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Sample records for deposits inhibition static

  1. Mars Environmental Chamber for Dynamic Dust Deposition and Statics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, L. E.; Tuller, M.; Islam, M. R.; Baker, L.; Kuhlman, K.

    2004-01-01

    Recent observations of the 2001 dust storms encircling Mars confirm predictions of environmental challenges for exploration. Martian dust has been found to completely mantle the Martian surface over thousands of square kilometers and the opacity of airborne dust has been shown to be capable of modifying atmospheric temperature, radiative transfer and albedo. Planetary dust cycling dynamics are suggested to be a key factor in the evolution of the Martian surface. Long-term robotic and manned exploration of Mars will be confronted by dust deposition in periods of atmospheric calm and violent wind storms. Aeolian dust deposition recorded during the Mars Pathfinder mission was estimated to fall at rates of 20-45 microns per Earth year. Although many tools of exploration will be challenged by coating, adhesion, abrasion and possible chemical reaction of deposited, wind blown and actively disturbed Martian dust, solar cells are thought to be of primary concern. Recent modeling work of power output by gallium arsenide/germanium solar cells was validated by the Pathfinder Lander data and showed power output decreases of 0.1 to 0.5% per Martian day. A major determinant for the optimal positioning angle of solar panels employed in future missions is the angle of repose of the settling dust particles that is dependent on a variety of physical and chemical properties of the particles, the panel surface, and the environmental conditions on the Mars surface. While the effects of many of these factors are well understood qualitatively, quantitative analyses, especially under physical and chemical conditions prevailing on the Mars surface are lacking.

  2. Evaluation of feasibility of static tests applied to Küre VMS ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Çelik Balci, Nurgül; Şeref Sönmez, M.

    2015-04-01

    Küre volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) ore deposits have been mined for its copper content for over centuries. However, there is no published data on AMD around Küre VMS ore deposits. This study investigates the sources of acid producing mechanisms in Küre, using field and laboratorial approaches. Geochemical static tests to predict AMD generation are widely applied to mining sites for assessing potential environmental consequences. However, there are well known limitations of these methods particularly resulting from assumptions used for calculations. To test the feasibility of the methods to predict potential of AMD generation of Küre (VMS) copper deposits, for the first time, acid production and neutralization potential of various mine wastes of Küre (VMS) copper deposits were determined. To test our static test results, in situ and laboratory geochemical data were also obtained from the groundwater discharges from Bakibaba underground mining tunnels. Feasibility study showed that, despite a few inconsistencies, static tests were suitable for predicting generation of AMD around Küre copper mining site and reflected well the site conditions. The current study revealed that pulp density, defined as solid/liquid ratio and used for static tests, is an important limiting factor to predict reliable data for AMD generation. In this study, we also determined surface waters affected by AMD are predicted to have a pH value between 3 and 5, with an average of pH 4. Excessive concentrations of manganese, copper, cobalt and sulfate are also noted with considerable amounts of iron and zinc, which can reach to toxic levels. Moreover, iron and zinc were found to be the controlling the fate of metals by precipitation and co-precipitation, due to their relatively depleted concentrations at redox shifting zones. Key words: Küre pyritic copper ore, Bakibaba mining tunnels, volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits, acid production potential, neutralization potential

  3. Golgi tendon organ reflex inhibition following manually applied acute static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin C; Burne, John A

    2014-01-01

    Golgi tendon organ disinhibition may contribute to exercise-associated muscle cramp (henceforth referred to as "cramps") genesis. Static stretching pre-exercise is prescribed to prevent cramps based on the assumption golgi tendon organ inhibition remains elevated post-stretching. We determined whether stretching increased gastrocnemius golgi tendon organ inhibition and, if so, the time course of this inhibition post-stretching. Twelve participants' dominant limb medial gastrocnemius inhibition was measured before, and at 1, 5, 10, 15 and 30 min after investigators applied three, 1-min duration stretches. Participants maintained voluntary contraction intensities of 5% of their maximum while the Achilles tendon was stimulated transcutaneously 50 times. Five-hundred millisecond epochs of raw electromyographic activity were band-pass filtered, full-wave rectified and averaged. An algorithm identified inhibitory points and calculated the area, maximum and duration of inhibition. Area of inhibition (F1,14 = 1.5, P = 0.25), maximum inhibition (F1,14 = 0.2, P = 0.72) and duration of inhibition (F1,14 = 1.5, P = 0.24) were unaffected by static stretching over the 30-min post-stretching period. If pre-stretching does prevent fatigue-induced cramping, the mechanism is unlikely to involve the autoinhibition produced by the golgi tendon organ reflex. Further empirical research is needed to validate the proposed link between static stretching and cramping and then to investigate alternative mechanisms.

  4. Polymers pipeline study (PP and PEAD) for paraffin deposits inhibition: static (contact angle) and with flow (depolarization of the petroleum fluorescence); Estudo de dutos polimericos (PP e PEAD) para inibicao de depositos parafinicos: estatico (angulo de contato) e com fluxo (despolarizacao da fluorescencia do petroleo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintella, Cristina M.; Castro, Martha T.P.O.; Musse, Ana Paula S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This work evaluated the formation of paraffin deposits as a function of the chemical constitution of the pipeline walls. Two low cost polymers, available in the Brazilian market either as solids or as extruded films, were studied: polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (PEAD). The static interfacial interactions were evaluated by contact angle and showed that the interaction between crude oil and PEAD was 16% stronger than with PP. For the dynamic studies a flow cell was developed in order to observe mainly the boundary layers. The paraffin deposits were identified through the decrease of the intermolecular alignment within the flowing oil. PEAD proved to be 43% more efficient that PP in interacting with the crude oil. Under flowing conditions, the chemical interfacial effects became more pronounced due to the molecular effects overcoming the hydrodynamic effects. Photos of the cell walls showed globular paraffin deposits on PEAD and their absence on PP. As both polymers are linear, the higher tendency of PEAD to yield paraffin deposits was attributed to the absence of lateral branches of methyl groups. There by PP was found to be better than PEAD to avoid paraffin deposition. (author)

  5. The sky is falling: chemical characterization and corrosion evaluation of deposition produced during the static testing of solid rocket motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, William J; McNeill, Laurie S; Mendenhall, Scout; Hancock, Paul V; Wells, Jason E; Thackeray, Kevin J; Gosen, David P

    2013-03-01

    Static tests of horizontally restrained rocket motors at the ATK facility in Promontory UT, USA result in the deposition of entrained soil and fuel combustion products, referred to as Test Fire Soil (TFS), over areas as large as 30-50 mile (80-130 km) and at distances up to 10-12 miles (16-20 km) from the test site. Chloride is the main combustion product generated from the ammonium perchlorate-aluminum based composite propellant. Deposition sampling/characterization and a 6-month field corrosivity study using mild steel coupons were conducted in conjunction with the February 25th 2010 FSM-17 static test. The TFS deposition rates at the three study sites ranged from 1 to 5 g/min/m. TFS contained significantly more chloride than the surface soil collected from the test site. The TFS collected during two subsequent tests had similarly elevated chloride, suggesting that the results obtained in this study are applicable to other tests assuming that the rocket fuel composition remains similar. The field-deployed coupons exposed to the TFS had higher corrosion rates (3.6-5.0 mpy) than paired non-exposed coupons (1.6-1.8 mpy). Corrosion rates for all coupons decreased over time, but coupons exposed to the TFS always had a higher rate than the non-exposed. Differences in corrosion rates between the three study sites were also observed, with sites receiving more TFS deposition having higher corrosion rates.

  6. Lateral resolution in focused electron beam-induced deposition: scaling laws for pulsed and static exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkudlarek, Aleksandra [Empa, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Thun (Switzerland); AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Szmyt, Wojciech; Kapusta, Czeslaw [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Utke, Ivo [Empa, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Thun (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    In this work, we review the single-adsorbate time-dependent continuum model for focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID). The differential equation for the adsorption rate will be expressed by dimensionless parameters describing the contributions of adsorption, desorption, dissociation, and the surface diffusion of the precursor adsorbates. The contributions are individually presented in order to elucidate their influence during variations in the electron beam exposure time. The findings are condensed into three new scaling laws for pulsed exposure FEBID (or FEB-induced etching) relating the lateral resolution of deposits or etch pits to surface diffusion and electron beam exposure dwell time for a given adsorbate depletion state. (orig.)

  7. Parameterization of gaseous dry deposition in atmospheric chemistry models: Sensitivity to aerodynamic resistance formulations under statically stable conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kenjiro; Dastoor, Ashu P.; Ryzhkov, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    Turbulence controls the vertical transfer of momentum, heat and trace constituents in the atmospheric boundary layer. In the lowest 10% of this layer lies the surface boundary layer (SBL) where the vertical fluxes of transferred quantities have been successfully parameterized using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory in weather forecast, climate and atmospheric chemistry models. However, there is a large degree of empiricism in the stability-correction parameterizations used to formulate eddy diffusivity and aerodynamic resistance particularly under strongly stable ambient conditions. Although the influence of uncertainties in stability-correction parameterizations on eddy diffusivity is actively studied in boundary-layer meteorological modeling, its impact on dry deposition in atmospheric chemistry modeling is not well characterized. In this study, we address this gap by providing the mathematical basis for the relationship between the formulations of vertical surface flux used in meteorological and atmospheric chemistry modeling communities, and by examining the sensitivity of the modeled dry deposition velocities in statically stable SBL to the choice of stability-correction parameterizations used in three operational and/or research environmental models (GEM/GEM-MACH, ECMWF IFS and CMAQ-MM5). Aerodynamic resistances (ra) calculated by the three sets of parameterizations are notably different from each other and are also different from those calculated by a "z-less" scaling formulation under strongly stable conditions (the bulk Richardson number > 0.2). Furthermore, we show that many atmospheric chemistry models calculate ra using formulations which are inconsistent with the derivation of micro-meteorological parameters. Finally, practical implications of the differences in stability-correction algorithms are discussed for the computations of dry deposition velocities of SO2, O3 and reactive bromine compounds for specific cases of stable SBL.

  8. Relationships between presynaptic inhibition and static postural sway in subjects with and without diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jihyun; Hong, Junggi

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] Diabetic peripheral neuropathy can often lead to balance impairment. The spinal reflex is a mechanism that is reportedly important for balance, but it has not been investigated in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients. Moreover, inhibitory or facilitatory behavior of the spinal reflex-known as presynaptic inhibition-is essential for controlling postural sway. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in as presynaptic inhibition and balance in subjects with and without diabetic peripheral neuropathy to determine the influence of presynaptic inhibition on balance in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients. [Subjects and Methods] Presynaptic inhibition and postural sway were tested in eight patients (mean age, 58±6 years) and eight normal subjects (mean age, 59±7 years). The mean percent difference in conditioned reflex amplitude relative to the unconditioned reflex amplitude was assessed to calculate as presynaptic inhibition. The single-leg balance index was measured using a computerized balance-measuring device. [Results] The diabetic peripheral neuropathy group showed lower presynaptic inhibition (47±30% vs. 75±22%) and decreased balance (0.65±0.24 vs. 0.38±0.06) as compared with the normal group. No significant correlation was found between as presynaptic inhibition and balance score (R=0.37). [Conclusion] Although the decreased as presynaptic inhibition observed in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients may suggest central nervous system involvement, further research is necessary to explore the role of presynaptic inhibition in decreased balance in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients.

  9. The effect of static and dynamic visual gestures on stuttering inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntupalli, Vijaya K; Nanjundeswaran, Chayadevie; Kalinowski, Joseph; Dayalu, Vikram N

    2011-03-29

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of steady-state and dynamic visual gestures of vowels in stuttering inhibition. Eight adults who stuttered recited sentences from memory while watching video presentations of the following visual speech gestures: (a) a steady-state /u/, (b) dynamic production of /a-i-u/, (c) steady-state /u/ with an accompanying audible 1 kHz pure tone, and (d) dynamic production of /a-i-u/ with an accompanying audible 1 kHz pure tone. A 1 kHz pure tone and a no-external signal condition served as control conditions. Results revealed a significant main effect of auditory condition on stuttering frequency. Relative to the no-external signal condition, the combined visual plus pure tone conditions resulted in a statistically significant reduction in stuttering frequency. In addition, a significant difference in stuttering frequency was also observed when the visual plus pure tone conditions were compared to the visual only conditions. However, no significant differences were observed between the no-external signal condition and visual only conditions, or the no-external signal condition and pure tone condition. These findings are in contrast to previous findings demonstrated by similar vowel gestures presented via the auditory modality that resulted in high levels of stuttering inhibition. The differential role of sensory modalities in speech perception and production as well as their individual capacities to transfer gestural information for the purposes of stuttering inhibition is discussed.

