WorldWideScience

Sample records for depot lagoons operable

  1. Depot Maintenance: Executed Workload and Maintenance Operations at DOD Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-03

    in turn enable testing of helicopter rotor blades. The Army has also made investments in logistics software at all of its depots. According to the...maintenance and repair of structural helicopter airframes and blades; advanced composite technologies; flight controls and control surfaces; and...level maintenance on a wide range of vehicles and other military assets, including helicopters , combat vehicles, ships, aircraft, engines, and software

  2. Computer-aided acquisition and logistics support (CALS): Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, N.C.; Greer, D.K.

    1993-04-01

    This CALS Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance provides the foundation strategy and the near term tactical plan for CALS implementation in the depot maintenance environment. The user requirements enumerated and the overarching architecture outlined serve as the primary framework for implementation planning. The seamless integration of depot maintenance business processes and supporting information systems with the emerging global CALS environment will be critical to the efficient realization of depot user's information requirements, and as, such will be a fundamental theme in depot implementations.

  3. Financial Reporting Procedures for Defense Distribution Depots - Defense Logistics Agency Business Area of the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1994-01-01

    In our audit of the FY 1993 Financial Statements for the Distribution Depots--Defense Logistics Agency Business Mea of the Defense Business Operations Fund, we evaluated procedures and controls used...

  4. Construction and operation of a covered lagoon methane recovery system for the Cal Poly Dairy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.W.; Moser, M.A.; Norris, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and anticipated operation of a lagoon-type methane recovery system for the Cal Poly Dairy. The initial design was based upon the present and anticipated herd size, 300 to 600 cows, heifers and calves. The lagoon design meets USDA-NRCS standards, and accounts for limitations of the site, primarily shallow sandstone bedrock. The new lagoon, which has a liquid volume of 14,000 m 3 , was constructed next to an existing lagoon. The new lagoon was covered with a flexible membrane incorporating buoyant material so that the cover floats on the surface, and a gas collection system. The predicted output of the lagoon for the present population of approximately 350 cows, heifers and calves is estimated to average up to 320 m 3 of biogas per day. The biogas will fuel a micro-turbine electric generator, and produce up to 23 kW in parallel with the utility system. Odor control is the most important non-economic benefit. This project will provide environmental benefits-odor control by capturing the odorous gases that result from dairy manure storage; methane, a significant greenhouse gas is kept out of the atmosphere; and water pollution is reduced through the reduction in organic matter in the lagoon. Economic benefits include electricity and process heat, together worth up to 16,000 US dollars per year. (author)

  5. Do lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations promote nitrous oxide supersaturation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makris, Konstantinos C.; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Andra, Syam S.; Bach, Stephan B.H.; Datta, Rupali

    2009-01-01

    Animal wastewater lagoons nearby concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent the latest tendency in global animal farming, severely impacting the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions, including nitrous oxide (N 2 O). We hypothesized that lagoon wastewater could be supersaturated with N 2 O as part of incomplete microbial nitrification/denitrification processes, thereby regulating the N 2 O partitioning in the gaseous phase. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate the magnitude of dissolved N 2 O concentrations in the lagoon; and (ii) to determine the extent to which supersaturation of N 2 O occurs in wastewater lagoons. Dissolved N 2 O concentrations in the wastewater samples were high, ranging from 0.4 to 40.5 μg N 2 O mL -1 . Calculated dissolved N 2 O concentrations from the experimentally measured partition coefficients were much greater than those typically expected in aquatic systems ( 2 O mL -1 ). Knowledge of the factors controlling the magnitude of N 2 O supersaturation could potentially bridge mass balance differences between in situ measurements and global N 2 O models. - Supersaturation of nitrous oxide may occur in lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations.

  6. An Analysis of the Factors Generating the Variance Between the Budgeted and Actual Operating Results of the Naval Aviation Depot at North Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    management structure employs free- market system principles and encourages business-like processes that are mission driven. Since no operating funds are...variable (Potvin, 2007). 2. Unit Cost Goal NWCFs use the unit cost goal ( UCG ) for planning purposes. The UCG is an estimate of what a unit of product...mission 6. Will not interfere with depot performance This section opens the depot to the private market . 53 Chapter 159 – Real Property

  7. Tet and sul antibiotic resistance genes in livestock lagoons of various operation type, configuration, and antibiotic occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, C.W.; Loftin, K.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Davis, J.G.; Pruden, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although livestock operations are known to harbor elevated levels of antibiotic resistant bacteria, few studies have examined the potential of livestock waste lagoons to reduce antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and examine the behavior of tetracycline [tet(O) and tet(W)] and sulfonamide [sul(I) and su/(II)] ARGsin a broad cross-section of livestock lagoons within the same semiarid western watershed. ARGs were monitored for one year in the water and the settled solids of eight lagoon systems by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, antibiotic residues and various bulk water quality constituents were analyzed. It was found that the lagoons of the chicken layer operation had the lowest concentrations of both tet and sul ARGs and low total antibiotic concentrations, whereas su ARGs were highest in the swine lagoons, which generally corresponded to the highest total antibiotic concentrations. A marginal benefit of organic and small dairy operations also was observed compared to conventional and large dairies, respectively. In all lagoons, su ARGs were observed to be generally more recalcitrant than tet ARGs. Also, positive correlations of various bulk water quality constituents were identified with tet ARGs but not sul ARGs. Significant positive correlations were identified between several metals and tet ARGs, but Pearson's correlation coefficients were mostly lower than those determined between antibiotic residues and ARGs. This study represents a quantitative characterization of ARGs in lagoons across a variety of livestock operations and provides insight into potential options for managing antibiotic resistance emanating from agricultural activities. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Extending Depot Length and Intervals for DDG 51 Class Ships: Examining the 72 Month Operational Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    would inherit should it choose to extend the operational cycle of the DDG-51 fleet. Our model does not project overall cost sav- ings in the long run for...clients and sponsors. Support RAND Make a tax -deductible charitable contribution at www.rand.org/giving/contribute www.rand.org Library of Congress...Class Ships: The 72-Month Cycle removal of the crew during the execution of maintenance to mitigate costs in this employment approach. This research

  9. CHAWS user`s guide: System description and standard operating procedures, Lexington-Blue Grass Army Depot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, S.A.; Shinn, J.H. [eds.

    1993-05-01

    The Chemical Hazard Warning System (CHAWS) is designed to collect meteorological data and to display, in real time, the dispersion of hazardous chemicals that may result from an accidental release. Meteorological sensors have been placed strategically around the Lexington-Blue Grass Army Depot and are used to calculate direction and hazard distance for the release. Based on these data, arrows depicting the release direction and distance traveled are graphically displayed on a computer screen showing a site map of the facility. The objectives of CHAWS are as follows: To determine the trajectory of the center of mass of released material from the measured wind field; to calculate the dispersion of the released material based on the measured lateral turbulence intensity (sigma theta); to determine the height of the mixing zone by measurement of the inversion height and wind profiles up to an altitude of about 1 km at sites that have SODAR units installed; to archive meteorological data for potential use in climatological descriptions for emergency planning; to archive air-quality data for preparation of compliance reports; and to provide access to the data for near real time hazard analysis purposes. CHAWS sites are located at the Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas, Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, Tooele Depot, Utah, Lexington-Blue Grass Depot, Kentucky, and Johnston Island in the Pacific. The systems vary between sites with different features and various types of hardware. The basic system, however, is the same. Nonetheless, we have tailored the manuals to the equipment found at each site.

  10. Supply Inventory Management: Accountability and Control of Materiel at the Naval Air Depot, North Island

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... of the $6.8 billion was for operation of three Naval Air Depots. A significant portion of the $1.5 billion was for purchasing materiel used in repair and overhaul processes at the depot maintenance facilities...

  11. Supply Inventory Managment: Accountability and Control of Materiel at the Naval Air Depot, North Island

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    2002-01-01

    ... of the $6.8 billion was for operation of three Naval Air Depots. A significant portion of the $1.5 billion was for purchasing materiel used in repair and overhaul processes at the depot maintenance facilities...

  12. Designing a 'safe and just operating space' for the Chilika lagoon fishery of the Mahanadi delta, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gregory; Dearing, John

    2017-04-01

    Annual fish production from the Chilika lagoon is worth US25-million/year, underpinning the livelihoods of 35,000 fishers and 200,000 secondary dependants. The system has a legacy of collapse, transitioning from annual production rates of 9000 tonnes to 1300 tonnes during the late-1980s, with resulting livelihood losses triggering the first recorded instances of economic migration from Chilika. Despite engineered recovery since 2000, the future persistence of Chilika's resource stock is uncertain. Climate change may strengthen freshwater and sediment delivery, promoting ecohydrological degradation through tidal outlet sedimentation, reduced salinity and freshwater weed growth. Simultaneously, human population growth, fleet motorisation and consumption demands threaten overexploitation driven collapse. These critical social-ecological drivers and feedbacks are projected into future by integrating system dynamics modelling with Monte Carlo inputs. Sustainable pathways are identified from outputs producing social-ecologically desirable futures, such as mid-century catch equalling maximum sustainable yield. The 'safe and just operating space' metaphor is regionalised by the limits of sustainable trajectories, such as the permissible number of active fishers, motorised boats and juvenile catch under alternative governance scenarios. These critical thresholds suggest policy-relevant guardrails for the sustainable governance of Chilika, in order to avoid regional productivity collapse, ecological degradation and livelihood losses. Benefits and trade-offs of alternative governance approaches are also discussed, aiding the optimisation of future regulatory decision-making.

  13. Ligand Depot: a data warehouse for ligands bound to macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zukang; Chen, Li; Maddula, Himabindu; Akcan, Ozgur; Oughtred, Rose; Berman, Helen M; Westbrook, John

    2004-09-01

    Ligand Depot is an integrated data resource for finding information about small molecules bound to proteins and nucleic acids. The initial release (version 1.0, November, 2003) focuses on providing chemical and structural information for small molecules found as part of the structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank. Ligand Depot accepts keyword-based queries and also provides a graphical interface for performing chemical substructure searches. A wide variety of web resources that contain information on small molecules may also be accessed through Ligand Depot. Ligand Depot is available at http://ligand-depot.rutgers.edu/. Version 1.0 supports multiple operating systems including Windows, Unix, Linux and the Macintosh operating system. The current drawing tool works in Internet Explorer, Netscape and Mozilla on Windows, Unix and Linux.

  14. Makahiki+WattDepot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Philip M.; Xu, Yongwen; Brewer, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    to consumers. Since 2009, we have been designing, implementing, and evaluating an open source software "stack" to facilitate this research. This software stack consists of two custom systems called WattDepot and Makahiki, along with the open source components they rely upon (Java, Restlet, Postgres, Python...

  15. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  16. Effects of dredging operations on soft bottom macrofauna in a harbor in the Patos Lagoon estuarine region of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Bemvenuti

    Full Text Available An evaluation was made of the effects of dredging on the soft bottom community in the channel of the Rio Grande harbor in the Patos Lagoon estuarine region of southern Brazil. During four seasonal cruises, samples were collected from nine biological stations, one of which was located outside the dredged area. Three macrobenthic samples were collected on each cruise from each station, using a 0.08 m² van Veen grab. A cluster analysis was applied to group summer and autumn cruise stations before the dredging period, revealing larger numbers of species (35-36 spp. and higher densities of organisms. The station located outside the dredging area was always included in this group, regardless of the sampling period or conditions of salinity. Another group comprised the winter and spring stations during the dredging period. This group was characterized by stations with the fewest species (20-18 spp. and the lowest and most variable organism densities. The efficient strategies of resilience of the dominant estuarine species may minimize the effects of dredging on the biota through the rapid recolonization of the soft bottom of the harbor channel.

  17. NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) - The application of ATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Lorenz G.; Jenkins, Henry C.; Mauceri, A. Jack

    1990-01-01

    The concept of the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) developed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Program is described. The function of the NSLD at Cape Canaveral is to perform the acceptance and diagnostic testing of the Shuttle's space-rated line-replaceable units and shop-replaceable units (SRUs). The NSLD includes a comprehensive electronic automatic test station, program development stations, and assorted manufacturing support equipment (including thermal and vibration test equipment, special test equipment, and a card SRU test system). The depot activities also include the establishment of the functions for manufacturing of mechanical parts, soldering, welding, painting, clean room operation, procurement, and subcontract management.

  18. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  19. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  20. Scottish saline lagoons: Impacts and challenges of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Stewart

    2017-11-01

    The majority of Scotland's saline lagoons are located on the low-lying coastlines of the Western Isles and the northern archipelagos of Orkney and Shetland, where recorded annual relative sea level rise rates are among the highest in Scotland. The sediment-impounded lagoons of Orkney and Shetland will either lose their impoundment and become incorporated in marine coastal waters, or become increasingly saline, as relative sea levels rise. The rock-basin lagoons of the Western Isles will retain their restricted exchange with the sea but will also become more saline with rising sea level. Specialist lagoonal organisms tend to have wide salinity tolerances but may succumb to competition from marine counterparts. In all areas, there are sufficient fresh-water inland water bodies with potential to be captured as lagoons to compensate for loss of extent and number, but the specialist lagoon biota tend to have limited dispersal powers. It is thus possible that they will be unable to transfer to their analogue sites before existing lagoons become fully marine, giving conservation managers the problem of deciding on management options: leave natural processes to operate without interference, manage the saline inflow to maintain the current salinity regime, or translocate lagoon organisms perceived as threatened by rising salinities. Timing of conversion and capture is unpredictable due to local topography and complications caused by variable stratification.

  1. Orbiting Depot and Reusable Lander for Lunar Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A document describes a conceptual transportation system that would support exploratory visits by humans to locations dispersed across the surface of the Moon and provide transport of humans and cargo to sustain one or more permanent Lunar outpost. The system architecture reflects requirements to (1) minimize the amount of vehicle hardware that must be expended while maintaining high performance margins and (2) take advantage of emerging capabilities to produce propellants on the Moon while also enabling efficient operation using propellants transported from Earth. The system would include reusable single- stage lander spacecraft and a depot in a low orbit around the Moon. Each lander would have descent, landing, and ascent capabilities. A crew-taxi version of the lander would carry a pressurized crew module; a cargo version could carry a variety of cargo containers. The depot would serve as a facility for storage and for refueling with propellants delivered from Earth or propellants produced on the Moon. The depot could receive propellants and cargo sent from Earth on a variety of spacecraft. The depot could provide power and orbit maintenance for crew vehicles from Earth and could serve as a safe haven for lunar crews pending transport back to Earth.

  2. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  3. Multiple depots vehicle routing based on the ant colony with the genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunYing Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the distribution routing plans of multi-depots vehicle scheduling problem will increase exponentially along with the adding of customers. So, it becomes an important studying trend to solve the vehicle scheduling problem with heuristic algorithm. On the basis of building the model of multi-depots vehicle scheduling problem, in order to improve the efficiency of the multiple depots vehicle routing, the paper puts forward a fusion algorithm on multiple depots vehicle routing based on the ant colony algorithm with genetic algorithm. Design/methodology/approach: to achieve this objective, the genetic algorithm optimizes the parameters of the ant colony algorithm. The fusion algorithm on multiple depots vehicle based on the ant colony algorithm with genetic algorithm is proposed. Findings: simulation experiment indicates that the result of the fusion algorithm is more excellent than the other algorithm, and the improved algorithm has better convergence effective and global ability. Research limitations/implications: in this research, there are some assumption that might affect the accuracy of the model such as the pheromone volatile factor, heuristic factor in each period, and the selected multiple depots. These assumptions can be relaxed in future work. Originality/value: In this research, a new method for the multiple depots vehicle routing is proposed. The fusion algorithm eliminate the influence of the selected parameter by optimizing the heuristic factor, evaporation factor, initial pheromone distribute, and have the strong global searching ability. The Ant Colony algorithm imports cross operator and mutation operator for operating the first best solution and the second best solution in every iteration, and reserves the best solution. The cross and mutation operator extend the solution space and improve the convergence effective and the global ability. This research shows that considering both the ant colony and genetic algorithm

  4. Network technology for depot modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, C.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

  5. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support a new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid and Mars Missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched on current 5 meter diameter ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, L1 Depot and missions beyond L1; a new reusable lunar lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface; and Mars orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, developments of new reusable in-space vehicles and development of a multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.

  6. Storage depot for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulinski, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson

  7. Occupational Exposure of Petroleum Depot Workers to BTEX Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezazadeh Azari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX are the most important toxic volatile compounds in the air and could be easily absorbed through the respiratory tract. In recent years, the risk of exposure to BTEX compounds, especially benzene as a carcinogen, has been considered in petroleum depot stations. Objective: To assess the occupational exposure of petroleum depot workers in Iran to BTEX compounds. Methods: After completing a questionnaire and assessing occupational exposure to BTEX compounds, 78 (46 exposed and 32 non-exposed depot workers were randomly selected to participate in this study. Air sampling and analysis of BTEX was conducted according to the NIOSH method No. 1501. Analysis of urinary hippuric acid, as an indicator of toluene exposure, was carried out according to NIOSH method No. 8300. Personal monitoring of the high exposure group to BTEX compounds was repeated to verify the results obtained in the first phase of the monitoring. Results: Among the 9 operating groups studied, occupational exposure to benzene and toluene was higher in quality control and gasoline loading operators—the median exposure ranged from 0.16 to 1.63 ppm for benzene and 0.2 to 2.72 ppm for toluene. Median exposure of other group members to BTEX compounds was below the detection limit of analytical method (0.07, 0.06, 0.05, and 0.05 ppm, respectively. The level of toluene exposure measured showed correlation with neither post-shift urinary hippuric acid (Spearman's rho=0.128, p=0.982 nor with the difference between post- and pre-shift urinary hippuric acid (Spearman's rho=0.089, p=0.847 in depot operational workers. Conclusion: Gasoline loading operators are exposed to a relatively high level of benzene.

  8. DEPOT database: Reference manual and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancey, P.; Logg, C.

    1991-03-01

    DEPOT has been developed to provide tracking for the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system equipment. For each piece of equipment entered into the database, complete location, service, maintenance, modification, certification, and radiation exposure histories can be maintained. To facilitate data entry accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, barcoding technology has been used extensively. DEPOT has been an important tool in improving the reliability of the microsystems controlling SLC. This document describes the components of the DEPOT database, the elements in the database records, and the use of the supporting programs for entering data, searching the database, and producing reports from the information

  9. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond

  10. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  11. Financial incentives for antipsychotic depot medication: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Dirk

    2007-04-01

    Giving money as a direct incentive for patients in exchange for depot medication has proved beneficial in some clinical cases in assertive outreach (AO). However, ethical concerns around this practice have been raised, and will be analysed in more detail here. Ethical concern voiced in a survey of all AO teams in England were analysed regarding their content. These were grouped into categories. 53 of 70 team managers mentioned concerns, many of them serious and expressing a negative attitude towards giving money for depot adherence. Four broad categories of ethical concern following Christensen's concept were distinguished: valid consent and refusal (n = 5), psychiatric paternalism (n = 31), resource allocation (n = 4), organisational relationships (n = 2), with a residual category others and unspecified (n = 11). The main concerns identified are discussed on the background of existing ethical theories in healthcare and the specific problems of community mental health and AO. Points for practice are derived from this discussion. A way forward is outlined that includes informed consent and an operational policy in the use of incentives, further randomised controlled trials and qualitative studies, and continuing discussions with all stakeholders, especially service users.

  12. Metals in some lagoons of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, F G; Sharma, V K; Alexander, V H; Frausto, C A

    1995-02-01

    The concentrations of metals, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in some lagoons to establish the level of metal pollution. The lagoons studied were Alvarado lagoon, Veracruz; San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas; and Terminos lagoon, Campeche. The concentrations were determined in water, oyster (Crassostrea virginica), and sediments. Metals were accumulated in either oysters or sediments. Cu and Zn were higher in oysters and Fe and Mn were higher in sediments. The results in water samples were compared with the limit established by the Secretaria de Ecologia and Desarrollo Urbano Report and briefly discussed.

  13. Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence

  14. Assessing hog lagoon waste contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed using Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Mallin, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Hog lagoons can be major sources of waste and nutrient contamination to watersheds adjacent to pig farms. Fecal source tracking methods targeting Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in pig fecal matter may underestimate or fail to detect hog lagoon contamination in riverine environments. In order to detect hog lagoon wastewater contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed, where a large number of hog farms are present, we conducted pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in hog lagoon waste and identified new hog lagoon-specific marker sequences. Additional pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes were conducted with surface water samples collected at 4 sites during 5 months in the Cape Fear Watershed. Using an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identity cutoff value of 97 %, these newly identified hog lagoon markers were found in 3 of the river samples, while only 1 sample contained the pig fecal marker. In the sample containing the pig fecal marker, there was a relatively high percentage (14.1 %) of the hog lagoon markers and a low pig fecal marker relative abundance of 0.4 % in the Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences. This suggests that hog lagoon contamination must be somewhat significant in order for pig fecal markers to be detected, and low levels of hog lagoon contamination cannot be detected targeting only pig-specific fecal markers. Thus, new hog lagoon markers have a better detection capacity for lagoon waste contamination, and in conjunction with a pig fecal marker, provide a more comprehensive and accurate detection of hog lagoon waste contamination in susceptible watersheds.

  15. Acid Tar Lagoons: Management and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohers, Anna; Hroncová, Emília; Ladomerský, Juraj

    2017-04-01

    This contribution presents the issue with possibility of definitive removal of dangerous environmental burden in Slovakia - serious historical problem of two acid tar lagoons. In relation to their removal, no technology has been found so far - technologically and economically suitable, what caused problems with its management. Locality Predajná is well known in Slovakia by its character of contrasts: it is situated in the picturesque landscape of National Park buffer zone of Nízke Tatry, on the other site it is contaminated by 229 211m3 of acid tar with its characteristics of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity and toxicity especially for animals and plants. Acid tar in two landfills with depth of 1m in case of the first lagoon and 9,5m in case of the second lagoon is a waste product derived from operation of Petrochema Dubová - refinery and petrochemical plant whose activity was to process the crude oil through processes of sulfonation and adsorption technology for producing lubricating and special oils, synthetic detergents and special white oils for cosmetic and medical purposes. A part of acid tar was incinerated in two incineration plats. Concentration of SO2 in combustion gases was too high and it was not possible to decrease it under the value of 2000 mg.mn-3 [LADOMERSKÝ, J. - SAMEŠOVÁ, D.: Reduction in sulfur dioxide emissions waste gases of incineration plant. Acta facultatis ecologiae. 1999, p. 217-223]. That is why it was necessary to put them out of operation. Later, because of public opposition it was not possible to build a new incineration plat corresponding to the state of the art. Even though actual Slovak and European legislative for protection of environment against such impacts, neither of tried methods - bio or non-biologic treatment methods - was proved as suitable for processing or for recovery in the reason of different factors admission: i.e. strong aggressivity, difficulty with handling because of its sludgy and

  16. RATIONAL RECOVERY MODEL OF DEPOT PROCESSING EQUIPMENT AT THE INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kapitsa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The problem of the maximum resources recovery of rolling stock repair depot of industrial enterprise with limited resources consumption, which are used in the system is today’s topical question.The main factors that affect the repair depot operation of industrial enterprise are reviewed. The most significant factors, affecting the quality of the repair depot, are emphasized for further study, specifically - the state of the major repair equipment of a sector. There is a need to minimize the impact of the unsatisfactory state of this factor. Methodology. The formed task of major equipment rational repairing in the mathematical sense is based on the solution of a vector optimization problem. In this case the target functions are the monetary funds spending and time expenditure for repairing. Findings. The mathematical model of optimal equipment maintainability of the repair department at the industrial enterprise was developed by the authors. On the example the choice model of optimal path for equipment repairing of enterprise repair department is described. Originality. As a result of the conducted research the repairing system of major equipment of industrial enterprise sectors was improved. As the mathematical model of rational system recovery of industrial enterprise repair depot we recommend apparatus of class problems of vector optimization. Practical value. Using the proposed model of major equipment repair system of the repair depot at the industrial enterprise will improve the quality of the department by increasing the efficiency of primary resources - time and monetary funds - which are spent by the sector in order to repair its techniques.

  17. Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac·eptive Preparation. Basil Bloch. Abstract. Experience with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate as a contraceptive preparation in 7 335 patients for a total of 38 714 months over a 3-year period is described. The discontinuation rate was 18.3% and the ...

  18. Employing organizational modeling and simulation of the KC-135 depot's flight controls repair cell

    OpenAIRE

    Paskin, Matthew A.; Trevino, Alice W.; Ferrer, Geraldo; Dillard, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Today’s environment of increased operations tempo is stressing the KC- 135 Stratotanker fleet. With an 80-year life span expectancy, effectively maintaining these aircraft is challenging. This research modeled the KC- 135 programmed depot maintenance (PDM) flight controls repair cell to identify improvement opportunities within the repair process. Computational organizational modeling (COM) incorporates the human element along with organizational design theory. By employing ...

  19. KANDUNGAN Pb, Cd, Hg DALAM AIR MINUM DARI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG DI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, DAN BEKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Athena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study on chemical quality of drinking water from reffil depots was done in Jakarta, Tangerang, and Bekasi in 2003 to determine the contents of heavy metals such as lead (Pb, cadmium, (Cd, and Mercury (Hg. A total of 38 refill depots was selected as samples. Data were collected by water sampling collection and water analysis, and interview with operators and association personal using questionairs. Water samples were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS to examine the contents of their heavy metals based on raw water and drinking water standards. The results showed that the treatment processed were filtration and disinfection. However, the contents of heavy metals in the two types of water samples still complied with the standards stated in Health Ministerial Decree no 906 in the year 2002.   Keywords: heavy metals, drinking water, drinking water refill depots

  20. Understanding of empty container movement: A study on a bottleneck at an off-dock depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Rosmaizura Mohd; Rahman, Mohd Nizam Ab; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Saibani, Nizaroyani

    2014-09-01

    Port not only function as connections between marine and land transportation but also as core business areas. In a port terminal, available space is limited, but the influx of container is growing. The off-dock depot is one of the key supply chain players that hold empty containers in the inventory. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the main factors of bottlenecks or congestion that hinder the rapid movement of empty containers from the off-dock depot to the customers. Thirty interviews were conducted with individuals who are key players in the container supply chain. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software and the analytic hierarchy process to rank the priority factors of bottlenecks. Findings show that several pertinent factors act as barriers to the key players in the container movement in the day-to-day operations. In future studies, strategies to overcome fragmentation in the container supply chain and logistics must be determined.

  1. VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense

  2. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.V., E-mail: dodson@wsu.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Vierck, J.L. [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Hausman, G.J. [USDA-ARS, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Station, Athens, GA 30604 (United States); Guan, L.L. [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2P5 Canada (Canada); Fernyhough, M.E. [The Hartz Mountain Corporation, Secaucus, NJ 07094 (United States); Poulos, S.P. [The Coca-Cola Company, Research and Technology, Atlanta, GA 30313 (United States); Mir, P.S. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, CA T1J 4B1 (United States); Jiang, Z. [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2010-04-02

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  3. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.V.; Vierck, J.L.; Hausman, G.J.; Guan, L.L.; Fernyhough, M.E.; Poulos, S.P.; Mir, P.S.; Jiang, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  4. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...... depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0....

  5. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0.......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...

  6. Treatment of off-gas from lagoon sludge thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Oh, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Ga, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has launched a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant in 2001. The treatment of the sludge waste, which was generated during the operation of the plant and stored in the lagoon, is one of the most important tasks in the decommissioning program of the plant. The major compounds of the lagoon sludge are ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, calcium carbonate, and uranium compounds. The minor compounds are iron, magnesium, aluminum, silicon and phosphorus. A treatment process of the sludge was developed as figure 1 based on the results of the sludge characteristics and the developed treatment technologies. A treatment of off-gas evolved from the nitrate salts thermal decomposition is one of the important process. Off-gas treatment by using a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) method was investigated in this study

  7. Inhibition of microbial metabolism in anaerobic lagoons by selected sulfonamides, tetracyclines, lincomycin, and tylosin tartrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Keith A.; Henny, Cynthia; Adams, Craig D.; Surampali, Rao; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2005-01-01

    Antibiotics are used to maintain healthy livestock and to promote weight gain in concentrated animal feed operations. Antibiotics rarely are metabolized completely by livestock and, thus, are often present in livestock waste and in waste-treatment lagoons. The introduction of antibiotics into anaerobic lagoons commonly used for swine waste treatment has the potential for negative impacts on lagoon performance, which relies on a consortium of microbes ranging from fermentative microorganisms to methanogens. To address this concern, the effects of eight common veterinary antibiotics on anaerobic activity were studied. Anaerobic microcosms, prepared from freshly collected lagoon slurries, were amended with individual antibiotics at 10 mg/L for the initial screening study and at 1, 5, and 25 mg/L for the dose-response study. Monitored metabolic indicators included hydrogen, methane, and volatile fatty acid concentrations as well as chemical oxygen demand. The selected antibiotics significantly inhibited methane production relative to unamended controls, thus indicating that antibiotics at concentrations commonly found in swine lagoons can negatively impact anaerobic metabolism. Additionally, historical antibiotic usage seems to be a potential factor in affecting methane production. Specifically, less inhibition of methane production was noted in samples taken from the lagoon with a history of multiple-antibiotic use.

  8. Inhibition of microbial metabolism in anaerobic lagoons by selected sulfonamides, tetracyclines, lincomycin, and tylosin tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Keith A; Henny, Cynthia; Adams, Craig D; Surampali, Rao; Mormile, Melanie R

    2005-04-01

    Antibiotics are used to maintain healthy livestock and to promote weight gain in concentrated animal feed operations. Antibiotics rarely are metabolized completely by livestock and, thus, are often present in livestock waste and in waste-treatment lagoons. The introduction of antibiotics into anaerobic lagoons commonly used for swine waste treatment has the potential for negative impacts on lagoon performance, which relies on a consortium of microbes ranging from fermentative microorganisms to methanogens. To address this concern, the effects of eight common veterinary antibiotics on anaerobic activity were studied. Anaerobic microcosms, prepared from freshly collected lagoon slurries, were amended with individual antibiotics at 10 mg/L for the initial screening study and at 1, 5, and 25 mg/L for the dose-response study. Monitored metabolic indicators included hydrogen, methane, and volatile fatty acid concentrations as well as chemical oxygen demand. The selected antibiotics significantly inhibited methane production relative to unamended controls, thus indicating that antibiotics at concentrations commonly found in swine lagoons can negatively impact anaerobic metabolism. Additionally, historical antibiotic usage seems to be a potential factor in affecting methane production. Specifically, less inhibition of methane production was noted in samples taken from the lagoon with a history of multiple-antibiotic use.

  9. Alfred pilot wetland to treat municipal lagoon effluent - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crolla, A.; Kinsley, C.

    2002-01-01

    A constructed wetland demonstration system has been built to polish the municipal lagoon effluent from the village of Alfred. The treatment lagoons have an annual discharge in the spring and have currently reached maximum capacity; inhibiting further population growth or expansion of the local agri-food industries. The demonstration wetland system is designed to treat 15% of the municipal lagoon influent, that is, 155 m 3 /day or 23,250 m 3 /year. A three year monitoring program (2000-2002) was put in place to evaluate the wetland as a cost effective means to treat municipal lagoon wastewater for the village of Alfred. The 2000 and 2001 monitoring seasons have been completed, and the 2002 monitoring season will operate between June and October 2002. At the completion of the three year monitoring program the Alfred wetland system will be evaluated for its ability to polish the municipal lagoon effluent to meet the Spring/Summer/Fall discharge criteria, set by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE), for the receiving water body (Azatica Brook). As phosphorus is the most difficult element to remove down to MOE guidelines, the Alfred research wetland includes slag phosphorus adsorption filters and a vegetated filter as phosphorus polishing systems. Once the wetland system is approved by the MOE, the village of Alfred will be able to increase its capacity for municipal wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands are still considered innovative systems in Ontario and government ministries (MOE, OMAFRA) are insisting upon 3-4 years of monitoring data for each constructed wetland system established. There is a clear need for monitoring data to be gathered on established systems, and for this data to be evaluated with the goal of developing reliable design guidelines. Ultimately this should result in having constructed wetlands recognised as viable wastewater treatment options in Ontario. With fewer grant programs for rural municipalities, cost effective systems such

  10. Expandable Cryogenic Tankage for On Orbit Depot Storage, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed expandable depot storage tanks would make it possible to have an on-orbit tank larger in volume than any existing or planned launch vehicles. The size...

  11. Performance Gains of Propellant Management Devices for Liquid Hydrogen Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen, John B.; Chato, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents background, experimental design, and preliminary experimental results for the liquid hydrogen bubble point tests conducted at the Cryogenic Components Cell 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the test series was to investigate the parameters that affect liquid acquisition device (LAD) performance in a liquid hydrogen (LH2) propellant tank, to mitigate risk in the final design of the LAD for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission, and to provide insight into optimal LAD operation for future LH2 depots. Preliminary test results show an increase in performance and screen retention over the low reference LH2 bubble point value for a 325 2300 screen in three separate ways, thus improving fundamental LH2 LAD performance. By using a finer mesh screen, operating at a colder liquid temperature, and pressurizing with a noncondensible pressurant gas, a significant increase in margin is achieved in bubble point pressure for LH2 screen channel LADs.

  12. Spatial Analysis of Depots for Advanced Biomass Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, Michael R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, Erin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez Gonzalez, Maria I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work was to perform a spatial analysis of the total feedstock cost at the conversion reactor for biomass supplied by a conventional system and an advanced system with depots to densify biomass into pellets. From these cost estimates, the conditions (feedstock cost and availability) for which advanced processing depots make it possible to achieve cost and volume targets can be identified.

  13. EPA GOMEX Wild Goose Lagoon 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We compared nekton use of prominent habitat types within a lagoonal system of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). These habitat types were defined by combinations...

  14. Transport of radionuclides from the LAMPF lagoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the discharge water from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility lagoons continued during June and December of 1983. The list of radionuclides being monitoring includes 7 Be, 57 Co, 134 Cs, 3 H, 54 Mn, 22 Na, and 83 Rb. The sampling locations and the data obtained to date are presented. Movement of radionuclides around the lagoons has been described in a previous report. 1 reference, 1 table

  15. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. To achieve this result, we reduce k-LocVRP to the following generalization of k median, which might be of independent interest. Given a metric (V, d), bound k...... median forest, which leads to a (12+E)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant E > 0. The algorithm for k median forest is t-swap local search, and we prove that it has locality gap 3 + 2 t ; this generalizes the corresponding result for k median [3]. Finally we consider the k median......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to k-LocVRP is a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k vehicles each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so...

  16. Architecture Study for a Fuel Depot Supplied from Lunar Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Thomas M.; Casler, James G.

    2016-01-01

    This architecture study sought to determine the optimum architecture for a fuel depot supplied from lunar assets. Four factors - the location of propellant processing (on the Moon or on the depot), the depot location (on the Moon, L1, GEO, or LEO), the propellant transfer location (L1, GEO, or LEO), and the propellant transfer method (bulk fuel or canister exchange) were combined to identify 18 candidate architectures. Two design reference missions (DRMs) - a commercial satellite servicing mission and a Government cargo mission to Mars - created demand for propellants, while a propellant delivery DRM examined supply issues. The study concluded Earth-Moon L1 is the best location for an orbiting depot. For all architectures, propellant boiloff was less than anticipated, and was far overshadowed by delta-v requirements and resulting fuel consumption. Bulk transfer is the most flexible for both the supplier and customer. However, since canister exchange bypasses the transfer of bulk cryogens and necessary chilldown losses, canister exchange shows promise and merits further investigation. Overall, this work indicates propellant consumption and loss is an essential factor in assessing fuel depot architectures.

  17. Comprehensive assessment of hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity in an anaerobic swine waste lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Erin E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Dietze, Julie E.; Meissner, Benjamin M.; Williams, Mike; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the distribution of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity was thoroughly characterized within the anaerobic waste lagoon of a typical commercial swine sow operation. Three independent rounds of sampling were conducted in June 2009, April 2010, and February 2011. Thirty-seven analytes in lagoon slurry and sludge were assessed using LC/MS-MS, and yeast estrogen screen was used to determine estrogenic activity. Of the hormone analytes, steroidal estrogens were more abundant than androgens or progesterone, with estrone being the predominant estrogen species. Conjugated hormones were detected only at low levels. The isoflavone metabolite equol was by far the predominant phytoestrogen species, with daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and coumestrol present at lower levels. Phytoestrogens were often more abundant than steroidal estrogens, but contributed minimally towards total estrogenic activity. Analytes were significantly elevated in the solid phases of the lagoon; although low observed log KOC values suggest enhanced solubility in the aqueous phase, perhaps due to dissolved or colloidal organic carbon. The association with the solid phase, as well as recalcitrance of analytes to anaerobic degradation, results in a markedly elevated load of analytes and estrogenic activity within lagoon sludge. Overall, findings emphasize the importance of adsorption and transformation processes in governing the fate of these compounds in lagoon waste, which is ultimately used for broadcast application as a fertilizer.

  18. Pengembangan Merek dan Pengkajian Strategi Pemasaran di Depot Rasa Suka Kediri

    OpenAIRE

    Raharjo, Rini; Surjani, Rosita Meitha; Rinawiyanti, Esti Dwi

    2013-01-01

    Depot Rasa Suka is a culinary business that provides a variety of Indonesian dishes. However people still do not know and yet loyal to Depot Rasa Suka due to the unavailability of parking space, quite a long serving time, hot room, less attractive promotion and room design. Therefore Depot Rasa Suka need to devise strategies to develop brands through brand equity analysis and improvement of brand elements as well as designing a marketing strategies. The goal of this research is to make Depot ...

  19. Trend of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Lagos Lagoon Ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    The distribution and occurrence of heavy metals in the sediment, water and benthic animals of the Lagos lagoon ... The concentrations of the metals detected in the lagoon sediment and water ..... waste products contaminating water sources.

  20. Effect of Coastal Waves on Hydrodynamics in One-Inlet Coastal Nador Lagoon, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyar Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nador lagoon is a coastal system connected to the sea through a narrow and shallow inlet; understanding its hydraulic performance is required for its design and operation. This paper investigates the hydrodynamic impacts of the whole lagoon due to tidal waves using a numerical approach. In this study we use a two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamic model based on so-called shallow water equations solved within triangular mesh by a developed efficient finite volume method. The method was calibrated and validated against observed data and applied to analyze and predict water levels, tidal currents, and wind effects within the lagoon. Two typical idealized scenarios were investigated: tide only and tide with wind forcing. The predicted sea surface elevations and current speeds have been presented during a typical tidal period and show correct physics in different scenarios.

  1. DEPOT: Database for electronics parts and other things

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logg, C.A.; Clancey, P.W.; Crane, G.

    1990-01-01

    DEPOT has been developed to provide tracking for the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system equipment. For each piece of equipment entered in the database, a complete service, maintenance, modification, certification, location history, and, optionally, a radiation exposure history, can be maintained. To facilitate data entry accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, barcoding technology has been used extensively. DEPOT has been an important tool in improving the reliability of the microsystems controlling SLC. It is now being adopted by other systems at SLAC. 6 refs., 6 figs

  2. Spatio-temporal impacts of dairy lagoon water reuse on soil: Heavy metals and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diminishing freshwater resources have brought attention to the reuse of degraded water as a water resource rather than a disposal problem. Dairy lagoon water is degraded water that is often in large supply on concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), but the impact and sustainability of its r...

  3. Socio-Economic analysis and fishing activites of lagoon and marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fishermen have distinctive social and economic features which affect their fishing operations. The study was therefore designed to identify the socio-economic characteristics of fisher-folks living in lagoon and coastal communities and assesses the fishing activities. Frequency distribution, percentages, chi-square and ...

  4. Assessing the Impact of Animal Waste Lagoon Seepage on the Geochemistry of an Underlying Shallow Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNab, W W; Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K

    2006-03-07

    Dairy facilities and similar confined animal operation settings pose a significant nitrate contamination threat via oxidation of animal wastes and subsequent transport to shallow groundwater. While nitrate contamination resulting from application of animal manure as fertilizer to fields is well recognized, the impact of manure lagoon leakage on groundwater quality is less well characterized. In this study, a dairy facility located in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California has been instrumented with monitoring wells as part of a two-year multidisciplinary study to evaluate nitrate loading and denitrification associated with facility operations. Among multiple types of data collected from the site, groundwater and surface water samples have been analyzed for major cations, anions, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved organic carbon, and selected dissolved gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, Ar, Ne). Modeling of putative geochemical processes occurring within the dairy site manure lagoons shows substantial off-gassing of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in response to mineralization of organic matter. The gas ebullition appears to strip dissolved gases, including Ar and Ne, from the lagoon water leaving concentrations that are undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. The resulting fractionated dissolved gas signature serves as an effective tracer for the lagoon water in the underlying shallow groundwater and can be used to constrain inverse geochemical models that assess mixing fractions of lagoon water and local groundwater water. Together with ion exchange and mineral equilibria reactions, identification of lagoon seepage helps explain key attributes of the local groundwater chemistry, including input and cycling of nitrogen, across the site.

  5. A tabu-search heuristic for solving the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar D'Agostini Oliveira Casalinho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently the logistical problems are relying quite significantly on Operational Research in order to achieve greater efficiency in their operations. Among the problems related to the vehicles scheduling in a logistics system, the Multiple Depot Vehicle Scheduling Problem (MDVSP has been addressed in several studies. The MDVSP presupposes the existence of depots that affect the planning of sequences to which travel must be performed. Often, exact methods cannot solve large instances encountered in practice and in order to take them into account, several heuristic approaches are being developed. The aim of this study was thus to solve the MDVSP using a meta-heuristic based on tabu-search method. The main motivation for this work came from the indication that only recently the use of meta-heuristics is being applied to MDVSP context (Pepin et al. 2008 and, also, the limitations listed by Rohde (2008 in his study, which used the branch-and-bound in one of the steps of the heuristic presented to solve the problem, which has increased the time resolution. The research method for solving this problem was based on adaptations of traditional techniques of Operational Research, and provided resolutions presenting very competitive results for the MDVSP such as the cost of the objective function, number of vehicles used and computational time.

  6. Dynamic behaviour of lagoon ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioffi, F.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of primary producers in coastal lagoons due to change of external control parameters, phosphorous external load and maximum tidal flow rate, is investigated by using a eutrophication model. The eutrophication model allows the simulation of the temporal evolution of the concentration of the following species: a) in the water column: dissolved oxygen, vegetal organic carbon, particulate and dissolved organic carbon, dissolved phosphorous and hydrogen sulphide; b) in sediments: dissolved oxygen, particulate and dissolved organic carbon, dissolved and adsorbed phosphorous, hydrogen sulphide. The vegetal organic carbon is distinguished in three components related to the main groups of primary producers, namely eel grass, macro algae and microalgae, having different modalities of nutrient uptake and kinetics parameters depending on the S/V ratio. Diagrams representing the ecosystems dynamic response to the changes of the control parameters were constructed by simulations. The response diagrams suggest the existence of regime shifts which border different ecosystem stability ranges, characterized by the dominance of a specific group of primary producers and by different ecosystem vulnerability at summer water anoxia. A catastrophic bifurcation or abrupt regime shift, evidenced by Poincare sections obtained mapping, at a prefixed time period, the values of the concentration of the species, occurs for a critical value of the control parameter and manifests itself as an abrupt change of the dominant species from eel grass to macro algae. An analogous abrupt change from eel grass to macro algae occurs for a critical value of the tidal flowrate assumed as control parameter in simulations conducted for an assigned value of external phosphorous load.

  7. New Insights into Drug Absorption from Oil Depots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalicharan, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Sustained delivery formulations are used in order to prolong the pharmacological activity of a drug. A commonly used parenteral sustained delivery formulation is an oil depot which consists of a solution of lipophilic molecules in a vegetable oil. These are normally administered either

  8. Whole tree transportation system for timber processing depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Lancaster; Tom Gallagher; Tim  McDonald; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand for alternative energy has led those who are interested in producing sustainable energy from renewable timber to devise new concepts to satisfy those demands. The concept of timber processing depots, where whole stem trees will be delivered for future processing into wood products and high quality energy fuel, has led to the re-evaluation of our...

  9. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    60. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of Boer goats and the response to varying levels of maize meal. N.H. Casey" and W.A. van Niekerk. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture,. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. xTo whom correspondence should be ...

  10. Redistributing Stock in Library Systems with a Depot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Gerlach; Roodbergen, Kees Jan; van Foreest, Nicky

    Public library organizations often utilize depots for carrying out shipments to libraries in case of stock-outs and for storing low demand rental items at low cost. Similar systems may be employed by rental companies for other rental products such as tools, DVDs, and jewelry. Since shipments deplete

  11. Trial Burn Plan for a Transportable Incineration System (TIS) at the Savanna Army Depot Activity (SADA) Washout Lagoon Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-27

    sampling line. Draw a 2.3.2 Emision Rau Correction ?actor or cent. Calculste the dry molecular weight as r n the a ere omission ate at. AnO~ ~ ~ ~Se~ .3...compare AV readlng of the gauge Section 3.8). to determine the sUcs,-c C dry served, with those of a gauge-oil manometer at a molecular weight, and...that the face openins of the tub an to the procedure outlined in Sections L1.2ducted: use a dry molecular veight of 29.0. aligned with=n the

  12. Participation and Sustainable Management of Coastal Lagoon Ecosystems: The Case of the Fosu Lagoon in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest K.A. Afrifa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation as a tool has been applied as a social learning process and communication platform to create awareness among stakeholders in the context of resource utilisation. The application of participatory processes to aquatic ecosystem management is attracting a growing body of literature. However, the application of participation as a tool for sustainable management of coastal lagoon ecosystems is recent. This paper examines the context and the extent of participation of stakeholders in the management of the Fosu lagoon in Ghana. Six hundred individuals from twenty seven stakeholder groups were randomly selected for study. Both closed and open-ended questions were used in face-to-face interviews with stakeholders. The findings indicate that the stakeholder groups were not involved in decision-making regarding the conservation of the lagoon irrespective of their expertise in planning and/or their interest in lagoon resource utilisation. This situation has created apathy among some of the stakeholders who feel neglected in the decision-making process. There is scope for broadening the base of interest groups in decision-making processes regarding the lagoon and improving stakeholder participation in the management of the lagoon to ensure the sustainability of the management process.

  13. Analysis of lagoon sludge characteristics for choice of treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Hwang, D. S.; Choi, Y. D.; Lee, K. I.; Hwang, S. T.; Jung, K. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has launched a decommissioning program of uranium conversion plant. One of the important tasks in the decommissioning program is the treatment of the sludge, which was generated during operation and stored in the two ponds of the lagoon. The treatment requires the volume reduction of lagoon sludges for the low cost of the program and the conversion of the chemical forms, including uranium, for the acceptance at the final disposal site. The physical properties, such as densities, were measured and chemical compositions and radiological properties were analyzed. The denitration was a candidate process which would satisfy the requirements for sludge treatment, and the characteristics of thermal decomposition and dissolution with water were analyzed. The main compounds of the sludge were ammonium and sodium nitrate from conversion plant and calcium nitrate, calcium carbonate from Ca precipitation and impurities of the yellow cake. The content of uranium, thorium and Ra-226 was high in pond-1 and low in pond-2 because those were removed during Ca precipitation. On the base of the characteristics of the sludge and available technologies, reviewed in this study and being developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, two processes were proposed and evaluated in points of the expected technological difficulties. And the cost for treatment of sludges are estimated for both processes. 79 refs., 44 figs., 37 tabs. (Author)

  14. Performance of clustering techniques for solving multi depot vehicle routing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M. Toro-Ocampo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem considering multiple depots is classified as NP-hard. MDVRP determines simultaneously the routes of a set of vehicles and aims to meet a set of clients with a known demand. The objective function of the problem is to minimize the total distance traveled by the routes given that all customers must be served considering capacity constraints in depots and vehicles. This paper presents a hybrid methodology that combines agglomerative clustering techniques to generate initial solutions with an iterated local search algorithm (ILS to solve the problem. Although previous studies clustering methods have been proposed like strategies to generate initial solutions, in this work the search is intensified on the information generated after applying the clustering technique. Besides an extensive analysis on the performance of techniques, and their effect in the final solution is performed. The operation of the proposed methodology is feasible and effective to solve the problem regarding the quality of the answers and computational times obtained on request evaluated literature

  15. Feasibility study on reduction of gasoline emissions from oil depots and gasoline stations in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A field survey was conducted of oil shipment depots in Java and Bali islands owned by Indonesia's state-run oil company to study measures for reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Studies were made on the grasp of the amount of the hydrocarbon vapor emitted into the air, the amount of the gasoline recovered in case of adopting the vapor emission preventive technology, equipment cost/operational cost, etc. Concretely, the following three were studied: change of the gasoline storage tank to the inner floating roof type, and prevention of evaporation loss at the time of receiving and breathing loss caused by temperature changes; replacement with the vapor recovery type loading arm to recover gasoline vapor generated at the time of shipment/filling, and installation of the vapor recovery unit to recover vapor as gasoline; vapor balance system to recover in underground tank the gasoline vapor generated at the time of filling gasoline at gas station. As a result of the study, the recovered gasoline amount was 66,393 Kl/y and the CO2 reduction amount was 14,474 t/y at oil shipment depots and approximately 650 gasoline stations in Jakarta and Surabaya. (NEDO)

  16. The disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: the Elstow Storage Depot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This document explains the role of NIREX (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) in planning for the safe disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes and outlines the plans for the investigation and possible development of a new shallow repository at the CEGB's Elstow Storage Depot, Bedfordshire. The site is conveniently located and is situated on a suitable geologic formation, the Oxford Clay. The next step is for NIREX to undertake site investigations and assess in detail the site's suitability. On the basis of this assessment NIREX will either confirm its interest in the site or reject it as unsuitable. If the site proves to be adequate for the development of a shallow repository then NIREX will seek the necessary planning approvals and authorisations for such a development. The development would involve the construction of new buildings and a programme of trench excavation, waste positioning and trench closure. Existing tenants at the Depot will be accommodated as far as possible. The existing road and rail networks would be used for delivering the packaged wastes. In designing and operating any repository the safety of the public and workforce, both now and in the future, will be of paramount importance. (author)

  17. Randomised controlled single-blind study of conventional versus depot mydriatic drug delivery prior to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madge Simon

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for safe cataract surgery is an adequately dilated pupil. The authors conducted a trial to assess the efficacy (in terms of pupil diameter of a depot method of pre-operative pupil dilatation, as compared with repeated instillations of drops (which is time-consuming for the nursing staff and uncomfortable for the patient. Methods A prospective randomised masked trial was conducted comprising 130 patients with no significant ocular history undergoing elective clear corneal phacoemulsification. 65 patients had mydriatic drops (Tropicamide 1%, Phenylephrine 2.5%, Diclofenac sodium 0.1% instilled prior to surgery, 65 had a wick soaked in the same drop mixture placed in the inferior fornix. Horizontal pupil diameters were recorded on a millimetre scale immediately prior to surgery. Results There was no significant difference in pupil size between the two groups (p = 0.255, Student's t-test. Conclusion There was no significant difference between the mydriasis obtained with the depot system compared with conventional drop application. Use of a depot mydriatic delivery system appears to be a safe and efficient method of drug delivery. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN78047760

  18. Master Environmental Plan: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, Gallup, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.A.; Yuen, C.R.; Biang, R.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    The master environmental plan is based on an environmental assessment of the areas requiring environmental evaluation (AREEs) at Fort Wingate Depot Activity near Gallup, New Mexico. The Fort Wingate Depot Activity is slated for closure under the Base Closure and Realignment Act, Public Law 100--526. The MEP assesses the current status, describes additional data requirements, recommends actions for the sites, and establishes a priority order for actions. The plan was developed so that actions comply with hazardous waste and water quality regulations of the State of New Mexico and applicable federal regulations. It contains a brief history of the site, relevant geological and hydrological information, and a description of the current status for each AREE along with a discussion of the available site-specific data that pertain to existing or potential contamination and the impact on the environment. 35 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. Radiological Final Status Survey of the Hammond Depot, Hammond, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkus, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    ORISE conducted extensive scoping, characterization, and final status surveys of land areas and structures at the DNSC's Hammond Depot located in Hammond, Indiana in multiple phases during 2005, 2006 and 2007. This report provides a detailed discussion of the radiological survey planning, survey implementation, remediation, and the results for these activities supporting the conclusion that radioactive contamination previously identified at the Hammond Depot (HD) has been reduced to levels such that the site may be released without radiological restrictions. The objective of the radiological final status survey (FSS) was to obtain the data necessary to demonstrate compliance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved site-specific derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for both structural surfaces and outdoor areas (ORISE 2006a and NRC 2007). The DCGLs were modeled such that any residual licensed material would not exceed the NRC's basic dose limit for license termination of 25 millirem per year (mrem/y)

  20. Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and fracture risk

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Christian; Brauchli, Yolanda B.; Jick, Susan S.; Kraenzlin, Marius E.; Meier, Christoph R.

    2010-01-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), which has a high rate of use among teenagers in Europe and the United States, has been associated with impaired bone mineral acquisition during adolescence and accelerated bone loss in later life. Studies on the association between DMPA use and fracture risk are limited.; We aimed at evaluating the relationship between use of hormonal contraceptives, specifically DMPA, and fracture risk.; We conducted a case-control analysis using the United Kingdom-b...

  1. Process and Energy Optimization Assessment, Tobyhanna Army Depot, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-17

    assembly of electronic-communication components, different welding processes are performed at TYAD. It uses shielded arc, metal inert gas (MIG...tungsten inert gas ( TIG ), and silver braz- ing oxygen/acetylene cutting plasma arc methods to complete mission re- quirements. Major welding jobs are...ER D C/ CE R L TR -0 6 -1 1 Process and Energy Optimization Assessment Tobyhanna Army Depot, PA Mike C.J. Lin, Alexander M. Zhivov

  2. [Treatment of Adult Schizophrenic Patients With Depot Antipsychotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; García Valencia, Jenny; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Ávila-Guerra, Mauricio; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    To determine the indications of long-acting antipsychotic injection and what its effectiveness and safety in adult patients with schizophrenia during the treatment maintenance phase. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The literature review shows that the evidence has moderate to low quality. 8 articles were used. The risk of relapse was lower with depot risperidone and paliperidone palmitate when compared with placebo. For the risk of hospitalizations comparing depot antipsychotics (APD) versus oral AP, the result is inconclusive. Globally the second-generation APD had a lower risk of discontinuation when compared with placebo. The second generation AP had higher risk of extrapyramidal syndromes than placebo, as in the use of antiparkinsonian. The comparison of second-generation AP injections versus placebo showed an increased risk of early weight gain. The use of depot antipsychotics in the maintenance phase of adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is recommended if there is no adherence to oral antipsychotics as the patient's preference. It is not recommended depot antipsychotics in the acute phase of schizophrenia in adults. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Transport of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity across a swine lagoon/sprayfield system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Williams, C Michael; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W

    2014-10-07

    The inflow, transformation, and attenuation of natural steroid hormones and phytoestrogens and estrogenic activity were assessed across the lagoon/sprayfield system of a prototypical commercial swine sow operation. Free and conjugated steroid hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone) were detected in urine and feces of sows across reproductive stages, with progesterone being the most abundant steroid hormone. Excreta also contained phytoestrogens indicative of a soy-based diet, particularly, daidzein, genistein, and equol. During storage in barn pits and the anaerobic lagoon, conjugated hormones dissipated, and androgens and progesterone were attenuated. Estrone and equol persisted along the waste disposal route. Following application of lagoon slurry to agricultural soils, all analytes exhibited attenuation within 2 days. However, analytes including estrone, androstenedione, progesterone, and equol remained detectable in soil at 2 months postapplication. Estrogenic activity in the yeast estrogen screen and T47D-KBluc in vitro bioassays generally tracked well with analyte concentrations. Estrone was found to be the greatest contributor to estrogenic activity across all sample types. This investigation encompasses the most comprehensive suite of natural hormone and phytoestrogen analytes examined to date across a livestock lagoon/sprayfield and provides global insight into the fate of these analytes in this widely used waste management system.

  4. Vadose Zone Monitoring of Dairy Green Water Lagoons using Soil Solution Samplers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, James R.; Coplen, Amy K

    2005-11-01

    Over the last decade, dairy farms in New Mexico have become an important component to the economy of many rural ranching and farming communities. Dairy operations are water intensive and use groundwater that otherwise would be used for irrigation purposes. Most dairies reuse their process/green water three times and utilize lined lagoons for temporary storage of green water. Leakage of water from lagoons can pose a risk to groundwater quality. Groundwater resource protection infrastructures at dairies are regulated by the New Mexico Environment Department which currently relies on monitoring wells installed in the saturated zone for detecting leakage of waste water lagoon liners. Here we present a proposal to monitor the unsaturated zone beneath the lagoons with soil water solution samplers to provide early detection of leaking liners. Early detection of leaking liners along with rapid repair can minimize contamination of aquifers and reduce dairy liability for aquifer remediation. Additionally, acceptance of vadose zone monitoring as a NMED requirement over saturated zone monitoring would very likely significantly reduce dairy startup and expansion costs. Acknowledgment Funding for this project was provided by the Sandia National Laboratories Small Business Assistance Program

  5. Analysis of the Szczecin Lagoon waters fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Dąbrowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the Szczecin Lagoon waters was carried out between April and December 1996. Changes in yeasts numbers of this particular estuary were found to be typical for the marinę and estuary waters with maximum concentration of yeast-like fungi in the summer season. Qualitative analysis of the isolated strains, proved Rhodotorula glutinis to be the most frequently isolated species at the three sampling sites, with Candida coliculosa dominating at the forth one.

  6. Shear strength, consolidation and drainage of colliery tailings lagoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, J M

    1980-01-01

    The shear strength and consolidation characteristics of colliery tailings were related to the structure of the lagoon deposits. First, a theoretical investigation of vane shear tests in layered media is outlined, and then cone penetration tests are considered as an alternative tool for measuring strengths in situ. The geochemistry and sedimentology of colliery lagoons were investigated. The in-situ permeability of lagoons was also investigated and the results used to investigate the drainage characteristics. Finally, overtipping was investigated.

