying solution.

  2. Design of Hybrid Gels Based on Gellan-Cholesterol Derivative and P90G Liposomes for Drug Depot Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Zoratto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gels are extensively studied in the drug delivery field because of their potential benefits in therapeutics. Depot gel systems fall in this area, and the interest in their development has been focused on long-lasting, biocompatible, and resorbable delivery devices. The present work describes a new class of hybrid gels that stem from the interaction between liposomes based on P90G phospholipid and the cholesterol derivative of the polysaccharide gellan. The mechanical properties of these gels and the delivery profiles of the anti-inflammatory model drug diclofenac embedded in such systems confirmed the suitability of these hybrid gels as a good candidate for drug depot applications.

  3. Insulin, IGF-1, and GH Receptors Are Altered in an Adipose Tissue Depot-Specific Manner in Male Mice With Modified GH Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Berryman, Darlene E; Comisford, Ross; Frank, Stuart J; List, Edward O; Bjerre, Mette; Frystyk, Jan; Kopchick, John J

    2017-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a determinant of glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue (AT) function. Using 7-month-old transgenic mice expressing the bovine growth hormone (bGH) gene and growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-/-) mice, we examined whether changes in GH action affect glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance and AT expression of proteins involved in the interrelated signaling pathways of GH, insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin. Furthermore, we searched for AT depot-specific differences in control mice. Glycated hemoglobin levels were reduced in bGH and GHR-/- mice, and bGH mice displayed impaired gluconeogenesis as judged by pyruvate tolerance testing. Serum IGF-1 was elevated by 90% in bGH mice, whereas IGF-1 and insulin were reduced by 97% and 61% in GHR-/- mice, respectively. Igf1 RNA was increased in subcutaneous, epididymal, retroperitoneal, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots in bGH mice (mean increase ± standard error of the mean in all five depots, 153% ± 27%) and decreased in all depots in GHR-/- mice (mean decrease, 62% ± 4%). IGF-1 receptor expression was decreased in all AT depots of bGH mice (mean decrease, 49% ± 6%) and increased in all AT depots of GHR-/- mice (mean increase, 94% ± 8%). Insulin receptor expression was reduced in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and BAT depots in bGH mice (mean decrease in all depots, 56% ± 4%) and augmented in subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and BAT depots in GHR-/- mice (mean increase: 51% ± 1%). Collectively, our findings indicate a role for GH in influencing hormone signaling in AT in a depot-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  4. A tabu-search heuristic for solving the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar D'Agostini Oliveira Casalinho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently the logistical problems are relying quite significantly on Operational Research in order to achieve greater efficiency in their operations. Among the problems related to the vehicles scheduling in a logistics system, the Multiple Depot Vehicle Scheduling Problem (MDVSP has been addressed in several studies. The MDVSP presupposes the existence of depots that affect the planning of sequences to which travel must be performed. Often, exact methods cannot solve large instances encountered in practice and in order to take them into account, several heuristic approaches are being developed. The aim of this study was thus to solve the MDVSP using a meta-heuristic based on tabu-search method. The main motivation for this work came from the indication that only recently the use of meta-heuristics is being applied to MDVSP context (Pepin et al. 2008 and, also, the limitations listed by Rohde (2008 in his study, which used the branch-and-bound in one of the steps of the heuristic presented to solve the problem, which has increased the time resolution. The research method for solving this problem was based on adaptations of traditional techniques of Operational Research, and provided resolutions presenting very competitive results for the MDVSP such as the cost of the objective function, number of vehicles used and computational time.

  5. Performance of clustering techniques for solving multi depot vehicle routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M. Toro-Ocampo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem considering multiple depots is classified as NP-hard. MDVRP determines simultaneously the routes of a set of vehicles and aims to meet a set of clients with a known demand. The objective function of the problem is to minimize the total distance traveled by the routes given that all customers must be served considering capacity constraints in depots and vehicles. This paper presents a hybrid methodology that combines agglomerative clustering techniques to generate initial solutions with an iterated local search algorithm (ILS to solve the problem. Although previous studies clustering methods have been proposed like strategies to generate initial solutions, in this work the search is intensified on the information generated after applying the clustering technique. Besides an extensive analysis on the performance of techniques, and their effect in the final solution is performed. The operation of the proposed methodology is feasible and effective to solve the problem regarding the quality of the answers and computational times obtained on request evaluated literature

  6. Relationships between rodent white adipose fat pads and human white adipose fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella E. Chusyd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.

  7. Feasibility study on reduction of gasoline emissions from oil depots and gasoline stations in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A field survey was conducted of oil shipment depots in Java and Bali islands owned by Indonesia's state-run oil company to study measures for reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Studies were made on the grasp of the amount of the hydrocarbon vapor emitted into the air, the amount of the gasoline recovered in case of adopting the vapor emission preventive technology, equipment cost/operational cost, etc. Concretely, the following three were studied: change of the gasoline storage tank to the inner floating roof type, and prevention of evaporation loss at the time of receiving and breathing loss caused by temperature changes; replacement with the vapor recovery type loading arm to recover gasoline vapor generated at the time of shipment/filling, and installation of the vapor recovery unit to recover vapor as gasoline; vapor balance system to recover in underground tank the gasoline vapor generated at the time of filling gasoline at gas station. As a result of the study, the recovered gasoline amount was 66,393 Kl/y and the CO2 reduction amount was 14,474 t/y at oil shipment depots and approximately 650 gasoline stations in Jakarta and Surabaya. (NEDO)

  8. [A preliminary study of low dosage zuclopenthixol depot in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, A; Rodríguez Navarrete, F J; Taboada, O; Docasar, L; Páramo, M; Noya, M

    1996-03-01

    Persistent psychomotor agitation and psychotic ideation in patients with Alzheimer's disease are normally treated orally with antipsychotic drugs and are occasionally treated with other drugs. Neuroleptics administered intramuscularly at very low doses are an alternative, especially when the patient rejects medicine as a results of his or her anosognosia or of paranoid manifestations. We present the results we obtained after observing the effects of depot zuclopenthixol in six patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (based upon NINCDS-ADRDA criteria). Psychic abnormalities were assessed as per the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Possible extrapyramidal side effects were evaluated by means of the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). Initially 60 mg (0.3 ml) were administered intramuscularly and successive doses could be modified by +/-20 mg (0.1 ml) according to results seen on the various scales. During the first six weeks of treatment progressive improvement was noted on all three psychic functions scales in all patients. Between the sixth and twelfth weeks improvement continued although without significant change. The AIMS did not show significant changes in the twelve weeks of follow-up. We consider depot zuclopenthixol at low doses as efficacious in treating persistent psychomotor agitation and/or psychotic manifestations of Alzheimer's disease. No undesired side effects were observed in our group after a twelve week follow-up.

  9. A two-stage approach to the depot shunting driver assignment problem with workload balance considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxi; Gronalt, Manfred; Sun, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Due to its environmentally sustainable and energy-saving characteristics, railway transportation nowadays plays a fundamental role in delivering passengers and goods. Emerged in the area of transportation planning, the crew (workforce) sizing problem and the crew scheduling problem have been attached great importance by the railway industry and the scientific community. In this paper, we aim to solve the two problems by proposing a novel two-stage optimization approach in the context of the electric multiple units (EMU) depot shunting driver assignment problem. Given a predefined depot shunting schedule, the first stage of the approach focuses on determining an optimal size of shunting drivers. While the second stage is formulated as a bi-objective optimization model, in which we comprehensively consider the objectives of minimizing the total walking distance and maximizing the workload balance. Then we combine the normalized normal constraint method with a modified Pareto filter algorithm to obtain Pareto solutions for the bi-objective optimization problem. Furthermore, we conduct a series of numerical experiments to demonstrate the proposed approach. Based on the computational results, the regression analysis yield a driver size predictor and the sensitivity analysis give some interesting insights that are useful for decision makers.

  10. A two-stage approach to the depot shunting driver assignment problem with workload balance considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxi Wang

    Full Text Available Due to its environmentally sustainable and energy-saving characteristics, railway transportation nowadays plays a fundamental role in delivering passengers and goods. Emerged in the area of transportation planning, the crew (workforce sizing problem and the crew scheduling problem have been attached great importance by the railway industry and the scientific community. In this paper, we aim to solve the two problems by proposing a novel two-stage optimization approach in the context of the electric multiple units (EMU depot shunting driver assignment problem. Given a predefined depot shunting schedule, the first stage of the approach focuses on determining an optimal size of shunting drivers. While the second stage is formulated as a bi-objective optimization model, in which we comprehensively consider the objectives of minimizing the total walking distance and maximizing the workload balance. Then we combine the normalized normal constraint method with a modified Pareto filter algorithm to obtain Pareto solutions for the bi-objective optimization problem. Furthermore, we conduct a series of numerical experiments to demonstrate the proposed approach. Based on the computational results, the regression analysis yield a driver size predictor and the sensitivity analysis give some interesting insights that are useful for decision makers.

  11. The disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: the Elstow Storage Depot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This document explains the role of NIREX (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) in planning for the safe disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes and outlines the plans for the investigation and possible development of a new shallow repository at the CEGB's Elstow Storage Depot, Bedfordshire. The site is conveniently located and is situated on a suitable geologic formation, the Oxford Clay. The next step is for NIREX to undertake site investigations and assess in detail the site's suitability. On the basis of this assessment NIREX will either confirm its interest in the site or reject it as unsuitable. If the site proves to be adequate for the development of a shallow repository then NIREX will seek the necessary planning approvals and authorisations for such a development. The development would involve the construction of new buildings and a programme of trench excavation, waste positioning and trench closure. Existing tenants at the Depot will be accommodated as far as possible. The existing road and rail networks would be used for delivering the packaged wastes. In designing and operating any repository the safety of the public and workforce, both now and in the future, will be of paramount importance. (author)

  12. The multi-depot electric vehicle location routing problem with time windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Paz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Multi-Depot Electric Vehicle Location Routing Problem with Time Windows (MDVLRP is addressed. This problem is an extension of the MDVLRP, where electric vehicles are used instead of internal combustion engine vehicles. The recent development of this model is explained by the advantages of this technology, such as the diminution of carbon dioxide emissions, and the support that they can provide to the design of the logistic and energy-support structure of electric vehicle fleets. There are many models that extend the classical VRP model to take electric vehicles into consideration, but the multi-depot case for location-routing models has not been worked out yet. Moreover, we consider the availability of two energy supply technologies: the “Plug-in” Conventional Charge technology, and Battery Swapping Stations; options in which the recharging time is a function of the amount of energy to charge and a fixed time, respectively. Three models are proposed: one for each of the technologies mentioned above, and another in which both options are taken in consideration. The models were solved for small scale instances using C++ and Cplex 12.5. The results show that the models can be used to design logistic and energy-support structures, and compare the performance of the different options of energy supply, as well as measure the impact of these decisions on the overall distance traveled or other optimization objectives that could be worked on in the future.

  13. Similar to spironolactone, oxymatrine is protective in aldosterone-induced cardiomyocyte injury via inhibition of calpain and apoptosis-inducing factor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Xiao

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that oxymatrine (OMT possesses variously pharmacological properties, especially on the cardiovascular system. We previously demonstrated that activated calpain/apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF-mediated pathway was the key molecular mechanism in aldosterone (ALD induces cardiomyocytes apoptosis. In the present study, we extended the experimentation by investigating the effect of OMT on cardiomyocytes exposed to ALD, as compared to spironolactone (Spiro, a classical ALD receptor antagonist. Cardiomyocytes were pre-incubated with OMT, Spiro or vehicle for 1 h, and then, cardiomyocytes were exposed to ALD 24 h. The cell injury was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage ratio. Apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay, annexin V/PI staining, and relative caspase-3 activity assay. Furthermore, expression of pro-apoptotic proteins including truncated Bid (tBid, calpain and AIF were evaluated by western blot analysis. ALD stimulation increased cardiomyocytes apoptosis, caspase-3 activity and protein expression of calpain, tBid and AIF in the cytosol (p<0.05. Pre-incubated with cardiomyocytes injury and increased caspase-3 activity were significantly attenuated (p<0.05. Furthermore, OMT suppressed ALD-induced high expression of calpain and AIF. And these effects of OMT could be comparable to Spiro. These findings indicated that OMT might be a potential cardioprotective-agent against excessive ALD-induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of calpain/AIF signaling.

  14. A Multi-Depot Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problem with Delivery Options Arising in the Last Mile Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lin; Baldacci, Roberto; Vigo, Daniele; Wang, Xu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new city logistics problem arising in the last mile distribution of e-commerce. The problem involves two levels of routing problems. The first requires a design of the routes for a vehicle fleet located at the depots to transport the customer demands to a subset of the

  15. Double stimuli-responsive polymer systems: How to use crosstalk between pH- and thermosensitivity for drug depots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bogomolova, Anna; Kaberov, Leonid; Sedláček, Ondřej; Filippov, Sergey K.; Štěpánek, Petr; Král, V.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, S. L.; Ye, X. D.; Hrubý, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, November (2016), s. 54-64 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14292; GA ČR(CZ) GC15-10527J Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : drug depot formulation * double responsive system * pH-responsive polymer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  16. Deployment Strategy for Car-Sharing Depots by Clustering Urban Traffic Big Data Based on Affinity Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Car sharing is a type of car rental service, by which consumers rent cars for short periods of time, often charged by hours. The analysis of urban traffic big data is full of importance and significance to determine locations of depots for car-sharing system. Taxi OD (Origin-Destination is a typical dataset of urban traffic. The volume of the data is extremely large so that traditional data processing applications do not work well. In this paper, an optimization method to determine the depot locations by clustering taxi OD points with AP (Affinity Propagation clustering algorithm has been presented. By analyzing the characteristics of AP clustering algorithm, AP clustering has been optimized hierarchically based on administrative region segmentation. Considering sparse similarity matrix of taxi OD points, the input parameters of AP clustering have been adapted. In the case study, we choose the OD pairs information from Beijing’s taxi GPS trajectory data. The number and locations of depots are determined by clustering the OD points based on the optimization AP clustering. We describe experimental results of our approach and compare it with standard K-means method using quantitative and stationarity index. Experiments on the real datasets show that the proposed method for determining car-sharing depots has a superior performance.

  17. Perceptions on efficacy and side effects of conventional depot antipsychotics (CDA) and atypical depot antipsychotics (ADA): Psychiatrists versus patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Hector W H; Fong, Mandy W M; Fung, Kelvin M T; Chung, Raymond C K

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Objectives. We compared the satisfaction level of psychiatrists and psychiatric patients towards conventional (CDA) and atypical (ADA) depot antipsychotics on symptom management, role functioning, and side effects. Method. Patients from an out-patient clinic of a public hospital and psychiatrists from public hospitals participated in the survey in 2007-2008. A total of 153 patients were interviewed by a tailor-made questionnaire and 72 psychiatrists self-administered a similar questionnaire. Results. Both groups shared similar attitudes towards clinical effectiveness and treatment efficacy of ADA and CDA. More patients were ambivalent towards relapse prevention of CDA than psychiatrists (30.7 vs. 16.7%, PADA are associated with less side effects. More than half of the patients showed negative attitudes towards the effectiveness of CDA on improving quality of life (52.40%), work (57.50%), and recreation (55.50%). Psychiatrists were more aware of the limitation of CDA and severity of side effects of CDA. They did not, however, seem to incorporate patients' opinions and research findings into their clinical practice. Conclusion. Evidence-based practice and shared decision-making model between clinicians and mental patients should be advocated. More investigations should be devoted to examine the efficacy of ADA as the alternative to CDA.

  18. Sustained analgesic effect of clonidine co-polymer depot in a porcine incisional pain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsey JT

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Jared T Wilsey, Julie H Block Medtronic Spine Division, Memphis, TN, USA Background: Previous research suggests that the α2 adrenergic agonist clonidine, a centrally acting analgesic and antihypertensive, may also have direct effects on peripheral pain generators. However, aqueous injections are limited by rapid systemic absorption leading to off target effects and a brief analgesic duration of action. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a sustained-release clonidine depot, placed in the wound bed, in a pig incisional pain model. Methods: The depot was a 15 mm ×5 mm ×0.3 mm poly(lactide-co-caprolactone polymer film containing 3% (w/w clonidine HCl (MDT3. Fifty-two young adult mix Landrace pigs (9–11 kg were divided into seven groups. All subjects received a 6 cm, full-thickness, linear incision into the left lateral flank. Group 1 served as a Sham control group (Sham, n=8. Group 2 received three placebo strips (PBO, n=8, placed end-to-end in the subcutaneous wound bed before wound closure. Group 3 received one MDT3 and two PBO (n=8, Group 4 received two MDT3 and one PBO (n=8, and Group 5 received three MDT3 (n=8. Positive control groups received peri-incisional injections of bupivacaine solution (Group 6, 30 mg/day bupivacaine, n=8 or clonidine solution (Group 7, 225 µg/day, n=4. Results: The surgical procedure was associated with significant peri-incisional tactile allodynia. There was a dose-dependent effect of MDT3 in partially reversing the peri-incisional tactile allodynia, with maximum pain relief relative to Sham at 72 hours. Daily injections of bupivacaine (30 mg, but not clonidine (up to 225 µg, completely reversed allodynia within 48 hours. There was a statistically significant correlation between the dose of MDT3 and cumulative withdrawal threshold from 4 hours through the conclusion of the study on day 7. Conclusion: These data suggest that a sustained-release clonidine depot may be a

  19. Sustained analgesic effect of clonidine co-polymer depot in a porcine incisional pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, Jared T; Block, Julie H

    2018-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the α 2 adrenergic agonist clonidine, a centrally acting analgesic and antihypertensive, may also have direct effects on peripheral pain generators. However, aqueous injections are limited by rapid systemic absorption leading to off target effects and a brief analgesic duration of action. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a sustained-release clonidine depot, placed in the wound bed, in a pig incisional pain model. The depot was a 15 mm ×5 mm ×0.3 mm poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) polymer film containing 3% (w/w) clonidine HCl (MDT3). Fifty-two young adult mix Landrace pigs (9-11 kg) were divided into seven groups. All subjects received a 6 cm, full-thickness, linear incision into the left lateral flank. Group 1 served as a Sham control group (Sham, n=8). Group 2 received three placebo strips (PBO, n=8), placed end-to-end in the subcutaneous wound bed before wound closure. Group 3 received one MDT3 and two PBO (n=8), Group 4 received two MDT3 and one PBO (n=8), and Group 5 received three MDT3 (n=8). Positive control groups received peri-incisional injections of bupivacaine solution (Group 6, 30 mg/day bupivacaine, n=8) or clonidine solution (Group 7, 225 µg/day, n=4). The surgical procedure was associated with significant peri-incisional tactile allodynia. There was a dose-dependent effect of MDT3 in partially reversing the peri-incisional tactile allodynia, with maximum pain relief relative to Sham at 72 hours. Daily injections of bupivacaine (30 mg), but not clonidine (up to 225 µg), completely reversed allodynia within 48 hours. There was a statistically significant correlation between the dose of MDT3 and cumulative withdrawal threshold from 4 hours through the conclusion of the study on day 7. These data suggest that a sustained-release clonidine depot may be a viable nonopioid, nonamide anesthetic therapy for the treatment of acute postsurgical nociceptive sensitization.

  20. Global adiposity and thickness of intraperitoneal and mesenteric adipose tissue depots are increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borruel, Susana; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Alpañés, Macarena; Martí, David; Alvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2013-03-01

    Sexual dimorphism suggests a role for androgens in body fat distribution. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a mainly androgen excess disorder, often present with abdominal obesity and visceral adiposity. We hypothesized that women with PCOS have a masculinized body fat distribution favoring the deposition of fat in visceral and organ-specific adipose tissue depots. This was a case-control study. The study was conducted at an academic hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 55), women without androgen excess (n = 25), and men (n = 26) presenting with similar body mass index participated in the study. There were no interventions. Ultrasound measurements of adipose tissue depots including sc (minimum and maximum), preperitoneal, ip, mesenteric, epicardial, and perirenal fat thickness were obtained and total body fat mass was estimated using a body fat monitor. Men and patients with PCOS had increased amounts of total body fat compared with control women. Men had increased thickness of intraabdominal adipose tissue depots compared with the control women, with the women with PCOS showing intermediate values that were also higher than those of control women in the case of ip and mesenteric fat thickness and was close to reaching statistical significance in the case of epicardial fat thickness. Women with PCOS also showed increased minimum sc fat thickness compared with the control women. Obesity increased the thickness of all of the adipose tissue depots in the 3 groups of subjects. Women with PCOS have higher global adiposity and increased amounts of visceral adipose tissue compared with control women, especially in the ip and mesenteric depots.

  1. Inoculation of weaned pigs with E. coli reduces depots of vitamin E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Ellen-Margrethe; Højsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on vitamin E depots and immune responses in weaned pigs after an E. coli inoculation. The design was a 2 × 2 factorial with vitamin E supplementation (150 mg/kg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate versus a control diet containing...... 60 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) and E. coli 0 149 inoculation (inoculation of 1 × 108 CFU on day 2 and 3 after weaning versus inoculation of vehicle). The pigs were housed individually during the experiment which lasted for 10 days from weaning at 7 weeks of age. Blood was sampled on day 1 (day...... of weaning) and 9 of the experiment, and serum was analyzed for α-tocopherol concentration. On day 10 of the experiment, pigs were killed and samples of liver, heart, muscle, adipose tissue and intestinal epithelium were obtained, and immune cells (alveolar macrophages) were harvested, and analyzed for α...

  2. Electrolytic nickel deposits upon uranium; Depot electrolytique de nickel sur l'uraniun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, G; Chauvin, G; Coriou, H; Hure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The authors present a new possibility to protect uranium by very adherent nickel deposits got by aqueous medium electrolysis. Surface treatment of uranium is based upon the chemical etching method from Lietazke. After thermal treatments at 600, 700 and 800 deg. C, under vacuum, a good intermetallic U-Ni diffusion is observed for each case. (author) [French] Les auteurs mettent en evidence une possibilite nouvelle de protection de l'uranium par des depots tres adherents de nickel realises par electrolyse en milieu aqueux. La preparation de surface de l'uranium est basee sur la methode du decapage chimique de Lietazke. Apres des traitements thermiques a 600, 700 et 800 deg. C, sous vide, on constate dans tous les cas une bonne diffusion intermetallique U-Ni. (auteur)

  3. Leuprolide Acetate 1-Month Depot for Central Precocious Puberty: Hormonal Suppression and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neely EKirk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods. This prospective US multicenter trial of leuprolide acetate 1-month depot (7.5–15 mg for central precocious puberty utilized an open-label treatment period, long-term follow-up, and adult callback. Forty-nine females Results. Subjects were treated for years. Mean peak GnRH-stimulated LH and FSH were prepubertal after the first dose and remained suppressed throughout treatment. During treatment, mean estradiol decreased to the limit of detection and mean testosterone decreased but remained above prepubertal norms. During posttreatment follow-up ( years, all patients achieved a pubertal hormonal response within 1 year and menses were reported in all females ≥12 years old. No impairment of reproductive function was observed at adulthood (mean age: 24.8 years.

  4. Improving Inventory Management and Supply Chain of Diesel Fuel in Pertamina 5 Main Depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togar M Simatupang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning Operation subdivision at PT Pertamina has to generate supply decisions includingmain depot to supply, supply point and transportation mode. However, the variability inplanning a supply schedule renders the process of determining a supply decision asineffective. The last assessment on uncertainties was done at 2006 and has not beenconsidered during decision making process. On the other hand, the result of this researchindicates that the uncertainty level is too high to be ignored and the poor informationexchange between the regional offices and the head office decreases the Planning Operation’sability to create plans that covers the company condition. This paper proposes an appropriatesafety stock to withstand the uncertainties and a supply scheduling process that also considersuncertainties by using Monte-Carlo Simulation with random numbers to simulate the events inthe upcoming period.Key words: inventory management, distribution planning, managing uncertainties, montecarlosimulation

  5. Medical Cosmopolitanism in Global Dubai: A Twenty-first-century Transnational Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2017-03-01

    Dubai-one of the seven United Arab Emirates and the Middle East's only "global city"-is gaining a reputation as a transnational medical tourism hub. Characterized by its "medical cosmopolitanism," Dubai is now attracting medical travelers from around the world, some of whom are seeking assisted conception. Dubai is fast becoming known as a new transnational "reprohub" for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), the variant of in vitro fertilization designed to overcome male infertility. Based on ethnographic research conducted in one of the country's most cosmopolitan clinics, this article explores the ICSI treatment quests of infertile men coming to Dubai from scores of other nations. The case of an infertile British-Moroccan man is highlighted to demonstrate why ICSI is a particularly compelling "masculine hope technology" for infertile Muslim men. Thus, Muslim men who face barriers to ICSI access in their home countries may become "reprotravelers" to Dubai, an emergent ICSI depot. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  6. Study on Multi-Depot Collaborative Transportation Problem of Milk-Run Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Zhenkai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyze the relevance between Milk Run mode and collaborative transportation problem, put forward collaborative transportation problem of multiple-depot on Milk Run mode under the supply and demand separate nodes, consider the value of transport and transport costs, introduce the concept of node - arc flow, by comparing the size of traffic flow determine nodes collection, and then constructed multi-transport model of the problem. Considering one-way pickup and delivery closed, construct two-stage algorithm model, use dynamic programming recursive solution to determine the best route to pick up, and then solving delivery routing problem with different start and return point based on geometric method of Cosine. Finally use a numerical example illustrates the effectiveness of the algorithm and reasonable model.

  7. Design of PLGA-based depot delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals prepared by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Yang, Mingshi

    2016-01-01

    Currently, most of the approved protein and peptide-based medicines are delivered via conventional parenteral injection (intramuscular, subcutaneous or intravenous). A frequent dosing regimen is often necessary because of their short plasma half-lives, causing poor patient compliance (e.g. pain......, abscess, etc.), side effects owing to typical peak-valley plasma concentration time profiles, and increased costs. Among many sustained-release formulations poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based depot microparticle systems may represent one of the most promising approaches to provide protein...... and peptide drugs with a steady pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile maintained for a long period. However, the development of PLGA-based microparticle systems is still impeded by lack of easy, fast, effective manufacturing technologies. The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in spray drying...

  8. Location and multi-depot vehicle routing for emergency vehicles using tour coverage and random sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Goli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and optimum allocation of emergency resources are the most important tasks, which need to be accomplished during crisis. When a natural disaster such as earthquake, flood, etc. takes place, it is necessary to deliver rescue efforts as quickly as possible. Therefore, it is important to find optimum location and distribution of emergency relief resources. When a natural disaster occurs, it is not possible to reach some damaged areas. In this paper, location and multi-depot vehicle routing for emergency vehicles using tour coverage and random sampling is investigated. In this study, there is no need to visit all the places and some demand points receive their needs from the nearest possible location. The proposed study is implemented for some randomly generated numbers in different sizes. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed method was capable of reaching desirable solutions in reasonable amount of time.

  9. Adipose tissue depot volume relationships with spinal trabecular bone mineral density in African Americans with diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C Chan

    Full Text Available Changes in select adipose tissue volumes may differentially impact bone mineral density. This study was performed to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between computed tomography-determined visceral (VAT, subcutaneous (SAT, inter-muscular (IMAT, and pericardial adipose tissue (PAT volumes with respective changes in thoracic vertebral and lumbar vertebral volumetric trabecular bone mineral density (vBMD in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Generalized linear models were fitted to test relationships between baseline and change in adipose volumes with change in vBMD in 300 African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants; adjustment was performed for age, sex, diabetes duration, study interval, smoking, hypertension, BMI, kidney function, and medications. Participants were 50% female with mean ± SD age 55.1±9.0 years, diabetes duration 10.2±7.2 years, and BMI 34.7±7.7 kg/m2. Over 5.3 ± 1.4 years, mean vBMD decreased in thoracic/lumbar spine, while mean adipose tissue volumes increased in SAT, IMAT, and PAT, but not VAT depots. In fully-adjusted models, changes in lumbar and thoracic vBMD were positively associated with change in SAT (β[SE] 0.045[0.011], p<0.0001; 0.40[0.013], p = 0.002, respectively. Change in thoracic vBMD was positively associated with change in IMAT (p = 0.029 and VAT (p = 0.016; and change in lumbar vBMD positively associated with baseline IMAT (p<0.0001. In contrast, vBMD was not associated with change in PAT. After adjusting for BMI, baseline and change in volumes of select adipose depots were associated with increases in thoracic and lumbar trabecular vBMD in African Americans. Effects of adiposity on trabecular bone appear to be site-specific and related to factors beyond mechanical load.

  10. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  11. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Miller, R.L.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Johnson, R.O.; Tolbert, V.R.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Rickert, L.W.; Rogers, G.O.; Staub, W.P.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examined the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal at ANAD as the environmentally preferred alternative (using the same selection method and data analysis tools as in the FPEIS), and (2) whether or not the new data indicate the presence of significant environmental resources that could be affected by on-site disposal at ANAD. In addition, a status report is presented on the maturity of the disposal technology (and now it could affect on-site disposal at ANAD). Inclusion of these more recent data into the FPEIS decision method resulted in confirmation of on-site disposal for ANAD. No unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD have been identified. A review of the technology status identified four principal technology developments that have occurred since publication of the FPEIS and should be of value in the implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD: the disposal of nonlethal agent at Pine Bluff Arsenal, located near Pine Bluff, Arkansas; construction and testing of facilities for disposal of stored lethal agent at Johnston Atoll, located about 1300 km (800 miles) southwest of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean; lethal agent disposal tests at the chemical agent pilot plant operations at Tooele Army Depot, located near Salt Lake City, Utah; and equipment advances. 18 references, 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. [Job stress in locomotive attendants in a locomotive depot and related influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, L; Jia, X C; Lu, F; Zhou, W H; Chen, R

    2017-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of job stress in locomotive attendants in a locomotive depot and related influencing factors. Methods: From 2012 to 2013, cluster sampling was used to select 1500 locomotive attendants in a locomotive depot in Zhengzhou Railway Bureau as respondents.The contents of the investigation included general data and occupational information.A job satisfaction questionnaire was used to investigate the degree of satisfaction, a depression scale was used to investigate the frequency of symptoms, and a daily stress scale was used to investigate the frequency of fatigue and stress. Results: There was a significant difference in depression score between locomotive attendants with different ages, working years, degrees of education, working situations of spouse, total monthly family incomes, numbers of times of attendanceat night, monthly numbers of times of attendance,ormonthly attendance times( P job satisfaction score between locomotive attendants with different ages,working years, degrees of education, working situations of spouse, total monthly family incomes, numbers of times of attendance at night, monthly attendance times,or ways to work( P job satisfaction( β =1.546)and monthly number of times of attendance,working years,attendance time at night,and degree of education were negatively correlated with job satisfaction( β =-0.185,-0.097,-0.020,and -1.106); monthly number of times of attendance andcommute time were positively correlated with depression( β =0.243 and 0.029); attendance time at night,working situation of spouse,commute time,monthly number of times of attendance,degree of education,and working years were positively correlated with daily stress( β =0.006,0.473,0.010,0.043,0.585, and 0.028). Conclusion: Number of times of attendance, attendance time,working years,and spouse are influencing factors for job stress in locomotive attendants. Improvement in work process and care for their personal life help to reduce

  13. Audit Report on the Sacramento Army Depot Internal Review and Audit Compliance Office's "Audits of Warranties, Quality Deficiency Reports, and Reports of Discrepancies"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    The Sacramento Army Depot (SAAD) Internal Review and Audit Compliance Office (Internal Review) issued an audit report, "Audit of Warranties, Quality Deficiency Reports, and Reports of Discrepancies," on July 20, 1990...

  14. Siting Report for Theater Missile Defense Mid-Range Test Launch Complex at Ft. Wingate Depot Activity, NM: Based on Sit Survey, 14-18 February 1994

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    This study is provided to assess the capability of Ft. Wingate Depot Activity to act as a Ballistic Missile Defense Test Support Complex for the launch of target missiles toward White Sands Missile Range...