  10. Does pre-exercise static stretching inhibit maximal muscular performance? A meta-analytical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, L; Sarabon, N; Markovic, G

    2013-03-01

    We applied a meta-analytical approach to derive a robust estimate of the acute effects of pre-exercise static stretching (SS) on strength, power, and explosive muscular performance. A computerized search of articles published between 1966 and December 2010 was performed using PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases. A total of 104 studies yielding 61 data points for strength, 12 data points for power, and 57 data points for explosive performance met our inclusion criteria. The pooled estimate of the acute effects of SS on strength, power, and explosive performance, expressed in standardized units as well as in percentages, were -0.10 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.15 to -0.04], -0.04 (95% CI: -0.16 to 0.08), and -0.03 (95% CI: -0.07 to 0.01), or -5.4% (95% CI: -6.6% to -4.2%), -1.9% (95% CI: -4.0% to 0.2%), and -2.0% (95% CI: -2.8% to -1.3%). These effects were not related to subject's age, gender, or fitness level; however, they were more pronounced in isometric vs dynamic tests, and were related to the total duration of stretch, with the smallest negative acute effects being observed with stretch duration of ≤ 45 s. We conclude that the usage of SS as the sole activity during warm-up routine should generally be avoided.

  11. Reduction in static friction by deposition of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Shun; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kobayashi, Daishiro; Aono, Yuko; Hirata, Atsushi; Hiratsuka, Masanori; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontics, a reduction in static friction between the brackets and wire is important to enable easy tooth movement. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the whole surfaces of slots in stainless steel orthodontic brackets on reducing the static friction between the brackets and the wire. The DLC coating was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, surface roughness and contact angle measurements, and SEM observations. Rectangular stainless steel and titanium-molybdenum alloy wires with two different sizes were employed, and the static friction between the brackets and wire was measured under dry and wet conditions. The DLC coating had a thickness of approximately 1.0 μm and an amorphous structure was identified. The results indicated that the DLC coating always led to a reduction in static friction.

  12. Inhibition of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Does Not Increase Islet Amyloid Deposition in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Meghan F; Meier, Daniel T; Zraika, Sakeneh; Templin, Andrew T; Mellati, Mahnaz; Hull, Rebecca L; Leissring, Malcolm A; Kahn, Steven E

    2016-09-01

    Islet amyloid deposition in human type 2 diabetes results in β-cell loss. These amyloid deposits contain the unique amyloidogenic peptide human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), which is also a known substrate of the protease insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE). Whereas IDE inhibition has recently been demonstrated to improve glucose metabolism in mice, inhibiting it has also been shown to increase cell death when synthetic hIAPP is applied exogenously to a β-cell line. Thus, we wanted to determine whether a similar deleterious effect is observed when hIAPP is endogenously produced and secreted from islets. To address this issue, we cultured hIAPP transgenic mouse islets that have the propensity to form amyloid for 48 and 144 hours in 16.7 mM glucose in the presence and absence of the IDE inhibitor 1. At neither time interval did IDE inhibition increase amyloid formation or β-cell loss. Thus, the inhibition of IDE may represent an approach to improve glucose metabolism in human type 2 diabetes, without inducing amyloid deposition and its deleterious effects.

  13. 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl Phosphorylcholine Polymer Treatment of Complete Dentures to Inhibit Denture Plaque Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeya, Kenji; Fukunishi, Miya; Iwasa, Fuminori; Inoue, Yuuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2016-12-26

    Removable dentures made of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are prone to bacterial adherence and dental plaque formation, which is called denture plaque. Denture plaque-associated infection is a source of serious dental and medical complications in the elderly. 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) is a well-known biomedical material that exhibits marked antithrombogenicity and tissue compatibility because of its high resistance to protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Therefore, MPC polymer coatings are suggested to have the potential to inhibit plaque deposition on the surface of PMMA dentures. However, coating MPC polymer on the surface of a PMMA denture is a complex procedure that requires specialized equipment, which is regarded as a major barrier to its clinical application. Here, we introduce a new MPC polymer treatment procedure that uses poly (MPC-co-BMA-co-MPAz) (PMBPAz) to prevent denture plaque deposition on removable dentures. This procedure enables the MPC coating of PMMA denture surfaces in a simple and stable manner that is resistant to various chemical and mechanical stresses due to the MPC layer of PMBPAz that is covalently bound to the PMMA surface by ultraviolet light irradiation. In addition, the procedure does not require any specialized equipment and can be completed by clinicians within 2 min. We applied this procedure in a clinical setting and demonstrated its clinical utility and efficacy in inhibiting plaque deposition on removable dentures.

  14. Inhibition of calcium carbonate deposition on stainless steel using olive leaf extract as a green inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoud, Roumaissa; Kahoul, Abdelkrim; Naamoune, Farid

    2017-01-01

    The antiscale properties of the aqueous extract of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves as a natural scale inhibitor for stainless steel surface in Hammam raw water were investigated using chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques in conjunction with a microscopic examination. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the scale deposited over the pipe walls consists of pure CaCO3 calcite. The CA, in accordance with electrochemical impedance spectra and scanning electron microscopy, shows that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing extract concentration. This efficiency is considerably reduced as the temperature is increased.

  15. Coupling thermogravimetric and acoustic emission measurements: its application to study the inhibition of catalytic coke deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropital, Francois; Dascotte, Philippe; Marchand, Pierre [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 Avenue Bois Preau, 92952 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Faure, Thierry; Lenain, Jean-Claude; Proust, Alain [Euro Physical Acoustics, 27 Rue Magellan, 94373 Sucy-en-Brie Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    In order to improve the knowledge on the high temperature behaviour of metallic materials, the coupling of several in situ physical analysis methods is a promising way. For this purpose a thermogravimetric balance has been equipped with a specific acoustic emission device in order to continuously measure the mass variation of the corrosion sample and the acoustic emission transient under experimental conditions of temperature and gas phase compositions that are representative of the industrial environments. The catalytic coke deposition condition that is a major problem for the refinery and petrochemical industries, has been studied with such a device. The carbon deposition on reactor walls can induce localised disruption in the process such as heat-transfer reduction and pressure drops. To prevent these perturbations, proper selections of the metallurgical or internal coating compositions of the equipment, or the injection of accurate amount of inhibitors have to be decided. The feasibility of the coupling at high temperature of thermogravimetric and acoustic emission has been demonstrated. This new technique has been applied to study the inhibition of the catalytic coke deposition on pure iron by sulphur additives in the temperature range of 650 deg. C and under different mixed atmospheres of hydrocarbon and hydrogen contents. Good correlation has been obtained between the coking rates measured by thermogravimetric measurements and the intensities of the acoustic emission parameters. (authors)

  16. Empirical evaluation of metal deposition for the analysis of organic compounds with static secondary ion mass spectrometry (S-SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mondt, R.; Adriaensen, L.; Vangaever, F.; Lenaerts, J.; Van Vaeck, L.; Gijbels, R.

    2006-07-01

    Metal-assisted (MetA) SIMS using the deposition of a thin Au or Ag layer on non-conducting samples prior to analysis has been advocated as a means to improve the secondary ion (S.I.) yields of organic analytes. This study focuses on the influence of time and temperature on the yield enhancement in MetA-SIMS using thick layers of poly(vinylbutyral- co-vinylalcohol- co-vinylacetate) (PVB) containing dihydroxybenzophenone (DHBPh) or a cationic carbocyanine dye (CBC) and spin-coated layers of the cationic dye on Si. Pristine samples as well as Au- and Ag-coated ones were kept between -8 °C and 80 °C and analysed with S-SIMS at intervals of a few days over a period of 1 month. The yield enhancement was found to depend strongly on the kind of evaporated metal, the storage temperature and time between coating and analysis.

  17. Static and high frequency magnetic properties of FeGa thin films deposited on convex flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Zhan, Qingfeng; Wei, Jinwu; Wang, Jianbo; Dai, Guohong; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Liu, Yiwei; Yang, Huali; Zhang, Yao; Xie, Shuhong; Wang, Baomin; Li, Run-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Magnetostrictive FeGa thin films were deposited on the bowed flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, which were fixed on the convex mold. A compressive stress was induced in FeGa films when the PET substrates were shaped from convex to flat. Due to the effect of magnetostriction, FeGa films exhibit an obvious in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy which could be enhanced by increasing the applied pre-strains on the substrates during growth. Consequently, the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of the films was significantly increased, but the corresponding initial permeability was decreased. Moreover, the films with pre-strains less than 0.78% exhibit a working bandwidth of microwave absorption about 2 GHz. Our investigations demonstrated a convenient method via the pre-strained substrates to tune the high frequency properties of magnetic thin films which could be applied in flexible microwave devices.

  18. Static and high frequency magnetic properties of FeGa thin films deposited on convex flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ying [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices and Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Zhan, Qingfeng, E-mail: zhanqf@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: runweili@nimte.ac.cn; Dai, Guohong; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Liu, Yiwei; Yang, Huali; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Baomin; Li, Run-Wei, E-mail: zhanqf@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: runweili@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices and Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wei, Jinwu; Wang, Jianbo [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Xie, Shuhong [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2015-04-20

    Magnetostrictive FeGa thin films were deposited on the bowed flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, which were fixed on the convex mold. A compressive stress was induced in FeGa films when the PET substrates were shaped from convex to flat. Due to the effect of magnetostriction, FeGa films exhibit an obvious in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy which could be enhanced by increasing the applied pre-strains on the substrates during growth. Consequently, the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of the films was significantly increased, but the corresponding initial permeability was decreased. Moreover, the films with pre-strains less than 0.78% exhibit a working bandwidth of microwave absorption about 2 GHz. Our investigations demonstrated a convenient method via the pre-strained substrates to tune the high frequency properties of magnetic thin films which could be applied in flexible microwave devices.

  19. Thin yttrium iron garnet films grown by pulsed laser deposition: Crystal structure, static, and dynamic magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, N. S., E-mail: nsokolov@fl.ioffe.ru; Fedorov, V. V.; Korovin, A. M.; Suturin, S. M.; Baranov, D. A.; Gastev, S. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Bursian, V. E.; Lutsev, L. V. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Maksimova, K. Yu.; Grunin, A. I. [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Tabuchi, M. [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2016-01-14

    Pulsed laser deposition has been used to grow thin (10–84 nm) epitaxial layers of Yttrium Iron Garnet Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YIG) on (111)–oriented Gadolinium Gallium Garnet substrates at different growth conditions. Atomic force microscopy showed flat surface morphology both on micrometer and nanometer scales. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the films are coherent with the substrate in the interface plane. The interplane distance in the [111] direction was found to be by 1.2% larger than expected for YIG stoichiometric pseudomorphic film indicating presence of rhombohedral distortion in this direction. Polar Kerr effect and ferromagnetic resonance measurements showed existence of additional magnetic anisotropy, which adds to the demagnetizing field to keep magnetization vector in the film plane. The origin of the magnetic anisotropy is related to the strain in YIG films observed by XRD. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements revealed important role of magnetization rotation during magnetization reversal. An unusual fine structure of microwave magnetic resonance spectra has been observed in the film grown at reduced (0.5 mTorr) oxygen pressure. Surface spin wave propagation has been demonstrated in the in-plane magnetized films.

  20. The sky is falling II: Impact of deposition produced during the static testing of solid rocket motors on corn and alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, William J; Mendenhall, Scout; McNeill, Laurie S; Heavilin, Justin

    2014-06-01

    Tests of horizontally restrained rocket motors at the ATK facility in Promontory, Utah, USA result in the deposition of an estimated 1.5million kg of entrained soil and combustion products (mainly aluminum oxide, gaseous hydrogen chloride and water) on the surrounding area. The deposition is referred to as test fire soil (TFS). Farmers observing TFS deposited on their crops expressed concerns regarding the impact of this material. To address these concerns, we exposed corn and alfalfa to TFS collected during a September 2009 test. The impact was evaluated by comparing the growth and tissue composition of controls relative to the treatments. Exposure to TFS, containing elevated levels of chloride (1000 times) and aluminum (2 times) relative to native soils, affected the germination, growth and tissue concentrations of various elements, depending on the type and level of exposure. Germination was inhibited by high concentrations of TFS in soil, but the impact was reduced if the TFS was pre-leached with water. Biomass production was reduced in the TFS amended soils and corn grown in TFS amended soils did not develop kernels. Chloride concentrations in corn and alfalfa grown in TFS amended soils were two orders of magnitude greater than controls. TFS exposed plants contained higher concentrations of several cations, although the concentrations were well below livestock feed recommendations. Foliar applications of TFS had no impact on biomass, but some differences in the elemental composition of leaves relative to controls were observed. Washing the TFS off the leaves lessened the impact. Results indicate that the TFS deposition could have an effect, depending on the amount and growth stage of the crops, but the impact could be mitigated with rainfall or the application of additional irrigation water. The high level of chloride associated with the TFS is the main cause of the observed impacts.