  7. Depot Maintenance: Improvements to DODs Biennial Core Report Could Better Inform Oversight and Funding Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    military depots, and not workload performed by the private - sector . MDA officials told us that OSD guidance does not explain how to calculate the...military depots2—public- sector facilities that are government-owned and government-operated—and private - sector contractors. Depots have a key role...the public or private sectors . 3Pub. L. No. 98-525 § 307 (1984). This section was originally codified at 10 U.S.C. § 2304 (note). Letter

  8. Evaluation of Uniform Cost Accounting System to Fully Capture Depot Level Repair Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    RD-RI65 522 EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY i/I CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA D R...8217.LECTE B ,- THESIS EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 0TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS Jby __jDavid Richmond O’Brien lj,,, December...Include Security Classification) EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) O’Brien- David

  9. Enhancement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in estuarine invertebrates by surface runoff at a decommissioned military fuel depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A.K.; Roster, N.

    1999-01-01

    Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) and shore crabs (Hemigrapsus sp.) at a recently closed military fuel depot in central San Francisco Bay, California. In April 1996, during a period of above average precipitation, specimens were collected at the depot, near the depot, and at sites 10 and 20 km south of the depot. Four weeks after the rains ended, blue mussels were again collected at the depot, and at two additional sites in the central Bay region. In April, total PAHs in mussels from the depot were significantly higher only than that in mussels collected 20 km from the depot; however, seven specific, substituted PAHs were higher at the depot than at all other sites. In June, only two of the 38 PAHs common in mussels in April were detected at the depot; these concentrations were comparable to ambient concentrations in mussels at the Bay. It seemed that bioavailability of PAHs at the depot was enhanced by rainfall, probably due to the mobilization of PAHs via groundwater into the Bay. Concentrations in mussels from chronically contaminated sites were about five times higher than mussels collected from the depot. Low PAH concentrations were detected in shore crabs near the depot, and the highest levels were not associated with the depot. Observed PAH concentrations are discussed in relation to upper trophic organisms.

  10. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

  11. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS

  12. Improving Inventory Management and Supply Chain of Diesel Fuel in Pertamina 5 Main Depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togar M Simatupang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning Operation subdivision at PT Pertamina has to generate supply decisions includingmain depot to supply, supply point and transportation mode. However, the variability inplanning a supply schedule renders the process of determining a supply decision asineffective. The last assessment on uncertainties was done at 2006 and has not beenconsidered during decision making process. On the other hand, the result of this researchindicates that the uncertainty level is too high to be ignored and the poor informationexchange between the regional offices and the head office decreases the Planning Operation’sability to create plans that covers the company condition. This paper proposes an appropriatesafety stock to withstand the uncertainties and a supply scheduling process that also considersuncertainties by using Monte-Carlo Simulation with random numbers to simulate the events inthe upcoming period.Key words: inventory management, distribution planning, managing uncertainties, montecarlosimulation

  13. Lake size and fish diversity in southern Brazil coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, presents a series of shallow lagoons with diverse size and morphology. The objective of this study is to determine whether the size of the lagoon is an effective factor for structuring fish diversity. In this regard, nine lagoons with distinct areas were sampled: three with an area up to 40 hectares, three with area between 40 and 80 hectares, and three with an area of over 80 hectares. Each lagoon was sampled once on the littoral and pelagic zones. At each point, fish were captured through a set of gill nets with different mesh sizes. Captured specimens were identified, quantified and evaluated for weight and length. A total of 24 fish species belonging to 10 families was obtained, with Characidae presenting the highest species richness. Cyanocharax alburnus was the only species that occurred in all lagoons. Cyphocharax voga, Astyanax eigenmmaniorum, Oligosarcus jenynsii and O. robustus were also frequent species, present in most of the sampled lagoons. Lycengraulis grossidens was captured in just two lagoons with increased conductivity. The community structure showed the highest species richness in lakes with an area over 40 ha, however the highest mean diversity values were observed in ponds up to 40 ha. Cluster Analysis yielded the formation of two groups: a group formed by just one lagoon and a second one cluster grouping all the other lagoons. This pattern may be associated with the presence of Lycengraulis grossidens as a dominant species in this lagoon clustered apart. The results indicate that lagoons with up to 40 ha present greater homogeneity on the species composition and higher average values of diversity; while intermediate ponds (between 40 and 80 ha have lower average diversity for the fish fauna due to increased heterogeneity in species abundance.

  14. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This quality assurance project plan describes the technical requirements and quality assurance activities of the environmental data collection/analyses operations to close Central Facilities Area Sewage treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and the land application area. It describes the organization and persons involved, the data quality objectives, the analytical procedures, and the specific quality control measures to be employed. All quality assurance project plan activities are implemented to determine whether the results of the sampling and monitoring performed are of the right type, quantity, and quality to satisfy the requirements for closing Lagoon 3 and the land application area.

  15. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This quality assurance project plan describes the technical requirements and quality assurance activities of the environmental data collection/analyses operations to close Central Facilities Area Sewage treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and the land application area. It describes the organization and persons involved, the data quality objectives, the analytical procedures, and the specific quality control measures to be employed. All quality assurance project plan activities are implemented to determine whether the results of the sampling and monitoring performed are of the right type, quantity, and quality to satisfy the requirements for closing Lagoon 3 and the land application area.

  16. Alterations in macroinvertebrate spatial patterns in coastal lagoons: Óbidos (NW coast of Portugal) 1984 versus 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor; Pereira, Fábio; Freitas, Rosa

    2012-09-01

    The macroinvertebrate spatial distribution patterns in the Lagoon of Óbidos were studied in 1984 and revisited in 2002. The overall surficial sediments and benthic community patterns show consistent similarities in the two sampling periods, but also important differences. The lagoon is relatively shallow, with about 1/3 of the area covered with extensive intertidal sand banks. These are interrupted by a navigation channel bordering the northern margin (1984) and, following dredging operations, a new navigation channel was opened along the southern margin (2002). The sediments in the navigation channels were coarser and with less percentage of fines in 2002 than in 1984. Arthropods dominated the species richness and abundance in 1984, but were much less important in 2002, when the community was dominated by molluscs and annelids, both in species numbers as well as in abundance. In 1984, the structure of the macrofauna communities closely followed a general model proposed for Atlantic and Mediterranean lagoons, with the marine, the transition and the lagoon communities occupying very well defined areas. This gradient was in accordance with an increase in the fines and organic matter content directed inwards allowing for the coexistence of several characteristic lagoon species with others characteristic of organic enriched sediments. In 2002 this spatial pattern is still recognized but the marine and the transition communities are spatially mixed, occupying both the entrance region and the navigation channels, whereas the characteristic lagoon community identified in 1984 was only recognized in a group of sites located along the southern margin in 2002. Several species show very important changes in their distribution extent in the lagoon system. These changes essentially show a generalized inward expansion of the distribution range of the marine species, in agreement with a larger influence of marine conditions toward the inner areas of the lagoon. This study shows

  17. Seasonal hydrochemical variation in a tropical coastal lagoon (Açu Lagoon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Chagas

    Full Text Available Hydrochemical conditions in the Açu Lagoon are described using spatial and temporal variations of various limnological variables (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, total alkalinity, carbon dioxide, dissolved and total nutrients (N, P and Si, and chlorophyll a. Collected data was used in order to understand the structure and functioning of an enclosed coastal lagoon strongly influenced by climatic conditions. Water samples were collected monthly (November 1999-December 2000 in five sampling stations established along the lagoon. A decreasing spatial gradient of electrical conductivity was observed beginning from a sand bar region between the lagoon and the sea in the direction of the sweet-water input area. The positive correlation observed between the pH and dissolved oxygen (DO values, and the negative one observed between pH values and those of carbon dioxide (CO2, evidenced coupled biological processes, e.g., primary production and decomposition. Both spatial and temporal variation of dissolved nutrients showed fast increase and decrease in the beginning of summer, suggesting that nutrient input resulting from rainfall stimulates phytoplankton production, as reflected by chlorophyll a concentration increase.

  18. Analysis of Tobyhanna Army Depot's Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Pilot Program: RFID as an Asset Management Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miertschin, Keith W; Forrest, Brian D

    2005-01-01

    ...) used for inventory and asset management at the Tobyhanna Army Maintenance Depot. Tobyhanna Army Depot recently partnered with WhereNet Corporation for a pilot program to incorporate a real-time locating system that uses RFID...

  19. Are coastal lagoons physically or biologically controlled ecosystems? Revisiting r vs. K strategies in coastal lagoons and estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Pérez-Marcos, María

    2013-11-01

    Environmental stress influences biological assemblages, with species responding to stress by adopting particular life-history strategies (e.g., r vs. K). Coastal lagoons and estuaries are considered naturally stressed and physically controlled systems with frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations. At the same time, their transitional nature (between terrestrial, freshwater and marine) makes them especially vulnerable to human impacts and land and freshwater inputs. As a result, it is hypothesised that residents of coastal lagoons would display characteristics of r-selected species. The r-strategy involves increased reproductive effort through early reproduction, small and numerous offspring with a large dispersive capability, short lifespan and small adult body size. Together, these traits provide a selective advantage in such unpredictable or short-lived environments. Alternatively, immigrants to coastal lagoons should mostly be K-strategists, with a competitive advantage over the r-strategists, at least on a temporary time scale. These hypotheses were explored using a dataset from 73 Atlanto-Mediterranean sites: 27 estuaries, 42 coastal lagoons and 4 from the sea, obtained from published sources. A detailed analysis of the distributions of the different resident fish species according to lagoon characteristics indicated that in lagoons with a higher marine influence the families Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Syngnathidae were common, while lagoons with freshwater influence are characterized by Cyprinidae and other freshwater species. In analyzing the biological strategies of lagoon species we found that fish assemblages inhabiting marine influenced lagoons were characterized by solitary, necto-benthonic sedentary species. These species are often hermaphroditic, with benthic broods and many exhibit brooding behaviour. This suggests that marine influenced lagoons are dominated by K-strategist species, while r-strategy species will be more common in

  20. Oualidia lagoon, Morocco: an estuary without a river | Hilmi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coupled 2D hydrodynamic and advection-dispersion models (MIKE21) were then used to verify some renewal times. The tidally averaged renewal time for the whole lagoon was found to be 7 days, while the local renewal time at the upstream end of the lagoon was 25 days. Finally, an inverse modelling approach using ...

  1. Assessment of Water Quality Parameters of Kpeshie Lagoon of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the Kpeshi Lagoon to identify the chemical and physical characteristics of the water. A lot of industrial activities are carried out around the Lagoon and it is being gradually turned into a place of refuse damp. Standard methods were used for determining of chemical and physical characteristics of ...

  2. DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: PROTECTION OF WASTEWATER LAGOON INTERIOR SLOPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A problem common to many wastewater treatment and storage lagoons is erosion of the interior slopes. Erosion may be caused by surface runoff and wind-induced wave action. The soils that compose the steep interior slopes of lagoons are especially susceptible to erosion and slumpin...

  3. Distributions of phytoplankton in a coastal lagoon of Mahin, Ondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distributions of phytoplankton were investigated in Mahin Lagoon within Transgressive mud coast of Ondo, Western Nigeria. Collections and analyses of samples of phytoplankton and surface waters (for some physico-chemical parameters) were done at fifteen stations along the stretch of the lagoon in October 2013 and ...

  4. Improving Air Force Depot Programming by Linking Resources to Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    thank Rick Grisenthwaite at Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Jamie Jeter at Okla- homa City Air Logistics Center, and Glen Brown at Ogden Air...consistency, we use the term block cycle instead of SCU in our F-16 discussions. 4 8 Im p ro vin g A ir Fo rce D ep o t Pro g ram m in g b y Lin kin...Requirements RAND TR905-B.8 Figure B.9 Depot Purchased Equipment Maintenance Model Output: Projected Aircraft Availability RAND TR905-B.9 A ir cr af t av

  5. Clipperton, a possible future for atoll lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpy, L.; Rodier, M.; Couté, A.; Perrette-Gallet, C.; Bley-Loëz, C.

    2010-09-01

    Closure of the Clipperton Island atoll (10°17' N 109°13' W), now a meromictic lake, is estimated to have occurred between 1839 and 1849. It was still closed in 2005. Brackish waters in the upper layer (0-10 m) were oxygenated, while saline waters in the deep layer (>20 m) were anoxic. Allowing for the methodological difficulties of earlier measurements, the physical characteristics of the lagoon did not seem to have changed significantly since the last expedition (1980). The intermediate layer between brackish and saline waters was characterized by a strong density gradient and a temperature inversion of up to 1.6°C. Microbial activity, water exchange between the deep layer and surrounding oceanic waters and the geothermal flux hypothesis are discussed. The low DIN and SRP concentrations observed in the upper layer, despite high nutrient input by seabird droppings, reflect the high nutrient uptake by primary producers as attested by the elevated overall gross primary production (6.6 g C m-2 day-1), and high suspended photosynthetic biomass (2.23 ± 0.23 μg Chl a l-1) and production (263 ± 27 μg C l-1 day-1). Phytoplankton composition changed in 67 years with the advent of new taxa and the disappearance of previously recorded species. The freshwater phytoplanktonic community comprised 43 taxa: 37 newly identified during the expedition and 6 previously noted; 16 species previously found were not seen in 2005. The closure of the lagoon, combined with the positive precipitation-evaporation budget characteristic of the region, has induced drastic changes in lagoon functioning compared with other closed atolls.

  6. Depot Maintenance Air Force Faces Challenges in Managing to 50-50 Ceiling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, David

    2000-01-01

    ... that is being moved from the closing Sacramento, California, and San Antonio, Texas, depots to other military depots or private sector sources. As you requested, my testimony today focuses on the basis for the waiver and the likelihood that the Air Force will need additional waivers in the future.

  7. Adipose tissue in muscle: a novel depot similar in size to visceral adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, D.; Kuznia, P.; Heshka, S.; Albu, J.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Visser, M.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The manner in which fat depot volumes and distributions, particularly the adipose tissue (AT) between the muscles, vary by race is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to quantify a previously unstudied and novel intermuscular AT (IMAT) depot and subcutaneous AT, visceral AT (VAT), and

  8. A hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for the multi-depot covering tour vehicle routing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allahyari, S.; Salari, M.; Vigo, D.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a generalization of themulti-depot capacitated vehicle routing problem where the assumption of visiting each customer does not hold. In this problem, called the Multi-Depot Covering Tour Vehicle Routing Problem (MDCTVRP), the demand of each customer could be satisfied in two different

  9. Measuring Customer Satisfaction of Depot Maintenance: An Analysis of Customer Satisfaction of F/A-18 Maintenance at Naval Aviation Depot North Island, CA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forsyth, Brian

    1997-01-01

    .... A key focus of commercial practices is delivering customer satisfaction. To this extent, it is imperative that DoD depots understand and properly measure their customer's concerns if they wish to improve their performance...

  10. Modeling and Solving the Multi-depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window by Considering the Flexible end Depot in Each Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the multi-depot vehicle routing problem with time window in which each vehicle starts from a depot and there is no need to return to its primary depot after serving customers. The mathematical model which is developed by new approach aims to minimizing the transportation cost including the travelled distance, the latest and the earliest arrival time penalties. Furthermore, in order to reduce the problem searching space, a novel GA clustering method is developed. Finally, Experiments are run on number problems of varying depots and time window, and customer sizes. The method is compared to two other clustering techniques, fuzzy C means (FCM and K-means algorithm. Experimental results show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  11. The marsh vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Callaghan

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon suggests that this system is in transition from an estuary to a coastal lake. Two major types of vegetation were recognized, one which is subjected to soil and water conditions of marine origin and the other which is subjected to conditions of terrestrial origin. These vegetation types are discussed and compared to the vegetation of other estuarine systems. Artificial manipulations of the mouth seem to have resulted in sediment deposition and a freshening of the system. These unseasonable manipulations also threaten the continued existence of a number of species in the system.

  12. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Miller, R.L.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Johnson, R.O.; Tolbert, V.R.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Rickert, L.W.; Rogers, G.O.; Staub, W.P.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examined the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal at ANAD as the environmentally preferred alternative (using the same selection method and data analysis tools as in the FPEIS), and (2) whether or not the new data indicate the presence of significant environmental resources that could be affected by on-site disposal at ANAD. In addition, a status report is presented on the maturity of the disposal technology (and now it could affect on-site disposal at ANAD). Inclusion of these more recent data into the FPEIS decision method resulted in confirmation of on-site disposal for ANAD. No unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD have been identified. A review of the technology status identified four principal technology developments that have occurred since publication of the FPEIS and should be of value in the implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD: the disposal of nonlethal agent at Pine Bluff Arsenal, located near Pine Bluff, Arkansas; construction and testing of facilities for disposal of stored lethal agent at Johnston Atoll, located about 1300 km (800 miles) southwest of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean; lethal agent disposal tests at the chemical agent pilot plant operations at Tooele Army Depot, located near Salt Lake City, Utah; and equipment advances. 18 references, 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Support mechanisms for oil spill accident response in costal lagoon areas (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eduardo R.; Silveira, Bruno; Alves, Fátima L.

    2014-10-01

    Oil spill accidents can be caused by several risk factors associated to maritime transport and port activities, which cannot always be predicted or controlled. Therefore, it is essential to support prevention and contingency plans, whose effectiveness is crucial to produce adequate responses and minimize resulting impacts. Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) is a wide coastal lagoon, within a densely populated area, representing a concentration of important biodiversity resources and several economic activities. This paper presents alternative methodologies to support the optimization of civil protection assets in the occurrence of oil spill events and the results of their application on a section area of the Aveiro Lagoon, using an established geographic information system database containing crucial data. The presented methodologies are based on the Environmental Sensitivity Index developed by the North American National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA) and the Global Vulnerability Index which were applied on the Bay of Biscay (Spain). However, during the development of this work, neither of these methodologies was considered to entirely assess the study area in its full extent, which led to the need to adapt and define a bespoke approach. The introduced changes include extra categories in shoreline classification, an adapted physical vulnerability index for coastal lagoons, differentiated aspects for highly protected status areas, qualitative assessment of socioeconomic features and an access and operability index created to support emergency operation response. The resulting maps are the subject of analysis, in which considerations regarding control and cleanup methods are introduced, together with guidelines for further integration in local risk management strategies.

  14. Artificial immune algorithm for multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongyi; Wang, Donggen; Xia, Linyuan; Chen, Xiaoling

    2008-10-01

    In the fast-developing logistics and supply chain management fields, one of the key problems in the decision support system is that how to arrange, for a lot of customers and suppliers, the supplier-to-customer assignment and produce a detailed supply schedule under a set of constraints. Solutions to the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems (MDVRP) help in solving this problem in case of transportation applications. The objective of the MDVSP is to minimize the total distance covered by all vehicles, which can be considered as delivery costs or time consumption. The MDVSP is one of nondeterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) problem which cannot be solved to optimality within polynomial bounded computational time. Many different approaches have been developed to tackle MDVSP, such as exact algorithm (EA), one-stage approach (OSA), two-phase heuristic method (TPHM), tabu search algorithm (TSA), genetic algorithm (GA) and hierarchical multiplex structure (HIMS). Most of the methods mentioned above are time consuming and have high risk to result in local optimum. In this paper, a new search algorithm is proposed to solve MDVSP based on Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), which are inspirited by vertebrate immune systems. The proposed AIS algorithm is tested with 30 customers and 6 vehicles located in 3 depots. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system algorithm is an effective and efficient method for solving MDVSP problems.

  15. Overview of ecotoxicological studies performed in the Venice Lagoon (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losso, C; Ghirardini, A Volpi

    2010-01-01

    This work reports on the state of the art of the bioindicators used to assess environmental quality (regarding chemical pollutant impacts) in the Venice lagoon. After a brief description of the roles, advantages and limitations of bioindicators in marine and transitional environments and a summary of the Venice lagoon characteristics, the ecotoxicological methods used during scientific studies and research projects in the Lagoon are reported. Since not all data are available and no database can be formulated, the main evidence from toxicity bioassays, biomarkers and bioaccumulation analyses since the end of the 1970s is spatially synthesized using maps and discussed according to the four Venice lagoon basins. The majority of indicators showed that the Lido basin (north-central lagoon), affected by the presence of the industrial area and the city of Venice, is the one most highly impacted (particularly in the sites located within or in front of the industrial area, which showed very high sediment toxicity and high levels of DNA damage). The Malamocco basin (south-central lagoon) seems to be the least problematic. The southern basin (Chioggia basin) was shown to be impacted by urban contaminants from the town of Chioggia. The northern basin (Treporti basin) presented both impacted sites (high toxicity and high bioaccumulation factor) and relatively unpolluted sites (absence of toxicity, absence of imposex and low levels of bioaccumulation). This review can serve as a basis on which to select pragmatic, cost-effective biomonitoring techniques for environmental effects in lagoon ecosystems.

  16. Hydrodynamics Modeling of Khung Krabaen Lagoon, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuspong Pokavanich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Khung Krabaen Lagoon (KKBL is a small low-inflow water body. There are vast areas of tidal flat occupied nearly 60% of the lagoon that host some of the most productive seagrass habitats in the region. The lagoon is surrounded by mangrove forest and intensive shrimp farms behind it. The KKBL was used as an intake and recipient water for the farms. However due some shrimp disease epidemics and possibly deteriorated water quality, the farms are now taking the intake water from the outer sea through very expensive (to construct and to maintain irrigation system. Objective of this study is to investigate the KKBL’s hydrodynamics using a numerical simulation model validated with measured data. The simulation model was setup two-dimensionally based on the Delft3D model. Results suggested that water currents inside, at the mouth and at the outer sea of the lagoon are mainly governed by tide and wind. Offshore of the lagoon, there are strong tidal currents flowing along northwest and southeast direction. The tidal currents flow into the lagoon through its mouth before dispersion rapidly inside the lagoon. Mean circulation largely varied seasonally and had direct correlations outer sea seasonal mean currents and the monsoons.

  17. ANALISIS HIGIENE SANITASI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG (DAMIU DI SEKITAR UNIVERSITAS ISLAM RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Mairizki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Drinking Water Refill Depot (DAMIU continues to increase appropriate with the dynamics of community needs for drinking water that has good quality and safe for consumption. Although it had a low price, not all DAMIU product guaranteed safety. DAMIU  as  an alternative choice to fulfill the community needs for drinking water becomes a risk that harmful to health if consumers did  not pay attention in DAMIU hygiene and sanitation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze hygiene and sanitation of  DAMIU building, equipment and operator. The type of this research was descriptive research.The data obtained in this study was primary data in the form of observation using checklist sheet. The data was presented in tabular form and discussed descriptively. In general, hygiene and sanitation of DAMIU building and equipment were good but the sanitation facilities still minimals, the wash basin for operators and its tools were not available. There were  several of operators hygiene must be considered. All operators did not using special uniform for work, did not conducting periodic medical examinations and did not have sertificate of hygiene sanitation course.

  18. A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrieciu, Marian-Albert; Stanica, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System Marian-Albert Scrieciu (a), Adrian Stanica (a) (a) National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology e GeoEcoMar, Str. Dimitrie Onciul 23e25, Sector 2, 024053 Bucharest, Romania Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System, situated in the NW part of the Black Sea, in tight connection with the Danube Delta, has been subject to major changes due to human interventions in the past century. These changes have resulted into a complete change of the Lagoon specific ecosystems compared to its pristine state. In its natural state, as brackish - transitional environment, Antipa (1894) mentions Razelm Lagoon as one of the places with the greatest fisheries around the Black Sea coast (about 1879 - 1884, there were approximately 10,000 fishermen, all working on the Razelm Sinoe Lagoon System). Starting with the end of the XIXth Century, new canals were dug and existing channels were dredged in order to develop tighter connections with the Danube River. The natural inlet of Portita was blocked four decades ago and connections between the various parts of the lagoon system were controlled by the building of locks and sluices. The 2 inlets of Sinoe Lagoon were also controlled during early 1980s. Under these conditions, the lagoon ecosystem changed from brackish towards freshwater, with major effects on the existing flora and fauna. The period of brutal interventions ended in 1989 and the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System became part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in 1991, with a strict policy of nature protection and restoration. Spatial planning has been the major management option for the entire reserve, lagoon system included. Plans for sustainable development of the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System have been built in a participative manner, involving the local stakeholders, as part of FP7 ARCH project. Special attention has been given to impacts of climate change. The study presents the vision for the development Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System over

  19. Mercury in the sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea): Sources, distribution and speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquavita, Alessandro; Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Berto, Daniela; Faganeli, Jadran; Giani, Michele; Horvat, Milena; Koron, Neža; Rampazzo, Federico

    2012-11-01

    The existence of mining tailings in Idrija (Slovenia) and their subsequent transportation via the Isonzo River has been the primary source of mercury (Hg) in the northern Adriatic Sea for almost 500 years, making the Gulf of Trieste and the adjacent Marano and Grado Lagoon two of the most contaminated marine areas in the world. A further, more recent, contribution of Hg has been added by the operation of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the drainage basin flowing into the Lagoon. On the basis of previous research, as well as new data obtained from the "MIRACLE" project (Mercury Interdisciplinary Research for Appropriate Clam farming in a Lagoon Environment), the spatial distribution of Hg and its relationships with methylmercury (MeHg), organic matter and several geochemical parameters in surface sediments were investigated. The predominant and long-term impacts of the cinnabar-rich Isonzo River particulate matter in the Lagoon surface sediments are evident and confirmed by a decreasing concentration gradient from east (>11 μg g-1) to west (0.7 μg g-1). Hg originated from the CAP is only significant in the central sector of the Lagoon. Hg is primarily associated with fine-grained sediments (constitutes, on average, 0.08% of total Hg and percentages are comparable to those obtained in similar lagoon environments. Higher MeHg concentrations in low to intermediate Hg-contaminated sediments indicate that the metal availability is not a limiting factor for MeHg occurrence, thus suggesting a major role played by environmental conditions and/or speciation. The reasonably good correlation between MeHg normalized to humic acid (HA) content and humic δ13C indicates that MeHg is preferentially associated with autochthonous δ13C-enriched HAs in lagoon surface sediments, suggesting that the structure of "marine" HAs, less refractory and less aromatic, could favor MeHg binding and/or production. In the context of the potential hazard of Hg and MeHg accumulation in

  20. The dominance of cyanobacteria in Mediterranean hypereutrophic lagoons: a case study of Cabras Lagoon (Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pulina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An intense proliferation of cyanobacteria in Cabras Lagoon was investigated over a period of two years (July 2007 to June 2009. The influence of environmental and meteorological parameters in the lagoon on temporal variations in cyanobacteria orders was assessed. For 17 months, Chroococcales was the only cyanobacterial order observed in the lagoon. Cyanobium-type cells (Reynolds functional group Z were the most abundant phytoplankton taxon during this period. In the following months, drastic changes in the cyanobacteria assemblages occurred simultaneously with constant, intense rainfall that led to a sudden drop in the lagoon’s salinity. The succession of autumn–winter Oscillatoriales (Planktothrix sp. and Pseudanabaena catenata; Reynolds functional group S1 and late spring growth of Nostocales (Aphanizomenon gracile, Aphanizomenon aphanizomenoides, and Anabaenopsis circularis; Reynolds functional group H1 was monitored. Canonical Correspondence Analysis was carried out to quantify the influence of environmental variables, and indicated strong relationships between Chroococcales and salinity, Oscillatoriales and higher values of SRP and the DIN/SRP ratio, and Nostocales and lower nutrient concentrations, the DIN/SRP ratio and salinity.

  1. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model and local biomass processing depots for sustainable biofuel production: Integrated life cycle assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eranki, Pragnya L.; Manowitz, David H.; Bals, Bryan D.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2013-07-23

    An array of feedstock is being evaluated as potential raw material for cellulosic biofuel production. Thorough assessments are required in regional landscape settings before these feedstocks can be cultivated and sustainable management practices can be implemented. On the processing side, a potential solution to the logistical challenges of large biorefi neries is provided by a network of distributed processing facilities called local biomass processing depots. A large-scale cellulosic ethanol industry is likely to emerge soon in the United States. We have the opportunity to influence the sustainability of this emerging industry. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model estimates land allocations for different cellulosic feedstocks at biorefinery scale without displacing current animal nutrition requirements. This model also incorporates a network of the aforementioned depots. An integrated life cycle assessment is then conducted over the unified system of optimized feedstock production, processing, and associated transport operations to evaluate net energy yields (NEYs) and environmental impacts.

  2. The Linehaul-Feeder Vehicle Routing Problem with Virtual Depots and Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Kuo Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the linehaul-feeder vehicle routing problem with virtual depots and time windows (LFVRPTW. Small and large vehicles deliver services to customers within time constraints; small vehicles en route may reload commodities from either the physical depot or from the larger vehicle at a virtual depot before continuing onward. A two-stage solution heuristic involving Tabu search is proposed to solve this problem. The test results show that the LFVRPTW performs better than the vehicle routing problem with time windows in terms of both objective value and the number of small vehicles dispatched.

  3. An Analysis of the Cost Accounting System for the Depot Maintenance Service, Air Force Industrial Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    AN A NALYSIS OF THE COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM FOR THE DEPOT 1/1 MRINTENANCE SERVI..(U) MIR FORCE INST OF TECH IIGHT-PTTERSON RFB OH SCHOOL OF SYST.. 0 L...I "VV h S~ ~~i FiLE COV, THSI CIO ~OF AN ANALYSIS OF THE COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM FOR THE DEPOT MAINTENANCE SERVICE, AIR FORCE INDUSTRIAL FUND...Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ~ p~UOW~~ ’ I ~ 1 12 02 0 AFIT/GLM/LSY/87S-83 AN ANALYSIS OF THE COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM FOR THE DEPOT MAINTENANCE SERVICE, AIR

  4. Policies for Positioning Empty Containers in an Inland Multi-depot System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Yun, Won-Young

    2011-01-01

    -container management are as follows: a coordinated (s, S) inventory policy for overseas positioning, (ri, Ri) policy at each depot for inland positioning; and a simple leasing policy with zero lead-time. For inland positioning policy, four different methods are proposed to reposition empty containers between depots....... Customer demands and returning containers in depots and lead-time for positioning from overseas are considered as uncertain factors. The objective is to obtain the optimal policy in order to minimize the expected total cost including inventory holding, overseas positioning, inland positioning and leasing...

  5. Estimating Emissions of Ammonia and Methane from an Anaerobic Livestock Lagoon Using Micrometeorological Methods and Inverse Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Williams, C.

    2012-12-01

    Evaluating the impact of increased carbon and nitrogen emissions on local air quality and regional bionetworks due to animal agricultural activity is of great interest to the public, political, economic and ecological welfare of areas within the scope of these practices. Globally, livestock operations account for 64% of annual anthropogenic emissions of ammonia (NH3) [1]. Concerning methane (CH4), anaerobic lagoons from commercial dairy operations contribute the second largest share of CH4 emissions from manure in the United States[1], and additionally are a local source of NH3 as well. Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used in commercial animal agriculture and as significant local sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), there is a strong need to quantify GHG emissions from these systems. In 2012 at a commercial dairy operation in Northern Colorado, USA, measurements of CH4 were made using eddy covariance (EC), while NH3 was estimated using a combination of real-time monitoring (cavity ring-down spectroscopy as well as time-integrated passive samplers). Methane emissions have been measured at this lagoon using EC since 2011, with fluxes ranging from 0.5 mg m-2 s-1 in early summer to >2 mg m-2 s-1 in late summer and early fall. Concentration data of both CH4 and NH3 were used to estimate emissions using a 2-dimensional inverse model based on solving the advection-diffusion equation[2]. In the case of the CH4-EC data, results from the inverse model were compared with the EC-derived flux estimates for enhanced parameterization of surface geometry within the lagoon environment. The model was then applied using measured NH3 concentrations to achieve emissions estimates. While NH3 fluxes from the lagoon tend to be much lower than those of CH4 by comparison, modeling emissions of NH3 from the simple geometry of a lagoon will assist in applying the model to more complex surfaces. [1] FAO, 2006. Livestock's long shadow: Environmental issues and options. Livestock, Environment, and

  6. Is the Venice Lagoon Noisy? First Passive Listening Monitoring of the Venice Lagoon: Possible Effects on the Typical Fish Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgan, Marta; Picciulin, Marta; Codarin, Antonio; Fiorin, Riccardo; Zucchetta, Matteo; Malavasi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Three passive listening surveys have been carried out in two of the three Venice lagoon tide inlets and inside the Venice island. The spectral content and the intensity level of the underwater noise as well as the presence or absence of Sciaena umbra and the distribution of its different sound patterns have been investigated in all the recording sites. The passive listening proved to be successful in detecting S. umbra drumming sounds in both Venice lagoon tide inlets. Our results indicate that the spectral content and the level of underwater noise pollution in the Venice lagoon could affect fish acoustic communication.

  7. Radioecology of the Kuecuek Cekmece lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlu, Y.M.

    1977-01-01

    In order to understand the physical-chemical conditions of the Kuecuekcekmece Lagon starting with its creation, meteorological, physical, chemical and biological conditions were determined. Radiometric analyses have been done on the dissected organs of animals which lives in the lagoon and sediments. The effect of the variation of salinity on the accumulationloss and distribution of 65 Zn in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.) were investigated. Besides of this, determination and comparison of 65 Zn flux rates in Mytilus galloprovincialis in the field and laboratory conditions are made. The results shows that, mixing of both marine and stream water the salinity and elemental composition of the Lagoon change frequently. This events has an influence on the 65 Zn precipitation. Remaining the salinities under the 10 ppt and the pH as an alkali, the 65 Zn adsorption to the small particle became to conciderable quantities. Since Mytilus galloprovincialis feeds itself by fittering the water, we would expect that it would accumulate more activity in such a medium. In contrast to this, less activities accumulated in low salinities and this accumulation is seen mostly in the shells. although the reason for this event cannot be explained as a whole, it can be expressed in two way according to : During adaptation of organisms to the new conditions by its isosmotical ability, some events takes place in the organisms which cause more strongly bounding of the existing zinc in the body. It is for this reason, 65 Zn cannot be able to change with body Zn. The radioactive zinc is not biologically available to the M. galloprovincialis at low salinities

  8. assessment of water quality parameters of kpeshi lagoon of ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A lot of industrial activities are carried out around the Lagoon and it is being gradually ... chemical and physical characteristics of water samples. .... Royal Hotel whereas the third section stretches .... for long in the environment (WRC, 2003).

  9. Physicochemical and microbiological monitoring analysis of the Iquipari Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Batista Justino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of Rio de Janeiro holds many coastal lagoons with an extensive biodiversity. The lagoons are considered productive, but also defenseless due anthropic use. They can be great economic sources, as well as an ideal place for leisure and recreation. In order to evaluate the water quality of the Iquipari Lagoon, located in the city of São João da Barra, RJ, this work aims to demonstrate the results of physicochemical and microbiological parameters, and to discuss the results of the analysis. It was possible to observe that the parameters such as thermotolerant coliforms, pH and Turbidity (UNT showed high values established by CONAMA No. 357/05. However, it is necessary to give special attention to environmental education in the locality, as well as to encourage preservation of the natural environment in which the lagoon is located.

  10. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  11. Social foraging by waterbirds in shallow coastal lagoons in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Poot, M; Wiersma, P; Gordon, C; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y; Piersma, T; Battley, Phil F.

    Social foraging in waterbirds in Ghanaian coastal lagoons was studied during October and November 1994. Two types of foraging were social: directionally synchronized flocks (often involving distinctive feeding methods used in unison) and dense pecking aggregations. Social flocks were typically

  12. Phosphate gypsum wastes in Venice lagoon. Radiological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, M; Blasi, M; Guogang, J.; Rosamilia, S.; Sansone, U.; Biancotto, R.; Bidoli, P.; Sepulcri, D.

    2000-03-01

    The phosphoric minerals utilized in phosphoric acid production, presents high concentrations of radioactive materials: U238, Th 232, K 40. The phosphogypsum is the waste material obtained in the phosphoric acid production in wet process. This type of production method is employed for many years in Venice lagoon (Porto Marghera chemical plants). In this paper are reported evaluations of radiological impact on aquatic environment of lagoon [it

  13. Gaining insight into Clipperton's lagoon hydrology using tritium

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-baptiste, Philippe; Fourre, Elise; Charlou, Jean-luc; Donval, Jean-pierre; Correge, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Historical descriptions of the Clipperton lagoon appear to converge on the fact that it became isolated from the surrounding ocean around 1858. Since then, because of the high precipitation rate which largely exceeds evaporation in this region of the eastern tropical Pacific, a brackish lens has formed on top of the saline oceanic waters. In 1980, literature data show that the thickness of this water body was reaching 14 m. During the 2005 Etienne's Clipperton expedition, we collected lagoon ...

  14. Seychelles Lagoon Provides Corals with a Refuge from Bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Iluz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive bleaching event in the summer of the year 1997-1998 affected most reefs along East Africa's shores. In the aftermath of that episode, the reefs of Île Alphonse in the Seychelles were examined and it was found that reefs along the seaward slopes of the island lost >95% of their branching coral colonies, with considerably higher survival of massive species. Île Alphonse features a nearly circular shallow lagoon, with steep seaward slopes. Contrary to our expectations, mortality in the warmer lagoon was far lower than of coral colonies on the surrounding slopes, bathed in deeper and cooler waters. We suggest that corals in the lagoon were protected from UV radiation by leachate stemming from seagrass leaves steeped in the lagoon. Our measurements in the lagoon showed a strong attenuation of ultraviolet radiation, not observed in the waters outside the lagoon, and laboratory examination confirmed that the strong UV absorption of substances leached into seawater from decomposing leaves of the seagrass Thalassodendron (=Cymodocea testudinaceum. Our findings demonstrate the synergism between elevated seawater temperature and UV radiation in triggering bleaching on shallow reefs.

  15. Seychelles Lagoon Provides Corals with a Refuge from Bleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iluz, D.; Chadwick, N.E.; Hoffman, R.; Dubinsky, Z.; Vago, R.; Chadwick, N.E.; Chadwick, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive bleaching event in the summer of the year 1997-1998 affected most reefs along East Africa's shores. In the aftermath of that episode, the reefs of Ile Alphonse in the Seychelles were examined and it was found that reefs along the seaward slopes of the island lost >95% of their branching coral colonies, with considerably higher survival of massive species. Ile Alphonse features a nearly circular shallow lagoon, with steep seaward slopes. Contrary to our expectations, mortality in the warmer lagoon was far lower than of coral colonies on the surrounding slopes, bathed in deeper and cooler waters. We suggest that corals in the lagoon were protected from UV radiation by leachate stemming from sea grass leaves steeped in the lagoon. Our measurements in the lagoon showed a strong attenuation of ultraviolet radiation, no observed in the waters outside the lagoon, and laboratory examination confirmed that the strong UV absorption of substances leached into seawater from decomposing leaves of the sea grass Thalassodendron (=Cymodocea) testudinaceum. Our findings demonstrate the synergism between elevated seawater temperature and UV radiation in triggering bleaching on shallow reefs.

  16. Chemical composition of sediments from the Patos Lagoon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baisch, P.R.M.; Asmus, H.E.; Jounneau, J.-M.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of major elements (Si,Al,Fe,Mg,Mn,Ca,Ti,K,Na), trace elements (Pb,Cu,Zn,Ni,Cr,Zr,Ba,Rb,Sr,Co,Ga) and organic matter (C-org.; N-org., S and P), and of bottom sediments from the Patos Lagoon, aim to define the regional geochemical variables of this lagoon. The results identified three main groups of trace elements: 1) trace elements associated with argillo-mineral and with organic matter: Zn, Ni, Cr, Rb; 2) trace elements of detrital origin: Ti, Za, Ba; and 3) trace elements connected exclusively to organic matter: Mn, Cu, Co. The results of this study also demonstrate the main regional variations of the major and trace elements, of the organic matter and of the sedimentary grain size along a north-south profile in the lagoon. Organic matter is the most important factor for the distribution of trace elements. The Guaiba hydrographic system is the main source for the detrital and non-detrital trace elements in the lagoon. Gradual sedimentation along the Patos Lagoon can be pointed to as the cause of higher concentrations of Pb, Cu and Cr (partial fraction) in the southern part of the lagoon. (author) [pt

  17. METALS POLLLUTION IN EL LIMON LAGOON, CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Teresa Leal-Ascencio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El Limón Lagoon belongs to the Reforma county, in the State of Chiapas, Mexico. Massive fish killings have occurred in the lagoon, demanding a deeper study to determine the pollution state of the lagoon, as well as the possible cause of the deaths. Results show that the average concentrations of Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd and Cu in the lagoon are beyond the recommended limits in Canada and USA to avoid deleterious biological effects in aquatic species. Special mention has to be done for the case of Zn, with a maximum concentration of 1360 mg/kg, presumably associated with the use of this metal as a catalyst in a natural gas plant close to the lagoon. Although the industrial discharges comply with the Mexican Standards for metals in wastewaters, this has not been enough to avoid the accumulation of metals in sediments, which is a demonstration of failure of the Mexican Wastewater Standards that should be more restrictive especially in the case of lagoons with a low water recharge, taking into account the type of water body where the wastewater is loading. In the case of the application of this water for agriculture, the metals can accumulate in soils, with unwanted effects on crops.

  18. Benthic ecology of tropical coastal lagoons: Environmental changes over the last decades in the Términos Lagoon, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenz, Christian; Fichez, Renaud; Silva, Carlos Álvarez; Benítez, Laura Calva; Conan, Pascal; Esparza, Adolfo Contreras Ruiz; Denis, Lionel; Ruiz, Silvia Díaz; Douillet, Pascal; Martinez, Margarita E. Gallegos; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Mendieta, Francisco José Gutiérrez; Origel-Moreno, Montserrat; Garcia, Antonio Zoilo Marquez; Caravaca, Alain Muñoz; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Alvarado, Rocío Torres; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    The Términos Lagoon is a 2000-km2 wide coastal lagoon linked to the largest river catchment in Mesoamerica. Economic development, together with its ecological importance, led the Mexican government to pronounce the Términos Lagoon and its surrounding wetlands as a Federal protected area for flora and fauna in 1994. It is characterized by small temperature fluctuations, but with two distinct seasons (wet and dry) that control the biological, geochemical, and physical processes and components. This paper presents a review of the available information about the Términos Lagoon. The review shows that the diversity of benthic communities is structured by the balance between marine and riverine inputs and that this structuration strongly influences the benthic metabolism and its coupling with the biogeochemistry of the water column. The paper also presents many specific drivers and recommendations for a long-term environmental survey strategy in the context of the expected Global Change in the Central American region.

  19. Corrective action decision document for the Roller Coaster Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit Number 404)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The North Disposal Trench, located north of the eastern most lagoon, was installed in 1963 to receive solid waste and construction debris from the Operation Roller Coaster man camp. Subsequent to Operation Roller Coaster, the trench continued to receive construction debris and range cleanup debris (including ordnance) from Sandia National Laboratories and other operators. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities (VCA Spill Area) at an area associated with the North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Site (CAS). Remediation activities at this site were conducted in 1995. A corrective action investigation was conducted in September of 1996 following the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP); the detailed results of that investigation are presented in Appendix A. The Roller Coaster Lagoons and North Disposal Trench are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), a part of the Nellis Air Force Range, which is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air

  20. Hotline Allegations Involving Contracts for Programmed Depot Maintenance of KC-135 Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    Introduction. We performed the audit in response to 15 allegations made to the Defense Hotline involving two contracts on the Programmed Depot Maintenance of the KC-135 Aircraft, which Oklahoma City Air logistics...

  1. Treatment patterns and clinical characteristics prior to initiating depot typical antipsychotics for nonadherent schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery William

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonadherence with antipsychotic medication is an important clinical and economic problem in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study identified treatment patterns and clinical characteristics that immediately precede the initiation of depot typical antipsychotics in the usual treatment of schizophrenia patients with a recent history of nonadherence with oral antipsychotic regimens. Methods Data were drawn from a large, multisite, 3-year prospective noninterventional observational study of persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States, which was conducted between 7/1997 and 9/2003. The analytical sample included patients who, in the 6 months prior to enrollment, were considered nonadherent with oral antipsychotics and were not treated with depot antipsychotics (N = 314. Patients who were subsequently initiated on typical depots during the 3-year follow-up were compared with patients who continued therapy with only oral antipsychotic agents. Group comparisons were made on patient baseline characteristics and precedent variables that were assessed 1 to 6 months prior to depot initiation. Patient assessments were made at predetermined intervals throughout the 3-year study using standard psychiatric measures, a patient-reported questionnaire, and medical record information. Results A small proportion of patients (12.4% who were recently nonadherent with oral antipsychotics were subsequently initiated on depot therapy during the 3-year study. Compared to patients treated with only oral antipsychotics, those subsequently initiated on a depot were significantly more likely to be hospitalized at depot initiation or the previous 30 days, to have recent involvement with the criminal justice system (arrests, recent illicit drug use, recent switching or augmentation of oral antipsychotics, and recent treatment with oral typical antipsychotics. Conclusion Despite prior nonadherence with oral antipsychotic medication, only a

  2. The lagoon a study in imagery The lagoon a study in imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gago Alvarez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to prove that, through exuberant sensuous imagery - the strange tropical setting, the mystery of elements, light and darkness - Joseph Conrad, in his short-story "The Lagoon" describes and transmits Impressionistically, the dramatic story of a men surprised by his own act of cowardice, a man divided between loyalty to his own blood and love. This man, Arsat suffers a blockaded feeling towards himself because he failed to act when he had the occasion, and he missed it: he left his brother to die in the hands of the enemy while he. Arsat, escaped with his love Diamelen, to live in the "shadows" of "The Lagoon" - his own psychological, subconscious guilty conscience. The story starts with a description of nature, as motionless, and undefined as the plot still is: The forests, somber and dull, stood motionless and silent... In the stillness of the air ... minute blossoms seemed do have been bewitched into an immobility perfect and final. Nothing moved on the river (1 The purpose of this paper is to prove that, through exuberant sensuous imagery - the strange tropical setting, the mystery of elements, light and darkness - Joseph Conrad, in his short-story "The Lagoon" describes and transmits Impressionistically, the dramatic story of a men surprised by his own act of cowardice, a man divided between loyalty to his own blood and love. This man, Arsat suffers a blockaded feeling towards himself because he failed to act when he had the occasion, and he missed it: he left his brother to die in the hands of the enemy while he. Arsat, escaped with his love Diamelen, to live in the "shadows" of "The Lagoon" - his own psychological, subconscious guilty conscience. The story starts with a description of nature, as motionless, and undefined as the plot still is: The forests, somber and dull, stood motionless and silent... In the stillness of the air ... minute blossoms seemed do have been bewitched into an

  3. Development of self-forming doxorubicin-loaded polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system for liver cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittayacharn, Pinunta; Nasongkla, Norased

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop self-forming doxorubicin-loaded polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system for liver cancer chemotherapy and studied the release profiles of doxorubicin (Dox) from different depot formulations. Tri-block copolymers of poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(D,L-lactide) and poly(ethylene glycol) named PLECs were successfully used as a biodegradable material to encapsulate Dox as the injectable local drug delivery system. Depot formation and encapsulation efficiency of these depots were evaluated. Results show that depots could be formed and encapsulate Dox with high drug loading content. For the release study, drug loading content (10, 15 and 20% w/w) and polymer concentration (25, 30, and 35% w/v) were varied. It could be observed that the burst release occurred within 1-2 days and this burst release could be reduced by physical mixing of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) into the depot system. The degradation at the surface and cross-section of the depots were examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In addition, cytotoxicity of Dox-loaded depots and blank depots were tested against human liver cancer cell lines (HepG2). Dox released from depots significantly exhibited potent cytotoxic effect against HepG2 cell line compared to that of blank depots. Results from this study reveals an important insight in the development of injectable drug delivery system for liver cancer chemotherapy. Schematic diagram of self-forming doxorubicin-loaded polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system and in vitro characterizations. (a) Dox-loaded PLEC depots could be formed with more than 90% of sustained-release Dox at 25% polymer concentration and 20% Dox-loading content. The burst release occurred within 1-2 days and could be reduced by physical mixing of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) into the depot system. (b) Dox released from depots significantly exhibited potent cytotoxic effect against human

  4. Environmental Assessment for the sewage lagoon system: Area 5, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The DOE Nevada Operations Office prepared an environmental assessment (EA), (DOE/EA-1026), to evaluate the potential impacts of constructing a sanitary waste sewage lagoon system in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The proposed system would replace an existing septic system. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 USC 4321 et seq.). Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and DOE is issuing this FONSI

  5. A Status Report on the Major Accounting and Management Control Deficiencies in the Defense Business Operations Fund for FY 1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ... Defense Business Operations Fund. The Defense Business Operations Fund was established as a revolving fund in FY 1992 and consisted of business areas such as Supply Management and Depot Maintenance...

  6. Mechanism of nitrogen removal in wastewater lagoon: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramelli, Richard A; Vijay, Saloni; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2017-06-01

    Ammonia being a nutrient facilitates the growth of algae in wastewater and causes eutrophication. Nitrate poses health risk if it is present in drinking water. Hence, nitrogen removal from wastewater is required. Lagoon wastewater treatment systems have become common in Canada these days. The study was conducted to understand the nitrogen removal mechanisms from the existing wastewater treatment lagoon system in the town of Lorette, Manitoba. The lagoon system consists of two primary aerated cells and two secondary unaerated cells. Surface samples were collected periodically from lagoon cells and analysed from 5 May 2015 to 9 November 2015. The windward and leeward sides of the ponds were sampled and the results were averaged. It was found that the free ammonia volatilization to the atmosphere is responsible for most of the ammonia removal. Ammonia and nitrate assimilation into biomass and biological growth in the cells appears to be the other mechanisms of nitrogen removal over the monitoring period. Factors affecting the nitrogen removal efficiency were found to be pH, temperature and hydraulic residence time. Also, the ammonia concentration in the effluent from the wastewater treatment lagoon was compared with the regulatory standard.

  7. Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  8. ATTITUDES OF SHOP FLOOR EMPLOYEES TOWARD WOMEN MANAGERS IN FUEL DEPOTS: A CASE OF THE FUEL DEPOTS IN LUBUMBASHI, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N. M. Nzuve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Labour Organization and all organizations of human rights advocate against any form of negative attitude in employment based on gender, its terms, promotion and relations. Shop floor employees play a very important role in the daily advancement and profitability of an organisation. The purpose of this study was to establish the attitude of shop floor employees toward women managers in fuel depots in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with the population consisting of one hundred and ninety three (193 shop floor employees. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. In total one hundred and twenty one (121 shop floor employees responded yielding a response rate of sixty three percent (63%. The findings of this study indicate that a negative attitude toward woman managers is prevalent in the Fuel Depots of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. At the fuel depots, the number of women working was less than a third of the males. In spite of this, women managers are rated higher in management qualities and are considered to be more honest, diligent, compassionate, creative and intelligent when compared to their male counterparts. The study recommends a culture change among employees in fuel depots in Lubumbashi in order to enable them perceive women as equal partners at the work place.

  9. Measurement of ground and nearby building vibration and noise induced by trains in a metro depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chao; Wang, Yimin; Wang, Peng; Guo, Jixing

    2015-12-01

    Metro depots are where subway trains are parked and where maintenance is carried out. They usually occupy the largest ground areas in metro projects. Due to land utilization problems, Chinese cities have begun to develop over-track buildings above metro depots for people's life and work. The frequently moving trains, when going into and out of metro depots, can cause excessive vibration and noise to over-track buildings and adversely affect the living quality of the building occupants. Considering the current need of reliable experimental data for the construction of metro depots, field measurements of vibration and noise on the ground and inside a nearby 3-story building subjected to moving subway trains were conducted in a metro depot at Guangzhou, China. The amplitudes and frequency contents of velocity levels were quantified and compared. The composite A-weighted equivalent sound levels and maximum sound levels were captured. The predicted models for vibration and noise of metro depot were proposed based on existing models and verified. It was found that the vertical vibrations were significantly greater than the horizontal vibrations on the ground and inside the building near the testing line. While at the throat area, the horizontal vibrations near the curved track were remarkably greater than the vertical vibrations. The attenuation of the vibrations with frequencies above 50 Hz was larger than the ones below 50 Hz, and the frequencies of vibration transmitting to adjacent buildings were mainly within 10-50 Hz. The largest equivalent sound level generated in the throat area was smaller than the testing line one, but the instantaneous maximum sound level induced by wheels squeal, contact between wheels and rail joints as well as turnout was close to or even greater than the testing line one. The predicted models gave a first estimation for design and assessment of newly built metro depots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. On the Hydrodynamic Geometry of Flow-Through versus Restricted Lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Th. Fourniotis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The classification of a lagoon as a restricted lagoon is shown to depend not solely on its geometry but also on the tidal hydraulics. By numerically simulating the tidal exchange of two lagoons of similar geometrical dimensions, the Nidova lagoon and the Papas lagoon, in Western Greece, subject to very similar tidal forcing, applied to the two tidal inlets in the first case and three in the second, very different residence times are found, namely 2.5 days for the Nidova and 25–30 days for the Papas lagoon. This large difference is attributed to the fact that whereas the Papas lagoon functions as a typical restricted lagoon, in which the water renewal is achieved by mixing in the lagoon of the tidal prism water exchanged within a tidal cycle, the Nidova lagoon functions as a flow-through system because of the differential arrival of the tide at its two tidal inlets. It is suggested that this way of enhancing the flushing rate of a lagoon be considered, whenever possible, when creating a new tidal inlet to the lagoon.

  11. Copper complexation capacity in surface waters of the Venice Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Zirino, Alberto; Nasci, Cristina

    2008-10-01

    Total copper (Cu(T)), copper ion activity (pCu) and the copper complexation capacity (CuCC) were determined in samples of seawater collected in July 2003 from the Venice Lagoon. Cu(T) and CuCC showed considerable spatial variability: Cu(T) ranged from 1.8 to 70.0nM, whereas the CuCC varied from 195 to 573nM. pCu values varied from 11.6 to 12.6 and are consistent with those previously reported in estuarine and coastal areas (10.9-14.1). The range of Cu(T) values compares well with those reported in the past in the lagoon and in the adjacent Adriatic Sea. The highest concentrations of Cu(T) were found in samples collected near the industrial area of Porto Marghera, whereas the lowest were measured near the Chioggia and Malamocco inlets, where an intense tidally-driven renewal of seawater takes place. Although CuCC showed a high degree of spatial variability, the values recorded in the Venice Lagoon are comparable to those reported in other estuarine systems. In addition, CuCC was positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), suggesting that organic ligands responsible for Cu complexation are part of the bulk organic matter pool in the lagoon. The CuCC:Cu(T) molar ratio was, on average 55:1, indicating that a large excess of complexation capacity exists in the Venice Lagoon. The high levels of CuCC and the narrow range of pCu indicates the importance of the role played by organic ligands in controlling the free ion Cu concentrations in the lagoon, and as a consequence, regulating its availability and/or toxicity.

  12. Subtidal hydrodynamics in a tropical lagoon: A dimensionless numbers approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio-Fernandez, L.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Gomez-Valdes, J.

    2018-01-01

    Observations in a tropical lagoon of the Yucatan peninsula motivated a non-dimensional number analysis to examine the relative influence of tidal stress, density gradients and wind stress on subtidal hydrodynamics. A two-month observation period in Chelem Lagoon covered the transition from the dry to the wet season. Chelem Lagoon is influenced by groundwater inputs and exhibits a main sub-basin (central sub-basin), a west sub-basin and an east sub-basin. Subtidal hydrodynamics were associated with horizontal density gradients that were modified seasonally by evaporation, precipitation, and groundwater discharge. A tidal Froude number (Fr0), a Wedderburn number (W), and a Stress ratio (S0) were used to diagnose the relative importance of dominant subtidal driving forces. The Froude number (Fr0) compares tidal forcing and baroclinic forcing through the ratio of tidal stress to longitudinal baroclinic pressure gradient. The Wedderburn number (W) relates wind stress to baroclinicity. The stress ratio (S0) sizes tidal stress and wind stress. S0 is a new diagnostic tool for systems influenced by tides and winds, and represents the main contribution of this research. Results show that spring-tide subtidal flows in the tropical lagoon had log(Fr0) ≫ 0 and log(S0) > 0 , i.e., driven mainly by tidal stresses (advective accelerations). Neap tides showed log(Fr0) ≪ 0 and log(S0) < 0) , i.e., flows driven by baroclinicity, especially at the lagoon heads of the east and west sub-basins. However, when the wind stress intensified over the lagoon, the relative importance of baroclinicity decreased and the wind stress controlled the dynamics (log(W) ≫ 0). Each sub-basin exhibited a different subtidal response, according to the dimensionless numbers. The response depended on the fortnightly tidal cycle, the location and magnitude of groundwater input, and the direction and magnitude of the wind stress.

  13. Observations of emperor geese feeding at Nelson Lagoon, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Margaret R.

    1983-01-01

    Estuaries along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula provide essential habitat for most of the American population of Emperor Goose (Chen canagica) during migration (Petersen and Gill 1982). Most of the population passes through Nelson Lagoon in spring and fall, with over 40,000 birds recorded there (Gill et al 1981). Little is known about the feeding activity of Emperor Geese while they are in estuaries, and the importance of estuaries as staging areas during spring and fall migration is poorly understood. Here I report observations on the feeding activity of emperor Geese at one estuary (Nelson Lagoon).

  14. Fishing Across the Centuries: What Prospects for the Venice Lagoon?

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestri, Silvia; Pellizzato, M.; Boatto, V.

    2006-01-01

    Fishing has always been an important activity for those Venetians who live near the Lagoon, and it still enjoys an important economic and social role in the region. Over the last few years, however, the fishing industry has been subject to a profound transformation both in the reduction of the variety and the abundance of the species found in the lagoon, and in the change from a complex and well-structured type of activity to one which has become monospecialist, that is based principally on t...