  15. Adesão ao tratamento e hospitalizações entre pacientes que realizam aplicações de Flufenazina Depot Adhesión al tratamiento y hospitalización entre pacientes que realizan aplicaciones de Flufenazina Depot Compliance with treatment and hospitalization among patients using Flufenazine Depot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Menna Oliveira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Os autores revisam a bibliografia sobre medicação depot e apresentam dados referentes à adesão ao tratamento e hospitalizações entre os pacientes que realizam aplicações de enantato de flufenazina em regime ambulatorial no Hospital Espírita de Pelotas. MÉTODO: Analisaram-se os prontuários de pacientes que foram incluídos no regime depot anteriormente a maio de 2001 e que realizaram pelo menos uma aplicação entre maio de 2001 e junho de 2002, quanto à adesão ao tratamento e eventuais hospitalizações. RESULTADOS: De um total de 100 pacientes, 66 permaneciam em regime depot ao término do período estudado. Destes, 40 (61% apresentavam boa adesão ao tratamento, enquanto 26 (39% apresentavam má adesão. Houve um total de 25 pacientes que sofreram hospitalizações, entre os quais a maioria não estava em tratamento no término do estudo ou apresentava má adesão. Entre os pacientes procedentes do mesmo bairro em que se situa o hospital, 10 (67% apresentavam boa adesão em comparação com 30 pacientes (59% procedentes de bairros distintos. DISCUSSÃO: O número de hospitalizações variou visivelmente, conforme a permanência ou não em tratamento e a adesão ao mesmo. Pacientes provenientes de bairros distantes do hospital tenderam a apresentar pior adesão ao tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: É possível que pacientes em regime de aplicação depot residentes próximos ao local de aplicação beneficiem-se mais do tratamento que aqueles residentes em locais distantes. São necessários mais estudos comparando administrações depot com VO em termos de adesão e investigando fatores preditores de boa adesão ao tratamento.OBJETIVOS: Los autores revisan la bibliografía sobre medicación depot y presentan datos referentes a la adhesión al tratamiento y hospitalizaciones entre los pacientes que realizan aplicaciones de enantato de flufenazina en régimen ambulatorio en el Hospital Espiritista de Pelotas. MÉTODO: Fueron

  16. An Analysis of the Factors Generating the Variance Between the Budgeted and Actual Operating Results of the Naval Aviation Depot at North Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    management structure employs free- market system principles and encourages business-like processes that are mission driven. Since no operating funds are...variable (Potvin, 2007). 2. Unit Cost Goal NWCFs use the unit cost goal ( UCG ) for planning purposes. The UCG is an estimate of what a unit of product...mission 6. Will not interfere with depot performance This section opens the depot to the private market . 53 Chapter 159 – Real Property

  17. Depot-Specific Response of Adipose Tissue to Diet-Induced Inflammation: The Retinoid-Related Orphan Receptor α (RORα) Involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiri, Sarah; Auclair, Martine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Antoine, Bénédicte

    2017-11-01

    Epididymal adipose tissue (EAT), a visceral fat depot, is more closely associated with metabolic dysfunction than inguinal adipose tissue (IAT), a subcutaneous depot. This study evaluated whether the nuclear receptor RORα, which controls inflammatory processes, could be implicated. EAT and IAT were compared in a RORα loss-of-function mouse (sg/sg) and in wild-type (WT) littermates, fed a standard diet (SD) or a Western diet (WD), to evaluate the impact of RORα expression on inflammatory status and on insulin sensitivity (IS) of each fat depot according to the diet. Sg/sg mice fed the SD exhibited a decreased inflammatory status and a higher IS in their fat depots than WT mice. WD-induced obesity had distinct effects on the two fat depots. In WT mice, EAT exhibited increased inflammation and insulin resistance while IAT showed reduced inflammation and improved IS, together with a depot-specific increase of RORα, and its target gene IκBα, in the stroma vascular fraction (SVF). Conversely, in sg/sg mice, WD increased inflammation and lowered IS of IAT but not of EAT. These findings suggest an anti-inflammatory role for RORα in response to WD, which occurs at the level of SVF of IAT, thus possibly contributing to the "healthy" expansion of IAT. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  18. Association between individual fat depots and cardio-metabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, M; Geisler, C; Plachta-Danielzik, S; Müller, M J

    2017-05-08

    To determine age-related associations between fat mass (FM), regional fat depots and cardiometabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults. Detailed body composition (regional subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue; SAT, VAT) by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), FM and fat-free mass by air-displacement plethysmography, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), plasma glucose and plasma insulin were measured in 433 subjects (BMI: 23.6 (21.0-27.7); 151 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, 150 young adults, aged 18-30 years and 132 adults, aged 30-60 years). Data were derived from pooled data of the 'Reference Center for Body Composition' in Kiel, Germany. Insulin resistance was determined by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Partial correlations and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between body composition and cardiometabolic traits. A descriptive approach was used to demonstrate age-dependent differences in associations between body fat depots and insulin resistance, independent of BMI. FM, SAT, and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood with low VAT in children and adolescents. When compared to children, TG was higher in adults. HDL and DBP did not differ between age groups. Insulin resistance was highest in male adolescents and female young adults. Associations between body fat depots and cardiometabolic traits were seen after puberty with no associations in pre- and intrapubertal children. When compared to FM, SAT and VAT had the strongest association with insulin resistance in adults. This association was independent of BMI. Associations between individual body fat depots and most cardiometabolic traits became evident after puberty only. The strongest associations were observed between insulin resistance and abdominal fat in adults. The impact of VAT was independent

  19. Randomised controlled single-blind study of conventional versus depot mydriatic drug delivery prior to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madge Simon

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for safe cataract surgery is an adequately dilated pupil. The authors conducted a trial to assess the efficacy (in terms of pupil diameter of a depot method of pre-operative pupil dilatation, as compared with repeated instillations of drops (which is time-consuming for the nursing staff and uncomfortable for the patient. Methods A prospective randomised masked trial was conducted comprising 130 patients with no significant ocular history undergoing elective clear corneal phacoemulsification. 65 patients had mydriatic drops (Tropicamide 1%, Phenylephrine 2.5%, Diclofenac sodium 0.1% instilled prior to surgery, 65 had a wick soaked in the same drop mixture placed in the inferior fornix. Horizontal pupil diameters were recorded on a millimetre scale immediately prior to surgery. Results There was no significant difference in pupil size between the two groups (p = 0.255, Student's t-test. Conclusion There was no significant difference between the mydriasis obtained with the depot system compared with conventional drop application. Use of a depot mydriatic delivery system appears to be a safe and efficient method of drug delivery. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN78047760

  20. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  1. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya, E-mail: tizawa@mail.doshisha.ac.jp

    2015-10-23

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  2. Depot injectable atorvastatin biodegradable in situ gel: development, optimization, in vitro, and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed TA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tarek A Ahmed,1,2 Yasser A Alharby,1 Abdel-Rahim M El-Helw,1 Khaled M Hosny,1,3 Khalid M El-Say1,21Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, EgyptAbstract: This study aimed to develop an optimized depot injectable atorvastatin (ATR biodegradable in situ gel (ISG system with minimum initial burst using a central composite design. The factors selected were poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA concentration (X1, molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG (X2, and PEG concentration (X3. The independent variables were the initial burst of ATR after 2 (Y1 and 24 hours (Y2. The optimized formulation was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and in vitro drug release in phosphate-buffered saline of pH 7.4 for 72 hours. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study of the optimized ATR-ISG and the corresponding PEG-free ATR-ISG were conducted by intramuscular injection of a single dose (2 mg/kg of ATR in male New Zealand White rabbits. A double-blind, randomized, parallel design was used in comparison with those of the marketed ATR tablet. Statistical analysis revealed that PLGA concentration and the molecular weight of PEG have pronounced effects on both Y1 and Y2. The optimized formulation was composed of 36.10% PLGA, PEG 6000, and 15.69% PEG, and exhibited characteristic in vitro release pattern with minimal initial burst. Incorporation of PEG in the formulation causes a slight decrease in the glass transition temperature value of PLGA, leading to a slight change in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum due to possible interaction. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy photomicrograph showed smooth

  3. Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis of the Nyírlugos obsidian core depot find

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Kasztovszky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Nyírlugos obsidian core depot find is one of the most important lithic assemblages in the collection of the Hungarian National Museum (HNM. The original set comprised 12 giant obsidian cores, of which 11 are currently on the permanent archaeological exhibition of the HNM. One of the cores is known to be inDebrecen. The first publication attributed the hoard, on the strength of giant (flint blades known from the Early and Middle Copper Age Tiszapolgár and Bodrogkeresztúr cultures, to the Copper Age. In the light of recent finds it is more likely to belong to the Middle Neolithic period. The source area was defined as Tokaj Mts., about100 kmto the NW from Nyírlugos. The size and beauty of the exceptional pieces exclude any invasive analysis. Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA, we can measure major chemical components and some key trace elements of stone artefacts with adequate accuracy to successfully determine provenance of obsidian. Recent methodological development also facilitated the study of relatively large objects like the Nyírlugos cores. The cores were individually measured by PGAA. The results show that the cores originate from the Carpathian 1 sources, most probably the Viničky variety (C1b. The study of the hoard as a batch is an important contribution to the assessment of prehistoric trade and allows us to reconsider the so-called Carpathian, especially Carpathian 1 (Slovakian sources.

  4. Enhanced intelligent water drops algorithm for multi-depot vehicle routing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezugwu, Absalom E; Akutsah, Francis; Olusanya, Micheal O; Adewumi, Aderemi O

    2018-01-01

    The intelligent water drop algorithm is a swarm-based metaheuristic algorithm, inspired by the characteristics of water drops in the river and the environmental changes resulting from the action of the flowing river. Since its appearance as an alternative stochastic optimization method, the algorithm has found applications in solving a wide range of combinatorial and functional optimization problems. This paper presents an improved intelligent water drop algorithm for solving multi-depot vehicle routing problems. A simulated annealing algorithm was introduced into the proposed algorithm as a local search metaheuristic to prevent the intelligent water drop algorithm from getting trapped into local minima and also improve its solution quality. In addition, some of the potential problematic issues associated with using simulated annealing that include high computational runtime and exponential calculation of the probability of acceptance criteria, are investigated. The exponential calculation of the probability of acceptance criteria for the simulated annealing based techniques is computationally expensive. Therefore, in order to maximize the performance of the intelligent water drop algorithm using simulated annealing, a better way of calculating the probability of acceptance criteria is considered. The performance of the proposed hybrid algorithm is evaluated by using 33 standard test problems, with the results obtained compared with the solutions offered by four well-known techniques from the subject literature. Experimental results and statistical tests show that the new method possesses outstanding performance in terms of solution quality and runtime consumed. In addition, the proposed algorithm is suitable for solving large-scale problems.

  5. Active motions of Brownian particles in a generalized energy-depot model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Koo Kim, Chul; Lee, Kong-Ju-Bock

    2008-01-01

    We present a generalized energy-depot model in which the rate of conversion of the internal energy into motion can be dependent on the position and velocity of a particle. When the conversion rate is a general function of the velocity, the active particle exhibits diverse patterns of motion, including a braking mechanism and a stepping motion. The phase trajectories of the motion are investigated in a systematic way. With a particular form of the conversion rate dependent on the position and velocity, the particle shows a spontaneous oscillation characterizing a negative stiffness. These types of active behaviors are compared with similar phenomena observed in biology, such as the stepping motion of molecular motors and amplification in the hearing mechanism. Hence, our model can provide a generic understanding of the active motion related to the energy conversion and also a new control mechanism for nano-robots. We also investigate the effect of noise, especially on the stepping motion, and observe random walk-like behavior as expected.

  6. ANALISIS HIGIENE SANITASI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG (DAMIU DI SEKITAR UNIVERSITAS ISLAM RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Mairizki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Drinking Water Refill Depot (DAMIU continues to increase appropriate with the dynamics of community needs for drinking water that has good quality and safe for consumption. Although it had a low price, not all DAMIU product guaranteed safety. DAMIU  as  an alternative choice to fulfill the community needs for drinking water becomes a risk that harmful to health if consumers did  not pay attention in DAMIU hygiene and sanitation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze hygiene and sanitation of  DAMIU building, equipment and operator. The type of this research was descriptive research.The data obtained in this study was primary data in the form of observation using checklist sheet. The data was presented in tabular form and discussed descriptively. In general, hygiene and sanitation of DAMIU building and equipment were good but the sanitation facilities still minimals, the wash basin for operators and its tools were not available. There were  several of operators hygiene must be considered. All operators did not using special uniform for work, did not conducting periodic medical examinations and did not have sertificate of hygiene sanitation course.

  7. RISK MANAGEMENT AND RISK COMMUNICATION IN MOZAMBIQUE: THE CASE OF ARMS AND AMMUNITION DEPOTS OF MALHAZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bussotti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk management and risk communication affect everybody’s daily life. Local authorities have the duty to manage public structures, to inform civilians of the risks coming from these structures, to implement prophylaxis procedures. Military storage sites are fully included in this category. This article presents – through a qualitative methodology based on risk analysis – how risk management and communication in weapons and ammunition warehouses is managed in a “partially free” country, using as a case-study, the Malhazine depot in Mozambique, which resulted in more than 100 deaths. In 2007, an extraordinary accident related to the management of obsolete conventional weapons occurred at the Malazhine warehouse. In this circumstance, the Mozambican Government adopted a policy of classifying the information “highly confidential”. This policy aimed at obscuring facts and responsibilities by hiding the causes of such a huge tragedy. This article concludes with the consideration that a high level of confidentiality in treating issues of public interest, such as the one kept in regard to Malhazine, does not help public authorities to effectively manage and prevent similar risks from occurring again, with resulting negative impacts on local populations.

  8. Scaling up depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA): a systematic literature review illustrating the AIDED model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Leslie; Taylor, Lauren; Pallas, Sarah Wood; Cherlin, Emily; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-08-02

    Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), often known by the brand name Depo-Provera, has increased globally, particularly in multiple low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As a reproductive health technology that has scaled up in diverse contexts, DMPA is an exemplar product innovation with which to illustrate the utility of the AIDED model for scaling up family health innovations. We conducted a systematic review of the enabling factors and barriers to scaling up DMPA use in LMICs. We searched 11 electronic databases for academic literature published through January 2013 (n = 284 articles), and grey literature from major health organizations. We applied exclusion criteria to identify relevant articles from peer-reviewed (n = 10) and grey literature (n = 9), extracting data on scale up of DMPA in 13 countries. We then mapped the resulting factors to the five AIDED model components: ASSESS, INNOVATE, DEVELOP, ENGAGE, and DEVOLVE. The final sample of sources included studies representing variation in geographies and methodologies. We identified 15 enabling factors and 10 barriers to dissemination, diffusion, scale up, and/or sustainability of DMPA use. The greatest number of factors were mapped to the ASSESS, DEVELOP, and ENGAGE components. Findings offer early empirical support for the AIDED model, and provide insights into scale up of DMPA that may be relevant for other family planning product innovations.

  9. Light Control of Insulin Release and Blood Glucose Using an Injectable Photoactivated Depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Bhagyesh R; Kover, Karen; Tong, Pei Y; Zhang, Chaoying; Friedman, Simon H

    2016-11-07

    In this work we demonstrate that blood glucose can be controlled remotely through light stimulated release of insulin from an injected cutaneous depot. Human insulin was tethered to an insoluble but injectable polymer via a linker, which was based on the light cleavable di-methoxy nitrophenyl ethyl (DMNPE) group. This material was injected into the skin of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. We observed insulin being released into the bloodstream after a 2 min trans-cutaneous irradiation of this site by a compact LED light source. Control animals treated with the same material, but in which light was blocked from the site, showed no release of insulin into the bloodstream. We also demonstrate that additional pulses of light from the light source result in additional pulses of insulin being absorbed into circulation. A significant reduction in blood glucose was then observed. Together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using light to allow for the continuously variable control of insulin release. This in turn has the potential to allow for the tight control of blood glucose without the invasiveness of insulin pumps and cannulas.

  10. Behavior of Particle Depots in Molten Silicon During Float-Zone Growth in Strong Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauss, T.; Croell, A.; SorgenFrei, T.; Azizi, M.; Reimann, C.; Friedrich, J.; Volz, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Solar cells made from directionally solidified silicon cover 57% of the photovoltaic industry's market [1]. One major issue during directional solidification of silicon is the precipitation of foreign phase particles. These particles, mainly SiC and Si3N4, are precipitated from the dissolved crucible coating, which is made of silicon nitride, and the dissolution of carbon monoxide from the furnace atmosphere. Due to their hardness and size of several hundred micrometers, those particles can lead to severe problems during the wire sawing process for wafering the ingots. Additionally, SiC particles can act as a shunt, short circuiting the solar cell. Even if the particles are too small to disturb the wafering process, they can lead to a grit structure of silicon micro grains and serve as sources for dislocations. All of this lowers the yield of solar cells and reduces the performance of cells and modules. We studied the behaviour of SiC particle depots during float-zone growth under an oxide skin, and strong static magnetic fields. For high field strengths of 3T and above and an oxide layer on the sample surface, convection is sufficiently suppressed to create a diffusive like regime, with strongly dampened convection [2, 3]. To investigate the difference between atomically rough phase boundaries and facetted growth, samples with [100] and [111] orientation were processed.

  11. Adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression: depot differences and effects of diet and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Rongze

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of endocannabinoid system in adipose tissue play an important role in lipid regulation and metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gene expression levels of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH are different in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue, and whether hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise influence subcutaneous adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression in obese women. Methods Thirty overweight or obese, middle-aged women (BMI = 34.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2, age = 59 ± 1 years underwent one of three 20-week weight loss interventions: caloric restriction only (CR, N = 9, caloric restriction plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CRM, 45-50% HRR, N = 13, or caloric restriction plus vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (CRV, 70-75% HRR, N = 8. Subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue samples were collected before and after the interventions to measure CB1 and FAAH gene expression. Results At baseline, FAAH gene expression was higher in abdominal, compared to gluteal adipose tissue (2.08 ± 0.11 vs. 1.78 ± 0.10, expressed as target gene/β-actin mRNA ratio × 10-3, P Conclusions There are depot differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression in obese individuals. Aerobic exercise training may preferentially modulate abdominal adipose tissue endocannabinoid-related gene expression during dietary weight loss. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00664729.

  12. A comparative study of Cyclofem and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) effects on endometrial vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Hashemi, Zeinab; Zham, Hananeh; Fraser, Ian S

    2007-10-01

    The most common reason for discontinuation of long-acting progestogen-only contraceptives is irregular bleeding following local endometrial vascular changes. To reduce unpredictable bleeding episodes among depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users, the combined injectable contraceptive, Cyclofem, was offered as an alternative. However, there is a gap in our knowledge about the effects of Cyclofem on the endometrial vasculature and patterns of bleeding. This study aimed to compare the effects of Cyclofem and DMPA on endometrial vascular density, endometrial histology and pattern of bleeding. Sixty-eight healthy women with regular menstrual bleeding and seeking injectable long-acting contraceptives were recruited. Two endometrial samples (before and 3 to 6 months after initial exposure to DMPA or Cyclofem) were collected from each participant. The samples were stained using an immunohistochemical method and anti-CD34 to visualise the endometrial vasculature. Endometrial vascular density was assessed using standard techniques. Sixty-eight women were randomly assigned to Cyclofem (38 women) or DMPA (30 women). Endometrial vascular density was 149.3 +/- 6.7 (mean +/- SD)/mm(2) before injection. This significantly decreased to 132.4 +/- 12.2 after DMPA use, and from 151.9 +/- 5.8 to 131.8 +/- 12.8 vessels/mm(2) following Cyclofem use (paired t-test, p Spotting was the most common type of bleeding experienced, and atrophic endometrium was the most common histological pattern observed in both groups. This study demonstrated that both Cyclofem and DMPA use are associated with decreased endometrial vascular density and atrophic endometrium, in addition to irregular bleeding, mainly spotting. There was no significant difference in bleeding patterns or endometrial findings observed for these two injectable contraceptives in Iranian women.

  13. IGFBP4 Is Required for Adipogenesis and Influences the Distribution of Adipose Depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridas, David E; DeMambro, Victoria E; Le, Phuong T; Mohan, Subburaman; Rosen, Clifford J

    2017-10-01

    Insulinlike growth factor (IGF) I induces adipogenesis in vitro. IGF-binding protein 4 (IGFBP4) is highly expressed in adipocytes and osteoblasts and is inhibitory of IGFs in vitro. We previously reported that Igfbp4 null mice (Igfbp4-/-) had decreased fat proportions at 8 and 16 weeks of age. However, the mechanism leading to the reduced adiposity remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate how IGFBP4 mediates adipose tissue development in vivo. Our results showed that inguinal and gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from Igfbp4-/- mice had decreased weights and Pparγ expression. Cultures of primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and ear mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) from mutant mice showed reduced adipogenesis. Both BMSCs and eMSC had a strong induction of Igfbp4 expression during adipogenesis. Furthermore, the increase in phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), a downstream target of IGF-I signaling, in wild-type cells, was blunted in mutant eMSCs. On a high-fat diet (HFD) there were sexual differences in adipocyte expansion of Igfbp4-/- mice. Mutant males gained weight by expanding their white fat depots. However, Igfbp4-/- female mice were protected against diet-induced obesity. Ovariectomized Igfbp4-/- female mice gained weight in a manner similar to that seen in ovariectomized controls. Thus, Igfbp4 is required for inguinal fat expansion in female mice but not in male mice. However, gWAT expansion, which is prevented by estrogen during HFD, does not require Igfbp4. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  14. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation.

  15. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Eun Park

    Full Text Available Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation.

  16. CHAWS user`s guide: System description and standard operating procedures, Lexington-Blue Grass Army Depot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, S.A.; Shinn, J.H. [eds.

    1993-05-01

    The Chemical Hazard Warning System (CHAWS) is designed to collect meteorological data and to display, in real time, the dispersion of hazardous chemicals that may result from an accidental release. Meteorological sensors have been placed strategically around the Lexington-Blue Grass Army Depot and are used to calculate direction and hazard distance for the release. Based on these data, arrows depicting the release direction and distance traveled are graphically displayed on a computer screen showing a site map of the facility. The objectives of CHAWS are as follows: To determine the trajectory of the center of mass of released material from the measured wind field; to calculate the dispersion of the released material based on the measured lateral turbulence intensity (sigma theta); to determine the height of the mixing zone by measurement of the inversion height and wind profiles up to an altitude of about 1 km at sites that have SODAR units installed; to archive meteorological data for potential use in climatological descriptions for emergency planning; to archive air-quality data for preparation of compliance reports; and to provide access to the data for near real time hazard analysis purposes. CHAWS sites are located at the Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas, Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, Tooele Depot, Utah, Lexington-Blue Grass Depot, Kentucky, and Johnston Island in the Pacific. The systems vary between sites with different features and various types of hardware. The basic system, however, is the same. Nonetheless, we have tailored the manuals to the equipment found at each site.

  17. [French Society for Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology task force: Formal Consensus for the prescription of depot antipsychotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalin, L; Abbar, M; Courtet, P; Guillaume, S; Lancrenon, S; Llorca, P-M

    2013-12-01

    Compliance is often partial with oral antipsychotics and underestimated for patients with serious mental illness. Despite their demonstrated advantages in terms of relapse prevention, depot formulations are still poorly used in routine. As part of a process to improve the quality of care, French Association for Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology (AFPBN) Task Force elaborated a Formal Consensus for the prescription of depot antipsychotics in clinical practice. The Task Force recommends as first-line choice, the use of long-acting injectable (LAI) second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and delusional disorder. They can be considered as a second-line option as a monotherapy to prevent manic recurrence or in combination with mood stabilizer to prevent depressive recurrence in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. LAI second-generation antipsychotics can also be used after a first episode of schizophrenia. Depot neuroleptics are not recommended during the early course of schizophrenia and are not appropriate in bipolar disorder. They are considered as a second-line option for maintenance treatment in schizophrenia. LAI formulations should be systematically proposed to any patients for whom maintenance antipsychotic treatment is indicated. LAI antipsychotics can be used preferentially for non-compliant patients with frequent relapses or aggressive behaviors. A specific information concerning the advantages and inconveniences of the LAI formulations, in the framework of shared-decision making must be delivered to each patient. Recommendations for switching from one oral/LAI form to another LAI and for using LAI antipsychotics in specific populations (pregnant women, elderly patients, subjects in a precarious situation, and subjects having to be treated in a prison establishment) are also proposed. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of central precocious puberty by subcutaneous injections of leuprorelin 3-month depot (11.25 mg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carel, Jean-Claude; Lahlou, Najiba; Jaramillo, Orlando; Montauban, Vincent; Teinturier, Cécile; Colle, Michel; Lucas, Christel; Chaussain, Jean Louis

    2002-09-01

    Depot GnRH agonists are widely used for the treatment of precocious puberty. Leuprorelin 3-month depot is currently used in adults but has not been evaluated in children. We evaluated the efficacy of this new formulation (11.25 mg every 3 months), for the suppression of gonadotropic activation and pubertal signs in children with central precocious puberty. We included 44 children (40 girls) with early-onset pubertal development in a 6-month open trial. The inclusion criteria were clinical pubertal development before the age of 8 (girls) or 10 (boys), advanced bone age, enlarged uterus (>36 mm), testosterone more than 1.7 nmol/liter (boys), and pubertal response of LH to GnRH (peak >5 IU/liter). The principal criterion for efficacy assessment, GnRH-stimulated LH peak less than 3 IU/liter, was met in 81 of 85 (95%) of the tests performed at months 3 and 6. The remaining four values were slightly above the threshold. The levels of sex steroids were also significantly reduced and clinical pubertal development was arrested. Plasma leuprorelin levels, measured every 30 d, were essentially stable after d 60. Local intolerance was noted after 10 of 86 injections (12%), and was mild in four cases, moderate in five cases, and severe in one. Among these 10 events, 4 consisted in local pain at injection's site. In conclusion, leuprorelin 3-month depot efficiently inhibits the gonadotropic axis in 95% of children with central precocious puberty studied for a 6-month period. This regimen allows the reduction of the number of yearly injections from 12 to 4.

  19. A comparative study of cross sectional anatomy and computer tomography of perirenal fat depots in New Zealand White rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonkova, P.; Dimitrov, R.; Toneva, J.; Zapryanova, D.

    2010-01-01

    CT is a contemporary non-invasive imaging technique that gains an increasing importance for in vivo investigations of subcutaneous and visceral fat. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the topography and anatomy imaging features of perirenal fat depots at the level of both kidneys in clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits that attained slaughter weight. The CT consecutive transverse scans from the last thoracic to the fifth lumbar vertebrae showed that in rabbits, perirenal fat appeared as a homogeneous hypodense structure at the background of denser shadows of lumbar and abdominal muscles, kidneys and abdominal organs. Perirenal fat depot exhibited a soft tissue density with average attenuation of −120.97±4.73 HU. On CT scans, the largest dimensions of the perirenal fat depot were 1.3±0.01 cm at the level of the right kidneys cranial pole; 1.96 cm in the plane where the right renal hilus was visualized; 1.66±0.08 cm at the level of the right kidneys caudal pole; 1.10±0.18 cm in the plane where the left renal hilus was visualized and 1.06±0.15 cm at the level of the left kidneys caudal pole. No subcutaneous fat deposits in the abdominal area were seen. Results obtained in the present study could be used as basic information for various anatomy investigations of rabbits as well as experimental designs for study of obesity in animals and humans. (author)

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Wind Turbine Generators at the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Joseph Owen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot site in Newport, Indiana, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the sitefor possible wind turbine electrical generator installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different wind energy options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a wind system at the site.

  1. Desaturation of skeletal muscle structural and depot lipids in obese individuals during a very-low-calorie diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Vaag, Allan; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2007-01-01

    would decrease saturated fatty acids (FAs) and increase long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LCPUFAs) in muscular structural lipids, as such changes have been associated with improved insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Skeletal muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained from 13 obese...... during the VLCD. DISCUSSION: Desaturation of both muscle cell membrane phospholipid and IMTG was significant but modest during a VLCD in obese subjects. Further research must delineate whether such changes in skeletal muscle structural and depot lipid composition themselves are enough to promote...

  2. Desaturation of skeletal muscle structural and depot lipids in obese individuals during a very-low-calorie diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Vaag, A.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2007-01-01

    would decrease saturated fatty acids (FAs) and increase long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LCPUFAs) in muscular structural lipids, as such changes have been associated with improved insulin sensitivity. Research Methods and Procedures: Skeletal muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained from 13 obese....... Discussion: Desaturation of both muscle cell membrane phospholipid and IMTG was significant but modest during a VLCD in obese subjects. Further research must delineate whether such changes in skeletal muscle structural and depot lipid composition themselves are enough to promote the observed improvements...

  3. Contribution to the study of the electrodeposition of iron-nickel alloys; Contribution a l'etude du depot electrolytique des alliages fer-nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valignat, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-01

    Using a coulometric technique based upon the anodic intentiostatic dissolution, we studied the potentiostatic, deposition of nickel, iron and nickel iron alloys. We have shown that the minimum of the curve I = f (t) (deposition current versus time) is probably due to the transitory blocking of the surface by hydrogen and that the syn-crystallisation of nickel and iron is responsible for the anomalous co-deposition of these two elements. (author) [French] En employant une methode coulometrique par dissolution anodique intensipstatique, nous avons etudie le depot potentiostatique du nickel, du fer et des alliages fer-nickel. Nous avons pu montrer que le minimum de la courbe I = f (t) enregistree au cours du depot est du probablement au blocage momentane de la surface par l'hydrogene et que la syncristallisation du fer et du nickel est responsable de l'anomalie du depot simultane de ces deux elements. (auteur)

  4. Vanadate impedes adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells derived from different depots within bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Alexander Jacobs

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis (GIO is associated with an increase in bone marrow adiposity which skews the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC progenitors away from osteoblastogenesis and towards adipogenesis. We have previously found that vanadate, a non-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, prevents GIO in rats, but it was unclear whether vanadate directly influenced adipogenesis in bone-derived MSCs. For the present study, we investigated the effect of vanadate on adipogenesis in primary rat MSCs derived from bone marrow (bmMSCs and from the proximal end of the femur (pfMSCs. By passage 3 after isolation, both cell populations expressed the MSC cell surface markers CD90 and CD106, but not the haematopoietic marker CD45. However, although variable, expression of the fibroblast marker CD26 was higher in pfMSCs than in bmMSCs. Differentiation studies using osteogenic and adipogenic induction media (OM and AM, respectively demonstrated that pfMSCs rapidly accumulated lipid droplets within 1 week of exposure to AM, while bmMSCs isolated from the same femur only formed lipid droplets after 3 weeks of AM treatment. Conversely, pfMSCs exposed to OM produced mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM after 3 weeks, compared to 1 week for OM-treated bmMSCs. Vanadate (10 µM added to AM resulted in a significant reduction in AM-induced intracellular lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic gene markers (PPARγ2, aP2, adipsin in both pfMSCs and bmMSCs. Pharmacological concentrations of glucocorticoids (1 µM alone did not induce lipid accumulation in either bmMSCs or pfMSCs, but resulted in significant cell death in pfMSCs. Our findings demonstrate the existence of at least two fundamentally different MSC depots within the femur, and highlights the presence of MSCs capable of rapid adipogenesis within the proximal femur, an area prone to osteoporotic fractures. In addition, our results suggest that the increased bone marrow

  5. Study on the thermal ignition of gasoline-air mixture in underground oil depots based on experiment and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yihong; Du, Yang; Jiang, Xingsheng; Wang, Dong; Liang, Jianjun

    2010-04-01

    The study on the special phenomenon, occurrence process and control mechanism of gasoline-air mixture thermal ignition in underground oil depots is of important academic and applied value for enriching scientific theories of explosion safety, developing protective technology against fire and decreasing the number of fire accidents. In this paper, the research on thermal ignition process of gasoline-air mixture in model underground oil depots tunnel has been carried out by using experiment and numerical simulation methods. The calculation result has been demonstrated by the experiment data. The five stages of thermal ignition course, which are slow oxidation stage, rapid oxidation stage, fire stage, flameout stage and quench stage, have been firstly defined and accurately descried. According to the magnitude order of concentration, the species have been divided into six categories, which lay the foundation for explosion-proof design based on the role of different species. The influence of space scale on thermal ignition in small-scale space has been found, and the mechanism for not easy to fire is that the wall reflection causes the reflux of fluids and changes the distribution of heat and mass, so that the progress of chemical reactions in the whole space are also changed. The novel mathematical model on the basis of unification chemical kinetics and thermodynamics established in this paper provides supplementary means for the analysis of process and mechanism of thermal ignition.

  6. The fatty acid profile of fat depots from Santa Inês sheep fed spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Roberto G; Almeida, Michelly DA; Cruz, George Rodrigo B; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo M; Ribeiro, Neila L; Madruga, Marta S; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Re

    2017-10-01

    Fat is the tissue that varies most in animals from both a quantitative and distribution perspective. It plays a fundamental biological role as energy storage during food scarcity. Renal, pelvic and internal fat are deposited first. These fats are used to identify fatty acid profiles that may be considered beneficial or unhealthy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fatty acid profile of fat depots in Santa Inês sheep finished in confinement with spineless cactus in their diets. The treatments included increasing levels of spineless cactus (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill.): T1 = 0%, T2 = 30%, T3 = 50%, and T4 = 70%. The diets significantly affected the adipose depots. The orthogonal contrast between the diet with no cactus (control) and the other diets indicates that the quantity of saturated fatty acids decreased and that the levels of mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased in animals fed spineless cactus. The use of spineless cactus in the diets of Santa Inês sheep affects the lipid profile of their fat depots, reducing the quantity of saturated fatty acids and increasing the quantity of mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid profile of the fat depots indicates that these fats can be used to formulate meat products and add economic and nutritional value to such products, which increases sheep farmers' incomes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Ethical acceptability of offering financial incentives for taking antipsychotic depot medication: Patients' and clinicians' perspectives after a 12-month randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Noordraven (Ernst); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); P. Blanken (Peter); C.L. Mulder (Niels); A.I. Wierdsma (André)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A randomized controlled trial 'Money for Medication'(M4M) was conducted in which patients were offered financial incentives for taking antipsychotic depot medication. This study assessed the attitudes and ethical considerations of patients and clinicians who participated in

  8. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altintas Mehmet M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. Results ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was

  9. Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and prevalent leiomyoma in young African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Q E; Baird, D D

    2015-06-01

    Is use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) a risk factor for or a protective factor against prevalent uterine leiomyoma? Ever use of DMPA was associated with a decreased risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR): 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 0.9) of prevalent leiomyoma in young African American women. Although progesterone is associated with growth of leiomyoma, previous epidemiological studies have shown a protective association for DMPA use. These previous studies may have been biased by studying clinically diagnosed leiomyoma (DMPA may mask symptoms thus delaying diagnoses). Cross sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study of 1696 African American women. Community-based recruitment (e.g. letters, flyers, radio and TV announcements) were used to enroll African American women between 23 and 34 years old without a previous diagnosis of leiomyoma in the Metropolitan Detroit area. Extensive questionnaire data were used to determine DMPA use and screening ultrasound detected the presence of leiomyoma ≥0.5 cm in diameter. Relative risks with adjustment for covariates were calculated for the presence of leiomyoma based on ever use of DMPA as well as duration and recency of use. Among the 1696 volunteers who enrolled, 43% had used DMPA. Leiomyoma were detected in 17% of those who had ever used DMPA compared with 26% of those who had never used DMPA. The reduction in prevalence remained after adjustment for potential confounders and was highest among women who had used DMPA for more than 4 years (adjusted RR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8). The reduction in risk was seen for women whose most recent use was up to 8 years prior to study enrollment. The use of cross-sectional data means that the timing of initial fibroid development is not known, so the temporality of the association is uncertain. However in this sample of young women, most fibroids were small, suggesting that DMPA exposure may have occurred before leiomyoma development. Our findings are in

  10. An integrative transcriptomic approach to identify depot differences in genes and microRNAs in adipose tissues from high fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayatunga, Nadeeja N; Pahlavani, Mandana; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Coarfa, Cristian; Ramalingam, Latha; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2018-02-06

    Obesity contributes to metabolic disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Characterization of differences between the main adipose tissue depots, white (WAT) [including subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and brown adipose tissue (BAT) helps to identify their roles in obesity. Thus, we studied depot-specific differences in whole transcriptome and miRNA profiles of SAT, VAT and BAT from high fat diet (HFD/45% of calories from fat) fed mice using RNA sequencing and small RNA-Seq. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we validated depot-specific differences in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related genes and miRNAs using mice fed a HFD vs. low fat diet (LFD/10% of calories from fat). According to the transcriptomic analysis, lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) were higher in VAT compared to BAT, whereas energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation were higher in BAT than in VAT of the HFD fed mice. In contrast to BAT, ER stress marker genes were significantly upregulated in VAT of HFD fed mice than the LFD fed mice. For the first time, we report depot specific differences in ER stress related miRNAs including; downregulation of miR-125b-5p, upregulation miR-143-3p, and miR-222-3p in VAT following HFD and upregulation of miR-30c-2-3p only in BAT following a HFD in mice than the LFD mice. In conclusion, HFD differentially regulates miRNAs and genes in different adipose depots with significant induction of genes related to lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, ER stress, and UPR in WAT compared to BAT.

  11. EFFICIENCY OF REPEATED AND UNSCHEDULED TRAINING AS THE MEASURES TO PREVENT ACCIDENTS AT SUPPLY DEPOTS AND WAREHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocharova Irina Nikolaevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analysis of the state of occupational safety at supply depots and warehouses. It is revealed that most accidents involve the employees who have less than one year’s service. Experience has proven that the preventive activities to avoid occupational traumatism are efficient when a complex of workplace safety measures is implemented. The experts consider the repeated and unscheduled training to be very important events. This is supported by the fact that among the employees of the commercial establishments who underwent repeated and unscheduled training, the number of individuals who suffered an accident is small. The efficient functioning of the occupational safety training system is infeasible without ensuring the motivation for assimilating the knowledge and forming the complete foundation for safe labor. In order to reduce the number of accidents, one should proceed from the principle of responding to accidents to the system for professional risk management.

  12. Depot-specific differences in angiogenic capacity of adipose tissue in differential susceptibility to diet-induced obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Gyu Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adipose tissue (AT expansion requires AT remodeling, which depends on AT angiogenesis. Modulation of AT angiogenesis could have therapeutic promise for the treatment of obesity. However, it is unclear how the capacity of angiogenesis in each adipose depot is affected by over-nutrition. Therefore, we investigated the angiogenic capacity (AC of subcutaneous and visceral fats in lean and obese mice. Methods: We compared the AC of epididymal fat (EF and inguinal fat (IF using an angiogenesis assay in diet-induced obese (DIO mice and diet-resistant (DR mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Furthermore, we compared the expression levels of genes related to angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and inflammation using RT-qPCR in the EF and IF of lean mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD, DIO mice, and DR mice fed a HFD. Results: DIO mice showed a significant increase in the AC of EF only at 22 weeks of age compared to DR mice. The expression levels of genes related to angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and inflammation were significantly higher in the EF of DIO mice than in those of LFD mice and DR mice, while expression levels of genes related to macrophages and their recruitment were higher in the IF of DIO mice than in those of LFD and DR mice. Expression of genes related to angiogenesis (including Hif1a, Vegfa, Fgf1, Kdr, and Pecam1, macrophage recruitment, and inflammation (including Emr1, Ccr2, Itgax, Ccl2, Tnf, and Il1b correlated more strongly with body weight in the EF of HFD-fed obese mice compared to that of IF. Conclusions: These results suggest depot-specific differences in AT angiogenesis and a potential role in the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. Keywords: Angiogenesis, Inflammation, Adipose tissue, Diet-induced obese mice, Diet-resistant mice, High-fat diet

  13. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final Phase 1 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  14. Regional Differences of Proteins Expressing in Adipose Depots Isolated from Cows, Steers and Bulls as Identified by a Proteomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyoung Cho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue in the loin muscle area of beef cattle as a marbling factor is directly associated with beef quality. To elucidate whether properties of proteins involved in depot specific adipose tissue were sex-dependent, we analyzed protein expression of intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT and omental adipose tissue (OMAT from Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls of Korean native beef cattle by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS–based proteomic analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR and western blot analysis. Two different adipose depots (i.e. intramuscular and omental were collected from cows (n = 7, steers (n = 7, or bulls (n = 7. LC-MS/MS revealed a total of 55 and 35 proteins in IMAT and OMAT, respectively. Of the 55 proteins identified, 44, 40, and 42 proteins were confirmed to be differentially expressed in IMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, respectively. In OMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, 33, 33, and 22 were confirmed to be differentially expressed, respectively. Tropomyosin (TPM 1, TPM 2, and TPM3 were subjected to verification by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis in IMAT and OMAT of Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls as key factors closely associated with muscle development. Both mRNA levels and protein levels of TPM1, TPM2, and TPM3 in IMAT were lower in bulls compared to in cows or steers suggesting that they were positively correlated with marbling score and quality grade. Our results may aid the regulation of marbling development and improvement of meat quality grades in beef cattle.