  1. Water extract of the fungi from Fuzhuan brick tea improves the beneficial function on inhibiting fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuxuan; Xiong, Zhe; Li, Juan; Huang, Jian-An; Teng, Cuiqin; Gong, Yushun; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    Fuzhuan brick tea (FBT) is traditionally consumed by the ethnic group in the border region of northwest China. The unique yellow fungal (Eurotium cristatum) growth phase is considered to be the key process point in the manufacture of the brick tea. The fungi from FBT are not only strongly correlated to the quality of brick tea, but also have the potential function of preventing obesity. The water extract of fungi (100 μg/mL) can significantly inhibit fat deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocyte and Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, the inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipocyte formation was not due to the suppression on cell viability.

  2. Inhibition of Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand by Denosumab Attenuates Vascular Calcium Deposition in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helas, Susann; Goettsch, Claudia; Schoppet, Michael; Zeitz, Ute; Hempel, Ute; Morawietz, Henning; Kostenuik, Paul J.; Erben, Reinhold G.; Hofbauer, Lorenz C.

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis and vascular calcification frequently coincide. A potential mediator of bone metabolism and vascular homeostasis is the triad cytokine system, which consists of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL), its receptor RANK, and the decoy receptor osteoprotegerin. Unopposed RANKL activity in osteoprotegerin-deficient mice resulted in osteoporosis and vascular calcification. We therefore analyzed the effects of RANKL inhibition by denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody against RANKL, on vascular calcium deposition following glucocorticoid exposure. Prednisolone pellets were implanted into human RANKL knock-in (huRANKL-KI) mice, which unlike wild-type mice are responsive to denosumab. No histomorphological abnormalities or differences in aortic wall thickness were detected between wild-type and huRANKL-KI mice, regardless of treatment with prednisolone, denosumab, or both. However, concurrent treatment with denosumab reduced aortic calcium deposition of prednisolone-treated huRANKL-KI mice by up to 50%, based on calcium measurement. Of note, aortic calcium deposition in huRANKL-KI mice was correlated negatively with bone mineral density at the lumbar spine (P = 0.04) and positively with urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline, a marker of bone resorption (P = 0.01). In summary, RANKL inhibition by denosumab reduced vascular calcium deposition in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in mice, which is further evidence for the link between the bone and vascular systems. Therefore, the prevention of bone loss by denosumab might also be associated with reduced vascular calcification in certain conditions. PMID:19590040

  3. Inhibition of receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand by denosumab attenuates vascular calcium deposition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helas, Susann; Goettsch, Claudia; Schoppet, Michael; Zeitz, Ute; Hempel, Ute; Morawietz, Henning; Kostenuik, Paul J; Erben, Reinhold G; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2009-08-01

    Osteoporosis and vascular calcification frequently coincide. A potential mediator of bone metabolism and vascular homeostasis is the triad cytokine system, which consists of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK) ligand (RANKL), its receptor RANK, and the decoy receptor osteoprotegerin. Unopposed RANKL activity in osteoprotegerin-deficient mice resulted in osteoporosis and vascular calcification. We therefore analyzed the effects of RANKL inhibition by denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody against RANKL, on vascular calcium deposition following glucocorticoid exposure. Prednisolone pellets were implanted into human RANKL knock-in (huRANKL-KI) mice, which unlike wild-type mice are responsive to denosumab. No histomorphological abnormalities or differences in aortic wall thickness were detected between wild-type and huRANKL-KI mice, regardless of treatment with prednisolone, denosumab, or both. However, concurrent treatment with denosumab reduced aortic calcium deposition of prednisolone-treated huRANKL-KI mice by up to 50%, based on calcium measurement. Of note, aortic calcium deposition in huRANKL-KI mice was correlated negatively with bone mineral density at the lumbar spine (P = 0.04) and positively with urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline, a marker of bone resorption (P = 0.01). In summary, RANKL inhibition by denosumab reduced vascular calcium deposition in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in mice, which is further evidence for the link between the bone and vascular systems. Therefore, the prevention of bone loss by denosumab might also be associated with reduced vascular calcification in certain conditions.

  4. Transient inhibition of connective tissue infiltration and collagen deposition into porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Ryan J; Jones, Kim S

    2013-12-01

    Connective tissue rapidly proliferates on and around biomaterials implanted in vivo, which impairs the function of the engineered tissues, biosensors, and devices. Glucocorticoids can be utilized to suppress tissue ingrowth, but can only be used for a limited time because they nonselectively arrest cell proliferation in the local environment. The present study examined use of a prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor, 1,4-dihydrophenonthrolin-4-one-3-carboxylic acid (1,4-DPCA), to suppress connective tissue ingrowth in porous PLGA discs implanted in the peritoneal cavity for 28 days. The prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor was found to be effective at inhibiting collagen deposition within and on the outer surface of the disc, and also limited connective tissue ingrowth, but not to the extent of glucocorticoid inhibition. Finally, it was discovered that 1,4-DPCA suppressed Scavenger Receptor A expression on a macrophage-like cell culture, which may account for the drug's ability to limit connective tissue ingrowth in vivo.

  5. Static spray deposition distribution characteristics of PWM-based intermittently spraying system%脉宽调制间歇喷雾变量喷施系统的静态雾量分布特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏新华; 于达志; 白敬; 蒋杉

    2013-01-01

    Owing to its intermittently spraying characteristics, spray deposition distribution uniformity of PWM-based variable rate application system is hard to control. A PWM-based variable rate application testing system was constructed by integration of a modified commercial boom sprayer and an IPC-based measurement and control system to study its static deposition distribution characteristics. The sprayer consisted of a fluid tank, a filter, a diaphragm pump, a proportional relief valve, 12 high speed on-off solenoid valves, 12 TR80-05 hollow-cone nozzles and various pipelines, mounted on a tractor, and was driven by the tractor via its power take-off shaft. The IPC-based measurement and control system was composed of a pressure sensor, 4 flow sensors, a signal conditioning module, an IPC, an analog input data acquisition card、a PWM signal output card、an analog output card, and 2 driving modules. Real-time monitoring of subgroup flow and boom pressure, feedback stable control of average boom pressure, setting of the average boom pressure, and setting of frequency and duty cycle of the PWM signal were performed by the measurement and control software which was developed with Labview. Droplets were collected with a matrix-styled droplet collection device, it had a horizontal collection dimention of 1000 mm×1000 mm and was divided evenly into 20×20 grids. Putting a paper cup in each grid, weighting the cups before and after each spraying test, droplet deposition of each grid could be deduced, and two-dimentional deposition distribution was obtained. Static deposition distributions of the PWM controlled nozzle were tested under various spray conditions of different spray pressures, different frequencies and duty cycles of PWM signal with the tractor holding still and the tested nozzle 0.5 m distance above the droplet collection area. And nonlinear regression analyses were performed on static deposition distribution specimens acquired under spray conditions of 0.3MPa

  6. Fructose effect to enhance liver glycogen deposition is due to inhibition of glycogenolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, J.; Kaslow, H.; Bergman, R.

    1987-05-01

    The effect of fructose on glycogen degradation was examined by measuring flux of (/sup 14/C) from prelabeled glycogen in perfused rat livers. During 2 h refeeding of fasted rats hepatic glycogen was labeled by injection of (U /sup 14/C) galactose (0.1 mg and 0.02 ..mu..Ci/g of body weight). Refed livers were perfused for 30 min with glucose only (10 mM) and for 60 min with glucose (10 mM) without (n=5) or with fructose (1, 2, 10 mM; n=5 for each). With fructose, label production immediately declined and remained suppressed through the end of perfusion (P < 0.05). Suppression was dose-dependent: steady state label production was suppressed 45, 64, and 72% by 1, 2, and 10 mM fructose (P < 0.0001), without significant changes in glycogen synthase or phosphorylase. These results suggest the existence of allosteric inhibition of phosphorylase in the presence of fructose. Fructose 1-phosphate (F1P) accumulated in proportion to fructose (0.11 +/- 0.01 without fructose, 0.86 +/- 0.03, 1.81 +/- 0.18, and 8.23 +/- 0.6 ..mu..moles/g of liver with 1, 2, and 10 mM fructose. Maximum inhibition of phosphorylase was 82%; FIP concentration for half inhibition was 0.57 ..mu..moles/g of liver, well within the concentration of F1P attained in refeeding. Fructose enhances net glycogen synthesis in liver by suppressing glycogenolysis and the suppression is presumably caused by allosteric inhibition of phosphorylase by F1P.

  7. Acid rock drainage and metal leaching from mine waste material (tailings) of a Pb-Zn-Ag skarn deposit: environmental assessment through static and kinetic laboratory tests

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Adriana Méndez Ortiz; Alejandro Carrillo Chávez; Marcos Gustavo Monroy Fernández

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the processes and products involved in the generation of acid rock drainage – metal leaching (ARD-ML) from mine waste material (tailings) derived from the exploitation of an ore type Pb- Zn-Ag skarn were characterized. Laboratory tests (static and kinetic) of historic and recent tailings were conducted along with the mineralogical characterization of solids, and chemical analyses of solids and leachates. Pyrite (FeS2) is the most abundant sulfi de phase, and one of the main mine...

  8. Corrosion inhibition in sputter-deposited thin-film systems using an intermediary layer of palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, D.J.

    1979-03-01

    Accelerated and long term corrosion data are presented for the Ti--Ag and Cr--Au thin film metallization systems deposited by sputter deposition. The Ti--Ag conductor system is used as an electrode for high intensity silicon solar cells, and it has been found that an intermediate layer of 1500 A of palladium greatly improves the environmental stability of the metallization. The Cr--Au system has been used as an electrical circuit pattern, and thin films of palladium (100--300 A) have been incorporated to improve storage, processing, and service stability. A 100 A palladium intermediary did not affect the etch patterning of the Cr--Au metallization. It is observed that the introduction of palladium modifies the anodic potential of the active metal producing a passive oxide when exposed to an electrolytic environment. It is proposed that this modified oxide, at exposed pinhole sites, is responsible for the increased corrosion resistance when palladium is present as an intermediate layer for either the Ti--Ag or Cr--Au metallization systems.

  9. Inhibition of Crystal Growth during Plasma Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition by Applying BIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Ratzsch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of direct current (DC biasing on the growth of titanium dioxide (TiO2 layers and their nucleation behavior has been investigated. Titania films were prepared by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD using Ti(OiPr4 as metal organic precursor. Oxygen plasma, provided by remote inductively coupled plasma, was used as an oxygen source. The TiO2 films were deposited with and without DC biasing. A strong dependence of the applied voltage on the formation of crystallites in the TiO2 layer is shown. These crystallites form spherical hillocks on the surface which causes high surface roughness. By applying a higher voltage than the plasma potential no hillock appears on the surface. Based on these results, it seems likely, that ions are responsible for the nucleation and hillock growth. Hence, the hillock formation can be controlled by controlling the ion energy and ion flux. The growth per cycle remains unchanged, whereas the refractive index slightly decreases in the absence of energetic oxygen ions.

  10. Growth inhibition to enhance conformal coverage in thin film chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Daly, Scott R; Girolami, Gregory S; Abelson, John R

    2008-12-31

    We introduce the use of a growth inhibitor to enhance thin film conformality in low temperature chemical vapor deposition. Films of TiB(2) grown from the single source precursor Ti(BH(4))(3)(dme) are much more highly conformal when grown in the presence of one of the film growth byproducts, 1,2-dimethoxyethane (dme). This effect can be explained in terms of two alternative inhibitory mechanisms: one involving blocking of surface reactive sites, which is equivalent to reducing the rate of the forward reaction leading to film growth, the other analogous to Le Chatelier's principle, in which the addition of a reaction product increases the rate of the back reaction. The reduction in growth rate corresponds to a reduction in the sticking probability of the precursor, which enhances conformality by enabling the precursor to diffuse deeper into a recessed feature before it reacts.