  15. Optical researches for cyanobacteria bloom monitoring in Curonian Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirshin, Evgeny A.; Budylin, Gleb B.; Yakimov, Boris P.; Voloshina, Olga V.; Karabashev, Genrik S.; Evdoshenko, Marina A.; Fadeev, Victor V.

    2016-04-01

    Cyanobacteria bloom is a great ecological problem of Curonian Lagoon and Baltic Sea. The development of novel methods for the on-line control of cyanobacteria concentration and, moreover, for prediction of bloom spreading is of interest for monitoring the state of ecosystem. Here, we report the results of the joint application of hyperspectral measurements and remote sensing of Curonian Lagoon in July 2015 aimed at the assessment of cyanobacteria communities. We show that hyperspectral data allow on-line detection and qualitative estimation of cyanobacteria concentration, while the remote sensing data indicate the possibility of cyanobacteria bloom detection using the spectral features of upwelling irradiation.

  16. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) use after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Clarissa; Murthy, Amitasrigowri S

    2016-01-01

    In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m 2 and 29.9 kg/m 2 ) or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m 2 ). In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The obesity-associated increase in VTE should be mitigated by surgically induced weight loss. The concurrent use of DMPA in the post bariatric surgical period should not further increase the risk of VTE.

  17. Air--sea gaseous exchange of PCB at the Venice lagoon (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manodori, L; Gambaro, A; Moret, I; Capodaglio, G; Cescon, P

    2007-10-01

    Water bodies are important storage media for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and this function is increased in coastal regions because their inputs are higher than those to the open sea. The air-water interface is extensively involved with the global cycling of PCBs because it is the place where they accumulate due to depositional processes and where they may be emitted by gaseous exchange. In this work the parallel collection of air, microlayer and sub-superficial water samples was performed in July 2005 at a site in the Venice lagoon to evaluate the summer gaseous flux of PCBs. The total concentration of PCBs (sum of 118 congeners) in air varies from 87 to 273 pg m(-3), whereas in the operationally defined dissolved phase of microlayer and sub-superficial water samples it varies from 159 to 391 pg L(-1). No significant enrichment of dissolved PCB into the microlayer has been observed, although a preferential accumulation of most hydrophobic congeners occurs. Due to this behaviour, we believe that the modified two-layer model was the most suitable approach for the evaluation of the flux at the air-sea interface, because it takes into account the influence of the microlayer. From its application it appears that PCB volatilize from the lagoon waters with a net flux varying from 58 to 195 ng m(-2)d(-1) (uncertainty: +/-50-64%) due to the strong influence of wind speed. This flux is greater than those reported in the literature for the atmospheric deposition and rivers input and reveals that PCB are actively emitted from the Venice lagoon in summer months.

  18. Sediment texture and metal contamination in the Venice Lagoon (Italy): A snapshot before the installation of the MOSE system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, Roberto; Botter, Margherita; Cassin, Daniele; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Pini, Roberto; Dominik, Janusz

    2018-05-01

    sediment layers (5-10 and/or 10-20 cm) as an effect of increasing pollutant inputs until a certain time in the past. Enrichment Factors (EF) were calculated from 9 cores, comparing concentrations in the "pre-industrial" (>100 years ago) and recent (surface layer, 0-5 cm) sediments. The mostly lithogenic elements were not enriched (EF ˜ 1), whereas the partly anthropogenic elements showed slight (Cu and Pb, EF ˜ 1.2) to significant (Hg and Zn, EF ˜ 2) enrichment. The shallow waters on the landward side (particularly close to freshwater inputs), the area nearby the industrial district of Porto Marghera and a small zone adjacent to the city of Chioggia were identified as the main pollutant accumulation sites. Mercury was the only element potentially harmful for aquatic life. Its concentration in the biologically active surface sediment layer (0-5 cm) exceeded the NOAA Effects Range-Median (ERM) value in 27% of samples, corresponding to 20% of the shallow-water surface area. The collected data set represents a valuable reference for monitoring the impact of the construction and operation of the MOSE system on the sediment features of the Venice Lagoon.

  19. Artificial intelligence technology assessment for the US Army Depot System Command

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, K A

    1991-07-01

    This assessment of artificial intelligence (AI) has been prepared for the US Army's Depot System Command (DESCOM) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The report describes several of the more promising AI technologies, focusing primarily on knowledge-based systems because they have been more successful in commercial applications than any other AI technique. The report also identifies potential Depot applications in the areas of procedural support, scheduling and planning, automated inspection, training, diagnostics, and robotic systems. One of the principal objectives of the report is to help decisionmakers within DESCOM to evaluate AI as a possible tool for solving individual depot problems. The report identifies a number of factors that should be considered in such evaluations. 22 refs.

  20. Preparation and in vitro characterization of SN-38-loaded, self-forming polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaspon, Chawan; Hongeng, Suradej; Boongird, Atthaporn; Nasongkla, Norased

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of anticancer-loaded injectable polymeric depots that consisted of D,L-lactide (LA), ε-caprolactone (CL), and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or [poly(ε-caprolactone)-random-poly(D,L-lactide)]-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-[poly(ε-caprolactone)-random-poly(D,L-lactide)] (PLEC) copolymers for malignant gliomas treatment. PLECs were polymerized with different percentages of LA to deliver 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), a highly potent anticancer drug. SN-38-loaded depots could form directly in phosphate buffer saline with more than 98% encapsulation efficiency. The release rate of SN-38 from depots was found to depend on the amount of LA in PLECs, loading content of SN-38 in the depots, and depot weight. Encapsulation of SN-38 inside depots could enhance the stability of SN-38 where all of SN-38 released after 60 days was in an active form. Depots without SN-38 were evaluated as noncytotoxic against U-87MG, whereas SN-38-loaded depots showed cytotoxic effect as a function of concentration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Characterisation of a Tunisian coastal lagoon through hyperspectral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2008 an optical procedure was developed and applied in Ghar El Melh, a Tunisian lagoon which has been increasingly impacted by pollutant loading, especially from agriculture. In situ hyperspectral irradiance was measured at several stations, from which the apparent optical properties (AOPs), namely the irradiance ...

  2. Assessment of the pollution in Aghien lagoon and its tributaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of the pollutants in surface water quality when used for drinking water is of great concern in many developing countries. This study seeks to characterize the types of pollution in Aghien lagoon and its tributaries. For the sampling, water was taken at a depth of 50 cm from the earth surface. Samples were ...

  3. Intertidal deposits: river mouths, tidal flats, and coastal lagoons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, D.; Boer, de P.L.; Cadee, G.C.; Dijkema, K.; Ridderinkhof, H.; Phillippart, C.

    1998-01-01

    Intertidal Deposits: River Mouths, Tidal Flats, and Coastal Lagoons combines the authors personal and professional experience with the mass of available literature to present a cohesive overview of intertidal deposits and the widely diverse conditions of their formation worldwide. This includes the

  4. Invasion of Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa, by Mytilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1992 the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis began establishing beds on the centre sandbanks of Langebaan Lagoon. This global invader had previously been restricted to rocky shores along the South African coastline. In order to investigate the effect of the invasion on naturally-occurring communities, ...

  5. Carrying capacity of Chaetoceros gracilis in Homa Lagoon and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility for nutrient limitation to affect C. gracilis was assessed from two different ecosystems (Izmir Bay and Homa Lagoon). Our goal was to determine the growth rate of all nutrients and the maximum levels of the C. gracilis phytoplankton biomass (the maximum biomass carrying capacity) on the extent of its full ...

  6. Sediment budget in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Sarretta, Alessandro; Pillon, Simone; Molinaroli, Emanuela; Guerzoni, Stefano; Fontolan, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript of the paper "Sediment budget in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy", published ad final paper in "Continental Shelf Research Volume 30, Issue 8, 15 May 2010, Pages 934-9499" (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2009.07.002)

  7. 9 Nutrient Load of the Sakumo Lagoon.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    nutrients studied, phosphates were the highest in the Sakumo lagoon. The decreasing ... (2008), used nutrient and the trophic status to assess the ... the level of nutrient pollution of the Ramsar site. Materials and ... In assessing the nutrient load, water samples of the .... tidal waves resulting in sea water intrusion may account ...

  8. Boron, calcium and magnesium in Kavaratti lagoon water, Lakshadweep Archipelago

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nasnolkar, C.M.; Salkar, V.R.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    1228.8 to 1319.8 mg kg sup(-1) (av. 1280.19 mg kg sup(-1)) and the salinity varied from 35.01 to 35.10 x 10 sup(-3) (av. 35.04 x 10 sup(-3)). The ratios of boron, calcium and magnesium to chlorinity in the lagoon water showed wide variation and were...

  9. The high resolution mapping of the Venice Lagoon tidal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madricardo, Fantina; Foglini, Federica; Kruss, Aleksandra; Bellafiore, Debora; Trincardi, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges of the direct observation of the ocean is to achieve a high resolution mapping of its seafloor morphology and benthic habitats. So far, sonars have mapped just 0.05% of the ocean floor with less than ten-meter resolution. The recent efforts of the scientific community have been devoted towards the mapping of both Deep Ocean and very shallow coastal areas. Coastal and transitional environments in particular undergo strong morphological changes due to natural and anthropogenic pressure. Nowadays, only about 5% of the seafloor of these environments † have been mapped: the shallowness of these environments has prevented the use of underwater acoustics to reveal their morphological features. The recent technological development of multibeam echosounder systems, however, enables these instruments to achieve very high performances also in such shallow environments. In this work, we present results and case studies of an extensive multibeam survey carried out in the Lagoon of Venice in 2013. The Lagoon of Venice is the biggest lagoon in the Mediterranean Sea with a surface of about 550 km2 and with an average depth of about 1 m. In the last century, the morphological and ecological properties of the lagoon changed dramatically: the surface of the salt marshes was reduced by 60% and some parts of the lagoon are deepening with a net sediment flux exiting from the inlets. Moreover, major engineering interventions are currently ongoing at the inlets (MOSE project). These changes at the inlets could affect substantially the lagoon environment. To understand and monitor the future evolution of the Lagoon of Venice, ISMAR within the project RITMARE (a National Research Programme funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research) carried out an extensive survey, involving a team of more than 25 scientists, to collect high resolution (0.5 m) bathymetry of key study areas such as the tidal inlets and channels. Following a broad

  10. Male bovine GH transgenic mice have decreased adiposity with an adipose depot-specific increase in immune cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benencia, Fabian; Harshman, Stephanie; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Lubbers, Ellen R; List, Edward O; Householder, Lara; Al-Naeeli, Mawadda; Liang, Xiaoyu; Welch, Lonnie; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2015-05-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is composed of mature adipocytes and a stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which contains a variety of cells, including immune cells that vary among the different WAT depots. Growth hormone (GH) impacts immune function and adiposity in an adipose depot-specific manner. However, its effects on WAT immune cell populations remain unstudied. Bovine GH transgenic (bGH) mice are commonly used to study the in vivo effects of GH. These giant mice have an excess of GH action, impaired glucose metabolism, decreased adiposity, increased lean mass, and a shortened lifespan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the WAT depot-specific differences in immune cell populations in the presence of excess GH in vivo. Three WAT depots were assessed: inguinal (sc), epididymal (EPI), and mesenteric (MES). Subcutaneous and MES bGH WAT depots showed a significantly higher number of total SVF cells, yet only MES bGH WAT had higher leukocyte counts compared with control samples. By means of flow cytometry analysis of the SVF, we detected greater macrophage and regulatory T-cell infiltration in sc and MES bGH WAT depots compared with controls. However, no differences were observed in the EPI WAT depot. RNA-sequencing confirmed significant alterations in pathways related to T-cell infiltration and activation in the sc depot with fewer significant changes in the EPI bGH WAT depot. These findings collectively point to a previously unrecognized role for GH in influencing the distribution of WAT immune cell populations in a depot-specific manner.

  11. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clarissa Lam,1 Amitasrigowri S Murthy2,3 1New York University School of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University School of Medicine, 3New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m2 and 29.9 kg/m2 or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2. In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE. The

  12. Clinical outcome of one-third-dose depot triptorelin is the same as half-dose depot triptorelin in the long protocol of controlled ovarian stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Appropriate dosage of the long-acting depot gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH agonist has not been determined in long protocol for IVF, and one-third-dose depot triptorelin was compared with half-dose in a luteal long protocol of in-vitro fertilization/ intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI treatment in this study. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, open clinical trial. 100 patients were randomized into two groups. Group I received one-third-dose (1.25 mg depot triptorelin. Group II received half-dose (1.87 mg. The clinical and experimental parameters were compared between the two groups. Results: There was no premature luteinizing hormone (LH surge in both groups. On Day 3-5 of menstrual cycle after down-regulation, fewer patients showed low-level LH (<1.0 IU/L and estradiol (<30 pg/mL in group I (P <0.05. There were fewer oocytes retrieved (P =0.086, fewer total embryos and available embryos for cryopreservation in Group I (P <0.05, while good-quality embryo rate was higher in group I (P <0.05. The length and dose of ovarian stimulation was lower in Group I, but not significantly. The clinical pregnancy (52% versus 40%, implantation (48% versus 37.5%, delivery (46% versus 32%, or live birth (42% versus 32% rates and the abortion (8% versus 20% rates showed no significant differences. Conclusion: Depot triptorelin 1.25 mg can be successfully used with reduced pituitary suppression and lower cost in a long protocol for in-vitro fertilization.

  13. Multicenter clinical trial of leuprolide acetate depot (Luphere depot 3.75 mg for efficacy and safety in girls with central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Jin Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWe evaluated the efficacy, safety and psychological aspect of monthly administrations of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa, leuprolide acetate depot (Luphere depot 3.75 mg, in patients with precocious puberty.MethodsA total of 54 girls with central precocious puberty were administered with leuprolide acetate (Luphere depot 3.75 mg every four weeks over 24 weeks. We evaluated the percentage of children exhibiting a suppressed luteinizing hormone (LH response to GnRH (LH peak≤3 IU/L, peak LH/follicle stimulating hormone (FSH ratio of GnRH stimulation test less than 1, change in bone age/chronologic age ratio, change in the Tanner stage and change in eating habit and psychological aspect.Results(1 The percentage of children exhibiting a suppressed LH response to GnRH, defined as an LH peak≤3 IU/L at 24 weeks was 96.3 % (52/54. (2 The percentage of children exhibiting peak LH/FSH ratio<1 at 24 weeks of the study was 94.4 % (51/54. (3 The ratio of bone age and chronological age significantly declined from 1.27±0.07 to 1.24±0.01 after the 6 months of the study. (4 The mean Tanner stage manifested a significant change 2.3±0.48 at baseline, down to 1.70±0.61 at 24 weeks. (5 Based on the questionnaires, the score for eating habits showed a significant change from the baseline 34.0±6.8 to 31.3±6.8. (6 The psychological assessment did not exhibit a significant difference except with scores for sociability, problem behavior total score and other problems.ConclusionThe leuprolide 3.75 mg (Luphere depot is useful and safety for treating children with central precocious puberty.

  14. Pollution Impacts on Bacterioplankton Diversity in a Tropical Urban Coastal Lagoon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloto, Gigliola R. B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Pinto, Leonardo H.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Chaia, Catia; Lima, Joyce L.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Martins, Orlando B.; Clementino, Maysa M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a great number of published studies addressing estuarine, freshwater and marine bacterial diversity, few have examined urban coastal lagoons in tropical habitats. There is an increasing interest in monitoring opportunistic pathogens as well as indigenous microbial community members in these water bodies by current molecular and microbiological approaches. In this work, bacterial isolates were obtained through selective plate dilution methods to evaluate antibiotic resistances. In addition, 16S rRNA gene libraries were prepared from environmental waters and mixed cultures grown in BHI medium inoculated with Jacarepaguá lagoon waters. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses showed distinct community profiles between environmental communities from each studied site and their cultured counterparts. A total of 497 bacterial sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 245 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% similarity. CCA diagrams showcased how several environmental variables affect the distribution of 18 bacterial orders throughout the three distinct habitats. UniFrac metrics and Venn diagrams revealed that bacterial communities retrieved through each experimental approach were significantly different and that only one OTU, closely related to Vibrio cholerae, was shared between them. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from most sampled environments, fifty percent of which showed antibiotic resistance. PMID:23226484

  15. Pollution impacts on bacterioplankton diversity in a tropical urban coastal lagoon system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigliola R B Salloto

    Full Text Available Despite a great number of published studies addressing estuarine, freshwater and marine bacterial diversity, few have examined urban coastal lagoons in tropical habitats. There is an increasing interest in monitoring opportunistic pathogens as well as indigenous microbial community members in these water bodies by current molecular and microbiological approaches. In this work, bacterial isolates were obtained through selective plate dilution methods to evaluate antibiotic resistances. In addition, 16S rRNA gene libraries were prepared from environmental waters and mixed cultures grown in BHI medium inoculated with Jacarepaguá lagoon waters. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analyses showed distinct community profiles between environmental communities from each studied site and their cultured counterparts. A total of 497 bacterial sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 245 operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% similarity. CCA diagrams showcased how several environmental variables affect the distribution of 18 bacterial orders throughout the three distinct habitats. UniFrac metrics and Venn diagrams revealed that bacterial communities retrieved through each experimental approach were significantly different and that only one OTU, closely related to Vibrio cholerae, was shared between them. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from most sampled environments, fifty percent of which showed antibiotic resistance.

  16. Organic micropollutants in wet and dry depositions in the Venice Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaro, Andrea; Radaelli, Marta; Piazza, Rossano; Stortini, Angela Maria; Contini, Daniele; Belosi, Franco; Zangrando, Roberta; Cescon, Paolo

    2009-08-01

    Atmospheric transport is an important route by which pollutants are conveyed from the continents to both coastal and open sea. The role of aerosol deposition in the transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and polybromodiphenyls ethers (PBDEs) to water and soil systems has been evaluated by measuring their concentrations in wet and dry depositions to the Venice Lagoon. The organic micropollutant flux data indicate that they contribute to the total deposition flux in different ways through wet and dry deposition, showing that the prevalent contribution derives from wet deposition. The fluxes calculated for PBDEs, showed the prevalence of 47, 99, 100 and 183 congeners, both in dry and wet fluxes. With regard to PCBs, the flux of summation operatorPCB for wet deposition is in the same order of magnitude of the diffusive flux at the air-water interface. The PAH fluxes obtained in the present study are similar to those obtained in previous studies on the atmospheric bulk deposition to the Venice Lagoon. The ratios between Phe/Ant and Fl/Py indicate that the pollutants sources are pyrolytic, deriving from combustion fuels.

  17. Compiled data on the vascular aquatic plant program, 1975 - 1977. [for sewage lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of a single cell, facultative sewage lagoon was significantly improved with the introduction of vascular aquatic plants. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was the dominant plant from April to November; duckweed (Lemna spp.) and (Spirodela spp.) flourished from December to March. This 2 ha lagoon received approximately 475 cu m/day of untreated sewage and has a variable COD sub 5 loading rate of 22-30 kg/ha/day. During the first 14 months of operation with aquatic plants, the average influent BOD sub 5 was reduced by 95% from 110 mg/l to an average of 5 mg/l in the effluent. The average influent suspended solids were reduced by 90% from 97 mg/l to 10 mg/l in the effluent. Significant reductions in nitrogen and phosphorus were effected. The monthly kjeldahl nitrogen for influent and effluent averaged 12.0 and 3.4 mg/l, respectively, a reduction of 72%. The total phosphorus was reduced on an average of 56% from 3.7 mg/l influent to 1.6 mg/l effluent.

  18. Review of Tidal Lagoon Technology and Opportunities for Integration within the UK Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Todeschini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of distributed resources for renewable energy installed worldwide has been increasing rapidly in the last decade, and the great majority of these installations consist of solar panels and wind turbines. Other renewable sources of energy are not exploited to the same level: for instance, tidal energy is still a minute portion of the global energy capacity, in spite of the large amount of potential energy stored in tidal waves, and of the successful experience of the few existing plants. The world’s second largest tidal range occurs in the UK but at the moment tidal installations in this country are limited to a few prototypes. More recently, there has been a renewed interest in harnessing tidal energy in the UK, and a few tidal lagoon projects have been evaluated by the UK government. This paper provides an overview of the historical and current developments of tidal plants, a description of operation of tidal lagoons, challenges and opportunities for their integration within the UK energy systems and solutions to improve the dispatchability of tidal energy. The concepts described in the paper are applied to a tidal project proposed for South Wales.

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 232 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 232. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the July 1999 corrective action investigation (CAI) activities disclosed no evidence of contamination at the site. Contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) addressed during the CAI included total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, total herbicides, total petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel/oil range), polychlorinated biphenyls, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The data confirmed that none of the COPCs identified exceeded preliminary action levels outlined in the CAIP; therefore, no corrective actions were necessary for CAU 232. After the CAI, best management practice activities were completed and included installation of a fence and signs to limit access to the lagoons, cementing Manhole No. 2 and the diverter box, and closing off influent and effluent ends of the sewage lagoon piping. As a result of the CAI, the DOE/NV recommended that: (1) no further actions were required; (2) no Corrective Action Plan would be required; and (3) no use restrictions were required to be placed on the CAU

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV Operations Office

    1999-05-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

  2. Inflammation and race and gender differences in computerized tomography-measured adipose depots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beasley, L.E.; Koster, A.; Newman, A.B.; Javaid, M.K.; Ferucci, L.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Kuller, L.H.; Pahor, M.; Visser, M.; Rubin, S.M.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Everhart, J.E.; Harris, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has consistently shown a correlation between obesity and chronic subclinical inflammation. It is unclear whether the size of specific adipose depots is more closely associated with concentrations of inflammatory markers than overall adiposity. This study investigated the

  3. Clay Nanoparticles Elicit Long-Term Immune Responses by Forming Biodegradable Depots for Sustained Antigen Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyu; Zuo, Huali; Li, Bei; Duan, Chengcheng; Rolfe, Barbara; Zhang, Bing; Mahony, Timothy J; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2018-05-01

    Nanomaterials have been widely tested as new generation vaccine adjuvants, but few evoke efficient immunoreactions. Clay nanoparticles, for example, layered double hydroxide (LDH) and hectorite (HEC) nanoparticles, have shown their potent adjuvanticity in generating effective and durable immune responses. However, the mechanism by which clay nanoadjuvants stimulate the immune system is not well understood. Here, it is demonstrated that LDH and HEC-antigen complexes form loose agglomerates in culture medium/serum. They also form nodules with loose structures in tissue after subcutaneous injection, where they act as a depot for up to 35 d. More importantly, clay nanoparticles actively and continuously recruit immune cells into the depot for up to one month, and stimulate stronger immune responses than FDA-approved adjuvants, Alum and QuilA. Sustained antigen release is also observed in clay nanoparticle depots, with 50-60% antigen released after 35 d. In contrast, Alum-antigen complexes show minimal antigen release from the depot. Importantly, LDH and HEC are more effective than QuilA and Alum in promoting memory T-cell proliferation. These findings suggest that both clay nanoadjuvants can serve as active vaccine platforms for sustained and potent immune responses. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Pharmacodynamic effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administered to lactating women on their male infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virutamasen, P; Leepipatpaiboon, S; Kriengsinyot, R; Vichaidith, P; Muia, PN; SekaddeKigondu, CB; Mati, JKG; Forest, MG; Dikkeschei, LD; Wolthers, BG; dArcangues, C

    Normal postpartum women, who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of one full-term male infant, free of congenital abnormalities and other diseases, were recruited for this study. Thirteen women received 150 mg depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), intramuscularly on days 42 + 1 and 126 + 1

  5. Verspreiding van zout bij het terugwinnen van zeezand uit een depot in het Haringvliet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1991-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een beknopte analyse van de verdunning en verspreiding van zout vanuit een gepland depot voor ontzilt zeezand in het Haringvliet. Beschouwd zijn de initiële menging van het zout bij terugwinnen van het zand, de verspreiding door stroming en turbulentie bij geopende spuisluis, en de

  6. Safety Extension Study Of Leuprolide Acetate (Lupron Depot) In The Treatment Of Central Precocious Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-08

    Precocious; Leuprolide Acetate; Luteinizing Hormone (LH); Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone Agonist (GnRHa); Tanner Staging; Depot Formulation; Suppression of LH; Central Precocious Puberty (CPP); Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone (GnRH); Lupron; GnRH Analog; Pediatrics Central Precocious Puberty

  7. Sustained release of antibiotics from injectable and thermally responsive polypeptide depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Samuel B; Shamji, Mohammed F; Nettles, Dana L; Hwang, Priscilla; Setton, Lori A

    2009-07-01

    Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds are of interest for delivering antibiotics to local sites of infection in orthopaedic applications, such as bone and diarthrodial joints. The objective of this study was to develop a biodegradable scaffold with ease of drug loading in aqueous solution, while providing for drug depot delivery via syringe injection. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) were used for this application, biopolymers of repeating pentapeptide sequences that were thermally triggered to undergo in situ depot formation at body temperature. ELPs were modified to enable loading with the antibiotics, cefazolin, and vancomycin, followed by induction of the phase transition in vitro. Cefazolin and vancomycin concentrations were monitored, as well as bioactivity of the released antibiotics, to test an ability of the ELP depot to provide for prolonged release of bioactive drugs. Further tests of formulation viscosity were conducted to test suitability as an injectable drug carrier. Results demonstrate sustained release of therapeutic concentrations of bioactive antibiotics by the ELP, with first-order time constants for drug release of approximately 25 h for cefazolin and approximately 500 h for vancomycin. These findings illustrate that an injectable, in situ forming ELP depot can provide for sustained release of antibiotics with an effect that varies across antibiotic formulation. ELPs have important advantages for drug delivery, as they are known to be biocompatible, biodegradable, and elicit no known immune response. These benefits suggest distinct advantages over currently used carriers for antibiotic drug delivery in orthopedic applications. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The contribution of the in-vivo fate of an oil depot to drug absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalicharan, R. W.; Oussoren, C; Schot, Peter; Rijk, de, E.; Vromans, H.

    2017-01-01

    Sustained release of lipophilic compounds can be achieved with oil depots. These parenteral formulations are generally injected in the vastus lateralis and deltoid muscle. It is known that the absorption rate differs between these two muscles. The reason for this is not fully understood. The aim of

  9. Field Demonstration/Validation of Electrolytic Barriers for Energetic Compounds at Pueblo Chemical Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    measuring the intensity of fluorescence at 517 nm using an Ocean Optics USB-2000TM spectrometer and an Ocean OpticsTM custom six-around-one fiber ...Umatilla Army Depot, OR Demilitarization (washout) Basalt Deep (>50 feet) NRC (2005) Installation Action Plan for UAAP March 2001 Hawthorne

  10. Toxicity of contaminants in lagoons and pannes of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, R.; Speelman, J.; Stewart, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminants in water and sediments of lagoons and pannes were 2--90 times greater at sites adjacent to slag and coal piles than those at reference sites. One site (Lagoon-US5) had sediments with very high concentrations of toxic organics (e.g. naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzofuran). Although analyses indicated a gradient of contaminant concentration with distance from their sources, toxicity assays were somewhat equivocal. With the exception of less reproduction in Ceriodaphnia at one lagoon site (US3 = 0.55 of reference), survival of fathead minnows and reproduction in Ceriodaphnia in lagoon and panne waters varied independently of the contaminant concentration. In fact, there was better Ceriodaphnia reproduction in water from two contaminated sites (Lagoon-US5, Panne-WP1) than in water from reference sites. Fathead minnow survival, Ceriodaphnia survival, Ceriodaphnia reproduction, amphipod survival, and amphipod growth varied among sites in toxicity assays with sediments, 100% mortality of fatheads at Lagoon-US5, 100% mortality of Ceriodaphnia at Lagoon-US3, and less survival of fathead minnows at Lagoon-US3 indicate possible toxicity from contaminants in sediments at these sites. Of all organisms and end-points tested, Ceriodaphnia survival seemed to be most closely associated with concentrations of contaminants in lagoon water and sediments. Amphipod survival also varied with contaminants in sediments, however, survival in sediments of contaminated sites ranged only from 0.90--0.93 of reference sites. Although the results are not consistent among organisms, toxicity assays indicate that sediments from the lagoon site with the highest contaminants (Lagoon-US5) and possibly those from another contaminated lagoon site (Lagoon-US3) could be toxic to aquatic organisms. Water and sediments from contaminated panne sites do not appear to be toxic to aquatic test organisms

  11. Lagooning microbial fuel cells: A first approach by coupling electricity-producing microorganisms and algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobato, Justo; González del Campo, Araceli; Fernández, Francisco J.; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An algae cathode of a MFC has been used without artificial mediators or catalysts. • To perform a lagooning wastewater treatment coupled with energy-producing MFC. • The producing electricity operates under day/night irradiation cycles, is shown. - Abstract: The paper focused on the start-up and performance characterisation of a new type of microbial fuel cell (MFC), in which an algae culture was seeded in the cathodic chamber to produce the oxygen required to complete the electrochemical reactions of the MFC, thus circumventing the need for a mechanical aerator. The system did not use mediators or high cost catalysts and it can be started-up easily using a straightforward three-stage procedure. The start-up consists of the separate production of the electricity-producing microorganisms and the algae cultures (stage I), replacement of the mechanical aeration system by the algae culture (stage II) and a change in the light dosage from a continuous input to a dynamic day/night profile. The MFC was operated under a regime of 12 h light and 12 h dark and was also operated in batch and continuous substrate-feeding modes. The same cell voltage was achieved when the cathode compartment was operated with air supplied by aerators, which means that this configuration can perform as well as the traditional one. The results also show the influence of both the organic load and light irradiation on electricity production and demonstrate that this type MFC is a robust and promising technology that can be considered as a first approach to perform a lagooning wastewater treatment with microbial fuel cells

  12. Implementation of Geographical Information System for Bacteriological Contamination Analysis on Refill Drinking Water Depot (Study in Tembalang District)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmitha, Amelia; Utami, Endang Sri; Sitohang, Marya Yenita

    2018-02-01

    People used refilled-drinking-water for household and food stall because its efficient and low cost. Based on Indonesian Health Ministry regulation, it should not have any coliform bacteria. This study aimed to describe the bacteriological contamination of refilled drinking water using geographical information system (GIS). In this research, it was used an analytic observational method. The samples were from all available (37) depots in Tembalang district, one form each depot took used a sterile bottle. Contamination of bacteria was identified by Most Probable Number (MPN) method lactose broth media, Mac Conkey media, and IMVIC media. The depot samples were then plotted on (GIS). This study showed 95% samples were not feasible to consume since they contamined coliform. All sub-district had one that contaminated by coliform, 75% sub-districts had depots that contaminated Escherichia coli, while 55% sub-districts had depots that contaminated with other bacteria. The internal risk factors of the contamination were the absence of hygiene-sanitation worthy certificate (95%), depots location near to pollution sources (5%), and the misused of UV light. The external risk factor was lack of quality control that was not as the sterilization from office health Semarang city. Policy reinforcement should be done to all of the depots.

  13. Gaining insight into Clipperton's lagoon hydrology using tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, P.; Fourre, E.; Charlou, J.L.; Donval, J.P.; Correge, T.

    2009-01-01

    Historical descriptions of the Clipperton lagoon appear to converge on the fact that it became isolated from the surrounding ocean around 1858. Since then, because of the high precipitation rate which largely exceeds evaporation in this region of the eastern tropical Pacific, a brackish lens has formed on top of the saline oceanic waters. In 1980, literature data show that the thickness of this water body was reaching 14 m. During the 2005 Etienne's Clipperton expedition, we collected lagoon water on two vertical profiles. Salinity, δ 18 O and tritium analyses were performed on these samples with the objective of gaining further insight into the lagoon hydrology and age of the deep waters. The upper 15 m were characterized by low salinities (5.4 ± 0.2), and δ 18 O and tritium values typical of local precipitation. At depth, waters had salinity and δ 18 O similar to oceanic surface waters but with low tritium concentrations, hence pointing to quite isolated waters representing a remnant of marine waters when the lagoon was still communicating with the ocean. At lagoon closure, the excess of precipitation over evaporation raised the lagoon level, thus creating a hydraulic pressure head which favored salt expulsion through the permeable walls of the atoll. A simple geohydrological modeling of this salt expulsion process based on Darcy's law describes reasonably well the time-evolution of the brackish lens. Tritium is used to discuss the main physical processes potentially involved in the slow ventilation of the halo-cline and deep saline layer, including vertical diffusion, sinking of salty Surface water intrusions and deep horizontal exchange through fissures in the limestone. These different mechanisms give reasonable results, which are all compatible with available salinity and isotopic data (δ 18 O and tritium), and therefore are all plausible candidates. Unfortunately, the lack of a detailed description of the vertical tritium profile in the halo

  14. Cost-Utility Analysis of Depot Atypical Antipsychotics for Chronic Schizophrenia in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukic, Vlado; Jakovljevic, Miro; Filipcic, Igor; Herceg, Miroslav; Silic, Ante; Tomljanovic, Tatjana; Zilbershtein, Roman; Jensen, Rasmus C D; Hemels, Michiel E H; Einarson, Thomas R

    As a nation with a developing economy, Croatia is faced with making choices between pharmaceutical products, including depot injectable antipsychotics. We conducted a pharmacoeconomic analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of atypical depots in Croatia. A 1-year decision-analytic framework modeled drug use. We determined the average direct cost to the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance of using depot formulations of paliperidone palmitate long-acting injectable (PP-LAI), risperidone LAI (RIS-LAI), or olanzapine LAI (OLZ-LAI). An expert panel plus literature-derived clinical rates populated the core model, along with costs adjusted to 2012 by using the Croatian consumer price index. Clinical outcomes included quality-adjusted life-years, hospitalization rates, emergency room treatment rates, and relapse days. Robustness of results was examined with one-way sensitivity analyses on important inputs; overall, all inputs were varied over 10,000 simulations in a Monte Carlo analysis. Costs (quality-adjusted life-years) per patient were €5061 (0.817) for PP-LAI, €5168 (0.807) for RIS-LAI, and €6410 (0.812) for OLZ-LAI. PP-LAI had the fewest relapse days, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Results were sensitive against RIS-LAI with respect to drug costs and adherence rates, but were generally robust overall, dominating OLZ-LAI in 77.3% and RIS-LAI in 56.8% of the simulations. PP-LAI dominated the other drugs because it had the lowest cost and best clinical outcomes. Compared with depots of olanzapine and risperidone and oral olanzapine, PP-LAI was the cost-effective atypical LAI for treating chronic schizophrenia in Croatia. Using depot paliperidone in place of either olanzapine or risperidone would reduce the overall costs of caring for these patients. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Hypoxia induced VEGF synthesis in visceral adipose depots of obese diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaru, Ana Marina; Pisoschi, Cătălina Gabriela; Bold, Adriana; Taisescu, C; Stănescu, R; Hîncu, Mihaela; Crăiţoiu, Stefania; Baniţă, Ileana Monica

    2012-01-01

    VEGF is one the pro-inflammatory adipokines synthesized by the "adipose secretoma" of obese subjects as a response to hypoxic conditions; but the main function of VEGF is angiogenesis, being recognized as the most important factor increasing blood capillaries in the adipose tissue by stimulating endothelial cell growth. In this paper, we propose a comparative study of the vascular response to VEGF synthesis in the subcutaneous and central-peritoneal adipose depots in lean, obese and obese diabetic patients. We used CD31 to label the endothelial cells in order to evaluate the response of the vascular network to VEGF synthesis. Our results showed an increase of VEGF protein synthesis in obese and obese-diabetic patients compared to lean subjects where the protein was absent. The positivity for VEGF in obese diabetic samples was observed in numerous structures from the adipose depots, both in the stromal vascular fraction--blood vessels and stromal cells--as well as in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Positivity in the vascular wall was observed more frequently in areas of perivascular and intralobular fibrosis. Obese and diabetic patients showed similar incidence of CD31 immunoreactivity with lean subjects in both subcutaneous and peritoneal depots. In conclusion, human adipose depots show a different incidence of VEGF positive cells in relation with their disposal and the metabolic status. VEGF synthesis in visceral adipose tissue is inefficient being not followed by angiogenesis to counterbalance tissue hypoxia. We suggest that may be a pathogenic link between the degrees of intralobular fibrosis in adipose depots and VEGF expression.

  16. Pengaruh Kepuasan Dan Kepercayaan Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Ulang Pada Depot Air Minum Tris Water Reverse Osmosis System (Ro)

    OpenAIRE

    Fitria, Ika

    2011-01-01

    Kind of this survey is asociative survey which watch influence of customer satisfaction and trust to re-purchase decision on Depot Air Minum Tris Water Reverse Osmosis System (RO) and test of hypothesis use Multiple Linear Regression Analysist on α=5%. This survey used SPSS 16.00 version for windows. Research population is consumers of Depot Air Minum Tris Water Reverse Osmosis System (RO). Sample was used in this survey from customers of Depot Air Minum Tris Water Reverse Osmosis System (RO)...

  17. Diet of the clupeid fish Platanichthys platana (Regan, 1917 in two different Brazilian coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiaro Talita

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Platanichthys platana is considered a constant species in both Cabiúnas and Imboassica lagoons that are characterised by different marine and freshwater inputs, and anthropogenic influences. The stomach content analysis of P. platana captured between July 1991 and July 1993 revealed filamentous algae, detritus, eggs of benthic invertebrates, larvae of chironomids and bivalves as the main food sources in Imboassica lagoon. Small-sized cladocerans, copepods and shrimp larvae were the prevailing items in Cabiúnas lagoon. Seasonal food variations were noted for the fishes of Imboassica lagoon. Diet differences were highlighted within specimens lesser than 40 mm standard length in Imboassica lagoon, and were related to the increase of marine influence due to artificial sand barrier openings. Dissimilarities among size classes in relation to invertebrate larvae consumption were observed in fishes from Cabiúnas lagoon.

  18. Interaction between pesticides and humic substances from tropical coastal lagoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Farias, F.; Carvalho, F.P.; Fowler, S.W.; Cotret, O.

    1999-01-01

    The HS that enter the lagoons with freshwater runoff tend to precipitate with salinity. Experiments were done in laboratory to determine the effect of HS (isolated from coastal lagoons) and humic acids (HA) (Aldrich) on the partition of selected pesticides between water and sediment phases. Due to the accurate results obtained with radio-labelled compounds, 14 C-labelled pesticides were used for the experiments. The selected pesticides were: chlorpyrifos (o,o-di-[1- 14 C]ethyl o-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridil phosphorotioate), DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chloro-[ring-U- 14 C]-phenyl)ethane) and parathion (o,o-diethyl o-4-nitro-[ring-U- 14 C]-phenyl phosphorotioate)

  19. Very bright optical transient near the Trifid and Lagoon Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsby, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Peter Dunsby (University of Cape Town) reports the detection of a very bright optical transient in the region between the Lagoon and Trifid Nebulae based on observations obtained from Cape Town on 20 March 2018, between 01:00 and 03:45 UT. The object was visible throughout the full duration of the observations and not seen when this field was observed previously (08 March 2018).

  20. Metabolism and Gaseous Exchanges in Two Coastal Lagoons from Rio de Janeiro with Distinct Limnological Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Sidinei M. Thomaz; Alex Enrich-Prast; José F. Gonçalves Jr.; Anderson M. dos Santos; Francisco A. Esteves

    2001-01-01

    The global metabolism and exchange of gases with the atmosphere were measured during a diel cycle in two tropical coastal lagoons, using the curves of carbon dioxide and dissolved oxygen. Heterotrophic metabolism (net CO2 production and net O2 consumption) was observed in a black water lagoon (Comprida), and autotrophic metabolism (net O2 production and net CO2 consumption) in a clear water lagoon (Imboassica). These differences were attributed to the limnological characteristics of both ecos...

  1. Living benthic Foraminifera from the Saquarema lagoonal system (Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Belart, Pierre; Laut, Vanessa; Clemente, Iara; Raposo, Débora; Martins, Virgínia; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Lorini, Maria; Fortes, Rafael; Laut, Lazaro

    2017-01-01

    Transitional environments such as coastal lagoons with narrow connections to the sea are ecosystems very sensitive to natural or anthropogenic pressures. They are biodiversity hotspots and for this reason it should be studied and preserved. This study lists the benthic Foraminifera species from the Saquarema lagoonal system (SLS), Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. This complex ecosystem consists of four large connected lagoons, namely Urussanga, Jardim, Boqueirão, and Saquarema. A poorly diversif...

  2. Modelling the salinization of a coastal lagoon-aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, N.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a coastal area constituted by alternations of saline-brackish lagoons and freshwater bodies was studied and modelled to understand the hydrological processes occurring between the lagoons, the groundwater system of the Po River Delta (Italy) and the Adriatic Sea. The contribution of both evaporation and anthropogenic factors on groundwater salinization was assessed by means of soil, groundwater and surface water monitoring. Highresolution multi-level samplers were used to capture salinity gradients within the aquifer and surface water bodies. Data were employed to calibrate a density-dependent numerical transport model implemented with SEAWAT code along a transect perpendicular to the coast line. The results show that the lagoon is hydraulically well connected with the aquifer, which provides the major source of salinity because of the upcoming of paleo-seawater from the aquitard laying at the base of the unconfined aquifer. On the contrary, the seawater (diluted by the freshwater river outflow) creates only a limited saltwater wedge. The increase in groundwater salinity could be of serious concern, especially for the pinewood located in the dune near the coast, sensitive to salinity increases. This case study represents an interesting paradigm for other similar environmental setting, where the assumption of classical aquifer salinization from a saltwater wedge intruding from the sea is often not representative of the actual aquifer’s salinization mechanisms.

  3. Estrogenic potential of the Venice, Italy, lagoon waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojana, Giulio; Bonfà, Angela; Busetti, Francesco; Collarin, Anna; Marcomini, Antonio

    2004-08-01

    The exposure of the Venice lagoon (Italy) to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) from different sources was investigated. Spatial and time distribution of EDC concentrations were determined in four sampling sessions (December 2001-May 2002) by solid phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography separation coupled with mass spectrometry detection via electrospray interface (SPE-HPLC-ESI-MS), which allowed identification of natural (estradiol, estrone) and synthetic estrogenic compounds, both steroidal (ethinylestradiol, mestranol) and nonsteroidal (benzophenone, bisphenol-A, nonylphenol, nonylphenol monoethoxylate carboxylate). No significant differences in the EDC distribution were observed between stations located near selected sources (raw sewage from the historical center of Venice, treated municipal and industrial effluents from sewage treatment plants, and areas undergoing the inflow of rivers). While synthetic nonsteroidal analytes were recorded in the 1 to 1040 ng/L range (average concentration: 34 ng/L), steroidal EDC (estradiol, ethinylestradiol) concentrations were lower (1-125 ng/L; average concentration: 8 ng/L). The estrogenic activity of lagoon waters was estimated in terms of estradiol equivalent concentration (EEQ) by applying the estradiol equivalency factors (EEFs). Steroidal EDCs (estradiol, ethinylestradiol) contributed >97% to the total potential estrogenicity of the waters, which accounted for 4 to 172 ng/L (average: 25 ng/L), as total EEQs. These levels are likely to pose adverse effects on the Venice lagoon aquatic organisms.

  4. Bedrock neutralization study for the Bruin Lagoon Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patelunas, G.M.; Lenhardt, D.R.; Niece, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Bruin Lagoon site is located in Bruin Butler County, Pennsylvania, and is listed as No. 3 on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencies' National Priority List. The Lagoon contains waste petroleum tars, sulfuric acid, coal combustion ash, spent bauxite and other waste materials. This paper reports on the bedrock neutralization study, conducted to assess the feasibility of injecting caustic solutions into acid-contaminated bedrock beneath the lagoon. The site is underlain by a fine to medium grain quartz sandstone which is contaminated with acid to depths in excess of 30 feet. For this investigation, Nx-cores were obtained and pressure tests conducted to a depth of 30 feet below the top of rock. Leach tests were conducted on contaminated core sections using sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate solutions. A total of 12 core sections were exposed in 3-inch diameter test cylinders and permeated under a positive pressure of 25 to 50 psi. Measurements of leachate volume, temperature, pH, and hydraulic conductivity were recorded

  5. Experiences gained in the conditioning of radioactive wastes from regional depots by example of Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, and recommendations for the establishment of regional depots in the new Federal States of unified Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, W.

    1992-01-01

    Details are given about radioactive waste management and radioactive waste management fundamentals as well as about the respective methods applied by the Baden-Wuerttemberg radioacive waste depot. The waste treatment, quality assurance and internal inspection methods applied by Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB), Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) are described, and recommendations are given for the establishment of regional depots in the new provinces of the Federal Republic of Germany. These recommendations which are based on Western German standards before unification suggest regional depots with combined administrative systems which watch over the depot use and charges, the foundation of a waste management association responsible for the disposal, transport, intermediate storage and conditioning of radioactive wastes in the new provinces, and the establishment of a facility to be run by the proposed waste management association for the intermediate storage of conditioned waste packages intended for final disposal. (orig.) [de

  6. Spatiotemporal variation of bacterial community composition and possible controlling factors in tropical shallow lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laque, Thaís; Farjalla, Vinicius F; Rosado, Alexandre S; Esteves, Francisco A

    2010-05-01

    Bacterial community composition (BCC) has been extensively related to specific environmental conditions. Tropical coastal lagoons present great temporal and spatial variation in their limnological conditions, which, in turn, should influence the BCC. Here, we sought for the limnological factors that influence, in space and time, the BCC in tropical coastal lagoons (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). The Visgueiro lagoon was sampled monthly for 1 year and eight lagoons were sampled once for temporal and spatial analysis, respectively. BCC was evaluated by bacteria-specific PCR-DGGE methods. Great variations were observed in limnological conditions and BCC on both temporal and spatial scales. Changes in the BCC of Visgueiro lagoon throughout the year were best related to salinity and concentrations of NO (3) (-) , dissolved phosphorus and chlorophyll-a, while changes in BCC between lagoons were best related to salinity and dissolved phosphorus concentration. Salinity has a direct impact on the integrity of the bacterial cell, and it was previously observed that phosphorus is the main limiting nutrient to bacterial growth in these lagoons. Therefore, we conclude that great variations in limnological conditions of coastal lagoons throughout time and space resulted in different BCCs and salinity and nutrient concentration, particularly dissolved phosphorus, are the main limnological factors influencing BCC in these tropical coastal lagoons.

  7. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtry, G.M.; Schneider, R.C. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA). Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics); Colin, P.L. (Hawaii Inst. of Marine Biology, Honolulu (USA)); Buddemeier, R.W. (California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.); Suchanek, T.H. (Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., St. Croix, Virgin Islands (USA). West Indies Lab.)

    1985-02-21

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. The authors report elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon.

  8. Numerical Survey of Contaminant Transport and Self-Cleansing of Water in Nador Lagoon, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Chaabelasri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are presented of the flow hydrodynamics and hypothetical contaminant dispersion patterns in Nador Lagoon, a shallow lagoon with a barrier island situated on the coast of Morocco. It is found that the natural circulation forced by the tidal flow in the lagoon is greatly affected by the development of an artificial inlet in the barrier island. The case study demonstrates the potential use of modern computational hydraulics as a tool integrated in the decision support system designed to manage a lagoon ecosystem.

  9. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtry, G.M.; Schneider, R.C.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Suchanek, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. The authors report elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon. (author)

  10. The effect of floods on sediment contamination in a microtidal coastal lagoon: the lagoon of Lesina, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Raffaele; Specchiulli, Antonietta; Cassin, Daniele; Botter, Margherita; Zonta, Roberto; Fabbrocini, Adele

    2014-10-01

    The effects on the microtidal lagoon of Lesina of runoff and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities were investigated combining chemical analyses of pollutants [11 metals and 16 priority polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs)], determination of organic matter and grain size, and performance of innovative ecotoxicological tests. For metals, enrichment factors >3 for arsenic, nickel, and copper (Cu) were observed in the eastern zone of the lagoon, which is affected by nearby urban activities with discharge of water and domestic waste and by agricultural input with waters rich in fertilizers. Cu was correlated with no other metal, and its high concentrations (≤77 µg g(-1)) may result from the use of Cu-based fungicides in vineyards. Total PAHs (2,230 ± 3,150 ng g(-1)) displayed a wide range of concentrations with hot spots near freshwater inputs from the part of the catchment area exploited for wheat crops. Pyrolitic contamination also emerged, with higher-mass PAH congeners, such as asphalt, bitumen or coal, usually present in higher fractions as the dominant components. Ecotoxicological evaluations recorded moderate to high toxicity levels; the innovative MOT test bioassay showed good discriminatory ability because it identified a lagoon area whose inputs mainly depend on agricultural activities and which is impacted by metals rather than PAHs. Floods during periods of heavy rain and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities may impact vulnerable systems, such as the lagoon of Lesina, where the presence of hot spots with remarkably high pollution values was observed.

  11. Hydrogeologic controls on chemical transport at Malibu Lagoon, CA: Implications for land to sea exchange in coastal lagoon systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dimova

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Nearshore lagoons that are seasonally disconnected from the coastal ocean occupy about 10% of coastal areas worldwide. Lagoon systems often are poorly flushed and thus sensitive to nutrient over-enrichment that can lead to eutrophication, oxygen depletion, and/or pervasive algal blooms. This sensitivity is exacerbated in lagoons that are intermittently closed to surface water exchange with the sea and occur in populous coastal areas. Such estuarine systems are disconnected from the sea during most of the year by wave-built barriers, but during the rainy season these berms can breach, enabling direct water exchange. Using naturally-occurring 222Rn as groundwater tracer, we estimate that groundwater discharge to Malibu Lagoon during open berm conditions was one order of magnitude higher (21 ± 17 cm/day than during closed berm conditions (1.8 ± 1.4 cm/day. The SGD (submarine groundwater discharge into nearshore coastal waters at the SurferRider and Colony Malibu was 4.2 cm/day on average. The exported total dissolved nitrogen (TDN through the berm during closed berm was 1.6 × 10−3 mol/day, whereas during open berm (exported by the Creek was 3.5 × 103 mol/day. Although these evaluations are specific to the collection campaigns the 2009 and 2010 hydro years, these two distinct hydrologic scenarios play an important role in the seasonality and geochemical impact of land/sea exchange, and highlight the sensitivity of such systems to future impacts such as sea level rise and increasing coastal populations.

  12. Seasonal steady-state budgets of nutrients and stoichiometric calculations in an Eastern Mediterranean lagoon (Papas Lagoon-Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KRASAKOPOULOU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Papas Lagoon is an enclosed, small shallow water body in western Greece. The lagoon is naturally affected by eutrophication phenomena, but occasionally during the summer season, dystrophic crises occur, related to the decomposition of large beds of macroalgae. Physicochemical data collected monthly, from June 1998 to September 1999, were compiled and coupled with historical meteorological data, in order to construct seasonal water, salt and nutrients budgets using a single box single layer LOICZ model. Nutrients and other hydrochemical parameters exhibit great spatial and temporal variations. The non-conservative dissolved inorganic phosphorus flux (ΔDIP is always positive, thus indicating that the system acts as a net source of DIP for the adjacent coastal waters. Higher values were estimated  uring summer and autumn, probably due to organic matter mineralisation and release of DIP from surficial sediments in the reduced environment. In contrast to the ΔDIP, the non-conservative balance of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (ΔDIN is negative for most of the year, except for the summer, indicating the dominance of DIN removal processes in the Papas Lagoon. The Ulva growth and decomposition processes seem likely to be of essential importance for the evaluation of the non-conservative DIN fluxes. During the investigated period the amount of organic carbon respired and mineralized is greater than that produced by gross photosynthesis and the Papas Lagoon is a net heterotrophic system. Losses of DIN via denitrification appear to dominate over its inputs through nitrogen fixation throughout the year.

  13. Fish community composition, seasonality and abundance in Fortaleza Lagoon, cidreira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Cabral Schifino

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The Fortaleza Lagoon belongs to the Southern Tramandaí subsystem, formed by lagoons disposed linearly on the north-south direction (30º 08’S, 50º 13’W. The objective of this study was to describe some aspects related to the composition of the fish community of Fortaleza Lagoon. Samples were collected monthly from November 1998 to October 1999. The specimens were captured at four previously determined points in the lagoon, and classified in five orders, 12 families and 22 species. Cyphocharax voga, Hyphessobrycon luetkenii, Oligosarcus jenynsii, Oligosarcus robustus and Loricariichthys anus were more abundant species. Amongst the sampled species only two could not be characterised as freshwater species: Centropomus sp (marine and Lycengraulius grossidens (estuarine. The ichthyofauna of the lagoon was predominantly composed by constant species.A Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul é formada por uma série de corpos d’água, dispostos em seqüência ao longo da costa. A lagoa da Fortaleza pertence ao subsistema lagunar Tramandaí-Sul que é composto por lagoas, dispostas linearmente no sentido norte-sul. O do presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever alguns aspectos relacionados à composição da comunidade de peixes da Lagoa da Fortaleza. As amostragens foram realizadas, mensalmente, no período de novembro de 1998 a outubro de 1999. Os exemplares foram capturados em 4 pontos da lagoa previamente determinados e classificados em 5 ordens, 11 famílias e 22 espécies. As espécies Cyphocharax voga, Hyphessobrycon luetkenii, Oligosarcus jenynsii, Oligosarcus robustus e Loricariichthys anus mostraram-se as mais abundantes. Entre as espécies coletadas apenas duas não caracterizam espécies de água doce: Centropomus sp (marinha and Lycengraulius grossidens (estuarina. A ictiofauna da lagoa caracterizou-se por uma predominância de espécies constantes.

  14. Depositional history and fault-related studies, Bolinas Lagoon, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquist, Joel R.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of core sediments and seismic reflection profiles elucidate the structure and depositional history of Bolinas Lagoon, Calif., which covers 4.4 km 2 and lies in the San Andreas fault zone at the southeast corner of the Point Reyes Peninsula 20 km northwest of San Francisco. The 1906 trace of the San Andreas fault crosses the west side of the lagoon and was determined from (1) tectonically caused salt-marsh destruction indicated by comparison of 1854 and 1929 U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (U.S.C. & G.S.) topographic surveys, (2) formation of a tidal channel along the border of destroyed salt marshes, and (3) azimuths of the trend of the fault measured in 1907. Subsidence in the lagoon of 30 cm occurred east of the San Andreas fault in 1906. Near the east shore, seismic-reflection profiling indicates the existence of a graben fault that may connect to a graben fault on the Golden Gate Platform. Comparison of radiocarbon dates on shells and plant debris from boreholes drilled on Stinson Beach spit with a relative sea-level curve constructed for southern San Francisco Bay indicates 5.8 to more than 17.9 m of tectonic subsidence of sediments now located 33 m below mean sea level. Cored sediments indicate a marine transgression dated at 7770?65 yrs B.P. overlying freshwater organic-rich lake deposits. Fossil pollen including 2 to 8 percent Picea (spruce) indicate a late Pleistocene (?)-Early Holocene climate, cooler, wetter, and foggier than at present. Above the transgression are discontinuous and interfingering sequences of transgressive-regressive marine, estuarine, and barrier sediments that reflect rapid lateral and vertical shifts of successive depositional environments. Fossil megafauna indicate (1) accumulation in a protected, shallow-water estuary or bay, and (2) that the lagoon was probably continuously shallow and never a deep-water embayment. Analysis of grain-size parameters, pollen frequencies, and organic remains from a core near the north end of

  15. Maternal obesity programs increased leptin gene expression in rat male offspring via epigenetic modifications in a depot-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lecoutre

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with the DOHaD hypothesis, persistent epigenetic remodeling occurs at regulatory regions especially within intergenic sequences, linked to higher leptin gene expression in adult HF offspring in a depot-specific manner.

  16. Study of organic sulphur compounds (DMS, DMSP and CS2) in lagoon ecosystems: the case of the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaro, Andrea; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Andreoli, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Turetta, Clara; Cescon, Paolo

    2003-03-01

    This study of the origin and fate of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in a particular and complex lagoon ecosystem such as that of the Venice lagoon focuses on the temporal evolutions of DMS concentrations in surface water together with those of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), carbon disulphide (CS2), nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate, silicate), sulphate, chlorophyll a, chlorinity, water temperature and phytoplankton (composition and density). Measurements were made from 3 March 1997 to 23 July 1998 at three stations in the central part of the Venice lagoon. The temporal trends of DMS concentration showed an absolute maximum concentration in winter (65 nmol S/l, 19/2/1998, Stn. 1; 119 nmol S/l, 19/2/1998, Stn. 2; 29 nmol S/l, 17/2/1998, Stn. 3) and two relative maxima in the spring-summer period. The spring-summer secondary maxima of DMS concentration were related to the maxima of DMSP and chlorophyll a concentrations and consequently to phytoplanktonic abundance while the winter DMS maximum showed no relation to DMSP or to chlorophyll a suggesting that the production and the fate of DMS could be different for the two periods. According to previous studies the CS2 concentration increased in the spring, achieved its maximum in summer, decreased in autumn and fell to its minimum in winter.

  17. Groundwater and porewater as major sources of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cyronak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn to total alkalinity (TA dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from −1.55 to 7.76 mmol m−2 d−1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m−2 d−1 at the sampling site. Both sources of TA were important on a reef-wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependent on the time of day. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

  18. Multi-annual and seasonal patterns of waterbird assemblages in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (El Mellah lagoon of Northeastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telailia Salah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Mediterranean coastal lagoons have raised considerable environmental concerns. Long-term studies of seasonal changes in waterbird assemblages are therefore extremely important in terms of ecological relevance and conservation of these sensitive ecosystems. An ornithological survey of four years was carried out in a typical costal wetland (El Mellah lagoon of Northeastern Algeria. Intra-seasonal comparison of waterbird assemblages (diversity indices demonstrates clear changes between the wintering and the breeding periods. It seems that the first one was rich in term of species number than the second season (43 against 24. In contrast, the breeding seasons were more equilibrate (high values of Simpson, Shannon and evenness index. Additionally, curves in the diversity/dominance diagram revealed that both wintering and breeding assemblages share the same characteristics of community structure, few dominant species (with intermediate relative abundance and many rare species with the relative abundance lower than 0.1. Invertebrates (25 species and piscivorous (11 species are the most abundant guilds over the four years of study (no significant differences among years have been calculated. The marked decline in bird species diversity recorded in this study (in comparison with previous studies is mainly due to salinity oscillations (due to aquaculture activities and may be of concern to wetland managers and it might be useful to provide some guidelines about the characteristics that coastal lagoons have to follow in the construction process to enhance the biodiversity.