  15. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program: Review and comment on the Phase 1 environmental report for the Pueblo Depot Activity, Pueblo, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshansky, S.J.; Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1994-03-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at the Pueblo Depot Activity (PUDA) in Pueblo, Colorado. The Phase I report addresses new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). These concerns are addressed by examining site-specific data for the PUDA. On the basis of our review of the Phase I report, we concluded that on-site meteorological data from December 1988 to June 1992 appear to be of insufficient quality to have been used instead of the off-site Pueblo airport data. No additional meteorological data have been collected since June 1992. The Phase I report briefly mentions problems with the air pollution control system. These problems will likely require the systems to be upgraded at the Johnston Atoll site and at each of the other depots in the continental United States. Without such improvements, the probability of accidents during start-up and shutdown would likely increase. The Army has a lessons-learned program to incorporate improvements into the design of future facilities. The Phase I report does not make any design change commitments. These issues need to be fully evaluated and resolved before any final conclusion concerning the adequacy of the decision in the FPEIS can be made with respect to the PUDA. With the exception of this issue, the inclusion of other more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at the PUDA). We recommend that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process

  16. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model and local biomass processing depots for sustainable biofuel production: Integrated life cycle assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eranki, Pragnya L.; Manowitz, David H.; Bals, Bryan D.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2013-07-23

    An array of feedstock is being evaluated as potential raw material for cellulosic biofuel production. Thorough assessments are required in regional landscape settings before these feedstocks can be cultivated and sustainable management practices can be implemented. On the processing side, a potential solution to the logistical challenges of large biorefi neries is provided by a network of distributed processing facilities called local biomass processing depots. A large-scale cellulosic ethanol industry is likely to emerge soon in the United States. We have the opportunity to influence the sustainability of this emerging industry. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model estimates land allocations for different cellulosic feedstocks at biorefinery scale without displacing current animal nutrition requirements. This model also incorporates a network of the aforementioned depots. An integrated life cycle assessment is then conducted over the unified system of optimized feedstock production, processing, and associated transport operations to evaluate net energy yields (NEYs) and environmental impacts.

  17. Monitoring and documentation of side effects from depot antipsychotic medication: an interdisciplinary audit of practice in a regional mental health service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this audit was to review current practice within a rural mental health service area on the monitoring and documentation of side effects of antipsychotic depot medication. Following a review of the literature on best practice internationally, an evidence based audit tool was adapted. A sample of 60 case files, care plans and prescriptions were audited between January and May 2010. This represented 31% of the total number of service users receiving depot injections in the mental health service region (n=181). The audit results revealed that most service users had an annual documented medical review and a documented prescription. However, only 5 (8%) case notes examined had documentation recorded describing the condition of the injection site and alternation of the injection site was recorded in only 28 (47%) case notes. No case notes examined had written consent to commence treatment recorded, and only 3 (5%) of case notes had documented that information on the depot injection and side effects was given. In 57 (95%) of case notes no documentation of recorded information on the depot and on side effects was given. Documentation of physical observations and tests revealed that 58% of cases had full blood count, liver function tests, thyroid function tests and fasting lipids recorded. All other tests (i.e. temperature, pulse, respirations, blood pressure, ECG) were recorded in less than 50% of cases. Prolactin levels were not recorded in any case. The lack of written consent was partly attributed to lack of recording of consent. The failure to monitor and record some\\r\

  18. Documentation and Analysis of the ’Miscellaneous’ Account Category within the DoD Instruction 7220.29-H Depot Level Maintenance Cost Accounting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    34MISCELLANEOUS" ACCOUNT CATEGORY WITHIN THE DOD INSTRUCTION 7220.29-H DEPOT LEVEL MAINTENANCE COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM by a. Steven Eugene Lehr CDecember 1984...PERFORMING ONG. REPORT NUMBER Maintenance Cost Accounting System 7. AUTHOR(&) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(@) Steven Eugene Lehr 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Availability Codes IS. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse *ids It necessary and Identify by block number) Dvi Special Uniform Cost Accounting System DoD

  19. The effect of dietary copper supplementation on fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of adipose depots in Boer x Spanish goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, K A; Solaiman, S G; Bergen, W G

    2008-02-01

    A feeding trial was designed to examine the effects of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO(4).5H(2)O) on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability in muscle and adipose tissues of Boer x Spanish goat kids. Fifteen (n = 5 per treatment) goats were fed 0, 100, or 200 mg of supplemental Cu per day as copper sulfate for 98 d. The animals were slaughtered, and LM, s.c. adipose from the sternal region, and mesenteric adipose tissues were collected. Total lipids were extracted with chloroform:methanol (2:1), methylated and isolated via GLC from all tissues. The subsequent peaks were then positively identified by mass spectrometry. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were measured also. In s.c. adipose, dietary Cu significantly decreased C14:0 (P = 0.03) and C16:0 (P = 0.01). In muscle, C15:0 (P = 0.03) was linearly increased by Cu. Dietary Cu supplementation did not influence oxidative stability in goat muscle or s.c. adipose. Copper supplementation at 200 mg/d resulted in a significant increase in malondialdehyde in mesenteric adipose (P = 0.01) compared with the 0 or 100 mg/d groups. These results indicate that lipid composition may differ from depot to depot and that depending on the depot, dietary Cu seems to elicit a variable response on the fatty acid composition.

  20. Effect of Buprenorphine Weekly Depot (CAM2038) and Hydromorphone Blockade in Individuals With Opioid Use Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sharon L; Comer, Sandra D; Lofwall, Michelle R; Vince, Bradley; Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Kelsh, Debra; Coe, Marion A; Jones, Jermaine D; Nuzzo, Paul A; Tiberg, Fredrik; Sheldon, Behshad; Kim, Sonnie

    2017-09-01

    Buprenorphine is an efficacious, widely used treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Daily oral transmucosal formulations can be associated with misuse, diversion, and nonadherence; these limitations may be obviated by a sustained release formulation. To evaluate the ability of a novel, weekly, subcutaneous buprenorphine depot formulation, CAM2038, to block euphorigenic opioid effects and suppress opioid withdrawal in non-treatment-seeking individuals with OUD. This multisite, double-blind, randomized within-patient study was conducted at 3 controlled inpatient research facilities. It involved 47 adults with DSM-V moderate-to-severe OUD. The study was conducted from October 12, 2015 (first patient enrolled), to April 21, 2016 (last patient visit). A total of five 3-day test sessions evaluated the response to hydromorphone (0, 6, and 18 mg intramuscular in random order; 1 dose/session/day). After the first 3-day session (ie, qualification phase), participants were randomized to either CAM2038 weekly at 24 mg (n = 22) or 32 mg (n = 25); the assigned CAM2038 dose was given twice, 1 week apart (day 0 and 7). Four sets of sessions were conducted after randomization (days 1-3, 4-6, 8-10, and 11-13). The primary end point was maximum rating on the visual analog scale for drug liking. Secondary end points included other visual analog scale (eg, high and desire to use), opioid withdrawal scales, and physiological and pharmacokinetic outcomes. A total of 46 of 47 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 35.5 [9] years; 76% male [n = 35]) completed the study. Both weekly CAM2038 doses produced immediate and sustained blockade of hydromorphone effects (liking maximum effect, CAM2038, 24 mg: effect size, 0.813; P withdrawal (Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale, CAM2038, 24 mg: effect size, 0.617; P opioid blockade and withdrawal suppression. The results support the use of this depot formulation for treatment initiation and stabilization of patients with OUD, with

  1. Long-term effect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on vaginal microbiota, epithelial thickness and HIV target cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Caroline M; McLemore, Leslie; Westerberg, Katharine; Astronomo, Rena; Smythe, Kimberly; Gardella, Carolyn; Mack, Matthias; Magaret, Amalia; Patton, Dorothy; Agnew, Kathy; McElrath, M Juliana; Hladik, Florian; Eschenbach, David

    2014-08-15

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) has been linked to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition. Vaginal microbiota of women using DMPA for up to 2 years were cultured. Mucosal immune cell populations were measured by immunohistological staining. Over 12 months, the proportion with H2O2-positive lactobacilli decreased (n = 32; 53% vs 27%; P = .03). Median vaginal CD3(+) cells also decreased (n = 15; 355 vs 237 cells/mm(2); P = .03), as did CD3(+)CCR5(+) cells (195 vs 128 cells/mm(2); P = .04), HLA-DR(+) cells (130 vs 96 cells/mm(2); P = .27), and HLA-DR(+)CCR5(+) cells (18 vs 10 cells/mm(2); P = .33). DMPA contraception does not increase vaginal mucosal CCR5(+) HIV target cells but does decrease CD3(+) T lymphocytes and vaginal H2O2-producing lactobacilli. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Oil fuel delivery optimization for multi product and multi depot: the case of petrol station replenishment problem (PSRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjandari, Isti; Rachman, Amar; Dianawati, Fauzia; Wibowo, R. Pramono

    2011-10-01

    With the Oil and Gas Law No. 22 of 2001, national and foreign private enterprises can invest in all sectors of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. In anticipation of this free competition, Pertamina, as a state-owned enterprises, which previously had monopolized the oil and gas business activities in Indonesia, should be able to improve services as well as the efficiency in order to compete in the free market, especially in terms of cost efficiency of fuel distribution to gas station (SPBU). To optimize the distribution activity, it is necessary to design a scheduling system and its fuel delivery routes daily to every SPBU. The determination of routes and scheduling delivery of fuel to the SPBU can be modeled as a Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PSRP) with the multi-depot, multi-product, time windows and split deliveries, which in this study will be completed by the Tabu Search algorithm (TS). This study was conducted in the area of Bandung, the capital of West Java province, which is a big city and the neighboring city of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. By using the fuel delivery data for one day, the results showed a decrease of 16.38% of the distance of the route compared to the current conditions, which impacted on the reduction of distribution costs and decrease the number of total trips by 5.22% and 3.83%.

  3. Differential patterns of serum concentration and adipose tissue expression of chemerin in obesity: adipose depot specificity and gender dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadda, Assim A; Sallam, Reem M; Chishti, Muhammad Azhar; Moustafa, Amr S; Fatma, Sumbul; Alomaim, Waleed S; Al-Naami, Mohammed Y; Bassas, Abdulelah F; Chrousos, George P; Jo, Hyunsun

    2012-06-01

    Chemerin, a recognized chemoattractant, is expressed in adipose tissue and plays a role in adipocytes differentiation and metabolism. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences in human chemerin expression have not been well characterized. Therefore, these differences were assessed in the present study. The body mass index (BMI) and the circulating levels of chemerin and other inflammatory, adiposity and insulin resistance markers were assessed in female and male adults of varying degree of obesity. Chemerin mRNA expression was also measured in paired subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples obtained from a subset of the study subjects. Serum chemerin concentrations correlated positively with BMI and serum leptin levels and negatively with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. No correlation was found between serum chemerin concentrations and fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, C-reactive protein or adiponectin. Similarly, no relation was observed with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences were observed in chemerin mRNA expression levels, with expression significantly higher in women than men and in subcutaneous than visceral adipose tissue. Interestingly, we found a significant negative correlation between circulating chemerin levels and chemerin mRNA expression in subcutaneous fat. Among the subjects studied, circulating chemerin levels were associated with obesity markers but not with markers of insulin resistance. At the tissue level, fat depot-specific differential regulation of chemerin mRNA expression might contribute to the distinctive roles of subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue in human obesity.

  4. Changes in Vaginal Microbiota and Immune Mediators in HIV-1-Seronegative Kenyan Women Initiating Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxby, Alison C; Fredricks, David N; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Ásbjörnsdóttir, Kristjana; Masese, Linnet; Fiedler, Tina L; De Rosa, Stephen; Jaoko, Walter; Kiarie, James N; Overbaugh, Julie; McClelland, R Scott

    2016-04-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is associated with HIV acquisition. We studied changes in vaginal microbiota and inflammatory milieu after DMPA initiation. In a cohort of HIV-negative Kenyan women, we collected monthly vaginal swabs over 1 year before and after DMPA. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we compared quantities of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus iners, Gardnerella vaginalis, and total bacterial load (16S ribosomal RNA gene levels). Six vaginal immune mediators were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Trends in the detection and quantity of bacteria were estimated by logistic and linear mixed-effects regression. From 2010 to 2012, 15 HIV-seronegative women initiated DMPA, contributing 85 visits (median, 6 visits/woman; range, 3-8 visits/woman). The median time of DMPA-exposed follow-up was 8.4 months (range, 1.5-11.6 months). Seven women (46%) had bacterial vaginosis within 70 days before DMPA start. L. iners was detected in 13 women (87%) before DMPA start, but other lactobacilli were rarely detected. Gardnerella vaginalis decreased by 0.21 log10 copies per swab per month after DMPA exposure (P = 0.01). Total bacterial load decreased by 0.08 log10 copies per swab per month of DMPA (P = 0.02). Sustained decreases in interleukin (IL)-6 (P = 0.03), IL-8 (P = 0.04), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (P vaginal bacterial concentrations and levels of inflammatory mediators. Further studies are warranted to outline components of the vaginal microbiota influenced by DMPA use and impact on HIV susceptibility.

  5. Retrospective investigation of testosterone undecanoate depot for the long-term treatment of male hypogonadism in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaglen, Helen M; Paul, Ryan G; Yarndley, Tania; Kamp, Jozef; Elston, Marianne S; Conaglen, John V

    2014-02-01

    Testosterone undecanoate depot (TUD) administered intramuscularly is an effective form of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for male hypogonadism. Because of the ease of administration, TUD therapy may be preferable to subcutaneously implanted extended release T pellet implants (TI). The primary objective was to retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of long-term (≥ 2 years therapy) TUD therapy in the clinical setting. The secondary objective was to retrospectively compare TUD with TI therapy. Retrospective data were collected from the Waikato Hospital Endocrine Database for 179 hypogonadal men treated with TUD for ≥ 2 years from 1998-2011, with 124 of these men receiving previous TI therapy. The main outcome measure for efficacy was serum trough total testosterone (TT), and for safety an increase in hemoglobin (Hb) and/or hematocrit (Hct), rise in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and/or prostatic biopsy and alteration in body mass index and lipid profile. Additional outcome measures were changes in the dosing and/or interval regimens for TUD therapy. Overall, 72% of trough TT levels were in the normal range for TUD therapy compared with 53% of trough TT levels during TI therapy. TUD therapy was well tolerated with 162 men (90.5%) completing 2 years of treatment, and only seven men (3.9%) stopping TUD because of adverse effects. A rise in Hb and/or Hct occurred in 25 men (14%), and a significant rise in PSA in 20 men (13%) at some stage during TUD therapy. At 2 years, 91% of men received the standard 1,000 mg TUD dose with 66% at the standard dosing interval of 10-14 weekly. TUD is an efficacious, safe, and well tolerated form of TRT, and individual optimisation of the dose and/or interval is only required in the minority of men. Particularly given the ease of administration, TUD was the preferred TRT for both patients and clinicians. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Rats and rabbits as pharmacokinetic screening tools for long acting intramuscular depots: case study with paliperidone palmitate suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Harilal; Patel, Prakash; Modi, Nirav; Patel, Pinakin; Wagh, Yogesh; George, Alex; Desai, Nirmal; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2018-05-08

    Development of prodrug of 9-hydroxyrisperidone (paliperidone) long-acting intramuscular injection has enabled delivery over four-week time period with improved compliance. The key aim of this work was to establish a reliable preclinical model which may potentially serve as a screening tool for judging the pharmacokinetics of paliperidone formulation(s) prior to human clinical work. Sparse sampling composite study was used in rats, (Wistar/Sprague-Dawley (SD; n = 10)) and a serial blood sampling study design was used in rabbits (n = 4). Animals received intramuscular injection of paliperidone palmitate in the thigh muscle at dose of 16 (rats) and 4.5 mg/kg (rabbits). Samples were drawn in rats (retro-orbital sinus) and rabbits (central ear artery) and were analysed for paliperidone using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/ mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. The plasma data was subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis. Following intramuscular injection of depot formulation in Wistar/SD rats and rabbits, absorption of paliperidone was slow and gradual with median value of time to reach maximum concentration (T max ) occurring on day 7. The exposures (i.e. area under the curve (AUC; 0-28) days) were 18,597, 21,865 and 18,120 ng.h/mL, in Wistar, SD and rabbits, respectively. The clearance was slow and supported long half-life (8-10 days). Either one of the two models can serve as a research tool for establishing pharmacokinetics of paliperidone formulation(s).

  7. Characterization of the fate and transport of nitroaromatic compounds at a former DoD ordnance depot site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klausmeier, M.E.; Yoon, J.

    1999-07-01

    The 975-acre Former Nansemond Ordnance Depot (FNOD) in Suffolk, Virginia was used by the Department of Defense (DoD) from 1917 until the mid-1950's for preparation, storage, transportation, inspection and demilitarization of many classes of ammunition and ordnance. Approximately 28 areas of Concern (AOC) have been identified by the EPA as areas that could pose potential risk to human health or the environment. The primary contaminants of concern are some trace metals and explosive compounds. During a summer 1987 field investigation, a slab of crystalline TNT was found which was estimated to weigh several tons. An enhanced MODFLOW model is being used to identify subsurface flow patterns. The calibrated model will be used to identify contaminant fate and transport behavior at the site. Enhancements to the MODFLOW model include an updated block-centered flow package (BCF4) and an updated recharge-seepage face boundary package (RSF4) to utilize for the FNOD site flow characterization. BCF4 package accurately delineates the water table without relying on an ad hoc rewetting procedure. This is accomplished by calculating the hydraulic head value required to transmit recharging water through the unsaturated zone without inactivating dry cells. The recharge-seepage face package eliminates the projection of heads above the ground surface by adjusting recharge to a cell when a user supplied ponding depth is reached. Using a regional model, a telescoping grid refinement technique was implemented to calculate the boundary conditions around the area of interest and to model quantity and quality interactions between surface and subsurface water regimes in a realistic manner.

  8. Android fat depot is more closely associated with metabolic syndrome than abdominal visceral fat in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seon Mee; Yoon, Ji Won; Ahn, Hwa Young; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Hayley; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2011-01-01

    Fat accumulation in android compartments may confer increased metabolic risk. The incremental utility of measuring regional fat deposition in association with metabolic syndrome (MS) has not been well described particularly in an elderly population. As part of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging, which is a community-based cohort study of people aged more than 65 years, subjects (287 male, 75.9±8.6 years and 278 female, 76.0±8.8 years) with regional body composition data using Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for android/gynoid area, computed tomography for visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT), and cardiometabolic markers including adiponectin and high-sensitivity CRP were enrolled. We investigated the relationship between regional body composition and MS in multivariate regression models. Mean VAT and SAT area was 131.4±65.5 cm(2) and 126.9±55.2 cm(2) in men (P = 0.045) and 120.0±46.7 cm(2) and 211.8±65.9 cm(2) in women (Pandroid and gynoid fat amount was 1.8±0.8 kg and 2.5±0.8 kg in men and 2.0±0.6 kg and 3.3±0.8 kg in women, respectively (both Pandroid fat amount was strongly correlated with most metabolic risk factors compared to SAT or gynoid fat. Furthermore, android fat amount was significantly associated with clustering of MS components after adjustment for multiple parameters including age, gender, adiponectin, hsCRP, a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, whole body fat mass and VAT area. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of android fat as a pathogenic fat depot in the MS. Measurement of android fat may provide a more complete understanding of metabolic risk associated with variations in fat distribution.

  9. Transgenerational Inheritance of Increased Fat Depot Size, Stem Cell Reprogramming, and Hepatic Steatosis Elicited by Prenatal Exposure to the Obesogen Tributyltin in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-García, Raquel; Sahu, Margaret; Abbey, Rachelle J.; Laude, Jhyme; Pham, Nhieu

    2013-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that exposure to tributyltin (TBT) modulates critical steps of adipogenesis through RXR/PPARγ and that prenatal TBT exposure predisposes multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to become adipocytes by epigenetic imprinting into the memory of the MSC compartment. Objective: We tested whether the effects of prenatal TBT exposure were heritable in F2 and F3 generations. Methods: We exposed C57BL/6J female mice (F0) to DMSO vehicle, the pharmaceutical obesogen rosiglitazone (ROSI), or TBT (5.42, 54.2, or 542 nM) throughout pregnancy via the drinking water. F1 offspring were bred to yield F2, and F2 mice were bred to produce F3. F1 animals were exposed in utero and F2 mice were potentially exposed as germ cells in the F1, but F3 animals were never exposed to the chemicals. We analyzed the effects of these exposures on fat depot weights, adipocyte number, adipocyte size, MSC programming, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic gene expression in all three generations. Discussion: Prenatal TBT exposure increased most white adipose tissue (WAT) depot weights, adipocyte size, and adipocyte number, and reprogrammed MSCs toward the adipocyte lineage at the expense of bone in all three generations. Prenatal TBT exposure led to hepatic lipid accumulation and up-regulated hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid storage/transport, lipogenesis, and lipolysis in all three subsequent generations. Conclusions: Prenatal TBT exposure produced transgenerational effects on fat depots and induced a phenotype resembling nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through at least the F3 generation. These results show that early-life obesogen exposure can have lasting effects. PMID:23322813

  10. Ethical acceptability of offering financial incentives for taking antipsychotic depot medication: patients' and clinicians' perspectives after a 12-month randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordraven, Ernst L; Schermer, Maartje H N; Blanken, Peter; Mulder, Cornelis L; Wierdsma, André I

    2017-08-29

    A randomized controlled trial 'Money for Medication'(M4M) was conducted in which patients were offered financial incentives for taking antipsychotic depot medication. This study assessed the attitudes and ethical considerations of patients and clinicians who participated in this trial. Three mental healthcare institutions in secondary psychiatric care in the Netherlands participated in this study. Patients (n = 169), 18-65 years, diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or another psychotic disorder who had been prescribed antipsychotic depot medication, were randomly assigned to receive 12 months of either treatment as usual plus a financial reward for each depot of medication received (intervention group) or treatment as usual alone (control group). Structured questionnaires were administered after the 12-month intervention period. Data were available for 133 patients (69 control and 64 intervention) and for 97 clinicians. Patients (88%) and clinicians (81%) indicated that financial incentives were a good approach to improve medication adherence. Ethical concerns were categorized according to the four-principles approach (autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice). Patients and clinicians alike mentioned various advantages of M4M in clinical practice, such as increased medication adherence and improved illness insight; but also disadvantages such as reduced intrinsic motivation, loss of autonomy and feelings of dependence. Overall, patients evaluated financial incentives as an effective method of improving medication adherence and were willing to accept this reward during clinical treatment. Clinicians were also positive about the use of this intervention in daily practice. Ethical concerns are discussed in terms of patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. We conclude that this intervention is ethically acceptable under certain conditions, and that further research is necessary to clarify issues of benefit

  11. The Hereptofauna of Letterkenny Army Depot, South-Central Pennsylvania: A Starting Point to the Long-Term Monitoring and Management of Amphibians and Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Journal of Kansas Herpetology Number 34 (June 2010) 11 www.cnah.org/khs ARtIClES tHE HERpEtofAUNA of lEttERKENNY ARMY dEpot, SoUtH-CENtRAl...compare the herpetological commu- nity currently present at the site with that expected from prior literature (felbaum, 1995; Hulse et al., 2001; tetra...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Journal of Kansas Herpetology Number 34 (June 2010) 12 www.cnah.org/khs agricultural and other

  12. Determination of lymph flow in murine oral mucosa using depot clearance of near-infrared-labeled albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakou, Panagiota; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Wiig, Helge; Berggreen, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    The lymphatic vessels are playing an important role in inflammation since they return extravasated fluid, proteins, and cells back into the circulation and regulate immune cell trafficking. The oral mucosa, including gingiva, is well supplied with lymphatic vessels and is frequently challenged with inflammatory insults. Lymphatic vessels in gingiva protect against periodontal disease development, but quantification of lymph flow in this area has so far never been performed, due to lack of reliable methods. Mice of FVB strain (n=17) were anesthetized with isoflurane and placed on a jaw retraction board allowing the mouth to be kept open and stable. Albumin conjugated with Alexa680-fluorochrome (with or without LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis) was injected superficially in oral mucosa mesio-buccal to the left first molar in each mouse. 60 min post-injection the mouse was transferred to an OptixMX3 optical imager where the total fluorescence was measured in the posterior facial area. The measurements continued further every 60 min for 7h for each mouse. The mice were awake and active between measurements. The in vivo washout of Alexa680-albumin was calculated using the natural logarithm of the relative values creating a negative slope for each mouse. Statistical analysis of variance was performed. The injection and distribution site for tracer was verified with India ink and shown to be in the interstitium below the oral mucosal epithelium, in an area well supplied with initial lymphatic vessels. Washout of the tracer Alexa680-albumin was log-linear, and the basal lymph flow calculated from depot clearance averaged -0.28 ± 0.08%/min (n=8). The clearance was significantly faster (-0.30 ± 0.08%/min, n=9) in acutely inflamed oral mucosa (p=0.0326). We developed a method that can successfully quantify the lymph flow in oral mucosa in steady state conditions and under acute perturbation. By use of this method, new information about the lymphatic function in oral mucosa

  13. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Diogo, E-mail: diogopestana@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); CINTESIS—Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Gil [General Surgery Department, S. João Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Sá, Carla [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Virgínia C. [Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Requimte—Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, P-4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Ana [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, P-4200-465 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  14. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestana, Diogo; Faria, Gil; Sá, Carla; Fernandes, Virgínia C.; Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia; Faria, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R S =0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R S =0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R S =0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R S =0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their metabolic effects

  15. Body frame size in school children is related to the amount of adipose tissue in different depots but not to adipose distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-de la Garza, Francisco J; González Ayala, Alejandra E; Gómez Nava, Marisol; Martínez Monsiváis, Leislie I; Salinas Martínez, Ana M; Ramírez López, Erik; Mathiew Quirós, Alvaro; Garcia Quintanilla, Francisco

    2017-09-10

    The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that body frame size is related to the amount of fat in different adipose tissue depots and to fat distribution in schoolchildren. Children aged between 5 and 10 years were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 565). Body frame size, adiposity markers (anthropometric, skinfolds thickness, and ultrasound measures), and fat distribution indices were analyzed. Correlation coefficients adjusted by reliability were estimated and analyzed by sex; the significance of the difference between two correlation coefficients was assessed using the Fisher z-transformation. The sample included primarily urban children; 58.6% were normal weight, 16.1% overweight, 19.6% obese, and the rest were underweight. Markers of subcutaneous adiposity, fat mass and fat-free mass, and preperitoneal adiposity showed higher and significant correlations with the sum of the biacromial + bitrochanteric diameter than with the elbow diameter, regardless of sex. The fat distribution conicity index presented significant but weak correlations; and visceral adipose tissue, hepatic steatosis, and the waist-for-hip ratio were not significantly correlated with body frame size measures. Body frame size in school children was related to the amount of adipose tissue in different depots, but not adipose distribution. More studies are needed to confirm this relationship and its importance to predict changes in visceral fat deposition during growth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. NeuronDepot: Keeping your colleagues in sync by combining modern cloud storage services, the local file system, and simple web applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp L Rautenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscience today deals with a data deluge derived from the availability of high-throughput sensors of brain structure and brain activity, and increased computational resources for detailed simulations with complex output. We report here (1 a novel approach to data sharing between collaborating scientists that brings together file system tools and cloud technologies, (2 a service implementing this approach, called NeuronDepot, and (3 an example application of the service to a complex use case in the neurosciences. The main drivers for our approach are to facilitate collaborations with a transparent, automated data flow that shields scientists from having to learn new tools or data structuring paradigms. Using NeuronDepot is simple: one-time data assignment from the originator and cloud based syncing – thus making experimental and modeling data available across the collaboration with minimum overhead. Since data sharing is cloud based, our approach opens up the possibility of using new software developments and hardware scalabitliy which are associated with elastic cloud computing. We provide an implementation that relies on existing synchronization services and is usable from all devices via a reactive web interface. We are motivating our solution by solving the practical problems of the GinJang project, a collaboration of three universities across eight time zones with a complex workflow encompassing data from electrophysiological recordings, imaging, morphological reconstructions, and simulations.

  17. NeuronDepot: keeping your colleagues in sync by combining modern cloud storage services, the local file system, and simple web applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenberg, Philipp L; Kumaraswamy, Ajayrama; Tejero-Cantero, Alvaro; Doblander, Christoph; Norouzian, Mohammad R; Kai, Kazuki; Jacobsen, Hans-Arno; Ai, Hiroyuki; Wachtler, Thomas; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience today deals with a "data deluge" derived from the availability of high-throughput sensors of brain structure and brain activity, and increased computational resources for detailed simulations with complex output. We report here (1) a novel approach to data sharing between collaborating scientists that brings together file system tools and cloud technologies, (2) a service implementing this approach, called NeuronDepot, and (3) an example application of the service to a complex use case in the neurosciences. The main drivers for our approach are to facilitate collaborations with a transparent, automated data flow that shields scientists from having to learn new tools or data structuring paradigms. Using NeuronDepot is simple: one-time data assignment from the originator and cloud based syncing-thus making experimental and modeling data available across the collaboration with minimum overhead. Since data sharing is cloud based, our approach opens up the possibility of using new software developments and hardware scalabitliy which are associated with elastic cloud computing. We provide an implementation that relies on existing synchronization services and is usable from all devices via a reactive web interface. We are motivating our solution by solving the practical problems of the GinJang project, a collaboration of three universities across eight time zones with a complex workflow encompassing data from electrophysiological recordings, imaging, morphological reconstructions, and simulations.

  18. The adipose tissue of origin influences the biological potential of human adipose stromal cells isolated from mediastinal and subcutaneous fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs possess different physiological and biological variations related to the anatomical localization of the adipose depots. Accordingly, to investigate the influence of the tissue origin on the intrinsic properties of ASCs and to assess their response to specific stimuli, we compared the biological, functional and ultrastructural properties of two ASC pools derived from mediastinal and subcutaneous depots (thoracic compartment by means of supplements such as platelet lysate (PL and FBS. Subcutaneous ASCs exhibited higher proliferative and clonogenic abilities than mediastinal counterpart, as well as increased secreted levels of IL-6 combined with lower amount of VEGF-C. In contrast, mediastinal ASCs displayed enhanced pro-angiogenic and adipogenic differentiation properties, increased cell diameter and early autophagic processes, highlighted by electron microscopy. Our results further support the hypothesis that the origin of adipose tissue significantly defines the biological properties of ASCs, and that a homogeneric function for all ASCs cannot be assumed.

  19. A multicenter, observational study of lanreotide depot/autogel (LAN) in patients with acromegaly in the United States: 2-year experience from the SODA registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, Roberto; Gordon, Murray B; Woodmansee, Whitney W; Ioachimescu, Adriana G; Carver, Don W; Mirakhur, Beloo; Cox, David; Molitch, Mark E

    2017-12-01

    This analysis evaluates the 2-year effectiveness and safety of lanreotide depot/autogel (LAN), as well as treatment convenience and acromegaly symptom relief, from the Somatuline ® Depot for Acromegaly (SODA) registry, a post-marketing, open-label, observational, multicenter, United States registry study. Patients with acromegaly treated with LAN were eligible for enrollment. Demographics, LAN dose, extended dosing interval (EDI) (interval of injections ≥42 days), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), growth hormone (GH), glycated hemoglobin, adverse events (AEs), injection convenience, and symptom data were collected. As of September 29, 2014, 241 patients were enrolled in SODA. IGF-1 levels below age- and gender-adjusted upper normal limit (ULN) were achieved in 71.2% at month (M) 12 and 74.4% at M24; GH ≤2.5 µg/L in 83.3% at M12 and 80.0% at M24; GH convenient. SODA indicates 2-year biochemical control with majority of patients achieving both IGF-1 < ULN and GH ≤2.5 µg/L. LAN was generally well tolerated with no new or unexpected safety signals reported during the observation period. clinicaltrials.gov Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT00686348.

  20. Functionalization of deproteinized bovine bone with a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2 renders the material efficiently osteoinductive and suppresses foreign-body reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Hunziker, Ernst B; Zheng, Yuanna; Wismeijer, Daniel; Liu, Yuelian

    2011-12-01

    The repair of critical-sized bony defects remains a challenge in the fields of implantology, maxillofacial surgery and orthopaedics. As an alternative bone-defect filler to autologous bone grafts, deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) is highly osteoconductive and clinically now widely used. However, this product suffers from the disadvantage of not being intrinsically osteoinductive. In the present study, this property was conferred by coating DBB with a layer of calcium phosphate into which bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was incorporated. Granules of DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2--together with the appropriate controls (DBB bearing a coating but no BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing adsorbed BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing no BMP-2)--were implanted subcutaneously in rats. Five weeks later, the implants were withdrawn for a histomorphometric analysis of the volume densities of (i) bone, (ii) bone marrow, (iii) foreign-body giant cells and (iv) fibrous capsular tissue. Parameters (i) and (ii) were highest, whilst parameters (iii) and (iv) were lowest in association with DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2. Hence, this mode of functionalization not only confers DBB with the property of osteoinductivity but also improves its biocompatibility--thus dually enhancing its clinical potential in the repair of bony defects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Permanent Access to the Records of Science - The International Role of the e-Depot at the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, National Library of the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard van Trier

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1994 the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (KB decided to include electronic publications in its deposit collection. This was considered as a logical extension of the deposit for printed publications already in place. In December 2002, after a few years of experimenting, the current e-Depot was delivered, with the IBM Digital Information and Archiving System (DIAS as its technical 'heart'. The e-Depot is now fully operational and imbedded in the KB organisation. The emergence of the electronic journal creates new challenges to the traditional deposit model. Because of the involvement of international publishers of Dutch origin, the e-Depot has had an international dimension right from the start. In 2002 the KB signed an historic electronic archiving agreement with Elsevier Science, which covered the entire set of Elsevier journals. This arrangement turned the KB into the first official digital archive in the world for journals published by international scientific publishers. A year later the KB concluded a similar agreement with Kluwer Academic Publishers. Other publishers followed, also from outside the Netherlands: Biomed Central, Blackwell, Oxford University Press, Taylor and Francis, Sage, Springer and Brill Academic Publishers. On the basis of these agreements the e-Depot will eventually hold 9 million articles. The annual increase in the number of articles from these publishers will be around 400,000. Publishers are required to deposit their publications free of charge. Access is restricted: only on-site, for any registered user of the KB. Remote access is only offered with permission of the publisher. On-site retrieval, access, printing, downloading is for private use only, systematic reproduction is not allowed. Documents are available for interlibrary document supply within the Netherlands. The archive serves as a guarantee to all licensees worldwide. In case of calamities or in case the publisher does not meet his obligations, the KB

  2. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Involving Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds - Design and Deployment Guidelines (Parris Island, SC, U.S. Marine Corp Recruit Depot, Site 45 Pilot Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) demonstration, involving subsurface injections of sodium permanganate (NaMnO4), was performed at the US Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), site 45 (Parris Island (PI), SC). The ground water was originally contaminated with perchloroe...