  11. The Lipid Droplet Protein Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 Promotes Hepatic Triglyceride Deposition by Inhibiting Lipolysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Marina T.; Danai, Laura V.; Roth Flach, Rachel J.; Chawla, Anil; Pedersen, David J.; Guilherme, Adilson; Czech, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a major site of glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride (TG) synthesis and serves as a major regulator of whole body nutrient homeostasis. Chronic exposure of humans or rodents to high-calorie diets promotes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by neutral lipid accumulation in lipid droplets (LD) of hepatocytes. Here we show that the LD protein hypoxia-inducible gene 2 (Hig2/Hilpda) functions to enhance lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by attenuating TG hydrolysis. Hig2 expression increased in livers of mice on a high-fat diet and during fasting, two states associated with enhanced hepatic TG content. Hig2 expressed in primary mouse hepatocytes localized to LDs and promoted LD TG deposition in the presence of oleate. Conversely, tamoxifen-inducible Hig2 deletion reduced both TG content and LD size in primary hepatocytes from mice harboring floxed alleles of Hig2 and a cre/ERT2 transgene controlled by the ubiquitin C promoter. Hepatic TG was also decreased by liver-specific deletion of Hig2 in mice with floxed Hig2 expressing cre controlled by the albumin promoter. Importantly, we demonstrate that Hig2-deficient hepatocytes exhibit increased TG lipolysis, TG turnover, and fatty acid oxidation as compared with controls. Interestingly, mice with liver-specific Hig2 deletion also display improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, these data indicate that Hig2 plays a major role in promoting lipid sequestration within LDs in mouse hepatocytes through a mechanism that impairs TG degradation. PMID:25922078

  12. Loureirin B inhibits fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition in hypertrophic scar via TGF-β/Smad pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaozhi; He, Ting; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Yunchuan; Fan, Lei; Tao, Ke; Shi, Jihong; Tang, Chaowu; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai

    2015-05-01

    The ethanolic extract of Resina Draconis (RDEE) has been reported beneficial to normal wound healing yielding more regularly arranged collagen fibres. Loureirin B, a major component in RDEE, has been supposed to be effective on the prevention and treatment of pathological scars. To investigate the therapeutic effects of loureirin B on hypertrophic scar (HS), fibroblasts from human HS and normal skin (NS) were isolated. Results showed that loureirin B dose-dependently downregulated both mRNA and protein levels of type I collagen (ColI), type III collagen (ColIII) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in HS fibroblasts. Loureirin B also suppressed fibroblast proliferative activity and redistributed cell cycle, but did not affect cell apoptosis. In vivo rabbit ear scar model, loureirin B significantly improved the arrangement and deposition of collagen fibres, decreased protein levels of ColI, ColIII and α-SMA and suppressed myofibroblast differentiation and scar proliferative activity. In NS fibroblasts, loureirin B effectively inhibited TGF-β1-induced upregulation of ColI, ColIII and α-SMA levels, myofibroblast differentiation and the activation of Smad2 and Smad3. Loureirin B also affected mRNA levels of major MMPs and TIMPs in TGF-β1-stimulated fibroblasts. Taken together, this study demonstrates that loureirin B could downregulate the expression of fibrosis-related molecules by regulating MMPs and TIMPs levels, inhibit scar fibroblast proliferation and suppress TGF-β1-induced fibrosis, during which TGF-β1/Smad2/3 pathway is likely involved. These findings suggest that loureirin B is a potential therapeutic compound for HS treatment.

  13. The Use of Biobased Surfactant Obtained by Enzymatic Syntheses for Wax Deposition Inhibition and Drag Reduction in Crude Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil plays an important role in providing the energy supply of the world, and pipelines have long been recognized as the safest and most efficient means of transporting oil and its products. However, the transportation process also faces the challenges of asphaltene-paraffin structural interactions, pipeline pressure losses and energy consumption. In order to determine the role of drag-reducing surfactant additives in the transportation of crude oils, experiments of wax deposition inhibition and drag reduction of different oil in pipelines with a biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses were carried out. The results indicated that heavy oil transportation in the pipeline is remarkably enhanced by creating stable oil-in-water (O/W emulsion with the surfactant additive. The wax appearance temperature (WAT and pour point were modified, and the formation of a space-filling network of interlocking wax crystals was prevented at low temperature by adding a small concentration of the surfactant additive. A maximum viscosity reduction of 70% and a drag reduction of 40% for light crude oil flows in pipelines were obtained with the surfactant additive at a concentration of 100 mg/L. Furthermore, a successful field application of the drag-reducing surfactant in a light crude oil pipeline in Daqing Oilfield was demonstrated. Hence, the use of biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses in oil transportation is a potential method to address the current challenges, which could result in a significant energy savings and a considerable reduction of the operating cost.

  14. Inhibition of start-up inrush current of static var generator%静止无功发生器启动冲击电流的抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾永乐; 王伟

    2016-01-01

    静止无功发生器(Static Var Generator ,SVG)多采用双闭环 PI 控制。这种控制方式下,SVG 启动瞬间会产生过大的冲击电流。分析了冲击电流产生的原因,在此基础上,设计直流电压逐步升高和电容能量外环控制相结合的方法,以降低冲击电流。通过 Matlab/Simulink 仿真对此方法进行仿真研究。最后,通过研制的 SVG 实验平台,对设计的方法进行实验验证。仿真和实验结果表明,该方法能够有效抑制启动冲击电流,SVG 装置能够精确地补偿负载所产生的无功功率。%Dual closed-loop PI control is always used for SVG. On this occasion, SVG is easy to generate inrush current during start-up period. This paper analyzes the cause of inrush current's generating. Therefore, a method that combines with the DC voltage increasing through step be step and capacitor energy outer loop control is designed to reduce magnitude of the inrush current. The simulation model of SVG is established in Matlab/Simulink to verify the proposed method. Finally, an experimental prototype of parallel SVG is developed to verify the method. The results from the simulation and experiment show that this method can effectively restrain the start-up inrush current and the SVG device can accurately compensate the reactive power generated by loads.

  15. Economic evaluation of organic deposition inhibition treatment: case study; Avaliacao economica de tratamentos de inibicao de deposicao organica: estudo de casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechuga, Fernanda Curty; Seidl, Peter Rudolf; Guimaraes, Maria Jose de Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Lucas, Elizabete Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas

    2008-07-01

    During the production process the temperature and pressure decrease along the well, that generate an increase in viscosity, changes in the composition of the oil and chemical changes in the balance of oil. These changes in the balance may lead to precipitation and deposition of organic components of heavy oil. These occurrences cause serious economic consequences. To solve problems related to organic deposition, it is proposed some actions to prevent the formation of these deposits. Chemical additives interfere in precipitation of paraffins and aggregation of asphaltenes, increasing stability. This paper aims to examine, in economic terms, treatments prevention in different wells by the mechanism of inhibition of organic deposition by the action of chemical additives. The methodology applied for the economic analysis was the return on investment (ROI - Return-on-investments) that could estimate when there was an economic gain in problems of organic deposition treated with chemical additives. The results showed that if these wells use prevention methods it could get a return of more than $ 100.00 per dollar invested in treatment, which would be beneficial, since these treatments increase the production of oil and reduce the idle time in wells. (author)

  16. Inhibition of Viability, Proliferation, Cytokines Secretion, Surface Antigen Expression, and Adipogenic and Osteogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells by Seven-Day Exposure to 0.5 T Static Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After seven-day exposure to 0.5-Tesla Static Magnetic Field (SMF, Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ASCs and those labeled by superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles were examined for viability by methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT assay, proliferation by cell counting and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation, DNA integrity by single cell gel electrophoresis, surface antigen by flow cytometry analysis, and the expression of cytokines and genetic markers by reverse transcription-PCR and underwent adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation assessed by quantifying related specific genes expression. The SMF slightly reduced cell viability and proliferation and inhibited the expression of CD49d, CD54, and CD73 but did not damage DNA integrity. The SMF slightly downregulated the expression of cytokines including Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1, Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1, genetic markers comprising Stem Cell Antigen-1 (Sca1, Octamer-4 (Oct-4, ATP-binding Cassette Subfamily B Member 1 (ABCB1, adipogenic marker genes containing Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPAR-γ, and osteogenic marker genes including Secreted Phosphor-protein 1 (SPP1 and Osterix (OSX. Exposure to 0.5 T SMF for seven days inhibited viability, proliferation, surface antigen expression, cytokine secretion, stem cell genetic marker expression, and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation but did not affect the DNA integrity in ASCs with or without SPIO labeling.

  17. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  18. Static platelet adhesion, flow cytometry and serum TXB2 levels for monitoring platelet inhibiting treatment with ASA and clopidogrel in coronary artery disease: a randomised cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedbäck Bo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the use of anti-platelet agents such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and clopidogrel in coronary heart disease, some patients continue to suffer from atherothrombosis. This has stimulated development of platelet function assays to monitor treatment effects. However, it is still not recommended to change treatment based on results from platelet function assays. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of a static platelet adhesion assay to detect platelet inhibiting effects of ASA and clopidogrel. The adhesion assay measures several aspects of platelet adhesion simultaneously, which increases the probability of finding conditions sensitive for anti-platelet treatment. Methods With a randomised cross-over design we evaluated the anti-platelet effects of ASA combined with clopidogrel as well as monotherapy with either drug alone in 29 patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. Also, 29 matched healthy controls were included to evaluate intra-individual variability over time. Platelet function was measured by flow cytometry, serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2-levels and by static platelet adhesion to different protein surfaces. The results were subjected to Principal Component Analysis followed by ANOVA, t-tests and linear regression analysis. Results The majority of platelet adhesion measures were reproducible in controls over time denoting that the assay can monitor platelet activity. Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP-induced platelet adhesion decreased significantly upon treatment with clopidogrel compared to ASA. Flow cytometric measurements showed the same pattern (r2 = 0.49. In opposite, TXB2-levels decreased with ASA compared to clopidogrel. Serum TXB2 and ADP-induced platelet activation could both be regarded as direct measures of the pharmacodynamic effects of ASA and clopidogrel respectively. Indirect pharmacodynamic measures such as adhesion to albumin induced by various soluble activators as well as SFLLRN

  19. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  20. Intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell employing reformed effective biogas: Power generation and inhibition of carbon deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Michihiro; Iwami, Makoto; Goto, Kenta; Iwamoto, Kazuhito; Morimoto, Koki; Shiraishi, Makoto; Takatori, Kenji; Takeuchi, Mizue; Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu

    2017-02-01

    A power generation system consisting of an intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) and an external reformer for biogas is developed, and its performance is investigated for advanced use of effective biogas. The IT-SOFC is fueled with syngas produced via biogas reforming, and is successfully operated at 600 and 700 °C using Ni0.8Cu0.2 alloy/gadolinia-doped ceria electrolyte (Ni0.8Cu0.2/GDC) cermet anodes and a LaAlO3 supported-Ni (Ni/LaAlO3) catalyst. The Ni/LaAlO3 catalyst stably exhibits high reforming performance for effective biogas at 800 °C for 27 h, and carbon deposition on the catalyst is prevented. The electrochemical performance of the Ni0.8Cu0.2/GDC cermet anode using syngas fuel possessing a H2:CO ratio of approximately 3:1 is comparable to the performance achieved with H2 fuel; the anode remains stable after 24 h of operation at 700 °C without interruption and is unaffected by carbon deposition.