  19. Examining a Paradigm Shift in Organic Depot-Level Software Maintenance for Army Communications and Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-30

    scalable application of cutting edge technologies. 20 4. Responding to changing resources—With likely significant resource reductions the depot...deal with underutilized organic capability while continuing to increase outsourcing of depot workload. In addition the study states that a...the unique organic skills that TYAD could 40 bring to the software sustainment mission could be valuable based on the specific type of software

  20. The use of 21OPb and 137Cs in the study of sediment pollution in the Lagoon of Venice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiston, G.A.; Degetto, S.; Gerbasi, R.; Sbrignadello, G.; Tositti, L.

    1988-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs per unit area in sediments of the central part of the Lagoon of Venice was determined with aim of identifying boundaries of homogeneous depositional zones. the 21O Pb dating technique was used to date vertical profiles of cores from the same area. A comparison of the toal amounts of 137 cs and non-supported 21O Pb present in each core and the atmospheric input allows us to identify different depositional areas inside the basin and to outline the possible drainage effect of industrial solid wastes used in past reclaiming operations. 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Salinity levels as a factor of phyto planktonic structure and diversity remediation in a lagoon impact by human activities. (Bolmon Lagoon, Mediterranean Coast, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayolle, S.; Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Ollivier, A.; Maasri, A.; Franquet, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Bolmon lagoon (south-eastern France) is located in the coastal hinterland of the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the salty Berre pond and in the other hand receives fresh waters from the La Cadiere River. This hyper-shallow lagoon has been classified in the early 70's as β mixo-mesohaline. Bolmon lagoon is important for human activities (tourism, fishing) and for the preservation of the diversity of marine and birds species. In the last decades, the intensive urbanisation of its drainage basin induced a high eutrophication of its waters and, as a consequence, drastic modifications in the biodiversity and in the functioning os this ecosystem. (Author)

  2. Depot-medication compliance for patients with psychotic disorders: the importance of illness insight and treatment motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordraven, Ernst L; Wierdsma, André I; Blanken, Peter; Bloemendaal, Anthony Ft; Mulder, Cornelis L

    2016-01-01

    Noncompliance is a major problem for patients with a psychotic disorder. Two important risk factors for noncompliance that have a severe negative impact on treatment outcomes are impaired illness insight and lack of motivation. Our cross-sectional study explored how they are related to each other and their compliance with depot medication. Interviews were conducted in 169 outpatients with a psychotic disorder taking depot medication. Four patient groups were defined based on low or high illness insight and on low or high motivation. The associations between depot-medication compliance, motivation, and insight were illustrated using generalized linear models. Generalized linear model showed a significant interaction effect between motivation and insight. Patients with poor insight and high motivation for treatment were more compliant (94%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.821, 3.489) with their depot medication than patients with poor insight and low motivation (61%) (95% CI: 0.288, 0.615). Patients with both insight and high motivation for treatment were less compliant (73%) (95% CI: 0.719, 1.315) than those with poor insight and high motivation. Motivation for treatment was more strongly associated with depot-medication compliance than with illness insight. Being motivated to take medication, whether to get better or for other reasons, may be a more important factor than having illness insight in terms of improving depot-medication compliance. Possible implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  3. Fish fauna recovery in a newly re-flooded Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Sylaios, Georgios; Kamidis, Nikolaos; Markou, Dimitrios; Sapounidis, Argyris

    2009-08-01

    Drana Lagoon, located at the NW site of Evros River Delta, was drained in 1987 and re-flooded in 2004 within the framework of an integrated wetland restoration project. This study presents the results of a monitoring program of the lagoon's oceanographic, water quality and fish fauna characteristics, during the pre- and post-restoration period. Results depict the presence of high salinity water (up to 41) due to seawater intrusion, strong evaporation in its interior and inadequate freshwater inflows. Overall, nutrient levels were low depicting local changes. Tidal variability at the mouth was approximately 0.2 m, producing high velocity tidal currents (up to 0.75 m/s). Eleven fish fauna species were collected; seven species were caught in both the inlet channel and the lagoon during the pre-restoration period and nine species in the post-restoration period. Atherina boyeri (37.6%) and Pomatoschistus marmoratus (31.7%) dominated the lagoon during the post-restoration period. Most of the A. boyeri specimens (88.5%) were caught inside the lagoon, while P. marmoratus had an almost equal distribution in the inlet channel and the lagoon (56.3% and 43.7% respectively). The presence of species of the Mugilidae family (5.2% total average catches after lagoon re-flooding) was mainly in the inlet channel (12.6% of the average catches) and not inside the lagoon (only 1.3% of the average catches). The small number of fish species inhabiting the lagoon might be the result of the recent restoration or it could be related with the increased water flow observed at the lagoon mouth during the flood and ebb tidal phases, and also in the presence of a smooth bank in the concrete waterspout that connects the entrance channel with the lagoon. The limited presence of the Mugilidae juveniles inside the lagoon could be related to the prevailing tidal inlet dynamics (i.e. strong ebb flow at lagoon inlet), thus preventing the species to enter the lagoon. In order to restore the lagoon

  4. Regulation of bacterioplankton density and biomass in tropical shallow coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana MacCord

    Full Text Available AIM: Estimating bacterioplankton density and biomass and their regulating factors is important in order to evaluate aquatic systems' carrying capacity, regarding bacterial growth and the stock of matter in the bacterial community, which can be consumed by higher trophic levels. We aim to evaluate the limnological factors which regulate - in space and time - the bacterioplankton dynamics (abundance and biomass in five tropical coastal lagoons in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHOD: The current study was carried out at the following lagoons: Imboassica, Cabiúnas, Comprida, Carapebus and Garças. They differ in morphology and in their main limnological factors. The limnological variables as well as bacterioplankton abundance and biomass were monthly sampled for 14 months. Model selection analyses were performed in order to evaluate the main variables regulating the bacterioplankton's dynamics in these lagoons. RESULT: The salt concentration and the "space" factor (i.e. different lagoons explained great part of the bacterial density and biomass variance in the studied tropical coastal lagoons. When the lagoons were analyzed separately, salinity still explained great part of the variation of bacterial density and biomass in the Imboassica and Garças lagoons. On the other hand, phosphorus concentration was the main factor explaining the variance of bacterial density and biomass in the distrophic Cabiúnas, Comprida and Carapebus lagoons. There was a strong correlation between bacterial density and biomass (r² = 0.70, p < 0.05, indicating that bacterial biomass variations are highly dependent on bacterial density variations. CONCLUSION: (i Different limnological variables regulate the bacterial density and biomass in the studied coastal lagoons, (ii salt and phosphorus concentrations greatly explained the variation of bacterial density and biomass in the saline and distrophic lagoons, respectively, and (iii N-nitrate and chlorophyll

  5. Hydrology and Salt Balance in a Large, Hypersaline Coastal Lagoon: Lagoa de Araruama, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerfve, Björn; Schettini, C. A. F.; Knoppers, Bastiaan; Lessa, Guilherme; Ferreira, H. O.

    1996-06-01

    Lagoa de Araruama in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is a hypersaline coastal lagoon as a result of semi-arid climate conditions, a small drainage basin and a choked entrance channel. The lagoon has been continuously hypersaline for at least 4·5 centuries, but the mean salinity has varied substantially. It has recently decreased from 57 to 52 as indicated by density (salinity) measurements between 1965 and 1990. Analysis of more than 20 years of salinity time series data, in addition to monthly lagoon cruises to measure the spatial salinity distribution, indicate that the lagoon salinity largely fluctuates in response to the difference between evaporation and precipitation. The major factor explaining the long-term trend of decreasing salinity in the lagoon is the constant pumping of 1 m 3s -1of freshwater to the communities surrounding the lagoon from an adjacent watershed, and subsequent discharge of this water into Lagoa de Araruama. The net salt budget is primarily a balance between the advective import of salt from the coastal ocean and eddy diffusive export of salt to the ocean, although the extensive mining of salt from the lagoon during past decades is also a small but significant contribution to the salt budget. The flushing half-life is proposed as a useful time scale of water exchange, is calculated based on a combination of hydrological and tidal processes, and is excellent for comparison of lagoons and assessing water quality changes. The flushing half-life measures 83·5 days for Lagoa de Araruama, considerably longer than for most other coastal lagoons. The proposed dredging of a second ocean channel to Lagoa de Araruama is probably not a good idea. It is likely to accelerate the decrease of lagoon salinity and somewhat improve the lagoon water exchange. At the same time, this will eliminate the apparent buffering capacity provided by the hypersaline environment, and thus may potentially cause water quality problems.

  6. Intrinsic differences in adipocyte precursor cells from different white fat depots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macotela, Yazmín; Emanuelli, Brice; Mori, Marcelo A

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and body fat distribution are important risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence has accumulated that this risk is related to intrinsic differences in behavior of adipocytes in different fat depots. In the current study, we demonstrate...... that adipocyte precursor cells (APCs) isolated from visceral and subcutaneous white adipose depots of mice have distinct patterns of gene expression, differentiation potential, and response to environmental and genetic influences. APCs derived from subcutaneous fat differentiate well in the presence of classical...... induction cocktail, whereas those from visceral fat differentiate poorly but can be induced to differentiate by addition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 or BMP-4. This difference correlates with major differences in gene expression signature between subcutaneous and visceral APCs. The number of APCs...

  7. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality.

  8. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junchen

    2016-01-01

    The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED) is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality. PMID:27436998

  9. On the multiple depots vehicle routing problem with heterogeneous fleet capacity and velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanum, F.; Hartono, A. P.; Bakhtiar, T.

    2018-03-01

    This current manuscript concerns with the optimization problem arising in a route determination of products distribution. The problem is formulated in the form of multiple depots and time windowed vehicle routing problem with heterogeneous capacity and velocity of fleet. Model includes a number of constraints such as route continuity, multiple depots availability and serving time in addition to generic constraints. In dealing with the unique feature of heterogeneous velocity, we generate a number of velocity profiles along the road segments, which then converted into traveling-time tables. An illustrative example of rice distribution among villages by bureau of logistics is provided. Exact approach is utilized to determine the optimal solution in term of vehicle routes and starting time of service.

  10. Spatio-temporal impacts of dairy lagoon water reuse on soil: heavy metals and salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Dennis L; Ahmad, Hamaad Raza

    2015-10-01

    Diminishing freshwater resources have brought attention to the reuse of degraded water as a water resource rather than a disposal problem. The spatial impact and sustainability of dairy lagoon water reuse from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has not been evaluated at field scale. The objective of this study is to monitor the impact of dairy lagoon water blended with recycled water on a 32 ha field near San Jacinto, CA from 2007 to 2011. Spatial monitoring was based on soil samples collected at locations identified from apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) directed sampling. Soil samples were taken at depth increments of 0-0.15, 0.15-0.3, 0.3-0.6, 0.6-0.9, 0.9-1.2, 1.2-1.5, and 1.5-1.8 m at 28 sample sites on 7-11 May 2007 and again on 31 May - 2 June 2011 after 4 years of irrigation with the blended waters. Chemical analyses included salinity (electrical conductivity of the saturation extract, ECe), pHe (pH of the saturation extract), SAR (sodium adsorption ratio), trace elements (As, B, Mo, Se), and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn). Results indicate a decrease in mean values of pHe at all depth increments; a decrease in ECe and SAR above a depth of 0.15 m, but an increase below 0.15 m; a decrease in all trace elements except B, which increased throughout the 1.8 m profile; and the accumulation of Cd, Mn, and Ni at all depth increments, while Cu was readily leached from the 1.8 m profile. Zinc showed little change. The results focused concern on the potential long-term agronomic effect of salinity, SAR, and B, and the long-term environmental threat of salinity and Cu to detrimentally impact groundwater. The accumulation of Cd, Mn, and Ni in the soil profile raised concern since it provided a potential future source of metals for leaching. The long-term sustainability of dairy lagoon water reuse hinges on regular monitoring to provide spatial feedback for site-specific management.

  11. Formative Evaluation of a Sociotechnical System Intervention at an Army Maintenance Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    periodically reassess itself to determine if the balance between the technical and social systems remains adaptive and responsive to the requirements...developed a comprehensive set of recommendations for improving the balance between the social and technical systems of the depot. During 1983, most of...ity and quality of worklife . However, the nature and extent of the impact is highly elusive and resistant to quantification. 1-4 FORMATIVE

  12. DoD Depot-Level Reparable Supply Chain Management: Process Effectiveness and Opportunities for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Parts MIS Materiel Information Systems MRP material requirement planning NAVAIR Naval Air Systems Command viii DoD Depot-Level Reparable Supply...planning ( MRP ), which is run on the 15th of the month. The output of MRP is a time-phased buy and repair induction plan based on pro- jected demands...nine months in advance of the FY, planners begin work on the command schedule for the following year. From March through August, the monthly MRP

  13. DEPOT system for the creation of a translator from the COC language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehnig, Kh.; Lehttsch, Yu.; Nefed'eva, L.S.; Shtiller, G.

    1976-01-01

    Approaches to the creation of specialized languages and their translators are given. The DENOT system for developing translators from various specialized languages is described. Use of the system was made to translate the STS (spectra treatment system) language into the FORTRAN language.The language of STS was realized with help of DEPOT on the BESM-6 computer. The DEROT system installed at various computer provides for simple and rapid transition from one computer to the other

  14. Tooele Army Depot Revised Final Site-Wide Ecological Risk Assessment. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    which is immediately east of the depot. Properties to the north of TEAD are used primarily for pasture and cultivation , and to the west and south, for...for the TEAD facility, the types of contaminants present, and the ecotoxicological effects that could be expected due to contaminant exposure. This...questions: • Were the analytical detection limits low enough to be ecotoxicologically relevant (i.e., to be protective of ecological receptors with

  15. Obesity associated disease risk: the role of inherent differences and location of adipose depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jessica H; Solt, Claudia; Foster, Michelle T

    2018-03-16

    Obesity and associated metabolic co-morbidities are a worldwide public health problem. Negative health outcomes associated with obesity, however, do not arise from excessive adiposity alone. Rather, deleterious outcomes of adipose tissue accumulation are a result of how adipocytes are distributed to individual regions in the body. Due to our increased understanding of the dynamic relationship that exists between specific adipose depots and disease risk, an accurate characterization of total body adiposity as well as location is required to properly evaluate a population's disease risk. Specifically, distinctive tissue depots within the body include the lower body, upper body and abdominal (deep and superficial) subcutaneous regions, as well as visceral (mesenteric and omental) regions. Upper body and visceral adipose tissues are highly associated with metabolic dysfunction and chronic disease development, whereas lower body gluteofemoral subcutaneous adipose tissue imparts protection against diet-induced metabolic derangement. Each adipose depot functions distinctly as an endocrine organ hence it has a different level of impact on health outcomes. Effluent from adipose tissue can modulate the functions of other tissues, whilst receiving differential communication from the rest of the body via central nervous system innervation, metabolites and other signaling molecules. More so, adipose depots contain a diverse reservoir of tissue-resident immune cells that play an integral part in both maintaining tissue homeostasis, as well as propagating metabolically-induced inflammation. Overall, the conceptualization of obesity and associated risks needs updating to reflect the complexities of obesity. We review adipose tissue characteristics that are linked to deleterious or beneficial adipose tissue distributions.

  16. Implementation of Improved Management Control of Aviation Depot Level Repairable Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    for comparing and testing. Pf ter Drucker states that ". . . control is an ambiguous word. It means the abiliti to direct oneself and one’s work. It...Frequency 50 LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Drucker , Peter F., The Practice of Management , Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1954. 2. Terry, George R., Principles of...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOLMonterey, California 0- 6~~VI E1B9 87THESIS I IMPLEMENTATION OF IMPROVED MANAGEMENT CONTROL OF AVIATION DEPOT LEVEL

  17. Sustained Release of Antibiotics from Injectable and Thermally Responsive Polypeptide Depots

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Samuel B.; Shamji, Mohammed F.; Nettles, Dana L.; Hwang, Priscilla; Setton, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds are of interest for delivering antibiotics to local sites of infection in orthopaedic applications, such as bone and diarthrodial joints. The objective of this study was to develop a biodegradable scaffold with ease of drug loading in aqueous solution, while providing for drug depot delivery via syringe injection. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) were used for this application, biopolymers of repeating pentapeptide sequences that were thermally triggered to u...

  18. Control of Adipocyte Differentiation in Different Fat Depots; Implications for Pathophysiology or Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuquan eMa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipocyte differentiation and its impact on restriction or expansion of particular adipose tissue depots has physiological and pathophysiological significance in view of the different functions of these depots. Brown or beige fat [BAT] expansion can enhance thermogenesis, lipid oxidation, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance; conversely expanded visceral fat [VAT] is associated with insulin resistance, low grade inflammation, dyslipidaemia and cardiometabolic risk. The largest depot, subcutaneous white fat [WAT], has important beneficial characteristics including storage of lipid out of harms way and secretion of adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, with positive metabolic effects including lipid oxidation, energy utilisation, enhanced insulin action and an anti-inflammatory role. The absence of these functions in lipodystrophies leads to major metabolic disturbances. An ability to expand WAT adipocyte differentiation would seem an important defence mechanism against the detrimental effects of energy excess and limit harmful accumulation of lipid in ectopic sites, such as liver and muscle.Adipocyte differentiation involves a transcriptional cascade with PPARg being most important in WAT but less so in VAT, with increased angiogenesis also critical. The transcription factor, Islet1, is fairly specific to VAT and in vitro inhibits adipocyte differentiation. The physiological importance of Islet1 requires further study. Basic control of differentiation is similar in BAT but important differences include the effect of PGC-1a on mitochondrial biosynthesis and upregulation of UCP1; also PRDM16 plays a pivotal role in expression of the BAT phenotype.Modulation of the capacity or function of these different adipose tissue depots, by altering adipocyte differentiation or other means, holds promise for interventions that can be helpful in human disease, particularly cardiometabolic disorders associated with the world wide explosion of

  19. Evidence for Environmental Contamination in Residential Neighborhoods Surrounding the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Warrick

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary environmental assessment team from the Howard University Environmental Justice Partnership (HUEJP conducted a site visit and assessment of the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee in February of 2000. This depot was built in the late 1940’s for storage of numerous chemicals and munitions. As the years progressed, many Memphis citizens have grown to believe that the activities and chemical stockpile located at this site have negatively affected the health environment of their residents. There is anecdotal evidence and documentation of numerous cancers and other illnesses in those local territories, and specifically, at the Memphis Depot site. Currently, this depot is closed and in remediation by the local government. Particularly, citizens of the Rozelle community have started a campaign to investigate any signs of exposure pathways to noted health risks. The HUEJP was contacted and asked to investigate the community concerns. Obliging to the request, we aimed to sample at three drainage sites and a residential site, talk to local citizens, and gain any additional information that would be helpful in relieving anxiety in the Rozelle community. Soil, sediment, and water samples were collected and analyzed for total organic carbon, inorganic anions, and heavy metals. These data show that for the four sites sampled, the highest concentrations of organic compounds and heavy metals were located either within a residential area or in an area with a direct transport pathway to the community. Atomic absorption analysis revealed detectable amounts of cadmium, lead and chromium metals at all sites with direct transport pathways into the residential community, with chromium concentrations being far in excess of the EPA standard limits.

  20. HALF-DOSE DEPOT TRIPTORELIN COMPARABLE TO REDUCED DAILY BUSERELIN: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Safdarian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary suppression by depot GnRH agonist may be excessive for ovarian stimulation. This study compares the efficacy of a single half-dose depot triptorelin and reduced-dose daily buserelin in a long protocol ICSI/ET. METHODS: A total of 182 patients were randomized into two groups using sealed envelopes. Pituitary desensitization was obtained in group 1 (91 patients with half-dose (1.87 mg depot triptorelin in the mid-luteal phase of their menstrual cycle, and in group 2 (91 patients with standard daily dose (0.5 mg buserelin, which was then reduced to 0.25 mg at the start of human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG stimulation. RESULTS: No significant differences were found among those who received HCG in terms of clinical pregnancy rate (34.4% in both groups, implantation rate (14.8% in group 1 versus 11.1% in group 2, fertilization rate (93.3 versus 95.6%, poor response rate (11.1 versus 6.7%, and miscarriage rate (11.1 versus 7.8%. No significant differences were seen in number of HMG ampoules used, follicles at HCG administration, and oocytes retrieved. The number of days of stimulation was significantly reduced in group 2 (11.2 +/- 1.8 in group 1 versus 10.6 +/- 1.9, p = 0.030. CONCLUSION: A half-dose of depot triptorelin can be successfully used in ovarian stimulation instead of reduced-dose daily buserelin, with more patient comfort and reduced stress and cost of injections.

  1. The relationship between fat depot-specific preadipocyte differentiation and metabolic syndrome in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Mazurina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статьи The relationship between fat depot-specific preadipocyte differentiation and metabolic syndrome in obese women. Park HТ, Lee ES, Cheon EP, Lee DR, Yang K-S, Kim YT, Hur JY, Kim SH, Lee KW, Kim T. Clinical Endocrinology 2012; 76, 59-66.

  2. AUTOMATED DETECTION OF OIL DEPOTS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGES: A NEW PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original approach to identify oil depots from single high resolution aerial/satellite images in an automated manner. The new approach considers the symmetric nature of circular oil depots, and it computes the radial symmetry in a unique way. An automated thresholding method to focus on circular regions and a new measure to verify circles are proposed. Experiments are performed on six GeoEye-1 test images. Besides, we perform tests on 16 Google Earth images of an industrial test site acquired in a time series manner (between the years 1995 and 2012. The results reveal that our approach is capable of detecting circle objects in very different/difficult images. We computed an overall performance of 95.8% for the GeoEye-1 dataset. The time series investigation reveals that our approach is robust enough to locate oil depots in industrial environments under varying illumination and environmental conditions. The overall performance is computed as 89.4% for the Google Earth dataset, and this result secures the success of our approach compared to a state-of-the-art approach.

  3. Length-weight relationship of fishes from coral reefs and lagoons of New Caledonia: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Letourneur, Y.; Kulbicki, M.; Labrosse, P.

    1998-01-01

    Length-weight relationships of 316 reef and lagoon fish from New Caledonia (SW Pacific Ocean) belonging to 68 families are computed. A total of 43,750 individuals was used for this purpose. Fish were sampled by different techniques such as rotenone poisoning, handline and bottom longline fishing, gill and trammel nets, and trawling in various isotopes (coral reefs, lagoon bottoms and mangroves).

  4. Plankton community dynamics in a subtropical lagoonal system and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETÍCIA DONADEL

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Changes of the plankton community in a shallow, subtropical lagoonal system and its relation to environmental conditions were investigated during an annual cycle to provide information on its spatial and seasonal variation pattern. The study carried out at four sites (three in the Peixe lagoon and one in the Ruivo lagoon, which are located in the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, southern Brazil. The system has a temporary connection to the Atlantic Ocean by a narrow channel. The phytoplankton density was higher in the Peixe lagoon whereas the specific richness was higher in the Ruivo lagoon which is also a site with the lower salinity. The phytoplankton biomass near the channel showed seasonal variation with the highest value in fall and lowest in winter. Zooplankton richness was inversely correlated with salinity, and had the highest values in the Ruivo lagoon. Ordination analysis indicated seasonal and spatial patterns in plankton community in this lagoonal system, related to variation in salinity. In addition, the wind action and precipitation were important factors on the spatial and seasonal salinity changes in the lagoon with direct influence on the plankton community dynamics.

  5. Water quality characteristics at the estuary of Korle Lagoon in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Korle lagoon is a major run-off water receptacle and outlet from the city of Accra into the Gulf of Guinea. Uncontrolled discharges of domestic wastes and industrial effluents as well as raw sewage (which are washed into the lagoon during high tides), have led to its environment being seriously degraded.

  6. DV142 The application of the LOICZ-model on the Sacco di Goro Lagoon, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edel, I.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This report examines the application of the LOICZ-model to the Sacca di Goro lagoon. This estuary is located in the Po river delta, along de North Adriatic Coast, in Northern Italy. Activities in the lagoon itself, like fishery, aquaculture, tourism and activities in the hinterland, like:

  7. Sludge reduction and water quality improvement in anaerobic lagoons through influent pre-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. These lagoons may require cleanup and closure measures in the future. In practice, liquid and sludge need to be removed by pumping, usually at great expense of energy, and land applied ...

  8. The Defense Committees of Sleepy Lagoon: A Convergent Struggle against Fascism, 1942-1944

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas, Frank P.

    2006-01-01

    The Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee originated as an ad hoc committee and evolved to a broad-based movement for legal justice on behalf of seventeen youth convicted of murder and assault charges in connection with the Sleepy Lagoon case in Los Angeles in January 1943. This essay chronicles the multidimensional organizing to shift public opinion in…

  9. Production and zooplankton community structure in the lagoon and surrounding sea at Kavaratti atoll (Lakshadweep)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    Higher values for the environmental parameters were generally obtained for the lagoon stations. Average values of pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and phosphate-phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen, silicate and silicon in the lagoon were 7.5, 31...

  10. Beach Ridge and Lagoon Systems as Indicator of Sea-Level Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse

    . This highstand period ended abruptly around 3.5 kyr BP with a marked RSL fall of approx. 1.3 m. In the lagoonal environments, facies transitions from organic-rich marine mud to marine sand are interpreted as winnowing lags resulting from a lowering of the wave-base. In a fossil lagoon system, the sand yields...

  11. Shape Memory Alloy Cryogenic Transfer Coupling for Space Depot Docking Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical objective of the proposed effort is to establish the feasibility of using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for selected components of the automatic...

  12. Defense Inventory: Further Analysis and Enhanced Metrics Could Improve Service Supply and Depot Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Managed Spare Parts at Service Industrial Sites by Supply Chain , Fiscal...Metrics and Inventory Stratification Reporting; and Defense Logistics Agency Instruction 4140.08, DLA Retail Supply Chain Materiel Management ...the retail supply system, which is typically managed by the services. As a retail inventory manager at industrial sites, DLA manages the supply

  13. Identifying tsunami deposits using shell taphonomy: Sur lagoon, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, S.; Reinhardt, E.; Rothaus, R.; Boyce, J.

    2007-05-01

    On November 28th, 1945 an 8.1 magnitude earthquake focused in the eastern portion of the Makran subduction zone (Arabian Sea) generated a powerful tsunami that destroyed many coastal villages in Pakistan and India. Reports indicate that the tsunami also caused significant damage in Muscat, Oman, although its effects elsewhere in Oman are unknown. A thick bivalve dominated shell horizon was discovered inside the Sur lagoon, which is located on the eastern promontory of Oman (200 km south of Muscat). This shell deposit is significant because it is laterally extensive (> 1 km2), extends deep within the lagoon (>2 km), ranges in thickness from 5 - 25 cm at the sample localities, contains numerous subtidal and offshore bivalve species, and articulated subtidal and offshore bivalve species are abundant. Although there is an absence of typical tsunami indicators such as allochthonous sediment in and around the lagoon, verbal accounts, cultural evidence recovered during coring, and the absence of strong storms during the past 100 years indicates that this shell unit was caused by the 1945 tsunami. In this setting, it would be advantageous to have another proxy for tsunami detection and risk prediction. The use of shell taphonomy is one of the potential indicators and here we present new evidence of its utility. We sampled this unit in eight locations, and compared the shell taphonomy to surface shell samples collected from beach and reworked horizons in the lagoon, and to shell samples from a known tsunami and corresponding storm/ballast deposit in Israel (Reinhardt et al., 2006). Taphonomic analysis yielded promising results, as the two tsunami horizons shared excellent agreement between the amount of fragmented shells, and the percentage of shells displaying angular breaks. Both of these categories were significantly different from the percentage of fragments and angular fragments recovered from the reworked, beach, and storm/ballast deposits, indicating different

  14. Venice, the city and the lagoon: a lost relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Pedrocco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2011, the Venetians Engineers organized a conference entitled: The Eighth district. The Laguna as a connection matrix. In a world where the concept of “city”, which has become improper, applies to so-called historical centers that increasingly large conurbations, much of the Laguna is peripheral space, where inedited stories and resonant events living with full-blown environmental degradation and decay culture, make it a place of margin. Today, the lagoon and coastal areas are a continuous with the water spaces and islands that separate them, facing with unfinished waterfront towards brackish non-places. In this context, the debates and choices around the Laguna alternate without a unified design. Venice is always less connected with the surroundings by water, and the water itself become a limit to mobility, where, on the contrary, it was the element that guaranteed it.In the renewed debate on development strategies, realized the MOSE, it will be asked for which city it has been made. The conference drew attention to the rediscovery of the central role of the Lagoon. Between local development and global challenges, including heritage and environmental protection. Is it possible to envisage a revitalization of the lagoon system as a matrix of physical and cultural connection? Which opportunities are offered today to the city of Venice to rediscover its amphibious and cosmopolitan size and discover the Laguna as an Eighth District? A place of sites for residence, recreation, work, in a renovated urban dimension across the board, opened towards the spaces of the islands.

  15. Winter-summer nutrient composition linkage to algae-produced toxins in shellfish at a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia; Botelho, Maria João; Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Moita, Maria Teresa; Gonçalves, Célia

    2012-10-01

    The current work examines the linkage of pronounced winter-summer fluctuations on the nutrient composition with phytoplankton assemblages and mussel toxicity produced by the presence of toxic dinoflagellates. The work was performed at the Óbidos lagoon, a coastal eutrophic ecosystem that is permanently connected to an area characterized by frequent upwelling episodes. The lagoon and adjoining coastal area exhibit recurrent incidents of diarrhetic and paralytic shellfish poisoning. The conclusions are based on: (1) inorganic and organic nutrients at five sites of the lower, middle and upper Óbidos lagoon, and inorganic nutrients at two sites of the adjacent coastal area; biannual campaigns were performed in winter and summer between 2006 and 2010; (2) phytoplankton assemblages at three sites of the lagoon (located at lower and upper areas) in winter and summer of 2009; (3) algae-derived toxicity of wild mussels from the lower lagoon and coastal area, on a 1-2 week time scale, over 2006 and 2009. Nutrient molar ratios in Óbidos lagoon contrast between winter and summer. The lower median ratios DIN:P (31 and 0.8) and Si:P (11 and 3.3) in summer reflect the excess of phosphate. Excess was mainly attributed to phosphorus regeneration in sediments of the upper lagoon with accentuated symptoms of eutrophication. Dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorus were also higher in summer, particularly in this area. No significant winter-summer differences were recorded for nutrient ratios in the adjacent coastal area. Phytoplankton assemblages pointed to a winter-summer contrast characterized by a shift of non-siliceous-based phytoplankton to diatoms. The toxic dinoflagellate species (Gymnodinium catenatum, Dinophysis cf. acuminata and Dinophysis acuta), presumably imported from the adjacent coast following upwelling episodes in summer, were observed in the lower lagoon. In summer of the two surveyed years, toxins produced by dinoflagellates occurred in

  16. The role of benthic macrophytes and their associated macroinvertebrate community in coastal lagoon resistance to eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

    2009-12-01

    Eutrophication is widely recognised as one of the major menaces to coastal environments, particularly enclosed bays and lagoons. Although there is a general understanding of the consequences of eutrophication in these systems, there is a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning biotic feedbacks that influence eutrophication patterns and the resistance capacity of coastal environments. In this paper, the isotope ratios of main producers and consumers of a Mediterranean lagoon were examined in order to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic inputs from the main watercourse flowing into the lagoon. The results of the study of stable isotope data in the Mar Menor lagoon reflected that the whole benthic community plays an important role as a natural 'filter' that removes excess nutrients from the water column and stores them in the sediments, thereby enhancing lagoon resistance to eutrophication.

  17. The role of benthic macrophytes and their associated macroinvertebrate community in coastal lagoon resistance to eutrophication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloret, Javier; Marin, Arnaldo

    2009-01-01

    Eutrophication is widely recognised as one of the major menaces to coastal environments, particularly enclosed bays and lagoons. Although there is a general understanding of the consequences of eutrophication in these systems, there is a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning biotic feedbacks that influence eutrophication patterns and the resistance capacity of coastal environments. In this paper, the isotope ratios of main producers and consumers of a Mediterranean lagoon were examined in order to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic inputs from the main watercourse flowing into the lagoon. The results of the study of stable isotope data in the Mar Menor lagoon reflected that the whole benthic community plays an important role as a natural 'filter' that removes excess nutrients from the water column and stores them in the sediments, thereby enhancing lagoon resistance to eutrophication.

  18. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, G M; Schneider, R C; Colin, P L; Buddemeier, R W; Suchanek, T H

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. Studies of the burial of fallout radionuclides have been conducted on the islands and in several of the large craters, but studies of their vertical distribution have been limited to about the upper 20 cm of the lagoon sediments. We have found elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon.

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    1998-09-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest ofLas Vegas, Nevada. . The sewage lagoons received ~quid sanitary waste horn the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp in 1963 and debris from subsequent range and construction cleanup activities. The debris and ordnance was subsequently removed and properly dispos~, however, pesticides were detected in soil samples born the bottom of the lagoons above the U,S. Environmental Protection Agency Region IX Prelimimuy Remediation Goals (EPA 1996). . The North Disposal Trench was excavated in 1963. Debris from the man camp and subsequent range and construction cleanup activities was placed in the trench. Investigation results indicated that no constituents of concern were detected in soil samples collected from the trench. Remedial alternative proposed in the Comctive Action Decision Document (CADD) fm the site was “Covering” (DOE, 1997a). The Nevada Division of”Enviromnental Protection (NDEP)-approved Correction Action Plan (CAP) proposed the “Covering” niethodology (1997b). The closure activities were completed in accorhce with the approwil CAP and consisted of baclctllling the sewage lagoons and disposal trench, constructing/planting an engineered/vegetative cover in the area of the sewage lagoons and dikposal trencQ installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on fi~e use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan. “ Since closure activities. for CAU 404 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved CAP (DOE, 1997b) as documented in this Closure Report, the U.S. Department of

  20. Permanent Access to the Records of Science - The International Role of the e-Depot at the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, National Library of the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard van Trier

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1994 the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (KB decided to include electronic publications in its deposit collection. This was considered as a logical extension of the deposit for printed publications already in place. In December 2002, after a few years of experimenting, the current e-Depot was delivered, with the IBM Digital Information and Archiving System (DIAS as its technical 'heart'. The e-Depot is now fully operational and imbedded in the KB organisation. The emergence of the electronic journal creates new challenges to the traditional deposit model. Because of the involvement of international publishers of Dutch origin, the e-Depot has had an international dimension right from the start. In 2002 the KB signed an historic electronic archiving agreement with Elsevier Science, which covered the entire set of Elsevier journals. This arrangement turned the KB into the first official digital archive in the world for journals published by international scientific publishers. A year later the KB concluded a similar agreement with Kluwer Academic Publishers. Other publishers followed, also from outside the Netherlands: Biomed Central, Blackwell, Oxford University Press, Taylor and Francis, Sage, Springer and Brill Academic Publishers. On the basis of these agreements the e-Depot will eventually hold 9 million articles. The annual increase in the number of articles from these publishers will be around 400,000. Publishers are required to deposit their publications free of charge. Access is restricted: only on-site, for any registered user of the KB. Remote access is only offered with permission of the publisher. On-site retrieval, access, printing, downloading is for private use only, systematic reproduction is not allowed. Documents are available for interlibrary document supply within the Netherlands. The archive serves as a guarantee to all licensees worldwide. In case of calamities or in case the publisher does not meet his obligations, the KB

  1. The Lagoon of Venice : the result of both natural factors and human influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar RAVERA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a picture of the lagoon of Venice and analyze the combined effects of natural factors and human influence on this fragile ecotone. The structure, functioning and evolution of the lagoon are illustrated. Under natural conditions, the solid load from the tributaries would transform the lagoon into dry land or, if the violence of the sea exceeded the solid load from the watershed, the lagoon would evolve into a marine bay. This natural succession has been hindered by the works undertaken by the Republic of Venice uninterruptedly through the centuries, because the lagoon environment was essential to the life and power of Venice. The effects of human activities from the beginning of the Venetian Republic to the present are described. In addition, the influence of socio-economic development on the lagoon area and, particularly, the impact of intensive agriculture and industrialization are discussed. A possible effect of eutrophication was the dramatic proliferation of the opportunistic macroalga Ulva rigida, which for about a decade played an important role in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the lagoon. At present, the most crucial problems of Venice and its lagoon are: the lowering of the level of the city in relation to that of the sea, the continuous decline in the number of inhabitants, the increasing frequency of the “high water” phenomenon, air and water pollution, and the increased erosion and salinity of the lagoon. The recent measures taken and those still to be applied for conserving and recovering Venice and its lagoon and, particularly, the works for preventing the risk of high water are compared. There is an evident need for a new type of socio-economic development in symbiosis with the environment and tradition of Venice.

  2. Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to depot naltrexone in unemployed opioid-dependent adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, Jeffrey J; DeFulio, Anthony; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Donlin, Wendy D; Aklin, Will M; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-07-01

    Naltrexone can be used to treat opioid dependence, but patients refuse to take it. Extended-release depot formulations may improve adherence, but long-term adherence rates to depot naltrexone are not known. This study determined long-term rates of adherence to depot naltrexone and whether employment-based reinforcement can improve adherence. Participants who were inducted onto oral naltrexone were assigned randomly to contingency (n = 18) or prescription (n = 17) groups. Participants were offered six depot naltrexone injections and invited to work at the therapeutic workplace on week days for 26 weeks, where they earned stipends for participating in job skills training. Contingency participants were required to accept naltrexone injections to maintain workplace access and to maintain maximum pay. Prescription participants could work independently of whether they accepted injections. The therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based intervention for drug addiction and unemployment. Opioid-dependent unemployed adults. Depot naltrexone injections accepted and opiate-negative urine samples. Contingency participants accepted significantly more naltrexone injections than prescription participants (81% versus 42%), and were more likely to accept all injections (66% versus 35%). At monthly assessments (with missing urine samples imputed as positive), the groups provided similar percentages of samples negative for opiates (74% versus 62%) and for cocaine (56% versus 54%). Opiate-positive samples were more likely when samples were also positive for cocaine. Employment-based reinforcement can maintain adherence to depot naltrexone. Future research should determine whether persistent cocaine use compromises naltrexone's effect on opiate use. Workplaces may be useful for promoting sustained adherence to depot naltrexone. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Depot Maintenance Transformation: Successful Strategies in Capital Investing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    the aircraft. Continually climbing up and down portable stands while wearing fully enclosed body suites, carrying large paint sprayers, and dragging...and fatigue. selected--Wrap around stands will minimize the number of trips up and down the stairs it takes to get around the aircraft. It is faster...our metal finishing operations into state-of-the-art processes consisting of the latest technologies. Items such as robotic shot penning

  4. Unmanned aerial vehicle observations of water surface elevation and bathymetry in the cenotes and lagoons of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, Filippo; Lopez-Tamayo, Alejandro; Merediz-Alonso, Gonzalo; Olesen, Daniel; Jakobsen, Jakob; Wang, Sheng; Garcia, Monica; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Observations of water surface elevation (WSE) and bathymetry of the lagoons and cenotes of the Yucatán Peninsula (YP) in southeast Mexico are of hydrogeological interest. Observations of WSE (orthometric water height above mean sea level, amsl) are required to inform hydrological models, to estimate hydraulic gradients and groundwater flow directions. Measurements of bathymetry and water depth (elevation of the water surface above the bed of the water body) improve current knowledge on how lagoons and cenotes connect through the complicated submerged cave systems and the diffuse flow in the rock matrix. A novel approach is described that uses unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor WSE and bathymetry of the inland water bodies on the YP. UAV-borne WSE observations were retrieved using a radar and a global navigation satellite system on-board a multi-copter platform. Water depth was measured using a tethered floating sonar controlled by the UAV. This sonar provides depth measurements also in deep and turbid water. Bathymetry (wet-bed elevation amsl) can be computed by subtracting water depth from WSE. Accuracy of the WSE measurements is better than 5-7 cm and accuracy of the water depth measurements is estimated to be 3.8% of the actual water depth. The technology provided accurate measurements of WSE and bathymetry in both wetlands (lagoons) and cenotes. UAV-borne technology is shown to be a more flexible and lower cost alternative to manned aircrafts. UAVs allow monitoring of remote areas located in the jungle of the YP, which are difficult to access by human operators.

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-05-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  6. Bacterial growth and DOC consumption in a tropical coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Farjalla

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the main limiting nutrient to bacterial growth in Imboassica lagoon, southeastern Brazil, to estimate the percentage of dissolved organic carbon (DOC available for bacterial growth, and to determine the bacterial growth efficiency (BGE of natural assemblages. Bacterial growth and DOC consumption were determined in batch culture experiments, in which water samples were supplemented with nitrogen and phosphorus together or separately, or incubated without nutrient additions. When added together, N and P stimulated higher bacterial growth rates and production, as well as higher DOC consumption. The BGEs and DOC consumption rates were strongly dependent on the method used to determine bacterial production. The BGE ranged from 11 to 72%. However, only a minor fraction of bulk DOC was consumed by the planktonic bacteria (from 0.7 to 3.4%. The results suggest that low availability of phosphorus and nitrogen coupled with excess organic carbon was the main factor responsible for the relatively low bacterial utilization of DOC in Imboassica lagoon.

  7. Variability of thermohaline properties in Pearl Lagoon, Nicaragua (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos L. Brenes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several hydrographic surveys were carried out in Pearl Lagoon, Nicaragua between april 1995 and december 1997 under the DIPAL (Proyecto para el Desarrollo Integral de la Pesca Artesanal en la Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur project. Surface temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity have been measured in 88 hydrographic campaigns. The annual cycle shows maximum and minimum temperatures in May (29.4 °C and December (25.6 °C respectively, maximum salinity (25.6 °C in April, one month before the thermal peak, and minimum salinities (2‰ between July and August, when the annual precipitation index attains its seasonal maximum in the study area. In the case of dissolved O2 the maximum values of oxygen saturation were observed between March and May (90%, when the water turbidity in the lagoon is at its lowest and freshwater contributions from the rivers attains its minimum value. During the rainy season, in the second half of the year, there is an important decrease in oxygen contents, mainly as a consequence of the degradation of organic matter of riverine origin.

  8. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  9. Spatial variability in the icthyoplankton structure of a subtropicalhypersaline lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judson da Cruz Lopes da Rosa

    Full Text Available Abstract The Lagoa de Araruama is a hypersaline ecosystem inhabited by distinct fish species, either permanently or during their reproductive season. Over recent years, some significant environmental changes have been observed in this ecosystem related to the sewage runoff, as salinity decrease (from 64 to 41 psu during the last 40 years and nutrients increase. As both changes are thought to affect the ichthyoplankton assemblage, the present study aimed to evaluate all the potential relationships between salinity disruption and fish larvae distribution. Ichtyoplankton samples were collected monthly from January 2010 to March 2011 at eight sites in Araruama Lagoon by means of a WP2 plankton net equipped with a flowmeter. During this period, low egg densities were coincident with high salinity regions, suggesting that adults are avoiding to release their eggs under less favorable environmental conditions to the larvae. The uneven distribution of eggs and larvae inside the lagoon, as revealed by both spatial and temporal analyses lead us to suggest that changes in salinity have influenced the reproductive rhythms of those fish species that depend upon the Lagoa de Araruama.

  10. Vibrio trends in the ecology of the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Shamsur; Martino, Maria Elena; Cardazzo, Barbara; Facco, Pierantonio; Bordin, Paola; Mioni, Renzo; Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Vibrio is a very diverse genus that is responsible for different human and animal diseases. The accurate identification of Vibrio at the species level is important to assess the risks related to public health and diseases caused by aquatic organisms. The ecology of Vibrio spp., together with their genetic background, represents an important key for species discrimination and evolution. Thus, analyses of population structure and ecology association are necessary for reliable characterization of bacteria and to investigate whether bacterial species are going through adaptation processes. In this study, a population of Vibrionaceae was isolated from shellfish of the Venice lagoon and analyzed in depth to study its structure and distribution in the environment. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was developed on the basis of four housekeeping genes. Both molecular and biochemical approaches were used for species characterization, and the results were compared to assess the consistency of the two methods. In addition, strain ecology and the association between genetic information and environment were investigated through statistical models. The phylogenetic and population analyses achieved good species clustering, while biochemical identification was demonstrated to be imprecise. In addition, this study provided a fine-scale overview of the distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Venice lagoon, and the results highlighted a preferential association of the species toward specific ecological variables. These findings support the use of MLSA for taxonomic studies and demonstrate the need to consider environmental information to obtain broader and more accurate bacterial characterization.

  11. Spatiotemporal dynamics of submerged macrophytes in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Biel; Pretus, Joan Lluís

    2010-03-01

    The seasonal and interannual dynamics of the biomass and spatial distribution of a macrophyte meadow were explored in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Albufera des Grau, Balearic Islands) from 2002 to 2007. The dynamics in the main physicochemical variables were also analysed to assess the factors involved in the spatiotemporal variability of the submerged macrophytes. The meadows were dominated by Ruppia cirrhosa, which showed a marked seasonal cycle with winter quiescence and complete annual regrowth. The annual production of R. cirrhosa had high interannual variability and was amongst the highest described for this species in the literature, ranging 327-919 gDW m -2. The spatial distribution of macrophytes was determined by light availability and wave exposure, with the highest abundances found in shallow and gently sloped areas sheltered from the strong northerly winds. The interannual variations in macrophyte descriptors (area of occurrence, average depth of the meadows, and maximum biomass) were mainly related to water turbidity and salinity, but the effect of these variables was constrained to the spring and summer months, respectively. A significant negative correlation between the extent of coverage of R. cirrhosa and the water level at the end of the previous annual cycle was observed, suggesting a positive effect of desiccation on the extent of coverage of the macrophytes. After six years of apparent stability, the macrophytes abruptly disappeared from the lagoon. Although the mechanisms are not clear, this shift was likely attributable to a combination of several factors.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document

  13. The atypical hydrodynamics of the Mayotte Lagoon (Indian Ocean): Effects on water age and potential impact on plankton productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, C.; Devenon, J. L.; Pagano, M.; Rougier, G.; Blanchot, J.; Arfi, R.

    2017-09-01

    In mesotidal lagoons of the Indian Ocean, the coral reef barrier may be temporarily submerged at high tide and partially exposed at low tide, and this may cause unusual lagoon dynamics. A field measurement campaign was conducted in the north-east Mayotte Lagoon in order to understand these processes. An experimental approach was used, combining measurements taken by 1) a side-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) on a moving boat along transects through the reef passages (17 transects) and 2) by more conventional high-resolution moored ADCP measurements. A specific tidal analysis methodology was used to determine the spatial variability of the velocity. The tidal hydrodynamics within the lagoon were determined using a numerical model and then analyzed. The tide acted as a quasi-progressive forced wave in the lagoon: at low tide, water entered through the south passage, over the reef and left the lagoon through the north passage. This flow was reversed at high tide. The tide-driven quasi-progressive wave created a specific lagoon dynamics. Contrary to most other channel lagoons, the flow over the reef was mainly outward. This increases the inflow through the passages, which renews the water in the lagoon as shown by the indicators of age and origin of the water inside the lagoon. This study also showed the importance of these indicators for better understanding the variations and levels of plankton biomass (with chlorophyll concentration as proxy) which is quite high in this lagoon.

  14. Six-month gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH agonist depots provide efficacy, safety, convenience, and comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips JM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available E David Crawford, Jason M PhillipsUniversity of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Two different 6-month GnRH agonist depot formulations approved for palliative treatment of advanced and metastatic prostate cancer in the United States – leuprolide acetate 45 mg and triptorelinpalmoate 22.5 mg – provide patients with efficacy and safety comparable to those of existing 1-, 3-, and 4-month GnRH agonist depots. However, the 6-month formulations can increase patient convenience, comfort, and compliance by reducing the number of physician visits and injections required. At the conclusion of their pivotal trials, the 6-month formulations demonstrated efficacy rates in achieving chemical castration (serum testosterone #50 ng/dL that ranged between 93% and 99%. As with existing GnRH agonist depot formulations, hot flashes represented the most common adverse event reported in trials of 6-month leuprolide acetate or triptorelin. As such, these products may prove useful not only for their labeled indication, but also as adjuncts to other treatments such as radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. We recommend further research, including head-to-head trials between the 6-month GnRH depots, to refine our understanding of these products.Keywords: prostate cancer, leuprorelin, leuprolide, triptorelin, 6-month depot, testosterone

  15. Mussel farming as a large-scale bioengineering tool: a numerical modelling case study in Rødsand lagoon, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Pernille Louise; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Lumborg, Ulrik

    Rødsand lagoon in southeast Denmark is a non-tidal coastal lagoon, which is home to a wide range of marine flora and fauna and is protected under Natura 2000. An increase in turbidity within the lagoon may reduce the ecosystem health due to hindered light penetration. A threat to the lagoonal...... ecosystem is related to future increasing storm intensities (Olesen et al., 2014), which are presumed to increase the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) within the lagoon. Furthermore the planned construction of a tunnel between Germany and Denmark may propose a threat to the lagoon due to a possible...... spill of sediment, which could increase the longshore sediment influx to Rødsand lagoon. Mussels can reduce the SSC in marine environments (Schröder et al., 2014), why the implementation of a mussel farm has been considered as a management option. In the present study we developed a module to include...

  16. Impact of mussel bioengineering on fine-grained sediment dynamics in a coastal lagoon: a numerical modelling investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Pernille Louise; Lumborg, Ulrik; Bundgaard, Klavs

    2017-01-01

    Rødsand lagoon in southeast Denmark is a non-tidal coastal lagoon. It is home to a wide range of marine flora and fauna and part of the Natura 2000 network. An increase in turbidity through elevated levels of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) within the lagoon may affect the ecosystem health...... due to reduced light penetration. Increasing SSC levels within Rødsand lagoon could be caused by increasing storm intensity or by a sediment spill from dredging activities west of the lagoon in relation to the planned construction of the Fehmarnbelt fixed link between Denmark and Germany. The aim...... of the study was to investigate the impact of a mussel reef on sediment import and SSC in a semi-enclosed lagoon through the development of a bioengineering modelling application that makes it possible to include the filtrating effect of mussels in a numerical model of the lagoonal system. The numerical...

  17. Evaluation of the Trophic Level of Kune and Vain Lagoons in Albania, Using Phytoplankton as a Bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Koci Kallfa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of chlorophyll is an adequate parameter for assessing the trophic state of lagoon ecosystems. Objectives of this study are: selection of a system of bioindicators to enable a good qualitative evaluation of the trophic state of the lagoons and their dynamics; evaluation of seasonal water quality variability and comparison between lagoons. The trophic state of the lagoons is analysed every month over the year. Water samples are retrieved at four different sites (exact coordinates each month, sites that are representative of different water circulation systems at each lagoon. The trophic level in the respective lagoons is thus assessed through selection of an adequate system of bioindicators, in order to observe the oscillations of the amount of chlorophyll and therefore to determine the level of eutrophication. Based on the above parameters, the comparison of the trophic state in these two lagoons has shown that they have different trophic states.

  18. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA MASS EMISSION FLUX FROM HOG WASTE EFFLUENT SPRAYING OPERATION USING OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY WITH VERTICAL RADIAL PLUME MAPPING ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission of ammonia from concentrated animal feeding operations represents an increasingly important environmental issue. Determination of total ammonia mass emission flux from extended area sources such as waste lagoons and waste effluent spraying operations can be evaluated usi...

  19. Are Sea Surface Temperature satellite measurements reliable proxies of lagoon temperature in the South Pacific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Menkes, Christophe; Le Gendre, Romain; Passfield, Teuru; Andréfouët, Serge

    2017-12-01

    In remote coral reef environments, lagoon and reef in situ measurements of temperature are scarce. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measured by satellite has been frequently used as a proxy of the lagoon temperature experienced by coral reef organisms (TL) especially during coral bleaching events. However, the link between SST and TL is poorly characterized. First, we compared the correlation between various SST series and TL from 2012 to 2016 in three atolls and one island in the Central South Pacific Ocean. Simple linear correlation between SST and TL ranged between 0.44 and 0.97 depending on lagoons, localities of sensors, and type of SST data. High-resolution-satellite-measurements of SST inside the lagoons did not outperform oceanic SST series, suggesting that SST products are not adapted for small lagoons. Second, we modelled the difference between oceanic SST and TL as a function of the drivers of lagoon water renewal and mixing, namely waves, tide, wind, and season. The multivariate models reduced significantly the bias between oceanic SST and TL. In atoll lagoons, and probably in other hydrodynamically semi-open systems, a correction taking into account these factors is necessary when SST are used to characterize organisms' thermal stress thresholds.

  20. The role of connectivity and hydrodynamic conditions in the configuration of ichthyoplankton assemblages in coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Quispe, Jhoni I.; Umgiesser, Georg; Ghezzo, Michol; De Pascalis, Francesca; Marcos, Concepción

    2014-05-01

    Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons are constituted by species with different gilds and life stories including estuarine residents but also a high percentage of marine stragglers and marine migrants. Previous studies showed that different ichthyoplancton assemblages can be identified inside a lagoon, depending on hydrological conditions, but at the same time a high spatial and temporal variability haven observed. The proposed models to explain lagoon assemblages configuration based on probabilities of colonization from the open sea involves an important stochastic component and introduces some randomness that could lead to that high spatial and temporal variability at short and long-term scales. In this work we analyze the relationship between ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Mar Menor lagoon and the adjacent open sea in the framework of the hydrodynamics of the lagoon and connectivity between sampling stations using hydrodynamic models. The results, show a complex interaction between the different factors that lead to a highly variable system with high accumulated richness and diversity of species, and a large proportion of occasional visitors and stragglers suggesting that the mechanisms of competitive lottery can play an important role in the maintenance of communities of coastal lagoons , where environmental variability occurs in a system with strong differences in colonization rates and connectivity, not only with the open sea, but also between locations within the lagoon.

  1. Magnitude and variability of methane production and concentration in tropical coastal lagoons sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Petruzzella

    Full Text Available AIM: Coastal wetlands are potential zones for methane (CH4 production. The present study aims to evaluate the spatial variation of CH4 production and concentration in ten tropical coastal lagoons, the influence of aquatic macrophytes on the sediment CH4 concentration and how the magnitude of these potential CH4 production rates compare to those in other ecosystems. METHODS: Sediments were sampled in ten coastal lagoons, with one site in the limnetic region and another site in aquatic macrophyte stands when they were present in the littoral region. We measured the CH4 production as a potential rate, and CH4 concentration was directly measured from sediment samples. RESULTS: The highest potential CH4 production (PMP rates were found in alkaline and hypersaline lagoons. However, Cabiúnas, which is a freshwater lagoon densely colonized by aquatic macrophytes, also exhibited a high PMP rate. We also observed that the sediment CH4 concentration in the littoral region was higher than in the limnetic region in all of the investigated lagoons except Paulista, which presented the opposite pattern. The PMP rates observed in the studied lagoons were low compared to other aquatic ecosystems. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the sediments of saline lagoons are important CH4 production sites, and in general, aquatic macrophytes have a positive influence on methanogenesis, which was evident based on the CH4 concentrations present in the sediments of these lagoons. Further studies should focus on the processes underlying the CH4 patterns observed in the tropical coastal lagoons, especially concerning the coupling between CH4 production and concentration.