  3. Attempt to evaluate the cumulative deposit of strontium 90 in several French centres; Essai d'evaluation du depot cumulatif de strontium 90 dans plusieurs stations francaises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    In order to be able to interpret results of radioactivity controls of the ambient atmosphere and of the supply chain carried out in several French centres, it is necessary to know the value of the cumulative strontium-90 deposit resulting from fall-out. The estimation of the fall-out which occurred locally in the years before systematic controls were established can be made by assuming that the {sup 90}Sr concentration in rain varies little from one place to another (if they are fairly close) and that the deposit can be deduced from that measured in a single station by making corrections for differences in the rainfall. This assumption is confirmed by applying the method to the calculation of {sup 90}Sr fall-out at Ispra, Mol and at several French centres: the values calculated are compared to those obtained by measurements carried out since 1958 in some cases, and since 1960 in others. The results show that the method is valid for calculating fall-out prior to 1960 (in the absence of information) and to deduce with sufficient approximation the subsequent cumulative deposits in the French centres under consideration. (author) [French] L'evaluation du depot cumulatif de Sr 90 consecutif aux retombees est necessaire a l'interpretation des resultats du controle de la radioactivite du milieu ambiant et de la cha e alimentaire effectue en plusieurs stations francaises. L'estimation des retombees locale des annees anterieures a la mise en oeuvre systematique des moyens de surveillance peut etre faite en admettant que la concentration de Sr 90 dans la pluie varie peu d'un endroit a l'autre (dans des regions assez rapprochees) et que le depot peut etre deduit de celui mesure en une station gr e a des corrections tenant compte de la variation de pluviosite. Cette hypothese est verifiee en appliquant la methode au calcul des retombees de Sr 90 a Ispra, a Mol, et en plusieurs stations francaises: les valeurs calculees sont comparees a celles obtenues par les mesures

  4. Opposite associations of trunk and leg fat depots with plasma ferritin levels in middle-aged and older Chinese men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few data have been published on the associations of ferritin with trunk and leg fat depots. We aimed to investigate these associations in a Chinese population. METHODOLOGY: Trunk fat mass and leg fat mass were determined in a cross-sectional sample of 1,150 Chinese (479 men and 671 women aged 50-70 years by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Fasting plasma ferritin was measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma ferritin was positively correlated with waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, total body fat and trunk fat mass, but inversely correlated with leg fat mass in men (r = 0.16, 0.26, 0.19, 0.22 and -0.12, respectively, all P<0.05 and women (r = 0.16, 0.16, 0.08, 0.17 and -0.12, respectively, all P<0.05. Multivariate regression analysis showed that ferritin levels increased with larger trunk fat mass (β = 0.33 ± 0.08 for men and β = 0.21 ± 0.05 for women, both P<0.001 while decreased with larger leg fat mass (β = -0.12 ± 0.09, P = 0.15 for men; and β = -0.14 ± 0.05, P = 0.005 for women. Moreover, plasma ferritin levels decreased with increasing tertile of leg fat mass among each tertile of trunk fat mass. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report the opposite associations of trunk and leg fat depots with plasma ferritin levels.

  5. A Probabilistic Tool that Aids Logistics Engineers in the Establishment of High Confidence Repair Need-Dates at the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullington, J. V.; Winkler, J. C.; Linton, D. G.; Khajenoori, S.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) is tasked with the responsibility for repair and manufacture of Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) hardware and components to support the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Due to shrinking budgets, cost effective repair of LRU's becomes a primary objective. To achieve this objective, is imperative that resources be assigned to those LRU's which have the greatest expectation of being needed as a spare. Forecasting the times at which spares are needed requires consideration of many significant factors including: failure rate, flight rate, spares availability, and desired level of support, among others. This paper summarizes the results of the research and development work that has been accomplished in producing an automated tool that assists in the assignment of effective repair start-times for LRU's at the NSLD. This system, called the Repair Start-time Assessment System (RSAS), uses probabilistic modeling technology to calculate a need date for a repair that considers the current repair pipeline status, as well as, serviceable spares and projections of future demands. The output from the system is a date for beginning the repair that has significantly greater confidence (in the sense that a desired probability of support is ensured) than times produced using other techniques. Since an important output of RSAS is the longest repair turn-around time that will ensure a desired probability of support, RSAS has the potential for being applied to operations at any repair depot where spares are on-hand and repair start-times are of interest. In addition, RSAS incorporates tenants of Just-in-Time (JIT) techniques in that the latest repair start-time (i.e., the latest time at which repair resources must be committed) may be calculated for every failed unit This could reduce the spares inventory for certain items, without significantly increasing the risk of unsatisfied demand.

  6. The Impact of Intra-articular Depot Betamethasone Injection on Insulin Resistance Among Diabetic Patients With Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, George; Chernin, Mark; Sakas, Fahed; Artul, Suheil; Jabbour, Adel; Jabaly-Habib, Haneen

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intra-articular corticosteroid injection (IACI) of depot betamethasone at the knee joint on insulin resistance (IR). Patients with type 2 diabetes, non-insulin treated, with painful osteoarthritis of the knee were requested to participate in our study. After consent, demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were documented in addition to fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting blood insulin levels just prior to IACI of 1 mL of depot betamethasone. Fasting blood glucose and fasting blood insulin levels were repeated the next day following the IACI and 8 days later. Age- and sex-matched group of patients with type 2 diabetes from the same clinic were recruited as a control group (case-control study). Insulin resistance was calculated using Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance. Mann-Whitney U test, χ test, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used for statistical analysis. Eleven patients were recruited in the patients' group and 10 patients in the control group. Median FBG in the patients' group at baseline was 148 ± 51 mg/dL, and median IR was 5.12 ± 2.46. One day following the IACI, median FBG level was 247 ± 104 mg/dL (P = 0.004, compared with baseline), with median IR of 20.8 ± 7.01 (P = 0.0039). The median ratios of blood glucose and IR 1 day following the IACI compared with baseline were 1.7 and 4.1, respectively. Eight days following the IACI, mean FBG and IR levels were not significantly different from baseline. Intra-articular corticosteroid injection of betamethasone at the knee joint among patients with diabetes was associated with a significant increase in IR levels compared with baseline levels, 1 day following the injection. The mean percentage of increase in IR was higher than that for FBG levels.

  7. Intramuscular depot formulations of leuprolide acetate suppress testosterone levels below a 20 ng/dL threshold: a retrospective analysis of two Phase III studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitz A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aaron Spitz,1 Marc Gittelman,2 Lawrence I Karsh,3 Sanja Dragnic,4 Ahmed M Soliman,5 Aditya Lele,6 Damian Gruca,7 Michael Norton4 1Orange County Urology Associates, Laguna Beach, CA, 221st Century Oncology/UroMedix-Aventura Division, Aventura, FL, 3The Urology Center of Colorado, Denver, CO, 4US Medical Affairs, 5Health Economics and Outcomes Research, 6Data and Statistical Sciences, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA; 7Global Medical Affairs, AbbVie Deutschland, Ludwigshafen, Germany Introduction: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogs is a standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer. GnRH analog therapy can reduce testosterone to “castrate” levels, historically defined as <50 ng/dL. With the advent of newer assays, a lower threshold of <20 ng/dL has recently been proposed. We report the results of a retrospective analysis of two Phase III trials of 4- and 6-month depot microsphere formulations of leuprolide acetate (LA, a GnRH agonist that has previously demonstrated efficacy in testosterone suppression to <50 ng/dL in patients on ADT. This analysis investigates the ability of these LA formulations to suppress to ≤20 ng/dL levels.Methods: In two of five AbbVie/Abbott clinical trials of microsphere formulations of LA for ADT, analytic technology permitting testosterone detection as low as 3 ng/dL was used and thus was selected for this analysis. Both trials were open-label, fixed-dose studies in prostate cancer patients, naïve to ADT. Patients received either 30 mg (4-month formulation; n=49 or 45 mg (6-month formulation; n=151 depot injections of LA microspheres. Treatment duration was up to 32 weeks for the 4-month formulation and 48 weeks for the 6-month formulation. The proportion of patients achieving the 20 ng/dL threshold was determined every 4 weeks.Results: Pooled analysis showed that 152 of 193 (79% of patients achieved serum testosterone levels of ≤20 ng/dL at 4 weeks, and

  8. Influence of adipocyte size and adipose depot on the in vitro lipolytic activity and insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue in dairy cows at the end of the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Van den Broeck, W; Hulpio, L; Claeys, E; Van Eetvelde, M; Hermans, K; Hostens, M; Fievez, V; Opsomer, G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present research was to describe characteristics of adipose tissue lipolysis in dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS). Ten clinically healthy Holstein Friesian cows were selected based on BCS and euthanized 10 to 13 d before the expected parturition date. Immediately after euthanasia, adipose tissue samples were collected from subcutaneous and omental fat depots. In both depots, we observed an increase in adipocyte size with increasing BCS. Using an in vitro explant culture of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue, we aimed to determine the influence of adipocyte size and localization of adipose depot on the lipolytic activity in basal conditions and after addition of isoproterenol (nonselective β-agonist) and insulin in different concentrations. Glycerol release in the medium was used as a measure for lipolytic activity. We observed that the basal lipolytic activity of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue increased with adipocyte volume, meaning that larger fat cells have higher basal lipolytic activity independent of the location of the adipose depot. Dose-response curves were created between the concentration of isoproterenol or insulin and the amount of glycerol released. The shape of the dose-response curves is determined by the concentration of isoproterenol and insulin needed to elicit the half-maximal effect and the maximal amount of stimulated glycerol release or the maximal inhibitory effect of insulin. We observed that larger fat cells released more glycerol upon maximal stimulation with isoproterenol and this was more pronounced in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Additionally, larger fat cells had a higher sensitivity toward lipolytic signals. We observed a trend for larger adipocytes to be more resistant to the maximal antilipolytic effect of insulin. The insulin concentration needed to elicit the half-maximal inhibitory effect of insulin was within the physiological range of insulin and was not influenced by adipocyte

  9. Comparison of Continuation Rates and Reasons of Discontinuation for Cyclofem and Depot -medroxyprogesterone acetate in Rural Areas of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Hassanzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study continuation rate and reasons for discontinuation of Depot-medroxyprogestroneacetate (DMPAand Cyclofem have been compared.Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 422 women (202 Cyclofemand220 DMPA userswho had started using the methods 12-24 months before the study in East Azerbaijanhealth houses. Data were collected by reviewing the records and interview with the clients and analysedusing Kaplan-Meier and Cox Regression.Results: The 3, 6, 9, 12 months continuation rate were 56%, 37%, 30%, 27% respectively for Cyclofemversus 75%, 59.5%, 48%, 42.5% for DMPA. Menstrual changes were reported significantly more by theDMPA users than the Cyclofem users (85% vs. 73%, P=0.008 as the main reason for thediscontinuation, the difference mainly reflected of amenorrhea (50% vs. 23%, P=0.003. None of DMPAusers and 11% of Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits and lack of method supplies as their maindiscontinuation reason.Conclusion: Discontinuation rate was high for the both methods but it was higher for Cyclofem.Thecommon side effects mentioned as the main reasons for discontinuation of the both methods are nothealth threatening. Therefore, health care providers may help to improve their continuation rate byappropriate consultation.

  10. One-week glucose control via zero-order release kinetics from an injectable depot of glucagon-like peptide-1 fused to a thermosensitive biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginbuhl, Kelli M; Schaal, Jeffrey L; Umstead, Bret; Mastria, Eric M; Li, Xinghai; Banskota, Samagya; Arnold, Susan; Feinglos, Mark; D'Alessio, David; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Stimulation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor is a useful treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes because of pleiotropic effects, including the regulation of islet hormones and the induction of satiety. However, the native ligand for the GLP1 receptor has a short half-live owing to enzymatic inactivation and rapid clearance. Here, we show that a subcutaneous depot formed after a single injection of GLP1 recombinantly fused to a thermosensitive elastin-like polypeptide results in zero-order release kinetics and circulation times of up to 10 days in mice and 17 days in monkeys. The optimized pharmacokinetics leads to 10 days of glycemic control in three different mouse models of diabetes, as well as to the reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin levels and weight gain in ob/ob mice treated once weekly for 8 weeks. Our results suggest that the optimized GLP1 formulation could enhance therapeutic outcomes by eliminating peak-and-valley pharmacokinetics and improving overall safety and tolerability. The design principles that we established should be broadly applicable for improving the pharmacological performance of other peptide and protein therapeutics.

  11. Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Heymsfield, Steven B; Grunfeld, Carl

    2008-06-01

    Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects. We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors. In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r HDL, WC appeared to be the best anthropometric correlate of metabolic complications, whereas, for triglycerides, the best was WHR. Relations of simple anthropometric measures with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are approximately as strong as MRI-measured whole-body adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.

  12. The role of social cost-benefit analysis in societal decision-making under large uncertainties with application to robbery at a cash depot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones-Lee, M.; Aven, T.

    2009-01-01

    Social cost-benefit analysis is a well-established method for guiding decisions about safety investments, particularly in situations in which it is possible to make accurate predictions of future performance. However, its direct applicability to situations involving large degrees of uncertainty is less obvious and this raises the question of the extent to which social cost-benefit analysis can provide a useful input to the decision framework that has been explicitly developed to deal with safety decisions in which uncertainty is a major factor, namely risk analysis. This is the main focus of the arguments developed in this paper. In particular, we provide new insights by examining the fundamentals of both approaches and our principal conclusion is that social cost-benefit analysis and risk analysis represent complementary input bases to the decision-making process, and even in the case of large uncertainties social cost-benefit analysis may provide very useful decision support. What is required is the establishment of a proper contextual framework which structures and gives adequate weight to the uncertainties. An application to the possibility of a robbery at a cash depot is examined as a practical example.

  13. Effect of Injection Minimal Dosages of Depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA to Body Weight and Blood Chemistry Male Rat Strain Sprague-Dawley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nukman Moeloek

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Many family planning program focus more on men. Until now, vasectomy has been the commonly used method for male contraception. However, this method creates inconvenience such as irreversibility and psychological problems. One of the alternatives contraception is the combination of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and androgen. The minimum dosage of DMPA could suppress testosterone level that leads to reduced spermatogenesis and sperm viability. Nevertheless, until now it is not known whether minimum dosages of DMPA have an effect to body weight and blood chemistry. Therefore, this research aimed at determinate the effect of minimal dosages of DMPA to body mass and blood chemistry using male rats (Rattus norvegicus L. strain Sprague-Dawley as model. This research using completely randomized design, unequal size sample, castration treatments and several doses DMPA (1.25, 0.625, and 0.313 milligram. Injecting of DMPA conducted intramuscularly on week 0 and week 12. Normality/homogeneity Data normality were analyzed before ANOVA test. Then, abnormal data were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test. The result shows that injection of DMPA in various doses do not have an effect on body weight and blood chemistry such as erytrocytes, haemoglobin, hematocrite, HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, SGOT, SGPT and triglyseride (p>0,05. Furthermore, it is concluded that that no effect of minimal dosages of DMPA to body mass and blood chemistry of rat.

  14. The Washington Needle Depot: fitting healthcare to injection drug users rather than injection drug users to healthcare: moving from a syringe exchange to syringe distribution model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glickman Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Needle exchange programs chase political as well as epidemiological dragons, carrying within them both implicit moral and political goals. In the exchange model of syringe distribution, injection drug users (IDUs must provide used needles in order to receive new needles. Distribution and retrieval are co-existent in the exchange model. Likewise, limitations on how many needles can be received at a time compel addicts to have multiple points of contact with professionals where the virtues of treatment and detox are impressed upon them. The centre of gravity for syringe distribution programs needs to shift from needle exchange to needle distribution, which provides unlimited access to syringes. This paper provides a case study of the Washington Needle Depot, a program operating under the syringe distribution model, showing that the distribution and retrieval of syringes can be separated with effective results. Further, the experience of IDUs is utilized, through paid employment, to provide a vulnerable population of people with clean syringes to prevent HIV and HCV.

  15. In situ depot comprising phase-change materials that can sustainably release a gasotransmitter H2S to treat diabetic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chih; Huang, Chieh-Cheng; Lin, Shu-Jyuan; Li, Meng-Ju; Chang, Yen; Lin, Yu-Jung; Wan, Wei-Lin; Shih, Po-Chien; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2017-11-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus are prone to develop refractory wounds. They exhibit reduced synthesis and levels of circulating hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which is an ephemeral gaseous molecule. Physiologically, H 2 S is an endogenous gasotransmitter with multiple biological functions. An emulsion method is utilized to prepare a microparticle system that comprises phase-change materials with a nearly constant temperature of phase transitions to encapsulate sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a highly water-labile H 2 S donor. An emulsion technique that can minimize the loss of water-labile active compounds during emulsification must be developed. The as-prepared microparticles (NaHS@MPs) provide an in situ depot for the sustained release of exogenous H 2 S under physiological conditions. The sustained release of H 2 S promotes several cell behaviors, including epidermal/endothelial cell proliferation and migration, as well as angiogenesis, by extending the activation of cellular ERK1/2 and p38, accelerating the healing of full-thickness wounds in diabetic mice. These experimental results reveal the strong potential of NaHS@MPs for the sustained release of H 2 S for the treatment of diabetic wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantity and quality of guinea pig (cavia porcellus) spermatozoa after administration of methanol extract of bitter melon (momordica charantia) seed and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Syafruddin; Hutahaean, Salomo; Nursal

    2018-03-01

    The discovery of male contraceptive drugs continues to be pursued, due to the few participation of men associated with the lack of contraceptive options for men. The combination of bitter melon seed methanol extract and DMPA are the options that currently apply to men. Therefore, the use of guinea pigs as experimental animals conducted research using experimental methods with complete randomized design (CRD). There are 4 control groups and 4 treatment groups. The first group, control group of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 0 week (K0), The second one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g Body Weight/day for 0 week (P0), the third one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 4 weeks (K1), the fourth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 4 weeks + Depot medroxy Progesterone Acetate (P1), the fifth one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 8 weeks (K2), the sixth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 8 weeks + DMPA (P2), the seventh one, control group of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 12 weeks (K3), the eighth one, bitter melon seed extract of 50 mg/100g BW/day for 12 weeks + DMPA (P3). Methanol extract of bitter melon seed to decrease the quantity and quality of guinea pig spermatozoa decreased significantly, i.e. viability and normal morphology of spermatozoa (p<0.05).

  17. Longitudinal profiling of the tissue-specific expression of genes related with insulin sensitivity in dairy cows during lactation focusing on different fat depots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Saremi

    Full Text Available In dairy cows the milk associated energy output in early lactation exceeds the input via voluntary feed intake. To spare glucose for mammary lactose synthesis, peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS is reduced and fat mobilization is stimulated. For these processes a link between IS and the endocrine functions of adipose tissue (AT is likely; we thus aimed to characterise the mRNA expression from bovine AT derived proteins and receptors that are related to IS according to the literature in metabolically active tissues plus systemic IS throughout lactation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA reduce milk fat thus decreasing the milk drain of energy and potentially dampening lipolysis, but may also affect IS. Subcutaneous (s.c. AT and liver from pluriparous cows receiving either control fat or CLA supplement (100 g/day from 1 to 182 days in milk each were biopsied covering week -3 to 36 relative to parturition. In an additional trial with primiparous cows treated analogously and slaughtered on days in milk 1, 42 or 105, samples from liver, udder, skeletal muscle and 3 visceral and 3 s.c. AT were obtained and assayed for mRNA abundance of adiponectin, its receptors, leptin, leptin receptor, PPARγ, PPARγ2, IL-6, and TNF-α. In pluriparous animals, the mRNA abundance of most of the target genes decreased after parturition in s.c. AT but increased in liver. In primiparous cows, AT depot specific differences were mostly related to retroperitoneal AT; adiponectin receptor 1 and TNF-α were affected predominantly. CLA effects in primiparous cows were largely limited to decreased PPARγ2 mRNA abundance in udder tissue. In pluriparous cows, insulin secretion was increased by CLA resulting in decreased systemic IS but without consistent changes in tissue target mRNA abundance. The temporal gene expression profiles from the adipokines and related receptors support their coactive function in adapting to the needs of lactation.

  18. Longitudinal Profiling of the Tissue-Specific Expression of Genes Related with Insulin Sensitivity in Dairy Cows during Lactation Focusing on Different Fat Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Behnam; Winand, Sarah; Friedrichs, Paula; Kinoshita, Asako; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Häussler, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Mielenz, Manfred; Sauerwein, Helga

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cows the milk associated energy output in early lactation exceeds the input via voluntary feed intake. To spare glucose for mammary lactose synthesis, peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS) is reduced and fat mobilization is stimulated. For these processes a link between IS and the endocrine functions of adipose tissue (AT) is likely; we thus aimed to characterise the mRNA expression from bovine AT derived proteins and receptors that are related to IS according to the literature in metabolically active tissues plus systemic IS throughout lactation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce milk fat thus decreasing the milk drain of energy and potentially dampening lipolysis, but may also affect IS. Subcutaneous (s.c.) AT and liver from pluriparous cows receiving either control fat or CLA supplement (100 g/day from 1 to 182 days in milk each) were biopsied covering week −3 to 36 relative to parturition. In an additional trial with primiparous cows treated analogously and slaughtered on days in milk 1, 42 or 105, samples from liver, udder, skeletal muscle and 3 visceral and 3 s.c. AT were obtained and assayed for mRNA abundance of adiponectin, its receptors, leptin, leptin receptor, PPARγ, PPARγ2, IL-6, and TNF-α. In pluriparous animals, the mRNA abundance of most of the target genes decreased after parturition in s.c. AT but increased in liver. In primiparous cows, AT depot specific differences were mostly related to retroperitoneal AT; adiponectin receptor 1 and TNF-α were affected predominantly. CLA effects in primiparous cows were largely limited to decreased PPARγ2 mRNA abundance in udder tissue. In pluriparous cows, insulin secretion was increased by CLA resulting in decreased systemic IS but without consistent changes in tissue target mRNA abundance. The temporal gene expression profiles from the adipokines and related receptors support their coactive function in adapting to the needs of lactation. PMID:24465964

  19. Effect of treatment with depot somatostatin analogue octreotide on primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiano, Antongiulio; Tavares, Lidice Brandao; Tauchmanova, Libuse; Milone, Francesco; Mansueto, Gelsomina; Ramundo, Valeria; De Caro, Maria Laura Del Basso; Lombardi, Gaetano; De Rosa, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria

    2008-11-01

    In patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), expression of somatostatin receptor (SST) in parathyroid adenomas and effectiveness of therapy with somatostatin analogues on primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) have been scarcely investigated. To evaluate the effects of depot long acting octreotide (OCT-LAR) in patients with MEN1-related PHP. Eight patients with a genetically confirmed MEN1, presenting both PHP and duodeno-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NET), were enrolled. The initial treatment was OCT-LAR 30 mg every 4 weeks. This therapy was established to stabilize the duodeno-pancreatic NET before to perform parathyroidectomy for PHP. Before OCT-LAR therapy, a SST scintigraphy was performed in all patients. SST subtype 2A immunohistochemistry was performed on parathyroid tumour samples from three patients undergone parathyroidectomy after OCT-LAR therapy. Serum concentrations of PTH, calcium and phosphorus as well as the 24-h urine calcium : creatinine ratio and the renal threshold phosphate concentration were evaluated before and after OCT-LAR. After OCT-LAR therapy, hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria normalized in 75% and 62.5% of patients, respectively, and serum phosphorus and renal threshold phosphate significantly increased. Serum PTH concentrations significantly decreased in all patients and normalized in two of them. SST subtype 2A immunostaining was found in all parathyroid adenomas investigated, while SST scintigraphy showed a positive parathyroid tumour uptake in three of eight patients (37.5%). Six months of OCT-LAR therapy controlled hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria in two-thirds of patients with MEN1-related PHP. Direct OCT-LAR effects mediated by binding to SST expression on parathyroid tumour cells are likely the main mechanism to explain the activity of this compound on calcium and phosphorus abnormalities in MEN1 PHP.

  20. Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in HIV-infected and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Punyanitya, Mark; Heymsfield, Steven B; Grunfeld, Carl

    2008-10-01

    Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared adipose tissue measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but no such study has been conducted in HIV-infected (HIV+) subjects, who have a high prevalence of regional fat loss. We compared DXA- with MRI-measured trunk, leg, arm, and total fat in HIV+ and control subjects. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 877 HIV+ subjects and 260 control subjects in FRAM (Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection), stratified by sex and HIV status. Univariate associations of DXA with MRI were strongest for total and trunk fat (r > or = 0.92) and slightly weaker for leg (r > or = 0.87) and arm (r > or = 0.71) fat. The average estimated limb fat was substantially greater for DXA than for MRI for HIV+ and control men and women (all P < 0.0001). Less of a difference was observed in trunk fat measured by DXA and MRI, but the difference was still statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Bland-Altman plots showed increasing differences and variability. Greater average limb fat in control and HIV+ subjects (both P < 0.0001) was associated with greater differences between DXA and MRI measurements. Because the control subjects had more limb fat than did the HIV+ subjects, greater amounts of fat were measured by DXA than by MRI when control subjects were compared with HIV+ subjects. More HIV+ subjects had leg fat in the bottom decile of the control subjects by DXA than by MRI (P < 0.0001). Although DXA- and MRI-measured adipose tissue depots correlate strongly in HIV+ and control subjects, differences increase as average fat increases, particularly for limb fat. DXA may estimate a higher prevalence of peripheral lipoatrophy than does MRI in HIV+ subjects.

  1. Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging–measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects. Objective We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects. Design The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors. Results In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r ≤ 0.07). Multivariate adjustment found no significant difference for optimally fitting models between the use of anthropometric and MRI measures, and the magnitudes of differences were small (adjusted R2 ≤ 0.06). For HOMA and HDL, WC appeared to be the best anthropometric correlate of metabolic complications, whereas, for triglycerides, the best was WHR. Conclusion Relations of simple anthropometric measures with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are approximately as strong as MRI-measured whole-body adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects. PMID:18541572

  2. Effectiveness, pharmacokinetics, and safety of a new sustained-release leuprolide acetate 3.75-mg depot formulation for testosterone suppression in patients with prostate cancer: a Phase III, open-label, international multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marberger, Michael; Kaisary, Amir V; Shore, Neal D; Karlin, Gary S; Savulsky, Claudio; Mis, Ricard; Leuratti, Chiara; Germa, Josep R

    2010-04-01

    A microencapsulated, sustained-release formulation of leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg has been developed. This study investigated the effectiveness, pharmacokinetics, and safety profile of a 1-month leuprolide acetate 3.75-mg depot formulation for suppressing testosterone concentrations in patients with prostate cancer. This was a Phase III, open-label, international multicenter clinical trial. Patients with prostate cancer who, in the judgment of the investigators, could benefit from androgen deprivation therapy received 6 monthly intramuscular injections of leuprolide acetate 3.75-mg depot. Plasma testosterone concentrations were determined at specific times throughout the study. The primary end point was the proportion of successful patients over the total number of evaluable patients (ie, patients with evaluable testosterone concentrations at all monthly assessments and no missing values due to treatment-related adverse events). Treatment success was defined as testosterone suppression below the clinical castration level (ie, n = 12), showed sustained release of leuprolide from the formulation. Values for AUC(0-t) calculated from day 0 to day 28, days 28 to 56, and days 56 to 84 were 25,976.5 (7892.0), 30,685.5 (9348.4), and 31,030.9 (10,745.0) pg/mL per day, respectively. The most common treatment-related adverse event was hot flashes (45.0% [72/160]). Fatigue, hyperhidrosis, night sweats, and headache each occurred in depot was effective in achieving and maintaining testosterone suppression and was well tolerated throughout the study in this cohort of patients with prostate cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00128531.

  3. Deposition of pyrolytic carbon from methane in the pores of artificial graphites. Influence of the temperature (1961); Depot de carbone pyrolytique dans les pores de graphites artificiels a partir de methane. Influence de la temperature (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, R; Bochirol, L; Moreau, C; Philippot, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    it is shown that below 1000 deg. C the carbon formed by the decomposition of methane is deposited at a depth of up to several centimetres in the porosity of graphitic supports; the probable mechanism of these reactions is given. (authors) [French] On montre qu'en dessous de 1000 deg. C le depot de carbone par decomposition de methane se produit jusqu'a une profondeur de plusieurs dizaines de millimetres dans la porosite de supports graphites, et l'on indique le mecanisme probable de ces reactions. (auteurs)

  4. Pre-injection of hyaluronic acid does not affect the systemic effects of intra-articular depot betamethasone injection at the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, George; Khatib, Muhamad; Sakas, Fahed; Artul, Suheil; Jabaly-Habib, Haneen

    2017-01-01

    Intra-articular injection (IAI) of both hyaluronic acid (HA) and depot-steroid preparations had the advantage of quick and prolonged favorable effects on pain relief among patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK). The effect of IAI of HA on the systemic effects of the intra-articular steroids had not been investigated. Non-selected patients attending the rheumatology clinic with symptomatic OAK who failed NSAIDS and physical therapy were offered an IAI of HA at the knee joint followed 20 min later by an IAI of 1 ml of Celestone Chronodose at the same joint (group 1). Morning serum levels of cortisol were obtained just prior to the IAI and 1, 2 and 8 days later. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were obtained also from all the patients. Age- and sex-matched group of patients from the same clinic were recruited as a control group (group 2). Mean baseline serum cortisol levels in group 1 was 381 ± 154 mmol/l vs. 376 ± 119 in group 2 (p = 0.954). Morning serum cortisol levels at day 1 and day 2 were 24 ± 6 and 22 ± 6 mmol/l, respectively, in group 1 patients vs. 27 ± 5.8 (p = 0.214) and 25 ± 5.6 mmol/l (p = 0.200), respectively, in group 2. These levels were significantly lower than baseline levels in each group. Morning serum cortisol levels at day 8 in group 1 and group 2 were 349 ± 128 and 314 ± 99 mmol/l, respectively (p = 0.419). Pre-injection of HA at the knee joint did not affect the systemic effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of IAI of Celestone Chronodose.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport and dose deposition from locally released gold nanoparticles labeled with 111In, 177Lu or 90Y incorporated into tissue implantable depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Priscilla; Cai, Zhongli; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Lechtman, Eli; Mashouf, Shahram; Lu, Yijie; Winnik, Mitchell A.; Jaffray, David A.; Reilly, Raymond M.

    2017-11-01

    Permanent seed implantation (PSI) brachytherapy is a highly conformal form of radiation therapy but is challenged with dose inhomogeneity due to its utilization of low energy radiation sources. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) conjugated with electron emitting radionuclides have recently been developed as a novel form of brachytherapy and can aid in homogenizing dose through physical distribution of radiolabeled AuNP when injected intratumorally (IT) in suspension. However, the distribution is unpredictable and precise placement of many injections would be difficult. Previously, we reported the design of a nanoparticle depot (NPD) that can be implanted using PSI techniques and which facilitates controlled release of AuNP. We report here the 3D dose distribution resulting from a NPD incorporating AuNP labeled with electron emitters (90Y, 177Lu, 111In) of different energies using Monte Carlo based voxel level dosimetry. The MCNP5 Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to assess differences in dose distribution from simulated NPD and conventional brachytherapy sources, positioned in breast tissue simulating material. We further compare these dose distributions in mice bearing subcutaneous human breast cancer xenografts implanted with 177Lu-AuNP NPD, or injected IT with 177Lu-AuNP in suspension. The radioactivity distributions were derived from registered SPECT/CT images and time-dependent dose was estimated. Results demonstrated that the dose distribution from NPD reduced the maximum dose 3-fold when compared to conventional seeds. For simulated NPD, as well as NPD implanted in vivo, 90Y delivered the most homogeneous dose distribution. The tumor radioactivity in mice IT injected with 177Lu-AuNP redistributed while radioactivity in the NPD remained confined to the implant site. The dose distribution from radiolabeled AuNP NPD were predictable and concentric in contrast to IT injected radiolabeled AuNP, which provided irregular and temporally variant dose distributions

  6. Measurements and Clinical Findings on Thorotrast Deposits in the Kidney; Mesures et Observations Cliniques Faites sur des Depots de Thorotrast dans le Rein; 0418 0417 041c 0414 ; Determinaciones y Datos Clinicos Relativos a los Depositos Renales de Torotrasto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberhausen, E.; Muth, H.; Grillmaier, R. [Institut Fuer Biophysik der Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg (Saar), Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1964-11-15

    There exists a relatively large number of publications about Thorotrast deposits in, the reticulo-endothelial system and the clinical findings caused by these deposits. But only, a few cases with Thorotrast deposits in the kidney have been reported. Despite this it is to be expected that there are numerous patients with Thorotrast deposits in the kidneys, because Thorotrast has been used very often as a contrast medium in retrograde pyelographies. Under normal conditions all the Thorotrast should have been swept out of the kidney with, the urine. But if it was applied under higher pressure or if there existed an infection of the Sidney at the same time, part of the Thorotrast might have, been deposited in the tissues. It is possible that a higher number of these deposits is not recognized in X-ray pictures because they look very similar to calcium deposits in the kidney and some experience is needed to distinguish calcium from Thorotrast deposits. In co-operation with our urological clinic we have found seven cases in the last years. When there was only a deposit in one kidney, which was the case in six patients, the or organ was taken out. Histological examination showed five carcinomas and in one kidney there were already enormous degenerative changes. According to our observations the time necessary for the development of carcinoma is between 20 and 25 yr. In two cases we have been able to measure the patient in the whole-body counter and to measure the radioactive substances in the urine and the thoron in the breath. All these, measurements have been done before and after nephrectomy. The gamma-rays of the isolated organ itself have also been measured. From these measurements an evaluation of radiation dose is possible. (author) [French] Il existe un nombre relativement grand de publications sur les depots de thorotrast dans le systeme reticuloendothelial et les phenomenes cliniques provoques par ces depots. Par contre on n'a signale que peu de cas de depots de

  7. Geochemical evidence of groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Henry, David W.; Langman, Jeffery B.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an environmental investigation at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, interpreted aqueous geochemical concentrations to better understand the groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer underlying the study area. The fine-grained nature of the alluvial matrix creates a highly heterogeneous environment, which adds to the difficulty of characterizing the flow of groundwater and the fate of aqueous constituents of concern. The analysis of the groundwater geochemical data collected in October 2009 provides evidence that is used to identify four groundwater flow paths and their extent in the aquifer and indicates the dominant attenuation processes for the constituents of concern. The extent and interaction of groundwater flow paths were delineated by the major ion concentrations and their relations to each other. Four areas of groundwater recharge to the study area were identified based on groundwater elevations, hydrogeologic characteristics, and geochemical and isotopic evidence. One source of recharge enters the study area from the saturated alluvial deposits underlying the South Fork of the Puerco River to the north of the study area. A second source of recharge is shown to originate from a leaky cistern containing production water from the San Andres-Glorieta aquifer. The other two sources of recharge are shown to enter the study area from the south: one from an arroyo valley draining an area to the south and one from hill-front recharge that passes under the reported release of perchlorate and explosive constituents. The spatial extent and interaction of groundwater originating from these various sources along identified flow paths affect the persistence and attenuation of constituents of concern. It was determined that groundwater originating in the area of a former explosives’ wash-out operation and an

  8. The DHEA-sulfate depot following P450c17 inhibition supports the case for AKR1C3 inhibition in high risk localized and advanced castration resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamae, Daniel; Mostaghel, Elahe; Montgomery, Bruce; Nelson, Peter S; Balk, Steven P; Kantoff, Philip W; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Penning, Trevor M

    2015-06-05

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Treatment of localized high-risk disease and de novo metastatic disease frequently leads to relapse. These metastatic castration resistant prostate cancers (mCRPC) claim a high mortality rate, despite the extended survival afforded by the growing armamentarium of androgen deprivation, radiation and immunotherapies. Here, we review two studies of neoadjuvant treatment of high-risk localized prostate cancer prior to prostatectomy, the total androgen pathway suppression (TAPS) trial and the neoadjuvant abiraterone acetate (AA) trial. These two trials assessed the efficacy of the non-specific P450c17 inhibitor, ketoconazole and the specific P450c17 inhibitor, AA, to inhibit tissue and serum androgen levels. Furthermore, a novel and validated stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assay was used to accurately quantify adrenal and gonadal androgens in circulation during the course of these trials. The adrenal androgens, Δ(4)-androstene-3,17-dione, dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were significantly reduced in the patients receiving ketoconazole or AA compared to those who did not. However, in both trials, a significant amount of DHEA-S (∼20 μg/dL) persists and thus may serve as a depot for intratumoral conversion to the potent androgen receptor ligands, testosterone (T) and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The final step in conversion of Δ(4)-androstene-3,17-dione and 5α-androstanedione to T and DHT, respectively, is catalyzed by AKR1C3. We therefore present the case that in the context of the DHEA-S depot, P450c17 and AKR1C3 inhibition may be an effective combinatorial treatment strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spironolactone Therapy in Chronic Stable Right HF Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-12

    Chronic Right-Sided Heart Failure; Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension; Pulmonary Hypertension, Primary, 2; Pulmonary Hypertension, Primary, 3; Pulmonary Hypertension, Primary, 4; Cardiomyopathy Right Ventricular

  10. Comparison between a single dose of goserelin (depot) and multiple daily doses of leuprolide acetate for pituitary suppression in IVF treatment: a clinical endocrinological study of the ovarian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Sales, Liana; Sampaio, Marcos A C

    2002-07-01

    Compare the efficacy and safety of two different GnRHa, used for pituitary suppression in IVF cycles. A total of 292 patients using depot goserelin (Group 1) and 167 using daily leuprolide acetate (Group 2) were compared. Days required to achieve pituitary function suppression, duration of ovarian stimulation, total dose of HMG, number of aspirated follicles, number of oocytes retrieved, and presence of functional ovarian cyst were analyzed. The time taken to achieve downregulation was similar. The mean number of ampoules used for superovulation was higher in Group 1; however, this difference was observed only for patients >40 years old that started GnRHa in the follicular phase. There was no difference between the two groups in the duration of superovulation, in the number of follicles aspirated, and the number of oocytes retrieved. In the group of patients with >40 years the incidence of ovarian cysts was higher in Group 2. Both routes of GnRHa have similar effects for pituitary suppression and ovulation induction in assisted reproductive technology. Therefore the long-acting GnRHa is an excellent option, as only a single subcutaneous dose is necessary, decreasing the risk of the patient to forget its use and, most important, it does not interfere in the patient's quality of life.