  1. Carboxy-terminal modulator protein attenuated extracellular matrix deposit by inhibiting phospho-Akt, TGF-β1 and α-SMA in kidneys of diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Hao, Jun; Li, Lisha; Li, Fan; Liu, Shuxia; Duan, Huijun

    2016-06-10

    Glomerulosclerosis and tubular interstitial extracellular matrix deposit and fibrosis are the main features of diabetic nephropathy, which are mediated by activation of PI3K/Akt signal pathway. Carboxy-terminal modulator protein (CTMP) is known as a negative regulator of PI3K/Akt pathway. Whether CTMP regulates renal extracellular matrix metabolism of diabetic nephropathy is still not known. Here, renal decreased CTMP, enhanced phospho-Akt (Ser 473), TGF-β1, α-SMA and extracellular matrix deposit are found in diabetic mice. Furthermore, high glucose decreases CTMP expression accompanied by enhanced phospho-Akt (Ser 473), TGF-β1 and α-SMA in cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HKC), which are effectively prevented by transfection of pYr-ads-4-musCTMP vector. Moreover, delivery of pYr-ads-4-musCTMP vector into kidneys via tail vein of diabetic mice increases CTMP expression by 8.84 times followed by 60.00%, 76.50% and 24.37% decreases of phospho-Akt (Ser 473), TGF-β1 and α-SMA compared with diabetic mice receiving pYr-adshuttle-4 vector. Again, increased renal extracellular matrix accumulation of diabetic mice is also inhibited with delivery of pYr-ads-4-musCTMP vector. Our results indicate that CTMP attenuates renal extracellular matrix deposit by regulating the phosphorylation of Akt, TGF-β1 and α-SMA expression in diabetic mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Jr, Roger A.; Gliebe, Ronald J.

    1992-09-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.

  3. Inhibition of denture plaque deposition on complete dentures by 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer coating: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeya, Kenji; Iwasa, Fuminori; Inoue, Yuuki; Fukunishi, Miya; Takahashi, Nana; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2017-05-12

    Denture plaque-associated infections are regarded as a source of serious dental and medical complications in the elderly population. Methods of managing this problem are needed. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer, PMBPAz, on plaque deposition in complete dentures. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Showa University (#2013-013). Eleven individuals with maxillary complete dentures participated in this study. Their dentures were treated with PMBPAz, and the amount of denture plaque accumulation was evaluated by staining the denture surfaces with methylene blue after 2 weeks of denture usage. The same procedures were repeated to evaluate the original denture surfaces as a control. The image of the stained denture surface was captured using a digital camera, and the percentage of stained area, quantified as a pixel-based density, of the whole denture area (percentage of plaque index) was calculated for the mucosal and polished surfaces. To quantify the biofilm on the dentures, denture plaque biofilm was detached by ultrasonic vibration, resuspended in diluent, and measured with a microplate reader at an optical density of 620 nm. The effects of PMBPAz treatment on these variables were statistically analyzed with ANOVA (α=.05). The mean ±SD percentage of plaque index was 40.7% ±19.9% on the mucosal surfaces and 28.0% ±16.8% on the polished surfaces of the control denture. The mean percentage of plaque index of PMBPAz-treated dentures significantly decreased to 17.4%% ±12.0% on the mucosal surfaces (Pcomplete dentures. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Einstein's static universe

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Domingos Savio

    2012-01-01

    Einstein's static model is the first relativistic cosmological model. The model is static, finite and of spherical spatial symmetry. I use the solution of Einstein's field equations in a homogeneous and isotropic universe -- Friedmann's equation -- to calculate the radius of curvature of the model (also known as "Einstein's universe"). Furthermore, I show, using a Newtonian analogy, the model's mostly known feature, namely, its instability under small perturbations on the state of equilibrium.

  5. Static Analysis Numerical Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    STATIC ANALYSIS OF NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS KESTREL TECHNOLOGY, LLC APRIL 2016 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) NOV 2013 – NOV 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STATIC ANALYSIS OF NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-14-C... algorithms , linear digital filters and integrating accumulators, modifying existing versions of Honeywell’s HiLiTE model-based development system and

  6. THE TECHNIQUES OF THE STATIC CALIBRATION IN AUDIO MAGNETOTELLURIC AND ITS APPLICATION TO A CARLIN-TYPE GOLD DEPOSIT IN THE WEST OF GUIZHOU PROVINCE%静态校正技术在册亨县纳相金矿音频大地电磁法勘探中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭乾云; 周明平; 张德全; 杨炳南

    2012-01-01

    Audio magnetotelluric referred to AMT, as an magnetotelluric method , it is applied to the shallow-depth geophysical exploration. The probing depth is generally within 2000m. And it is an effective means of geophysical exploration. But the static effects is a difficult issue of the magnetotelluric method, it cause more trouble for data processing. This paper describes the basic principles of magnetotelluric method and the mechanism of Static Effects. And we discuss the different techniques in the static calibration. The paper takes a geophysical exploration of a carlin-type gold deposit in the west of Guizhou province for instance to introduce the Static Calibration s use in the data processing of AMT.%音频大地电磁测深,简称AMT(Audio Magnetotelluric),作为大地电磁勘探方法的一种,适用于中浅层地球物理勘查,探测深度一般在2 000m之内,是一种有效的地球物理勘探方法.但静态效应是电磁方法中较为棘手的一个问题,为数据资料的处理带来了极大地不便.这里简要阐述大地电磁方法基本原理和静态效应产生的机理,并对不同的静态校正技术进行论述.同时还介绍了该技术在黔西南卡林型金矿的具体应用及应用效果,结果表明,该技术较好地克服了静态效应所带来的影响.

  7. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits in-vitro mineral deposition by human periodontal ligament cells via modulating the expression of TWIST1 and RUNX2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manokawinchoke, J; Pimkhaokhum, A; Everts, V; Pavasant, P

    2014-12-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to be able to influence both bone formation and resorption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of PGE2 on the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament (HPDL) cells. HPDL cells were cultured with 0.001-1 μm PGE2 in osteogenic medium. In-vitro mineral deposition was determined by Alizarin Red S staining, and gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. PGE2 inhibited in-vitro mineral deposition by HPDL cells in a dose-dependent manner. PCR analyses showed that PGE2 upregulated the expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), but had no effect on osteocalcin expression. Upregulation of TWIST-related protein1 (TWIST1), a functional antagonist of RUNX2, was also observed. In addition, increased levels of RUNX2 and TWIST1 proteins, induced by PGE2, were detected by western blot analysis. Using a chemical activator of E prostanoid (EP) receptors as well as small interfering RNA against an EP receptor, it was shown that PGE2 regulated RUNX2 and TWIST1 via the EP2 receptor. The role of protein kinase A in the inductive effect of PGE2 was also demonstrated. The results of this study revealed that PGE2 modulates the osteogenic differentiation of HPDL cells via regulating the expression of RUNX2 and TWIST1. The results suggest a possible role for PGE2 in regulating the homeostasis of periodontal ligament tissue. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  9. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new...... compositional and context-sensitive specification that provably gives rise to no static chains of jumps, no redundant labels, and no unused labels. It is defined with one inference rule per syntactic construct and operates in linear time and space on the size of the source program (indeed it operates in one...

  10. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  11. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  12. Why Static Clings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naab, Laurie; Henry, David

    2009-01-01

    Using Wiggins and McTighe's (1998) concept of Big Ideas, the authors planned and designed an electricity investigation to address common student misconceptions about static electricity. With Styrofoam plates and transparent tape, elementary students investigated many properties of electrically charged and uncharged objects in a 5E learning cycle…

  13. Static Gravitational Global Monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Liebling, S L

    2000-01-01

    Static solutions in spherical symmetry are found for gravitating global monopoles. Regular solutions lacking a horizon are found for $\\eta \\sqrt{3/8\\pi} \\approx 0.3455$ is consistent with findings that topological inflation begins at $\\eta \\approx 0.33$.

  14. Continuation of exercise is necessary to inhibit high fat diet-induced β-amyloid deposition and memory deficit in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Kengo; Iwata, Ayana; Kubota, Masakazu; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Uemura, Maiko; Noda, Yasuha; Asada-Utsugi, Megumi; Kihara, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Shimohama, Shun; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2013-01-01

    High fat diet (HFD) is prevalent in many modern societies and HFD-induced metabolic condition is a growing concern worldwide. It has been previously reported that HFD clearly worsens cognitive function in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. On the other hand, we have demonstrated that voluntary exercise in an enriched environment is an effective intervention to rescue HFD-induced β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and memory deficit. However, it had been unclear whether consumption of HFD after exercising abolished the beneficial effect of exercise on the inhibition of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. To examine this question, we exposed wild type (WT) and APP mice fed with HFD to exercise conditions at different time periods. In our previous experiment, we gave HFD to mice for 20 weeks and subjected them to exercise during weeks 10-20. In the present study, mice were subjected to exercise conditions during weeks 0-10 or weeks 5-15 while being on HFD. Interestingly, we found that the effect of exercise during weeks 0-10 or weeks 5-15 on memory function was not abolished in WT mice even if they kept having HFD after finishing exercise. However, in APP transgenic mice, HFD clearly disrupted the effect of exercise during weeks 0-10 or weeks 5-15 on memory function. Importantly, we observed that the level of Aβ oligomer was significantly elevated in the APP mice that exercised during weeks 0-10: this might have been caused by the up-regulation of Aβ production. These results provide solid evidence that continuation of exercise is necessary to rescue HFD-induced aggravation of cognitive decline in the pathological setting of AD.

  15. Continuation of exercise is necessary to inhibit high fat diet-induced β-amyloid deposition and memory deficit in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Maesako

    Full Text Available High fat diet (HFD is prevalent in many modern societies and HFD-induced metabolic condition is a growing concern worldwide. It has been previously reported that HFD clearly worsens cognitive function in amyloid precursor protein (APP transgenic mice. On the other hand, we have demonstrated that voluntary exercise in an enriched environment is an effective intervention to rescue HFD-induced β-amyloid (Aβ deposition and memory deficit. However, it had been unclear whether consumption of HFD after exercising abolished the beneficial effect of exercise on the inhibition of Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology. To examine this question, we exposed wild type (WT and APP mice fed with HFD to exercise conditions at different time periods. In our previous experiment, we gave HFD to mice for 20 weeks and subjected them to exercise during weeks 10-20. In the present study, mice were subjected to exercise conditions during weeks 0-10 or weeks 5-15 while being on HFD. Interestingly, we found that the effect of exercise during weeks 0-10 or weeks 5-15 on memory function was not abolished in WT mice even if they kept having HFD after finishing exercise. However, in APP transgenic mice, HFD clearly disrupted the effect of exercise during weeks 0-10 or weeks 5-15 on memory function. Importantly, we observed that the level of Aβ oligomer was significantly elevated in the APP mice that exercised during weeks 0-10: this might have been caused by the up-regulation of Aβ production. These results provide solid evidence that continuation of exercise is necessary to rescue HFD-induced aggravation of cognitive decline in the pathological setting of AD.

  16. Microprocessor controlled static converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Szabo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper wants to demonstrate a way of implementing a microcontroller into an DC motor speed control loop. The static power converter is a fully controlled rectifier bridge, using standard SCR's. The bridge's control signals are supplied by the microcontroller and are phase-angle or burst types. The automation loop contains a software PI-style regulator. All the experimental results shows that this aproach is flexibile enough to be used on a large scale.

  17. The Static Quantum Multiverse

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    We consider the multiverse in the intrinsically quantum mechanical framework recently proposed in Refs. [1,2]. By requiring that the principles of quantum mechanics are universally valid and that physical predictions do not depend on the reference frame one chooses to describe the multiverse, we find that the multiverse state must be static---in particular, the multiverse does not have a beginning or end. We argue that, despite its naive appearance, this does not contradict observation, inclu...

  18. Open static Chaplygin universe

    CERN Document Server

    Khalatnikov, I M

    2003-01-01

    We apply the qualitative theory of dynamical systems to the study of the Chaplygin gas cosmological model. In difference to earlier works devoted to this model we give up sign restrictions on the choice of the sign of the energy density and on the parameters characterising initial conditions for a cosmological evolution. It appears that exists a static stable open universe filled with the Chaplygin gas. Besides exist universes where the acoustic waves have a velocity exceeding that of light in the vacuum.

  19. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...... of the analysis and its realisation in an automatic tool. We concentrate on the former in the present paper and provide the semantic foundation for our analysis of protocols using blinding - also in the presence of malicious attackers....

  20. Static and dynamic stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tishin, A.M.; Spichkin, Yu.I.; Bohr, Jakob

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we shall consider the properties of lanthanide metals, their alloys and compounds which can be studied using static and alternating mechanical stresses. The main attention will be paid to the effects related to magnetoelastic interactions. These interactions in magnetic materials...... to the appearance of anomalies in elastic constants, as well as to additional damping of sound oscillations in the lanthanide materials. The importance of understanding the nature of magnetoelastic interactions and related effects arises from the scientific desire to gather a better knowledge of magnetism, as well...