  2. Eradicating hepatitis C virus ameliorates insulin resistance without change in adipose depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, K-L; Jenkins, A B; Trenell, M; Tid-Ang, J; Samocha-Bonet, D; Weltman, M; Xu, A; George, J; Chisholm, D J

    2014-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is associated with lipid-related changes and insulin resistance; the latter predicts response to antiviral therapy, liver disease progression and the risk of diabetes. We sought to determine whether insulin sensitivity improves following CHC viral eradication after antiviral therapy and whether this is accompanied by changes in fat depots or adipokine levels. We compared 8 normoglycaemic men with CHC (genotype 1 or 3) before and at least 6 months post viral eradication and 15 hepatitis C antibody negative controls using an intravenous glucose tolerance test and two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp with [6,6-(2) H2 ] glucose to assess peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy quantified abdominal fat compartments, liver and intramyocellular lipid. Peripheral insulin sensitivity improved (glucose infusion rate during high-dose insulin increased from 10.1 ± 1.6 to 12 ± 2.1 mg/kg/min/, P = 0.025), with no change in hepatic insulin response following successful viral eradication, without any accompanying change in muscle, liver or abdominal fat depots. There was corresponding improvement in incremental glycaemic response to intravenous glucose (pretreatment: 62.1 ± 8.3 vs post-treatment: 56.1 ± 8.5 mm, P = 0.008). Insulin sensitivity after viral clearance was comparable to matched controls without CHC. Post therapy, liver enzyme levels decreased but, interestingly, levels of glucagon, fatty acid-binding protein and lipocalin-2 remained elevated. Eradication of the hepatitis C virus improves insulin sensitivity without alteration in fat depots, adipokine or glucagon levels, consistent with a direct link of the virus with insulin resistance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The nuclear retinoid-related orphan receptor RORα controls circadian thermogenic programming in white fat depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Chloé; Auclair, Martine; Le Cam, Gala; Garcia, Marie-Pauline; Antoine, Bénédicte

    2018-04-01

    The RORα-deficient staggerer (sg/sg) mouse is lean and resistant to diet-induced obesity. Its thermogenic activity was shown to be increased not only in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but also in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) where UCP1 content was enhanced, however, without Prdm16 coexpression. Our observation of partial multilocular lipid morphology of WAT in sg/sg mice both in the inguinal and perigonadal sites led us to focus on the phenotype of both fat depots. Because RORα is a nuclear factor acting in the clock machinery, we looked at the circadian expression profile of genes involved in thermogenesis and browning in WAT and BAT depots of sg/sg and WT mice, through real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting. This 24-h period approach revealed both a rhythmic expression of thermogenic genes in WAT and an increased browning of all the WAT depots tested in sg/sg mice that indeed involved the canonical browning process (through induction of Pgc-1α and Prdm16). This was associated with an enhanced isoproterenol-induced oxygen consumption rate of WAT explants from sg/sg mice, which was reproducible in WT explants by treatment with a RORα inverse agonist SR 3335, that induced a parallel increase in the UCP1 protein. Inhibitors of browning differentiation, such as TLE3 and RIP140, could be new targets of RORα that would be rather implicated in the whitening of adipocytes. Our study showed the pivotal role of RORα as an inhibitor of the thermogenic program in WAT, the role that could be counteracted in vivo with the RORα antagonists currently in development. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  4. Abdominal fat sub-depots and energy expenditure: Magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty, Dana; Rein, Michal; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Bril, Nitzan; Cohen, Noa; Shemesh, Elad; Sarusi, Benjamin; Kovsan, Julia; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Golan, Rachel; Witkow, Shula; Henkin, Yaakov; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess the association between the distinct abdominal sub-depots and resting energy expenditure (REE). We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify abdominal visceral-adipose-tissue (VAT), deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (deep-SAT), and superficial-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (superficial-SAT). We measured REE by indirect-calorimetry. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) [1-3 metabolic equivalents (METs)] and exercise thermogenesis (activities of 4+MET S ) were estimated based on 6-days of accelerometry to assess total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). We studied 282 participants: 249 men [mean age = 47.4 years, body-mass-index (BMI) = 31 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 34.5%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 24.3%] and 33 women (mean age = 51.2 years, BMI = 30.1 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 22.8%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 37.8%). As expected, women had lower REE [by 32.4% (1488 ± 234 kcal/day vs. 1971 ± 257 kcal/day; p abdominal VAT was the dominant proportional depot, had higher REE (1964 ± 297 kcal/day vs. 1654 ± 352 kcal/day; p Abdominal fat distribution patterns are associated with varying levels of resting energy expenditure, potentially reflecting different metabolic rates of adipose sub-depots and providing an anatomic/anthropometric link to physiological obese sub-phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct Evidence of Brown Adipocytes in Different Fat Depots in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstroh, Denise; Landgraf, Kathrin; Wagner, Isabel Viola; Gesing, Julia; Tauscher, Roy; Lakowa, Nicole; Kiess, Wieland; Bühligen, Ulf; Wojan, Magdalena; Till, Holger; Blüher, Matthias; Körner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested the persistence of brown adipocytes in adult humans, as opposed to being exclusively present in infancy. In this study, we investigated the presence of brown-like adipocytes in adipose tissue (AT) samples of children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years and evaluated the association with age, location, and obesity. For this, we analysed AT samples from 131 children and 23 adults by histological, immunohistochemical and expression analyses. We detected brown-like and UCP1 positive adipocytes in 10.3% of 87 lean children (aged 0.3 to 10.7 years) and in one overweight infant, whereas we did not find brown adipocytes in obese children or adults. In our samples, the brown-like adipocytes were interspersed within white AT of perirenal, visceral and also subcutaneous depots. Samples with brown-like adipocytes showed an increased expression of UCP1 (>200fold), PRDM16 (2.8fold), PGC1α and CIDEA while other brown/beige selective markers, such as PAT2, P2RX5, ZIC1, LHX8, TMEM26, HOXC9 and TBX1 were not significantly different between UCP1 positive and negative samples. We identified a positive correlation between UCP1 and PRDM16 within UCP1 positive samples, but not with any other brown/beige marker. In addition, we observed significantly increased PRDM16 and PAT2 expression in subcutaneous and visceral AT samples with high UCP1 expression in adults. Our data indicate that brown-like adipocytes are present well beyond infancy in subcutaneous depots of non-obese children. The presence was not restricted to typical perirenal locations, but they were also interspersed within WAT of visceral and subcutaneous depots. PMID:25706927

  6. Fauna of gastropod molluscs in the Curonian Lagoon littoral biotopes (Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Filippenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the gastropod mollusc fauna in the coastal waters of the southern part of the Curonian Lagoon (Kaliningrad region, Russia were carried out. Study revealed 34 aquatic gastropods representing 30% of Prosobranchia and 70% of Pulmonata. Obtained data showed higher mollusc diversity in the littoral biotopes in comparison with open areas of the Lagoon. The fauna is represented by a typical Central European species complex of freshwater gastropods. The reed zone along the coastline in the Lagoon functions as a barrier and provides shallow water habitats with slow moving and warmer water, where maximum gastropod species concentrate.

  7. Lagoon microbialites on Isla Angel de la Guarda and associated peninsular shores, Gulf of California (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Markes E.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Backus, David H.; González, Maria R.

    2012-07-01

    Examples of two closed lagoons with extensive growth of Recent microbialites showing variable surface morphology and internal structure are found on Isla Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California. Comparable lagoonal microbialites also occur ashore from Ensenada El Quemado on the adjacent peninsular mainland of Baja California. The perimeters of all three lagoons feature crusted structures indicative of thrombolites with a knobby surface morphology 2 cm to 3 cm in relief and internal clotting without any sign of laminations. Outward from this zone, thrombolitic construction thins to merge with a white calcified crust below which a soft substratum of dark organic material 4 cm to 6 cm in thickness is concealed. The substratum is laminated and heavily mucilaginous, as observed along the edges of extensive shrinkage cracks in the overlying crust. The thrombolitic crust is anchored to the shore, while the thinner crust and associated stromatolitic mats float on the surface of the lagoons. Laboratory cultures of the dark organic material yielded the solitary cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis as the predominant taxon interspersed with filamentous forms. In decreasing order of abundance, other morphotypes present include Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Geitlerinema, Chroococus, and probably Spirulina. The larger of the two island lagoons follows an east-west azimuth and covers 0.225 km2, while the smaller lagoon has a roughly north-south axis and covers only 0.023 km2. The salinity of water in the smaller lagoon was measured as148 ppt. Pliocene strata along the edge of the smaller modern lagoon include siltstone bearing calcified platelets suggestive of a microbial origin. Dry lagoons abandoned during the later Quaternary occur inland at higher elevations on the island, but retain no fossils except for sporadic white crusts cemented on cobbles around distinct margins. Raised Quaternary lagoons parallel to the big lagoon on Isla Angel de la Guarda are partly obscured by flood

  8. Army Depot Maintenance: More Effective Use of Organic and Contractor Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-04

    terkerrny (PA) RRAD Red River (TX) IBAD Lexingtor).Bluegrass (KY) 3MPUAD Pueblo (CO) 2000 ANAD CCAD TEAD TOAD SAAO LEAD FMD LBAD PUAfl j] Aut)’onzed Onboard...until it is received by the contractor. That problem could be eliminated by redesigning the process. Specifically, the FTA document that notifies the...should revise CCSS to allow the FTM document to generate an image to LCA, the FTA to create a due-in to the contractor, and CCSS to determine the depot

  9. Combined use of Dexa-Scheroson and Primobolan-Depot in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, J [Shizuoka Rosai Hospital (Japan)

    1976-05-01

    Dexa-Scheroson and Primobolan-Depot were used together with radiation therapy (Linac therapy) required in 13 cases. The following results were obtained. The decrease in white cell counts, which often occurs in radiation therapy, was inhibited by the drugs. There was no case in which radiation therapy should necessarily withdraw because the number of leuckocytes was decreased to less than 3,000. The patients whose liver function was poor should be treated with both drugs at the beginning of radiation therapy. It was found that the combined use of the drugs is effective in the prevention and the treatment of cerebral edema in radiation therapy of intracranial lesion.

  10. Temporal shifts in reef lagoon sediment composition, Discovery Bay, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Christopher T.; Taylor, Kevin G.; Machent, Philip G.

    2006-03-01

    Discovery Bay, north Jamaica, forms a large (1.5 km wide), deep (up to 56 m) embayment that acts as a sink for reef-derived and lagoonal carbonate sediments. Since the mid-1960s, the bay has also provided a sink for inputs of bauxite sediment that are spilled during loading at a boat terminal constructed within Discovery Bay. Bauxite has accumulated across much of the southern section of the bay with surficial sediments presently composed of up to 35 weight% non-carbonate. Cores recovered from sites on the western side of the bay provide a stratigraphic record of this history of bauxite contamination across water depths from 5 to 25 m. The bauxite-influenced upper sediment horizons are clearly visible in each core from the distinctive red-brown colouration of the sediment. These sediments are composed of approximately 10% non-carbonate (bauxite) and have Fe contents of around 2-3000 μg/g (up to 7000 μg/g). The thickness of this upper bauxite-contaminated sequence increases down transect (approximately 18 cm in the shallowest core, to around 47 cm in the deepest core), and in each core overlies a sequence of 'clean' lagoon carbonates. These typically are poorly sorted carbonate sands with variable amounts of coral rubble. Down-core data on CaCO 3 and Fe content provide a chemical record of decreasing sediment contamination with depth, with the lower 'clean' carbonates composed of only around 2% non-carbonate and coral, mollusc, Amphiroa and Halimeda in the clean lagoon sands, to assemblages dominated by Halimeda and Amphiroa within the surficial sediments. At the deeper sites, no major down-core shifts in sediment constituents occur. These sites thus record a rather complex history of changes in sediment composition and chemistry. Clear shifts in chemistry and stratigraphy occur in all the cores and reflect progressive bauxite contamination in the near-surface horizons. These inputs, however, do not appear to have directly affected carbonate production, since the

  11. Photosynthetic oxygenation in waste water treatment lagoons; Oxigenacion fotosintetica en lagunas para la depuracion de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.; Mujeriego, R. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    In order to reduce the costs of mechanical aeration in the treatment of waste waters the use of photosynthetic oxygenation (microalgae) in high capacity lagoons (100-200 kg/ha/day) providing a high alga biomass (200-500 mg/1) is suggested. Energy consumption is 0.01-0.03 W/m''3 of treated sewage. This method has been tried out in two pilot plants with a surface area of 1.54 m''2 a depth of 0.3 m and a volume of 0.47 m''3. each one has a central wall forming a channel and a wheel driving the water ar a rate of 9 cm/sec. By applying different operational regimes in each logoon, performance results were obtained for SS, COD, BOD and nutrients. These data were employed in designing the waste treatment plant for the village of Riudecanyes, which has about 1,000 inhabitants in winter and 2,000 in summer. This plant comprise a pre-treatment section, an Imhoff decanter, a 3500 m''2 lagoon (with 4 channels) and a secondary decanter. A subsurface flow wetland is planned for tertiary treatment. This is a totally new design in Spain that is capable of achieving results in line with Directive 91/271 with minimum exploitation costs. (Author) 8 refs.

  12. Water flux management and phytoplankton communities in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon. Part II: Mixotrophy of dinoflagellates as an adaptive strategy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchi, P.; Garrido, M.; Collos, Y.; Pasqualini, V.

    2016-01-01

    Dinoflagellate proliferation is common in coastal waters, and trophic strategies are often advanced to explain the success of these organisms. The Biguglia lagoon is a Mediterranean brackish ecosystem where eutrophication has long been an issue, and where dominance of dinoflagellates has persisted for several years. Monthly monitoring of fluorescence-based properties of phytoplankton communities carried out in 2010 suggested that photosynthesis alone could not support the observed situation all year round. Contrasting food webs developed depending on the hydrological season, with a gradual shift from autotrophy to heterotrophy. Progressively, microphytoplankton assemblages became unequivocally dominated by a Prorocentrum minimum bloom, which exhibited very weak effective photosynthetic performance, whereas paradoxically its theoretical capacities remained fully operational. Different environmental hypotheses explaining this discrepancy were examined, but rejected. We conclude that P. minimum bloom persistence is sustained by mixotrophic strategies, with complex compromises between phototrophy and phagotrophy, as evidenced by fluorescence-based observations. - Highlights: •Dinoflagellate proliferation is now common in Mediterranean coastal waters. •Trophic strategies are advanced to explain the success of these organisms. •Prorocentrum minimum exhaustively dominated in the Biguglia lagoon (Corsica) in 2010. •Photosynthesis alone did not sustain the observed situation all year round. •Mixotrophy is hypothesized as an alternative driver of the process.

  13. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of physiological variations between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots under different nutritional regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Moura Romao

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8 or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8. Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245 was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics

  14. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of physiological variations between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots under different nutritional regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romao, Josue Moura; Jin, Weiwu; He, Maolong; McAllister, Tim; Guan, Le Luo

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old) fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8) or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8). Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245) was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics observed between

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2001-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the remediation activities performed and the results of verification sampling conducted at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box. The CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1) and consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 22-03-01- Sewage Lagoon (CAU 230); and 22-99-01- Strainer Box (CAU 320). Included with CAS 22-99-01 is a buried Imhoff tank and a sludge bed. These CAUs will be collectively referred to in this plan as the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. Site characterization activities were done during September 1999. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) indicated that only the sludge bed (CAS 22-99-01) contained constituents of concern (COC) above action levels and required remediation (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office[DOE/NV], 2000a)

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2001-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the remediation activities performed and the results of verification sampling conducted at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box. The CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1) and consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 22-03-01- Sewage Lagoon (CAU 230); and 22-99-01- Strainer Box (CAU 320). Included with CAS 22-99-01 is a buried Imhoff tank and a sludge bed. These CAUs will be collectively referred to in this plan as the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. Site characterization activities were done during September 1999. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) indicated that only the sludge bed (CAS 22-99-01) contained constituents of concern (COC) above action levels and required remediation (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2000a).

  17. Non-native fishes of the central Indian River Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Loftus, William F.; Reaver, Kristen M.

    2018-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive review of the status of non-native fishes in the central Indian River Lagoon (from Cape Canaveral to Grant-Valkaria, east of I-95) through literature review and field surveys. Historical records exist for 17 taxa (15 species, one hybrid, one species complex). We found historical records for one additional species, and collected one species in our field survey that had never been recorded in the region before (and which we eradicated). Thus, we evaluate 19 total taxa herein. Of these, we documented range expansion of four salt-tolerant cichlid species, extirpation of six species that were previously recorded from the area and eradication of three species. There was no noticeable change in geographic range for one widespread species and the records for one species are doubtful and may be erroneous. Currently, there is not enough information to evaluate geographic ranges for four species although at least one of those is established.

  18. The zoobenthic community of the Orbetello Lagoon (Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgana, J G; Naviglio, L [ENEA Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente. AMB - PRO - ECO

    1996-12-31

    In this paper an analysis of the macrozoobenthic community structure of the Orbetello Lagoon is shown. During the study period taxa number, density, indices of diversity (Shannon), evenness (Pielou), richness (Margalef) and dominance (Simpson) were calculated for each sampling site. The similarity in species composition among was evaluated by community coefficients: a cluster analysis (UPGMA method) shows that the station 8 (near Ansedonia channel) and the station 4 ( in front of Patanella, near Fibbia channel) are very much alike (community coefficient = 82.86), whilst the station 1 (near Nassa channel) and the station 9 (near the domestic sewage of Orbetello Town) differ markedly from the other stations. The animal biomass (ash free dry weight) and the frequencies of trophic groups of each sampling site were estimated; the authors have found higher proportions of deposit feeders than suspension feeders in all the sampling sites.

  19. The zoobenthic community of the Orbetello Lagoon (Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgana, J.G.; Naviglio, L. [ENEA Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente. AMB - PRO - ECO

    1995-12-31

    In this paper an analysis of the macrozoobenthic community structure of the Orbetello Lagoon is shown. During the study period taxa number, density, indices of diversity (Shannon), evenness (Pielou), richness (Margalef) and dominance (Simpson) were calculated for each sampling site. The similarity in species composition among was evaluated by community coefficients: a cluster analysis (UPGMA method) shows that the station 8 (near Ansedonia channel) and the station 4 ( in front of Patanella, near Fibbia channel) are very much alike (community coefficient = 82.86), whilst the station 1 (near Nassa channel) and the station 9 (near the domestic sewage of Orbetello Town) differ markedly from the other stations. The animal biomass (ash free dry weight) and the frequencies of trophic groups of each sampling site were estimated; the authors have found higher proportions of deposit feeders than suspension feeders in all the sampling sites.

  20. Biogeochemical Impact of Hurricane Harvey on Texas Coastal Lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, P.; Hu, X.; Walker, L.; Wetz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey made landfall Friday 25 August 2017 as a Category 4 hurricane, which is the strongest hurricane to hit the middle Texas coast since Carla in 1961. After the wind storm and storm surge, coastal flooding occurred due to the storm lingering over Texas for four more days, dumping as much as 50" of rain near Houston, producing 1:1000 year flood event. The Texas coast is characterized by lagoons behind barrier islands, and their ecology and biogeochemistry are strongly influenced by coastal hydrology. The ensuing inflow event replaced brackish water with fresh water that was high in inorganic an organic matter, significantly enhancing respiration of coastal blue carbon, and dissolved oxygen went to zero for a long period of time. Recovery will likely take months or nearly one year.

  1. A constructive heuristic for time-dependent multi-depot vehicle routing problem with time-windows and heterogeneous fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the time-dependent multi-depot vehicle routing problem. The objective is to minimize the total heterogeneous fleet cost assuming that the travel time between locations depends on the departure time. Also, hard time window constraints for the customers and limitation on maximum number of the vehicles in depots must be satisfied. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming model. A constructive heuristic procedure is proposed for the problem. Also, the efficiency of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on 180 test problems. The obtained computational results indicate that the procedure is capable to obtain a satisfying solution.

  2. Design of Hybrid Gels Based on Gellan-Cholesterol Derivative and P90G Liposomes for Drug Depot Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Zoratto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gels are extensively studied in the drug delivery field because of their potential benefits in therapeutics. Depot gel systems fall in this area, and the interest in their development has been focused on long-lasting, biocompatible, and resorbable delivery devices. The present work describes a new class of hybrid gels that stem from the interaction between liposomes based on P90G phospholipid and the cholesterol derivative of the polysaccharide gellan. The mechanical properties of these gels and the delivery profiles of the anti-inflammatory model drug diclofenac embedded in such systems confirmed the suitability of these hybrid gels as a good candidate for drug depot applications.

  3. Biological control of trace metal and organometal benthic fluxes in a eutrophic lagoon (Thau Lagoon, Mediterranean Sea, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point, D.; Monperrus, M.; Tessier, E.; Amouroux, D.; Chauvaud, L.; Thouzeau, G.; Jean, F.; Amice, E.; Grall, J.; Leynaert, A.; Clavier, J.; Donard, O. F. X.

    2007-04-01

    In situ benthic chamber experiments were conducted in the Thau Lagoon that allowed the simultaneous determination of the benthic exchanges of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and U) and mercury species (iHg and MMHg). Fluxes of organotin compounds (MBT, DBT and TBT) were also investigated for the first time. The benthic incubations were performed during two campaigns at four stations that presented different macrobenthic and macrophytic species distribution and abundance (see [Thouzeau, G., Grall, J., Clavier, J., Chauvaud, L., Jean, F., Leynaert, A., Longpuirt, S., Amice, E., Amouroux, D., 2007. Spatial and temporal variability of benthic biogeochemical fluxes associated with macrophytic and macrofaunal distributions in the Thau lagoon (France). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 72 (3), 432 446.]). The results indicate that most of the flux intensity as well as the temporal and spatial variability can be explained by the combined influence of microscale and macroscale processes. Microscale changes were identified using Mn flux as a good indicator of the redox conditions at the sediment water interface, and by extension, as an accurate proxy of benthic fluxes for most trace metals and mercury species. We also observed that the redox gradient at the interface is promoted by both microbial and macrobenthic species activity that governs O2 budgets. Macroscale processes have been investigated considering macrobenthic organisms activity (macrofauna and macroalgal cover). The density of such macroorganisms is able to explain most of the spatial and temporal variability of the benthic metal fluxes within a specific site. A tentative estimation of the flux of metals and organometals associated with deposit feeder and suspension feeder activity was found to be in the range of the flux determined within the chambers for most considered elements. Furthermore, a light/dark incubation investigating a dense macroalgal cover present at the sediment surface illustrates the role

  4. A Probabilistic Tool that Aids Logistics Engineers in the Establishment of High Confidence Repair Need-Dates at the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullington, J. V.; Winkler, J. C.; Linton, D. G.; Khajenoori, S.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) is tasked with the responsibility for repair and manufacture of Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) hardware and components to support the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Due to shrinking budgets, cost effective repair of LRU's becomes a primary objective. To achieve this objective, is imperative that resources be assigned to those LRU's which have the greatest expectation of being needed as a spare. Forecasting the times at which spares are needed requires consideration of many significant factors including: failure rate, flight rate, spares availability, and desired level of support, among others. This paper summarizes the results of the research and development work that has been accomplished in producing an automated tool that assists in the assignment of effective repair start-times for LRU's at the NSLD. This system, called the Repair Start-time Assessment System (RSAS), uses probabilistic modeling technology to calculate a need date for a repair that considers the current repair pipeline status, as well as, serviceable spares and projections of future demands. The output from the system is a date for beginning the repair that has significantly greater confidence (in the sense that a desired probability of support is ensured) than times produced using other techniques. Since an important output of RSAS is the longest repair turn-around time that will ensure a desired probability of support, RSAS has the potential for being applied to operations at any repair depot where spares are on-hand and repair start-times are of interest. In addition, RSAS incorporates tenants of Just-in-Time (JIT) techniques in that the latest repair start-time (i.e., the latest time at which repair resources must be committed) may be calculated for every failed unit This could reduce the spares inventory for certain items, without significantly increasing the risk of unsatisfied demand.

  5. Insulin, IGF-1, and GH Receptors Are Altered in an Adipose Tissue Depot-Specific Manner in Male Mice With Modified GH Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Berryman, Darlene E; Comisford, Ross; Frank, Stuart J; List, Edward O; Bjerre, Mette; Frystyk, Jan; Kopchick, John J

    2017-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a determinant of glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue (AT) function. Using 7-month-old transgenic mice expressing the bovine growth hormone (bGH) gene and growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-/-) mice, we examined whether changes in GH action affect glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance and AT expression of proteins involved in the interrelated signaling pathways of GH, insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin. Furthermore, we searched for AT depot-specific differences in control mice. Glycated hemoglobin levels were reduced in bGH and GHR-/- mice, and bGH mice displayed impaired gluconeogenesis as judged by pyruvate tolerance testing. Serum IGF-1 was elevated by 90% in bGH mice, whereas IGF-1 and insulin were reduced by 97% and 61% in GHR-/- mice, respectively. Igf1 RNA was increased in subcutaneous, epididymal, retroperitoneal, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots in bGH mice (mean increase ± standard error of the mean in all five depots, 153% ± 27%) and decreased in all depots in GHR-/- mice (mean decrease, 62% ± 4%). IGF-1 receptor expression was decreased in all AT depots of bGH mice (mean decrease, 49% ± 6%) and increased in all AT depots of GHR-/- mice (mean increase, 94% ± 8%). Insulin receptor expression was reduced in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and BAT depots in bGH mice (mean decrease in all depots, 56% ± 4%) and augmented in subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and BAT depots in GHR-/- mice (mean increase: 51% ± 1%). Collectively, our findings indicate a role for GH in influencing hormone signaling in AT in a depot-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Swine Manure Lagoon Microbial and Antibiotic Resistant Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The differences in swine manure lagoon effluent based on differing management styles or approaches such as different stages of swine rearing determines the presence of variable antibiotic resistance determinants and functional microbial populations. These concerns determine the suitabil...

  7. Mysidacea (Crustacea) from the Minicoy lagoon (Lakshadweep, India) with description of a new species of Anisomysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biju, A.; Panampunnayil, S.U.; Prabhakaran, M.P.

    Four species of mysids collected from the Minicoy lagoon are reported. Anisomysis minicoyensis sp. nov. is distinguished from the related species by the shape of the rostrum, the relative length of the antennal scale and the short protuberances...

  8. Precise determination of the concentration of radiocesium in the water of Mururoa lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourlat, Y.; Martin, G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine with maximal precision the concentration of 137 Cs in the water of Mururoa lagoon and to verify if traces of 134 Cs as reported by the Fondation Cousteau in June 1987, were present in the lagoon. Eighteen 1000-litre samples of water were collected from stations within the lagoon during June and July of 1990. Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine cesium radionuclides. The concentration of 137 Cs ranged between 2.6 and 3.0 Bq/m 3 (mean 2.79 Bq/m 3 ), which is in good agreement with the annual measurements made by the Service Mixte de Securite Radiologique (SMSR) during systematic monitoring of the lagoon water. No trace of 134 Cs was detected. (author)

  9. Organic carbon isotope ratios of recent sediments from coastal lagoons of the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, A.V.; Mandelli, E.F.; Macko, S.; Parker, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic carbon was determined in the sediments of seven coastal lagoons of the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. For most of the lagoons the delta 13 C values for sediments ranged from -20.1 to -23.9 parts per thousand. Anomalously low values, -26.8 to 29.3 parts per thousand were determined in sediments of two of the studied lagoons, probably due to the presence of organic carbon from anthropogenic sources, naturally absent in these environments. The delta 13 C values determined in the tissues of oysters collected at the same time in the different lagoons were very similar to those recorded in the sediments. (author)

  10. Primary productivity of marine macrophytes in the coral reef lagoon of the Kadmat Island, Lakshadweep

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Shaikh, N.

    n situ primary productivity measurements were carried out with different macrophyte species (belonging to four groups) dominating the benthic communities in the coral reef lagoon of the Kadmat Island of the Lakshadweep Archipelago...

  11. The tidal hydrodynamics modeling of the Topolobampo coastal lagoon system and the implications for pollutant dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano-Ley, Y.; Peraza-Vizcarra, R.; Paez-Osuna, F.

    2007-01-01

    The tidal hydrodynamics of the Topolobampo coastal lagoon system (Mexico) has been investigated through a modified two dimensional non-linear hydrodynamic finite difference model. The advective and diffusive process acting over a hypothetical pollutant released into the coastal lagoon have also been simulated. Maxima tidal currents (0.85 m/s) were predicted within the main channel, in agree with direct measurements. The direction of the observed fastest currents (SW), also agree quite well with the direction of the strongest tidal current predicted in this investigation, which occur during the ebb when the water of the coastal lagoon is discharged into the Gulf of California. Residual currents (0.01-0.05 m/s) were also predicted. The hypothetical pollutant released within the Topolobampo Harbor would spread to both Ohuira and Topolobampo sections, reaching the inlet after approximately 12 days. - A model has been developed to simulate the tidal hydrodynamics and the behavior of a pollutant in the Topolobampo lagoon

  12. Grain size analysis of beach sediment along the barrier bar lagoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain size analysis of beach sediment along the barrier bar lagoon coastal system, Lagos, Nigeria; its implication on coastal erosion. R Abdulkarim, EA Akinnigbagbe, DO Imo, MT Imhansoloeva, VO Aniebone, MP Ibitola, BR Faleye, O Shonde, YJ Appia ...

  13. Problems and Alternatives of Settlement Lagoons for Mine Water Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kil

    2015-04-01

    A field test and computational flow analysis were conducted to identify the structural problems with existing settlement lagoons and to propose effective alternatives. When it comes to existing settlement lagoons without any specifically designed internal structure, mine water flows along a specific route while other regions remained stagnant. Such a flow pattern along a specific region causes a significant reduction in retention time as well as the ineffective use of the space in a settlement lagoon. When applying the modified settlement lagoon design proposed in this study, the flow distribution of mine drainage became uniform and the time taken for mine drainage to reach the outlet was improved by as much as 360 times and the exchange efficiency was significantly enhanced from 14.5% to 82.7%.

  14. Relationships between rodent white adipose fat pads and human white adipose fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella E. Chusyd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.

  15. [A preliminary study of low dosage zuclopenthixol depot in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, A; Rodríguez Navarrete, F J; Taboada, O; Docasar, L; Páramo, M; Noya, M

    1996-03-01

    Persistent psychomotor agitation and psychotic ideation in patients with Alzheimer's disease are normally treated orally with antipsychotic drugs and are occasionally treated with other drugs. Neuroleptics administered intramuscularly at very low doses are an alternative, especially when the patient rejects medicine as a results of his or her anosognosia or of paranoid manifestations. We present the results we obtained after observing the effects of depot zuclopenthixol in six patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (based upon NINCDS-ADRDA criteria). Psychic abnormalities were assessed as per the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Possible extrapyramidal side effects were evaluated by means of the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). Initially 60 mg (0.3 ml) were administered intramuscularly and successive doses could be modified by +/-20 mg (0.1 ml) according to results seen on the various scales. During the first six weeks of treatment progressive improvement was noted on all three psychic functions scales in all patients. Between the sixth and twelfth weeks improvement continued although without significant change. The AIMS did not show significant changes in the twelve weeks of follow-up. We consider depot zuclopenthixol at low doses as efficacious in treating persistent psychomotor agitation and/or psychotic manifestations of Alzheimer's disease. No undesired side effects were observed in our group after a twelve week follow-up.

  16. A two-stage approach to the depot shunting driver assignment problem with workload balance considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxi; Gronalt, Manfred; Sun, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Due to its environmentally sustainable and energy-saving characteristics, railway transportation nowadays plays a fundamental role in delivering passengers and goods. Emerged in the area of transportation planning, the crew (workforce) sizing problem and the crew scheduling problem have been attached great importance by the railway industry and the scientific community. In this paper, we aim to solve the two problems by proposing a novel two-stage optimization approach in the context of the electric multiple units (EMU) depot shunting driver assignment problem. Given a predefined depot shunting schedule, the first stage of the approach focuses on determining an optimal size of shunting drivers. While the second stage is formulated as a bi-objective optimization model, in which we comprehensively consider the objectives of minimizing the total walking distance and maximizing the workload balance. Then we combine the normalized normal constraint method with a modified Pareto filter algorithm to obtain Pareto solutions for the bi-objective optimization problem. Furthermore, we conduct a series of numerical experiments to demonstrate the proposed approach. Based on the computational results, the regression analysis yield a driver size predictor and the sensitivity analysis give some interesting insights that are useful for decision makers.

  17. A two-stage approach to the depot shunting driver assignment problem with workload balance considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxi Wang

    Full Text Available Due to its environmentally sustainable and energy-saving characteristics, railway transportation nowadays plays a fundamental role in delivering passengers and goods. Emerged in the area of transportation planning, the crew (workforce sizing problem and the crew scheduling problem have been attached great importance by the railway industry and the scientific community. In this paper, we aim to solve the two problems by proposing a novel two-stage optimization approach in the context of the electric multiple units (EMU depot shunting driver assignment problem. Given a predefined depot shunting schedule, the first stage of the approach focuses on determining an optimal size of shunting drivers. While the second stage is formulated as a bi-objective optimization model, in which we comprehensively consider the objectives of minimizing the total walking distance and maximizing the workload balance. Then we combine the normalized normal constraint method with a modified Pareto filter algorithm to obtain Pareto solutions for the bi-objective optimization problem. Furthermore, we conduct a series of numerical experiments to demonstrate the proposed approach. Based on the computational results, the regression analysis yield a driver size predictor and the sensitivity analysis give some interesting insights that are useful for decision makers.

  18. The multi-depot electric vehicle location routing problem with time windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Paz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Multi-Depot Electric Vehicle Location Routing Problem with Time Windows (MDVLRP is addressed. This problem is an extension of the MDVLRP, where electric vehicles are used instead of internal combustion engine vehicles. The recent development of this model is explained by the advantages of this technology, such as the diminution of carbon dioxide emissions, and the support that they can provide to the design of the logistic and energy-support structure of electric vehicle fleets. There are many models that extend the classical VRP model to take electric vehicles into consideration, but the multi-depot case for location-routing models has not been worked out yet. Moreover, we consider the availability of two energy supply technologies: the “Plug-in” Conventional Charge technology, and Battery Swapping Stations; options in which the recharging time is a function of the amount of energy to charge and a fixed time, respectively. Three models are proposed: one for each of the technologies mentioned above, and another in which both options are taken in consideration. The models were solved for small scale instances using C++ and Cplex 12.5. The results show that the models can be used to design logistic and energy-support structures, and compare the performance of the different options of energy supply, as well as measure the impact of these decisions on the overall distance traveled or other optimization objectives that could be worked on in the future.

  19. Dynamics of pollution-indicator and heterotrophic bacteria in sewage treatment lagoons.

    OpenAIRE

    Legendre, P; Baleux, B; Troussellier, M

    1984-01-01

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of pollution-indicator bacteria and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were studied in the sewage treatment lagoons of an urban wastewater center after 26 months of biweekly sampling at eight stations in these lagoons. Robust statistical methods of time-series analysis were used to study successional steps (through chronological clustering) and rhythmic behavior through time (through contingency periodogram). The aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community showed two ty...

  20. Bank filtration drinking water treatment in a costal lagoon in south Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Esquivel, Luis Guillermo; Segalla-Pizzolatti, Bruno; Luiz-Sens, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Bank filtration (BF) consists in obtaining drinking water from wells in alluvial aquifers or other unconsolidated deposits hydraulically connected with a surface water source. The possibility of applying this technique was evaluated in a pilot scale on the banks of the Lagoa do Peri lagoon, Brazil. Observation and grain size analysis showed that the bottom of the lagoon and the adjacent aquifer have sandy texture. In addition, tests of constant head permeameter, standpipe falling head and a p...

  1. Environmental conditions and biotic communities in Foz de Almargem and Salgados coastal lagoons, Algarve (South Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Susana Isabel Eusébio

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to compare environmental conditions and biotic communities of two choked coastal lagoons located in the Algarve region, Foz de Almargem and Salgados, with the purpose of evaluating the effects of organic pollution from wastewater discharges in water quality and biotic communities from different levels of the food chain, namely phytoplankton and benthic macroinvertebrates. Both lagoons were seasonally connected to the sea, but most of the year they were isolated r...

  2. Feeding ecology of juvenile marine fish in a shallow coastal lagoon of southeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Arceo-Carranza; Xavier Chiappa-Carrara

    2015-01-01

    Many species of marine fish use coastal lagoons during early stages of their life cycles due to the protection provided by their turbid waters and complex structure of the environment, such as mangroves and mudflats, and the availability of food derived from the high productivity of these sites. In this study, we analyzed the diet of six species of juvenile marine fishes that use a karstic lagoon system in the northwest portion of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Through stomach contents analys...

  3. Methanogenesis in an impacted and two dystrophic coastal lagoons (Macaé, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, André Luiz dos Santos; Casper, Peter; Esteves, Francisco de Assis

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the methanogenic activity in sediment of the Imboacica (human impacted), Cabiúnas and Comprida coastal lagoons in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil). Methane was not detected in water and sediment samples from the three lagoons. The measured nutrient concentrations in the pore-water indicated that methanogens activity was not limited by nutrients. Methanogenic activity was not detected under in vitro conditions, indicating that terminal organic carbon mineralisation via met...

  4. Natural revegetation of coal fly ash in a highly saline disposal lagoon in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, L.M. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Biology

    2008-08-15

    Question: What is the relationship of the naturally colonizing vegetation and substrate characteristics in fly ash lagoons? Location: West lagoon, Deep Bay, a 13-ha coastal lagoon in Hong Kong in subtropical Southeast Asia. Methods: Vegetation establishment was examined in a coal fly ash lagoon two years after its abandonment to investigate the distribution of vegetation in relationship to the chemical properties of the fly ash in the lagoon. A greenhouse experiment assessed the limits imposed on plant growth in fly ash. Results: The fly ash was saline, slightly alkaline and very poor in organic matter and nitrogen. Ash from bare and vegetated areas differed significantly in their salinity and extractable concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and various metals. Bare ash had a significantly higher conductivity and extractable sodium, aluminum, manganese, potassium. and lead. In total 11 plant species that belonged to seven families were found growing on the fly ash: all species except the shrub Tamarix chinensis were herbaceous. Using discriminant analysis, the most important factors in distinguishing bare and vegetated ashes were conductivity and sodium. Cluster analysis of bare samples gave two distinct groups, one from the periphery of the lagoon, which had lower sodium, conductivity, organic carbon, potassium and copper, and the other from a second group that contained ashes from the central region of the lagoon. Results of the greenhouse experiment showed that the inhibition of plant growth was significantly correlated with the presence of soluble toxic elements in ash. Conclusion: Toxicity and salinity seem to be the major limiting factors to plant establishment in fly ash, and these factors must be ameliorated for the successful reclamation of these fly ash lagoons.

  5. The Dynamics of Mercury Speciation and Transport at a Central California Coastal Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Dimova, N. T.; Merckling, J.; Kehrlein, N. C.; Hohn, R. A.; Richardson, C. M.; Johnson, C. D.; Fisher, A. T.; Lamborg, C. H.; Flegal, A. R., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal trends in total mercury and monomethylmercury (MMHg) in groundwater, lagoon water, and nearshore seawater to assess the drivers of MMHg production in a coastal lagoon system. Many West Coast streams transition from estuarine to lagoon conditions in the dry season when a sand berm develops at the stream mouth, restricting surface water exchange with the ocean. Because lagoons accumulate nutrients from their upstream watershed they are susceptible to eutrophication, which can promote the growth of anaerobic bacteria. In nearshore settings, these bacteria are primarily responsible for producing MMHg, a bioaccumulative neurotoxin. We found that MMHg concentrations in lagoon water (1 - 5 pM) were higher than in groundwater (0.2 - 1 pM) and coastal seawater (0.1 - 0.6 pM). Groundwater depth profiles combined with subsurface resistivity images suggest MMHg in lagoon water was transported through the sand berm to adjacent seawater. MMHg in seawater and groundwater followed similar trends, providing additional evidence of groundwater-surface water interaction. MMHg in groundwater directly below the lagoon was consistently higher where dissolved oxygen and NO3- decreased, implying MMHg production by anaerobic bacteria. Over a ~7-hour period we observed a 0.6 pM decrease in groundwater MMHg (1 to 0.4 pM) that coincided with a decrease in water temperature (16.5 to 13 °C). We hypothesize that microbial activity, and consequently MMHg production, were enhanced in warmer water. Because coastal lagoons support intricate food webs and serve as nurseries for a variety of organisms, processes that influence mercury speciation and transport in these ecosystems may have a disproportionate impact on nearshore mercury biogeochemical cycling.

  6. Assessment of the trophic state of a hypersaline-carbonatic environment: Vermelha Lagoon (Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Laut

    Full Text Available Vermelha Lagoon is a hypersaline shallow transitional ecosystem in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. This lagoon is located in the protected area of Massambaba, between the cities of Araruama and Saquarema (Brazil, and displays two quite uncommon particularities: it exhibits carbonate sedimentation and displays the development of Holocene stromatolites. Due to both particularities, the salt industry and property speculation have been, increasingly, generating anthropic pressures on this ecosystem. This study aims to apply a multiproxy approach to evaluate the trophic state of Vermelha Lagoon based on physicochemical parameters and geochemical data for the quantification and qualification of organic matter (OM, namely total organic carbon (TOC, total sulfur (TS, total phosphorus (TP and biopolymeric carbon (BPC, including carbohydrates (CHO, lipids (LIP and proteins (PTN. The CHO/TOC ratio values suggest that OM supplied to the sediment is of autochthonous origin and results, essentially, from microbial activity. The cluster analyses allowed the identification of four regions in Vermelha Lagoon. The Region I included stations located in shallow areas of the eastern sector of Vermelha lagoon affected by the impact of the artificial channel of connection with Araruama Lagoon. The Region II, under the influence of salt pans, is characterized by the highest values of BPC, namely CHO promoted by microbiological activity. The Region III include stations spread through the lagoon with high values of dissolved oxygen and lower values of TP. Stromatolites and microbial mattes growth was observed in some stations of this sector. Region IV, where the highest values of TOC and TS were found, represents depocenters of organic matter, located in general in depressed areas. Results of this work evidences that the Vermelha Lagoon is an eutrophic but alkaline and well oxygenated environment (at both water column and surface sediment where the autotrophic

  7. Calibration of Linked Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model for Santa Margarita Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    was used to drive the transport and water quality kinetics for the simulation of 2007–2009. The sand berm, which controlled the opening/closure of...TECHNICAL REPORT 3015 July 2016 Calibration of Linked Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model for Santa Margarita Lagoon Final Report Pei...Linked Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model for Santa Margarita Lagoon Final Report Pei-Fang Wang Chuck Katz Ripan Barua SSC Pacific James

  8. The environmental impacts of land transformation in the coastal perimeter of the Mar Menor lagoon (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA-AYLLON VEINTIMILLA, SALVADOR; Miralles García, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Assigned to WIT Press all rights under copyright that may exist in and to the Work and any associated written or multimedia components or other enhancements accompanying the Work. The distinctive environment of the lagoon has long been attractive for visitors. A surge in touristic activities has taken place in the area since the early 1960s, characterised by intense urban development along the lagoon s perimeter to accommodate the growing seasonal population. This phenomenon has particular...

  9. Lagoon-sea exchanges, nutrient dynamics and water quality management of the Ria Formosa (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Alice; Mudge, Stephen M.

    2005-02-01

    Historical data from the Ria Formosa lagoon are classified according to the EEA 2001 guidelines to provide a frame of reference to evaluate the effect of management during the implementation of the environmental legislative Directives. Water samples from the Ria Formosa lagoon were significantly enriched in nitrogen (NH 4+ NO 2- and NO 3-) with respect to the adjacent coastal waters indicating that inputs from sewage, agricultural runoff and benthic fluxes were not fully assimilated within the lagoon. Tidal flushing was insufficient in the inner areas of the lagoon to remove or effectively dilute these inputs. Enrichment was most severe close to the urban centres of Faro and Olhão, as well as in the Gilão Estuary and the shallow extremities. Dissolved oxygen undersaturation (mean 75% during daylight hours) was associated with the area close to the sewage outlets of Faro. In the shallow west end of the lagoon during summer, dissolved oxygen supersaturation reached 140% during the day but fell to 50% at night. Classification using the EEA (2001) guidelines suggests the system is "poor" or "bad" with respect to phosphate concentrations for the majority of the year and "poor" in nitrogen contamination during the autumn rainy period. Due to the high overall nitrogen load in the lagoon, there is a net export to the coastal waters, especially during November and December, and phosphate only becomes limiting briefly during the spring bloom (April). Therefore, substantial phytoplankton populations may be supported year-round in the lagoon. The consequences of water quality deterioration in the Ria Formosa would negatively affect the lagoon as a regional resource, important for its ecological, economic and recreational value. The industries most affected would be tourism, fisheries and aquaculture. Management options include Urban Waste Water Treatment, dredging, artificial inlets, limits on urban development and changes in agricultural practices.

  10. Effects of sandbar openings on the zooplankton community of coastal lagoons with different conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayanne Barros Setubal

    Full Text Available AIM: Artificial sandbar openings are a common management practice in coastal lagoons but they can be a threat when negative effects to the quality of water and to the aquatic biota are observed. The current study compared sandbar opening effects in two coastal lagoons located close to each other, but differing on trophic status and on sandbar openings' background. METHODS:Limnological variables and zooplankton community were recorded monthly during one year before and one year after sandbar openings that occurred in the same month for both lagoons, giving 24 samples. We compared the effects of sandbar opening on response variables, according to the two types of system. RESULTS: The sandbar openings determined changes in some limnological features - depth and salinity - but such effects were different in the two types of system. The zooplankton structure displayed dramatic changes in the eutrophic and commonly opened lagoon. The occurrence and abundance of some species were closely related to changes in limnological variables. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated that zooplankton communities are more resistant to sandbar openings in coastal lagoons historically less disturbed. The direction and magnitude of changes promoted by sandbar openings might be specific to each lagoon, due to different backgrounds of disturbances that, in the long term, modify the water quality and the structure of zooplankton communities, and consequently, their resistance and resilience.

  11. Nutrient budgets and trophic state in a hypersaline coastal lagoon: Lagoa de Araruama, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcelo F. L.; Kjerfve, Björn; Knoppers, Bastiaan; Landim de Souza, Weber F.; Damasceno, Raimundo N.

    2003-08-01

    Lagoa de Araruama in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is a hypersaline lagoon with salinity varying spatially from 45 to 56. We collected water samples during monthly cruises throughout the lagoon, and along the streams feeding the system, from April 1991 to March 1992. Nutrients and other water quality parameters exhibited great spatial and temporal variations. Mass balance calculations indicate large amounts of anthropogenic nutrient inputs. The data indicate that the lagoon currently is oligotrophic but is in a state of transition to become a mesotrophic system. Molar dissolved inorganic nitrogen:dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIN/DIP) varied between 2.2:1 and 659:1 with a volume-weighted average of 22:1. The high DIN/DIP ratio contrasts with that found in nearby lagoons, suggesting that phytoplankton primary production is limited by phosphorus in Lagoa de Araruama. The major loss of DIP is apparently driven by biological assimilation and diagenic reactions in the sediments. Calculations indicate that the lagoon is slightly net autotrophic at +0.9 mol C m -2 yr -1. This suggests that the biomass of the primary producers is restricted by phosphorus availability. Phosphorus retention in the sediment and the hypersaline state of the lagoon prevent changes in autotrophic communities and the formation of eutrophic conditions.

  12. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variation across calving lagoons in Eastern North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Ramirez, Sergio Flores; Nigenda, Sergio; Ramirez, Jorge Urbán; Bracho, Lorenzo Rojas; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of population structure in cetaceans is critical for preserving and managing breeding habitat, particularly when habitat is not uniformly protected. Most eastern gray whales return to their major breeding range each winter along the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrating in 3 major calving lagoons, but it is unknown whether genetic differences exist between lagoons. Previous photo-identification studies and genetic studies suggest that gray whales may return to their natal lagoons to breed, potentially resulting in the buildup of genetic differences. However, an earlier genetic study used only one genetic marker and did not include samples from Bahia Magdalena, a major calving lagoon not currently designated as a wildlife refuge. To expand on this previous study, we collected genetic data from the mitochondrial control region (442 bp) and 9 microsatellite markers from 112 individuals across all 3 major calving lagoons. Our data suggest that migration rates between calving lagoons are high but that a small but significant departure from panmixia exists between Bahia Magdalena and Laguna San Ignacio (Fisher's Exact test, P 10% per generation). In addition, microsatellite data showed evidence of a severe population bottleneck. Eastern gray whales are still recovering from the impacts of whaling on their breeding grounds, and these populations should be protected and monitored for future genetic changes.

  13. Spatial and temporal distribution of fish larvae in marginal lagoons of Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Keyla Tondato

    Full Text Available An analysis was made of the spatial and temporal distribution of the abundance and composition of fish larvae assemblies, aiming to ascertain correlations with biotic and abiotic factors in marginal lagoons of the Cuiabá River floodplain in Brazil's Pantanal wetlands. Samples were collected bimonthly in the pelagic region of the marginal lagoons (fourteen lagoons close to the littoral zone covered by aquatic macrophytes from December 2006 to April 2007. The captured individuals consisted of 2,739 larvae, represented predominantly by Triportheus spp. (Characidae, Parodontidae, Anostomidae, Characidae and Serrasalmidae. Larval density varied among the sample lagoons in December, but the biotic (zooplankton density and abiotic (water temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, water transparency and lagoon depth factors did not significantly affect larval composition and abundance. Larvae were captured throughout the sample period, with the highest densities occurring in December and early January. Temporally, lagoon depth, water transparency and fluviometric level showed a negative correlation with larval density. Both the zooplankton and the larval density vary positively, responding likewise to the environmental conditions imposed by flooding. The highest larval density was also found to coincide with the first rains (early December, when the rainfall has not yet reached its peak.

  14. An update on the fish composition (Teleostei of the coastal lagoons of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park and the Imboassica Lagoon, northern Rio de Janeiro State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Di Dario

    Full Text Available AIM: We present an update on the composition of the fish species of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park and the Imboassica Lagoon, in the northern portion of Rio de Janeiro State, based on collecting efforts of almost two decades, historical museum records, and a review of the literature. METHODS: Specimens were collected using a variety of techniques, mostly between 1994 and 2012, and were fixed with the use of a 10% solution of formalin and subsequently stored in 70% alcohol solution. All specimens examined are deposited in the fish collections of the Núcleo em Ecologia e Desenvolvimento Socioambiental de Macaé, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (NPM, and Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. Continental (freshwater fishes and some marine or estuarine species frequently collected were regarded as Resident, whereas marine species collected only sporadically were regarded as Occasional. Possible associations between the orientation of the lagoons and the composition of Resident fishes were explored through a Correspondence Analysis (CA. RESULTS: A total of 100 species, belonging to 19 orders and 41 families of the Teleostei were recorded. When both Resident and Occasional species are considered, families Carangidae and Engraulidae, with nine and eight species respectively, are the most representative. When only Resident species are considered, the Gerreidae and Gobiidae, both with seven species, are the most representative families. The Imboassica Lagoon, with 76 species, has the highest species richness among lagoons included in this study. A total of 81 species were recorded in the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, a number two times higher than reported on previous studies. An identification key, including 57 Resident species, is also presented. CONCLUSIONS: Parallel lagoons were characterized by a small group of continental species presumably of marine ancestry (Secondary Division, while marine species

  15. A Multi-Depot Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problem with Delivery Options Arising in the Last Mile Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lin; Baldacci, Roberto; Vigo, Daniele; Wang, Xu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new city logistics problem arising in the last mile distribution of e-commerce. The problem involves two levels of routing problems. The first requires a design of the routes for a vehicle fleet located at the depots to transport the customer demands to a subset of the

  16. Double stimuli-responsive polymer systems: How to use crosstalk between pH- and thermosensitivity for drug depots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bogomolova, Anna; Kaberov, Leonid; Sedláček, Ondřej; Filippov, Sergey K.; Štěpánek, Petr; Král, V.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, S. L.; Ye, X. D.; Hrubý, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, November (2016), s. 54-64 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14292; GA ČR(CZ) GC15-10527J Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : drug depot formulation * double responsive system * pH-responsive polymer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  17. Deployment Strategy for Car-Sharing Depots by Clustering Urban Traffic Big Data Based on Affinity Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Car sharing is a type of car rental service, by which consumers rent cars for short periods of time, often charged by hours. The analysis of urban traffic big data is full of importance and significance to determine locations of depots for car-sharing system. Taxi OD (Origin-Destination is a typical dataset of urban traffic. The volume of the data is extremely large so that traditional data processing applications do not work well. In this paper, an optimization method to determine the depot locations by clustering taxi OD points with AP (Affinity Propagation clustering algorithm has been presented. By analyzing the characteristics of AP clustering algorithm, AP clustering has been optimized hierarchically based on administrative region segmentation. Considering sparse similarity matrix of taxi OD points, the input parameters of AP clustering have been adapted. In the case study, we choose the OD pairs information from Beijing’s taxi GPS trajectory data. The number and locations of depots are determined by clustering the OD points based on the optimization AP clustering. We describe experimental results of our approach and compare it with standard K-means method using quantitative and stationarity index. Experiments on the real datasets show that the proposed method for determining car-sharing depots has a superior performance.

  18. Perceptions on efficacy and side effects of conventional depot antipsychotics (CDA) and atypical depot antipsychotics (ADA): Psychiatrists versus patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Hector W H; Fong, Mandy W M; Fung, Kelvin M T; Chung, Raymond C K

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Objectives. We compared the satisfaction level of psychiatrists and psychiatric patients towards conventional (CDA) and atypical (ADA) depot antipsychotics on symptom management, role functioning, and side effects. Method. Patients from an out-patient clinic of a public hospital and psychiatrists from public hospitals participated in the survey in 2007-2008. A total of 153 patients were interviewed by a tailor-made questionnaire and 72 psychiatrists self-administered a similar questionnaire. Results. Both groups shared similar attitudes towards clinical effectiveness and treatment efficacy of ADA and CDA. More patients were ambivalent towards relapse prevention of CDA than psychiatrists (30.7 vs. 16.7%, PADA are associated with less side effects. More than half of the patients showed negative attitudes towards the effectiveness of CDA on improving quality of life (52.40%), work (57.50%), and recreation (55.50%). Psychiatrists were more aware of the limitation of CDA and severity of side effects of CDA. They did not, however, seem to incorporate patients' opinions and research findings into their clinical practice. Conclusion. Evidence-based practice and shared decision-making model between clinicians and mental patients should be advocated. More investigations should be devoted to examine the efficacy of ADA as the alternative to CDA.

  19. Resistance and resilience of ecosystem descriptors and properties to dystrophic events: a study case in a Mediterranean lagoon

    OpenAIRE

    Basset, Alberto; Barbone, Enrico; Rosati, Ilaria; Vignes, Fabio; Breber, Paolo; Specchiulli, Antonietta; D'Adamo, Raffaele; Renzi, Monia; Focardi, Silvano; Ungaro, Nicola; Pinna, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean lagoons are naturally exposed, during the dry season, to dystrophic and hypoxic events determining dis-equilibrium conditions along temporal and spatial scales, which are linked to metabolism and life cycle of the biotic components. In summer 2008, Lesina lagoon (SE Italian coastline) was interested by a geographically localized dystrophic crisis which affected up to 8% of the total lagoon surface. Temporal dynamics of principal descriptors of abiotic (water, sediment) and bioti...

  20. Three Dinophyceae from Clipperton Island lagoon (eastern Pacific Ocean), including a description of Peridiniopsis cristata var. tubulifera var. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Coute, Alain; Perrette, Catherine; Chomerat, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Clipperton Island is a small French coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean, which has been rarely investigated because of its remote location and difficult access. There is little scientific information on this ecosystem and only a few microalgae have been reported from the lagoon. To date, only one dinoflagellate taxon, Peridiniopsis cristata, is known to inhabit the lagoon. During an expedition in 2005 to study the lagoon and the surrounding oceanic waters of Clipperton Island, a further ...

  1. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of membrane filtration process adapted for water treatment of aerated sewage lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Grégory; Mouahid, Adil; Carretier, Emilie; Guasp, Pascal; Dhaler, Didier; Castelas, Bernard; Moulin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to apply the membrane bioreactor technology in an oxidation ditch in submerged conditions. This new wastewater filtration process will benefit rural areas (membranes developed without support are immersed in an aeration well and work in suction mode. The development of the membrane without support and more precisely the performance of spacers are approached by computational fluid dynamics in order to provide the best compromise between pressure drop/flow velocity and permeate flux. The numerical results on the layout and the membrane modules' geometry in the aeration well indicate that the optimal configuration is to install the membranes horizontally on three levels. Membranes should be connected to each other to a manifold providing a total membrane area of 18 m². Loss rate compared to the theoretical throughput is relatively low (less than 3%). Preliminary data obtained by modeling the lagoon provide access to its hydrodynamics, revealing that recirculation zones can be optimized by making changes in the operating conditions. The experimental validation of these results and taking into account the aeration in the numerical models are underway.

  2. CISOCUR - Hydrodynamic circulation in the Curonian Lagoon inferred through stable isotope measurements and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Razinkovas-Baziukas, Arturas; Barisevičiūtė, Ruta; Baziukė, Dalia; Ertürk, Ali; Gasiūnaitė, Jovita; Gulbinskas, Saulius; Lubienė, Irma; Maračkinaite, Jurgita; Petkuvienė, Jolita; Pilkaitytė, Renata; Ruginis, Tomas; Zemlys, Petras; Žilius, Mindaugas

    2013-04-01

    The spatial pattern of the hydrodynamic circulation of the Curonian lagoon, the largest European coastal lagoon, is still little understood. In absence of automatic current registration data all the existing models relied mostly on such data as water levels leaving high level of uncertainty. Here we present CISOCUR, a new project financed by the European Social Fund under the Global Grant measure. The project applies a new methodology that uses the carbon stable isotope (SI) ratio of C12 and C13 that characterize different water sources entering the lagoon and may be altered by internal kinetic processes. Through the tracing of these isotope ratios different water masses can be identified. This gives the possibility to validate several hypotheses of water circulation and validate hydrodynamic models. In particular it will be possible to 1) trace water masses entering the lagoon through the Nemunas and the Klaipeda strait; 2) test the hypothesis of sediment transport mechanisms inside the lagoon; 3) evaluate the importance of physical forcing on the lagoon circulation. The use of a hydrodynamic finite element model, coupled with the SI method, will allow for a realistic description of the transport processes inside the Curonian lagoon. So the main research goal is to apply the stable isotope tracers and a finite element model to determine the circulation patterns in the Curonian lagoon. Overall, the project will develop according to 4 main phases: 1) A pilot study to measure the isotope composition of different carbon compounds (dissolved and suspended) in different water bodies that feed water into the central lagoon. Through this pilot study the optimal study sites for the seasonal campaign will be identified as well. 2) Seasonal field campaigns in the monitoring stations identified in phase 1 to measure the carbon isotope ratio. 3) Development of a model that describes the kinetics of carbon isotopes and its transformation. 4) Application of a hydrodynamic model

  3. Groundwater dependence of coastal lagoons: The case of La Pletera salt marshes (NE Catalonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menció, A.; Casamitjana, X.; Mas-Pla, J.; Coll, N.; Compte, J.; Martinoy, M.; Pascual, J.; Quintana, X. D.