  11. Theoretical and experimental study of a calorimetric technique for measuring energy deposition in materials caused by complex pile irradiation; Etude theorique et experimentale d'une technique calorimetrique de mesure des depots d'energie dans les materiaux dus au rayonnement complexe de pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, P; Sciers, P; Droulers, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1962-07-01

    Calorimetric methods may be used to measure gamma fluxes greater than 10{sup 6} r/h near the cores of swimming pool reactors. The theory, design, and properties of isothermal calorimeters are discussed, and experimental results obtained with two types are presented. Measurement of energy deposition in materials and the long term integration of energy depositions are other uses of these devices. Results of measurements on heat deposition in steel and water are given. Fluxes were also measured. (authors) [French] Une premiere partie traite de la theorie des calorimetres isothermes mis en oeuvre au C.K.N. Grenoble. La puissance deposee dans le calorimetre par les flux de rayonnement echauffe celui-ci. L'echauffement est mesure a l'aide d'un thermocouple. On montre que l'on a ainsi une mesure absolue de cette puissance. Une deuxieme partie traite de l'etude experimentale de: deux types d'appareils utilises: leur construction, les resultats experimentaux, leurs utilisations. Trois de celles-ci sont particulierement interessantes: - la mesure des hauts flux gamma, - la mesure du depot d'energie dans les materiaux, - l'integration pendant une longue duree des depots d'energie (un modele de calorimetre a fonctionne a ce jour 2 500 heures et a integre 9 x 10 puissance 10 rads gamma et 6 x 10 puissance 18 neutrons rapides). La troisieme partie est consacree a l'etude des qualites de l'appareil: robustesse, fidelite, precision, sensibilite, gamme de mesure. Enfin dans la derniere partie sont decrites deux applications de la methode calorimetrique a la mesure du depot d'energie dans un acier special et dans l'eau. (auteurs)

  12. COMBINATION OF A MINIMAL DOSAGE OF DEPOT MEDROXY PROGESTERONE ACETATE AND JAVANESSE LONG PEPPER EXTRACT ON THE BODY WEIGHT, HEMATOLOGY, AND BLOOD BIOCHEMISTRY OF MALE RATS AS A SAFETY CONTRACEPTION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nukman Moeloek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of male hormonal contraception is based on the decrease in the sperm concentration and it does notaffect libido and sexual potency. The combination of depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA + extract ofJavanese long pepper (JLP with dosages of 0.94 mg and 1.88 mg decreases the concentration of spermatozoa.However, it remains unknown whether the combination influences body weight, hematology, and blood biochemistry.Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the effect of DMPA + JLP extracts on the body weight, hematology, and bloodbiochemistry of male rats (Rattus norvegicus L. strains of Sprague-Dawley. The research uses a completelyrandomized design (CRD; one group control and two treatment groups. In the first group, the castration rats were givenoral administration extracts of JLP (CJ with doses of 0, 0.94, 1.88, 2.82, and 3.76 mg. In the second group, the ratswere injected with 1.25 mg DMPA and given an oral administration extract of JLP. Injection was given in week-0 and12. Administration was conducted every day from week 7-18. Analysis of the normality and homogeneity of data isdone before the test ANOVA. Data that is abnormal and not homogeneous are tested with non-parametric statisticalKruskal-Wallis. This study shows that the combination of minimal doses of DMPA and administration various doses ofextracts of JLP does not affect body weight and hematology (erythrocyte, hemoglobin, hematocrite, and the bloodbiochemistry of rats, such as the values of SGPT, SGOT, HDL, and triglycerides (p < 0.05, but rather the totalcholesterol and LDL (p < 0.05. Furthermore, it is concluded that the combination of the minimal dosage of DMPA andweaned various dosages of JLP extracts affect the total value and LDL cholesterol but do not influence body weight,nor hematology and blood biochemistry. Such combination can be drawn on for a male contraceptive model that is safeby taking into account the value of the total cholesterol and LDL

  13. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Prevention of emissions of gasoline vapor from oil depots in Indonesia; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Indonesia sekiyu kichi nado kara no gasoline joki hoshutsu no boshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A field survey was conducted of oil shipment depots in Java and Bali islands owned by Indonesia's state-run oil company to study measures for reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Studies were made on the grasp of the amount of the hydrocarbon vapor emitted into the air, the amount of the gasoline recovered in case of adopting the vapor emission preventive technology, equipment cost/operational cost, etc. Concretely, the following three were studied: change of the gasoline storage tank to the inner floating roof type, and prevention of evaporation loss at the time of receiving and breathing loss caused by temperature changes; replacement with the vapor recovery type loading arm to recover gasoline vapor generated at the time of shipment/filling, and installation of the vapor recovery unit to recover vapor as gasoline; vapor balance system to recover in underground tank the gasoline vapor generated at the time of filling gasoline at gas station. As a result of the study, the recovered gasoline amount was 66,393 Kl/y and the CO2 reduction amount was 14,474 t/y at oil shipment depots and approximately 650 gasoline stations in Jakarta and Surabaya. (NEDO)

  14. Evaluation of Sierra Army Depot Groundwater Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1997-01-01

    ...), September 28, 1996. The Congressional conferees were concerned about allegations from a group of investors that the Army precipitously and abruptly changed its position on permits and applications to develop water...

  15. Radiological Survey of Seneca Army Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    NUCON Smears 6. 1 ea Eberline AC-4 with planchettes and tweezers 7. 1 ea Eberline BC-4 with planchettes and tweezers 8. 1 foot locker with 4 air sampling...each detected isotope. c. sample Preparation. The smears were transferred to planchettes for counting. Approximately 500 grams of soil from each sample

  16. Depot medroxyprogesterone injectable contraception at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The record cards of all clients who accepted medroxyprogesterone ... center. With the establishment of the college of. Health Sciences, University of Uyo in 2001, the ... and surgical sterilization (both male and female).

  17. Possible use of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as bioindicators for heavy metal pollution. Part 2. Body burden calculations for identification of depot compartments; Untersuchungen zur Eignung wildlebender Wanderratten (Rattus norvegicus) als Indikatoren der Schwermetallbelastung. Teil 2. Die Berechnung der Koerperlast zur Identifikation von Depotkompartimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuenschmann, S. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany); Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Oehlmann, J. [J.W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt, Zoologisches Inst., Frankfurt/M. (Germany); Delakowitz, B. [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Background concentrations of eleven elements in tissues and organs of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) obtained from a region (Euroregion Neisse, around the trilateral border region of Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic) distinguished by low to intermediate levels of environmental contaminations are given in part I of this work. In order to identify the most important depot compartments for certain elements, a body burden method was applied. Differences of affinity due to sex and age of analyzed rats are discussed, as are the suitability of specific organs and tissues with regard to bioaccumulation measurements concerning metals. The principal depot compartments for the heavy metals Cu, Mn, Cd, (in adult rats) and Tl are the liver and kidneys, whereas the elements Ni, Sr, Pb (for adult animals) and Ti are more affinitively to bones. Co and Zn displayed a more pronounced affinity towards tissues of the bones and liver. The analysis revealed large differences in Cd and Pb distributions both among young and adult rats, and with respect to sexes. It can be concluded that the distribution of the elements investigated in this study in free-living rats agrees with that in man, except for that of Ni. The above agreement gives proof of the possibility to use depot organs of rats for bioindication which was already mentioned in part I of this work. (Sex and age-related quantification of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl and Zn in liver, heart, lung, kidney, muscle, brain and bones and establishment of distribution patterns'). (orig.) [German] Die in Teil I quantifizierten Hintergrundkonzentrationen von 11 Elementen in Geweben und Organen wildlebender Ratten (Rattus norvegicus) aus einem gering bis maessig belasteten Untersuchungsgebiet (Euroregion Neisse) werden im 2. Teil fuer die Berechnung ihres relativen Beitrags zur Gesamtkoerperbelastung (Koerperlast oder Bodyburden) verwendet, um bevorzugte Depotkompartimente fuer die untersuchten Elemente

  18. Final results of the prospective multicenter observational program RU-EGD-NI-001 for evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of the 6-month depot Eligard 45 mg in patients with advanced prostate carcinoma in routine clinical practice of uro-oncologists in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Matveev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The 6-month depot formulation of leuproreline acetate 45 mg (Eligard, Astellas Pharma was shown to reduce the levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA and testosterone and to be well tolerated in patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa in clinical trials as well as other depot formulations of leuproreline acetate (1- and 3-month. However, clinical trials are limited by strict patient inclusion and exclusion criteria.Objective of this study, sponsored by Astellas Pharma Russia, was to assess whether the efficacy and tolerability of the 6-month leuprorelin depot formulation could be confirmed in a broad and heterogeneous patient population encountered in daily clinical practice in the Russian Federation.Materials and methods. A non-interventional multicenter study (a observational program was conducted in male patients with advanced PCa (T3–4, N+/M+, or with progression after local treatment to whom Eligard 45 mg had been prescribed. Patients were followed every 6 months up to 24 months of treatment. Fifty three uro-oncologists from out-patient clinics in the Russia participated in the study.Results. The study enrolled 640 patients, of which 524 met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Mean age of the patients was 69.0 ± 8.6 years old (from 46 to 96 years old. In most cases hormonal therapy with Eligard 45 mg was performed for locally advanced PCa (50 % of patients, distant metastases were detected in 15 % subjects only, nodal involvement was detected in 12 % patients. Patients with initially localized prostate cancer (41.4 % were prescribed Eligard 45 mg because of progression of their disease after local treatment or inability to receive any other treatment. Eligard 45 mg monotherapy was used in 92.75 % cases. Only 7.25 % patients received combined hormonal therapy with Eligard 45 mg and bicalutamide, flutamide and zoledronic acid. Mean serum PSA level was reduced by 81,7 % from 38,47 ng/ml at baseline to 7.05 ng/ml after 24 months

  19. Low-Cost Propellant Launch to LEO from a Tethered Balloon - 'Propulsion Depots' Not 'Propellant Depots'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Schneider, Evan G.; Vaughan, David A.; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Yu, Chi Yau

    2011-01-01

    As we have previously reported, it may be possible to launch payloads into low-Earth orbit (LEO) at a per-kilogram cost that is one to two orders of magnitude lower than current launch systems, using only a relatively small capital investment (comparable to a single large present-day launch). An attractive payload would be large quantities of high-performance chemical rocket propellant (e.g. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Hydrogen (LO2/LH2)) that would greatly facilitate, if not enable, extensive exploration of the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  20. Spironolactone induces apoptosis in human mononuclear cells. Association between apoptosis and cytokine suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Martin; Sønder, S U; Nersting, J

    2006-01-01

    preceding apoptosis. An association between the two effects was also seen when testing several SPIR analogues. Contrary to TNF-alpha, the levels of IL-1beta increased in SPIR-treated cultures. However, the amount of IL-1beta in the supernatants depended upon the order of SPIR and LPS addition, as IL-1beta....... In conclusion, suppression of cytokine production by SPIR may be associated with its apoptotic potential, either directly (apoptosis is a consequence of suppressed cytokine production, or vice-versa) or indirectly (suppressed cytokine production and apoptosis are parallel but otherwise unrelated phenomena)....

  1. The application of {beta}-ray excitation fluorescence to the measurement of the thickness of deposits and to analysis; Applications de la fluorescence excitee au moyen des rayons {beta} a la mesure des epaisseurs des depots et a l'analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Seibel, G [Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), 78 - Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France)

    1961-07-01

    Principles of the method are first outlined and the instrumentation used is described. The different types of radiation detectors are subject of a detailed study. As a source of {beta}-radiation {sup 90}(Sr + Y) was used as well as {sup 147}Pm. Great care was taken to eliminate back-diffused electrons by deflection by a strong permanent magnet. The method was applied to the measurement of the thickness of deposits of Cr, Zn, Sn, Cd and Cu on iron as well as Zn, Cr, Ag and Au on copper and the results obtained are discussed. An attempt was made, to use {beta}-X-ray fluorescence for the analysis of minerals, iron ore and glass and for routine control of Si-Mn, Si-Ca, Fe-Mn and Fe-W. Finally the method of {beta}-X-ray fluorescence is compared with normal-X-ray fluorescence and possibilities of further development are cited. (author) [French] Les principes de la methode et l'instrumentation utilisee sont presentes. On decrit en particulier les detecteurs de rayonnement utilises. Comme source de rayonnement on utilise {sup 90}(Sr + Y) et {sup 147}Pm. Pour eliminer les electrons retrodiffuses on utilise un aimant permanent place sur le trajet du faisceau. La methode est appliquee a la mesure des epaisseurs des depots metalliques tels que le Cr, Zn, Sn, Cd et Cu sur fer et le Zn, Cr, Ag et Au sur cuivre. D'autre part, la fluorescence {beta}-X etait utilisee pour l'analyse des minerais et des verres et pour le controle des alliages Fe-Mn, Fe-W, Si-Mn, Si-Ca. Enfin, on passe a une comparaison entre la fluorescence {beta}-X et la fluorescence X normale et on discute les possibilites d'un developpement futur. (auteur)

  2. Strategic Inventory Positioning of Navy Depot Level Repairable

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, Larry

    2005-01-01

    ... the benefits in modifying their current inventory positioning policy for repairable items. NAVICP wishes to incorporate a strategic inventory positioning policy that reduces transportation costs...

  3. Trip Reports. Hazardous Waste Minimization and Control at Army Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    Chief, Building 114; Major Robert Ronne; and Ken Rollins, Section Chief, Building 409. The purpose of this trip report Is to document the Information...hazardous. 6. Wf-TIM WOR Feosbility of a suitable p-etresaent f waste cuttins oil and sulleln coolant loach as 4iltratlan to remove metals. removal

  4. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) use after bariatric surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Clarissa; Murthy, Amitasrigowri S

    2016-01-01

    Clarissa Lam,1 Amitasrigowri S Murthy2,3 1New York University School of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University School of Medicine, 3New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mas...

  5. Independent Evaluation of The Bay Area Supply Depot Consolidation Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    crane productivities of 40 and 25 lines per hour, respectively, compare with rates of 80 to 100 lines per hour for similar systems in ta.e private sector ...also made quality-of- worklife improvements including the addition of microwave ovens and refrigerators for personnel use, the refurbishing of rest rooms...packed for more than a short period of time is no longer an acceptable practice. * Enhancing the quality of worklife at Oakland by making the site a

  6. KC-46 Workforce Requirements for Depot Maintenance Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. The views expressed in this thesis are those...Community College of the Air force CFR: Code of Federal Regulation CLS: Contract Logistic Service CoF: Complex of the Future CSR : Case Study...structures built on narrow pieces of a process,” breaks up the work into simplified tasks to ensure that the work can be performed by anyone properly

  7. Simulation of empty container logistic management at depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, San-Nah; Sek, Siaw-Ying Doreen; Chiew, Kang-Leng; Tiong, Wei-King

    2017-07-01

    This study focuses on the empty container management problem in a deficit regional area. Deficit area is the area having more export activities than the import activities, which always have a shortage of empty container. This environment has challenged the trading companies in the decision making in distributing the empty containers. A simulation model that fit to the environment is developed. Besides, a simple heuristic algorithm with some hard and soft constraints consideration are proposed to plan the logistic of empty container supply. Then, the feasible route with the minimum cost will be determined by applying the proposed heuristic algorithm. The heuristic algorithm can be divided into three main phases which are data sorting, data assigning and time window updating.

  8. Techno-economic analysis of a biomass depot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Jacob Jordan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Roni, Mohammad Sadekuzzaman [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, Kevin Louis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heath, Brendi May [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansen, Jason K [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) promotes the production of an array of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the technical, economic, and environmental performance of different feedstock supply systems and their impacts on the downstream conversion processes.

  9. Simultaneously Recovering Rolling Stock Schedules and Depot Plans Under Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    to be applied in a disruption recovery setting. Furthermore, we provide a comparison of several solution strategies to the Train Unit Parking Problem, and, by way of an example prove the heuristic nature of a previously proposed optimal approach. We analyse the performance of the proposed methodology...

  10. Testosterone depot injection in male hypogonadism: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksam A Yassin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aksam A Yassin1, Mohamed Haffejee21Clinic of Urology/Andrology, Segeberger Kliniken, Norderstedt-Hamburg, Germany and Department of Urology, Gulf Medical College School of Medicine, Ajman-UAE 2Urology Division at the University of Witwaterstrand & Johannesburg Hospital, Johannesburg, South AfricaAbstract: Testosterone compounds have been available for almost 70 years, but the pharmaceutical formulations have been less than ideal. Traditionally, injectable testosterone esters have been used for treatment, but they generate supranormal testosterone levels shortly after the 2- to 3-weekly injection interval and then testosterone levels decline very rapidly, becoming subnormal in the days before the next injection. The rapid fluctuations in plasma testosterone are subjectively experienced as disagreeable. Testosterone undecanoate is a new injectable testosterone preparation with a considerably better pharmacokinetic profile. After 2 initial injections with a 6-week interval, the following intervals between two injections are almost always 12-weeks, amounting eventually to a total of 4 injections per year. Plasma testosterone levels with this preparation are nearly always in the range of normal men, so are its metabolic products estradiol and dihydrotestosterone. The “roller coaster” effects of traditional parenteral testosterone injections are not apparent. It reverses the effects of hypogonadism on bone and muscle and metabolic parameters and on sexual functions. Its safety profile is excellent due to the continuous normalcy of plasma testosterone levels. No polycythemia has been observed, and no adverse effects on lipid profiles. Prostate safety parameters are well within reference limits. There was no impairment of uroflow. Testosterone undecanoate is a valuable contribution to the treatment options of androgen deficiency.Keywords: testosterone treatment, testosterone undecanoate, pharmacokinetic profile, clinical efficacy, side effects, sexual dysfunction

  11. Depot Maintenance Transformation: Successful Strategies in Capital Investing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    the aircraft. Continually climbing up and down portable stands while wearing fully enclosed body suites, carrying large paint sprayers, and dragging...and fatigue. selected--Wrap around stands will minimize the number of trips up and down the stairs it takes to get around the aircraft. It is faster...our metal finishing operations into state-of-the-art processes consisting of the latest technologies. Items such as robotic shot penning

  12. Assessing menopausal status in women aged 40 - 49 using depot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Determining symptoms of menopause in older users of hormonal injectable contraceptives may be challenging, owing to method-induced amenorrhoea, suppression of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and vasomotor symptoms. Objective. To investigate menopausal symptoms in women aged 40 - 49 using ...

  13. Improving Aviation Depot Level Repairable (AVDLR) Inventory and Repair Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baird, Dennis

    1997-01-01

    .... Additionally, research was conducted to document the management process for determining repair requirements at the Naval Inventory Control Point Philadelphia and how those requirements are accepted...

  14. An Analysis of Unit Costs at a Consolidated Supply Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Not-For-Profit Setting,"The Accounting Review,July 1990. Horngren , C. T., Cost Accountinq:A Managerial Emphasis,3rd ed, Prentice-Hall Inc.,1972...sector has used concepts of unit costs for 4 decades. Any managerial or cost accounting text discusses in some length unit costs . For Defense contractors...the Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) provides guidance for contract costs . Unit costs include direct, indirect, and general and administrative

  15. Management of Labor Standards for Airframes at Aeronautical Depots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    .... There are two types of labor standards, engineered and nonengineered. Engineered standards are a series of observations and analyses of the performance of work, which result in a specific time for a recorded method of work...

  16. Defense Use of Certain Federal Property: Birmingham, Columbia, Detroit, Goldsboro, Jackson, Kansas City, Ravenna Depot, Rochester, Seneca Depot, Syracuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-02-01

    weekend and annual training. The task assignment of the 926th to Childersburg would directly and immediately benefit the government as follows: a. Provide...and a bid has been submitted to purchase 10 acres in the suburb o< Chili , NY, 6 miles southwesl of the present center. The project calls for, the...Navy in Chili , NY as out- lined in ref (b). c. Designate Canandaigua, NY property as an Armed Forces Reserve Center. d. Commensurate with Army-Navy

  17. Measurement of the body content of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phophorus and nitrogen with reference to spironolactone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddy, K.

    1978-01-01

    The total body content of sodium, chloride, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus can be measured simultaneously by in vivo activation analysis and at the same time total body potassium can be determined directly by whole body counting. These procedures have been described and compared with methods using isotope dilution. The complementary nature of the techniques, when properly applied, as well as reported disparities have been illustrated by a number of clinical investigations generally involving aldosterone antagonists. The methods should provide a better insight to the complex changes in body conposition and metabolism accociated with hypertension (and other diseases) and their treatment. (Auth.)

  18. Effect of melatonin, captopril, spironolactone and simvastatin on blood pressure and left ventricular remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimko, F.; Pecháňová, Olga; Pelouch, Václav; Krajčírovičová, K.; Müllerová, M.; Bednárová, K.; Adamcová, M.; Paulis, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, Suppl.6 (2009), S5-S10 ISSN 0263-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/09/0336 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cardiac hypertrophy * fibrosis * ventricular remodeling Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.988, year: 2009

  19. Phase III Prospective Randomized Comparison Trial of Depot Octreotide Plus Interferon Alfa-2b Versus Depot Octreotide Plus Bevacizumab in Patients With Advanced Carcinoid Tumors: SWOG S0518.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, James C; Guthrie, Katherine A; Moran, Cesar; Strosberg, Jonathan R; Kulke, Matthew H; Chan, Jennifer A; LoConte, Noelle; McWilliams, Robert R; Wolin, Edward M; Mattar, Bassam; McDonough, Shannon; Chen, Helen; Blanke, Charles D; Hochster, Howard S

    2017-05-20

    Purpose Treatment options for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) remain limited. This trial assessed the progression-free survival (PFS) of bevacizumab or interferon alfa-2b (IFN-α-2b) added to octreotide among patients with advanced NETs. Patients and Methods Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) S0518, a phase III study conducted in a US cooperative group system, enrolled patients with advanced grades 1 and 2 NETs with progressive disease or other poor prognostic features. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with octreotide LAR 20 mg every 21 days with either bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 21 days or 5 million units of IFN-α-2b three times per week. The primary end point was centrally assessed PFS. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00569127. Results A total of 427 patients was enrolled, of whom 214 were allocated to bevacizumab and 213 to IFN-α-2b. The median PFS by central review was 16.6 months (95% CI, 12.9 to 19.6 months) in the bevacizumab arm and was 15.4 months (95% CI, 9.6 to 18.6 months) in the IFN arm (hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.18; P = .55). By site review, the median PFS times were 15.4 months (95% CI, 12.6 to 17.2 months) for bevacizumab and 10.6 months (95% CI, 8.5 to 14.4 months) for interferon (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.12; P = .33). Time to treatment failure was longer with bevacizumab than with IFN (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.89; P = .003). Confirmed radiologic response rates were 12% (95% CI, 8% to 18%) for bevacizumab and 4% (95% CI, 2% to 8%) for IFN. Common adverse events with bevacizumab and octreotide included hypertension (32%), proteinuria (9%), and fatigue (7%); with IFN and octreotide, they included fatigue (27%), neutropenia (12%), and nausea (6%). Conclusion No significant differences in PFS were observed between the bevacizumab and IFN arms, which suggests that these agents have similar antitumor activity among patients with advanced NETs.

  20. Shape Memory Alloy Cryogenic Transfer Coupling for Space Depot Docking Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical objective of the proposed effort is to establish the feasibility of using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for selected components of the automatic...

  1. The Uniform Cost Accounting System and Stabilized Rates at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Requirements DoD Department of Defense EIMDR End Item Materiel Data Record - FY Fiscal Year 9 *4N GAAP Generally Accepted Accounting Principles GAE...EXPLANATION: THE VARIANCE IS MAINLY THE RESULT OF LBDA ADP CO ST PROGRAMMED IN MARK AS GAE INSTEAD OF BOCIE AN4D (RPMA) DEPRECIATION PROGRAMMED AS

  2. Tooele Army Depot Revised Final Site-Wide Ecological Risk Assessment. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    SS!5!55 "^ **i "i *n Q ti ti d ci *»S «S «n *n «n 6 Ö Ö «*$ «ri «r> *r) Wj «1 «rj o c> o <a fr^ «•! *rj f) rrj «*j fry ...Venugopal and Luckey 1978. Arsenic 0.94 (mouse, AsIII and AsV) 0.95 (dog, AsV) 60 - 90 (rat) 2.5 ( chicken ) 2.4 (dog) 0.0077-0.012 0.277 0.288...reservation. A pan of that investigation involves a search for rare plant species, those that might be included under stipulations of the Endangered

  3. Nanostructured gellan and xanthan hydrogel depot integrated within a baghdadite scaffold augments bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Rekha R; Roohani-Esfahani, S I; Zreiqat, Hala; Banerjee, Rinti

    2017-04-01

    Controlled delivery of biological cues through synthetic scaffolds to enhance the healing capacity of bone defects is yet to be realized clinically. The purpose of this study was development of a bioactive tissue-engineered scaffold providing the sustained delivery of an osteoinductive drug, dexamethasone disodium phosphate (DXP), encapsulated within chitosan nanoparticles (CN). Porous baghdadite (BD; Ca 3 ZrSi 2 O 9 ) scaffolds, a zirconia-modified calcium silicate ceramic, was coated with DXP-encapsulated CN nanoparticles (DXP-CN) using nanostructured gellan and xanthan hydrogel (GX). Crosslinker and GX polymer concentrations were optimized to achieve a homogeneous distribution of hydrogel coating within BD scaffolds. Dynamic laser scattering indicated an average size of 521 ± 21 nm for the DXP-CN nanoparticles. In vitro drug-release studies demonstrated that the developed DXP-CN-GX hydrogel-coated BD scaffolds (DXP-CN-GX-BD) resulted in a sustained delivery of DXP over the 5 days (78 ± 6% of drug release) compared with burst release over 1 h, seen from free DXP loaded in uncoated BD scaffolds (92 ± 8% release in 1 h). To estimate the influence of controlled delivery of DXP from the developed scaffolds, the effect on MG 63 cells was evaluated using various bone differentiation assays. Cell culture within DXP-CN-GX-BD scaffolds demonstrated a significant increase in the expression of early and late osteogenic markers of alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen type 1 and osteocalcin, compared to the uncoated BD scaffold. The results suggest that the DXP-releasing nanostructured hydrogel integrated within the BD scaffold caused sustained release of DXP, improving the potential for osteogenic differentiation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Integrating Residual Stress Analysis of Critical Fastener Holes into USAF Depot Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-02

    Residual Stress Final Report Contract# FA9453-12-C-0218 Figure 6 shows a typical optical fractograph. The particle at the crack nucleation site is...with a relative humidity < 40% (air conditioned) and a temperature of approximately 75°F. Frequency for the spectrum was 8 Hz, which was governed

  5. Depot Sales of Goods and Services to Private Parties: Pricing in Partnering Agreements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barker, Clark L; Steans, Robert C

    2003-01-01

    .... Because the effort to build strong public-private partnerships within the Department of Defense is a relatively new phenomenon, there is little enabling policy readily at hand to guide management decisions...

  6. Shop Floor Scheduling for Program Depot Maintenance Considering Stochastic Repair Needs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gemmill, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    .... The research resulted in the development of a new method to identify the critical path within resource-constrained project scheduling problems, heuristic search methods that improved overall project...

  7. The MTA UXO Survey and Target Recovery on Lake Erie at the Former Erie Army Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    to-medium sandy material which extends approximately 150-300 m (500-1,000 ft) offshore to the 0.6- to 1.2-m (-2- to -44) ( LWD ) contour (Figure 7...shallow, flat bottom (slope less than 1:300) is covered with a soft silty-mud layer out to approximately the 3-m (-104) ( LWD ) contour. This muddy layer...to 1.2-m (-2- to -44) ( LWD ) contour (Figure 7). This underwater sand extension of the beach includes a series of well-defined two to four shore

  8. A Business Process Analysis of the Surface Navys Depot Maintenance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    levels of maintenance and the ways in which the Navy employs these types of maintenance to accomplish the objective of sustaining the surface fleet...stripping it of inefficiencies to ensure there is no wasted movement. Toyota , Honda, and their Japanese counterparts championed the lean process and...are another way trust is built, because they cultivate the relationships necessary for process improvement and innovation. JSPs have career

  9. Use of Contract Authority for Distribution Depots by the Defense Logistics Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Contract authority is a form of budget authority granted by specific statutory authority to incur obligations in anticipation of either receipts or an appropriation of liquidating cash with which to pay the obligations...

  10. Replenishment policies for Empty Containers in an Inland Multi-depot System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Quang-Vinh; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Yun, W. Y.

    2013-01-01

    . The objective is to obtain the optimal policy in order to minimize the expected total cost consisting of: inventory holding, overseas positioning, inland positioning and leasing costs. A simulation-based genetic algorithm is developed to find near-optimal policies. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate...

  11. An Assessment of External Organizational Marketing at Naval Aviation Depot (NADEP) North Island

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christman, Steven R

    2005-01-01

    ...) within the defense aircraft repair and re-work industry and offer recommendations for an external marketing plan that will reduce threats to the organization and enhance its competitive position...

  12. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk, Maria; Sparre, Anita Belza; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks (SSSDs) has been associated with obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders in observational and short-term intervention studies. Too few long-term intervention studies in humans have examined the effects of soft drinks.......The consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks (SSSDs) has been associated with obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders in observational and short-term intervention studies. Too few long-term intervention studies in humans have examined the effects of soft drinks....

  13. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: INCINERATION TEST OF EXPLOSIVES CONTAMINATED SOILS AT SAVANNA ARMY DEPOT ACTIVITY, SAVANNA, ILLINOIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of these tests was to demonstrate the effectiveness of incineration as a decontamination method for explosives contaminated sails. A pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator, manufactured by ThermAll, Inc., was used to treat both sandy and clayey...

  14. [Cluster-immunotherapy in seasonal allergic rhinitis: safety aspects of induction therapy with depot allergoids (Purethal)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, I; Hörmann, K; Stuck, B A; Schneider-Gêne, S; Mösges, R; Klimek, L

    2003-08-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) represents the only specific treatment that can be offered to allergic patients apart from allergen avoidance. SIT has been widely used in pollen allergic rhinitis. Clinical efficacy has been demonstrated in several controlled clinical trials and depends on the specific allergen the individual patient is sensitive to, the quality and total amount of allergen applied, and the SIT schedule. In classic SIT, gradually increasing dosages of the allergen extract are injected subcutaneously. Several dosage schedules for subcutaneous SIT can be applied. In Cluster-SIT, 2 - 3 injections per day of treatment are given once a week during induction treatment. In this study, we investigated 64 patients (33 female, 31 male) from 18 to 54 years (26.9 +/- 5.1 years) in terms of side-effects of Cluster-SIT during induction treatment. The total amount of enlarged local reactions (> grade 1) was n = 77 or 15.2 % of all injections. Of these, 68 (88 %) were classified as immediate reactions, 8 (11 %) were late phase reactions and 1 (1 %) was immediate as well as late phase reaction. Of all enlarged local reactions, 48 (62 %) were grade 1 reactions, 13 (17 %) were grade 2 reactions, 13 (17 %) were grade 3 reactions and 1 (1 %) was a grade 4 reaction. The total amount of systemic reactions was n = 22 or 4.3 % of all injections. Of these, 19 (86 %) were classified as immediate reactions, 3 (14 %) were delayed reactions. Of all systemic reactions, 18 (82 %) were grade 1 reactions and 4 (18 %) grade 2 reactions. Grade 3 or grade 4 reactions did not occur. There were no differences in gender or age regarding the occurrence of side effects (all p > 0.05). Frequency and severity of adverse side effects in Cluster-SIT correspond to those in other dosage schedules. On behalf of security aspects, Cluster-SIT could become an interesting alternative dosage schedule for dose increase during SIT. Furthermore, in Cluster-SIT with allergoids, induction treatment can be carried out in two treatment days of approximately 2.5 hours each.

  15. Adipose tissue was traditionally been viewed as an inert storage depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Science

    these genomic regions, random genetic drift or sampling bias could also have contributed to the ... The project focused on genetic variation in genes that encode adipokines, including LEP, TNF, IL8 and. IL10. .... The biology of leptin: A review.

  16. Review and Evaluation of Army Aviation Depot NDI (Nondestructive Inspection) and Reliability Centered Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-31

    TAILBOOM ATTACH FITTINC UPPER & LOWER RH 2n _3 S C Y J D U R FUELL CELL AFT BULKHEAD PANEl. R/H Ib 54 S C Y J D U R FUEL CELL UPPER OUTBOARD PANEL R/H...in the real world. terns i-n tnis cIass are generally simple (so-called "sg- cell ") components such as tarts wich are subject to metal ’atizue or otner...AH-64 airframe, the automated airframe logbooK, the upgraded RCA data base management system, the ACE/AACE, CFD, PEM , breakout and other programs as

  17. Tooele Army Depot Revised Final Site-Wide Ecological Risk Assessment. Volume IV

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    Partial Contents: Soil samples, Biota Samples, Risk Assessment, Historic, Hazard, Herbicides, Metals, Pesticides, Dioxins, Furans, Invertebrate Data, Toxicity, Detection, Exposure, Bioaccumulation Models...