  1. Model Checking as Static Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan

    Both model checking and static analysis are prominent approaches to detecting software errors. Model Checking is a successful formal method for verifying properties specified in temporal logics with respect to transition systems. Static analysis is also a powerful method for validating program...... properties which can predict safe approximations to program behaviors. In this thesis, we have developed several static analysis based techniques to solve model checking problems, aiming at showing the link between static analysis and model checking. We focus on logical approaches to static analysis......-calculus can be encoded as the intended model of SFP. Our research results have strengthened the link between model checking and static analysis. This provides a theoretical foundation for developing a unied tool for both model checking and static analysis techniques....

  2. Quantum singularities in static and conformally static space-times

    CERN Document Server

    Konkowski, D A; 10.1142/S0217751X11054334

    2011-01-01

    The definition of quantum singularity is extended from static space-times to conformally static space-times. After the usual definitions of classical and quantum singularities are reviewed, examples of quantum singularities in static space-times are given. These include asymptotically power-law space-times, space-times with diverging higher-order differential invariants, and a space-time with a 2-sphere singularity. The theory behind quantum singularities in conformally static space-times is followed by an example, a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time with cosmic string. The paper concludes by discussing areas of future research.

  3. Static intervortex forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, J. M.

    1997-03-01

    A point particle approximation to the classical dynamics of well-separated vortices of the Abelian Higgs model is developed. A static vortex is asymptotically identical to a solution of the linearized field theory (a Klein-Gordon-Proca theory) in the presence of a singular point source at the vortex center. It is shown that this source is a composite scalar monopole and magnetic dipole, and the respective charges are determined numerically for various values of the coupling constant. The interaction potential of two well-separated vortices is computed by calculating the interaction Lagrangian of two such point sources in the linear theory. The potential is used to model type II vortex scattering.

  4. Fast static field CIPT mapping of unpatterned MRAM film stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, Daniel; Hansen, Ole; Hartmann Henrichsen, Henrik; Chenchen, Jacob Wang; Noergaard, Kristian; Folmer Nielsen, Peter; Hjorth Petersen, Dirch

    2015-04-01

    While investigating uniformity of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stacks we find experimentally and analytically that variation in the resistance area product (RA) is more important to monitor as compared to the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), which is less sensitive to MTJ variability. The standard Current In-Plane Tunneling (CIPT) method measures both RA and TMR, but the usefulness for uniformity mapping, e.g. for tool optimization, is limited by excessive measurement time. Thus, we develop and demonstrate a fast complementary static magnetic field method focused only on measurement of RA. We compare the static field method to the standard CIPT method and find perfect agreement between the extracted RA values and measurement repeatability while the static field method is several times faster. The static field CIPT method is demonstrated for 200 mm wafer mapping showing radial as well as asymmetrical variations related to the MTJ deposition conditions.

  5. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  6. Statics and Mechanics of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically...

  7. Static Validation of XSL Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Olesen, Mads Østerby; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2007-01-01

    no static guarantees that, under the assumption that the input is valid relative to the input schema, the output of the transformation is valid relative to the output schema. We present a validation technique for XSLT based on the XML graph formalism introduced in the static analysis of JWIG Web services...... and XACT XML transformations. Being able to provide static guarantees, we can detect a large class of errors in an XSLT stylesheet at the time it is written instead of later when it has been deployed, and thereby provide benefits similar to those of static type checkers for modern programming languages....... Our analysis takes a pragmatic approach that focuses its precision on the essential language features but still handles the entire XSLT language. We evaluate the analysis precision on a range of real stylesheets and demonstrate how it may be useful in practice....

  8. Statics and mechanics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Krenk, Steen

    2013-01-01

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically determinate structures in the form of trusses, beams and frames. Instability is discussed in the form of the column problem - both the ideal column and the imperfect column used in actual column design. The theory of statically indeterminate structures is then introduced, and the force and deformation methods are explained and illustrated. An important aspect of the book’s approach is the systematic development of the theory in a form suitable for computer implementation using finite elements. This development is supported by two small computer programs, MiniTruss and MiniFrame, which permit static analysis of trusses and frames, as well as linearized stability analysis. The book’s final section presents related ...

  9. The statics of cervical traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, A; Rendina, M; Benazzo, F; Castelli, C; Paparella, F

    1994-08-01

    The statics of a sliding body was used to study the distribution of forces during the application of cervical traction in supine patients. This theoretical analysis was completed using a dynamometer to determine the static friction between bed surface and patient head. Therefore, we measured the head weight in 12 inpatients and the minimum force that causes impending motion of the head on the bed surface. The static friction coefficient was calculated from the ratio of the two quantities. The forces acting on the cervical spine were determined by inserting the former data into a specifically designed algorithm that forecasted a progressively increasing traction angle. The coefficient of static friction was 0.62, whereas the maximum available force acting on the cervical spine was obtained with a 35 degrees traction inclination. In contrast, the forces dissipated by the plane progressively decreased with larger angles.

  10. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  11. Static and Dynamic Traversable Wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak, Jaroslaw P.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss the effects found in static and dynamic wormholes that occur as a solution of Einstein equations in general relativity. The ground is prepared by presentation of faster than light effects, then the focus is narrowed to Morris-Thorne framework for a static spherically symmetric wormhole. Two types of dynamic worm-holes, evolving and rotating, are considered.

  12. Static Decoupling in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index......An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...

  13. Recombinant globular adiponectin inhibits lipid deposition by p38 MAPK/ATF-2 and TOR/p70 S6 kinase pathways in chicken adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yan; Xiao, Tan; Guoyong, Yan; Min, Feng; Haili, Yang; Chao, Sun

    2014-02-01

    Adiponectin plays a fundamental role in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. However, its role in adipocyte differentiation remains controversial. To investigate the effect of gAd on lipid deposition in chicken adipocytes and its related signaling pathways, 200 μg/mL recombinant globular adiponectin, isoproterenol, SB253580, leucine, and rapamycin were used to treat chicken adipocytes. Results demonstrated that gAd increased the expression of endogenous adiponectin and AdipoR1 (P ATF-2), and suppressed the phosphorylation levels of rapamycin (TOR) and p70 S6 Kinase (P ATF-2 and TOR/p70 S6 Kinase pathways.

  14. Neuromuscular disorders associated with static lumbar flexion: a feline model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonow, M; Zhou, B; Baratta, R V; Zhu, M; Lu, Y

    2002-04-01

    Static flexion of the lumbar spine with constant load applied to the viscoelastic structures for 20 minutes and for 50 minutes resulted in development of spasms and inhibition in the multifidus muscles (e.g., deep erector spinae) and in creep of the supraspinous ligament in the feline model. The development of spasms and inhibition was not dependent on load magnitude. It is suggested that occupational and sports activities which require prolonged static lumbar flexion within the physiological range can cause a "sprain"-like injury to the ligaments, which in turn reflexively induce spasms and inhibition in some erector spinae muscles. Such disorder may take a long time to recover, in the order of days to weeks, depending on the level of creep developed in the tissues.

  15. Static-static-light-light tetraquarks in lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Marc

    2011-01-01

    I report on a lattice computation of the energy of a system of two light quarks and two static antiquarks as a function of the separation of the static antiquarks. In terms of hadrons such a system corresponds to a pair of B mesons and its energy to the hadronic potential. I present selected results for different isospin, spin and parity combinations of the individual B mesons mainly focusing on those channels relevant to determine, whether two B mesons may form a bound tetraquark state.

  16. Static Filtered Sky Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkhalifah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Computer Vision, the sky color is used for lighting correction, image color enhancement, horizon alignment, image indexing, and outdoor image classification and in many other applications. In this article, for robust color based sky segmentation and detection, usage of lighting correction for sky color detection is investigated. As such, the impact of color constancy on sky color detection algorithms is evaluated and investigated. The color correction (constancy algorithms used includes Gray-Edge (GE, Gray-World (GW, Max-RGB (MRGB and Shades-of-Gray (SG. The algorithms GE, GW, MRGB, and SG, are tested on the static filtered sky modeling. The static filter is developed in the LAB color space. This evaluation and analysis is essential for detection scenarios, especially, color based object detection in outdoor scenes. From the results, it is concluded that the color constancy before sky color detection using LAB static filters has the potential of improving sky color detection performance. However, the application of the color constancy can impart adverse effects on the detection results. For images, the color constancy algorithms depict a compact and stable representative of the sky chroma loci, however, the sky color locus might have a shifting and deviation in a particular color representation. Since the sky static filters are using the static chromatic values, different results can be obtained by applying color constancy algorithms on various datasets.

  17. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...

  18. Static Correctness of Hierarchical Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1990-01-01

    A system of hierarchical, fully recursive types in a truly imperative language allows program fragments written for small types to be reused for all larger types. To exploit this property to enable type-safe hierarchical procedures, it is necessary to impose a static requirement on procedure calls....... We introduce an example language and prove the existence of a sound requirement which preserves static correctness while allowing hierarchical procedures. This requirement is further shown to be optimal, in the sense that it imposes as few restrictions as possible. This establishes the theoretical...... basis for a general type hierarchy with static type checking, which enables first-order polymorphism combined with multiple inheritance and specialization in a language with assignments. We extend the results to include opaque types. An opaque version of a type is different from the original but has...

  19. Static-Fluid Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Inyong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate black holes formed by static perfect fluid with $p=-\\rho/3$. These represent the black holes in $S_3$ and $H_3$ spatial geometries. There are three classes of black-hole solutions, two $S_3$ types and one $H_3$ type. The interesting solution is the one of $S_3$ type which possesses two singularities. The one is at the north pole behind the horizon, and the other is naked at the south pole. The observers, however, are free from falling to the naked singularity. There are also nonstatic cosmological solutions in $S_3$ and $H_3$, and a singular static solution in $H_3$.

  20. Static Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, Michael; Murr, Patrik J; Rauscher, Markus S; Tremmel, Anton J; Wiesent, Benjamin R; Koch, Alexander W

    2016-04-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy has established itself as the standard method for spectral analysis of infrared light. Here we present a robust and compact novel static Fourier transform spectrometer design without any moving parts. The design is well suited for measurements in the infrared as it works with extended light sources independent of their size. The design is experimentally evaluated in the mid-infrared wavelength region between 7.2 μm and 16 μm. Due to its large etendue, its low internal light loss, and its static design it enables high speed spectral analysis in the mid-infrared.

  1. Voltage Sensors Monitor Harmful Static

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A tiny sensor, small enough to be worn on clothing, now monitors voltage changes near sensitive instruments after being created to alert Agency workers to dangerous static buildup near fuel operations and avionics. San Diego s Quasar Federal Systems received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center to develop its remote voltage sensor (RVS), a dime-sized electrometer designed to measure triboelectric changes in the environment. One of the unique qualities of the RVS is that it can detect static at greater distances than previous devices, measuring voltage changes from a few centimeters to a few meters away, due to its much-improved sensitivity.

  2. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070291 Gong Ping (Northern Fujian Geological Party, Shaozou 354000) Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Control Factors of the Shimen Au-polymetallic Deposit in Zhenghe County, Fujian Province (Geology of Fujian, ISSN1001-3970, CN38-1080/P, 25(1), 2006, p.18-24, 2 illus., 2 tables, 1 ref.) Key words: gold deposits, polymetallic deposits, Fujian Province

  3. A single electrochemical biosensor for detecting the activity and inhibition of both protein kinase and alkaline phosphatase based on phosphate ions induced deposition of redox precipitates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Congcong; Li, Xiangzhi; Rasooly, Avraham; Guo, Linyan; Zhang, Kaina; Yang, Minghui

    2016-11-15

    Protein kinase (PKA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are clinically relevant enzymes for a number of diseases. In this work, we developed a new simple electrochemical biosensor for the detection of the activity and inhibition of both PKA and ALP. One common feature of the PKA and ALP catalyzing process is that PKA can hydrolysis adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and ALP can hydrolysis pyrophosphate, both reactions produce phosphate ions, and the amount of phosphate ion produced is proportional to enzyme activity. Our assay is based on the principle that phosphate ions react with molybdate to form redox molybdophosphate precipitates on the electrode surface, thus generating electrochemical current. The detection limit for PKA and ALP were much lower than existing assays. The biosensor has good specificity and was used to measure drug-stimulated PKA from lysates of HeLa cells. We also evaluated the use of the biosensor as a screening tool for enzyme inhibitors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a biosensor capable of detecting the activity of both PKA and ALP. This tool has the potential to simplify PKA and ALP clinical measurement, thereby improving diagnostics of relevant diseases. It also may serve as the basis for a simple screening method for new enzyme inhibitors for disease treatment.