    2017-09-01

    Coastal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems of the world, playing an important role in coastal defense and wildlife conservation. These ecosystems, however, are usually affected by human activities, which may cause a loss and degradation of their ecological status, a decline of their biodiversity, an alteration of their ecological functioning, and a limitation of their ecosystem services. La Pletera salt marshes (NE Spain) are located in a region mainly dominated by agriculture and tourism activities. Part of these wetlands and lagoons has been affected by an incomplete construction of an urban development and in this moment is the focus of a Life+ project, whose aim is to restore this protected area. Several studies have analyzed the role of hydrological regime in nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton in this area, however, the role of groundwater was never considered as a relevant factor in the lagoon dynamics, and its influence is still unknown. In this study, the hydrogeological dynamics in La Pletera salt marshes has been analyzed, as a basis to set sustainable management guidelines for this area. In order to determine their dependence on groundwater resources, monthly hydrochemical (with major ions and nutrients) and isotopic (δ18OH2O and δD) campaigns have been conducted, from November 2014 to October 2015. In particular, groundwater from six wells, surface water from two nearby streams and three permanent lagoons, and sea water was considered in these surveys. Taking into account the meteorological data and the water levels in the lagoons, the General Lake Model has been conducted to determine, not only evaporation and rainfall occurring in the lagoons, but also the total inflows and outflows. In addition, the Gonfiantini isotopic model, together with equilibrium chemical-speciation/mass transfer models, has been used to analyze the evaporation and the physicochemical processes affecting the lagoons. Results show that during the dry

  4. Environmental quality of transitional waters: the lagoon of Venice case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, C; Gottardo, S; Critto, A; Chiarato, S; Marcomini, A

    2011-01-01

    The health status of European aquatic environments, including transitional waters such as coastal lagoons, is regulated by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), which requires the classification of the water bodies' environmental quality and the achievement of a good ecological status by 2015. In the Venice lagoon, a transitional water body located in the northeastern part of Italy, the achievement of a good ecological status is hampered by several anthropogenic and natural pressures, such as sediment and water chemical contamination, and sediment erosion. In order to evaluate the lagoon's environmental quality according to the WFD (i.e. 5 quality classes, from High to Bad), an integrated Weight-of-Evidence methodology was developed and applied to classify the quality of the lagoon water bodies, integrating biological, physico-chemical, chemical, ecotoxicological, and hydromorphological data (i.e. Lines of Evidence, LOE). The quality assessment was carried out in two lagoon habitat typologies (previously defined on the basis of morphological, sediment, and hydrodynamic characteristics) which were selected taking into account the ecological gradient from sea to land, and the differences in anthropogenic pressure and contamination levels. The LOE classification was carried out by using indicators scored by comparing site specific conditions to reference conditions measured in lagoon reference sites, or provided by local, national or European regulations (e.g. Environmental Quality Standards, EQS, for chemicals). Finally, the overall quality status for each water body was calculated by a probabilistic approach, i.e. by reporting the final result as the frequency distribution of quality classes. The developed procedure was applied by using data and information concerning selected LOE and collected from monitoring programs and research studies carried out in the last 15 years in the lagoon of Venice. A set of sampling stations characterized by spatially and temporally

  5. Sustained analgesic effect of clonidine co-polymer depot in a porcine incisional pain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsey JT

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Jared T Wilsey, Julie H Block Medtronic Spine Division, Memphis, TN, USA Background: Previous research suggests that the α2 adrenergic agonist clonidine, a centrally acting analgesic and antihypertensive, may also have direct effects on peripheral pain generators. However, aqueous injections are limited by rapid systemic absorption leading to off target effects and a brief analgesic duration of action. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a sustained-release clonidine depot, placed in the wound bed, in a pig incisional pain model. Methods: The depot was a 15 mm ×5 mm ×0.3 mm poly(lactide-co-caprolactone polymer film containing 3% (w/w clonidine HCl (MDT3. Fifty-two young adult mix Landrace pigs (9–11 kg were divided into seven groups. All subjects received a 6 cm, full-thickness, linear incision into the left lateral flank. Group 1 served as a Sham control group (Sham, n=8. Group 2 received three placebo strips (PBO, n=8, placed end-to-end in the subcutaneous wound bed before wound closure. Group 3 received one MDT3 and two PBO (n=8, Group 4 received two MDT3 and one PBO (n=8, and Group 5 received three MDT3 (n=8. Positive control groups received peri-incisional injections of bupivacaine solution (Group 6, 30 mg/day bupivacaine, n=8 or clonidine solution (Group 7, 225 µg/day, n=4. Results: The surgical procedure was associated with significant peri-incisional tactile allodynia. There was a dose-dependent effect of MDT3 in partially reversing the peri-incisional tactile allodynia, with maximum pain relief relative to Sham at 72 hours. Daily injections of bupivacaine (30 mg, but not clonidine (up to 225 µg, completely reversed allodynia within 48 hours. There was a statistically significant correlation between the dose of MDT3 and cumulative withdrawal threshold from 4 hours through the conclusion of the study on day 7. Conclusion: These data suggest that a sustained-release clonidine depot may be a

  6. Sustained analgesic effect of clonidine co-polymer depot in a porcine incisional pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, Jared T; Block, Julie H

    2018-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the α 2 adrenergic agonist clonidine, a centrally acting analgesic and antihypertensive, may also have direct effects on peripheral pain generators. However, aqueous injections are limited by rapid systemic absorption leading to off target effects and a brief analgesic duration of action. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a sustained-release clonidine depot, placed in the wound bed, in a pig incisional pain model. The depot was a 15 mm ×5 mm ×0.3 mm poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) polymer film containing 3% (w/w) clonidine HCl (MDT3). Fifty-two young adult mix Landrace pigs (9-11 kg) were divided into seven groups. All subjects received a 6 cm, full-thickness, linear incision into the left lateral flank. Group 1 served as a Sham control group (Sham, n=8). Group 2 received three placebo strips (PBO, n=8), placed end-to-end in the subcutaneous wound bed before wound closure. Group 3 received one MDT3 and two PBO (n=8), Group 4 received two MDT3 and one PBO (n=8), and Group 5 received three MDT3 (n=8). Positive control groups received peri-incisional injections of bupivacaine solution (Group 6, 30 mg/day bupivacaine, n=8) or clonidine solution (Group 7, 225 µg/day, n=4). The surgical procedure was associated with significant peri-incisional tactile allodynia. There was a dose-dependent effect of MDT3 in partially reversing the peri-incisional tactile allodynia, with maximum pain relief relative to Sham at 72 hours. Daily injections of bupivacaine (30 mg), but not clonidine (up to 225 µg), completely reversed allodynia within 48 hours. There was a statistically significant correlation between the dose of MDT3 and cumulative withdrawal threshold from 4 hours through the conclusion of the study on day 7. These data suggest that a sustained-release clonidine depot may be a viable nonopioid, nonamide anesthetic therapy for the treatment of acute postsurgical nociceptive sensitization.

  7. Global adiposity and thickness of intraperitoneal and mesenteric adipose tissue depots are increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borruel, Susana; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Alpañés, Macarena; Martí, David; Alvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2013-03-01

    Sexual dimorphism suggests a role for androgens in body fat distribution. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a mainly androgen excess disorder, often present with abdominal obesity and visceral adiposity. We hypothesized that women with PCOS have a masculinized body fat distribution favoring the deposition of fat in visceral and organ-specific adipose tissue depots. This was a case-control study. The study was conducted at an academic hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 55), women without androgen excess (n = 25), and men (n = 26) presenting with similar body mass index participated in the study. There were no interventions. Ultrasound measurements of adipose tissue depots including sc (minimum and maximum), preperitoneal, ip, mesenteric, epicardial, and perirenal fat thickness were obtained and total body fat mass was estimated using a body fat monitor. Men and patients with PCOS had increased amounts of total body fat compared with control women. Men had increased thickness of intraabdominal adipose tissue depots compared with the control women, with the women with PCOS showing intermediate values that were also higher than those of control women in the case of ip and mesenteric fat thickness and was close to reaching statistical significance in the case of epicardial fat thickness. Women with PCOS also showed increased minimum sc fat thickness compared with the control women. Obesity increased the thickness of all of the adipose tissue depots in the 3 groups of subjects. Women with PCOS have higher global adiposity and increased amounts of visceral adipose tissue compared with control women, especially in the ip and mesenteric depots.

  8. Bait preference in basket trap fishing operation and heavy metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bait preference of basket traps fishing operation and heavy metal contamination in the trap catches from Lagos Lagoon were carried out between January and June 2011. Sixty baskets traps were used for the fishing operation, twenty basket traps were baited each with soap, coconut and maize. Clibanarius africanus ...

  9. Zooplankton of an urban coastal lagoon: composition and association with environmental factors and summer fish kill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo C. e Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton may be regarded as a sensitive tool for monitoring environmental variations in coastal lagoons due to their ability to immediately react to changes in the water column trophic features and salinity levels. As a coastal lagoon with a broad history of anthropic influence, Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is widely used for water sports and artisanal fishing. The present study aimed to expand the knowledge base about zooplankton in the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon by assessing the composition and time-spatial distribution of the major zooplankton groups. Samples were collected fortnightly from at four distinct sampling points August 2001 to July 2002. At each point, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and water transparency were measured. During the study period, the lagoon behaved as an spatially homogeneous environment in what regards the abiotic variables. However, all these variables showed significant differences along the time, mainly related to seasonality (air temperature and rainy and dry periods. The zooplankton community showed low taxonomic richness, with the predominance of species commonly found in coastal lagoons, especially with mesohaline conditions, as well as those found in estuaries. An interesting fact was the rise in zooplankton abundance at all sampling points right after a fish kill event. Such increase was caused mainly by the Brachionus plicatilis O.F. Müller 1786 species. Thus, the zooplankton community was affected by physical and chemical factors, mainly by the dissolved oxygen decline event and variations in the influx of seawater into the lagoon. In addition, phytoplankton availability and fish predation pressure were suggested as important regulating factors of the zooplankton community.

  10. Water characterization and trophic state of Chichoj Lagoon, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourino, C.; Basterrechea, M.; Molina, S. E.; De Zepeda, M.; De Juarez, Y. C.; Aguilar, E.; Oliva, B.; Palacios, R.; Palma, J. A.; Castellanos, P.

    1993-01-01

    Chichoj lagoon has lost 71.6 ha in last 45 years, equivalent to 65% of its area on 1946. At the present, lagoon shows a great invasion of vegetation, with a trend to disappear if this process continues. Physicochemical data evaluation indicated an evident lymnological stress over lagoon due to minimal natural and significant anthropogenic contributions. Temperature was defined by physical factors as sunlight irradiation periods and caloric exchange with wind, promoting the mixing of its water between december and january. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were typical of euthrophic lakes, with over saturation in surface waters an anoxia below few meters depth describing a non-dependent temperature trend. The main affluent river contributions were oxygen-d efficient. pH behavior was related with dissolved oxygen, due to narrow relation between acidity and redox mechanisms in euthrophic waters. Lagoon and affluent river conductivities showed ionic materials contributions from basin (due to its variation with climatic changes), anthropogenic contributions (observed in affluent river) and metabolic activity from sediments speeded up in last portion of lagoon, draining great amounts of ionic substances through effluent river. Redox potentials indicated the trend of reductive process instead of oxidative ones in the affluent river and below 7 m depth in lagoon. Surface and Profile data evaluation suggested the presence of a point-source of contaminants and nutrients, and evidenced the metabolic activity produced over them in lagoon, expressed as a visual euthrophic condition. Next paper will describe nutrients and other water quality parameters behaviors and their interrelation with the physicochemical parameters described in this paper. 1 map, 5 tabs.(Author)

  11. Hydrologic characteristics of lagoons at San Juan, Puerto Rico, during an October 1974 tidal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Ellis, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    Flow and water-quality changes were studied during a period of intense rainfall in the San Juan Lagoon system. The study covered a 25-hour period beginning 0900 hours 22 October, 1974. Precipitation during the study period averaged 70 millimeters. Sampling stations were located at Boca de Cangrejos, the main ocean outlet; Canal Pinones between Laguna de Pinones and Laguna La Torrecilla; Canal Suarez between Laguna San Jose, connects to Laguna La Torrecilla; and Cano de Martin Pena between Laguna San Jose and Bahia de San Juan. In addition water-elevation recording gages were installed at each lagoon. Water samples from the canal stations were analyzed for organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and suspended sediment. Specific-conductance measurements were used with the chemical data to estimate the runoff contributions of nutrients. Runoff into the lagoon, system during the study period was about 2.8 million cubic meters, or about 70 percent of the average precipitation. The runoff contributed chemical loadings to the lagoons of 95,000 kilograms total-organic carbon; 2,700 kilograms of total phosphorus; and 10,000 kilograms of total Khjeldhal nitrogen. A comparison with a prior study during which there was no significant rain, show that dry-period loadings are less than 10 percent of the wet-period loadings. At the end of the study period the system had not reached equilibrium, and the lagoons retained 80 percent of the water inflows from 50 to 90 percent of the chemical loads. Nearly 95 percent of the water outflows occurred at the Boca de Cangrejos sea outlet. The three lagoons and interconnecting canals form a very complex hydraulic system that is difficult to study using traditional techniques. A model of the system will facilitate management to improve the quality of water in the lagoons.

  12. Reconstruction of historic sea ice conditions in a sub-Arctic lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrich, Chris; Tivy, Adrienne C.; Ward, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Historical sea ice conditions were reconstructed for Izembek Lagoon, Bering Sea, Alaska. This lagoon is a crucial staging area during migration for numerous species of avian migrants and a major eelgrass (Zostera marina) area important to a variety of marine and terrestrial organisms, especially Pacific Flyway black brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans). Ice cover is a common feature of the lagoon in winter, but appears to be declining, which has implications for eelgrass distribution and abundance, and its use by wildlife. We evaluated ice conditions from a model based on degree days, calibrated to satellite observations, to estimate distribution and long-term trends in ice conditions in Izembek Lagoon. Model results compared favorably with ground observations and 26 years of satellite data, allowing ice conditions to be reconstructed back to 1943. Specifically, periods of significant (limited access to eelgrass areas) and severe (almost complete ice coverage of the lagoon) ice conditions could be identified. The number of days of severe ice within a single season ranged from 0 (e.g., 2001) to ≥ 67 (e.g., 2000). We detected a slight long-term negative trend in ice conditions, superimposed on high inter-annual variability in seasonal aggregate ice conditions. Based on reconstructed ice conditions, the seasonally cumulative number of significant or severe ice days correlated linearly with mean air temperature from January until March. Further, air temperature at Izembek Lagoon was correlated with wind direction, suggesting that ice conditions in Izembek Lagoon were associated with synoptic-scale weather patterns. Methods employed in this analysis may be transferable to other coastal locations in the Arctic.

  13. Spatial and temporal distribution of coloured dissolved organic matter in a hypertrophic freshwater lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vaičiūtė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A dataset of 224 Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS full resolution satellite images were processed to retrieve the concentration of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM in a hypertrophic estuary (Curonian Lagoon, Lithuania and Russia. Images covered a period of 7 months, spanning from the ice melting (March to the late summer (September of 7 consecutive years (2005-2011. The aim of the study was to analyse the spatial and temporal variations of CDOM, by focusing on the main regulating factors (riverine discharge, sea-lagoon water exchange, water temperature, chlorophyll a, wind in a large estuary. The working hypothesis is that CDOM distribution may reveal distinct, site specific seasonal patterns. Our results demonstrated that CDOM concentrations at the whole lagoon level were elevated (1.5-4 m-1 and slightly but significantly higher in spring (1.50 m-1 on average compared to the summer (1.45 m-1 on average. This is due to very different flow of CDOM-rich freshwater from the main lagoon tributary in spring compared to summer. They also highlight macroscopic differences among areas within the lagoon, depending on season, suggesting a complex regulation of CDOM in this system. Significant factors explaining observed differences are the dilution of lagoon water with CDOM-poor brackish water, regeneration of large amounts of dissolved organic matter from sediments and combinations of uptake/release from phytoplankton. CDOM and its variations are understudied due to inherent methodological and analytical difficulties. However, this pool has a demonstrated relevant role in the biogeochemistry of aquatic environments. We speculate that the dissolved organic pool in the Curonian Lagoon has a mainly allochthonous origin in the high discharge period and an autochthonous origin in the summer, algal bloom period. Both positive and negative relationships between CDOM and phytoplankton suggest that pelagic microalgae may act as a source or as

  14. Hydrogeological effects of dredging navigable canals through lagoon shallows. A case study in Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Teatini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For the first time a comprehensive investigation has been carried out to quantify the possible effects of dredging a navigable canal on the hydrogeological system underlying a coastal lagoon. The study is focused on the Venice Lagoon, Italy, where the port authority is planning to open a new 10 m deep and 3 km long canal to connect the city passenger terminal to the central lagoon inlet, thus avoiding the passage of large cruise ships through the historic center of Venice. A modeling study has been developed to evaluate the short (minutes, medium (months, and long (decades term processes of water and pollutant exchange between the shallow aquifer system and the lagoon, possibly enhanced by the canal excavation, and ship wakes. An in-depth characterization of the lagoon subsurface along the channel has supported the numerical modeling. Piezometer and sea level records, geophysical acquisitions, laboratory analyses of groundwater and sediment samples (chemical analyses and ecotoxicity testing, and the outcome of 3-D hydrodynamic and computational fluid dynamic (CFD models have been used to set up and calibrate the subsurface multi-model approach. The numerical outcomes allow us to quantify the groundwater volume and estimate the mass of anthropogenic contaminants (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se likely leaked from the nearby industrial area over the past decades, and released into the lagoon from the canal bed by the action of depression waves generated by ships. Moreover, the model outcomes help to understand the effect of the hydrogeological layering on the propagation of the tidal fluctuation and salt concentration into the shallow brackish aquifers underlying the lagoon bottom.

  15. Marshall Islands Fringing Reef and Atoll Lagoon Observations of the Tohoku Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Murray; Becker, Janet M.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Song, Y. Tony

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011 generated a tsunami which caused significant impacts throughout the Pacific Ocean. A description of the tsunami within the lagoons and on the surrounding fringing reefs of two mid-ocean atoll islands is presented using bottom pressure observations from the Majuro and Kwajalein atolls in the Marshall Islands, supplemented by tide gauge data in the lagoons and by numerical model simulations in the deep ocean. Although the initial wave arrival was not captured by the pressure sensors, subsequent oscillations on the reef face resemble the deep ocean tsunami signal simulated by two numerical models, suggesting that the tsunami amplitudes over the atoll outer reefs are similar to that in deep water. In contrast, tsunami oscillations in the lagoon are more energetic and long lasting than observed on the reefs or modelled in the deep ocean. The tsunami energy in the Majuro lagoon exhibits persistent peaks in the 30 and 60 min period bands that suggest the excitation of closed and open basin normal modes, while energy in the Kwajalein lagoon spans a broader range of frequencies with weaker, multiple peaks than observed at Majuro, which may be associated with the tsunami behavior within the more irregular geometry of the Kwajalein lagoon. The propagation of the tsunami across the reef flats is shown to be tidally dependent, with amplitudes increasing/decreasing shoreward at high/low tide. The impact of the tsunami on the Marshall Islands was reduced due to the coincidence of peak wave amplitudes with low tide; however, the observed wave amplitudes, particularly in the atoll lagoon, would have led to inundation at different tidal phases.

  16. Zebra Mussel Farming in the Szczecin (Oder Lagoon: Water-Quality Objectives and Cost-Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Schernewski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oder (Szczecin Lagoon in the southern Baltic Sea is a heavily eutrophicated and degraded coastal ecosystem. We applied a systems approach framework to critically evaluate whether existing water-management measures achieve water-quality objectives for the river and lagoon systems. Our simulations reveal that the existing water-quality objectives for the river and the coastal waters are not sufficiently complementary. We suggest new water-quality threshold concentrations, which are in agreement with the European Water Framework Directive, and we calculate acceptable maximum nutrient loads for the Oder River. These calculations suggest that external nutrient-load reductions in the river basin alone seem insufficient to achieve good water quality in the lagoon. A comprehensive eutrophication management approach should also include internal nutrient-retention and nutrient-removal measures in the lagoon. We focus on mussel farming, i.e., that of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, because they are efficient in removing nutrients and improving water transparency in the Oder Lagoon. For this purpose, the ecosystem model ERGOM is extended by a mussel module and an economic model. The economic model describes costs and benefits of mussel cultivation depending on the the farm size. We included additional potential sources of income such as water-quality tax or emission certificates. The simulations show that mussel farming in the lagoon is a suitable supportive measure and, at a load-reduction target of 50% or more, it is a cost-efficient measure for removing nutrients and for implementing the Baltic Sea Action Plan. In the Oder Lagoon, mussel farming could potentially remove nearly 1000 t of N (70 t of P/year, or about 2% of the present N and P loads, and it would have the additional benefit of improving water transparency.

  17. Inoculation of weaned pigs with E. coli reduces depots of vitamin E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Ellen-Margrethe; Højsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on vitamin E depots and immune responses in weaned pigs after an E. coli inoculation. The design was a 2 × 2 factorial with vitamin E supplementation (150 mg/kg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate versus a control diet containing...... 60 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) and E. coli 0 149 inoculation (inoculation of 1 × 108 CFU on day 2 and 3 after weaning versus inoculation of vehicle). The pigs were housed individually during the experiment which lasted for 10 days from weaning at 7 weeks of age. Blood was sampled on day 1 (day...... of weaning) and 9 of the experiment, and serum was analyzed for α-tocopherol concentration. On day 10 of the experiment, pigs were killed and samples of liver, heart, muscle, adipose tissue and intestinal epithelium were obtained, and immune cells (alveolar macrophages) were harvested, and analyzed for α...

  18. Electrolytic nickel deposits upon uranium; Depot electrolytique de nickel sur l'uraniun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, G; Chauvin, G; Coriou, H; Hure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The authors present a new possibility to protect uranium by very adherent nickel deposits got by aqueous medium electrolysis. Surface treatment of uranium is based upon the chemical etching method from Lietazke. After thermal treatments at 600, 700 and 800 deg. C, under vacuum, a good intermetallic U-Ni diffusion is observed for each case. (author) [French] Les auteurs mettent en evidence une possibilite nouvelle de protection de l'uranium par des depots tres adherents de nickel realises par electrolyse en milieu aqueux. La preparation de surface de l'uranium est basee sur la methode du decapage chimique de Lietazke. Apres des traitements thermiques a 600, 700 et 800 deg. C, sous vide, on constate dans tous les cas une bonne diffusion intermetallique U-Ni. (auteur)

  19. Leuprolide Acetate 1-Month Depot for Central Precocious Puberty: Hormonal Suppression and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neely EKirk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods. This prospective US multicenter trial of leuprolide acetate 1-month depot (7.5–15 mg for central precocious puberty utilized an open-label treatment period, long-term follow-up, and adult callback. Forty-nine females Results. Subjects were treated for years. Mean peak GnRH-stimulated LH and FSH were prepubertal after the first dose and remained suppressed throughout treatment. During treatment, mean estradiol decreased to the limit of detection and mean testosterone decreased but remained above prepubertal norms. During posttreatment follow-up ( years, all patients achieved a pubertal hormonal response within 1 year and menses were reported in all females ≥12 years old. No impairment of reproductive function was observed at adulthood (mean age: 24.8 years.

  20. Medical Cosmopolitanism in Global Dubai: A Twenty-first-century Transnational Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2017-03-01

    Dubai-one of the seven United Arab Emirates and the Middle East's only "global city"-is gaining a reputation as a transnational medical tourism hub. Characterized by its "medical cosmopolitanism," Dubai is now attracting medical travelers from around the world, some of whom are seeking assisted conception. Dubai is fast becoming known as a new transnational "reprohub" for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), the variant of in vitro fertilization designed to overcome male infertility. Based on ethnographic research conducted in one of the country's most cosmopolitan clinics, this article explores the ICSI treatment quests of infertile men coming to Dubai from scores of other nations. The case of an infertile British-Moroccan man is highlighted to demonstrate why ICSI is a particularly compelling "masculine hope technology" for infertile Muslim men. Thus, Muslim men who face barriers to ICSI access in their home countries may become "reprotravelers" to Dubai, an emergent ICSI depot. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  1. Study on Multi-Depot Collaborative Transportation Problem of Milk-Run Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Zhenkai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyze the relevance between Milk Run mode and collaborative transportation problem, put forward collaborative transportation problem of multiple-depot on Milk Run mode under the supply and demand separate nodes, consider the value of transport and transport costs, introduce the concept of node - arc flow, by comparing the size of traffic flow determine nodes collection, and then constructed multi-transport model of the problem. Considering one-way pickup and delivery closed, construct two-stage algorithm model, use dynamic programming recursive solution to determine the best route to pick up, and then solving delivery routing problem with different start and return point based on geometric method of Cosine. Finally use a numerical example illustrates the effectiveness of the algorithm and reasonable model.

  2. Design of PLGA-based depot delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals prepared by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Yang, Mingshi

    2016-01-01

    Currently, most of the approved protein and peptide-based medicines are delivered via conventional parenteral injection (intramuscular, subcutaneous or intravenous). A frequent dosing regimen is often necessary because of their short plasma half-lives, causing poor patient compliance (e.g. pain......, abscess, etc.), side effects owing to typical peak-valley plasma concentration time profiles, and increased costs. Among many sustained-release formulations poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based depot microparticle systems may represent one of the most promising approaches to provide protein...... and peptide drugs with a steady pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile maintained for a long period. However, the development of PLGA-based microparticle systems is still impeded by lack of easy, fast, effective manufacturing technologies. The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in spray drying...

  3. Location and multi-depot vehicle routing for emergency vehicles using tour coverage and random sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Goli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and optimum allocation of emergency resources are the most important tasks, which need to be accomplished during crisis. When a natural disaster such as earthquake, flood, etc. takes place, it is necessary to deliver rescue efforts as quickly as possible. Therefore, it is important to find optimum location and distribution of emergency relief resources. When a natural disaster occurs, it is not possible to reach some damaged areas. In this paper, location and multi-depot vehicle routing for emergency vehicles using tour coverage and random sampling is investigated. In this study, there is no need to visit all the places and some demand points receive their needs from the nearest possible location. The proposed study is implemented for some randomly generated numbers in different sizes. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed method was capable of reaching desirable solutions in reasonable amount of time.

  4. Adipose tissue depot volume relationships with spinal trabecular bone mineral density in African Americans with diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C Chan

    Full Text Available Changes in select adipose tissue volumes may differentially impact bone mineral density. This study was performed to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between computed tomography-determined visceral (VAT, subcutaneous (SAT, inter-muscular (IMAT, and pericardial adipose tissue (PAT volumes with respective changes in thoracic vertebral and lumbar vertebral volumetric trabecular bone mineral density (vBMD in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Generalized linear models were fitted to test relationships between baseline and change in adipose volumes with change in vBMD in 300 African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants; adjustment was performed for age, sex, diabetes duration, study interval, smoking, hypertension, BMI, kidney function, and medications. Participants were 50% female with mean ± SD age 55.1±9.0 years, diabetes duration 10.2±7.2 years, and BMI 34.7±7.7 kg/m2. Over 5.3 ± 1.4 years, mean vBMD decreased in thoracic/lumbar spine, while mean adipose tissue volumes increased in SAT, IMAT, and PAT, but not VAT depots. In fully-adjusted models, changes in lumbar and thoracic vBMD were positively associated with change in SAT (β[SE] 0.045[0.011], p<0.0001; 0.40[0.013], p = 0.002, respectively. Change in thoracic vBMD was positively associated with change in IMAT (p = 0.029 and VAT (p = 0.016; and change in lumbar vBMD positively associated with baseline IMAT (p<0.0001. In contrast, vBMD was not associated with change in PAT. After adjusting for BMI, baseline and change in volumes of select adipose depots were associated with increases in thoracic and lumbar trabecular vBMD in African Americans. Effects of adiposity on trabecular bone appear to be site-specific and related to factors beyond mechanical load.

  5. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  6. [Job stress in locomotive attendants in a locomotive depot and related influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, L; Jia, X C; Lu, F; Zhou, W H; Chen, R

    2017-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of job stress in locomotive attendants in a locomotive depot and related influencing factors. Methods: From 2012 to 2013, cluster sampling was used to select 1500 locomotive attendants in a locomotive depot in Zhengzhou Railway Bureau as respondents.The contents of the investigation included general data and occupational information.A job satisfaction questionnaire was used to investigate the degree of satisfaction, a depression scale was used to investigate the frequency of symptoms, and a daily stress scale was used to investigate the frequency of fatigue and stress. Results: There was a significant difference in depression score between locomotive attendants with different ages, working years, degrees of education, working situations of spouse, total monthly family incomes, numbers of times of attendanceat night, monthly numbers of times of attendance,ormonthly attendance times( P job satisfaction score between locomotive attendants with different ages,working years, degrees of education, working situations of spouse, total monthly family incomes, numbers of times of attendance at night, monthly attendance times,or ways to work( P job satisfaction( β =1.546)and monthly number of times of attendance,working years,attendance time at night,and degree of education were negatively correlated with job satisfaction( β =-0.185,-0.097,-0.020,and -1.106); monthly number of times of attendance andcommute time were positively correlated with depression( β =0.243 and 0.029); attendance time at night,working situation of spouse,commute time,monthly number of times of attendance,degree of education,and working years were positively correlated with daily stress( β =0.006,0.473,0.010,0.043,0.585, and 0.028). Conclusion: Number of times of attendance, attendance time,working years,and spouse are influencing factors for job stress in locomotive attendants. Improvement in work process and care for their personal life help to reduce

  7. The Life of a Sponge in a Sandy Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, M; Abelson, A

    1995-12-01

    Infaunal soft-bottom invertebrates benefit from the presence of sediment, but sedimentation is potentially harmful for hard-bottom dwellers. Most sponges live on hard bottom, but on coral reefs in the Red Sea, the species Biemna ehrenbergi (Keller, 1889) is found exclusively in soft-bottom lagoons, usually in the shallowest part. This location is a sink environment, which increases the deposition of particulate organic matter. Most of the sponge body is covered by sediment, but the chimney-like siphons protrude from the sediment surface. The sponge is attached to the buried beach-rock, which reduces the risk of dislodgment during storms. Dye injected above and into the sediment revealed, for the first time, a sponge pumping interstitial water (rich with particles and nutrients) into its aquiferous system. Visual examination of plastic replicas of the aquiferous system and electron microscopical analysis of sponge tissue revealed that the transcellular ostia are mostly located on the buried surface of the sponge. The oscula, however, are located on top of the siphons; their elevated position and their ability to close combine to prevent the filtering system outflow from clogging. The transcellular ostia presumably remain open due to cellular mobility. The sponge maintains a large population of bacteriocytes, which contains bacteria of several different species. Some of these bacteria disintegrate, and may be consumed by the sponge.

  8. Seagrass community dynamics in a subtropical estuarine lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorhaug, A.; Roessler, M.A.

    1977-11-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of major plant and animal species were investigated for 4 years in south Biscayne Bay including Card Sound, Florida, a subtropical estuarine lagoon. This was part of a larger study including chemical, physical and geological investigations. The major species of plants were Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig, turtle grass, Laurencia poitei (Lamour.) Howe, a red macroalga and the green algae Penicillus capitatus Lamarck and Halimeda incrassata (Ellis) Lamour. Standing crop and production of plant material taken bi-weekly is given in detail for 16 stations in Card Sound for the 4-year period and for eight stations in Biscayne Bay for a 1-year period. The major animal species were not equally distributed; in the near-shore Thalassia community, species of Pagurus, Neopanope, Hippolyte, Cerithium, Bulla, Prunum and Modulus were dominant. In mid-bay, where patchy Thalassia plus green algae occurred, Thor and Chondrilla were the dominant animals. Near the fringing islands, where tidal flow caused more oceanic conditions, the community was dominated by sponges, urchins and corals. This highlights the structural differences in what is now termed the ''Thalassia community.'' Comparisons with other known Thalassia communities are made.

  9. Advection within shallow pore waters of a coastal lagoon, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, J.E.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Steward, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Ground water sources can be a significant portion of a local water budget in estuarine environments, particularly in areas with high recharge rates, transmissive aquifers, and permeable marine sediments. However, field measurements of ground water discharge are often incongruent with ground water flow modeling results, leaving many scientists unsure which estimates are accurate. In this study, we find that both measurements and model results are reasonable. The difference between estimates apparently results from the sources of water being measured and not the techniques themselves. In two locations in the Indian River Lagoon estuarine system, we found seepage meter rates similar to rates calculated from the geochemical tracers 222Rn and 226Ra. Ground water discharge rates ranged from 4 to 9 cm/d using seepage meters and 3 to 20 cm/d using 222Rn and 226Ra. In contrast, in comparisons to other studies where finite element ground water flow modeling was used, much lower ground water discharge rates of ∼0.05 to 0.15 cm/d were estimated. These low rates probably represent discharge of meteoric ground water from land-recharged aquifers, while the much higher rates measured with seepage meters, 222Rn, and 226Ra likely include an additional source of surface waters that regularly flush shallow (recharged water and recirculated surface waters contributes to the total biogeochemical loading in this shallow estuarine environment.

  10. Fragrances as new contaminants in the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Marco; Cremonese, Simone; Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    Fragrance Materials (FMs) are omnipresent components of household and Personal Care Products (PCPs). In spite of their widespread use, little is known about their environmental occurrence. We selected 17 among the longest-lasting and most stable fragrance ingredients that are commercially available, namely: Amberketal, Ambrofix, Amyl Salicylate, Benzyl Salicylate, Bourgeonal, Dupical, Hexyl Salicylate, Isobutavan, Lemonile, Mefranal, Myraldene, Okoumal, Oranger Crystals, Pelargene, Peonile, Tridecene-2-Nitrile, Ultravanil. A new analytical method was developed to quantify FMs in water samples and it was applied to perform the first study about the distribution of these compounds in the surface waters of the city of Venice and its lagoon. Total FMs concentrations range from about 30ngL(-1) to more than 10μgL(-1) in polluted canals during the low tide. Sewage discharges were supposed to be the main sources of the selected FMs in the environment. Salicylates, oestrogenic and allergenic compounds, were in general the most abundant and widespread components. This study reports for the first time the detection of most of the selected FMs in surface waters and represent the first step to understand their environmental fate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: The case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magni, P. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.magni@iamc.cnr.it; De Falco, G. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Como, S. [International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Casu, D. [Dip. di Botanica ed Ecologia vegetale, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Floris, A. [Dip. di Zoologia e Genetica evoluzionistica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Petrov, A.N. [Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas NASU, 99011 Sevastopol (Ukraine); Castelli, A. [Dip. di Biologia, Universita di Pisa, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Perilli, A. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments ({<=}8 {mu}m grain size particles) and that this fraction strongly influences the structure, composition and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. Even in such a homogeneously muddy system, characterized by 'naturally' occurring impoverished communities, impaired benthic assemblages were found at {<=}8 {mu}m, OM, TOC contents of about 77%, 11% and 3.5%, respectively. A review of studies conducted in Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological

  12. Impact of mussel bioengineering on fine-grained sediment dynamics in a coastal lagoon: A numerical modelling investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Pernille L.; Lumborg, Ulrik; Bundgaard, Klavs; Ernstsen, Verner B.

    2017-12-01

    Rødsand lagoon in southeast Denmark is a non-tidal coastal lagoon. It is home to a wide range of marine flora and fauna and part of the Natura 2000 network. An increase in turbidity through elevated levels of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) within the lagoon may affect the ecosystem health due to reduced light penetration. Increasing SSC levels within Rødsand lagoon could be caused by increasing storm intensity or by a sediment spill from dredging activities west of the lagoon in relation to the planned construction of the Fehmarnbelt fixed link between Denmark and Germany. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of a mussel reef on sediment import and SSC in a semi-enclosed lagoon through the development of a bioengineering modelling application that makes it possible to include the filtrating effect of mussels in a numerical model of the lagoonal system. The numerical implementation of an exterior mussel reef generated a reduction in the SSC in the vicinity of the reef, through the adjacent inlet and in the western part of the lagoon. The mussel reef reduced the sediment import to Rødsand lagoon by 13-22% and reduced the SSC within Rødsand lagoon by 5-9% depending on the filtration rate and the reef length. The results suggest that the implementation of a mussel reef has the potential to relieve the pressure of increasing turbidity levels within a semi-enclosed lagoonal system. However, further assessment and development of the bioengineering application and resulting ecosystem impacts are necessary prior to actual implementation.

  13. Biodiversity patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities in two lagoons of Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyttis, G.; Reizopoulou, S.; Papastergiadou, E.

    2012-04-01

    Aquatic macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates were studied seasonally (Spring, Autumn, Summer) between the years 2009 - 2011 in two coastal lagoons (Kotychi and Prokopos) located in Peloponnese, Greece, in order to investigate spatial and temporal biodiversity trends related to hydrological processes (degree of confinement, nitrates, phosphates, chl-a, total suspended materials, light irradiance, pH, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen). Kotychi lagoon presents a better communication with the sea, while Prokopos has a high degree of confinement. Both ecosystems seasonally receive freshwater input from streams. The submerged aquatic macrophytes constituted a major component of the ecosystems studied. In total, 22 taxa of aquatic macrophytes (angiosperms and macroalgae), 16 taxa for Kotychi (2 Rhodophyta, 8 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 1 Streptophyta) and 14 taxa for Prokopos (1 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 3 Streptophyta) were found. Ruppia cirrhosa, and Potamogeton pectinatus were dominant in both lagoons. Kotychi lagoon was also dominated by Zostera noltii and Prokopos by Zannichellia pallustris ssp. pedicellata, while the biomass of aquatic species peaked during the summer periods, in both lagoons. The total number of macroinvertebrates found in the lagoons was 28 taxa for Kotychi and 19 for Prokopos. Chironomidae were dominant in both lagoons, while Kotychi was also dominated by Lekanesphaera monodi and Monocorophium insidiosum, and Prokopos by Ostracoda and Lekanesphaera monodi. Benthic diversity ranged from 1.33 to 2.57 in Kotychi and from 0.67 to 2.48 in Prokopos. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates were strongly related to aquatic vegetation and to the degree of communication with the marine environment. Moreover, species richness and abundance of both macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were mainly dependent on depth, temperature, pH and concentration of total suspended materials (TSM). Results

  14. [Species and size composition of fishes in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Mexican central Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sansón, Gaspar; Aguilar-Betancourt, Consuelo; Kosonoy-Aceves, Daniel; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Flores-Ortega, Juan Ramón; Hinojosa-Larios, Angel; de Asís Silva-Bátiz, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Coastal lagoons are considered important nursery areas for many coastal fishes. Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon (3.76km2) is important for local economy as it supports tourism development and artisanal fisheries. However, the role of this lagoon in the dynamics of coastal fish populations is scarcely known. Thus, the objectives of this research were: to characterize the water of the lagoon and related weather conditions, to develop a systematic list of the ichthyofauna, and to estimate the proportion of juveniles in the total number of individuals captured of most abundant species. Water and fish samples were collected between March 2011 and February 2012. Physical and chemical variables were measured in rainy and dry seasons. Several fishing gears were used including a cast net, beach purse seine and gillnets of four different mesh sizes. Our results showed that the lagoon is most of the time euhaline (salinity 30-40ups), although it can be mixopolyhaline (salinity 18-30ups) during short periods. Chlorophyll and nutrients concentrations suggested eutrophication in the lagoon. Mean water temperature changed seasonally from 24.9 degrees C (April, high tide) to 31.4 degrees C (October, low tide). Considering ichthyofauna species, a total of 36 448 individuals of 92 species were collected, 31 of them adding up to 95% of the total of individuals caught. Dominant species were Anchoa spp. (44.6%), Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%), Eucinostomus currani (8.1%), Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%), Mugil curema (5.2%) and Opisthonema libertate (4.5%). The lagoon is an important juvenile habitat for 22 of the 31 most abundant species. These included several species of commercial importance such as snappers (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado and L. novemfasciatus), snook (Centropomus nigrescens) and white mullet (Mugil curema). Other four species seem to use the lagoon mainly as adults. This paper is the first contribution on the composition of estuarine ichthyofauna in Jalisco

  15. Mud deposit formation on the open coast of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzon, S. B.; Winterwerp, J. C.; Nogueira, R.; de Boer, G. J.

    2009-03-01

    This paper proposes an explanation of the mud deposits on the inner Shelf of Cassino Beach, South Brazil, by using computational modeling. These mud deposits are mainly formed by sediments delivered from Patos Lagoon, a coastal lagoon connected to the Shelf, next to Cassino Beach. The deposits are characterized by (soft) mud layers of about 1 m thick and are found between the -5 and -20 isobaths. Two hydrodynamic models of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system were calibrated against water elevation measured for a 5 months period, and against currents and salinity measured for a week period. The circulation patterns and water exchange through the mouth were analyzed as a function of local and remote wind effects, and river discharges. The remote wind effect mainly governs the quantity of water exchange with the Lagoon through its effect on mean sea level as a result of Ekman dynamics, while river discharges are important for the salinity of the exchanged water masses. Local winds augment the export-import rates by set-up and set-down within the Lagoon, but their effects are much smaller than those of the remote wind. Currents patterns on the inner Shelf during water outflow revealed a recirculation zone south of the Lagoon, induced by the local geometry and bathymetry of the system. This recirculation zone coincides with observed locations of mud deposition. Water, hence suspended sediment export occurs when remote and local winds are from the N-E, which explains why fine sediment deposits are mainly found south of the Lagoon's breakwater. A sensitivity analysis with the numerical model quantified the contribution of the various mechanisms driving the transport and fate of the fine suspended sediments, i.e. the effects of remote and local wind, of the astronomical tide, of river discharge and fresh-salt water-induced density currents, and of earth rotation. It is concluded that gravitational circulation and earth rotation affects the further dispersion of

  16. Diversity of resource use and property rights in Tam Giang Lagoon, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta Thi Thanh Huong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, aquaculture has become the most important livelihood activity in Tam Giang Lagoon, Vietnam. The aquaculture boom has reduced the available water area for mobile gear fishers, polarized different user-groups, created resource conflicts, and increased pressures on the lagoon systems. Aquaculture in the lagoon is governed by both customary and legal rights. The objective of this paper is to explore the diversity of resource use and the complexity of property rights in one of the villages located in the lagoon. The paper emphasizes the linkages between changes in commons institutions and changes in resource use and property rights. First, the political and socio-economic changes in Vietnam are examined as well as how they have influenced traditional commons institutions and lagoon resource management in the village. Second, the linkages between common institutions and the diversity of property rights are analyzed. Particular attention is given to the analysis of different types of resource use associated with "bundle of rights" and the diversity of property rights regimes in the village.

  17. Anthropogenic changes to a billabong in New South Wales. 1. lagoon evolution and phosphorus dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, T.H.; Ford, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes detected in the sediment of a shallow (∼1.6 m) billabong (Horseshoe Lagoon) are the result of a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) connection in 1958 and catchment urbanization around 1974. Nutrient-rich water caused the collapse of macrophyte populations, algal blooms became common, and urbanization increased sediment deposition (∼1 cm year -1 ). Changes in P retention were investigated by using dated cores, pore-water element profiles, and water quality records. Two of the cores were examined by analyses of pollen, 137 Cs, elemental analyses by XRF, C and N stable isotope ratio, and organic concentrations. The lagoon is the last of three STP holding ponds. Ponds 1 and 2 were sand-mining pits; they receive no sediment input and have negligible P adsorption. The Fe:P ratios in sediments from three Australian rivers have a common slope and this relationship was used to examine Fe:P ratios in the anoxic bottom sediments of the lagoon. A potential for effluent P adsorption developed in the lagoon through Fe mobilization and enrichment in the upper sediments and a strong clay-Fe-P association. The mean long- term P adsorption in the lagoon (35±) was the result of maintaining clay input to an oxic waterbody. Bacterial sulfate reduction is the main process decreasing available Fe for effluent P adsorption. Appropriately designed systems could expect to maintain effluent P adsorption efficiencies of around 70%. Copyright (1999) CSIRO Publishing

  18. Studies of lagoon ash from Sarawak to assess the impact on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabir Kumar Kolay; Harwant Singh [University Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak (Malaysia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2010-02-15

    Coal utilization, mainly in thermal power plants, has increased significantly from 4.2 to 13 million tonnes within 2000 to 2005, which resulted in the production of approximately 2 million tonnes of coal ash in Malaysia. Of this only a small percentage is used as a cement ingredient, in concrete industry, as a fill material, etc. and with the rest of the amount being disposed in ash ponds or lagoons. If the lagoons are not properly designed with a landfill liner or if there is spillage from the ash pond, the toxic heavy metal present in coal ash can result in the contamination of the subsurface soil and the ground water. The concentration of heavy metals or trace elements in coal residues depends on the composition of a particular parent coal and the bulk utilization of lagoon ash for various purposes requires a complete characterization of the ash. Hence, this paper analyzes the coal ash for its trace element content and characterizes mainly physical, chemical, mineralogical, morphological and thermal properties of the lagoon ash from a local coal based thermal power plant from Sarawak, Malaysia. The results also indicated that, the concentration of some trace elements is quite high from the environmental perspective in this particular lagoon ash. 43 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Nutrient fluxes and net metabolism in a coastal lagoon SW peninsula of Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes Duarte, R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluxes of nutrients and net metabolism were estimated in coastal lagoon Magdalena Bay using LOICZ biogeochemical model. In situ data were obtained from 14 sites in the lagoon and also from a fixed site in the adjacent ocean area. Intense upwelling (February to July and faint upwelling (August to January were analyzed from monthly time series. The Temperature, nitrite + nitrate, ammonium and phosphate within the lagoon showed significant differences (p<0.05 between the two periods. Salinity (p=0.408 was more homogeneous (no significantly different due to mixing processes. During the intense upwelling period, nutrients increased in and out of the lagoon due to the influence of Transitional Water and Subartic Water transported by the California Current. However, during the faint upwelling, from August to January, the Transition Water and Subtropical Surface Water were predominant. Magdalena Bay showed denitrification processes of throughout the year as it occurred in other semi-arid coastal lagoons. It also showed a net autotrophic metabolism during intense upwelling and heterotrophic metabolism during faint upwelling. Understanding nutrient flows and net metabolism through simple biogeochemical models can provide tools for better management of the coastal zone.

  20. Assessing pollution in a Mediterranean lagoon using acid volatile sulfides and estimations of simultaneously extracted metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaboub, Noureddine; Helali, Mohamed Amine; Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Ennouri, Rym; Béjaoui, Béchir; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; El Bour, Monia; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-11-01

    Bizerte Lagoon is a southern Mediterranean semi-enclosed lagoon with a maximum depth of 12 m. After assessing sediment quality, the authors report on the physicochemical characteristics of the lagoon's surface sediment using SEM (simultaneously extracted metals) and AVS (acid volatile sulfides) as proxies. Biogeochemical tools are used to investigate the environmental disturbance at the water-sediment interface by means of SEM and AVS to seek conclusions concerning the study area's pollution status. Results confirm accumulation of trace elements in sediment. The use of the SEM-AVS model with organic matter in sediment (ƒOC) confirms possible bioavailability of accumulated trace elements, especially Zn, in the southern part of the lagoon, with organic matter playing an important role in SEM excess correction to affirm a nontoxic total metal sediment state. Individual trace element toxicity is dependent on the bioavailable fraction of SEM Metal on sediment, as is the influence of lagoon inflow from southern water sources on element bioavailability. Appropriate management strategies are highly recommended to mitigate any potential harmful effects on health from this heavy-metal-based pollution.

  1. Biodegradation of hexadecane using sediments from rivers and lagoons of the Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cruz, N Ulises; Sánchez-Avila, Juan I; Valdés-Lozano, David; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Aguirre-Macedo, Leopoldina

    2018-03-01

    The Southern Gulf of Mexico is an area highly impacted by crude oil extraction, refining activities and the presence of natural petroleum seepage. Oceanic currents in the Gulf of Mexico continually facilitate the transport of hydrocarbons to lagoons and rivers. This research evaluated hexadecane (HXD) degradation in marine sediment samples from lagoons and rivers that are fed by the Southern Gulf of Mexico, specifically six samples from rivers, three samples from lagoons, and one sample from a marine outfall. The highest rates of biodegradation were observed in sediments from the mouths of the Gonzalez River and the Champotón Lagoon. The lowest consumption rate was found in sediment from the mouth of the Coatzacoalcos River. With regards to the Ostión Lagoon and the Grijalva River, there was a low rate of consumption, but a high efficiency of degradation which took place at the end of the experiments. No correlation was found between the consumption rate and the environmental physicochemical parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of residence time and groundwater flux in Venice Lagoon: comparing radium isotope and hydrodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaglia, John; Ferrarin, Christian; Zaggia, Luca; Moore, Willard S; Umgiesser, Georg; Garcia-Solsona, Ester; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Masqué, Pere

    2010-07-01

    The four naturally-occurring isotopes of radium were coupled with a previously evaluated hydrodynamic model to determine the apparent age of surface waters and to quantify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Mean apparent age of water in the Venice Lagoon was calculated using the ratio of 224Ra to 228Ra determined from 30 monitoring stations and a mean pore water end member. Average apparent age was calculated to be 6.0 d using Ra ratios. This calculated age was very similar to average residence time calculated for the same period using a hydrodynamic model (5.8 d). A mass balance of Ra was accomplished by quantifying each of the sources and sinks of Ra in the lagoon, with the unknown variable being attributed to SGD. Total SGD were calculated to be 4.1 +/- 1.5, 3.8 +/- 0.7, 3.0 +/- 1.3, and 3.5 +/- 1.0 x 10(10) L d(-1) for (223,224,226, 228)Ra, respectively, which are an order of magnitude larger than total mean fluvial discharge into the Venice Lagoon (3.1 x 10(9) L d(-1)). The SGD as a source of nutrients in the Venice Lagoon is also discussed and, though significant to the nutrient budget, is likely to be less important as the dominant control on SGD is recirculated seawater rather than freshwater. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of residence time and groundwater flux in Venice Lagoon: comparing radium isotope and hydrodynamical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaglia, John; Ferrarin, Christian; Zaggia, Luca; Moore, Willard S.; Umgiesser, Georg; Garcia-Solsona, Ester; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Masque, Pere

    2010-01-01

    The four naturally-occurring isotopes of radium were coupled with a previously evaluated hydrodynamic model to determine the apparent age of surface waters and to quantify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Mean apparent age of water in the Venice Lagoon was calculated using the ratio of 224 Ra to 228 Ra determined from 30 monitoring stations and a mean pore water endmember. Average apparent age was calculated to be 6.0 d using Ra ratios. This calculated age was very similar to average residence time calculated for the same period using a hydrodynamic model (5.8 d). A mass balance of Ra was accomplished by quantifying each of the sources and sinks of Ra in the lagoon, with the unknown variable being attributed to SGD. Total SGD were calculated to be 4.1 ± 1.5, 3.8 ± 0.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, and 3.5 ± 1.0 x 10 10 L d -1 for 223,224,226,228 Ra, respectively, which are an order of magnitude larger than total mean fluvial discharge into the Venice Lagoon (3.1 x 10 9 L d -1 ). The SGD as a source of nutrients in the Venice Lagoon is also discussed and, though significant to the nutrient budget, is likely to be less important as the dominant control on SGD is recirculated seawater rather than freshwater.

  4. Pan-European management of coastal lagoons: A science-policy-stakeholder interface perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillebø, Ana I.; Stålnacke, Per; Gooch, Geoffrey D.; Krysanova, Valentina; Bielecka, Małgorzata

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of the work carried out in the scope of a three years collaborative research project was to develop science-based strategies and a decision support framework for the integrated management of coastal lagoons and their catchments and, in this context, to enhance connectivity between research and policymaking. In this paper our main objective is to share the lessons learned from the innovative methodology used throughout the project. To achieve the proposed objectives, the multidisciplinary scientific knowledge in the project team was combined and integrated with the knowledge and views of local stakeholders of four selected European coastal lagoons, using a three step participatory approach. With this innovative approach, which included the usage of eco-hydrological and water quality-modelling tools, the team developed and analyzed integrated scenarios of possible economic development and environmental impacts in four European lagoons and their catchments. These scenarios were presented and discussed with stakeholders, giving rise to management recommendations for each case study lagoon. Results show that some management options might be transferrable to other European lagoons having similar climatic, geophysical and socio-economic settings. In management terms, the project output provides a set of policy guidelines derived from the different analyses conducted and proposes initiatives concerning management implementation in a local-regional-national-European setting.

  5. Seagrasses and sediment response to changing physical forcing in a coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Figueiredo da Silva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ria de Aveiro is an estuary–coastal lagoon system connected to the Atlantic Ocean by a channel with a cross-sectional area that, for more than a century, has increased steadily, partly because of dredging over the last 50 years. Local ocean tides, with amplitudes of up to 3 m, are today transmitted to the lagoon by the single, engineered inlet channel and propagate to the end of the lagoon channels as a damped progressive wave. The increase in tidal amplitude with time has affected the lagoon ecosystem and the water has become more saline. Seagrass beds are important indicators of ecosystem change; until 1980, much of the lagoon bed was covered by seagrasses (Zostera, Ruppia, Potamogeton, which were collected in large quantities for use in agriculture. After 1960, the harvesting declined and the seagrass beds became covered in sediment, so that the area of seagrasses decreased substantially despite the decline in the quantity collected. The change in the pattern of seagrass populations can be related to changes in the physical forcing associated with increased tidal wave penetration. This has, in turn, induced transport and redistribution of coarser, sandy sediment and increased re-suspension and turbidity in the water column. However, the initiating cause for this ecosystem change was dredging, which, since the 1950s, has been used increasingly to widen and deepen the channels of the system.

  6. A review on the availability of ecological data aiming new researches in Peri Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Mello Petrucio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in population as well as the water resource demand has been intensifying the human influence in Peri Lagoon basin. A review on the availability of data concerning the ecology of Peri Lagoon was made, aiming at the development of new researches to understand the functioning of this ecosystem. This information can contribute to the elaboration of a conservation proposal and sustainable use of the Lagoon in the future. High cyanobacteria density (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was detected in the Lagoon waters, which happens to be a risky situation for the ecosystem’s health and consequently for the population. The review highlights a lack of available information about the dynamics, functioning and structure of aquatic communities, as well as their relationships with the surrounding area and the infl uence of abiotic factors. Series of continuum data with respect to time are also considered to be lacking. Educational, political and social practices in environmental conservation are necessary, aiming at the management and sustainable use of Peri Lagoon basin. These practices will guarantee water resource quality and availability for the current and future generations.

  7. Trace metals in water and sediments from Ologe Lagoon, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, K.A.; Osibanjo, O.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of trace metals in water and sediment samples from Ologe lagoon located in southwestern Nigeria were investigated. The lagoon is a source of water for domestic, transportation and fishing activities. The water quality characteristics for a period of two years (January, 1997 - November, 1998), and the speciation of metals in the lagoon sediments were evaluated. The lagoon water quality characteristics, with respect to heavy metal contamination, were compared with global averages for freshwater and international water quality standards for drinking water. All elements except iron, were well within the safety limits. Sequential extraction techniques were used to establish the association of the total concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Mn in the sediment samples with their contents as exchangeable, carbonates, Fe/Mn oxides, and organic and residual fractions. The concentrations of trace metals in the whole sediments were generally below the world-wide background levels. When compared to a number of sediment quality guidelines, the concentrations of trace metals were found to be below the level considered to have the potential to cause biological effects. Pb and Cd were extracted from the residual fraction at values greater than 50%. The metals that were most easily extractable in the samples analyzed were Mn and Zn, which posed the highest risk to water contamination. The low level of industrialization in the study area has kept the lagoon relatively free from heavy metal contamination. (author)

  8. Atmospheric Deposition of Inorganic Elements and Organic Compounds at the Inlets of the Venice Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Morabito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Venice Lagoon is subjected to long-range transport of contaminants via aerosol from the near Po Valley. Moreover, it is an area with significant local anthropogenic emissions due to the industrial area of Porto Marghera, the urban centres, and the glass factories and with emissions by ships traffic within the Lagoon. Furthermore, since 2005, the Lagoon has also been affected by the construction of the MOSE (Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico—Electromechanical Experimental Module mobile dams, as a barrier against the high tide. This work presents and discusses the results from chemical analyses of bulk depositions, carried out in different sites of the Venice Lagoon. Fluxes of pollutants were also statistically analysed on PCA with the aim of investigating the spatial variability of depositions and their correlation with precipitations. Fluxes of inorganic pollutants depend differently on precipitations, while organic compounds show a more seasonal trend. The statistical analysis showed that the site in the northern Lagoon has lower and almost homogeneous fluxes of pollutants, while the other sites registered more variable concentrations. The study also provided important information about the annual trend of pollutants and their evolution over a period of about five years, from 2005 to 2010.

  9. Preliminary study for treatment methodology establishment of liquid waste containing uranium in refining facility lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Lee, Kune Woo; Won, Hui Jun; Ahn, Byung Gil; Shim, Joon Bo

    1999-12-01

    The preliminary study which establishes the treatment methodology of the sludge waste containing uranium in the conversion facility lagoon was performed. The property of lagoon liquid waste such as the initial water content, the density including radiochemical analysis results were obtained using the samples taken from the lagoon. The objective of this study is to provide some basically needed materials for selection of the most proper lagoon waste treatment methodology by reviewing the effective processes and methods for minimizing the secondary waste resulting from the treatment and disposition of large amount of radioactive liquid waste according to the facility closing. The lagoon waste can be classified into two sorts, such as supernatant and precipitate. The supernatants contain uranium less than 5 ppm and their water content are about 35 percent. Therefore, supernatants are solutions composed of mainly salt components. However, the precipitates have lots of uranium compound contained in the coagulation matrix, and are formed as two kinds of crystalline structures. The most proper method minimizing the secondary waste would be direct drying and solidification of the supernatants and precipitates after separation of them by filtering. (author)

  10. Integrated Approach to Transboundary Waters Management, such as a Rivermouth and a Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, B.K.; Yoo, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea); Kang, D.S.; Nam, J.H. [Korea Maritime Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Estuaries and coastal lagoons (estuarine environments) are typical transitional ecosystems between land and sea, where sea water is mixed with fresh water. It is well known that estuarine environments are very valuable ecosystems because of their unique ecological functions and geographical features, as well as socioeconomic values. These precious estuaries, however, have become severely deteriorated and damaged by human activities through watersheds and intensive coastal developments. In this respect, this study aims to develop integrated management strategies for protection, improvement, and restoration of estuarine environments that would support sustainable uses of those precious natural resources. This study found that regardless of their ecological value, estuaries and coastal lagoons in Korea have deteriorated due to a lack of appropriate management systems and imprudent development and utilization. Furthermore, considering the fact that destruction of the estuaries has been caused by national development projects, the study urges the Korean government to change its development-oriented policies on estuaries and coastal lagoons to more sustainable ones so that future generations may enjoy the benefits from healthy natural estuaries and coastal lagoons. The Korean government, thus, needs to declare that it will no longer promote any development-oriented policy that might destroy valuable estuaries and coastal lagoons, in preparing for the 2002 WSSD which will be held in South Africa in 2002. (author). 175 refs., 72 figs., 95 tabs.