  18. [Intramuscular depot steroids : Possible treatment of postsurgical cystoid macula edema with steroid response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuthe, A-M; Szurman, P; Boden, K T

    2017-11-01

    We report on a patient with postsurgical cystoid macular edema (CME) after phacoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) implantation. At first, there was a very good reaction to intravitreal triamcinolone, inducing complete regression of the edema without increasing intraocular pressure (IOP). One year later the patient suffered from retinal detachment and was treated with vitrectomy, laser, and gas tamponade. Afterward, he developed macular pucker with edema. After surgical treatment with pucker peeling and intravitreal triamcinolone, the patient showed a steroid response and an increase IOP. Postoperatively, there was a recurrence of CME. A coincidental administration of a steroid injection intramuscularly by the general practitioner achieved a prompt reduction of the CME without increasing IOP. This case shows that an initially good reaction to triamcinolone without increasing IOP does not rule out a future steroid response, and that a potential treatment option for CME in patients with a known steroid response could consist of intramuscularly injected steroids.

  19. The Inventory-As-Assets Concept Implementation for Depot-Level Reparables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallace, John

    2000-01-01

    .... In this report, LMI develops an operating concept of how commercial practices could be implemented for DLR accounting, and then identifies changes to policies, regulations, and data reporting systems...

  20. 78 FR 77108 - Surplus Property Notice at a Military Installation Designated for Disposal: Pueblo Chemical Depot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... United States needs in accordance with the Defense Authorization Amendments and Base Closure and... authorities, this surplus property may be available for conveyance to State and local governments and other eligible entities for public benefit purposes. Notices of interest from representatives of the homeless...

  1. Analysis of Department of Defense Organic Depot Maintenance Capacity Management and Facility Utilization Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    System ( CAPMS ) in lieu of using DODI 4151.15H. Facility utilization rate computation is not explicitly defined; it is merely identified as a ratio of...front of a bottleneck buffers the critical resource and protects against disruption of the system. This approach optimizes facility utilization by...run titled BUFFERED BASELINE. Three different levels of inventory were used to evaluate the effect of increasing the inventory level on critical

  2. Multiple Depots Vehicle Routing Problem in the Context of Total Urban Traffic Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidepot VRP is solved in the context of total urban traffic equilibrium. Under the total traffic equilibrium, the multidepot VRP is changed to GDAP (the problem of Grouping Customers + Estimating OD Traffic + Assigning traffic and bilevel programming is used to model the problem, where the upper model determines the customers that each truck visits and adds the trucks’ trips to the initial OD (Origin/Destination trips, and the lower model assigns the OD trips to road network. Feedback between upper model and lower model is iterated through OD trips; thus total traffic equilibrium can be simulated.

  3. Multiple Depots Vehicle Routing Problem in the Context of Total Urban Traffic Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dongxu; Yang, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    A multidepot VRP is solved in the context of total urban traffic equilibrium. Under the total traffic equilibrium, the multidepot VRP is changed to GDAP (the problem of Grouping Customers + Estimating OD Traffic + Assigning traffic) and bilevel programming is used to model the problem, where the upper model determines the customers that each truck visits and adds the trucks’ trips to the initial OD (Origin/Destination) trips, and the lower model assigns the OD trips to road network. Feedback ...

  4. Novel Detox Gel Depot sequesters β-Amyloid Peptides in a mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Ranjini K; Kasinathan, Chinnaswamy; Stein, Stanley; Sundaram, Pazhani

    2012-06-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD), a debilitating neurodegenerative disease is caused by aggregation and accumulation of a 39-43 amino acid peptide (amyloid β or Aβ) in brain parenchyma and cerebrovasculature. The rational approach would be to use drugs that interfere with Aβ-Aβ interaction and disrupt polymerization. Peptide ligands capable of binding to the KLVFF (amino acids 16-20) region in the Aβ molecule have been investigated as possible drug candidates. Retro-inverso (RI) peptide of this pentapeptide, ffvlk, has been shown to bind artificial fibrils made from Aβ with moderate affinity. We hypothesized that a 'detox gel', which is synthesized by covalently linking a tetrameric version of RI peptide ffvlk to poly (ethylene glycol) polymer chains will act like a 'sink' to capture Aβ peptides from the surrounding environment. We previously demonstrated that this hypothesis works in an in vitro system. The present study extended this hypothesis to an in vivo mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease and determined the therapeutic effect of our detox gel. We injected detox gel subcutaneously to AD model mice and analyzed brain levels of Aβ-42 and improvement in memory parameters. The results showed a reduction of brain amyloid burden in detox gel treated mice. Memory parameters in the treated mice improved. No undesirable immune response was observed. The data strongly suggest that our detox gel can be used as an effective therapy to deplete brain Aβ levels. Considering recent abandonment of failed antibody based therapies, our detox gel appears to have the advantage of being a non-immune based therapy.

  5. Examining Benefits of Dedicated Funding and Process Improvement for Depot Level Technology Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    analysis of tabulated data. This method is also supported by Miles and Huberman (1994) as they list six approaches to case study data analysis, two... Miles , Matthew, B. Huberman , Michael. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. 12. Mohr, Jakki

  6. Tooele Army Depot-North Area Suspected Releases SWMUs. Phase 1 RFI report. Volume 1. Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Maximum Contaminant Level MSL Mean Sea Level NEPA National Environmental Policy Act OB/OD Open Burning/Open Detonation PAH Polycyclic Aromatic...part of a pre-construction environmental assessment (EA), as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The following summarize the...0 1 1M*C!. 43, IV 𔃺 -4C o c a 0fi MA ao W!t 40 CD at w 4Kb CNCD 0 0 CS 40 - 0 e’A * CL m s.a Sc -~ ~ *b C CL 0 WN0 . 0 - at’ 30. qm 2 5--1 z 44

  7. The Inventory-As-Assets Concept Implementation for Depot-Level Reparables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallace, John

    2000-01-01

    ... (the so-called inventory-as-assets approach) simplifies DLR accounting, improves the auditabilty of financial data, eliminates troubling adjusting entries, and complies with generally accepted accounting principles...

  8. Experimental investigation of a solar adsorption chiller used for grain depot cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, H.L.; Dai, Y.J.; Wang, R.Z.; Wu, J.Y.; Xu, Y.X.; Shen, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The solar cooling technology is attractive since cooling load of building is roughly in phase with solar energy availability. In this study, a solar adsorption chiller was built and tested with aim of developing an alternative refrigeration system used for grain cooling storage. This solar adsorption chiller consists of four subsystems, namely, a solar water heating unit with 49.4 m 2 solar collecting area, a silica gel-water adsorption chiller, a cooling tower and a fan coil unit. In order to achieve continuous refrigeration, two adsorption units are operated out-of-phase with mass recovery cycle in the adsorption chiller. Field test results show that, under the climatic conditions of daily solar radiation being about 16-21 MJ/m 2 , this solar adsorption chiller can furnish 14-22 deg. C chilled air with an average cooling output ranging from about 3.2-4.4 kW, its daily solar cooling COP (coefficient of performance) is about 0.1-0.13

  9. DEPOT MAINTENANCE: Key Financial Issues for Consolidations at Pearl Harbor and Elsewhere Are Still Unresolved

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... In September 1999, we reported that the preliminary results of the ongoing Pearl Harbor pilot were mixed and recommended that the Departments of Defense and the Navy address unresolved issues related...

  10. PUBLIC-PRIVATE COMPETITIONS: Reasonable Processes Used for San Antonio Engine Depot Maintenance Award

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... 2469a and other applicable laws and regulations, appropriate consideration was given to factors other than cost, and the award resulted in the lowest total cost to the Department of Defense (DOD) for performance of the work.

  11. Critical appraisal of 3-monthly paliperidone depot injections in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpiniello B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bernardo Carpiniello, Federica Pinna Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine – Psychiatry Research Unit and Psychiatric Clinic, University Hospital, Cagliari, Italy Aims: Three-monthly injections of paliperidone palmitate (PP-3M represent a new and recently introduced long-acting antipsychotic therapeutic option. This review focuses on available data relating to the efficacy and safety of PP-3M and its position in the current therapeutic scenario.Method: An analysis of PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases was conducted, and all available papers on PP-3M, including poster presentations, were selected and considered for the purpose of the present review. Findings: to date, three full papers have been published, the first, a Phase 1 randomized, open label study investigating the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of the drug; the second, a Phase 3 double blind study vs placebo focusing on efficacy and tolerability; and the last relating to the practical use of PP-3M. The five posters identified describe data reported in the above-cited papers. Overall, the pharmacokinetic findings obtained in these studies highlight the feasibility of administering PP-3M on a 3-monthly basis, subsequent to the administration of four 1-monthly injections of PP at doses 3.5 times higher than the stabilized dose of 1-monthly injections of PP (ie, 175, 300, 450, and 525 mgs. The published studies highlight a significantly longer time to relapse compared to placebo, and significantly better results compared to placebo for all secondary end-points (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale, Personal and Social Performance Scale scores, in addition to reasonably good safety and tolerability profiles.Conclusion: PP-3M emerges as a potential candidate for use as a first-line long-acting agent in the maintenance treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Further studies should however be conducted to confirm this expectation. In view of its efficacy, tolerability, and safety, together with the longer timespan between injections, PP-3M currently represents one of the best available options, and may contribute towards addressing the issue of poor adherence, even in early psychosis. Keywords: long-acting antipsychotics, 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate, efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, schizophrenia 

  12. D:epot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-07-17

    Jul 17, 1971 ... pelvic infection, cerVICItis. moniliasis, trichomoniasis and gynaecological malignancies. These conditions, if suspected clinically, should be diagnosed and treated by the appro- priate methods and with the usual drugs before assuming that the D\\1PA is causing the menstrual disorganizati9n. Only in this ...

  13. Defense Inventory: Further Analysis and Enhanced Metrics Could Improve Service Supply and Depot Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Managed Spare Parts at Service Industrial Sites by Supply Chain , Fiscal...Metrics and Inventory Stratification Reporting; and Defense Logistics Agency Instruction 4140.08, DLA Retail Supply Chain Materiel Management ...the retail supply system, which is typically managed by the services. As a retail inventory manager at industrial sites, DLA manages the supply

  14. Protein aggregates as depots for the release of biologically active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemova, Natalya V; Kasakov, Alexei S; Bumagina, Zoya M; Lyutova, Elena M; Gurvits, Bella Ya

    2008-12-12

    Protein misfolding and aggregation is one of the most serious problems in cell biology, molecular medicine, and biotechnology. Misfolded proteins interact with each other or with other proteins in non-productive or damaging ways. However, a new paradigm arises that protein aggregation may be exploited by nature to perform specific functions in different biological contexts. From this consideration, acceleration of stress-induced protein aggregation triggered by any factor resulting in the formation of soluble aggregates may have paradoxical positive consequences. Here, we suggest that amorphous aggregates can act as a source for the release of biologically active proteins after removal of stress conditions. To address this concept, we investigated the kinetics of thermal aggregation in vitro of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) as a model substrate in the presence of two amphiphilic peptides: Arg-Phe or Ala-Phe-Lys. Using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and turbidimetry, we have demonstrated that under mild stress conditions the concentration-dependent acceleration of ADH aggregation by these peptides results in formation of large but soluble complexes of proteins prone to refolding.

  15. Organizational Assessment of the Depot Level Analysis Center for the Lockheed S-3 Viking Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    70 L8 els , Jb J .J. I. INTRODUCTION A. THE NECESSITY FOR AN ORGANIZED MAINTENANCE EFFORT Aviation is a most demanding and unforgiving discipline...OV-10 Bronco , C-130 Hercules, C-131 Samaritan, and H-46 Sea Knight aircraft system platforms. Providing fleet reported failure information to its...Requests ( El ) and Hazard Material Request (HMR’S) and Engineering Material Requests (EMR’s) concerning material directly related to the weapon platforms of

  16. Fatty acid composition of beef steers as affected by diet and fat depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subcutaneous and perirenal fatty acid (FA) profiles were compared in steers fed a control diet (70 : 30 red clover silage (RC) : barley concentrate), a diet with sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS-15 and DDGS-30) substituted for RC and SS.

  17. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for Tooele Army Depot North and South

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-29

    1978, Heizer and Krieger 1956, Heizer and Harper 1970, and Warren and Ranere 1968). Over the years, Jennings (1974) has modified his Desert Culture...received special supernatural power that would capture the animals’ souls, rendering them docile and stupid (Steward 1970:34). Other large game was present...nomination Form: "Great Basin Style rock art is primarily a petroglyph style, originally defined by Julian Steward (1929) and aescribed in detail by Heizer

  18. Base Closure and Realignment Act (BRAC) Cleanup Plan, Sacramento Army Depot, Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Treatment System. April 5. Levy, R. 1978. Eastern Miwok. In Handbook of North American Indians. Volume 8: California, (R.F. Heizer , ed.) pp. 398-413... Heizer , pp. 389-387. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Wirth Environmental Services. 1983. An archaeological overview and management plan for the...water quality which, if reached, are expected to render a body of water suitable for its designated use. The criteria are based on specific levels of

  19. Depot Level Repairable Carcass Tracking and the Electronic Retrograde Management System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Troy D; Wilcox, Brett K

    2006-01-01

    ...). Through a study of the component processes partnered with selected data for analysis the case will highlight several fundamental concepts of supply chain management and provide for both qualitative...

  20. The effect of financial incentives on adherence to antipsychotic depot medication: does it change over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Hana; Bremner, Stephen A; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    A recent cluster-randomized controlled trial found that offering financial incentives improves adherence to long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs). The present study investigates whether the impact of incentives diminishes over time and whether the improvement in adherence is linked to the amount of incentives offered. Seventy-three teams with 141 patients with psychotic disorders (using ICD-10) were randomized to the intervention or control group. Over 1 year, patients in the intervention group received £15 (US $23) for each LAI, while control patients received treatment as usual. Adherence levels, ie, the percentage of prescribed LAIs that were received, were calculated for quarterly intervals. The amount of incentives offered was calculated from the treatment cycle at baseline. Multilevel models were used to examine the time course of the effect of incentives and the effect of the amount of incentives offered on adherence. Adherence increased in both the intervention and the control group over time by an average of 4.2% per quarterly interval (95% CI, 2.8%-5.6%; P time and treatment group. Further, a higher total amount of incentives was associated with poorer adherence (βbootstrapped = -0.11; 95% CIbootstrapped, -0.20 to -0.01; P = .023). A substantial effect of financial incentives on adherence to LAIs occurs within the first 3 months of the intervention and is sustained over 1 year. A higher total amount of incentives does not increase the effect. ISRCTN.com identifier: ISRCTN77769281 and UKCRN.org identifier: 7033. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Investigation of the question of a danger to the population by fallout from the stratospheric depot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, R.; Kanter, H.J.; Sladkovic, R.; Poetzl, K.

    1975-01-01

    The self-developed evaluation programme modified for the present tasks - a programme to set up continuous isentropical trajectory analyses and to investigate the tropopause fine structure for the determination of the climatology of the intrusion of stratospheric (contaminated) air into the troposphere and its transport to a point of the earth's surface in the temperate latitudes, is fully efficient. It does not merely determine trivial cases with direct sinking from the lower stratoshere to the measuring station (pure adiabatic case), but cases of non-adiabatic mixture processes can also be described by using several trajectories corresponding with one another. The method of cross-section and longitudinal section analyses gives the data necessary for the description of the intrusion of stratospheric air through the tropopause with sufficient accuracy. Based on the knowledge obtained sofar, a scheme to predict stratospheric intrusions has been set up and experimentally applied. The very first results are already promising. (orig.) [de

  2. Terbutaline depot tablets in childhood asthma. A double-blind controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, N; Høst, A; Ljungholm, K

    1985-01-01

    Thirty children 8-13 years old, with perennial asthma and with a reversibility of greater than or equal to 20% in lung function (FEV1) were given a sustained-release preparation of terbutaline sulphate 5 mg twice a day and ordinary tablets 2.5 mg three times a day; each treatment lasted 1 week...

  3. The analysis of risks at LPG depots: a tool for decision makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-10-01

    At the Tokyo congress of the World LPG Forum, Mr Patrick Mayras, Technical Director at Butagaz, presented a study on the probability of the occurrence of a major accident which this company has undertaken with Cremer Warner on its storage and filling site in Montereau, together with the key prevention principles which have resulted from this study and which have been applied to all their installations. The study shows that the probability of a BLEVE is 1 in a thousand million years per sphere or, for the 60 storage sites belonging to Butagaz, that the probability of a BLEVE in its installations is 1 every 16 million years. If every company in the profession had this level of standards on an international scale, the probability of a BLEVE occurring in the world would be, again according to Butagaz calculations, of the order of 1 every 100.000 years or, at a really conservative estimate, of the order of 1 every 10.000 years (based on: one storage site for 10.000 t sold/year). This report was received with a great deal of interest in Tokyo and it is certain that this probability-based approach will constitute hence-forth a reference both on a national and an international scale. As Mr Mayras underlined at the end of his presentation, although a zero risk does not exist, there is a socially acceptable risk which is used implicitly by governmental authorities for certain human or industrial activities for certain human or industrial activities which have an accident occurrence probability which is much higher than that run by LPG storage sites. Conversely, the determinist and calculated approach applied in France presents a high cost to society due to the freezing of all land around the sites. The probability-based approach, which can be systematized to all LPG professionals, could, therefore, allow for a relaxation of the constraints weighing on the environment of storage sites and could place LPG on an equal footing with other types of energy. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. PECVD de composes de silicium sur polymeres: Etude de la premiere phase du depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennler, Gilles

    Since their first introduction in the early 90's, transparent barriers against oxygen and/or water vapor permeation through polymers, such as SiO 2, are the object of increasing interest in the food and pharmaceutical packaging industries, and more recently for the encapsulation of organic-based displays. It is now well known that these thin layers possess barrier properties only if they are thicker than a certain critical thickness, dc. For example, dc is around 12 nm in the case of SiO2 on KaptonRTM PI; below this value, the measured "Oxygen Transmission Rate" (OTR, in standard cm3/m2/day/bar) is roughly the same as that of the uncoated polymer. Until now, no detailed research has been carried out to explain this observation, but a hypothesis was proposed in the literature, based on island-like growth structure of the coating for d ≤ dc. According to this hypothesis, the surface energy of the polymeric substrates is so low that the Volmer-Weber (island-coalescence) growth mode occurs. We have aimed to verify this explanation, that is, to study the initial phase of silicon-compound (SiO2 and SiN) growth on four different polymeric substrates, namely polyimide (KaptonRTM PI), polycarbonate (LexanRTM PC), polypropylene (PP), and polyethyleneterephthalate (MylarRTM PET). Three different deposition methods were used, namely reactive evaporation of SiO, radio-frequency (RF) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (RF PECVD), and Distributed Electron Cyclotron Resonance (DECR) PECVD. In this latter case, the substrates were placed in three different positions: (i) in the active glow zone, (ii) downstream, and (iii) downstream, but shielded from photon emission (e.g. VUV) from the plasma. Angle-Resolved X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS), Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), the latter performed after Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) by oxygen plasma, revealed that growth indeed occurs in a Volmer-Weber mode in the case of evaporated films. The island coalescence was observed to occur at d = 1.2 nm, at which point the sticking coefficient of precursor species changes drastically. Finally, we have investigated the presence of an "interphase" between deposited coatings and the polymeric substrate. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  5. Depot sterols in comparisons with structural sterols in Cancer pagurus and Eriocheir sinensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandee, D.I.; Kruitwagen, E.C.J.

    The differences in sterol content and sterol composition between the midgut gland and remaining parts (structural lipids) of male and female specimens of Cancer pagurus and Eriocheir sinensis are investigated. There are no differences in sterol content in the structural lipids between male and

  6. Reliability Based Design of Dredge Sludge Depot for Mechanism Static Liquefaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, F.A.J.M.; De Jager, R.R.; Hooiveld, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Along the coastline and in particular in the deltaic estuaries of the Netherlands, the occurring of numerous flow slides have been recorded. Analysis of these historical instabilities has resulted in empirical guidelines for verification of occurring of flow slides. The request to tender for the

  7. Occupational Exposure of Diesel Station Workers to BTEX Compounds at a Bus Depot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeesa Moolla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diesel fuel is known to emit pollutants that have a negative impact on environmental and human health. In developing countries like South Africa, attendants are employed to pump fuel for customers at service stations. Attendants refuel vehicles with various octane unleaded fuel, lead-replacement petrol and diesel fuel, on a daily basis. Attendants are at risk to adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of volatile organic compounds released from these fuels. The pollutants released include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX, which are significant due to their high level of toxicity. In this study, a risk assessment of BTEX was conducted at a diesel service station for public buses. Using Radiello passive samplers, it was found that benzene concentrations were above recommended international standards. Due to poor ventilation and high exposure duration, the average benzene concentration over the sampling campaign exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency’s chronic inhalation exposure reference concentration. Lifetime cancer risk estimation showed that on average there is a 3.78 × 10−4 cancer risk, corresponding to an average chronic daily intake of 1.38 × 10−3 mg/kg/day of benzene exposure. Additionally, there were incidences where individuals were at potential hazard risk of benzene and toluene that may pose non-carcinogenic effects to employees.

  8. Development and characterisation of modified poloxamer 407 thermoresponsive depot systems containing cubosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojarunchitt, Thunjiradasiree; Hook, Sarah; Rizwan, Shakila

    2011-01-01

    has the major draw back of fast erosion in aqueous environments which needs to be addressed. Three different concentrations of P407 (12%, 15% and 17% (w/v)) were formulated with various additives (methyl cellulose (MC), dextran, carrageenan and Pluronic-R (25R4)). The rheological characteristics...... and in vitro stability were investigated. The sol-gel transition temperature of P407 was lowered in the presence of the phytantriol cubosomes. The addition of MC and dextran did not affect the sol-gel transition temperature whereas 25R4 increased the gelation temperature. No transition was observed...

  9. Study of Using Excess Stock to Reduce Naval Aviation Depot-Level Repairable Piece Part Backorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    used to develop and run the comparison of the backorders and excess stock records. Python is chosen because of its ease of learning and use...sustainable source of bit-piece parts for future requisitions. 14. SUBJECT TERMS naval aviation AVDLRs, backorder, excess, DLA, WSS, FRC, Python ...SCHOOL December 2016 Approved by: Geraldo Ferrer Eddine Dahel Peter Ward Bryan Hudgens Academic Associate

  10. Obesity is associated with depot-specific alterations in adipocyte DNA methylation and gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Yadav, Rachita; Yin, Guangliang

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify genes exhibiting concomitant obesity-dependent changes in DNA methylation and gene expression in adipose tissues in the mouse using diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J and genetically obese ob/ob mice as models. Mature adipocytes were isolated from epididymal...... and inguinal adipose tissues of ob/ob and DIO C57BL/6J mice. DNA methylation was analyzed by MeDIP-sequencing and gene expression by microarray analysis. The majority of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were hypomethylated in obese mice. Global methylation of long interspersed elements indicated......57BL/6J mice occurred primarily in exons, whereas inguinal adipocytes of ob/ob mice exhibited a higher enrichment of DMRs in promoter regions than in other regions of the genome, suggesting an influence of leptin on DNA methylation in inguinal adipocytes. We observed altered methylation...

  11. Tooele Army Depot-North Area Suspected Releases SWMUs. Volume 2, Appendices A - J. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    0.177 ZAS JD17 Lad 0.177 ZAN JD17 Lad 0.177 ZAW J1D17 LAWd 0.177 ZAZ JD17 Lad 0.177 ZAX JD17 Lid 0.17" ZXA JD17 Lmd 0.177 Mm JD17 Led 0.177 zxm D117...tare Causes Cumnlf. units a 311. U riaf 071/9 Ph$M&-DI a0." 6.M6 4.M6 tun U118 0719/9 8 Tenhbesy-014 106.06 I.ug 3.500 rn US ME LSIM 07/2/9 8 .4...6Trftbempmw 93.1 6.M6 6.M6 tUN Liii 07/19 I 2-FtumnbtpmnyP 8.05 3.360 2.000 tun U118 07/21/9 S z-Flusrepbut 1. 6.M6 6.100 UrN 1.111 07M/219 S OltrumNOs-05

  12. Final Record of Decision/Remedial Action Plan, Nine Sites, Sierra Army Depot, Lassen County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    deposits provide the principal water-bearing formations in the Honey Lake Valley (Figure 1.3). Beneath SIAD, the water-bearing zones encountered in...Honey Lake Valley. The state-listed threatened bank swallow [ Riparia riparia ) is included on the list of SIAD wildlife (Colberg, 1992). Bank swallows...yields large quantities of water to wells. Qpvb: Jointed basalt flows containing zones of acoria. Moderate to high permeability. May yield large

  13. Fatty acid composition of beef steers as affected by diet and fat depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapiye, C, Dr

    2015-10-09

    , PO Box 3000, ... red clover silage (RC) : barley concentrate), a diet with sunflower ... et al., 2012; 2015) which have potential human health benefits ...... and waste to health and opportunity. Meat Sci. 92,. 210-220. Mapiye, C.

  14. Environmental Assessment KC-46A Depot Maintenance Activation, Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Cultural Resources Tinker AFB is located in the south central Oklahoma archaeological region. Important research into the prehistory of central...No. 5. Oklahoma River Basin Survey Project. University of Oklahoma Research Institute. Norman. Bell, R. E. (editor). 1984. Prehistory of Oklahoma...February 2012. Galm, J.R. and P. Flynn. 1978. The Cultural Sequences of the Scott (34LF11) and Wann (34LF27) Sites and Prehistory of the Wister Valley

  15. Plant storage proteins – the main nourisching products – from biosynthesis to cellular storage depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Chmielnicka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Storage proteins of legumes are one of the main components of the human and animal diet. The substances collected in their seeds have the pro-health values, supporting the prevention of many civilization diseases. However, there are still many uncertainties about the mechanisms leading to the production of nutritious seeds. It is also difficult to identify which of their constituents and in what final form are responsible for the observed protective effects in vivo. In this work, on the background of different types of storage proteins, these deposited mainly in legumes were in the focus of interest. They were characterized on the example of pea (Pisum sativum proteins. Mechanisms associated with their biosynthesis and transport to specific cellular compartments was presented. Ways of their post-translational processing, segregation and storage in the specific vacuoles were also discussed. Therefore, the paper presents the state-of-the-art knowledge concerning the processes making the accumulated protein deposits ready to use by plants, animals and humans.

  16. Comparative consideration and design of a security depot for high radioactive glass-enclosed materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroni, U.

    1985-01-01

    From the beginning of 1990 the COGEMA shall supply glass-enclosed high radioactive waste of the reprocessing of German fuel elements back to the Federal Republic of Germany. As to this time the final waste storage in the salt stock of Gorleben will not be available the glass cannisters have to be deposited above ground. First a comparison is made out of a number of proposed storage concepts for the deposition of HAW-glass blocks. The safety technical behaviour of the facility is considered. On the basis of the gained results a new facility design is presented, which can take 450 glass cannisters in a discoid built up cast-steel vessel and makes possible the utilization of the resulting radioactive heat of dissociation. During the development of this concept besides a compact, reasonable method of building and the thermodynamic behaviour of the storage the aspect of high security against release of radioactive materials was emphasized. (orig.) [de

  17. Performance Metrics for Assessing Resource Utilization in Business Areas A Focus on Depot Maintenance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kem, Dale

    1999-01-01

    ... by them. However, in the appropriations-oriented Defense Programming Review, there has been little visibility of the internal financial operating plans of those support organizations and of the total funding...

  18. Lanreotide depot deep subcutaneous injection: a new method of delivery and its associated benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmichael JD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available John D CarmichaelDepartment of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by excessive growth hormone secretion, usually from a pituitary tumor. Treatment options include surgery, medical therapy, and in some cases, radiation therapy. Current medical therapy consists of treatment with somatostatin analog medications or a growth hormone receptor antagonist. There are two somatostatin analogs currently in use, octreotide and lanreotide. Both are supplied in long-acting formulations and are of comparable biochemical efficacy. Lanreotide is supplied in a prefilled syringe and is injected into deep subcutaneous tissue. Studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of self- or partner administration, and have demonstrated that injection of lanreotide can be accomplished reliably and safely outside a physician's office. For patients who have achieved biochemical control with lanreotide, the FDA has recently approved an extended dosing interval. Selected patients may be able to receive the medication less frequently with injections of 120 mg administered every 6 or 8 weeks. This review focuses on the use of lanreotide in the treatment of acromegaly, the safety and efficacy of the drug, and the benefits afforded to patients because of unique aspects of the delivery of lanreotide.Keywords: acromegaly, treatment, lanreotide, somatostatin analog, pituitary tumor

  19. Aspek Internal dan Eksternal Kualitas Produksi Depot Air Minum Isi Ulang: Studi Kualitatif di Kota Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardini Saptaningsih Raksanagara

    2018-03-01

    Internal and External Aspects Related to Quality of Refill Water Station Production: Qualitative Study in Bandung City The quality of water production in drinking water refill station (DWRS has recently been decreasing. Maintaining the quality of DWRS is not only the responsibility of the owners because the government should also playe an active role as the external supervisor. However, few information is available on the obstacles in monitoring the quality of DWRS. This study aimed to explore the internal and external aspects related to quality of drinking water production in DWRS. It was a qualitative study using phenomenology approach with constructivism paradigm. Data were collected through observation, indepth interviews, and document study. Data were analyzed using theme analysis. The place of study was Bandung City Health Office, Trade Service Unit, Primary Health Centers, and some DWRSs with inadequate water quality during May-August 2017. The result showed that internal aspects that related to drinking water quality were human resources, proper processing, appropiate equipments, and hygienic environment.  Inadequate human resource can cause unstandardized process production. External aspects included government supervision, sanctions, and law enforcement as well as collaboration between owner and local government. In conducting DWRS supervisory activities, the government has obstacles such as lack of human resources, lack of funding allocation, and multiple workloads. In addition, the absence of strict sanctions and the lack of cross-sectoral cooperation also contribute to the quality of refill drinking water, making it inadequate. New innovation should be developed to increase the quality of DWRS, particularly development of integrated supervison system which iincludes not only the local government but also the commmunity and consumers. Key words: Drinking water refill station, external aspect, internal aspect

  20. Involvement of AMP - activated protein kinase in fat depot-specific metabolic changes during starvation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šponarová, Jana; Mustard, K. J.; Horáková, Olga; Flachs, Pavel; Rossmeisl, Martin; Brauner, Petr; Bardová, Kristina; Thomason-Hughes, M.; Braunerová, Radka; Janovská, Petra; Hardie, D. G.; Kopecký, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 579, č. 27 (2005), s. 6105-6110 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2580; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB5011303 Grant - others:Wellcome Trust(GB) 02760; European Commission(XE) LSHM-CT-2004-005272; Diabetes UK(GB) Project Grant; Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council(GB) Research Studentship; GA-(GB) Novo-Nordisk Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : lipid metabolism * AMPK * starvation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.415, year: 2005

  1. Extending Depot Length and Intervals for DDG 51 Class Ships: Examining the 72 Month Operational Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    would inherit should it choose to extend the operational cycle of the DDG-51 fleet. Our model does not project overall cost sav- ings in the long run for...clients and sponsors. Support RAND Make a tax -deductible charitable contribution at www.rand.org/giving/contribute www.rand.org Library of Congress...Class Ships: The 72-Month Cycle removal of the crew during the execution of maintenance to mitigate costs in this employment approach. This research

  2. Tissue/blood partition coefficients for xenon in various adipose tissue depots in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Jelnes, Rolf; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    Tissue/blood partition coefficients (lambda) for xenon were calculated for subcutaneous adipose tissue from the abdominal wall and the thigh, and for the perirenal adipose tissue after chemical analysis of the tissues for lipid, water and protein content. The lambda in the perirenal tissue...... was found to correlate linearly to the relative body weight (RBW) in per cent with the regression equation lambda = 0.045 . RBW + 0.99. The subcutaneous lambda on the abdomen correlated linearly to the local skinfold thickness (SFT) with the equation lambda = 0.22 SFT + 2.99. Similarly lambda on the thigh...... correlated to SFT with the equation lambda = 0.20 . SFT + 4.63. It is concluded that the previously accepted lambda value of 10 is generally too high in perirenal as well as in subcutaneous tissue. Thus, by application of the present regression equations, it is possible to obtain more exact estimates...

  3. Les depots fumerolliens terrestres et marins de l'Ile vulcano (Italie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette, J.N. (Centre Universitaire, Perpignan, Italy); Picot, P.

    1981-01-01

    Many hydrothermal deposits are formed around the marine and terrestrial fumarolic vents of Vulcano island (Italy). Their genesis is related to the recombination of the elements brought by the fumaroles and those liberated by the destruction of pre-existing minerals.

  4. Electrospark Deposition for Depot- and Field-Level Component Repair and Replacement of Hard Chromium Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-07

    ducted away and removed by scrubbers . Wastes generated from plating operations must be disposed of as hazardous waste and plating operations must...specimens were austentized at 1875o F, held for approximately 45 minutes, quenched in dissociated ammonia to approximately 150o F, and tempered for two...Lab analysis labor no change Estimated based on previous plating CBAs Scrubber maintenance captured elsewhere Captured in total scrubber costs

  5. [Emission and control of gases and odorous substances from animal housing and manure depots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, J

    1992-02-01

    Agricultural animal production in increasingly regarded as a source of gases which are both aggravating and ecologically harmful. An overview of the origin, number and quantity of trace gases emitted from animal housing and from manure stores is presented and possible means of preventing or reducing them are discussed. Of the 136 trace gases in the air of animal houses, odorous substances, ammonia and methane are most relevant to the environment. The role played by the remaining gases is largely unknown. Quantitative information is available for 23 gases. The gases are emitted principally from freshly deposited and stored faeces, from animal feed and from the animals themselves. Future work should determine sources and quantities of the gases emitted from animal housing more precisely and should aim to investigate the potential of these gases to cause damage in man, animals and environment. Odorous substances have an effect on the area immediately surrounding the animal housing. They can lead to considerable aggravation in humans. For years, VDI1 guidelines (3471/72), which prescribe distances between residential buildings and animal housing, have been valuable in preventing odour problems of this kind. Coverings are suitable for outside stores. The intensity of the odour from animal housing waste air increases from cattle through to hens and pigs; it is also further affected by the type of housing, the age of the animals and the purpose for which they are being kept. Methods of cleaning waste air (scrubbers/biofilters) are available for problematic cases. The need for guidelines to limit emissions from individual outside manure stores (lagoons) is recognised. Total ammonia emissions from animal production in the Federal Republic of Germany (up to 1989) are estimated at approximately 300,000 to 600,000 t/year. There is a shortage of satisfactory and precise research on the extent of emissions, in particular on those from naturally ventilated housing. It is calculated that between 12 and 21 kg/ha of nitrogen a year enter the soil via the air, the average of which is higher than the average "critical loads" for most natural habitats. Ammonia has a direct effect on the trees in the area surrounding animal housing and is transported long distances through the air causing eutrophication and acidification of water and vegetation. This frequently results in changes in plant sociology. Reduction measures must begin with the housing and manure removal systems and with feeding and management.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  6. Energy and Process Optimization Assessment at U.S. Army Installation in Germany: Keiserslautern Army Depot, Piermasens Army Depot, Katterbach Kaserne, Storck Barracks in Illesheim, and U.S. Army Garrison Wiesbaden Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    translucent panels (sky- lights) running the length of the building, with a total area of 3520 sq ft (Figure 8 value and are also very dirty...Envelope Exterior Walls 1. Light concrete block (approximately 20 cm, insulation in between) + metal sheet cover with insulation; estimated U-value... Concrete slab with insulation (15 cm), estimated U-value 0.30 W/m2,K Windows Thermal panes with light metal frames, U-value is most probably >2.0 W

  7. Department of Defense Materiel Distribution System Study. Volume 3, Book 5. Appendix D-3. Depot Cost and Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    driverless , have been around long enougli Co be fully debugged. Percentage cost change: +1. (3) More Restrictive Safety Requirements. No major...increased emphasis on more involved controls for driverless tractors, and for carts. There are existing systems which interface directly with stacker...still room for improve- ments within the driverless category. Further mechanical develop- ment to accommodate more sophisticated controls and some

  8. Development of integrated management practices for the control of Chinese tallow on Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren S. Pile; G. Geoff Wang; Patricia A. Layton

    2015-01-01

    Chinese tallow [Triadica sebifera (L.) Small] is an aggressive, fast-growing, highly adaptable invasive tree of the southeastern United States coastal region. Since its introduction in the early 1800s, Chinese tallow has become a serious threat to native grassland and forest communities from mid-coastal North Carolina to Northern Florida and West to Central Texas

  9. Deposition of colloidal particles in porous media; Depot de particules minerales de taille colloidale en milieu poreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste, J.P.