  4. Static Analysis for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Rosa, D. Schuch da

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows how static analysis techniques can help understanding biological systems. Based on a simple example we illustrate the outcome of performing three different analyses extracting information of increasing precision. We conclude by reporting on the potential impact and exploitation o...... of these techniques in systems biology....

  5. Solvent mediated enhanced mobility of PPV films cast under the presence of a static electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chou Fan; White, Jonathon David; Huang, Yi Fang; Fann, Wunshain

    2007-12-01

    Application of a high voltage static electric field during casting increases charge carrier mobility and reduces nanostructure within MEH-PPV thin films. Greater enhancement occurs in films formed from a high static dipole moment solvent (chlorobenzene) than from one having a low moment (toluene). Analysis by Bassler's Gaussian Disorder Model indicates that the electric field decreases positional disorder - the effect being greater for the higher static dipole moment solvent. This suggests that the interaction of the electric field with MEH-PPV during deposition is indirect rather than direct, being mediated by the evaporating solvent.

  6. Static Analysis of Dynamic Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Magnus

    on the behaviour of these languages. A common theme is the reliance on static program analysis to over-approximate the behaviour of programs written in these languages. Specifically, the use of whole-program dataflow analysis. The research challenge of this line of work is the adaption of existing- and invention......Dynamic programming languages are highly popular and widely used. Java- Script is often called the lingua franca of the web and it is the de facto standard for client-side web programming. On the server-side the PHP, Python and Ruby languages are prevalent. What these languages have in common...... is an expressive power which is not easily captured by any static type system. These, and similar dynamic languages, are often praised for their ease-of-use and flexibility. Unfortunately, this dynamism comes at a great cost: The lack of a type system implies that most errors are not discovered until run...

  7. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    . The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...... theory is proposed. The proposed expression applies to plane strain as well as axis-symmetric stress conditions for foundations with smooth or rough bases. A thorough experimental investigation of the static behaviour of bucket foundations subjected to combined loading is carried out. Laboratory tests...... as well as large-scale tests on bucket foundations subjected to low vertical load are performed during this work. Numerical simulations of the tests performed are carried out using the Mohr Coulomb material model and the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. Based on the present work, the finite element...

  8. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the behaviour of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non- Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope.

  9. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    . The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...... theory is proposed. The proposed expression applies to plane strain as well as axis-symmetric stress conditions for foundations with smooth or rough bases. A thorough experimental investigation of the static behaviour of bucket foundations subjected to combined loading is carried out. Laboratory tests...... method is concluded to be a superior method in estimating the post peak behaviour as well as the combined capacity of bucket foundations in relation to the offshore wind turbine problem....

  10. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  11. Static Analysis of Mobile Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air...and then use static analysis to verify them. In the end we pursued this idea successfully for several differnet properties and developed novel...difficult to develop with enough precision. In [3], we establish a connection between compositional analyses and modular lattices, which require

  12. A Pedagogical Model of Static Friction

    CERN Document Server

    Pickett, Galen T

    2015-01-01

    While dry Coulombic friction is an elementary topic in any standard introductory course in mechanics, the critical distinction between the kinetic and static friction forces is something that is both hard to teach and to learn. In this paper, I describe a geometric model of static friction that may help introductory students to both understand and apply the Coulomb static friction approximation.

  13. 30 CFR 18.26 - Static electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static electricity. 18.26 Section 18.26 Mineral... § 18.26 Static electricity. Nonmetallic rotating parts, such as belts and fans, shall be provided with a means to prevent an accumulation of static electricity. ...

  14. In-Flight Pitot-Static Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John V. (Inventor); Cunningham, Kevin (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A GPS-based pitot-static calibration system uses global output-error optimization. High data rate measurements of static and total pressure, ambient air conditions, and GPS-based ground speed measurements are used to compute pitot-static pressure errors over a range of airspeed. System identification methods rapidly compute optimal pressure error models with defined confidence intervals.

  15. Static Analysis Alert Audits: Lexicon and Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public release and unlimited distribution. REV-03.18.2016.0 Static Analysis Alert Audits...unlimited distribution. Background: Automatic Alert Classification Static Analysis Tool(s) Alerts Alert Consolidation (SCALe) Potential Rule...Automatic Alert Classification Static Analysis Tool(s) Alerts Alert Consolidation (SCALe) Potential Rule Violations Auditing Determinations ML

  16. Experimental study on scale inhibition performance of a green scale inhibitor polyaspartic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Static and dynamic experiments were carried out to validate scale inhibition performance of a green scale inhibitor-polyaspartic acid (PASP). From the static experiment, it was shown that below 60℃, polyaspartic acid is very effective in scale inhibition, with the scale inhibition ratio exceeding 90% with only 3 mg/L PASP for the 600 mg/L hardness solution. For a higher hardness solution of 800 mg/L, the scale inhibition ratio can also reach 90% with 6 and 12 mg/L PASP at 30 and 60℃respectively. The SEM photographs of CaCO3 crystals indicate that the crystal structure transforms from a compact stick-shape to a loose shape so that the scale can be washed away easily instead of being deposited on the heat transfer surface. The dynamic experimental results show that almost no scales formed on the heat trans- fer surface and the fouling thermal resistance decreases extraordinarily if PASP is added in the solution.

  17. Experimental study on scale inhibition performance of a green scale inhibitor polyaspartic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN ZhenHua; CHEN YongChang; WANG XiuRong; SHI Cheng; LIU YunJie; MA ChongFang

    2008-01-01

    Static and dynamic experiments were carried out to validate scale inhibition performance of a green scale inhibitor-polyaspartic acid (PASP). From the static experiment, it was shown that below 60℃, polyaspartic acid is very effective in scale inhibition, with the scale inhibition ratio exceeding 90% with only 3 mg/L PASP for the 600 mg/L hardness solution. For a higher hardness solution of 800 mg/L, the scale inhibition ratio can also reach 90% with 6 and 12 mg/L PASP at 30 and 60℃ respectively. The SEM photographs of CaCO3 crystals indicate that the crystal structure transforms from a compact stick-shape to a loose shape so that the scale can be washed away easily instead of being deposited on the heat transfer surface. The dynamic experimental results show that almost no scales formed on the heat trans-fer surface and the fouling thermal resistance decreases extraordinarily if PASP is added in the solution.

  18. Static Charge Development on Explosives .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raha

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Static charge development character of some of the important explosive crystals have been predicted on the basis of their crystal class and symmetry. Among the important mechanism of charge development, the piezoelectric and pyroelectric characters have been considered. Ammonium trinitrate, ammonium nitrate, m-dinitro-benzene, trinitro-toluene, styphnic acid, beeta-lead styphnate, 4,4'dinitro-dipheny1, a-hexamethylenetetranitramine, nitroguanidine, picric acid, dimethylnitramine, a-lead azide and beeta-lead azide are pyroelectric in nature, whereas pentaerythritol tetranitrate, picryliodide, hexamethylenetranitramine, tetranitromethane and trinitroethane are piezoelectric in nature.

  19. Static Analysis for Dynamic XML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    We describe the summary graph lattice for dataflow analysis of programs that dynamically construct XML documents. Summary graphs have successfully been used to provide static guarantees in the JWIG language for programming interactive Web services. In particular, the JWIG compiler is able to check...... validity of dynamically generated XHTML documents and to type check dynamic form data. In this paper we present summary graphs and indicate their applicability for various scenarios. We also show that the expressive power of summary graphs is similar to that of the regular expression types from XDuce......, but that the extra structure in summary graphs makes them more suitable for certain program analyses....

  20. Static Analysis for Dynamic XML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    We describe the summary graph lattice for dataflow analysis of programs that dynamically construct XML documents. Summary graphs have successfully been used to provide static guarantees in the JWIG language for programming interactive Web services. In particular, the JWIG compiler is able to check...... validity of dynamically generated XHTML documents and to type check dynamic form data. In this paper we present summary graphs and indicate their applicability for various scenarios. We also show that the expressive power of summary graphs is similar to that of the regular expression types from XDuce...

  1. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.;

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  2. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102406 Chen Gang(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Li Fengming Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Genesis of Yuquanshan Graphite Deposit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,27(4),2009,p.325-329,4 illus.,4 tables,5 refs.)Key words:graphite deposit,XinjiangYuquanshan graphite deposit of Xinjiang occurs in mica-quartz schist of Xingeer Information which belongs to Xinditate Group of Lower Pt in Kuluketage Block of Tarim paleo-continent,and experiences two mineralizing periods of

  3. Static and kinetic friction characteristics of nanowire on different substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joon; Nguyen, Gia Hau; Ky, Dinh Le Cao; Tran, Da Khoa; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Chung, Koo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    Friction characteristics of nanowires (NWs), which may be used as building blocks for nano-devices, are crucial, especially for cases where contact sliding occurs during the device operation. In this work, the static and kinetic friction characteristics of oxidized Si NWs deposited on thermally grown SiO2 and chemical vapor-deposited single layer graphene were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Kinetic friction between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was directly measured by the AFM. Static friction was also obtained from the most bent state of the NWs using the individually determined elastic moduli of the NWs from kinetic friction experiments based on elastic beam theory. Furthermore, the shear stress between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was estimated based on adhesive contact theory. It was found that both static and kinetic friction increased as the radius of the NWs increased. The friction of the oxidized Si NWs on the graphene substrate was found to be smaller than that on the SiO2 substrate, which suggests that chemical vapor-deposited graphene can be used as a lubricant or as a protective layer in nano-devices to reduce friction. The shear stress estimated from the kinetic friction data between the oxidized Si NWs and the SiO2 substrate ranged from 7.5 to 12.3 MPa while that between the oxidized Si NWs and the graphene substrate ranged from 4.7 to 7.0 MPa. The result also indicated that the dependence of shear stress on the radius of the NWs was not significant. These findings may provide insight into the friction characteristics of NWs.

  4. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140876 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550025,China);Yang Ruidong Study on the Strontium Isotopic Composition of Large Devonian Barite Deposits from Zhenning,Guizhou Province(Geochimica,

  5. Electrowetting -- from statics to dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longquan; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2014-08-01

    More than one century ago, Lippmann found that capillary forces can be effectively controlled by external electrostatic forces. As a simple example, by applying a voltage between a conducting liquid droplet and the surface it is sitting on we are able to adjust the wetting angle of the drop. Since Lippmann's findings, electrocapillary phenomena - or electrowetting - have developed into a series of tools for manipulating microdroplets on solid surfaces, or small amounts of liquids in capillaries for microfluidic applications. In this article, we briefly review some recent progress of fundamental understanding of electrowetting and address some still unsolved issues. Specifically, we focus on static and dynamic electrowetting. In static electrowetting, we discuss some basic phenomena found in DC and AC electrowetting, and some theories about the origin of contact angle saturation. In dynamic electrowetting, we introduce some studies about this rather recent area. At last, we address some other capillary phenomena governed by electrostatics and we give an outlook that might stimulate further investigations on electrowetting.

  6. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122457 Cai Jianshe ( Fujian Institute of Geological Survey and Drawing,Fuzhou 350011,China ) On the Geologic Characteristics and Genesis of the Longtangsi Fluorite Deposit in Pucheng County,Fujian Province ( Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080 / P,30 ( 4 ), 2011,p.301-306,3illus.,1table,6 refs.,with English abstract ) Key words:fluorspar deposit,Fujian Province

  7. The Predictive Validity of the Static-99, Static-99R, and Static-2002/R: Which One to Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Sophie G; Ogloff, James R P; Simmons, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    The use of Static tools (Static-99, Static-99R, Static-2002, and Static-2002R) in risk decision making involving sexual offenders is widespread internationally. This study compared the predictive accuracy and incremental validity of four Static risk measures in a sample of 621 Australian sexual offenders. Results indicated that approximately 45% of the sample recidivated (with 18.8% committing sexual offenses). All of the Static measures investigated yielded moderate predictive validity for sexual recidivism, which was comparable with other Australian and overseas studies. Area under the curve (AUC) values for the four measures across the 5-, 10-, and 15-year intervals ranged from .67 to .69. All of the Static measures discriminated quite well between low-risk and high-risk sexual offenders but less well for the moderate risk categories. When pitted together, none of the tools accounted for additional variance in sexual recidivism, above and beyond what the other measures accounted for. The overall results provide support for the use of Static measures as a component of risk assessment and decision making with Australian sexual offending populations. The limitations of this study and recommendations for further research are also discussed.