  11. Audit Report on the Sacramento Army Depot Internal Review and Audit Compliance Office's "Audits of Warranties, Quality Deficiency Reports, and Reports of Discrepancies"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    The Sacramento Army Depot (SAAD) Internal Review and Audit Compliance Office (Internal Review) issued an audit report, "Audit of Warranties, Quality Deficiency Reports, and Reports of Discrepancies," on July 20, 1990...

  12. Siting Report for Theater Missile Defense Mid-Range Test Launch Complex at Ft. Wingate Depot Activity, NM: Based on Sit Survey, 14-18 February 1994

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    This study is provided to assess the capability of Ft. Wingate Depot Activity to act as a Ballistic Missile Defense Test Support Complex for the launch of target missiles toward White Sands Missile Range...

  13. Adesão ao tratamento e hospitalizações entre pacientes que realizam aplicações de Flufenazina Depot Adhesión al tratamiento y hospitalización entre pacientes que realizan aplicaciones de Flufenazina Depot Compliance with treatment and hospitalization among patients using Flufenazine Depot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Menna Oliveira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Os autores revisam a bibliografia sobre medicação depot e apresentam dados referentes à adesão ao tratamento e hospitalizações entre os pacientes que realizam aplicações de enantato de flufenazina em regime ambulatorial no Hospital Espírita de Pelotas. MÉTODO: Analisaram-se os prontuários de pacientes que foram incluídos no regime depot anteriormente a maio de 2001 e que realizaram pelo menos uma aplicação entre maio de 2001 e junho de 2002, quanto à adesão ao tratamento e eventuais hospitalizações. RESULTADOS: De um total de 100 pacientes, 66 permaneciam em regime depot ao término do período estudado. Destes, 40 (61% apresentavam boa adesão ao tratamento, enquanto 26 (39% apresentavam má adesão. Houve um total de 25 pacientes que sofreram hospitalizações, entre os quais a maioria não estava em tratamento no término do estudo ou apresentava má adesão. Entre os pacientes procedentes do mesmo bairro em que se situa o hospital, 10 (67% apresentavam boa adesão em comparação com 30 pacientes (59% procedentes de bairros distintos. DISCUSSÃO: O número de hospitalizações variou visivelmente, conforme a permanência ou não em tratamento e a adesão ao mesmo. Pacientes provenientes de bairros distantes do hospital tenderam a apresentar pior adesão ao tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: É possível que pacientes em regime de aplicação depot residentes próximos ao local de aplicação beneficiem-se mais do tratamento que aqueles residentes em locais distantes. São necessários mais estudos comparando administrações depot com VO em termos de adesão e investigando fatores preditores de boa adesão ao tratamento.OBJETIVOS: Los autores revisan la bibliografía sobre medicación depot y presentan datos referentes a la adhesión al tratamiento y hospitalizaciones entre los pacientes que realizan aplicaciones de enantato de flufenazina en régimen ambulatorio en el Hospital Espiritista de Pelotas. MÉTODO: Fueron

  14. Organic matter composition in the sediment of three Brazilian coastal lagoons: district of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Klaus-Gerhard; Furtado, André L S; Casper, Peter; Schwark, Lorenz

    2004-03-01

    Freshwater lagoons comprise important coastal ecosystems and natural buffers between urbanized land areas and open ocean in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Studies of sediment and water chemistry, zooplankton and bacterial communities to assess the extent of anthropogenic disturbance are available. Here we contribute with an organic-geochemical approach supplemented by some microbiological aspects to complete the characterization of these lagoonal ecosystems. Bulk organic matter and extractable lipids (aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and fatty acids, sterols) were investigated from two locations per lagoon: at the seaward site and landward ends - and at two depth intervals (0-3 and 3-6 cm) per site. Urbanized Imboacica Lagoon received increased anthropogenic input over the most recent years represented by the topmost 3 cm of sediment, whereas deeper sediment layers are less affected by human influence. Eutrophication or nutrient availability favored enhanced algal/cyanobacterial growth. In remote Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons pristine conditions are preserved. Organic matter from vascular plants dominates (chain length of free lipids up to C36), which is exceptionally well preserved by acidic lagoonal waters. Differentiation between landward and seaward sites in these two lagoons is less well established due to much smaller surface/volume to catchment ratios. No anthropogenic influences are yet detectable in sediments of Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons.

  15. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Sivash, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Yvonne I.; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding

  16. Is the lagoon of Venice health? A look at budgets and pathways of POP's in Venice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerzoni, S.; Sarretta, A. [CNR - Istituto di Scienze Marine, Venezia (Italy); Ferrari, G. [Magistrato alle Acque, Venezia (Italy); Molinaroli, E. [Univ. Ca Foscari, Venezia (Italy). Dip. Scienze Ambientali; Rossini, P. [Istituto di Ricerca Gruppo CSA, Rimini (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The rapid deterioration of the world's major ecosystems has intensified the need for effective monitoring and development of operational indicators of ecosystem health, and the extension of health to describe regional ecosystems is a response to accumulating evidence that humandominated ecosystems have become highly dysfunctional. The Lagoon of Venice is probably one of the world's best-known examples of an ecosystem that has been historically influenced by human intervention since the XVth century. The area has a long history of industrial activity (even recent, mainly after World War II), with oil refining and several chemical production plants around the Lagoon. Only recently has Venice also been recognised because of its environmental problems, mainly due to POPs accumulating in sediments and seafood which has aroused local concern. It is well-known that one important effect of ecosystem degradation is an increased risk to the health of human populations. In the case of POPs, the simplest way for humans to be exposed is through the consumption of food contaminated by dioxins and PCBs. Due to bio-accumulation and long-term exposure (additives) to these pollutants, even minimal doses of dioxins and PCBs can result in negative effects on health. Human health should thus be understood within an ecological framework as an expression of the life-supporting capacity of the environment. Consequently, human health becomes an important criterion of sustainability - one which, over time, signals whether we are satisfactorily sustaining the social and ecological realms. This paper gathers together recent data on dioxins and PCBs, related both to the environment and to human health, in order to emphasize the need for intervention.

  17. Controls of Sediment Nitrogen Dynamics in Tropical Coastal Lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrich-Prast, Alex; Figueiredo, Viviane; Esteves, Francisco de Assis; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Sediment denitrification rates seem to be lower in tropical environments than in temperate environments. Using the isotope pairing technique, we measured actual denitrification rates in the sediment of tropical coastal lagoons. To explain the low denitrification rates observed at all study sites (<5 μmol N2 m-2 h-1), we also evaluated potential oxygen (O2) consumption, potential nitrification, potential denitrification, potential anammox, and estimated dissimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction to ammonium (NH4+; DNRA) in the sediment. 15NO3- and 15NH4+ conversion was measured in oxic and anoxic slurries from the sediment surface. Sediment potential O2 consumption was used as a proxy for overall mineralization activity. Actual denitrification rates and different potential nitrogen (N) oxidation and reduction processes were significantly correlated with potential O2 consumption. The contribution of potential nitrification to total O2 consumption decreased from contributing 9% at sites with the lowest sediment mineralization rates to less than 0.1% at sites with the highest rates. NO3- reduction switched completely from potential denitrification to estimated DNRA. Ammonium oxidation and nitrite (NO2-) reduction by potential anammox contributed up to 3% in sediments with the lowest sediment mineralization rates. The majority of these patterns could be explained by variations in the microbial environments from stable and largely oxic conditions at low sediment mineralization sites to more variable conditions and the prevalences of anaerobic microorganisms at high sediment mineralization sites. Furthermore, the presence of algal and microbial mats on the sediment had a significant effect on all studied processes. We propose a theoretical model based on low and high sediment mineralization rates to explain the growth, activity, and distribution of microorganisms carrying out denitrification and DNRA in sediments that can explain the dominance or coexistence of DNRA and

  18. Migration Rate Of Tidal Meanders: Inferences From The Venice Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finotello, A.; D'Alpaos, A.; Ghinassi, M.; Lanzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Meandering channels are ubiquitous features of tidal landscapes. However, despite their fundamental role on the eco-morphodynamic evolution of these landscapes, tidal meanders have received less attention when compared to their fluvial counterparts. Improving current understanding of tidal meander migration, a largely-examined topic in fluvial landscapes, is a key step to highlight analogies and differences between tidal and fluvial cases. The migration of about 400 meander bends, belonging to 40 salt-marsh channels in the Northern Venice Lagoon (Italy), from 1968 to nowadays, has been investigated by means of both a classical method in fluvial frameworks and new procedure. Similarities with fluvial meanders occur, although important difference also emerge. Meanders cutting through the San Felice marsh follow the relationship between cartesian length and channel width, typical of meanders developed within different settings. However, meander migration rates proved to be smaller than those characterizing fluvial meanders. Indeed, the analysis of meander migration suggests a mean migration rate of about 0.10 m/year, consistent with the few data available in the literature. As for the fluvial case, the maximum-potential migration rate (i.e. the envelope curve of the relationship between migration rate and bend radius, both divided by channel width) reaches a maximum for radius-over-width ratio included between 2 and 3, regardless of the considered method. Nevertheless, the new-proposed method allows us to provide a more objective and continuous characterization. By using this new procedure, the channel curvature has finally been Fourier-analyzed, confirming the importance of even harmonics along the curvature spectrum. A correlation between migration rates and dominant harmonics seems to drive the evolution of tidal meanders and might represent a key-feature to distinguish them from their fluvial counterparts.

  19. Organochlorine pesticides in sediment and biological samples from the coastal lagoons of Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, S.; Lacayo, M.; Picado, F.; Lopez, A.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua to investigate the contamination of the coastal lagoons with residues of agricultural pesticides. Samples were taken during 1995 from the areas of Estero Real, Padre Ramos, Maderas Negras, Naranjo and Paso Caballos, and during 1996 from Aposentillo to Estero Barquito - Posoltega River. Analysis of the samples of sediment and aquatic life (fishes, oysters and bivalves) showed that they were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides. The pesticides found in the highest concentrations were toxaphene (1,734 μg.kg -1 ) and p,p-DDE (275 μg kg -1 ). These data indicate widespread contamination of the ecosystem with organochlorine pesticides in the main Pacific coastal lagoons of Nicaragua, resulting from intensive agricultural use of pesticides during the past decades. The contamination has been carried from the agricultural areas to the coastal lagoons by the rivers passing through the cultivated areas. (author)

  20. Numerical and experimental investigations of submarine groundwater discharge to a coastal lagoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Kinza

    The main goal of this study is to understand and estimate the amount of submarine groundwater discharge into Ringkøbing Fjord from shallow and deep aquifer systems at the Eastern shoreline from Ringkøbing catchment in Western Denmark. In order to accomplish this objective, the study was initiated...... of the groundwater discharge occurred near the shoreline of the lagoon, but also off-shore discharge from deep confined aquifers system occurred at places where confining clay layers are eroded by buried valleys. The simulated fresh groundwater discharge was a non-negligible component, 59 % of recharge on the lagoon...... and 6 % of river input into the lagoon. This large-scale study was the motivation to conduct field investigation techniques in order to understand the dynamic processes in the near-shore environment. Field campaigns were conducted every two months in order to understand the seasonal groundwater...

  1. Distribution to heavy metals in sediments of the Venice Lagoon: The role of the industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frignani, M.; Bellucci, L.G.; Ravanelli, M.; Paolucci, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Venice Lagoon has been heavily polluted both from diffuse and direct sources. It has been recently established that the atmospheric delivery of contaminants to the lagoon can be very significant in zones far from direct sources, but the influence of the industrial area of Porto Marghera, though widely recognized, has not been entirely described and quantified. In order to assess the temporal and spatial variability of metal pollution, and to better understand the contribution of the industrial channels as sources of contaminants, in May 1996 we sampled 18 stations in the lagoon and 9 in the channels of the industrial area of Porto Marghera. At each site a short core, 10 cm long, was taken and immediately extruded to obtain 4 slices 2-2.5 cm thick. Sediment samples have been analysed for As, Cd, Pb, and Zn after acid extraction

  2. 210Pb and 210Po in Venice Lagoon Biota and their contribution to population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Rosamilia, S.; Blasi, M.; Sansone, U.; Belli, M.; Sepulcri, D.; Bidoli, P.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product resulting from the processes applied in phosphoric acid or phosphate fertilizer production. The phosphate ore used in these chemical processes contains the naturally occurring radioactive materials U, and Th, along with their decay products. Large volumes of solid waste products were discharged from a phosphoric acid production plant on the edge of the Venice lagoon (Italy). Water, suspended matter, and biota were monitored in the Venice lagoon, since this aquatic environment can be considered to represent the final area of deposition for the radionuclides transported from inland. The present paper reports data on the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb determined in biota living in the lagoon, and an estimation of the contribution to internal dose to man from the ingestion of food originating in the investigated area. (orig.)

  3. Lagoon Sediment Dynamics: A Coupled Model to Study a Medium-Term Silting of Tidal Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Petti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The silting of tidal channels is a natural process that affects several shallow lagoons and makes it difficult to navigate, requiring regular maintenance interventions. This phenomenon is the result of the complex non-linear interaction between tidal currents and wave motion. In this work, the morphodynamic evolution of the Marano and Grado lagoon is investigated by means of a two-dimensional horizontal (2DH morphological-hydrodynamic and a spectral coupled model. An innovative procedure to reproduce the overall bathymetric changes in the medium term and, in particular, the volumes deposited inside channels, is presented. An average year with a sequence of winds and tides acting over that time was reconstructed, carrying out cross correlation techniques and spectral analyses of measured data. The predicted morphological evolution matches the annual dredged volumes in the lagoon critical branches and shows the distribution of erosion and deposition of cohesive sediments according to spatially variable values of critical shear stress.

  4. Shallow gas accumulation in sediments of the Patos Lagoon, Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weschenfelder, Jair; Corrrea, Iran C.S.; Pereira, Carla M.; Vasconcellos, Vinicius E.B. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Aliotta, Salvador [Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia Complejo CRIBABB, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2006-07-15

    A high resolution seismic survey was conducted in the Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, aboard of the research vessel LARUS of the Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG). Around 400 km of 3.5 k Hz seismic profiles were collected, which provided acoustic signals of good penetration depth and resolution. Seismic anomalies, including turbidity and pocket gas, revealed that gas-charged sediments are common in several areas of the lagoon. The gas accumulations in the Patos Lagoon are controlled by the spatial distribution of the sedimentary facies. Either in 'curtains' or in 'acoustic turbid zones', the main gas accumulations occur in areas with paleotopographic lows related to fluvial channels and valleys developed in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal plain during regressive/transgressive events of the Quaternary. (author)

  5. Spatial variability in fish species assemblage and community structure in four subtropical lagoons of the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosepele, K.; Mosepele, B.; Bokhutlo, T.; Amutenya, K.

    The species assemblage and community structure of four lagoons was assessed through time series data collected between 2001 and 2005 in the Okavango Delta. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of lagoons as fish habitats in the Delta. Therefore, this study assessed the importance of these habitats through determining fish species diversity, composition, relative abundance, and community structure between the lagoons. Forty six species belonging to 11 families and five orders were collected over the study period. Main results showed that Cichlidae was the most important family and had the highest species richness in the lagoons. Significant differences ( p lodges are constructed, which makes subsequently makes them vulnerable to pollution. Therefore, the integrity of lagoon habitats needs to be maintained so that their ecosystem functioning (i.e. fish repositories) is maintained.

  6. Depot-Specific Response of Adipose Tissue to Diet-Induced Inflammation: The Retinoid-Related Orphan Receptor α (RORα) Involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiri, Sarah; Auclair, Martine; Capeau, Jacqueline; Antoine, Bénédicte

    2017-11-01

    Epididymal adipose tissue (EAT), a visceral fat depot, is more closely associated with metabolic dysfunction than inguinal adipose tissue (IAT), a subcutaneous depot. This study evaluated whether the nuclear receptor RORα, which controls inflammatory processes, could be implicated. EAT and IAT were compared in a RORα loss-of-function mouse (sg/sg) and in wild-type (WT) littermates, fed a standard diet (SD) or a Western diet (WD), to evaluate the impact of RORα expression on inflammatory status and on insulin sensitivity (IS) of each fat depot according to the diet. Sg/sg mice fed the SD exhibited a decreased inflammatory status and a higher IS in their fat depots than WT mice. WD-induced obesity had distinct effects on the two fat depots. In WT mice, EAT exhibited increased inflammation and insulin resistance while IAT showed reduced inflammation and improved IS, together with a depot-specific increase of RORα, and its target gene IκBα, in the stroma vascular fraction (SVF). Conversely, in sg/sg mice, WD increased inflammation and lowered IS of IAT but not of EAT. These findings suggest an anti-inflammatory role for RORα in response to WD, which occurs at the level of SVF of IAT, thus possibly contributing to the "healthy" expansion of IAT. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  7. Assessment of the metals concentration in sediments of Chimaliapan Lagoon, Lerma, Mexico State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez V, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The San Pedro Tultepec Lagoon of Quiroga in Lerma, known as Chimaliapan Lagoon is one of the Cienegas of the high course of the Lerma river. Considering that the lagoon is adjacent to an industrial area, have been altered the natural conditions of the channels, degrading the water quality and affecting the systems with different pollution sources, among which are industrial and municipal discharges and runoff of farmland. For this reason was decided to conduct a study in order to assess the concentration of metals in sediments of 4 sites and 4 downloads of the Chimaliapan Lagoon in order to infer the possible natural contributions and/or anthropogenic metals and their impact on both flora and fauna and the population that is supplied with the same, while assessing levels of enrichment of Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb metals as a result of contributions previously mentioned applying the technique of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). According to the results by EDXRF, the sediments of the Lagoon assessed with the criterion of the EPA for the disposal of dredged sediments at this site, Mn and Fe only slightly exceed this criterion, then considering the Canadian criteria for the protection of aquatic life OMe, might have slight effects of Cr, Mn, Fe and Cu. Sediment discharges, evaluated with the same criteria indicate that Cr and Pb exceed the limit recommended by the EPA for the disposal of dredged sediments and Cr, Cu and Zn exceed the limit recommended for the protection of aquatic life OMe, noting that these metals may cause slight effects on organisms living in the Lagoon, such as carp and other organisms that live there, causing potential effects on humans through the food chain. (Author)

  8. Linking pipefishes and seahorses to their habitat: implications for species conservation in the Venice lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Scapin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows of the Venice lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy are spatially heterogeneous systems, with attributes such as degree of coverage and plant assemblages varying along multiple environmental gradients. They play a particularly relevant role in conservation of fish diversity, since they provide vital habitats for pipefish and seahorse species (family Syngnathidae. Aim of the study was to investigate the diversity of syngnathid assemblages in the Venice lagoon and link species distributions to habitat characteristics, in order to evaluate the importance of seagrass meadows of the lagoon for the conservation of these species. The analyses of this work are based on eight years of fish data collected between 2001 and 2014 in 186 shallow water sites across the entire lagoon. Water parameters, presence of macroalgae, seagrass presence and coverage, as well as meadows species composition, were considered as predictors in a modelling framework, to explain the distribution of each species. Overall, two species of seahorses and seven species of pipefishes including the Adriatic endemism Syngnathus taenionotus were found. Three species (S. abaster, S. typhle and Nerophis ophidion were the most abundant, together accounting for 98% of total individuals caught. Both seagrass presence and its coverage resulted significant predictors, with densities of S. abaster, S. typhle, N. ophidion and Hippocampus guttulatus being positively associated with higher percentages of seagrass cover. In addition, some evidences suggested a different functionality of different meadow types in supporting both S. typhle and N. ophidion. The study highlighted the role of Venice lagoon as biodiversity hotspot for syngnathids, since it supports nine out of the 10 species known in the Mediterranean (with only S. phlegon being absent. Results also suggested the importance of habitat management, which should aim at compensating for seagrass habitat loss and therefore

  9. Study on the sedimentation of the Olho D'Agua Lagoon, State of Pernambuco - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentim, Eliane; Hazin, Clovis A.; Lima, Ricardo de A.; Amaral, Romilton S.; Godoy, Jose M.

    1999-01-01

    The Olho D'Agua Lagoon, placed in the municipal district of Jabotao of Guararapes, metropolitan area of Recife, is the main natural lagoon of the State of Pernambuco. For possessing a great potential paisagistic and environmental and for its extension, articulations between the City hall of Jaboatao of Guararapes and the Federal Government were accomplished in order to be built in I spill it of the lagoon a tourist park with the cooperation of several international organs. The urban and industrial development of this area happened the approximately 50 years ago, and ever since the Olho D'Agua Lagoon has if turned a deposit of domestic and industrial sink, because 95% of the spontaneous establishment are located in its margins and 15% are just assisted by sinks nets. So that a program of revitalization of this estuary is executed it is necessary to evaluate the ecological impact in this lagoon due to the activities. With base in this, it was determined the sedimentation rate and dating of its sediments in order to evaluate the pollution degree in the sets and to compare them with the profile of heavy metals and granulometer of the sediments. The obtained results show an expressive growth of the sedimentation rate, of 0,1 cm/year to 0,3 cm/year for 0,6 cm/year to 1,0 cm/year starting from the decade of 40. These results are in agreement with the text of heavy metals observed in each section of the lagoon and they agree with the industrial history of the area. (author)

  10. Bacterioplankton diversity and community composition in the Southern Lagoon of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Francesca; Gómez-Pereira, Paola R; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Amann, Rudolf

    2010-04-01

    The Lagoon of Venice is a large water basin that exchanges water with the Northern Adriatic Sea through three large inlets. In this study, the 16S rRNA approach was used to investigate the bacterial diversity and community composition within the southern basin of the Lagoon of Venice and at one inlet in October 2007 and June 2008. Comparative sequence analysis of 645 mostly partial 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated high diversity and dominance of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes at the lagoon as well as at the inlet station, therefore pointing to significant mixing. Many of these sequences were close to the 16S rRNA of marine, often coastal, bacterioplankton, such as the Roseobacter clade, the family Vibrionaceae, and class Flavobacteria. Sequences of Actinobacteria were indicators of a freshwater input. The composition of the bacterioplankton was quantified by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) with a set of rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. CARD-FISH counts corroborated the dominance of members of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. When assessed by a probe set for the quantification of selected clades within Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, bacterioplankton composition differed between October 2007 and June 2008, and also between the inlet and the lagoon. In particular, members of the readily culturable copiotrophic gammaproteobacterial genera Vibrio, Alteromonas and Pseudoalteromonas were enriched in the southern basin of the Lagoon of Venice. Interestingly, the alphaproteobacterial SAR11 clade and related clusters were also present in high abundances at the inlet and within the lagoon, which was indicative of inflow of water from the open sea.

  11. Methane fluxes from tropical coastal lagoons surrounded by mangroves, Yucatán, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, P.-C.; Young, M. B.; Dale, A. W.; Miller, L. G.; Herrera-Silveira, J. A.; Paytan, A.

    2017-05-01

    Methane concentrations in the water column and emissions to the atmosphere were determined for three tropical coastal lagoons surrounded by mangrove forests on the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Surface water dissolved methane was sampled at different seasons over a period of 2 years in areas representing a wide range of salinities and anthropogenic impacts. The highest surface water methane concentrations (up to 8378 nM) were measured in a polluted canal associated with Terminos Lagoon. In Chelem Lagoon, methane concentrations were typically lower, except in the polluted harbor area (1796 nM). In the relatively pristine Celestún Lagoon, surface water methane concentrations ranged from 41 to 2551 nM. Methane concentrations were negatively correlated with salinity in Celestún, while in Chelem and Terminos high methane concentrations were associated with areas of known pollution inputs, irrespective of salinity. The diffusive methane flux from surface lagoon water to the atmosphere ranged from 0.0023 to 15 mmol CH4 m-2 d-1. Flux chamber measurements revealed that direct methane release as ebullition was up to 3 orders of magnitude greater than measured diffusive flux. Coastal mangrove lagoons may therefore be an important natural source of methane to the atmosphere despite their relatively high salinity. Pollution inputs are likely to substantially enhance this flux. Additional statistically rigorous data collected globally are needed to better consider methane fluxes from mangrove-surrounded coastal areas in response to sea level changes and anthropogenic pollution in order to refine projections of future atmospheric methane budgets.

  12. Chasing boundaries and cascade effects in a coupled barrier-marsh-lagoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Trueba, Jorge; Mariotti, Giulio

    2017-08-01

    The long-term dynamic evolution of an idealized barrier-marsh-lagoon system experiencing sea-level rise is studied by coupling two existing numerical models. The barrier model accounts for the interaction between shoreface dynamics and overwash flux, which allows the occurrence of barrier drowning. The marsh-lagoon model includes both a backbarrier marsh and an interior marsh, and accounts for the modification of the wave regime associated with changes in lagoon width and depth. Overwash, the key process that connects the barrier shoreface with the marsh-lagoon ecosystems, is formulated to account for the role of the backbarrier marsh. Model results show that a number of factors that are not typically associated with the dynamics of coastal barriers can enhance the rate of overwash-driven landward migration by increasing backbarrier accommodation space. For instance, lagoon deepening could be triggered by marsh edge retreat and consequent export of fine sediment via tidal dispersion, as well as by an expansion of inland marshes and consequent increase in accommodation space to be filled in with sediment. A deeper lagoon results in a larger fraction of sediment overwash being subaqueous, which coupled with a slow shoreface response sending sediment onshore can trigger barrier drowning. We therefore conclude that the supply of fine sediments to the back-barrier and the dynamics of both the interior and backbarrier marsh can be essential for maintaining the barrier system under elevated rates of sea-level rise. Our results highlight the importance of considering barriers and their associated backbarriers as part of an integrated system in which sediment is exchanged.

  13. 76 FR 21425 - Rocky Mountain Railcar and Repair, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Line of Railroad in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Utah Industrial Depot and operate 11.5 miles of rail line, located inside an existing industrial facility in Tooele County, Utah.\\1\\ The rail line includes a spur that... operates a railcar repair facility, but that it seeks to become a common carrier. According to Rocky...

  14. Methodology for the selection of the regime of flow in lagoons of stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz T, Luis Eduardo; Alayon Torres, Walter E; Monsegny S, Carlos Emilio

    2000-01-01

    To model biological processes, information is needed on the stoichiometry and kinetics of the reactions and about the hydraulic regime of the system. The stoichiometry of a reaction refers to the quantity of consumed reactants (such as substrates) and to the quantity of formed products (such as microorganisms). The hydraulic regime makes reference to the configuration of the flow inside of and outside of the process and to the mixture and distribution of the solids of the fluid inside the reactor. The present article it is centered in studying the different mixture regimens and its kinetic models of degradation of organic matter applied to the case specify of the lagoon of stabilization of residual waters of the Municipality of Tocancipa; also it the methodology discusses to determine the type of flow that is presented in a stabilization lagoon. The kinetic models of degradation of organic matter in stabilization lagoons are classified according with the presence or absence of oxygen in the lagoon and with the mixture regime that it is presented in this. The regimens of flow that are presented in the stabilization lagoons are those of complete mixture and the piston flow, one completely opposed to the other one. Between these two is the denominated regime of dispersed or arbitrary flow. The determination of the mixture regime is of great importance, since with this it is possible to have an idea of the behavior of the rates of removal of the nutrients that arrive to the system, of the consumption of oxygen and the kinetic pattern of removal of organic matter among others. The regime of mixture complete ideal this characterized because the mass of water that enters to the system is dispersed instantly, making that the characteristics of the water are the same ones in any point, that is to say that the reaction rates are constant in the reactor and the demand of oxygen it is identical in any sampling point, likewise it happens with the removal rate; this has big

  15. Dioxins in the Venice lagoon: Present situation, projects and recovering hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccanelli, S; Bonamin, V

    2000-01-01

    Venice is famous around the world for its uniqueness and architectural splendours, arts and the history of the "Serenissima Repubblica", as it was known in the past, but few are aware that Venice economy is strongly dependent on the industrial activities based mainly on the adjacent Porto Marghera area. For many years, the lagoon that physically separates the city from the dry land has avoided association between the concern connected with the pollution derived from these industrial activities and the public perception of Venice. Since 1995, dioxins have appeared as a lagoon contaminant, and their presence, at such a level requiring immediate "in depth" studies and interventions, has been fully realized for decades.

  16. Temporal stability of otolith elemental fingerprints discriminates among lagoon nursery habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournois, Jennifer; Ferraton, Franck; Velez, Laure; McKenzie, David J.; Aliaume, Catherine; Mercier, Lény; Darnaude, Audrey M.

    2013-10-01

    The chemical composition of fish otoliths reflects that of the water masses that they inhabit. Otolith elemental compositions can, therefore, be used as natural tags to discriminate among habitats. However, for retrospective habitat identification to be valid and reliable for any adult, irrespective of its age, significant differences in environmental conditions, and therefore otolith signatures, must be temporally stable within each habitat, otherwise connectivity studies have to be carried out by matching year-classes to the corresponding annual fingerprints. This study investigated how various different combinations of chemical elements in otoliths could distinguish, over three separate years, between four coastal lagoon habitats used annually as nurseries by gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). A series of nine elements were measured in otoliths of 301 S. aurata juveniles collected in the four lagoons in 2008, 2010 and 2011. Percentages of correct re-assignment of juveniles to their lagoon of origin were calculated with the Random Forest classification method, considering every possible combination of elements. This revealed both spatial and temporal variations in accuracy of habitat identification, with correct re-assignment to each lagoon ranging from 44 to 99% depending on the year and the lagoon. There were also annual differences in the combination of elements that provided the best discrimination among the lagoons. Despite this, when the data from the three years were pooled, a combination of eight elements (B, Ba, Cu, Li, Mg, Rb, Sr and Y) provided greater than 70% correct re-assignment to each single lagoon, with a multi-annual global accuracy of 79%. When considering the years separately, discrimination accuracy with these elemental fingerprints was above 90% for 2008 and 2010. It decreased to 61% in 2011, when unusually heavy rainfall occurred, which presumably reduced chemical differences among several of the

  17. THE APPLICATION OF A BPL INDEX IN THE POLISH PART OF THE VISTULA LAGOON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Agnieszka Michałek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a biopollution assessment results with respect to macrozoobenthic non-indigenous species in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon. A biopollution level index (BPL was applied and evaluated based on the studies on macrozoobenthos conducted in 2010 and 2012 within the frame of several individual projects. Overall 15 macrozoobenthic species were identified, 5 of which were aquatic alien species: Marenzelleria neglecta, Rhitropanopeus harrissi, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Dreissena polymorpha and Rangia cuneata. According to the applied criteria the Vistula Lagoon was moderately influenced by invasive species.

  18. Seasonal succession of cyanoprokaryotes in a hypereutrophic oligo-mesohaline lagoon from the South of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomérat, Nicolas; Garnier, Robert; Bertrand, Céline; Cazaubon, Arlette

    2007-05-01

    The Bolmon lagoon (South of France) is an oligo-mesohaline coastal lagoon that has undergone intense eutrophication in the past decades, resulting from a strong concentration of human activities in its drainage basin. Consequently, it exhibits some characteristics typical of an advanced trophic state; namely, the disappearance of submerged vegetation, the permanently intense phytoplankton growth and the recurrence of cyanoprokaryote blooms. As cyanoprokaryote dominance in south-temperate saline lagoons is little reported, we carried out this study in order to understand the seasonal variations in the phytoplankton composition and biomass, and to analyse the influence of environmental parameters such as salinity, nutrients and climate on the seasonal succession of species. In this lagoon, the phytoplankton was permanently dominated by cyanoprokaryotes, probably because of high availability of nutrients, low light penetration in the water column and frequent turbulent mixing induced by wind. The two most abundant species Planktothrix agardhii (in winter-spring) and Pseudanabaena limnetica (in summer) have low light requirements and are well adapted to a high mixing frequency, which defines the S1 functional group in Reynolds' typology for phytoplankton. Although widely studied in north-temperate lakes, blooms of these typically freshwater species are almost unreported in the Mediterranean area, especially in brackish ecosystems that are not their normal habitat. In the Bolmon lagoon, all their requirements for nutrients, light and mixing are satisfied and they seem to cope with a moderate presence of salt but P. agardhii was less competitive than P. limnetica at highest salinities, the latter being probably more halophytic. Contrary to the observations in lakes located at higher latitudes, the Mediterranean climate seems to induce a typical seasonal pattern of succession characterised by the dominance of P. agardhii (winter) - Chroococcales (spring

  19. Association between individual fat depots and cardio-metabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, M; Geisler, C; Plachta-Danielzik, S; Müller, M J

    2017-05-08

    To determine age-related associations between fat mass (FM), regional fat depots and cardiometabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults. Detailed body composition (regional subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue; SAT, VAT) by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), FM and fat-free mass by air-displacement plethysmography, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), plasma glucose and plasma insulin were measured in 433 subjects (BMI: 23.6 (21.0-27.7); 151 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, 150 young adults, aged 18-30 years and 132 adults, aged 30-60 years). Data were derived from pooled data of the 'Reference Center for Body Composition' in Kiel, Germany. Insulin resistance was determined by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Partial correlations and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between body composition and cardiometabolic traits. A descriptive approach was used to demonstrate age-dependent differences in associations between body fat depots and insulin resistance, independent of BMI. FM, SAT, and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood with low VAT in children and adolescents. When compared to children, TG was higher in adults. HDL and DBP did not differ between age groups. Insulin resistance was highest in male adolescents and female young adults. Associations between body fat depots and cardiometabolic traits were seen after puberty with no associations in pre- and intrapubertal children. When compared to FM, SAT and VAT had the strongest association with insulin resistance in adults. This association was independent of BMI. Associations between individual body fat depots and most cardiometabolic traits became evident after puberty only. The strongest associations were observed between insulin resistance and abdominal fat in adults. The impact of VAT was independent

  20. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  1. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya, E-mail: tizawa@mail.doshisha.ac.jp

    2015-10-23

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  2. Depot injectable atorvastatin biodegradable in situ gel: development, optimization, in vitro, and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed TA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tarek A Ahmed,1,2 Yasser A Alharby,1 Abdel-Rahim M El-Helw,1 Khaled M Hosny,1,3 Khalid M El-Say1,21Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, EgyptAbstract: This study aimed to develop an optimized depot injectable atorvastatin (ATR biodegradable in situ gel (ISG system with minimum initial burst using a central composite design. The factors selected were poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA concentration (X1, molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG (X2, and PEG concentration (X3. The independent variables were the initial burst of ATR after 2 (Y1 and 24 hours (Y2. The optimized formulation was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and in vitro drug release in phosphate-buffered saline of pH 7.4 for 72 hours. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study of the optimized ATR-ISG and the corresponding PEG-free ATR-ISG were conducted by intramuscular injection of a single dose (2 mg/kg of ATR in male New Zealand White rabbits. A double-blind, randomized, parallel design was used in comparison with those of the marketed ATR tablet. Statistical analysis revealed that PLGA concentration and the molecular weight of PEG have pronounced effects on both Y1 and Y2. The optimized formulation was composed of 36.10% PLGA, PEG 6000, and 15.69% PEG, and exhibited characteristic in vitro release pattern with minimal initial burst. Incorporation of PEG in the formulation causes a slight decrease in the glass transition temperature value of PLGA, leading to a slight change in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum due to possible interaction. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy photomicrograph showed smooth

  3. Investigation of Sulfate concentration influence on Anaerobic Lagoon performance: Birjand Wastewater Treatment plant: A Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In the present study the influence of the different sulfate concentration on the anaerobic lagoon stabilization was investigated. Materials and Methods: The present study is an experimental research carried out on anaerobic stabilization pond pilot for 7 months in Birjand wastewater treatment plant. After making sure of a steady state sulfate with different concentrations of 200, 300 and 400 mg/L were injected into the pilot. Then parameters including pH, organic nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, BOD5, COD and nitrate were measured. All of the experiments were carried out according to the methods presented in the book "Standard Method" for the examination of water and wastewater (2005. Results: It was found that by increasing sulfate concentration from 200 to 300 mg/L all of parameters  except BOD5 (10% reduction had no significant changes., but by increasing the sulfate concentration from 200 to 400 mg/L the removal efficiency of the parameters such as BOD5, COD, Organic nitrogen, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrate and sulfate reduced to 11, 8, 12, 26, 6 and 10 percent, respectively. PH in the first stage was alkaline and then changed to acidic. Conclusion: Anaerobic stabilization ponds have different capacities for removal of organic compounds at different sulfate concentrations; so that; in sulfate concentration of 200 mg/L, the proper operation was seen and in concentration of 300 mg/L, sulfate-reducing bacteria get dominant and therefore odor is produced..  Alternatively, by increasing the concentration of sulphate to 400 mg/L, ammonia nitrogen increased 2.5 times (150% in the effluent.

  4. The Washington Needle Depot: fitting healthcare to injection drug users rather than injection drug users to healthcare: moving from a syringe exchange to syringe distribution model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glickman Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Needle exchange programs chase political as well as epidemiological dragons, carrying within them both implicit moral and political goals. In the exchange model of syringe distribution, injection drug users (IDUs must provide used needles in order to receive new needles. Distribution and retrieval are co-existent in the exchange model. Likewise, limitations on how many needles can be received at a time compel addicts to have multiple points of contact with professionals where the virtues of treatment and detox are impressed upon them. The centre of gravity for syringe distribution programs needs to shift from needle exchange to needle distribution, which provides unlimited access to syringes. This paper provides a case study of the Washington Needle Depot, a program operating under the syringe distribution model, showing that the distribution and retrieval of syringes can be separated with effective results. Further, the experience of IDUs is utilized, through paid employment, to provide a vulnerable population of people with clean syringes to prevent HIV and HCV.

  5. Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis of the Nyírlugos obsidian core depot find

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Kasztovszky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Nyírlugos obsidian core depot find is one of the most important lithic assemblages in the collection of the Hungarian National Museum (HNM. The original set comprised 12 giant obsidian cores, of which 11 are currently on the permanent archaeological exhibition of the HNM. One of the cores is known to be inDebrecen. The first publication attributed the hoard, on the strength of giant (flint blades known from the Early and Middle Copper Age Tiszapolgár and Bodrogkeresztúr cultures, to the Copper Age. In the light of recent finds it is more likely to belong to the Middle Neolithic period. The source area was defined as Tokaj Mts., about100 kmto the NW from Nyírlugos. The size and beauty of the exceptional pieces exclude any invasive analysis. Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA, we can measure major chemical components and some key trace elements of stone artefacts with adequate accuracy to successfully determine provenance of obsidian. Recent methodological development also facilitated the study of relatively large objects like the Nyírlugos cores. The cores were individually measured by PGAA. The results show that the cores originate from the Carpathian 1 sources, most probably the Viničky variety (C1b. The study of the hoard as a batch is an important contribution to the assessment of prehistoric trade and allows us to reconsider the so-called Carpathian, especially Carpathian 1 (Slovakian sources.

  6. Enhanced intelligent water drops algorithm for multi-depot vehicle routing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezugwu, Absalom E; Akutsah, Francis; Olusanya, Micheal O; Adewumi, Aderemi O

    2018-01-01

    The intelligent water drop algorithm is a swarm-based metaheuristic algorithm, inspired by the characteristics of water drops in the river and the environmental changes resulting from the action of the flowing river. Since its appearance as an alternative stochastic optimization method, the algorithm has found applications in solving a wide range of combinatorial and functional optimization problems. This paper presents an improved intelligent water drop algorithm for solving multi-depot vehicle routing problems. A simulated annealing algorithm was introduced into the proposed algorithm as a local search metaheuristic to prevent the intelligent water drop algorithm from getting trapped into local minima and also improve its solution quality. In addition, some of the potential problematic issues associated with using simulated annealing that include high computational runtime and exponential calculation of the probability of acceptance criteria, are investigated. The exponential calculation of the probability of acceptance criteria for the simulated annealing based techniques is computationally expensive. Therefore, in order to maximize the performance of the intelligent water drop algorithm using simulated annealing, a better way of calculating the probability of acceptance criteria is considered. The performance of the proposed hybrid algorithm is evaluated by using 33 standard test problems, with the results obtained compared with the solutions offered by four well-known techniques from the subject literature. Experimental results and statistical tests show that the new method possesses outstanding performance in terms of solution quality and runtime consumed. In addition, the proposed algorithm is suitable for solving large-scale problems.

  7. Active motions of Brownian particles in a generalized energy-depot model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Koo Kim, Chul; Lee, Kong-Ju-Bock

    2008-01-01

    We present a generalized energy-depot model in which the rate of conversion of the internal energy into motion can be dependent on the position and velocity of a particle. When the conversion rate is a general function of the velocity, the active particle exhibits diverse patterns of motion, including a braking mechanism and a stepping motion. The phase trajectories of the motion are investigated in a systematic way. With a particular form of the conversion rate dependent on the position and velocity, the particle shows a spontaneous oscillation characterizing a negative stiffness. These types of active behaviors are compared with similar phenomena observed in biology, such as the stepping motion of molecular motors and amplification in the hearing mechanism. Hence, our model can provide a generic understanding of the active motion related to the energy conversion and also a new control mechanism for nano-robots. We also investigate the effect of noise, especially on the stepping motion, and observe random walk-like behavior as expected.

  8. RISK MANAGEMENT AND RISK COMMUNICATION IN MOZAMBIQUE: THE CASE OF ARMS AND AMMUNITION DEPOTS OF MALHAZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bussotti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk management and risk communication affect everybody’s daily life. Local authorities have the duty to manage public structures, to inform civilians of the risks coming from these structures, to implement prophylaxis procedures. Military storage sites are fully included in this category. This article presents – through a qualitative methodology based on risk analysis – how risk management and communication in weapons and ammunition warehouses is managed in a “partially free” country, using as a case-study, the Malhazine depot in Mozambique, which resulted in more than 100 deaths. In 2007, an extraordinary accident related to the management of obsolete conventional weapons occurred at the Malazhine warehouse. In this circumstance, the Mozambican Government adopted a policy of classifying the information “highly confidential”. This policy aimed at obscuring facts and responsibilities by hiding the causes of such a huge tragedy. This article concludes with the consideration that a high level of confidentiality in treating issues of public interest, such as the one kept in regard to Malhazine, does not help public authorities to effectively manage and prevent similar risks from occurring again, with resulting negative impacts on local populations.

  9. Scaling up depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA): a systematic literature review illustrating the AIDED model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Leslie; Taylor, Lauren; Pallas, Sarah Wood; Cherlin, Emily; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-08-02

    Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), often known by the brand name Depo-Provera, has increased globally, particularly in multiple low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As a reproductive health technology that has scaled up in diverse contexts, DMPA is an exemplar product innovation with which to illustrate the utility of the AIDED model for scaling up family health innovations. We conducted a systematic review of the enabling factors and barriers to scaling up DMPA use in LMICs. We searched 11 electronic databases for academic literature published through January 2013 (n = 284 articles), and grey literature from major health organizations. We applied exclusion criteria to identify relevant articles from peer-reviewed (n = 10) and grey literature (n = 9), extracting data on scale up of DMPA in 13 countries. We then mapped the resulting factors to the five AIDED model components: ASSESS, INNOVATE, DEVELOP, ENGAGE, and DEVOLVE. The final sample of sources included studies representing variation in geographies and methodologies. We identified 15 enabling factors and 10 barriers to dissemination, diffusion, scale up, and/or sustainability of DMPA use. The greatest number of factors were mapped to the ASSESS, DEVELOP, and ENGAGE components. Findings offer early empirical support for the AIDED model, and provide insights into scale up of DMPA that may be relevant for other family planning product innovations.

  10. Light Control of Insulin Release and Blood Glucose Using an Injectable Photoactivated Depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Bhagyesh R; Kover, Karen; Tong, Pei Y; Zhang, Chaoying; Friedman, Simon H

    2016-11-07

    In this work we demonstrate that blood glucose can be controlled remotely through light stimulated release of insulin from an injected cutaneous depot. Human insulin was tethered to an insoluble but injectable polymer via a linker, which was based on the light cleavable di-methoxy nitrophenyl ethyl (DMNPE) group. This material was injected into the skin of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. We observed insulin being released into the bloodstream after a 2 min trans-cutaneous irradiation of this site by a compact LED light source. Control animals treated with the same material, but in which light was blocked from the site, showed no release of insulin into the bloodstream. We also demonstrate that additional pulses of light from the light source result in additional pulses of insulin being absorbed into circulation. A significant reduction in blood glucose was then observed. Together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using light to allow for the continuously variable control of insulin release. This in turn has the potential to allow for the tight control of blood glucose without the invasiveness of insulin pumps and cannulas.

  11. Behavior of Particle Depots in Molten Silicon During Float-Zone Growth in Strong Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauss, T.; Croell, A.; SorgenFrei, T.; Azizi, M.; Reimann, C.; Friedrich, J.; Volz, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Solar cells made from directionally solidified silicon cover 57% of the photovoltaic industry's market [1]. One major issue during directional solidification of silicon is the precipitation of foreign phase particles. These particles, mainly SiC and Si3N4, are precipitated from the dissolved crucible coating, which is made of silicon nitride, and the dissolution of carbon monoxide from the furnace atmosphere. Due to their hardness and size of several hundred micrometers, those particles can lead to severe problems during the wire sawing process for wafering the ingots. Additionally, SiC particles can act as a shunt, short circuiting the solar cell. Even if the particles are too small to disturb the wafering process, they can lead to a grit structure of silicon micro grains and serve as sources for dislocations. All of this lowers the yield of solar cells and reduces the performance of cells and modules. We studied the behaviour of SiC particle depots during float-zone growth under an oxide skin, and strong static magnetic fields. For high field strengths of 3T and above and an oxide layer on the sample surface, convection is sufficiently suppressed to create a diffusive like regime, with strongly dampened convection [2, 3]. To investigate the difference between atomically rough phase boundaries and facetted growth, samples with [100] and [111] orientation were processed.

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae in a subtropical coastal lagoon, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. P. Macedo-Soares

    Full Text Available This study investigated the variation in abundance, distribution and composition of ichthyoplankton in a lagoon in southern Brazil through the year and at different stations within the lagoon. Ibiraquera Lagoon is a shallow coastal lagoon connected to the sea by a semi-permanent sandbar. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected monthly from December 2003 to December 2004, with a 200 µm mesh net using horizontal surface hauls. A colder, drier period was detected, contrasting with warm months during which salinity varied depending on rainfall and whether the sandbar was open or closed. The mean abundance of ichthyoplankton over the study period was 459.6 ± 76.2 (SE eggs · 100 m-3 and 63.6 ± 7.9 (SE larvae · 100 m-3, and they were present during all months. Significantly higher abundances of eggs and larvae were observed during warm months. The community was dominated by the family Engraulidae followed by Clupeidae, Gobiidae and Mugilidae. Engraulidae and Clupeidae were present throughout the year, with greater abundances in months with higher temperatures. Some coastal fish species spawn in Ibiraquera Lagoon, mainly near to the sandbar, demonstrating that the lagoon is a spawning area for coastal stock. We recommend the establishment of environmental procedures to promote the conservation of Ibiraquera Lagoon and its ichthyoplankton community.

  13. Spatial variation of acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in Egyptian Mediterranean Sea lagoon sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Alaa M; El-Zokm, Gehan M; Okbah, Mohamed A

    2014-06-01

    In risk assessment of aquatic sediments, the immobilizing effect of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) on trace metals is a principal control on availability and associated toxicity of metals to aquatic biota, which reduces metal bioavailability and toxicity by binding and immobilizing metals as insoluble sulfides. Spatial variation pattern of AVS, simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), and sediment characteristics were studied for the first time in surface sediment samples (0-20 cm) from 43 locations in Egyptian northern delta lagoons (Manzalah, Burullus, and Maryut) as predictors of the bioavailability of some divalent metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni) in sediments as well as indicators of metal toxicity in anaerobic sediments. The results indicated that the ∑SEM (Cu + Zn + Cd + Pb + Ni) values in sediments of lagoon Burullus had higher concentrations than those of Maryut and Manzalah. In contrast, AVS concentrations were considerably higher in lagoons Manzalah and Maryut and seemed to be consistent with the increase in organic matter than lagoon Burullus. Generally, the average concentrations of the SEM in all lagoons were in the order of Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd. The ratios of ∑SEM/AVS were less than 1 at all the sampling stations except at one station in lagoon Maryut as well as four stations located in lagoon Burullus (∑SEM/AVS > 1), which suggests that the metals have toxicity potential in these sediments. Therefore, SEM concentrations probably are better indicators of the metal bioavailability in sediments than the conventional total metal concentrations.

  14. Monitoring benthic foraminiferal dynamics at Bottsand coastal lagoon (western Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera from Bottsand coastal lagoon, western Baltic Sea, have been studied since the mid-1960s. They were monitored annually in late autumn since 2003 at the terminal ditch of the lagoon. There were 12 different species recognised, of which three have not been recorded during earlier investigations. Dominant species showed strong interannual fluctuations and a steady increase in population densities over the last decade. Elphidium incertum, a stenohaline species of the Baltic deep water fauna, colonised the Bottsand lagoon in 2016, most likely during a period of salinities >19 units and water temperatures of 18 °C on average in early autumn. The high salinities probably triggered their germination from a propagule bank in the ditch bottom sediment. The new E. incertum population showed densities higher by an order of magnitude than those of the indigenous species. The latter did not decline, revealing that E. incertum used another food source or occupied a different microhabitat. Elphidium incertum survived transient periods of lower salinities in late autumn 2017, though with reduced abundances, and became a regular faunal constituent at the Bottsand lagoon.

  15. Eutrophication patterns in an eastern Mediterranean coastal lagoon: Vassova, Delta Nestos, Macedonia, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ORFANIDIS

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of an intensive monitoring study of main eutrophication parameters in relation to fish farming management, climate and hydrography in the Vassova coastal lagoon (Nestos Delta are presented. The overall aim is to produce basic knowledge in order to contribute to the management of eutrophication of coastal lagoons at local and national levels. Due to extensive spatiotemporal variability of the measured parameters correlation and regression polynomial analysis was used to identify patterns (p<0.05. Freshwater was the main source of nitrate and phosphate in the lagoon. This finding has justified the reduction of freshwater inflow in the past, which, however, has increased mean salinity to 30 PSU and reduced spatial salinity gradients. Maximum nitrate values in winter coincided with adverse climatic and hydrographic conditions (high precipitation, strong NE to E winds and low tide and fish farming management that hinder water circulation. Dissolved phosphorus variability indicated the combination of the external (freshwaters and internal (sediment P-sources. N/P water values indicated nitrogen being the most important nutrient for primary producers throughout the year, except in winter, when phosphorus was the most important nutrient. Practical measures for improving fish farming practices to decrease “eutrophication risk” during winter are suggested. Existing nutrient data from the Vassova and from other Greek lagoons in comparison were also presented and discussed.

  16. The status of fish diversity and fisheries of the Keta lagoon, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fish and fisheries of three fish landing sites around the Keta lagoon in Ghana have been studied. A total of 18 fish species belonging to 13 families were encountered in the study. Four of the species were found to be commercially important notably, the cichlids (Tilapia guineensis and Sarotherodon melanotheron), the ...

  17. Trophic ecology and food consumption of fishes in a hypersaline tropical lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, P H; Tubino, R A; Zambrano, L C; Hunder, D A; Garritano, S R; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the trophic ecology (diet composition, trophic strategy, similarities and overlap between species, feeding period and food consumption) of six benthivorous fish species in Araruama Lagoon, the largest hypersaline tropical lagoon on the east coast of South America, with an area of 210 km(2) and an average salinity of 52. The burrfish Chilomycterus spinosus fed on Anomalocardia flexuosa shell deposits, ingesting associated fauna. The caitipa mojarra Diapterus rhombeus differed from all other species, having not only the highest proportions of algae and Nematoda, but also feeding on polychaete tentacles. The two mojarras Eucinostomus spp. showed similar trophic strategies, feeding mostly on Polychaeta. The corocoro grunt Orthopristis ruber also fed mainly on Polychaeta, but differed from Eucinostomus spp. in secondary items. The whitemouth croacker Micropogonias furnieri fed mainly on small Crustacea at night, showing a high number of secondary prey items with low frequencies and high prey-specific abundance. The daily food consumption (g food g(-1) fish mass) for Eucinostomus argenteus was 0·012 and was 0·031 and 0·027 for M. furnieri in two different sampling events. The diet similarities between Araruama Lagoon and other brackish and marine environments indicate that hypersalinity is not a predominant factor shaping the trophic ecology of fishes in this lagoon. The stability of hypersaline conditions, without a pronounced gradient, may explain the presence of several euryhaline fishes and invertebrates well adapted to this condition, resulting in a complex food web. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Legal, Physical and Biotic Characterization of Açu Lagoon State Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxoel Barros Costa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since its initial human occupation, the Atlantic Forest suffers from impacts. The damage worsened with the subsequent colonization and exploitation of the area for economic and industrial purposes. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, the sandbank is the most threatened of all ecosystems that make up this biome due to its location in the coastal areas. Currently, there is less than 10% of its original area. The North Fluminense region has large remnants of sandbank. For years, the possibility of creating an Environmental Protection Area that would encompass this area was considered. The Decree 43.522/2012 establishes the creation of Açu Lagoon State Park, which encompasses the Boa Vista Marsh, the Açu Lagoon and part of the Salgada Lagoon within its boundaries, an area with a range of conserved sandbank vegetation, ponds, lagoons, streams that are of great environmental importance to the region. This review aims to make a general analysis from the data collected about the different physical and biotic features of this park, besides the legal parameters that govern it.

  19. Environmental Quality Assessment of Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia) Using Living Foraminifera Assemblages and a Multiproxy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Martins, Maria Virgínia; Zaaboub, Noureddine; Aleya, Lotfi; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Pereira, Egberto; Miranda, Paulo; Mane, Miguel; Rocha, Fernando; Laut, Lazaro; El Bour, Monia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the environmental quality of the Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia) through an integrated approach that combined environmental, biogeochemical, and living benthic foraminiferal analyses. Specifically, we analyzed the physicochemical parameters of the water and sediment. The textural, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of the sediment, including total organic carbon, total nitrogen, simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), acid volatile sulfides (AVS), chlorophyll a, CaCO3, and changes in bacterial populations and carbon isotopes were measured. The SEM/AVS values indicated the presence of relatively high concentrations of toxic metals in only some areas. Foraminiferal assemblages were dominated by species such as A. parkinsoniana (20–91%), Bolivina striatula (coastal lagoons both in Mediterranean and northeast Atlantic regions. The results of this work suggest that Bizerte Lagoon is a unique setting. This lagoon is populated by typical marine species that invaded this ecosystem, attracted not only by the prevailing favorable environmental conditions but also by the abundance and quality of food. The results indicate that the metal pollution found in some areas have a negative impact on the assemblages of foraminifera. At present, however, this negative impact is not highly alarming. PMID:26372655

  20. Transportation of natural radionuclides and rare earth light elements in the lagoon system of Buena, RJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa

    1999-03-01

    it was investigated the transport of the series natural radionuclides and the earth rare light elements in a coastal lagoon system, located in a monazite rich region, in the coast north region of Rio de Janeiro state. The lagoon water showed off abnormal concentrations of radium isotopes and of the earth rare light elements (ERLEs). The longitudinal gradient of the Ra, of the ERLEs and of the major ion concentration's, whose data were obtained during two and half years of the research at the place, and the statistical analysis pointed to two mainly source as responsible for the water lagoon composition - the marine and the underground waters. The underground water supplies the radionuclides and ERLEs, possibly originated by monazite lixiviation. Based on the water speciation modeling, the results of laboratory adsorption on sediment experiments and the sediment characterization, the behavior of the radio isotopes, the ERLEs, U, Th e Pb-210, along of the lagoon, are discussed. It is also discussed the role of the aquatic macrophyte Typha dominguesis Pers in the nuclide uptake and the following liberation. (author)

  1. Anthropogenic Enrichment and Nutrients in Some Tropical Lagoons of Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a larger study of demographic change in coastal Ghana, we measured the concentrations of major plant nutrients and phytoplankton chlorophyll in eight coastal lagoons with different land use and human population density. The purpose of our study was to relate human acti...

  2. Toxic cyanobacteria blooms in the Lithuanian part of the Curonian Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Razinkovas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae blooms in the Baltic and the surrounding freshwater bodies has been known for several decades. The presence of cyanobacterial toxic metabolites in the Curonian Lagoon has been investigated and demonstrated for the first time in this work (2006-2007. Microcystis aeruginosa was the most common and widely distributed species in the 2006 blooms. Nodularia spumigena was present in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon, following the intrusion of brackish water from the Baltic Sea; this is the first time that this nodularin-(NOD-producing cyanobacterium has been recorded in the lagoon. With the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, four microcystins (MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-LY, MC-YR and nodularin were detected in 2006. The presence of these cyanobacterial hepatotoxic cyclic peptides was additionally confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PP1. Microcystin-LR, the most frequent of them, was present in every sample at quite high concentrations (from <0.1 to 134.2 µg dm-3. In 2007, no cyanobacterial bloom was recorded and cyanotoxins were detected in only 4% of the investigated samples. A comparably high concentration of nodularin was detected in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon. In one sample dimethylated MC-RR was also detected (concentration 7.5 µg dm-3.

  3. Trophic–salinity gradients and environmental redundancy resolve mesozooplankton dynamics in a large tropical coastal lagoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rakesh, M.; Madhavirani, K.S.V.K.S.; Kumar, B.C.; Raman, A.V.; Kalavati, C.; Rao, Y.P.; Stephen, R.; Rao, V.R.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Subramanian, B.R.

    –light gradients majorly influence MSP structure in one of Asia’s largest brackish water lagoons in India. Multivariate analysis of environmental variables (May 2004–September 2006; View the MathML source) and MSP examined (May 2004 to October 2005; View the Math...