    1998-12-09

    The aim of this study was to determine the deposition rates of colloidal particles in porous media in relation with particle stability. It combines experimental results and theoretical analysis and gives an original approach which allows to improve the predictions of particle deposition. The colloidal particles studied are several times smaller than the pore restrictions. Experimental results shows that the porous media surface is heterogeneous, whatever the preparation mean and the history of the porous media. The degree of surface heterogeneity depends both on salinity and porous media cleaning process. Heterogeneity is responsible for initial collection efficiency values higher that the theoretical predictions. When deposition occurs mainly on the less repulsive zones, the velocity dependence of the effective grain collection efficiency is close to the -2/3 value expected for the diffusion limited deposition regime. On the other hand, when these zones have been covered and thus behave as strongly repulsive, we obtain a collection efficiency on the more repulsive zones, with a slope close to -1, which is the value expected for the reaction limited deposition regime. The fraction of surface favorable for deposition can be assessed from attachment efficiency values. The attachment efficiency can be estimated from the measurement of particles stability. (author)

  10. Documentation and Evaluation of Depot Maintenance Cost Accumulation and Reporting at the Naval Air Rework Facility, Jacksonville, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Barilla , 1984). B. NARF JACKSONVILLE 1. Activities and Services NARF Jacksonville is one of the six industrially funded maintenance facilities which...MC =arine Corps N =Navy DSA z Defense Security Assistance OFA - Other Federal Agencies NFA a Non-Federal Agencies 80 1" 6 LIST OF REFERENCES Barilla

  11. Information Technology Infusion Case Study: Integrating Google Earth(Trademark) into the A-Train Data Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter; Kempler, Steven; Leptoukh, Gregory; Chen, Aijun

    2010-01-01

    This poster paper represents the NASA funded project that was to employ the latest three dimensional visualization technology to explore and provide direct data access to heterogeneous A-Train datasets. Google Earth (tm) provides foundation for organizing, visualizing, publishing and synergizing Earth science data .

  12. Tooele Army Depot Revised Final Site-Wide Ecological Risk Assessment. Volume II (Appendices A through D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    diet of higher trophic level species, such as raptors. Ord’s Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys ordii). The Ord’s kangaroo rat is chiefly a nocturnal mammal...sandy soils. The entrances of these burrow systems are plugged during the day to maintain humidity and coolness. The kangaroo rat can obtain...sufficient quantities of water from the metabolism of food in their diet, but will drink water when it is available. TSK 0003/SWERA/Rev Final Rpt/November

  13. Tooele Army Depot - South Area Suspected Release Units. RCRA Facility Investigation - Phase 2, for SWMUs 1, 25, and 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    metabolism before reaching the systemic circulation. Therefore, a toxic effect attributable to an active metabolite might be more pronounced if the compound...no first-pass metabolism might result in a greater dose of the toxic constituent entering the systemic circulation than if the compound were absorbed...great horned owls, red-tailed hawks, loggerhead shrikes, badgers, Ord’s kangaroo rats, horned larks, and sagebrush lizards. The vegetation types

  14. A Prodrug Approach Involving In Situ Depot Formation to Achieve Localized and Sustained Action of Diclofenac After Joint Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Mette; Agårdh, Li; Larsen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Long-acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations for intra-articular injection might be effective in the management of joint pain and inflammation associated sports injuries and osteoarthritis. In this study, a prodrug-based delivery system was evaluated. The synthesized diclofenac...

  15. Novel Detox Gel Depot sequesters β-Amyloid Peptides in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Ranjini K.; Kasinathan, Chinnaswamy; Stein, Stanley; Sundaram, Pazhani

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), a debilitating neurodegenerative disease is caused by aggregation and accumulation of a 39–43 amino acid peptide (amyloid β or Aβ) in brain parenchyma and cerebrovasculature. The rational approach would be to use drugs that interfere with Aβ-Aβ interaction and disrupt polymerization. Peptide ligands capable of binding to the KLVFF (amino acids 16–20) region in the Aβ molecule have been investigated as possible drug candidates. Retro-inverso (RI) peptide of this pentapeptide, ffvlk, has been shown to bind artificial fibrils made from Aβ with moderate affinity. We hypothesized that a ‘detox gel’, which is synthesized by covalently linking a tetrameric version of RI peptide ffvlk to poly (ethylene glycol) polymer chains will act like a ‘sink’ to capture Aβ peptides from the surrounding environment. We previously demonstrated that this hypothesis works in an in vitro system. The present study extended this hypothesis to an in vivo mouse model of Alzheimer’s Disease and determined the therapeutic effect of our detox gel. We injected detox gel subcutaneously to AD model mice and analyzed brain levels of Aβ-42 and improvement in memory parameters. The results showed a reduction of brain amyloid burden in detox gel treated mice. Memory parameters in the treated mice improved. No undesirable immune response was observed. The data strongly suggest that our detox gel can be used as an effective therapy to deplete brain Aβ levels. Considering recent abandonment of failed antibody based therapies, our detox gel appears to have the advantage of being a non-immune based therapy. PMID:22712003

  16. Relationship Between Changes in Fat and Lean Depots Following Weight Loss and Changes in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Peter M

    2018-04-04

    Gluteofemoral fat mass has been associated with improved cardiovascular disease risk factors. It is not clear if loss of this protective fat during weight loss partially negates the effect of loss of visceral fat. The aim of this study was to examine regional fat loss in a large weight-loss cohort from one center and to determine if fat loss in the leg and total lean tissue loss is harmful. We combined the data from 7 of our previously published 3-month weight-loss studies and examined the relationship between regional fat and lean tissue loss and changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors in 399 participants. At baseline, leg fat was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women and inversely with fasting triglyceride level in both sexes. Abdominal lean tissue was also related to systolic blood pressure in men. Changes in regional fat and lean tissue were positively associated with changes in glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure ( r =0.11-0.22, P lean tissue dominating in multivariate regression. After adjustment for total weight or total fat change, these relationships disappeared except for a positive relationship between arm and lean leg mass loss and changes in triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. Loss of leg fat and leg lean tissue was directly associated with beneficial changes in cardiovascular disease risk markers. Loss of lean tissue may not have an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease risk, and measures to retain lean tissue during weight loss may not be necessary. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  17. Depot-medication compliance for patients with psychotic disorders: The importance of illness insight and treatment motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Noordraven (Ernst); A.I. Wierdsma (André); P. Blanken (Peter); A.F.T. Bloemendaal (Anthony F. T.); C.L. Mulder (Niels)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Noncompliance is a major problem for patients with a psychotic disorder. Two important risk factors for noncompliance that have a severe negative impact on treatment outcomes are impaired illness insight and lack of motivation. Our cross-sectional study explored how they are

  18. Depot injectable biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan AH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ali Habiballah Hassan,1 Khaled Mohamed Hosny,2,3 Zuahir A Murshid,1 Adel Alhadlaq,4 Ahmed Alyamani,5 Ghada Naguib6 1Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt; 4Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 5Department of Oral Surgery, 6Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Objective: The aim of this study is to utilize the biocompatibility characteristics of biodegradable polymers, viz, poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA and polycaprolactone (PCL, to prepare sustained-release injectable nanoparticles (NPs of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 for the repair of alveolar bone defects in rabbits. The influence of formulation parameters on the functional characteristics of the prepared NPs was studied to develop a new noninvasive injectable recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2 containing grafting material for the repair of alveolar bone clefts.Materials and methods: BMP-2 NPs were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion solvent evaporation/extraction method. The influence of molar ratio of PLGA to PCL on a suitable particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and sustained drug release was studied. Critical size alveolar defects were created in the maxilla of 24 New Zealand rabbits divided into three groups, one of them treated with 5 µg/kg of rhBMP-2 NP formulations.Results: The results found that NPs formula prepared using blend of PLGA and PCL in 4:2 (w/w ratio showed the best sustained-release pattern with lower initial burst, and showed up to 62.7% yield, 64.5% encapsulation efficiency, 127 nm size, and more than 90% in vitro release. So, this formula was selected for scanning electron microscope examination and in vivo evaluation. Histomorphometric analysis showed 78% trabecular bone fill, mostly mature bone in the defects treated with rhBMP-2 in NPs within 6 weeks.Conclusion: The prepared NPs prolonged the release and the residence time of rhBMP-2 in rabbits, which led to the formation of adequate bone in critical size alveolar bone defects in 6 weeks. This noninvasive method has application for the primary restoration of alveolar bone defects.Keywords: BMP-2, biodegradable polymers, nanoparticle, PLGA, PCL, alveolar defects

  19. A prodrug approach involving in situ depot formation to achieve localized and sustained action of diclofenac after joint injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thing, Mette; Ågårdh, Li; Larsen, Susan; Rasmussen, Rune; Pallesen, Jakob; Mertz, Nina; Kristensen, Jesper; Hansen, Martin; Østergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Claus Selch

    2014-12-01

    Long-acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations for intra-articular injection might be effective in the management of joint pain and inflammation associated sports injuries and osteoarthritis. In this study, a prodrug-based delivery system was evaluated. The synthesized diclofenac ester prodrug, a weak base (pKa 7.52), has relatively high solubility at low pH (6.5 mg mL(-1) at pH 4) and much lower solubility at physiological pH (4.5 μg mL(-1) at pH 7.4) at 37°C. In biological media including 80% (v/v) human synovial fluid (SF), the prodrug was cleaved to diclofenac mediated by esterases. In situ precipitation of the prodrug was observed upon addition of a concentrated slightly acidic prodrug solution to phosphate buffer or SF at pH 7.4. The degree of supersaturation accompanying the precipitation process was more pronounced in SF than in phosphate buffer. In the rotating dialysis cell model, a slightly acidic prodrug solution was added to the donor cell containing 80% SF resulting in a continuous appearance of diclofenac in the acceptor phase for more than 43 h after an initial lag period of 8 h. Detectable amounts of prodrug were found in the rat joint up to 8 days after knee injection of the acidic prodrug solution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. Interleukins 6 and 8 and abdominal fat depots are distinct correlates of lipid moieties in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Johannes D; Dyer, Roy B; Trushin, Sergey A; Bondar, Olga P; Singh, Ravinder J; Klee, George G

    2016-12-01

    Available data associate lipids concentrations in men with body mass index, anabolic steroids, age, and certain cytokines. Data were less clear in women, especially across the full adult lifespan, and when segmented by premenopausal and postmenopausal status. 120 healthy women (60 premenopausal and 60 postmenopausal) in Olmsted County, MN, USA, a stable well studied clinical population. Dependent variables: measurements of 10 h fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. testosterone, estrone, estradiol, 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, and sex-hormone binding globulin (by mass spectrometry); insulin, glucose, and albumin; abdominal visceral, subcutaneous, and total abdominal fat [abdominal visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, total abdominal fat by computerized tomography scan]; and a panel of cytokines (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Multivariate forward-selection linear-regression analysis was applied constrained to P abdominal visceral fat (P abdominal visceral fat (P abdominal fat and interleukin-8 (P = 2.0 × 10 -5 , 16.9 % of variance; and P = 0.0031, 9.4 % of variance, respectively). Premenopausal vs. postmenopausal comparisons identified specific relationships that were stronger in premenopausal than postmenopausal individuals, and vice versa. Age was a stronger correlate of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; interleukin-6 of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein; and both sex-hormone binding globulin and total abdominal fat of non high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in premenopausal than postmenopausal women. Conversely, sex-hormone binding globulin, abdominal visceral fat, interleukin-8, adiponectin were stronger correlates of triglycerides; abdominal visceral fat, and testosterone of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and age of both non high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein in postmenopausal than premenopausal women. Our data delineate correlations of total abdominal fat and interleukin-8 (both positively) with non high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy women across the full age range of 21-79 years along with even more specific associations in premenopausal and postmenopausal individuals. Whether some of these outcomes reflect causal relationships would require longitudinal and interventional or genetic studies.

  1. Sierra Army Depot, Phase 1, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Lassen County, California. Appendices G-Q

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Oeco: Page IS Anatytical Results for Chemical SciL From: 01-jan-75 To: 09107/90 (IceOeaSO LT &M~ NO are exCtt.dea) site: lSE 0010-SS (continued) ISA1MPLE...9999.0 SPI SCil 02 92.0 10.0 -9999.0 SIO * -3- I I ?-AUG- 1990 GEOTICNICAL ILL CONSTRUCTION (i) 6:08: .; mnetaLLation: Sierra Ordnance Deot (SA

  2. Trial Burn Plan for a Transportable Incineration System (TIS) at the Savanna Army Depot Activity (SADA) Washout Lagoon Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-27

    sampling line. Draw a 2.3.2 Emision Rau Correction ?actor or cent. Calculste the dry molecular weight as r n the a ere omission ate at. AnO~ ~ ~ ~Se~ .3...compare AV readlng of the gauge Section 3.8). to determine the sUcs,-c C dry served, with those of a gauge-oil manometer at a molecular weight, and...that the face openins of the tub an to the procedure outlined in Sections L1.2ducted: use a dry molecular veight of 29.0. aligned with=n the

  3. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF FREIGHT CARS REPAIR ORGANIZATION METHODS IN THE DEPOT AND THE WAYS OF THEIR FURTHER DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of existing methods for repair of freight wagons is presented. The conclusion, that with probability nature of repair activities the “classic” type of a “rigid” production line with regulated step in long-term outlook is inexpedient, has been done. The further development of production-line wagon repair activities is seen in the creation of advanced enterprises equipped with multi-object flexible asynchronous systems with high level of mechanization and automation of technologic processes.

  4. To Ensure the Integrity of the Cryogenic Propellant Depot Tank Within the Expected Radiation and Space Debris Environment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HyPerComp Engineering, Inc. (HEI) proposes to develop well characterized, structurally reliable filament wound composite pressure vessels for use in both cryogenic...

  5. Tests for depositing thin films of metallic zirconium; Essais de depot de zirconium metallique en couches minces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentolila, J.; Pattoret, A.; Platzer, R.

    1957-01-15

    The authors report a study which aimed at obtaining a thin, adhesive and non porous coating of metallic zirconium on a uranium substrate by means of chemical process. The main required condition was not to go beyond the uranium phase change temperature (650 C). Two kinds of tests have been performed: on the one hand, tests of reduction of zirconium tetrachloride in non aqueous solvent medium, and on the other hand, tests of vacuum decomposition of zirconium hydride. As far as the first tests are concerned, the authors studied organic solvent media (reduction by aluminium and lithium hydride, action of organic-magnesium compounds), and liquid ammoniac. For the second test type, they describe the apparatus, the preparation of the zirconium hydride, preparation of the substrate surfaces, coating preparation, and decomposition process. Results are discussed in terms of temperature, of presence of copper powder in the coating, of early surface hydriding of uranium, surface polishing.

  6. Use of three joints as predictors of carcass and body fat depots in Blanca Celtibérica goats

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Delfa, R.; González, C.; Gosalvez, L.F.; Tor, M.

    1995-01-01

    Nineteen adult goats of the Blanca Celtibérica breed - in non productive stage - from the experimental flock of Servicio de Investigación Agraria (Diputación General de Aragón) were scored using the lumbar, breast and tail palpation. Sternal triangle joint, lumbar square jointt a ailn tdha t were handled to assess body condition scores were dissected into muscle, bone subcutaneous fat and intermuscular fat. Regression analyses were developed for predicting carcass and body fat dep...

  7. Final Environmental Assessment for the Disposal of the Former Lynn Haven Fuel Depot, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    use controls (LUCs), to prevent consumption and use, following issuance of the Site Rehabilitation Completion Order by FDEP. The LUCs will be...This service includes residential applications, such as household and yard waste collection. According to landfill capacity reports by Bay County Solid...Waste Department, the existing landfill resources are estimated to serve the known populations and proposed projects until 2025. Future landfill

  8. Study of heat flux deposition in the Tore Supra Tokamak; Etude des depots de chaleur dans le tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, S.

    2009-02-15

    Accurate measurements of heat loads on internal tokamak components is essential for protection of the device during steady state operation. The optimisation of experimental scenarios also requires an in depth understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the heat flux deposition on the walls. The objective of this study is a detailed characterisation of the heat flux to plasma facing components (PFC) of the Tore Supra tokamak. The power deposited onto Tore Supra PFCs is calculated using an inverse method, which is applied to both the temperature maps measured by infrared thermography and to the enthalpy signals from calorimetry. The derived experimental heat flux maps calculated on the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) are then compared with theoretical heat flux density distributions from a standard SOL-model. They are two experimental observations that are not consistent with the model: significant heat flux outside the theoretical wetted area, and heat load peaking close to the tangency point between the TPL and the last closed field surface (LCFS). An experimental analysis for several discharges with variable security factors q is made. In the area consistent with the theoretical predictions, this parametric study shows a clear dependence between the heat flux length lambda{sub q} (estimated in the SOL (scrape-off layer) from the IR measurements) and the magnetic configuration. We observe that the spreading of heat fluxes on the component is compensated by a reduction of the power decay length lambda{sub q} in the SOL when q decreases. On the other hand, in the area where the derived experimental heat loads are not consistent with the theoretical predictions, we observe that the spreading of heat fluxes outside the theoretical boundary increases when q decreases, and is thus not counterbalanced. (author)

  9. Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater Treatment Pilot Study at the Sharpe Army Depot (SHAD) Lathrop, California. Task Order 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    I- I IIIIII 11HI ca~ 1- 1.cc III I HHo I H [I I 5-12 December 1990 Revision: 1 in Table 5-6, the performance of F-1 AA, in terms of the equilibrium...required. In treatment of water for boiler makeup, the relative freedom of Amberlite I RA-402 from *. ..IOEAIGCHRCEITC organic fouling insures good...hydroxide form) 1400 F (600 C) medium pressure boilers . This represents a considerable f chloride form) 1700 F (77 0C) saving over the use of deionization

  10. Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation: Tooele Army Depot, Utah. Volume 1. North Area and Facilities at Hill Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-12

    and by James M. Montgomery (JMM) Inc., (1987) were typically yellowish brown to grayish orange with varying amounts of pink , red, black, yellow or...investigation. The following findings were presented in the report. " The grondwater floy velocity was calculated to range from 6 x 10 to 1 x 10- cm/second...U ol ti -f s - -~ - 0 F.X I I I4 I I I4 I 1 0 0-1 of TNT contamination (e.g., pink soils) was observed. However, during an onsite visit performed by

  11. Organic Versus Contractor Logistics Support For Depot-Level Repair: Factors That Drive Sub-Optimal Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    incentive.26 CLS benefits the government because contractors control sustainment costs to maximize their profit . For the government, profit is not part...system, less maintenance, and thereby obtain better aircraft reliability, thereby maximizing profits by lowering maintenance costs.27 Government fiscal...sustainment plan. 6 Profit Incentive as Part of CLS Costs Organic support on average should be cheaper than CLS because there is no profit

  12. Identification of Relevant Costs in the Decision to Consolidate or Maintain Two Marine Corps Recruit Training Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    equipment RTR Recruit Training Regiment TAD temporary additional duty xii UFM Uniform Funding and Management USMC United States Marine Corps...still a necessity with the consolidation of the two facilities, which makes the cost irrelevant. Temporary additional duty ( TAD ) costs are still going...Recruit uniform alterations would behave the same as it did prior to the comparison. TAD costs are still going to exist with the consolidation, as well

  13. Positive associations between serum levels of IGF-I and subcutaneous fat depots in young men. The Odense Androgen Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M; Brixen, K; Hagen, C

    2012-01-01

    Serum levels of IGF-I are of growing interest due to the associations with morbidity and mortality. Despite markedly suppressed GH secretion, total IGF-I levels are often within normal range in obese adults.......Serum levels of IGF-I are of growing interest due to the associations with morbidity and mortality. Despite markedly suppressed GH secretion, total IGF-I levels are often within normal range in obese adults....

  14. The Experiment Data Depot: A Web-Based Software Tool for Biological Experimental Data Storage, Sharing, and Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morell, William C.; Birkel, Garrett W.; Forrer, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Although recent advances in synthetic biology allow us to produce biological designs more efficiently than ever, our ability to predict the end result of these designs is still nascent. Predictive models require large amounts of high quality data to be parametrized and tested, which are not gener......Although recent advances in synthetic biology allow us to produce biological designs more efficiently than ever, our ability to predict the end result of these designs is still nascent. Predictive models require large amounts of high quality data to be parametrized and tested, which...... algorithms. In this paper, we describe EDD and showcase its utility for three different use cases: storage of characterized synthetic biology parts, leveraging proteomics data to improve biofuel yield, and the use of extracellular metabolite concentrations to predict intracellular metabolic fluxes....

  15. Planning Documents Known Releases SWMUs Tooele Army Depot Tooele, Utah. Volume 1: Corrective Measures Study Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    groundwater. B.3.6.1 Bioremediation . In situ bioremediation uses the microorganisms in groundwater and saturated zone soil to biologically transform...also contained a series of former evaporation ponds used for pesticides disposal. Old sewage evaporation basin located just north of the asbestos...groundwater LANDFILL/ monitoring, and land use restrictions PESTICIDE Construct multilayer landfill cap in accordance DISPOSAL with State of Utah solid

  16. Forty month follow-up of persistent and difficultly controlled acromegalic patients treated with depot long acting somatostatin analog octreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetkin, D.O.; Boysan, S.N.; Tiryakioglu, O.; Yalin, A.S.; Kadioglu, P.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of octreotide long acting release (S-LAR) preparation on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 serum concentrations and pituitary tumor size in patients with persistent and difficultly controlled acromegaly even after adjuvant irradiation and/or dopamine agonists. Thirty-three patients with active acromegaly (26 female and 7 male, mean age; 43.94±14.01 standard deviation (SD) years) were included in this study. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at 6, 12, 30 and 40 months for GH, IGF-1, and GH response to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and biliary ultrasonography. Sella MRI was performed at initial and at 40 months. All patients received 20 mg S-LAR. Afterwards, the dosage was titrated to improve individual GH response and reduction of IGF-1 into normal ranges. Basal serum IGF-1 levels decreased from median: 530 μg/l [IQR: 420-600] to 340 μg/l [IQR: 230-460] at 6 months (p=0.01), to 400 μg/l [IQR: 222.4-600] at 12 months (p=0.48), to 396 μg/l [IQR: 318-468] at 30 months (p=0.49), to 482 μg/l [308-580] at 40 months (p=0.47). Nadir GH levels in OGTT fell from 2.70 ng/ml [IQR: 1.35-6.90] to 1.60 ng/ml [IQR: 0.36-4.10] at 6 months (p=0.03), to 0.31 ng/ml [IQR: 0.18-0.65] at 12 months (p<0.0001), to 1.50 ng/ml [IQR: 0.83-4.00] at 30 months (p=0.398) and to 0.89 ng/ml [IQR: 0.58-1.35] at 40 months (p<0.0001). Initially, pituitary adenoma volume was median: 1.18 ml [IQR: 0.08-3.50] and it shrank to 0.21 ml [IQR: 0-2.1] at 40 months (p=0.08). Gallstones were detected in 12 patients and six of them underwent cholecystectomy. S-LAR is an effective treatment regimen in reducing GH and IGF-1 concentrations and as well as in shrinking tumor volume in persistent and difficultly controlled acromegalic patients. (author)

  17. Phase II RCRA Facility Investigation Report, Tooele Army Depot-North Area, Group A, Suspected Releases SWMUs; Volume 1 - Text

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shank, David

    1997-01-01

    .... The generated data were used to perform risk assessments for each of the investigated SWMUs. A total of 299 soil samples, two sediment samples, seven water samples, and two total suspended particulate (air filter...

  18. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pueblo Depot Activity, Colorado. Final, Phase 1: Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.W.; Blasing, T.J.; Ensminger, J.T.; Johnson, R.O.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Shor, J.T.; Staub, W.P.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1995-04-01

    Under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the US Army proposes to dispose of lethal chemical agents and munitions stored at eight existing Army installations in the continental United States. In 1988, the US Army issued the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP. The FPEIS and the subsequent Record of Decision (ROD) identified an on-site disposal process as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. That is, the FPEIS determined the environmentally preferred alternative to be on-site disposal in high-temperature incinerators, while the ROD selected this alternative for implementation as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. In this Phase I report, the overall CSDP decision regarding disposal of the PUDA Stockpile is subjected to further analyses, and its validity at PUDA is reviewed with newer, more detailed data than those providing the basis for the conclusions in the FPEIS. The findings of this Phase I report will be factored into the scope of a site-specific environmental impact statement to be prepared for the destruction of the PUDA stockpile. The focus of this Phase I report is on those data identified as having the potential to alter the Army`s previous decision regarding disposal of the PUDA stockpile; however, several other factors beyond the scope of this Phase I report must also be acknowledged to have the potential to change or modify the Army`s decisions regarding PUDA.

  19. 76 FR 62631 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, SC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ...: Effective date: November 10, 2011. ADDRESSES: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Attn: CECW-CO (David B. Olson), 441 G Street NW., Washington, DC 20314-1000. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. David B. Olson...

  20. Employing Organizational Modeling and Simulation to Deconstruct the KC-135 Aircraft's Programmed Depot Maintenance Flight Controls Repair Cell

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paskin, Matthew A; Trevino, Alice W

    2007-01-01

    ...), Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma. The researchers focused on the repair cell's internal formal and informal communication flows and information processing to evaluate the impact on flight controls repair throughput time...

  1. ANALISIS KUANTITATIF BAKTERI Coliform PADA DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG YANG BERADA DI WILAYAH KAYUTANGI KOTA BANJARMASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Kumalasari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water was one of the natural resources, which was needed by all of living creatures. Safe drinking-water supply should be sought because there was a probability of microorganism contamination in the drinking water, such as Coliform bacteria contamination. The dangerous of Coliform bacteria was that it could cause various illnesses, such as diarrhea, typhus and bacillary dysentery. According to Indonesia National Standard 01- 3553-2006 for packaged drinking water quality requirements, the maximum acceptable contaminant level for Coliform bacteria in each 100 ml refill drinking water sample was <2/100 ml. The purpose of this research is to know or no Coliform bacteria in refill drinking-water and the amount of contaminant in MPN/100 ml, and also to find out whether the drinking-water in various refilling stations in Kayutangi Banjarmasin had fulfilled the requirements of Indonesia National Standard or not. The method of this research was quantitative descriptive research a research which described a phenomenon in a certain population. Saturation sampling technique was used to collect data, and this research used the method of Most Probable Number MPN/100 ml. The results showed that 5 (31,25% samples were positive for containing Coliform bacteria and 11 (65,78% samples were negative for containing Coliform bacteria. The highest MPN/100 ml amount of Coliform bacteria was 190 MPN/100 ml and the lowest MPN/100ml amount of Coliform bacteria was 4 MPN/100 ml. According to the calculation of colony amount using MPN/100 ml table, it was found that all of the five positive samples exceeded the Indonesia National Standard limit, in which the maximum contaminant level was <2/100 ml.

  2. Behavior of Particle Depots in Molten Silicon During Float-Zone Growth in Strong Static Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauss, T.; SorgenFrei, T.; Croell, A.; Azizi, M.; Reimann, C.; Friedrich, J.; Volz, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the photovoltaics industry, the largest market share is represented by solar cells made from multicrystalline silicon, which is grown by directional solidification. During the growth process, the silicon melt is in contact with the silicon nitride coated crucible walls and the furnace atmosphere which contains carbon monoxide. The dissolution of the crucible coating, the carbon bearing gas, and the carbon already present in the feedstock, lead to the precipitation of silicon carbide, and silicon nitride, at later stages of the growth process. The precipitation of Si3N4 and SiC particles of up to several hundred micrometers in diameter leads to severe problems during the wire sawing process for wafering the ingots. Furthermore the growth of the silicon grains can be negatively influenced by the presence of particles, which act as nucleation sources and lead to a grit structure of small grains and are sources for dislocations. If doped with Nitrogen from the dissolved crucible coating, SiC is a semi conductive material, and can act as a shunt, short circuiting parts of the solar cell. For these reasons, the incorporation of such particles needs to be avoided. In this contribution we performed model experiments in which the transport of intentionally added SiC particles and their interaction with the solid-liquid interface during float zone growth of silicon in strong steady magnetic fields was investigated. SiC particles of 7µm and 60µm size are placed in single crystal silicon [100] and [111] rods of 8mm diameter. This is achieved by drilling a hole of 2mm diameter, filling in the particles and closing the hole by melting the surface of the rod until a film of silicon covers the hole. The samples are processed under a vacuum of 1x10(exp -5) mbar or better, to prevent gas inclusions. An oxide layer to suppress Marangoni convection is applied by wet oxidation. Experiments without and with static magnetic field are carried out to investigate the influence of melt convection on the distribution of particles and their incorporation into the crystal. The field strengths applied by a superconducting magnet are 1T, 3T, 4.5T, and 5T. The increase in field strength dampens the melt flow, and so this study provides comparative data to the crystal growth experiment to be carried out onboard the sounding rocket mission TEXUS 51, where purely diffusive growth condition will be achieved under microgravity conditions.

  3. Synthesis of canrenone and related steroids labelled with tritium, carbon-14, and sulfur-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, C.S.; Dorn, C.R.; Zitzwitz, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The syntheses of [1- 3 H]canrenone, [1- 3 H]spironolactone, [1- 3 H] potassium canrenoate, [22- 14 C]canrenone, [22- 14 C]spironolactone, [22- 14 C]potassium canrenoate, and [ 35 S]spironolactone are reported. Tritium labelled compounds were obtained by catalytic reduction of a 3-keto-1, 4-diene precursor followed by exchange of enolizable label. Carbon-14 compounds were obtained by reaction of a 17-ethynyl steroid with 14 CO 2 . Sulfur-35 spironolactone was synthesized by the in-situ generation of [ 35 S]thiolacetic acid from [ 35 S]sodium sulfide. (author)

  4. Mechanistic study of aerosol dry deposition on vegetated canopies; Etude mecaniste du depot sec d'aerosols sur les couverts vegetaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroff, A

    2005-04-15

    The dry deposition of aerosols onto vegetated canopies is modelled through a mechanistic approach. The interaction between aerosols and vegetation is first formulated by using a set of parameters, which are defined at the local scale of one surface. The overall deposition is then deduced at the canopy scale through an up-scaling procedure based on the statistic distribution parameters. This model takes into account the canopy structural and morphological properties, and the main characteristics of the turbulent flow. Deposition mechanisms considered are Brownian diffusion, interception, initial and turbulent impaction, initially with coniferous branches and then with entire canopies of different roughness, such as grass, crop field and forest. (author)

  5. Multi scale study of carbon deposits collected in Tore-Supra and TEXTOR tokamaks; Etude multi echelle des depots carbones collectes dans les tokamaks Tore Supra et TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richou, M

    2007-06-15

    Tokamaks are devices aimed at studying magnetic fusion. They operate with high temperature plasmas containing hydrogen, deuterium or tritium. One of the major issue is to control the plasma-wall interaction. The plasma facing components are most often in carbon. The major drawback of carbon is the existence of carbon deposits and dust, due to erosion. Dust is potentially reactive in case of an accidental opening of the device. These deposits also contain H, D or T and induce major safety problems when tritium is used, which will be the case in ITER. Therefore, the understanding of the deposit formation and structure has become a main issue for fusion researches. To clarify the role of the deposits in the retention phenomenon, we have done different complementary characterizations for deposits collected on similar places (neutralizers) in tokamaks Tore Supra (France) and TEXTOR (Germany). Accessible microporous volume and pore size distribution of deposits has been determined with the analysis of nitrogen and methane adsorption isotherms using the BET, Dubinin-Radushkevich and {alpha}{sub s} methods and the Density Functional Theory (DFT). To understand growth mechanisms, we have studied the deposit structure and morphology. We have shown using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Raman micro-spectrometry that these deposits are non amorphous and disordered. We have also shown the presence of nano-particles (diameter between 4 and 70 nm) which are similar to carbon blacks: nano-particle growth occurs in homogeneous phase in the edge plasma. We have emphasised a dual growth process: a homogenous and a heterogeneous one. (author)

  6. Tooele Army Depot - South Area Suspected Releases Units RCRA Facility Investigation - Phase II for SWMUs 1, 25, and 37. Appendices: D-M

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    behavior which may include running, fighting, and/or singing. If the condition persists, a mask-like face, retropulsion or propulsion and a Parkinson ...Toxicity Acute mercury poisoning is usually caused by the soluble inorganic salts. Early signs and symptoms include pharyngitis, dysphagia , abdominal

  7. Interleukins 6 and 15 Levels Are Higher in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, but Obesity Is Associated with Their Increased Content in Visceral Fat Depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Izabela Jonas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess adiposity is associated with chronic inflammation, which takes part in the development of obesity-related complications. The aim of this study was to establish whether subcutaneous (SAT or visceral (VAT adipose tissue plays a major role in synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Concentrations of interleukins (IL: 1β, 6, 8 and 15 were measured at the protein level by an ELISA-based method and on the mRNA level by real-time PCR in VAT and SAT samples obtained from 49 obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2 and 16 normal-weight (BMI 20–24.9 kg/m2 controls. IL-6 and IL-15 protein concentrations were higher in SAT than in VAT for both obese (p = 0.003 and p < 0.0001, respectively and control individuals (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively, while for IL-1β this was observed only in obese subjects (p = 0.047. What characterized obese individuals was the higher expression of IL-6 and IL-15 at the protein level in VAT compared to normal-weight controls (p = 0.047 and p = 0.016, respectively. Additionally, obese individuals with metabolic syndrome had higher IL-1β levels in VAT than did obese individuals without this syndrome (p = 0.003. In conclusion, concentrations of some pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in SAT than in VAT, but it was the increased pro-inflammatory activity of VAT that was associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  8. OPTIMUM DISTRIBUTION OF REPAIRS IN ТS-8 OF ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES VL80С BETWEEN REPAIR DEPOTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidulla ABDULLAYEV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the solution for the problem of optimal distribution of electric locomotives in repair enterprises for carrying out repairs in the frame of technical service - 8 (ТS-8 and increased technical service - 8 (ITS-8. The aim of the study is to improve the efficacy of a rolling stock with a simultaneous decrease in the total expenses connected with the repair of locomotives and their transportation in repair enterprises. This is possible due to a reduction in the requirement for repairs by optimization of a resource before change of wheel bandages in electric locomotives VL80С that promotes an increase in their between-repairs run.

  9. Changes Are Needed to the Army Contract with Sikorsky to Use Existing DoD Inventory and Control Costs at the Corpus Christi Army Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    contingency stock for requirements outside the CCAD/Sikorsky contract. 6 The DoD EMALL is a full-service eCommerce site, which strives to be the single...such quantity as (A) will result in the total cost and unit cost most advantageous to the United States where practicable.” Having more than one...practice and frequently does not allow DoD to take advantage of economic order quantities. Table 15 shows examples where higher quantities procured

  10. Electrophoretic deposits of boron on duralumin plates used for measuring neutron flux; Depots electrophoretiques de bore sur plaques de duralumin destines a des mesures de flux de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, F M; Magnier, P; Finck, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    Preparation of boron thin film deposits of around 1 mg per cm{sup 2} on duralumin plates with a diameter of 8 cm. The boron coated plates for ionization chambers were originally prepared at the CEA by pulverization of boron carbides on sodium silicates. This method is not controlling precisely enough the quantity of boron deposit. Thus, an electrophoretic method is considered for a better control of the quantity of boron deposit in the scope of using in the future boron 10 which is costly and rare. The method described by O. Flint is not satisfying enough and a similar electrophoretic process has been developed. Full description of the method is given as well as explanation of the use of dried methanol as solvent, tannin as electrolyte and magnesium chloride to avoid alumina formation. (M.P.)

  11. Effect of increasing body condition on key regulators of fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot and circulation of nonlactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, L; Häussler, S; Laubenthal, L; Singh, S P; Winkler, J; Kinoshita, A; Kenéz, Á; Rehage, J; Huber, K; Sauerwein, H; Dänicke, S

    2015-02-01

    In response to negative energy balance, overconditioned cows mobilize more body fat than thin cows and subsequently are prone to develop metabolic disorders. Changes in adipose tissue (AT) metabolism are barely investigated in overconditioned cows. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing body condition on key regulator proteins of fat metabolism in subcutaneous AT and circulation of dairy cows. Nonlactating, nonpregnant dairy cows (n=8) investigated in the current study served as a model to elucidate the changes in the course of overcondition independent from physiological changes related to gestation, parturition, and lactation. Cows were fed diets with increasing portions of concentrate during the first 6wk of the experiment until 60% were reached, which was maintained for 9wk. Biopsy samples from AT of the subcutaneous tailhead region were collected every 8wk, whereas blood was sampled monthly. Within the experimental period cows had an average BW gain of 243±33.3 kg. Leptin and insulin concentrations were increased until wk 12. Based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids, the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity were calculated. High-concentrate feeding led to decreased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment due to high insulin and glucose concentrations indicating decreased insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin, an adipokine-promoting insulin sensitivity, decreased in subcutaneous AT, but remained unchanged in the circulation. The high-concentrate diet affected key enzymes reflecting AT metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase, both represented as the proportion of the phosphorylated protein to total protein, as well as fatty acid synthase. The extent of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and the protein expression of fatty acid synthase were inversely regulated throughout the experimental period, whereas the extent of phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase was consistently decreasing by the high-concentrate diet. Overcondition in nonpregnant, nonlactating dairy cows changed the expression of key regulator proteins of AT metabolism and circulation accompanied by impaired insulin sensitivity, which might increase the risk for metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of dietary fat source and copper supplementation on broiler performance, fatty acid profile of meat and depot fat, and on cholesterol content in meat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skřivan, M.; Skřivanová, V.; Marounek, Milan; Tůmová, E.; Wolf, J.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 41, 6 (2000), s. 608-614 ISSN 1466-1799 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/99/0101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : fatty acid * cholesterol Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.705, year: 2000

  13. Estimating the ROI on Implementation of RFID at the Ammunition Storage Warehouse and the 40th Supply Depot: KVA as a Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Balanced Scorecard CAPM Capital Asset Pricing Model DIS Defense Information System DoD Department of...Measurement Tool (PMT) is the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) based on critical success factors and key performance indicators. The MND has referred to Jung’s...authors can replicate the methodology for multiple projects to generate a portfolio of projects. Similar to the Capital Asset Pricing Model ( CAPM ) or

  14. Activation of classical brown adipocytes in the adult human perirenal depot is highly correlated with PRDM16-EHMT1 complex expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaku Nagano

    Full Text Available Brown fat generates heat to protect against cold and obesity. Adrenergic stimulation activates the thermogenic program of brown adipocytes. Although the bioactivity of brown adipose tissue in adult humans had been assumed to very low, several studies using positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT have detected bioactive brown adipose tissue in adult humans under cold exposure. In this study, we collected adipose tissues obtained from the perirenal regions of adult patients with pheochromocytoma (PHEO or non-functioning adrenal tumors (NF. We demonstrated that perirenal brown adipocytes were activated in adult patients with PHEO. These cells had the molecular characteristics of classical brown fat rather than those of beige/brite fat. Expression of brown adipose tissue markers such as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 and cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector A (CIDEA was highly correlated with the amounts of PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain-containing protein-16 (PRDM16 - euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1 complex, the key transcriptional switch for brown fat development. These results provide novel insights into the reconstruction of human brown adipocytes and their therapeutic application against obesity and its complications such as type 2 diabetes.

  15. Perform MetalMapper Classification Treatability Investigations as Part of Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies: Live Site Demonstrations: Pueblo Chemical Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    TEMTADS 2x2 cart, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s (LBNL’s) man-portable Berkeley UXO discriminator (BUD), 1-2 and Black Tusk Geophysics’ man...TO DYNAMIC TARGET The use of the “ dancing arrows” display to position the MetalMapper during data collection can sometimes lead to a significant...collection was accomplished using “ dancing arrows” displayed on the monitor. The dancing arrows display shows the seven receivers in the array, arranged as

  16. New Insights Into the Transmissibility of Leishmania infantum From Dogs to Sand Flies: Experimental Vector-Transmission Reveals Persistent Parasite Depots at Bite Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Hamide; Oliveira, Fabiano; Meneses, Claudio; Castrovinci, Philip; Gomes, Regis; Teixeira, Clarissa; Derenge, Candace A; Orandle, Marlene; Gradoni, Luigi; Oliva, Gaetano; Fischer, Laurent; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2016-06-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a chronic fatal disease of dogs and a major source of human infection through propagation of parasites in vectors. Here, we infected 8 beagles through multiple experimental vector transmissions with Leishmania infantum-infected Lutzomyia longipalpis. CanL clinical signs varied, although live parasites were recovered from all dog spleens. Splenic parasite burdens correlated positively with Leishmania-specific interleukin 10 levels, negatively with Leishmania-specific interferon γ and interleukin 2 levels, and negatively with Leishmania skin test reactivity. A key finding was parasite persistence for 6 months in lesions observed at the bite sites in all dogs. These recrudesced following a second transmission performed at a distal site. Notably, sand flies efficiently acquired parasites after feeding on lesions at the primary bite site. In this study, controlled vector transmissions identify a potentially unappreciated role for skin at infectious bite sites in dogs with CanL, providing a new perspective regarding the mechanism of Leishmania transmissibility to vector sand flies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  17. In vivo evaluation of a conjugated poly(lactide-ethylene glycol nanoparticle depot formulation for prolonged insulin delivery in the diabetic rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomar L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lomas Tomar,1,2 Charu Tyagi,1,3 Manoj Kumar,2 Pradeep Kumar,1 Harpal Singh,2 Yahya E Choonara,1 Viness Pillay11University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa; 2Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India; 3VSPG College, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut, IndiaAbstract: Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG and polylactic acid (PLA-based copolymeric nanoparticles were synthesized and investigated as a carrier for prolonged delivery of insulin via the parenteral route. Insulin loading was simultaneously achieved with particle synthesis using a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, and the effect of varied PEG chain lengths on particle size and insulin loading efficiency was determined. The synthesized copolymer and nanoparticles were analyzed by standard polymer characterization techniques of gel permeation chromatography, dynamic light scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance, and transmission electron microscopy. In vitro insulin release studies performed under simulated conditions provided a near zero-order release pattern up to 10 days. In vivo animal studies were undertaken with varied insulin loads of nanoparticles administered subcutaneously to fed diabetic rabbits and, of all doses administered, nanoparticles containing 50 IU of insulin load per kg body weight controlled the blood glucose level within the physiologically normal range of 90–140 mg/dL, and had a prolonged effect for more than 7 days. Histopathological evaluation of tissue samples from the site of injection showed no signs of inflammation or aggregation, and established the nontoxic nature of the prepared copolymeric nanoparticles. Further, the reaction profiles for PLA-COOH and NH2-PEGDA-NH2 were elucidated using molecular mechanics energy relationships in vacuum and in a solvated system by exploring the spatial disposition of various concentrations of polymers with respect to each other. Incorporation of insulin within the polymeric matrix was modeled using Connolly molecular surfaces. The computational results corroborated the experimental and analytical data. The ability to control blood glucose levels effectively coupled with the nontoxic behavior of the nanoparticles indicates that these nanoparticles are a potential candidate for insulin delivery.Keywords: parenteral delivery, insulin, nanoparticles, poly(lactide-ethylene glycol diblock copolymer, molecular mechanics energy relationship

  18. Keramický depot mohylové kultury střední doby bronzové z Prahy 9 – Běchovic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vencl, Slavomil; Zadák, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2010), s. 211-258 ISSN 0323-1267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Bohemia * Middle Bronze Age * pottery deposits * settlement structure Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  19. A Simulation-Based Analysis of the Impact of In-Sourcing a Major Process Element on the Coast Guard HH-60J Depot Maintenance Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vigus, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Leaders at the United States Coast Guard's Aircraft Repair and Service Center (ARSC) in Elizabeth City, North Carolina recently formalized their planning and analysis functions by adding a dedicated branch to their command structure...

  20. The emergence of cold-induced brown adipocytes in mouse white fat depots is determined predominantly by white to brown adipocyte transdifferentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbatelli, G.; Murano, I.; Madsen, Lise

    2010-01-01

    The origin of brown adipocytes arising in white adipose tissue (WAT) after cold acclimatization is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that several UCP1-immunoreactive brown adipocytes occurring in WAT after cold acclimatization have a mixed morphology (paucilocular adipocytes). These cells also had a ...

  1. An Analysis of the Factors Generating the Variance Between the Budgeted and Actual Operating Results of the Naval Aviation Depot at North Island, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curran, Thomas; Schimpff, Joshua J

    2008-01-01

    .... The variance analysis between budgeted (projected) and actual financial results was performed on financial data collected on the E-2C aircraft program from Fleet Readiness Center Southwest (FRCSW...

  2. Functionalization of deproteinized bovine bone with a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2 renders the material efficienctly osteoinductive and suppresses foreign-body reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, G.; Hunziker, E.B.; Zheng, Y.; Wismeijer, D.; Liu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The repair of critical-sized bony defects remains a challenge in the fields of implantology, maxillofacial surgery and orthopaedics. As an alternative bone-defect filler to autologous bone grafts, deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) is highly osteoconductive and clinically now widely used. However, this

  3. Depot Acquisition Management and Engineering Support for Close-in Weapon System (CIWS) Phalanx Mk 15 and FCS Mk 92/Gun Mount Mk 75 Overhaul Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    thle reactions to the management itructurcs and orqoanizatiena1 assignments pre- sented in thu oririinal maiagement .dJan, we have reach-d the...be obtained. Any method of duplication which will provide the necessary quantity of black. legibl- copies will be acceptable. 9 3.6.1 Typography

  4. A Cost Estimation Model for Commander Naval Air Forces Paicifc's TACAIR F/A-18S Aviation Depot Level Repair Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duma, David

    2001-01-01

    .... The first section discusses the methodology used to create a cost estimation model. The second and third sections provide the results of the model's outcomes and compares and analyzes those results to the actual results...

  5. Energy Assessment at Army Installations in Germany: Campbell Barracks - Heidelberg, Coleman Barracks - Manheim, Katterbach Barracks - Ansbach, Storch Barracks - Illesheim, and U.S. Depot - Germersheim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or... Locations where the energy assessments were done..........................................................23 22 Grid feed-in in different locations ...113 75 Positioning of modules in an open space – PV-system ......................................................113 76 Large door at old Nike Bldg

  6. Efektivitas Unit Pengolahan Air di Depot Air Minum Isi Ulang (DAMIU Dalam Menurunkan Kadar Logam (Fe, Mn dan Mikroba di Kota Pekalongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:The number of drinking-water-refill center were increasing only in quantity but not in providing the quality of water. Therefore it takes a special handling and attention, not only because the low-quality of water causing various diseases.The data from the Pekalongan City Health servic showed that only 13 of 55 drinking-water-refill center (24% which have actively examined their sample water each month in bacteriological test, 3 of them (20% proved to be unqualified. Furthermore, while for chemical examination, there were only 6 (11% which actively doing it, and 2 of them (33% mentioned as unqualified. After doing examination to the raw water, it was found that the content of Fe metal was 2.51 mg/1, Mn metal was 2.41 mg/1, the parameters found was beyond the standard. Methode:The kind of research held was explanatory research using cross sectional design. The sample was taken by proportional sampling. The number of samples was 35 refill centers.The data would be analyzed uding Chi-Square,pairedt-test,Kruskall Wallis, McNemar Test and multivariate test (Logistc regression. Result:The results of this research showed that 23 samples (66% had an unqualified Fe metal content with the average content was 0,34 mg/l, 19 samples (54% had an unqualified Mn metal content, with the average content was 0.47 mg/1, 26 samples (74% with The unqualified quality of E.coli. The other test carried out in the drinking-water refill, resulted that 25 samples (71% had a qualified Fe metal content, the average was 0.29/1 and 22 samples (63% had a qualified E.coli content.The results of Bivariate analysis showed that the condition of raw water, the equipment, the processing, the sanitation, the SOP compliance, significantly related to the decreasing of Fe, Mn metal content and E.coli (p. <0.05. While the results of the multivariate analysis from 5 variables, 1 of which were statistically proven that there was a asosiation relationship between raw water conditions and the decreasing E.coli with p= 0.02 with theOR(95%CI= 2.238(1.299 - 67.645. The effectiveness of drinking-water-refill center management in reducing the levels of Fe, Mn and E.coli, with Fe, p= 0.00, Mn p= 0.04,E.colip= 0.00. is strongly influenced by the condition of the raw water, the condition of the equipment, and the processing. Keywords : The effectiveness of drinking-water-refill treatment, chemical and bacteriological quality

  7. Foot skin depots of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose do not enable PET/CT lymphography of the lower extremity lymphatic system in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Radmer; Simonsen, Lene; Lonsdale, Markus

    2013-01-01

    consecutive PET scans of the same region.Blood activity increased faster and to a greater extent in the great saphenous veins compared to the medial cubital vein. PET/CT images showed activity in the superficial and deep veins of the lower extremities. No lymphatic collectors or nodes were visualized....... CONCLUSION: Neither subcutaneous nor intradermal injection of 18F-FDG allows imaging of the lower extremity lymphatic system in man....

  8. Waist-hip ratio is a poor predictor of changes in visceral fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Droop, A.; Bakker, C J

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effect of weight loss on three fat depots: the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal depots and the subcutaneous depot at trochanter level. Changes in fat depots were compared with changes in circumference measures and the waist-hip ratio (WHR) in obese

  9. Phenomenological and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the reconstitution of the cesium 137 deposit in France consecutive to the accident of Chernobylsk; Interpretation phenomenologique et analytique de la relation pluie-depot utilisee pour la reconstitution des depots de {sup 137}Cs en France consecutifs a l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion, D.; Renaud, Ph.; Metivier, J.M.; Garcia-Sanchez, L.; Pourcelot, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dir. de l' environnement et de l' intervention 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2005-11-15

    The works presented in this report allow to give two conclusions: the first one bears on the reconstitution of the cesium 137 deposits induced by the Chernobylsk accident; the second one bears on the methods improvement of post accident consequences evaluation induced by the radioactive atmosphere fallout. (N.C.)

  10. Renal denervation in comparison with intensified pharmacotherapy in true resistant hypertension: 2-year outcomes of randomized PRAGUE-15 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ján; Widimský, Petr; Waldauf, Petr; Zelinka, Tomáš; Petrák, Ondřej; Táborský, Miloš; Branny, Marian; Toušek, Petr; Čurila, Karol; Lambert, Lukáš; Bednář, František; Holaj, Robert; Štrauch, Branislav; Václavík, Jan; Kociánová, Eva; Nykl, Igor; Jiravský, Otakar; Rappová, Gabriela; Indra, Tomáš; Krátká, Zuzana; Widimský, Jiří

    2017-05-01

    The randomized, multicentre study compared the efficacy of renal denervation (RDN) versus spironolactone addition in patients with true resistant hypertension. We present the 24-month data. A total of 106 patients with true resistant hypertension were enrolled in this study: 52 patients were randomized to RDN and 54 patients to the spironolactone addition, with baseline SBP of 159 ± 17 and 155 ± 17 mmHg and average number of drugs 5.1 and 5.4, respectively. Two-year data are available in 86 patients. Spironolactone addition, as crossover after 1 year, was performed in 23 patients after RDN, and spironolactone addition followed by RDN was performed in five patients. Similar and comparable reduction of 24-h SBP after RDN or spironolactone addition after randomization was observed, 9.1 mmHg (P = 0.001) and 10.9 mmHg (P = 0.001), respectively. Similar decrease of office blood pressure (BP) was observed, 17.7 mmHg (P efficacy of spironolactone addition in 24-h SBP and office SBP reduction than RDN (3.7 mmHg, P = 0.27 and 4.6 mmHg, P = 0.28 in favour of spironolactone addition, respectively). Meanwhile, the number of antihypertensive drugs was significantly increased after spironolactone addition (+0.7, P = 0.001). In the settings of true resistant hypertension, spironolactone addition (if tolerated) seems to be of better efficacy than RDN in BP reduction over a period of 24 months. However, by contrast to the 12-month results, BP changes were not significantly greater.

  11. A SELECTIVE ANTAGONIST OF MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTOR EPLERENONE IN CARDIOLOGY PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Gegenava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of aldosterone in pathophysiological processes is considered. The effects of the selective antagonist of mineralocorticoid receptor eplerenone are analyzed. The advantages of eplerenone compared with spironolactone are discussed.

  12. Aetiology, complications, and preventive measures of liver cirrhosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common complications included ascites (92%), hepatic encephalopathy (19%), portal hypertension (8%), hepatocellular carcinoma (5%), and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (3%). In the majority of patients, management was based on diuretics (furosemide and spironolactone) and dietary sodium restriction. Few patients ...

  13. ISSN 2073 ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. s 9990 East Cent. Afr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    54%) of the patients were not taking any medication while the rest 12(46%) were taking medications preoperatively. Postoperatively none needed medications. All 12 patients took oral furosemide and 9 of them additionally took spironolactone.

  14. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists on glucose homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Korol, Sandra; Mottet, Fannie; Perreault, Sylvie; Baker, William L.; White, Michel; de Denus, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Spironolactone, a nonselective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA), may have a deleterious effect on glycemia. The objective of this review was to assess current knowledge on MRAs’ influence (spironolactone, eplerenone, and canrenone) on glucose homeostasis and the risk of diabetes. Method: A systematic review was conducted using the Medline database on articles published from 1946 to January 2017 that studied the effects of MRAs on any glucose-related endpoints, ...

  15. Integrated Technical Information for the Air Logistics Center: Enhancing Maintenance Technician Task Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitta, Deborah

    1998-01-01

    This technical paper documents the final results of an analysis of the task environment under which depot maintenance technicians perform their jobs--specifically, programmed depot maintenance (PDM) for F-15 aircraft...

  16. Air Force Journal of Logistics. Volume 27, Number 1, Spring 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    .... Financial management and productivity continue to be key elements of depot performance. To better focus their efforts, the Air Force leadership decided to take a more strategic and integrated approach toward improving depot maintenance...

  17. AMANE D.mdi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lara

    SECHAGE. 2 - 3 jours. BROYAGE. FARINE. EAU. DECANTATION. 5 - 10 min. SURNAGEANT 1. DEPOT ET. FLOCULANT BLANC. SUBSTANCE. VISQUEUSE. EAU. PRECUISSON. 1 – 2 h. BARRIQUE. SUBSTANCE. VISQUEUSE. DECANTATION. 12 h. MELANGE. DECANTATION. 10 - 15 min. DEPOT. SURNAGEANT 2.

  18. Assuring Condition and Inventory Accountability of Chemical Protective Suits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... As part of the Defense Logistics Agency's efforts to consolidate depot operations and improve inventory accuracy, chemical protective suits were transferred to the Defense Depot, Albany, Georgia, during FY 1991.

  19. Isolation of Mycoflora in Poultry Feed Ingredients Found in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest mycoflora count (19.3 x 103) was obtained from Add-more feeds depot, followed by Al-Mahmud Feeds depot (10.0 x 103), while the least counts of (5.7 x 103) were from Feed xtra depot. Rhizopus sp was more predominant of all the species. The difference in the mould counts from the different depots was found ...

  20. Effect of a weight cycle on visceral fat accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effect of a single weight cycle on three fat depots: the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal depots and the subcutaneous depot at the trochanter level. Obese subjects (17 men, 15 women) were examined before and after weight-loss intervention and 67 wk

  1. Joint Sustainment of Weapon Systems. Would We Be Better Off?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    .... As depots within the military begin to implement new procedures based on the Lean Six Sigma model, a proposed consolidation of efforts based on major weapon systems could lead to improved cost benefits and decreased maintenance time. Tied with the current Joint Depot Maintenance Program, Lean Six Sigma can continue to improve the Service's depot performance.

  2. Mathematical algorithm to relate digital maps of distribution of biomass with algorithms of linear programming to optimize bio-energy delivery chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazquez-Marti, B.; Annevelink, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many linear programming models have been developed to model the logistics of bio-energy chains. These models help to determine the best set-up of bio-energy chains. Most of them use network structures built up from nodes with one or more depots, and arcs connecting these depots. Each depot is source

  3. Mathematical algorithm to transform digital biomass distribution maps into linear programming networks in order to optimize bio-energy delivery chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazquez-Marti, B.; Annevelink, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many linear programming models have been developed to model the logistics of bio-energy chains. These models help to determine the best set-up of bio-energy chains. Most of them use network structures built up from nodes with one or more depots, and arcs connecting these depots. Each depot is source

  4. A Guide to Running a Recycling Project. [Includes Recycling Handbook].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Recycling Information and Organizing Network, Portland.

    This guide, designed for both students and adults, is intended for individuals who feel they might be interested in establishing a recycling depot. The guide includes such pertinent information as deciding how to set up a depot, markets and transportation, preparation of materials, where to place the depot and when to operate it, publicity and…

  5. Effects of atmospheric fallouts of sulfur and nitrogen on soils and fresh waters in France; Effets des depots atmospheriques de soufre et d'azote sur les sols et les eaux douces en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gall, A.Ch.

    2004-11-15

    The sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, the ammonia and the chlorine emitted in the environment by human activities contribute to the soils and waters acidity. After a presentation of the acidification and the eutrophication, the author describes and qualifies the mechanisms. In a second part she discusses the mathematical models of the acidification and the eutrophication, the biological criteria and the uncertainties. The last part presents the french situation and general recommendations on land restoration. (A.L.B.)

  6. LHRH analogue as a depot preparation (Zoladex) in the treatment of advanced carcinoma of the prostate followed by orchiectomy as a second line therapy--a phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rose, C; Stage, J G

    1989-01-01

    in 68% of the patients. During treatment, serum testosterone was in the castrate range in all patients except five. Possible explanations for this escape phenomenon are discussed. No toxicity was observed and treatment was well tolerated in all patients. Thirty-two patients underwent bilateral...

  7. Transport and deposition of nano-particles. Application to the free action of short-lived radon daughters; Transport et depot des aerosols nanometriques. Application a la fraction libre des descendants a vie courte du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J

    1997-10-10

    Short-lived radon daughters ({sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, and {sup 214}Po) are important contributors to the natural average annual individual dose. The models describing the evolution of these aerosol in a house depend critically on a parameter, the {sup 218}Po deposition velocity, which, although aerosol deposition has been extensively studied, is poorly known. A numerical and experimental study is thus carried out for a simple case: deposition in a cylindrical tube under laminar flow condition. The numerical results help understanding the difference between the transport and deposition of these radionuclides and those of non radioactive aerosols. Comparison of these well environment does not give satisfactory correlation, requiring the study of phenomena that may affect deposition. The first of these is the possible variation in the e {sup 218}Po diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, experiments coupled with numerical calculations show that this variation could be due to {sup 218}Po neutralization. The second phenomenon concerns the effect of the surface type, which is also shown experimentally. By modelling the neutralization and using results with a piratically smooth surface, good numerical/experimental correlations are obtained. Understanding this simple case than makes possible studying a more complex case: deposition in controlled turbulent flow. Two theories are thus experimentally validated. In addition, a {sup 218}Po deposition velocity representative of our experimental conditions is determined. Finally, we report a feasibility study of radon daughters transport and deposition in a ventilated chamber taking into account all the involved phenomena. (author)

  8. Search for plutonium salt deposits in the plutonium extraction batteries of the Marcoule plant (1963); Recherche de depots de sels de plutonium dans les batteries d'extraction du plutonium de l'usine de Marcoule (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzigues, H; Reneaud, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This report describes a method and a special apparatus making it possible to detach the insoluble plutonium salt deposits in the extraction chain of an irradiated fuel treatment plant. The process chosen allows the detection, in the extraction batteries or in the highly active chemical engineering equipment, of plutonium quantities of a few grains. After four years operation it has been impossible to detect measurable quantities of plutonium in any part of the extraction chain. The results have been confirmed by visual examinations carried out with a specially constructed endoscope. (authors) [French] Ce rapport decrit une methode et un montage special permettant de detacher les accumulations de sels de plutonium insolubles dans les chaines d'extraction d'une usine de traitement de combustible irradie. Le procede retenu permet de reperer, dans des batteries d'extraction ou dans l'appareillage de genie chimique fortement actif, des masses de plutonium de quelques grammes. Apres quatre annees de fonctionnement, il n'a pas ete possible de deceler des quantites ponderables de plutonium en aucun endroit de la chaine d'extraction. Ces resultats ont ete confirmes par les examens visuels effectues a l'aide d'un endoscope concu specialement pour cet usage. (auteurs)

  9. Electrochemical deposition of thin nano-structured layers of CuInS{sub 2} for photovoltaic cells; Depot electrochimique de couches minces nanostructurees de CuInS{sub 2} pour cellules photovoltaiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayzac, R.; Boulc' h, F.; Knauth, P. [Madirel Universite de Provence - 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this work, it has been shown that the electrochemical deposition seems to be a promising synthesis technique because the thickness of the layers and their morphology are well adapted to the photovoltaic application. The example of CuInS{sub 2} has been taken. (O.M.)

  10. An Assessment of the IMEF Depot-Level Corrosion Prevention and Control Program and the Viability of Making it More Efficient and/or Outsourcing the Requirements through Private Sector Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    as follows, with A being the simplest and C being the most inclusive: • Category A: Surface preparation, paint and undercoating; no bodywork . (This... bodywork due to the corrosion replacement or repair of corroded components such as door, battery boxes, or fenders with time of work not to exceed...8 hours. • Category C: Includes everything listed in category B in addition to some component disassembly required to treat corrosion. Bodywork

  11. Evaluation of heavy metals transfer: impact of a dredged sediment deposit on a on-polluted soil; Migration des polluants metalliques: cas d'un depot de sediments contamines sur un sol non pollue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vauleon, C.; Laboudigue, A. [Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, CNRSSP, 59 - Douai (France); Tiffreau, Ch. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2001-07-01

    In many countries and especially in the North of France, inland waterways need to be dredged regularly to provide a high quality environment for customers, staff and local communities. However, dredging operations generate yearly large quantities of sediments, which in spite of their high pollutant contents, are often stored in non-specific sites. Thus, the threat of a spreading contamination for the surrounding environment is important. In order to evaluate this potential risk and to quantify the transfer of heavy metals from the dredged layer to the non-polluted soil below, an interdisciplinary research project was undertaken including, (i) the monitoring of an experimental sediment deposit, (ii) the microscopic study of metal distribution inside this deposit, (iii) the evaluation of microbial activity, (iv) the impact of natural vegetation growth on metal migration. Up to now, the main processes identified (oxidation of sulphur compounds, vertical migration of Zinc) allowed us to make several recommendations for the future management of dredged sediments by: (i) controlling the oxidation processes during dredging operations or (ii) assessing the high neutralizing capacity of the local environment of deposition. Moreover, an adequate vegetation management can reduce the heavy metals migration to groundwater's with maximum efficiency and at low costs. (author)

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of gas side particulate fouling onto heat exchanger tubes; Etude des differents mecanismes de depot conduisant a l'encrassement particulaire en phase gazeuse des tubes d'echangeurs de chaleur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailer, F.

    1998-11-06

    This works deals with gas side particulate fouling onto heat exchanger tubes. An experimental and numerical investigation was carried out. By means of a new testing loop designed for this study the deposit kinetics were obtained in dust-controlled conditions at the beginning of the fouling process, Experimental results pointed out the existence of various transport regimes: for sub-micron particles, convective diffusion augmented by thermophoresis in the presence of a temperature gradient governs the particle deposition: inertial impaction controls the super-micron particles deposition, in the intermediate granulometric range, combined action of particle inertia and thermophoresis must be considered. Moreover, measurements on an other testing loop using a more concentrated aerosol allowed us to point out the modification of the mechanisms with time and the influence of the deposit shape. A numerical model predicting the particle deposition, based on the TRIO software and an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, was developed and validated against experimental results from the literature and from our study. Numerical approach gave us an accurate understanding of the phenomena by means of local parameters computations. In this way, the different mechanisms which control particulate deposition onto heat exchangers tubes were identified and modeled, especially before the onset of the inertial impaction. (authors)

  13. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  14. Erosion critical stress of a matter surface deposit on a micro filtration membrane; Contrainte critique d`erosion d`un depot superficiel de matiere sur membrane de microfiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, M C

    1995-05-11

    During the tangential micro filtration and ultrafiltration processes a membranes fouling in surface and inside the pores often appears. This fouling has the effect of a permeation flow decrease in terms of the filtration time. In order to keep this flow constant (to improve the rentability) the transfer pressure gradient is frequently increased and leads to solid matter surface deposit on the porous wall. The fouling can then be irreversible and requires the stopping of the facilities. The fouling and more particularly the fouling by solid deposit seems to be an abatement to the micro filtration technology development. It is then necessary to search the carrying away conditions of these solid deposits and thus to control the fouling process. An ultrafiltration or micro filtration appliance has been realized and allows to calculate experimentally the erosion critical stress on a porous wall : this is the minimum stress to apply in order to lead in the principal flow a solid particles deposit and the parietal stress to be imposed to lead by an erosion process a solid particles deposit. (O.L.). 122 refs., 73 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Proceedings of the workshop on siting of radioactive waste repositories in geological formations. Compte rendu d'une reunion de travail sur le choix des sites des depots de dechets radioactifs dans les formations geologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of this workshop were: to review the approaches used in NEA Member countries for the siting of repositories; to consider what information is required to determine whether a particular location is suitable as a disposal site; to review the technical means that can be used to obtain the necessary information; to discuss possible approaches for effectively communicating to the public the results of the site characterisation process. The papers and discussions at the meeting are recorded in these proceedings which provide a synthesis of the present thinking in this field.

  16. Citric Acid Metabolism in Resistant Hypertension: Underlying Mechanisms and Metabolic Prediction of Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Lorenzo, Marta; Martinez, Paula J; Baldan-Martin, Montserrat; Ruiz-Hurtado, Gema; Prado, Jose Carlos; Segura, Julian; de la Cuesta, Fernando; Barderas, Maria G; Vivanco, Fernando; Ruilope, Luis Miguel; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria

    2017-11-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) affects 9% to 12% of hypertensive adults. Prolonged exposure to suboptimal blood pressure control results in end-organ damage and cardiovascular risk. Spironolactone is the most effective drug for treatment, but not all patients respond and side effects are not negligible. Little is known on the mechanisms responsible for RH. We aimed to identify metabolic alterations in urine. In addition, a potential capacity of metabolites to predict response to spironolactone was investigated. Urine was collected from 29 patients with RH and from a group of 13 subjects with pseudo-RH. For patients, samples were collected before and after spironolactone administration and were classified in responders (n=19) and nonresponders (n=10). Nuclear magnetic resonance was applied to identify altered metabolites and pathways. Metabolites were confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Citric acid cycle was the pathway most significantly altered ( P citric acid cycle and deregulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis control continue its activation after hypertension was developed. A metabolic panel showing alteration before spironolactone treatment and predicting future response of patients is shown. These molecular indicators will contribute optimizing the rate of control of RH patients with spironolactone. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Modeling a four-layer location-routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hamidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution is an indispensable component of logistics and supply chain management. Location-Routing Problem (LRP is an NP-hard problem that simultaneously takes into consideration location, allocation, and vehicle routing decisions to design an optimal distribution network. Multi-layer and multi-product LRP is even more complex as it deals with the decisions at multiple layers of a distribution network where multiple products are transported within and between layers of the network. This paper focuses on modeling a complicated four-layer and multi-product LRP which has not been tackled yet. The distribution network consists of plants, central depots, regional depots, and customers. In this study, the structure, assumptions, and limitations of the distribution network are defined and the mathematical optimization programming model that can be used to obtain the optimal solution is developed. Presented by a mixed-integer programming model, the LRP considers the location problem at two layers, the allocation problem at three layers, the vehicle routing problem at three layers, and a transshipment problem. The mathematical model locates central and regional depots, allocates customers to plants, central depots, and regional depots, constructs tours from each plant or open depot to customers, and constructs transshipment paths from plants to depots and from depots to other depots. Considering realistic assumptions and limitations such as producing multiple products, limited production capacity, limited depot and vehicle capacity, and limited traveling distances enables the user to capture the real world situations.

  18. The response of the pituitary-adrenal and pituitary-thyroidal axes to the plasma glucose perturbations in Babesia canis rossi babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Schoeman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This prospective, cross-sectional, interventional study was designed to determine the association between the hormones of the pituitary-adrenal and pituitary-thyroid axes and other clinical parameters with the blood glucose perturbations in dogs with naturally occurring Babesia canis rossi babesiosis. Thirty-six dogs with canine babesiosis were studied. Blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein in each dog prior to treatment at admission to hospital and serum endogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone(ACTH, pre-ACTH cortisol, thyroxine, free thyroxine and TSH concentrations were measured. Immediately thereafter each dog was injected intravenously with 5 µg/kg of ACTH (tetracosactrin. A 2nd blood sample was taken 1 hour later for serumpost-ACTHcortisol measurement. Three patient groups were recruited: hypoglycaemic dogs (glucose 5.5 mmol/ℓ, n = 12. Basal and post-ACTH serum cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in hypoglycaemic dogs, whereas body temperature, serum thyroxine and free thyroxine were significantly lower in hypoglycaemic dogs. Haematocrit was significantly lower in both hypo-and hyperglycaemic dogs compared with normoglycaemic dogs. Low blood glucose concentrations were significantly associated with high basal and post-ACTH cortisol concentrations and with low serum thyroxine and free thyroxine concentrations in dogs suffering from B. canis rossi babesiosis.

  19. Aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor promotes urine prostasin through glomerular barrier injury and not tissue abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg Oxlund, Christina; Kurt, B.; Schwarzensteiner, I.

    2015-01-01

    with placebo or the mineralocorticoid antagonist spironolactone. Western immunoblotting of creatinine-normalized urine samples was performed from placebo and spironolactone treated patients with and without albuminuria. Tissue prostasin was measured in membranes from human nephrectomy recieving either ACE......-i/ANGII or no antihypertensive treatment prior to operation. Urine and tissue prostasin was measured in puromycin-induced nephrotic syndrome rats. Results: Plasma prostasin concentration increased significantly with spironolactone but was not changed with placebo. Urine prostasin concentration was below detection limit....... Puromycin-induced nephrotic syndrome in rats was associated with significant increase in u-prostasin while kidney tissue prostasin protein abundance was not changed. Prostasin protein abundance was similar in membranes from human nephrectomy homogenate from patients treated preoperatively with ACE...

  20. Albuminuria is associated with an increased prostasin in urine while aldosterone has no direct effect on urine and kidney tissue abundance of prostasin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg Oxlund, Christina; Kurt, Birgül; Schwarzensteiner, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    The proteinase prostasin is a candidate mediator for aldosterone-driven proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). It was hypothesized that the aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway stimulates prostasin abundance in kidney and urine. Prostasin was measured...... spironolactone compared to control. Urinary prostasin and albumin related directly and were reduced by spironolactone. In patients with nephrotic syndrome, urinary prostasin protein was elevated compared to controls. In rat nephrosis, proteinuria coincided with increased urinary prostasin, unchanged kidney...... the result of an improved glomerular filtration barrier function and generally reduced proteinuria....