  4. An evaluation of Iken fishing strategy in tropical Lekki lagoon, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2Fish Gear Technology Unit, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine ... include the use of luxuriant water hyacinth which will reduce deforestation and ... fish shelter in Lagos and Lekki lagoon, respectively. .... without acoustic (33.33%) and the least catch was ... per unit effort (CPUE) was two to seven times higher in.

  5. Can Biochar Covers Reduce Emissions from Manure Lagoons While Capturing Nutrients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unique physical and chemical properties of biochars make them promising materials for odor, gas, and nutrient sorption. Floating covers made from organic materials (biocovers) are one option for reducing odor and gas emissions from livestock manure lagoons. This study evaluat...

  6. Integrated water pollution assessment of the Ebrié Lagoon, Ivory Coast, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheren, P.A.G.M.; Kroeze, C.; Jansen, F.J.J.G.; Hordijk, L.; Ptasinski, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    An environmental pollution assessment of the Ebrie lagoon, the largest coastal ecosystem in Western Africa, was executed by applying the Driving force-Pressure-State-Impacts-Response (DPSIR) framework. The domestic and industrial activities in Abidjan and agricultural activities in the wider

  7. Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, G.; Rizzo, V.; Bella, A.; Picci, M.; Giordano, P.

    1996-08-01

    The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality

  8. Evaluation of the Abidjan lagoon pollution BRITON BI, G H; *YAO, B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: The Abidjan lagoon pollution evaluation via the physicochemical and biochemical characteristics of effluents pouring in it, in order to take decision concerning the installation of a treatment station was reported. All samples of effluents studied contain high quantity of organic and mineral pollutants except for.

  9. Cellulase and xylanase activity during the decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes in a tropical oxbow lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sciessere

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the connection between enzymatic activity and degradation of different fractions of organic matter, enzyme assays can be used to estimate degradation rates of particulate and dissolved organic carbon in freshwater systems. The aim of this study was to quantify and model the enzymatic degradation involving the decomposition of macrophytes, describing temporal activity of cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 and EC 3.2.1.91 and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8 during in situ decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia sp., Eichhornia azurea and Cyperus giganteus on the surface and water-sediment interface (w-s interface of an oxbow lagoon (Óleo lagoon within a natural Brazilian Savanna Reserve. Overall, the enzymatic degradation of aquatic macrophytes in Óleo lagoon occurred during the whole year and was initiated together with leaching. Xylanase production was ca. 5 times higher than cellulase values due to easy access to this compound by cellulolytic microorganisms. Enzymatic production and detritus mass decay were similar on the surface and w-s interface. Salvinia sp. was the most recalcitrant detritus, with low mass decay and enzymatic activity. E. azurea and C. giganteus decomposition rates and enzymatic production were high and similar. Due to the physicochemical homogeneity observed in the Óleo lagoon, the differences between the decay rates of each species are mostly related with detritus chemical quality.

  10. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  11. Inventory of fisheries and fishes of the Lagos Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The systematic literature of fishes and fisheries in Lagos Lagoon is scattered, hence there is need for a comprehensive documentation of the diverse fish species that ... artisanal fishery, points to environmental degradation and possible changes in water quality with biological consequences for the biota in this environment.

  12. Sedimentation rate and lateral migration of tidal channels in the Lagoon of Venice (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnici, Sandra; Madricardo, Fantina; Serandrei-Barbero, Rossana

    2017-11-01

    Tidal channels are crucial for the functioning of highly valuable coastal environments, such as estuaries and lagoons. Their properties, however, are currently less understood than those of river systems. To elucidate their past behaviour, an extensive geophysical investigation was performed to reconstruct the evolution of channels and tidal surfaces in the central part of the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) over the past 5000 years. Comparing high-spatial-resolution acoustic data and sedimentary facies analyses of 41 cores, 29 of which were radiocarbon dated, revealed the sedimentation rates in different lagoonal environments and allowed the migration of two large meanders to be reconstructed. The average sedimentation rate of the study succession in the different sedimentary environments was 1.27 mm yr-1. The lateral migration rates were 13-23 m/century. This estimate is consistent with the lateral migration rates determined by comparing aerial photographs of recent channels. Comparing the buried channels with historical and current maps showed that, in general, the number of active channels is now reduced. Their morphology was sometimes simplified by artificial interventions. An understanding of the impact of the artificial interventions over time is useful for the management and conservation of tidal environments, particularly for the Lagoon of Venice, where management authorities are currently debating the possible deepening and rectification of large navigation channels.

  13. Transcriptomic resources for environmental risk assessment: a case study in the Venice lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milan, M.; Pauletto, M.; Boffo, L.; Carrer, C.; Sorrentino, F.; Ferrari, G.; Pavan, L.; Patarnello, T.; Bargelloni, L.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new resources to evaluate the environmental status is becoming increasingly important representing a key challenge for ocean and coastal management. Recently, the employment of transcriptomics in aquatic toxicology has led to increasing initiatives proposing to integrate eco-toxicogenomics in the evaluation of marine ecosystem health. However, several technical issues need to be addressed before introducing genomics as a reliable tool in regulatory ecotoxicology. The Venice lagoon constitutes an excellent case, in which the assessment of environmental risks derived from the nearby industrial activities represents a crucial task. In this context, the potential role of genomics to assist environmental monitoring was investigated through the definition of reliable gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination in Manila clams, and their subsequent employment for the classification of Venice lagoon areas. Overall, the present study addresses key issues to evaluate the future outlooks of genomics in the environmental monitoring and risk assessment. - Highlights: • Growing need to develop new resources for the evaluation of the environmental status. • Identification of gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination. • Employment of genomics to evaluate the environmental status of Venice lagoon areas. • Hurdles and future outlooks of genomic tools in environmental risk assessment. - Genomics in risk assessment of Venice lagoon

  14. Coastal Dump Sites in the Lagos lagoon and toxicity of their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the coastal dumpsites and their impacts on shrimp mortality in the Lagos lagoon was investigated. The study involved a census of dumpsites in the major sections of the coastline associated with anthropogenic activities, followed by specific bioassay to determine the acute toxicity of leachates from one of ...

  15. Residual currents and fluxes through the mouth of Vassova coastal lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. SYLAIOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An intensive sampling program of physical and chemical parameters at the mouth of Vassova lagoon (Northern Greece during 4 separate tidal cycles is described. The study aims at understanding the tidal circulation and estimating the instantaneous and residual fluxes of water, salt and nutrients through the entrance canal of this micro-tidal lagoon. Results showed that tidal flood exceeded in duration tidal ebb, under spring and neap tidal conditions. Ebb tidal currents were recorded higher than flood currents, especially under neap tidal conditions. Unsteady flow characterized the temporal variation of longitudinal and lateral velocity, inducing a rightward deflection on flood or ebb flow. The intra-tidal variability of dissolved inorganic nitrogen showed seasonal dependence, with higher values during September, October and early March, and lower during the late March period. Residual current and flux analysis into a Eulerian and a mass transport Stokes drift mechanism illustrated that advective water and dissolved parameters (i.e., salt and nitrates, phosphates and chlorophyll-· fluxes were an order of magnitude higher than tidal pumping effects. Water and dissolved constituents moved into the lagoon under neap tidal conditions and out of the lagoon during spring tidal conditions. Calculated flushing times ranged from 5 to 14 days, with neap tidal conditions and nearly zero freshwater discharge producing the longer flushing time. Lower water flushing effects were generated under spring tides and increased precipitation.

  16. Salinity and its variability in the Lagoon of Venice, 2000–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Zirino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yearly averages computed from monthly and bimonthly salinity data collected between 2000 and 2009 from 13 broadly spaced stations in the Venice Lagoon were analysed in view of 30 min data collected semi-continuously during 2009 at nine similarly located stations. Data from all stations and all years indicate that, based on yearly averages, the lagoon may be divided along its major (long axis into three areas: 1 a northern, freshwater impacted area (S = 32 PSU of low, tidally-caused, variability, and 3 an intermediate zone. Salinity changes are closely associated with rainfall events, and the incoming freshwater is consistently distributed throughout the lagoon by tidal action. Much variability is simply a result of the forward and backward motion of the tides and is not caused by a salinity change in the water itself. The consistency of the 2000–2009 data and the historical (to 1961 watershed record support the hypothesis that the Venice Lagoon has been and is currently at steady-state with respect to its salinity distribution. As such, it is conducive to the development of (at least three separate ecosystems.

  17. Occurrence and Diversity of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Underlying Two Swine Production Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R.I.; Krapac, I.J.; Garrigues-Jeanjean, N.; Mackie, R.I.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we used PCR typing methods to assess the presence of tetracycline resistance determinants conferring ribosomal protection in waste lagoons and in groundwater underlying two swine farms. All eight classes of genes encoding this mechanism of resistance [tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tetB(P), tet(S), tet(T), and otrA] were found in total DNA extracted from water of two lagoons. These determinants were found to be seeping into the underlying groundwater and could be detected as far as 250 m downstream from the lagoons. The identities and origin of these genes in groundwater were confirmed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analyses. Tetracycline-resistant bacterial isolates from groundwater harbored the tet(M) gene, which was not predominant in the environmental samples and was identical to tet(M) from the lagoons. The presence of this gene in some typical soil inhabitants suggests that the vector of antibiotic resistance gene dissemination is not limited to strains of gastrointestinal origin carrying the gene but can be mobilized into the indigenous soil microbiota. This study demonstrated that tet genes occur in the environment as a direct result of agriculture and suggested that groundwater may be a potential source of antibiotic resistance in the food chain.

  18. Ke'e Lagoon and Reef Flat Users Baseline Study, 1999 (NODC Accession 0002277)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ke'e Lagoon is a popular Kauai destination for tourist and resident beach-goers and snorkelers. It is part of the Haena State Park, and is located at the end of...

  19. Strategies of bioremediation of a contaminated coastal Ecosystem (Bolmon Lagoon, South-Easter Mediterranean Coast)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Fayolle, S.; Franquet, E.; Pietri, L.; Anselmet, F.; Brun, L.; Roux, B.

    2009-01-01

    Bolmon ecosystem (Bouches du Rhone, South-easter France) is a coastal mediterranean lagoon. This ecosystem presents a great interest in terms of ecology, economy and cultural aspects. Bolmon is connected to the salty Berre pond, itself connected to Mediterranean sea, via tiny artificial channels and a main one (rove channel) that also bounds it to the South. (Author)

  20. Strategies of bioremediation of a contaminated coastal Ecosystem (Bolmon Lagoon, South-Easter Mediterranean Coast)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Fayolle, S.; Franquet, E.; Pietri, L.; Anselmet, F.; Brun, L.; Roux, B.

    2009-07-01

    Bolmon ecosystem (Bouches du Rhone, South-easter France) is a coastal mediterranean lagoon. This ecosystem presents a great interest in terms of ecology, economy and cultural aspects. Bomon is connected to the salty Berre pond, itself connected to Mediterranean sea, via tiny artificial channels and a main one (rove channel) that also bounds it to the South. (Author)

  1. Study of the subterranean estuary of Venice lagoon using radium and radon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattacceca, J.

    2009-02-01

    This study focuses on hydrological processes in the southern part of Venice lagoon (Italy), and more specifically on the interactions between surface waters and groundwater of superficial coastal aquifers. These aquifers present a hydraulic head and a ground level below sea level. Major elements and stable isotopes were used to characterize mixing processes into the superficial aquifer. Our results, in agreement with hydrodynamic modelling, evidenced the restriction of saline intrusion to a narrow coastal fringe (≤ 1 km). Submarine groundwater discharge fluxes into the lagoon were quantified using radium and radon natural isotopes. Their activities in the lagoon are in excess compared to the sea. Our results and preliminary modelling work evidence that the system requires an input from groundwater enriched in these isotopes to explain measured activities. A mass balance at steady state is used to quantify the flux. Results vary between 8.1*10 5 and 1.5*10 7 m 3 .d -1 . This flux is mainly due to recirculation of lagoon water into the sediments, and is 2 to 10 times higher than surface runoff, and may have significant environmental consequences by releasing contaminants. (author)

  2. Environmental Quality Assessment of Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia Using Living Foraminifera Assemblages and a Multiproxy Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Virgínia Alves Martins

    Full Text Available This study investigated the environmental quality of the Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia through an integrated approach that combined environmental, biogeochemical, and living benthic foraminiferal analyses. Specifically, we analyzed the physicochemical parameters of the water and sediment. The textural, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of the sediment, including total organic carbon, total nitrogen, simultaneously extracted metals (SEM, acid volatile sulfides (AVS, chlorophyll a, CaCO3, and changes in bacterial populations and carbon isotopes were measured. The SEM/AVS values indicated the presence of relatively high concentrations of toxic metals in only some areas. Foraminiferal assemblages were dominated by species such as A. parkinsoniana (20-91%, Bolivina striatula (<40%, Hopkinsina atlantica (<17%, and Bolivina ordinaria (<15% that cannot be considered typical of impacted coastal lagoons both in Mediterranean and northeast Atlantic regions. The results of this work suggest that Bizerte Lagoon is a unique setting. This lagoon is populated by typical marine species that invaded this ecosystem, attracted not only by the prevailing favorable environmental conditions but also by the abundance and quality of food. The results indicate that the metal pollution found in some areas have a negative impact on the assemblages of foraminifera. At present, however, this negative impact is not highly alarming.

  3. Effect of some socio-economic activities on fish diversity of lagoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of some socio-economic activities on fish diversity of lagoon systems in Ogun waterside Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  4. Optimal sensor locations for the backward Lagrangian stochastic technique in measuring lagoon gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the impact of gas concentration and wind sensor locations on the accuracy of the backward Lagrangian stochastic inverse-dispersion technique (bLS) for measuring gas emission rates from a typical lagoon environment. Path-integrated concentrations (PICs) and 3-dimensional (3D) wi...

  5. Ammonia emissions from Swine waste lagoons in the Utah great basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lowry A; Weaver, Kim H; Dotson, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    In animal production systems (poultry, beef, and swine), current production, storage, and disposal techniques present a challenge to manage wastes to minimize the emissions of trace gases within relatively small geographical areas. Physical and chemical parameters were measured on primary and secondary lagoons on three different swine farming systems, three replicates each, in the Central Great Basin of the United States to determine ammonia (NH3) emissions. Nutrient concentrations, lagoon water temperature, and micrometeorological data from these measurements were used with a published process model to calculate emissions. Annual cycling of emissions was determined in relation to climatic factors and wind speed was found the predominating factor when the lagoon temperatures were above about 3 degrees C. Total NH3 emissions increased in the order of smallest to largest: nursery, sow, and finisher farms. However, emissions on an animal basis increased from nursery animals being lowest to sow animals being highest. When emissions were compared to the amount of nitrogen (N) fed to the animals, NH3 emissions from sows were lowest with emissions from finisher animals highest. Ammonia emissions were compared to similar farm production systems in the humid East of the United States and found to be similar for finisher animals but had much lower emissions than comparable humid East sow production. Published estimates of NH3 emissions from lagoons ranged from 36 to 70% of feed input (no error range) compared to our emissions determined from a process model of 9.8% with an estimated range of +/-4%.

  6. Functional implications of changes in seagrass species composition in two shallow coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the consequences of losing seagrass meadows are well known, there is less information on the functional implications of changes in seagrass species composition. In this study, we use data from a long-term monitoring project in shallow lagoons on the Florida Gulf Coast to as...

  7. Residence times in a hypersaline lagoon: Using salinity as a tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Stephen M.; Icely, John D.; Newton, Alice

    2008-04-01

    Generally the waters of the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Portugal have a short residence time, in the order of 0.5 days (Tett, P., Gilpin, L., Svendsen, H., Erlandsson, C.P., Larsson, U., Kratzer, S., Fouilland, E., Janzen, C., Lee, J., Grenz, C., Newton, A., Ferreira, J.G., Fernandes, T., Scory, S., 2003. Eutrophication and some European waters of restricted exchange. Continental Shelf Research 23, 1635-1671). This estimation is based on the measurements of currents and the modelling of water exchange at the outlets to the ocean. However, observations of the temperature and salinity in the inner channels imply that residence time is greater in these regions of the lagoon. To resolve this apparent contradiction, spatial measurements of the temperature and salinity were made with a meter for conductivity, temperature and depth along the principal channels of the western portion of the lagoon, with a sampling frequency of two per second. Evaporation rates of 5.4 mm day -1 were measured in a salt extraction pond adjacent to the lagoon and used to determine the residence time through salinity differences with the incoming seawater. In June 2004, the water flooding in from the ocean had an average salinity of 36.07 which contrasted with a maximum of 37.82 at mid ebb on a spring tide, corresponding to a residence time of >7 days; the mean residence time was 2.4 days. As the tide flooded into the channels, the existing water was advected back into the lagoon. Although there was a small amount of mixing with water from another inlet, the water body from the inner lagoon essentially remained distinct with respect to temperature and salinity characteristics. The residence time of the water was further prolonged at the junction between the main channels, where distinct boundaries were observed between the different water masses. As the water ebbed out, the shallow Western Channel was essentially isolated from the rest of the outer lagoon, and the water from this channel was forced

  8. Diuron tolerance and potential degradation by pelagic microbiomes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent E. Angly

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diuron is a herbicide commonly used in agricultural areas where excess application causes it to leach into rivers, reach sensitive marine environments like the Great Barrier Reef (GBR lagoon and pose risks to marine life. To investigate the impact of diuron on whole prokaryotic communities that underpin the marine food web and are integral to coral reef health, GBR lagoon water was incubated with diuron at environmentally-relevant concentration (8 µg/L, and sequenced at specific time points over the following year. 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling revealed no significant short- or long-term effect of diuron on microbiome structure. The relative abundance of prokaryotic phototrophs was not significantly altered by diuron, which suggests that they were largely tolerant at this concentration. Assembly of a metagenome derived from waters sampled at a similar location in the GBR lagoon did not reveal the presence of mutations in the cyanobacterial photosystem that could explain diuron tolerance. However, resident phages displayed several variants of this gene and could potentially play a role in tolerance acquisition. Slow biodegradation of diuron was reported in the incubation flasks, but no correlation with the relative abundance of heterotrophs was evident. Analysis of metagenomic reads supports the hypothesis that previously uncharacterized hydrolases carried by low-abundance species may mediate herbicide degradation in the GBR lagoon. Overall, this study offers evidence that pelagic phototrophs of the GBR lagoon may be more tolerant of diuron than other tropical organisms, and that heterotrophs in the microbial seed bank may have the potential to degrade diuron and alleviate local anthropogenic stresses to inshore GBR ecosystems.

  9. Macrobenthic molluscs from a marine - lagoonal environmental transition in Lesvos Island (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evagelopoulos, Athanasios; Koutsoubas, Drosos; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Katsiaras, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an occurence dataset, also including numerical abundance and biomass data, pertaining to the macrobenthic molluscan assemblages from a marine - lagoonal environmental transition. The study system was the soft-substrate benthoscape of the area of the Kalloni solar saltworks (Lesvos Island, Greece). Specifically, the study area extended from the infralittoral zone of the inner Kalloni Gulf (marine habitat) to the bottoms of the first two evaporation ponds of the Kalloni solar saltworks (lagoonal habitat). Bottom sediment samples (3 replicates) were collected with a Van Veen grab sampler (0.1 m 2 ) at four sampling sites, along a 1.5 km long line transect that spanned the marine - lagoonal environmental transition. A total of four surveys were carried out seasonally in 2004.  A total of 39,345 molluscan individuals were sorted out of the sediment samples and were identified to 71 species, belonging to the Gastropoda (36), Bivalvia (34) and Scaphopoda (1) classes. Numerical abundance and wet biomass (with shells) data are included in the dataset. The dataset described in the present paper partially fills a significant gap in the scientific literature: Because ecological research of coastal lagoons has seldom explicitly considered the marine - lagoonal habitats interface, there are no openly accessible datasets pertaining to the particular structural component of the transitional waters benthoscapes of the Mediterranean Sea. Such datasets could prove valuable in the research of the structure and functioning of transitional waters benthoscapes. The present dataset is available as a supplementary file (Suppl. material 1) and can also be accessed at http://ipt.medobis.eu/resource?r=kalloni_saltworks_phd.

  10. Temporal coherence among tropical coastal lagoons: a search for patterns and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caliman

    Full Text Available Temporal coherence (i.e., the degree of synchronicity of a given variable among ecological units within a predefined space has been shown for several limnological features among temperate lakes, allowing predictions about the structure and function of ecosystems. However, there is little evidence of temporal coherence among tropical aquatic systems, where the climatic variability among seasons is less pronounced. Here, we used data from long-term monitoring of physical, chemical and biological variables to test the degree of temporal coherence among 18 tropical coastal lagoons. The water temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration had the highest and lowest temporal coherence among the lagoons, respectively, whereas the salinity and water colour had intermediate temporal coherence. The regional climactic factors were the main factors responsible for the coherence patterns in the water temperature and water colour, whereas the landscape position and morphometric characteristics explained much of the variation of the salinity and water colour among the lagoons. These results indicate that both local (lagoon morphometry and regional (precipitation, air temperature factors regulate the physical and chemical conditions of coastal lagoons by adjusting the terrestrial and marine subsidies at a landscape-scale. On the other hand, the chlorophyll-a concentration appears to be primarily regulated by specific local conditions resulting in a weak temporal coherence among the ecosystems. We concluded that temporal coherence in tropical ecosystems is possible, at least for some environmental features, and should be evaluated for other tropical ecosystems. Our results also reinforce that aquatic ecosystems should be studied more broadly to accomplish a full understanding of their structure and function.

  11. Diuron tolerance and potential degradation by pelagic microbiomes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantos, Olga; Morgan, Thomas C.; Rich, Virginia; Tonin, Hemerson; Bourne, David G.; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.; Tyson, Gene W.

    2016-01-01

    Diuron is a herbicide commonly used in agricultural areas where excess application causes it to leach into rivers, reach sensitive marine environments like the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon and pose risks to marine life. To investigate the impact of diuron on whole prokaryotic communities that underpin the marine food web and are integral to coral reef health, GBR lagoon water was incubated with diuron at environmentally-relevant concentration (8 µg/L), and sequenced at specific time points over the following year. 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling revealed no significant short- or long-term effect of diuron on microbiome structure. The relative abundance of prokaryotic phototrophs was not significantly altered by diuron, which suggests that they were largely tolerant at this concentration. Assembly of a metagenome derived from waters sampled at a similar location in the GBR lagoon did not reveal the presence of mutations in the cyanobacterial photosystem that could explain diuron tolerance. However, resident phages displayed several variants of this gene and could potentially play a role in tolerance acquisition. Slow biodegradation of diuron was reported in the incubation flasks, but no correlation with the relative abundance of heterotrophs was evident. Analysis of metagenomic reads supports the hypothesis that previously uncharacterized hydrolases carried by low-abundance species may mediate herbicide degradation in the GBR lagoon. Overall, this study offers evidence that pelagic phototrophs of the GBR lagoon may be more tolerant of diuron than other tropical organisms, and that heterotrophs in the microbial seed bank may have the potential to degrade diuron and alleviate local anthropogenic stresses to inshore GBR ecosystems. PMID:26989611

  12. Diuron tolerance and potential degradation by pelagic microbiomes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angly, Florent E; Pantos, Olga; Morgan, Thomas C; Rich, Virginia; Tonin, Hemerson; Bourne, David G; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Tyson, Gene W

    2016-01-01

    Diuron is a herbicide commonly used in agricultural areas where excess application causes it to leach into rivers, reach sensitive marine environments like the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon and pose risks to marine life. To investigate the impact of diuron on whole prokaryotic communities that underpin the marine food web and are integral to coral reef health, GBR lagoon water was incubated with diuron at environmentally-relevant concentration (8 µg/L), and sequenced at specific time points over the following year. 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling revealed no significant short- or long-term effect of diuron on microbiome structure. The relative abundance of prokaryotic phototrophs was not significantly altered by diuron, which suggests that they were largely tolerant at this concentration. Assembly of a metagenome derived from waters sampled at a similar location in the GBR lagoon did not reveal the presence of mutations in the cyanobacterial photosystem that could explain diuron tolerance. However, resident phages displayed several variants of this gene and could potentially play a role in tolerance acquisition. Slow biodegradation of diuron was reported in the incubation flasks, but no correlation with the relative abundance of heterotrophs was evident. Analysis of metagenomic reads supports the hypothesis that previously uncharacterized hydrolases carried by low-abundance species may mediate herbicide degradation in the GBR lagoon. Overall, this study offers evidence that pelagic phototrophs of the GBR lagoon may be more tolerant of diuron than other tropical organisms, and that heterotrophs in the microbial seed bank may have the potential to degrade diuron and alleviate local anthropogenic stresses to inshore GBR ecosystems.

  13. Reconstructing Environmental Changes of a Coastal Lagoon with Coral Reefs in Southeastern Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Liang; GAO Shu; GAO Jianhua; ZHAO Yangyang; HAN Zhuochen; YANG Yang; JIA Peihong

    2017-01-01

    Coastal lagoons with small catchment basins are highly sensitive to natural processes and anthropogenic activities.To figure out the environmental changes of a coastal lagoon and its contribution to carbon burial,two sediment cores were collected in Xincun Lagoon,southeastern Hainan Island and 210pb activities,grain size parameters,total organic carbon (TOC),total nitrogen (TN),total inorganic carbon (TIC) and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) were measured.The results show that in 1770-1815,the decreasing water exchange capacity with outer open water,probably caused by the shifting and narrowing of the tidal inlet,not only diminished the currents and fined the sediments in the lagoon,but also reduced the organic matter of marine sources.From 1815 to 1950,the sedimentary environment of Xincun Lagoon was frequently influenced by storm events.These extreme events resulted in the high fluctuation of sediment grain size and sorting,as well as the great variation in contributions of terrestrial (higher plants,soils) and marine sources (phytoplankton,algae,seagrass).The extremely high content of TIC,compared to TOC before 1950 could be attributed to the large-scale coverage of coral reefs.However,with the boost of seawater aquaculture activities after 1970,the health growth of coral species was severely threatened,and corresponding production and inorganic carbon burial flux reduced.The apparent enhanced inorganic carbon burial rate after 1990 might result from the concomitant carbonate debris produced by seawater aquaculture.This result is important for local government long-term coastal management and environmental planning.

  14. Tracing organic matter sources in a tropical lagoon of the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M.; Garcia-Moya, Alejandro; Tolosa, Imma; Diaz-Asencio, Misael; Corcho-Alvarado, Jose Antonio; Morera-Gomez, Yasser; Fanelli, Emanuela

    2017-09-01

    The natural protected lagoon of Guanaroca, located between Cienfuegos Bay and the Arimao River, Cuba, has been heavily impacted by human-induced environmental changes over the past century. Sources of organic matter in the Guanaroca lagoon and concentrations of radioisotopes (210Pb, 226Ra, 137Cs and 239,240Pu), as tracers of anthropogenic impacts, were investigated in a 78 cm sediment core. Variations in total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), stable isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N) and ratio of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) were analysed. On such a basis, environmental changes in the lagoon were revealed. Down core variation patterns of the parameters representing sources of organic matter were predominantly related to the impacts of human activities. Up to the nineteenth century, the principal sources of organic matter to sediments (more than 80%) were a mixing of terrestrial vascular plants ( 48%) and freshwater phytoplankton ( 8%), with minimal contribution from the marine component ( 16%). In the period 1900-1980, due to the strong influence of human activities in the catchment area, the water exchange capacity of the lagoon declined substantially, as indicated by the relatively high proportion of organic matter originated from human activities (58%). Since 1980, as a result of management actions in the protected area, the lagoon has regained gradually its capability to exchange freshwater, showing sources of organic matter similar to the natural conditions recorded previous to 1900, although an indication of human impact (treated sewage contributed for 26% to the organic matter in sediments) was still observed and further management measures would be required.

  15. Metazoan parasites of fishes from the Celestun coastal lagoon, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Medina, Trinidad; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor M; Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina

    2015-08-31

    The aims of this study were to produce a checklist of the metazoan parasites of fishes from the Celestun coastal lagoon and to determine the degree of faunal similarity among the fishes based on the metazoan parasites they share. A checklist was prepared including all available records (1996-2014) of parasites of marine, brackish water and freshwater fishes of the area. All of these data were included in a presence/absence database and used to determine similarity via Jaccard's index. The results indicate the presence of 62 metazoan parasite species infecting 22 fish species. The number of metazoan parasite species found in the fishes from the Celestún lagoon is apparently the highest reported worldwide for a tropical coastal lagoon. The parasites included 12 species of adult digeneans, 27 digeneans in the metacercarial stage, 6 monogeneans, 3 metacestodes, 9 nematodes, 2 acanthocephalans, 2 crustaceans and 1 annelid. Forty parasite species were autogenic and 23 were allogenic and 1 unknown. The overall similarity among all of the species of fish with respect to the metazoan parasites they share was low (0.08 ± 0.12), with few similarity values above 0.4 being obtained. This low similarity was due primarily to the presence of suites of parasites exclusive to specific species of fish. The autogenic component of the parasite fauna (40 species) dominated the allogenic component (21 species). The most likely explanation for the large number of fish parasites found at Celestún is the good environmental condition of the lagoon, which allows the completion of parasite life cycles and free circulation of euryhaline fishes from the marine environment bringing marine parasites into the lagoon.

  16. Waste Stabilization Ponds and Aerated Lagoons Performance in Removal of Wastewater Indicator Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed ali Ghasemi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of two treatment plants in the City of Mashhad, one with an aerated lagoons system and the other one with waste stabilization ponds system were evaluated in regard to their efficiency in reduction of pathogenic microorganisms. For this purpose, over a period of one year (with 15-days intervals, samples were taken from the influent and effluent (prior to disinfection unit of the above mentioned treatment plants. The samples then were analyzed for parameters such as temperature, pH, density of total coliforms (TC and fecal coliforms (FC, dissolved oxygen and total suspended solids concentration. The results indicated that the aerated lagoons system was much more efficient in removal of indicator bacteria than the waste stabilization ponds during autumn and winter periods. However during the summer months, the waste stabilization ponds showed a higher efficiency in this regard. In general, the waste stabilization ponds system reduced the density of TC and FC by 0.21-2.15 log10 and 0.20-2.33 log10, respectively. In contrast, the levels of reduction in aerated lagoons system were in the range of 0.29-2.03 log10 for TC and 0.42-2.40 log10 for FC. Results indicated that solar intensity, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration were found to be the most significant parameters that reduced the microorganisms population in waste stabilization ponds, While, in the aerated lagoons system, the dissolved oxygen concentration in aerated basin and solar intensity play the most important role. In general, without receiving an adequate disinfection, the effluent from waste stabilization ponds and aerated lagoons cannot provide the microbiological standards required for irrigation of agricultural crops.

  17. Evaluation of some heavy metal loading in the Kpeshi lagoon, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fianko, Joseph R.; Laar, Cynthia; Osei, Juilet; Anim, Alfred K.; Gibrilla, Abass; Adomako, Dickson

    2013-03-01

    A study was carried out on the Kpeshi lagoon to evaluate the relative contributions of some heavy metals (Na, k, Ca, K, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Al, Pb) on the current state of the Kpeshi lagoon. The lagoon water was sampled along with some fish samples. Water pH, electrical conductivity and total dissolved salts were measured in situ whilst Na and K were measured using flame emission spectrometry. Heavy metals (iron, manganese, nickel, aluminium, chromium, lead and cadmium) in both water and fish samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Measured pH values ranged between 6.60 and 7.87, a mean conductivity and total dissolved salts of 87.31 ± 19.14 μS/cm and 38.4 ± 8.43 mg/L, respectively. Nutrient and organic matter were among the frequent source of pollution in the lagoon with mean sulphate, phosphate and nitrate concentrations of 190 ± 108.84, 1.62 ± 0.49 and 0.89 ± 0.26 mg/L, respectively. Iron and aluminium in the lagoon water measured the highest concentration of 13.2 ± 3.47 and 13.6 ± 4.29 mg/L, respectively. Fish samples however revealed very high concentrations of calcium and potassium measuring 15,709 ± 75.35 and 5,949.49 ± 87.30 mg/kg, respectively. Sodium and aluminium also revealed relatively high concentrations: 3,775.70 ± 24.80 and 708.47 ± 4.95 mg/kg, respectively. Notably, sites closer to settlement community (Teshie Township, e.g. S1, S2, S3 and S4) and the hospitality industries (i.e. dotted hotels, e.g. S7) appeared to be relatively more contaminated.

  18. Zooplankton assemblages and biomass during a 4-period survey in a northern Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam-Hoai, T; Rougier, C

    2001-01-01

    The authors proposed to examine zooplankton biomass at three stations inside (T and Z) and outside (M) a coastal lagoon of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Station T represented the lagoon central area, and station Z was positioned in a shellfish farming sector, while the seaside station (M) served as a reference of marine environment. Analyses were designed to outline the net zooplankton assemblages (taxonomic structures and length distributions) in different environmental conditions, including the farming activity. A discriminant analysis of environmental variables determined that temperature, salinity and phytoplankton implied mainly in spatial pattern of the samples. An ordination of taxa biomasses showed two main factors which might contribute to the organisation of the zooplankton assemblages: the geographical position and the thermal period. The geographical position integrated the lagoon-sea water exchange under forcing parameters (habitat, tides and winds). The thermal period reflected both the populations development cycles and the environmental constraints (temperature, salinity, trophic resources). The resulting effects appeared in structured zooplankton assemblages in space and time. The number of 50 microns interval length classes and of taxa decreased from the seaside and the lagoon central area free of farming activity to the shallower farming zone. But the biomass-length distribution profiles did not closely follow such an expected opposition between opened and confined areas: more extended profiles were observed at station Z. Biomass dominant size classes concerned the range up to 300 microns. This size category appeared to collapse in terms of biomass from the seaside or central area of the lagoon towards the farming area, similarly to zooplankton global biomass fluctuations. Difference between biomass levels and between biomass structures suggested that net zooplankton partly acted as food competitors of macro-filtering organisms, and as

  19. Light regime and components of turbidity in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Biel; Pretus, Joan Lluís

    2008-03-01

    The underwater light regime of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Albufera des Grau, Balearic Islands) was studied during four years in order to characterise the spatial and temporal variations in the light attenuation coefficient ( K) and to assess the relative contribution of the different water components to total light attenuation. During the studied period K averaged 1.42 m -1 and ranged from 0.63 m -1 to 3.80 m -1. High temporal variability was observed in light attenuation coefficients, but the lagoon was spatially uniform. Percentage bottom irradiance in relation to specific requirements for the dominant macrophyte species ( Ruppia cirrhosa) was used as an indicator of benthic light limitation. Macrophyte light limitation was expected to occur in the deepest areas of the lagoon during winter, the most turbid period of the annual cycle. During the macrophyte growing season, higher bottom irradiances were observed but a significant percentage of the lagoon benthos (17% in spring and 7% in summer) was expected to be light limited. In the deepest areas of the lagoon (>2 m) changes in bottom irradiance were related more to variations in the light attenuation coefficient than to variations in water level. However, water level appeared to play an important role in determining benthic light limitation at intermediate depths (1.5 m) for the range of K from 1.8 m -1 to 3.3 m -1. The partitioning of the light attenuation coefficient showed that phytoplankton was the main driver of the temporal dynamics of K, but only accounted for 44% of total light attenuation on average. The mean contributions of the other water components to K were: DOC (47%), tripton (6%), and water (3%). At low values of K, attenuation by DOC was responsible for up to 75% of total attenuation. An equation to predict K from the concentration of water components explained 93% of the variance.

  20. Discovery of a Circumstellar Disk in the Lagoon Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Circumstellar disks of gas and dust play a crucial role in the formation of stars and planets. Until now, high-resolution images of such disks around young stars within the Orion Nebula obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) constituted the most direct proof of their existence. Now, another circumstellar disk has been detected around a star in the Lagoon Nebula - also known as Messier 8 (M8) , a giant complex of interstellar gas and dust with many young stars in the southern constellation of Sagittarius and four times more distant than the Orion Nebula. The observations were carried out by an international team of scientists led by Bringfried Stecklum (Thüringer Landessternwarte, Tautenburg, Germany) [1] who used telescopes located at the ESO La Silla observatory and also observations from the HST archive. These new results are paving the road towards exciting research programmes on star formation which will become possible with the ESO Very Large Telescope. The harsh environment of circumstellar disks The existence of circumstellar disks has been inferred from indirect measurements of young stellar objects, such as the spectral energy distribution, the analysis of the profiles of individual spectral lines and measurements of the polarisation of the emitted light [2]. Impressive images of such disks in the Orion Nebula, known as proplyds (PROto-PLanetarY DiskS), have been obtained by the HST during the recent years. They have confirmed the interpretation of previous ground-based emission-line observations and mapping by radio telescopes. Moreover, they demonstrated that those disks which are located close to hot and massive stars are subject to heating caused by the intense radiation from these stars. Subsequently, the disks evaporate releasing neutral gas which streams off. During this process, shock fronts (regions with increased density) with tails of ionised gas result at a certain distance between the disk and the hot star. These objects appear on

  1. Adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression: depot differences and effects of diet and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Rongze

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of endocannabinoid system in adipose tissue play an important role in lipid regulation and metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gene expression levels of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH are different in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue, and whether hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise influence subcutaneous adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression in obese women. Methods Thirty overweight or obese, middle-aged women (BMI = 34.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2, age = 59 ± 1 years underwent one of three 20-week weight loss interventions: caloric restriction only (CR, N = 9, caloric restriction plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CRM, 45-50% HRR, N = 13, or caloric restriction plus vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (CRV, 70-75% HRR, N = 8. Subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue samples were collected before and after the interventions to measure CB1 and FAAH gene expression. Results At baseline, FAAH gene expression was higher in abdominal, compared to gluteal adipose tissue (2.08 ± 0.11 vs. 1.78 ± 0.10, expressed as target gene/β-actin mRNA ratio × 10-3, P Conclusions There are depot differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression in obese individuals. Aerobic exercise training may preferentially modulate abdominal adipose tissue endocannabinoid-related gene expression during dietary weight loss. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00664729.

  2. A comparative study of Cyclofem and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) effects on endometrial vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Hashemi, Zeinab; Zham, Hananeh; Fraser, Ian S

    2007-10-01

    The most common reason for discontinuation of long-acting progestogen-only contraceptives is irregular bleeding following local endometrial vascular changes. To reduce unpredictable bleeding episodes among depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users, the combined injectable contraceptive, Cyclofem, was offered as an alternative. However, there is a gap in our knowledge about the effects of Cyclofem on the endometrial vasculature and patterns of bleeding. This study aimed to compare the effects of Cyclofem and DMPA on endometrial vascular density, endometrial histology and pattern of bleeding. Sixty-eight healthy women with regular menstrual bleeding and seeking injectable long-acting contraceptives were recruited. Two endometrial samples (before and 3 to 6 months after initial exposure to DMPA or Cyclofem) were collected from each participant. The samples were stained using an immunohistochemical method and anti-CD34 to visualise the endometrial vasculature. Endometrial vascular density was assessed using standard techniques. Sixty-eight women were randomly assigned to Cyclofem (38 women) or DMPA (30 women). Endometrial vascular density was 149.3 +/- 6.7 (mean +/- SD)/mm(2) before injection. This significantly decreased to 132.4 +/- 12.2 after DMPA use, and from 151.9 +/- 5.8 to 131.8 +/- 12.8 vessels/mm(2) following Cyclofem use (paired t-test, p Spotting was the most common type of bleeding experienced, and atrophic endometrium was the most common histological pattern observed in both groups. This study demonstrated that both Cyclofem and DMPA use are associated with decreased endometrial vascular density and atrophic endometrium, in addition to irregular bleeding, mainly spotting. There was no significant difference in bleeding patterns or endometrial findings observed for these two injectable contraceptives in Iranian women.

  3. IGFBP4 Is Required for Adipogenesis and Influences the Distribution of Adipose Depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridas, David E; DeMambro, Victoria E; Le, Phuong T; Mohan, Subburaman; Rosen, Clifford J

    2017-10-01

    Insulinlike growth factor (IGF) I induces adipogenesis in vitro. IGF-binding protein 4 (IGFBP4) is highly expressed in adipocytes and osteoblasts and is inhibitory of IGFs in vitro. We previously reported that Igfbp4 null mice (Igfbp4-/-) had decreased fat proportions at 8 and 16 weeks of age. However, the mechanism leading to the reduced adiposity remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate how IGFBP4 mediates adipose tissue development in vivo. Our results showed that inguinal and gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from Igfbp4-/- mice had decreased weights and Pparγ expression. Cultures of primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and ear mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) from mutant mice showed reduced adipogenesis. Both BMSCs and eMSC had a strong induction of Igfbp4 expression during adipogenesis. Furthermore, the increase in phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), a downstream target of IGF-I signaling, in wild-type cells, was blunted in mutant eMSCs. On a high-fat diet (HFD) there were sexual differences in adipocyte expansion of Igfbp4-/- mice. Mutant males gained weight by expanding their white fat depots. However, Igfbp4-/- female mice were protected against diet-induced obesity. Ovariectomized Igfbp4-/- female mice gained weight in a manner similar to that seen in ovariectomized controls. Thus, Igfbp4 is required for inguinal fat expansion in female mice but not in male mice. However, gWAT expansion, which is prevented by estrogen during HFD, does not require Igfbp4. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  4. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation.

  5. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Eun Park

    Full Text Available Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation.

  6. Growth, Survival and Reproduction of the Giant Clam Tridacna maxima (Röding 1798, Bivalvia) in Two Contrasting Lagoons in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Andréfouët, Serge; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Wabnitz, Colette C. C.; Menoud, Mathilde; Le Moullac, Gilles; Levy, Peva; Gilbert, Antoine; Remoissenet, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Shell growth, reproduction, and natural mortality of the giant clam Tridacna maxima were characterized over a two-year-period in the lagoon of the high island of Tubuai (Austral Archipelago) and in the semi-closed lagoon of Tatakoto (Tuamotu Archipelago) in French Polynesia. We also recorded temperature, water level, tidal slope, tidal range, and mean wave height in both lagoons. Lower lagoon aperture and exposure to oceanic swells at Tatakoto than at Tubuai was responsible for lower lagoon water renewal, as well as higher variability in temperature and water level at Tatakoto across the studied period. These different environmental conditions had an impact on giant clams. Firstly, spawning events in the lagoon of Tatakoto, detected by gonad maturity indices in June and July 2014, were timed with high oceanic water inflow and a decrease in lagoon water temperature. Secondly, temperature explained differences in shell growth rates between seasons and lagoons, generating different growth curves for the two sites. Thirdly, local mortality rates were also found to likely be related to water renewal patterns. In conclusion, our study suggests that reef aperture and lagoon water renewal rates play an integral role in giant clam life history, with significant differences in rates of shell growth, mortality and fertility found between open versus semi-closed atoll lagoons in coral reef ecosystems. PMID:28118406

  7. Growth, Survival and Reproduction of the Giant Clam Tridacna maxima (Röding 1798, Bivalvia in Two Contrasting Lagoons in French Polynesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Van Wynsberge

    Full Text Available Shell growth, reproduction, and natural mortality of the giant clam Tridacna maxima were characterized over a two-year-period in the lagoon of the high island of Tubuai (Austral Archipelago and in the semi-closed lagoon of Tatakoto (Tuamotu Archipelago in French Polynesia. We also recorded temperature, water level, tidal slope, tidal range, and mean wave height in both lagoons. Lower lagoon aperture and exposure to oceanic swells at Tatakoto than at Tubuai was responsible for lower lagoon water renewal, as well as higher variability in temperature and water level at Tatakoto across the studied period. These different environmental conditions had an impact on giant clams. Firstly, spawning events in the lagoon of Tatakoto, detected by gonad maturity indices in June and July 2014, were timed with high oceanic water inflow and a decrease in lagoon water temperature. Secondly, temperature explained differences in shell growth rates between seasons and lagoons, generating different growth curves for the two sites. Thirdly, local mortality rates were also found to likely be related to water renewal patterns. In conclusion, our study suggests that reef aperture and lagoon water renewal rates play an integral role in giant clam life history, with significant differences in rates of shell growth, mortality and fertility found between open versus semi-closed atoll lagoons in coral reef ecosystems.

  8. Ecosystem response to human- and climate-induced environmental stress on an anoxic coastal lagoon (Etoliko, Greece) since 1930 AD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutsodendris, Andreas; Brauer, Achim; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Putyrskaya, Victoria; Klemt, Eckehard; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Pross, Jörg

    To better constrain the effects of anthropogenic impact on coastal wetlands with respect to natural variability, we here analyze annually laminated sediments from Etoliko lagoon (western Greece, Mediterranean Sea) spanning the last*80 years. Subdecadal- scale palynomorph (pollen and dinoflagellate

  9. Assessment of Potential Nitrate Pollution Sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its Catch Mentarea Using a Multi Isotope Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saccon, P.; Leis, A. [Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Institute for Water, Energy and Sustainability, Graz (Austria); Marca, A.; Kaiser, J.; Campisi, L. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savarino, J.; Erbland, J. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, St.-Martin-d' Heres (France); Boettcher, M. E. [Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Geochemistry and Isotope Geochemistry Group, Marine Geology Section, Warnemuende (Germany); Eisenhauer, A. [IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Sueltenfuss, J. [University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Section of Oceanography, Bremen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The aims of this study were mainly: (i) the identification and differentiation of the main anthropogenic nitrogen sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its catchment area; and (ii) the assessment of the intra-lagoonal water circulation, the morphological development of the lagoon and its anthropogenic pressure by applying a combined approach of hydrochemical, isotopic and remote sensing techniques. To achieve the aforementioned targets analyses of the stable isotope signatures of nitrate, boron, water and sulphate have been used. Moreover the residence times of groundwater were determined by the tritium-helium dating method. To characterize the chemical composition of the different water types the concentrations of the major ions and nutrients as well as the physicochemical parameters have been measured. Remote sensing techniques have been applied to assess the spatial distribution of the most superficial algal flora, water temperature as well as the key environmental and morphological changes of the lagoon since the beginning of the 1970s. (author)

  10. Assessment of Potential Nitrate Pollution Sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its Catchment Area Using a Multi Isotope Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccon, P.; Leis, A.; Marca, A.; Kaiser, J.; Campisi, L.; Savarino, J.; Erbland, J.; Boettcher, M.E.; Eisenhauer, A.; Sueltenfuss, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were mainly: (i) the identification and differentiation of the main anthropogenic nitrogen sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its catchment area; and (ii) the assessment of the intra-lagoonal water circulation, the morphological development of the lagoon and its anthropogenic pressure by applying a combined approach of hydrochemical, isotopic and remote sensing techniques. To achieve the aforementioned targets analyses of stable isotope signatures of nitrate, boron, water and sulphate have been used. Moreover the residence times of groundwater were determined by the tritium-helium dating method. To characterize the chemical composition of the different water types the concentrations of the major ions and nutrients as well as the physicochemical parameters have been measured. Remote sensing techniques have been applied to assess the spatial distribution of most superficial algal flora, water temperature as well as the key environmental and morphological changes of the lagoon since the beginning of the 1970s.

  11. Characterization and evolution of the sediments of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon located next to a former mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Muñoz-Vera, Ana

    2015-11-15

    Coastal lagoons are ecosystems that are relatively enclosed water bodies under the influence of both the terrestrial and the marine environment, being vulnerable to human impacts. Human activities, such as mining extraction, are significant anthropogenic coastal stressors that can negatively affect ecosystems and communities. In light of the above, the objective of this research is to examine the influence of metal mining activities on the composition of sediments of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon, named Mar Menor. This paper presents a comprehensive characterization for grain size, mineralogy, geochemistry and organic matter of sediments of this coastal lagoon, investigating their variation along space and time. Sedimentation dynamics are ruling clearly the grain size predominant in each area of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, determining the existence of entrainment, transport and sedimentation areas. For minerals, elements and organic matter, sedimentation dynamics are also determining their distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. NCCOS Assessment: Benthic habitat maps of Saipan Lagoon, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (NCEI Accession 0162517)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Highly detailed maps of benthic habitats within the lagoon along the western shore of Saipan were created by NOAA NCCOS. This data collection includes the...

  13. Before-after environmental impact assessment of an artificial channel opening on a south-western Atlantic choked lagoon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestrelo, L; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the human induced impact of a channel opening in a choked lagoon and attempted to establish the cause-effect links for the observed changes. The same lagoon system was sampled before and after the channel opening event, and the differences in fish and crustacean assemblages and environmental variables between these periods analysed. The opening of the artificial channel resulted in salinity increases, leading to a shift in species composition, favouring marine species and reducing abundance and diversity of previously dominant freshwater species. Furthermore, saltwater entrance into the choked lagoon caused an unexpected decrease in species richness and biomass, plus deterioration of ecosystem processes, reducing fishing capacity. The effects of salinity on the ecosystem vary depending on the ecosystem's composition and capacity to overcome salinity changes, thus specific monitoring projects are important strategies for developing coastal lagoon conservation management. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. [French Society for Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology task force: Formal Consensus for the prescription of depot antipsychotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalin, L; Abbar, M; Courtet, P; Guillaume, S; Lancrenon, S; Llorca, P-M

    2013-12-01

    Compliance is often partial with oral antipsychotics and underestimated for patients with serious mental illness. Despite their demonstrated advantages in terms of relapse prevention, depot formulations are still poorly used in routine. As part of a process to improve the quality of care, French Association for Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology (AFPBN) Task Force elaborated a Formal Consensus for the prescription of depot antipsychotics in clinical practice. The Task Force recommends as first-line choice, the use of long-acting injectable (LAI) second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and delusional disorder. They can be considered as a second-line option as a monotherapy to prevent manic recurrence or in combination with mood stabilizer to prevent depressive recurrence in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. LAI second-generation antipsychotics can also be used after a first episode of schizophrenia. Depot neuroleptics are not recommended during the early course of schizophrenia and are not appropriate in bipolar disorder. They are considered as a second-line option for maintenance treatment in schizophrenia. LAI formulations should be systematically proposed to any patients for whom maintenance antipsychotic treatment is indicated. LAI antipsychotics can be used preferentially for non-compliant patients with frequent relapses or aggressive behaviors. A specific information concerning the advantages and inconveniences of the LAI formulations, in the framework of shared-decision making must be delivered to each patient. Recommendations for switching from one oral/LAI form to another LAI and for using LAI antipsychotics in specific populations (pregnant women, elderly patients, subjects in a precarious situation, and subjects having to be treated in a prison establishment) are also proposed. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of central precocious puberty by subcutaneous injections of leuprorelin 3-month depot (11.25 mg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carel, Jean-Claude; Lahlou, Najiba; Jaramillo, Orlando; Montauban, Vincent; Teinturier, Cécile; Colle, Michel; Lucas, Christel; Chaussain, Jean Louis

    2002-09-01

    Depot GnRH agonists are widely used for the treatment of precocious puberty. Leuprorelin 3-month depot is currently used in adults but has not been evaluated in children. We evaluated the efficacy of this new formulation (11.25 mg every 3 months), for the suppression of gonadotropic activation and pubertal signs in children with central precocious puberty. We included 44 children (40 girls) with early-onset pubertal development in a 6-month open trial. The inclusion criteria were clinical pubertal development before the age of 8 (girls) or 10 (boys), advanced bone age, enlarged uterus (>36 mm), testosterone more than 1.7 nmol/liter (boys), and pubertal response of LH to GnRH (peak >5 IU/liter). The principal criterion for efficacy assessment, GnRH-stimulated LH peak less than 3 IU/liter, was met in 81 of 85 (95%) of the tests performed at months 3 and 6. The remaining four values were slightly above the threshold. The levels of sex steroids were also significantly reduced and clinical pubertal development was arrested. Plasma leuprorelin levels, measured every 30 d, were essentially stable after d 60. Local intolerance was noted after 10 of 86 injections (12%), and was mild in four cases, moderate in five cases, and severe in one. Among these 10 events, 4 consisted in local pain at injection's site. In conclusion, leuprorelin 3-month depot efficiently inhibits the gonadotropic axis in 95% of children with central precocious puberty studied for a 6-month period. This regimen allows the reduction of the number of yearly injections from 12 to 4.

  16. A comparative study of cross sectional anatomy and computer tomography of perirenal fat depots in New Zealand White rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonkova, P.; Dimitrov, R.; Toneva, J.; Zapryanova, D.

    2010-01-01

    CT is a contemporary non-invasive imaging technique that gains an increasing importance for in vivo investigations of subcutaneous and visceral fat. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the topography and anatomy imaging features of perirenal fat depots at the level of both kidneys in clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits that attained slaughter weight. The CT consecutive transverse scans from the last thoracic to the fifth lumbar vertebrae showed that in rabbits, perirenal fat appeared as a homogeneous hypodense structure at the background of denser shadows of lumbar and abdominal muscles, kidneys and abdominal organs. Perirenal fat depot exhibited a soft tissue density with average attenuation of −120.97±4.73 HU. On CT scans, the largest dimensions of the perirenal fat depot were 1.3±0.01 cm at the level of the right kidneys cranial pole; 1.96 cm in the plane where the right renal hilus was visualized; 1.66±0.08 cm at the level of the right kidneys caudal pole; 1.10±0.18 cm in the plane where the left renal hilus was visualized and 1.06±0.15 cm at the level of the left kidneys caudal pole. No subcutaneous fat deposits in the abdominal area were seen. Results obtained in the present study could be used as basic information for various anatomy investigations of rabbits as well as experimental designs for study of obesity in animals and humans. (author)

  17. Spatial variations in dietary organic matter sources modulate the size and condition of fish juveniles in temperate lagoon nursery sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalas, Arthur; Ferraton, Franck; Paillon, Christelle; Vidy, Guy; Carcaillet, Frédérique; Salen-Picard, Chantal; Le Loc'h, François; Richard, Pierre; Darnaude, Audrey Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Effective conservation of marine fish stocks involves understanding the impact, on population dynamics, of intra-specific variation in nursery habitats use at the juvenile stage. In some regions, an important part of the catching effort is concentrated on a small number of marine species that colonize coastal lagoons during their first year of life. To determine the intra-specific variation in lagoon use by these fish and their potential demographic consequences, we studied diet spatiotemporal variations in the group 0 juveniles of a highly exploited sparid, the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), during their ∼6 months stay in a NW Mediterranean lagoon (N = 331, SL = 25-198 mm) and traced the origin of the organic matter in their food webs, at two lagoon sites with contrasted continental inputs. This showed that the origin (marine, lagoonal or continental) of the organic matter (OM) available in the water column and the sediment can vary substantially within the same lagoon, in line with local variations in the intensity of marine and continental inputs. The high trophic plasticity of S. aurata allows its juveniles to adapt to resulting differences in prey abundances at each site during their lagoon residency, thereby sustaining high growth irrespective of the area inhabited within the lagoon. However, continental POM incorporation by the juveniles through their diet (of 21-37% on average depending on the site) is proportional to its availability in the environment and could be responsible for the greater fish sizes (of 28 mm SL on average) and body weights (of 40.8 g on average) observed at the site under continental influence in the autumn, when the juveniles are ready to leave the lagoon. This suggests that continental inputs in particulate OM, when present, could significantly enhance fish growth within coastal lagoons, with important consequences on the local population dynamics of the fish species that use them as nurseries. As our results indicate that

  18. Gaining insight into Clipperton's lagoon hydrology using tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Baptiste, P.; Fourre, E. [CEA Saclay, LSCE, CEA CNRS IPSL, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Charlou, J.L.; Donval, J.P. [IFREMER, Ctr Brest, DRO GM, Plouzane, (France); Correge, T. [Univ Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5805, F-33405 Talence, (France)

    2009-07-01

    Historical descriptions of the Clipperton lagoon appear to converge on the fact that it became isolated from the surrounding ocean around 1858. Since then, because of the high precipitation rate which largely exceeds evaporation in this region of the eastern tropical Pacific, a brackish lens has formed on top of the saline oceanic waters. In 1980, literature data show that the thickness of this water body was reaching 14 m. During the 2005 Etienne's Clipperton expedition, we collected lagoon water on two vertical profiles. Salinity, {delta}{sup 18}O and tritium analyses were performed on these samples with the objective of gaining further insight into the lagoon hydrology and age of the deep waters. The upper 15 m were characterized by low salinities (5.4 {+-} 0.2), and {delta}{sup 18}O and tritium values typical of local precipitation. At depth, waters had salinity and {delta}{sup 18}O similar to oceanic surface waters but with low tritium concentrations, hence pointing to quite isolated waters representing a remnant of marine waters when the lagoon was still communicating with the ocean. At lagoon closure, the excess of precipitation over evaporation raised the lagoon level, thus creating a hydraulic pressure head which favored salt expulsion through the permeable walls of the atoll. A simple geohydrological modeling of this salt expulsion process based on Darcy's law describes reasonably well the time-evolution of the brackish lens. Tritium is used to discuss the main physical processes potentially involved in the slow ventilation of the halo-cline and deep saline layer, including vertical diffusion, sinking of salty Surface water intrusions and deep horizontal exchange through fissures in the limestone. These different mechanisms give reasonable results, which are all compatible with available salinity and isotopic data ({delta}{sup 18}O and tritium), and therefore are all plausible candidates. Unfortunately, the lack of a detailed description of the

  19. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Wind Turbine Generators at the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Joseph Owen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot site in Newport, Indiana, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the sitefor possible wind turbine electrical generator installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different wind energy options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a wind system at the site.

  20. Desaturation of skeletal muscle structural and depot lipids in obese individuals during a very-low-calorie diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Vaag, Allan; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2007-01-01

    would decrease saturated fatty acids (FAs) and increase long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LCPUFAs) in muscular structural lipids, as such changes have been associated with improved insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Skeletal muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained from 13 obese...... during the VLCD. DISCUSSION: Desaturation of both muscle cell membrane phospholipid and IMTG was significant but modest during a VLCD in obese subjects. Further research must delineate whether such changes in skeletal muscle structural and depot lipid composition themselves are enough to promote...