  8. Ares I Static Tests Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, William; Lindemuth, Kathleen; Mich, John; White, K. Preston; Parker, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic engineering design enhances safety and reduces costs by incorporating risk assessment directly into the design process. In this paper, we assess the format of the quantitative metrics for the vehicle which will replace the Space Shuttle, the Ares I rocket. Specifically, we address the metrics for in-flight measurement error in the vector position of the motor nozzle, dictated by limits on guidance, navigation, and control systems. Analyses include the propagation of error from measured to derived parameters, the time-series of dwell points for the duty cycle during static tests, and commanded versus achieved yaw angle during tests. Based on these analyses, we recommend a probabilistic template for specifying the maximum error in angular displacement and radial offset for the nozzle-position vector. Criteria for evaluating individual tests and risky decisions also are developed.

  9. Statics learning from engineering examples

    CERN Document Server

    Emri, Igor

    2016-01-01

    This textbook introduces and explains the basic concepts on which statics is based utilizing real engineering examples. The authors emphasize the learning process by showing a real problem, analyzing it, simplifying it, and developing a way to solve it. This feature teaches students intuitive thinking in solving real engineering problems using the fundamentals of Newton’s laws. This book also: · Stresses representation of physical reality in ways that allow students to solve problems and obtain meaningful results · Emphasizes identification of important features of the structure that should be included in a model and which features may be omitted · Facilitates students' understanding and mastery of the "flow of thinking" practiced by professional engineers.

  10. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110947 Chen Xinglong(Guizhou Bureau of Nonferrous Metal and Nuclear Geology,Guiyang 550005,China);Gong Heqiang Endowment Factors and Development & Utilization Strategy of Bauxite Resource in North Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(2),2010,p.106-110,6 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province20110948 Dang Yanxia(Mineral Resource & Reservoir Evaluation Center,Urumiq 830000,China);Fan Wenjun Geological Features and a Primary Study of Metallogenesis of the Wucaiwang Zeolite Deposit,Fuyun County(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(2),2010,p.167-170,2 illus.,1 table,5 refs.)Key words:zeolite deposit,Xinjiang Nearly all zeolite deposits in the world result from low-temperature-alteration of glass-bearing volcanic rocks.The southern slope of the Kalamali Mountain is one of the regions where medium to acid volcanics are major lithological type,thus it is a preferred area to look for zeolite deposit.The Wucaiwang zeolite ore district consists of mainly acid volcanic-clastic rocks.

  11. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091594 Bao Yafan(The Third Geologic Survey of Jilin Province,Siping 136000,China);Liu Yanjun Relations between Bashenerxi Granite,West Dongkunlun and Baiganhu Tungsten-Tin Deposit(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,27(3),2008,p.56-59,67,5 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:tungsten ores,tin ores,monzogranite,Kunlun Mountains20091595 Chen Fuwen(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Yichang 443003,China);Dai Pingyun Metallogenetic and Isotopic Chronological Study on the Shenjiaya Gold Deposit in Xuefeng Mountains,Hunan Province(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,82(7),2008,p.906-911,3 illus.,2 tables,30 refs.)Key words:gold ores,HunanThe Shenjiaya gold deposit is a representative one

  12. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111705 An Junbo(Team 603,Bureau of Nonferrous Metals Geological Exploration of Jilin Province,Hunchun 133300,China);Xu Renjie Geological Features and Ore Genesis of Baishilazi Scheelite Deposit in Yanbian Area(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,29(3),2010,p.39-43,2 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.)Key words:tungsten ores,Jilin ProvinceThe Baishilazi scheelite deposit is located in contacting zone between the marble of the Late Palaeozoic Qinglongcun Group and the Hercynian biotite granite.The vein and lenticular major ore body is obviously controlled by NE-extending faults and con

  13. Static and kinetic friction characteristics of nanowire on different substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Joon [Department of Precision Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju 37224 (Korea, Republic of); Nguyen, Gia Hau; Ky, Dinh Le Cao; Tran, Da Khoa [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ki-Joon [Department of Environmental Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 22212 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Koo-Hyun, E-mail: khchung@ulsan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Direct measurement of kinetic friction of oxidized Si NW using AFM. • Determination of static friction of oxidized Si NW from most bent state. • Friction characteristics of oxidized Si NW on SiO{sub 2} and graphene. • Estimation of shear stress between cylindrical NW and flat substrate. • No significant dependence of shear stress on NW radius. - Abstract: Friction characteristics of nanowires (NWs), which may be used as building blocks for nano-devices, are crucial, especially for cases where contact sliding occurs during the device operation. In this work, the static and kinetic friction characteristics of oxidized Si NWs deposited on thermally grown SiO{sub 2} and chemical vapor-deposited single layer graphene were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Kinetic friction between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was directly measured by the AFM. Static friction was also obtained from the most bent state of the NWs using the individually determined elastic moduli of the NWs from kinetic friction experiments based on elastic beam theory. Furthermore, the shear stress between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was estimated based on adhesive contact theory. It was found that both static and kinetic friction increased as the radius of the NWs increased. The friction of the oxidized Si NWs on the graphene substrate was found to be smaller than that on the SiO{sub 2} substrate, which suggests that chemical vapor-deposited graphene can be used as a lubricant or as a protective layer in nano-devices to reduce friction. The shear stress estimated from the kinetic friction data between the oxidized Si NWs and the SiO{sub 2} substrate ranged from 7.5 to 12.3 MPa while that between the oxidized Si NWs and the graphene substrate ranged from 4.7 to 7.0 MPa. The result also indicated that the dependence of shear stress on the radius of the NWs was not significant. These findings may provide insight into the friction characteristics

  14. Static and non-static black holes with the Liouville mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalets, T. M.; Nurmagambetov, A. J.

    2017-03-01

    We present a new class of static and non-static quasi-spherical black hole solutions in four-dimensional Minkowski and Anti-de Sitter spaces and briefly discuss its employing in the Gauge/Gravity duality.

  15. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090243 Chen Zhibin (Hebei Institute of Geological Survey, Shijiazhuang 050081, China) Ore-Controlling Factors of the Beichagoumen Ag-Polymetallic Deposits in Northern Hebei Province (Geological Survey and Research, ISSN1672-4135, CN12-1353/P, 31(1), 2008, p.1-5, 3 illus., 10 refs.)

  16. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131565 Cai Lianyou(No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China);Weng Wangfei Geological Characteristics and Genesis Analysis of Guocun Navajoite Deposit in South Anhui Province(Mineral Resources and Geology,

  17. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102341 Bao Peisheng(Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Science,Beijing 100037,China)Further Discussion on the Genesis of the Podiform Chromite Deposits in the Ophiolites-Questioning about the Rock:Melt Interaction Metallogeny(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,28(12),2009,p.1741-1761

  18. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131601 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550003,China);Yang Ruidong Hydrothermal Venting-Flowing Sedimentation Characteristics of Devonian Barite Deposits from Leji,Zhenning County,Guizhou Province(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,CN62-1038/P,30(3),

  19. Colloid Deposit Morphology and Clogging in Porous Media: Fundamental Insights Through Investigation of Deposit Fractal Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eric J; Gilbert, Benjamin; Mays, David C

    2015-10-20

    Experiments reveal a wide discrepancy between the permeability of porous media containing colloid deposits and the available predictive equations. Evidence suggests that this discrepancy results, in part, from the predictive equations failing to account for colloid deposit morphology. This article reports a series of experiments using static light scattering (SLS) to characterize colloid deposit morphology within refractive index matched (RIM) porous media during flow through a column. Real time measurements of permeability, specific deposit, deposit fractal dimension, and deposit radius of gyration, at different vertical positions, were conducted with initially clean porous media at various ionic strengths and fluid velocities. Decreased permeability (i.e., increased clogging) corresponded with higher specific deposit, lower fractal dimension, and smaller radius of gyration. During deposition, fractal dimension, radius of gyration, and permeability decreased with increasing specific deposit. During flushing with colloid-free fluid, these trends reversed, with increased fractal dimension, radius of gyration, and permeability. These observations suggest a deposition scenario in which large and uniform aggregates become deposits, which reduce porosity, lead to higher fluid shear forces, which then decompose the deposits, filling the pore space with small and dendritic fragments of aggregate.

  20. Model Checking as Static Analysis: Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2012-01-01

    We show that the model checking problem of the μ-calculus can be viewed as an instance of static analysis. We propose Succinct Fixed Point Logic (SFP) within our logical approach to static analysis as an extension of Alternation-free Least Fixed Logic (ALFP). We generalize the notion...

  1. Static domain wall in braneworld gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, M.C.B.; Carlesso, P.F. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teiorica, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hoff da Silva, J.M. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper we consider a static domain wall inside a 3-brane. Different from the standard achievement obtained in General Relativity, the analysis performed here gives a consistency condition for the existence of static domain walls in a braneworld gravitational scenario. Also the behavior of the domain wall's gravitational field in the newtonian limit is shown. (orig.)

  2. Static Complexity Analysis of Higher Order Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil; Kristiansen, Lars; Moyen, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal of the research presented in this paper is to find^M automatic methods for static complexity analysis of higher order^M programs.......The overall goal of the research presented in this paper is to find^M automatic methods for static complexity analysis of higher order^M programs....

  3. Static balance and developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, RH

    2003-01-01

    The development of static balance is a basic characteristic of normal motor development. Most of the developmental motor tests include a measure of static balance. Children with a developmental coordination disorder (DCD) often fail this item. Twenty-four children at risk for DCD with balance proble

  4. ENROLMENT MODEL STABILITY IN STATIC SIGNATURE VERIFICATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allgrove, C.; Fairhurst, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The stability of enrolment models used in a static verification system is assessed, in order to provide an enhanced chracterisation of signatures through the validation of the enrolment process. A number of static features are used to illustrate the effect of the variation in enrolment model size on

  5. Comparing Techniques for Certified Static Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachera, David; Pichardie, David

    2009-01-01

    A certified static analysis is an analysis whose semantic validity has been formally proved correct with a proof assistant. The recent increasing interest in using proof assistants for mechanizing programming language metatheory has given rise to several approaches for certification of static analysis. We propose a panorama of these techniques and compare their respective strengths and weaknesses.

  6. Aftershocks halted by static stress shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.; Beroza, Gregory C.; Marsan, David

    2012-06-01

    Earthquakes impart static and dynamic stress changes to the surrounding crust. Sudden fault slip causes small but permanent--static--stress changes, and passing seismic waves cause large, but brief and oscillatory--dynamic--stress changes. Because both static and dynamic stresses can trigger earthquakes within several rupture dimensions of a mainshock, it has proven difficult to disentangle their contributions to the triggering process. However, only dynamic stress can trigger earthquakes far from the source, and only static stress can create stress shadows, where the stress and thus the seismicity rate in the shadow area drops following an earthquake. Here we calculate the stress imparted by the magnitude 6.1 Joshua Tree and nearby magnitude 7.3 Landers earthquakes that occurred in California in April and June 1992, respectively, and measure seismicity through time. We show that, where the aftershock zone of the first earthquake was subjected to a static stress increase from the second, the seismicity rate jumped. In contrast, where the aftershock zone of the first earthquake fell under the stress shadow of the second and static stress dropped, seismicity shut down. The arrest of seismicity implies that static stress is a requisite element of spatial clustering of large earthquakes and should be a constituent of hazard assessment.

  7. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  8. Negative effect of static stretching restored when combined with a sport specific warm-up component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kristie-Lee; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Lee, Hamilton; Plummer, Norma

    2009-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that static stretching may inhibit performance in strength and power activities. However, most of this research has involved stretching routines dissimilar to those practiced by athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the decline in performance normally associated with static stretching pervades when the static stretching is conducted prior to a sport specific warm-up. Thirteen netball players completed two experimental warm-up conditions. Day 1 warm-up involved a submaximal run followed by 15 min of static stretching and a netball specific skill warm-up. Day 2 followed the same design; however, the static stretching was replaced with a 15 min dynamic warm-up routine to allow for a direct comparison between the static stretching and dynamic warm-up effects. Participants performed a countermovement vertical jump and 20m sprint after the first warm-up intervention (static or dynamic) and also after the netball specific skill warm-up. The static stretching condition resulted in significantly worse performance than the dynamic warm-up in vertical jump height (-4.2%, 0.40 ES) and 20m sprint time (1.4%, 0.34 ES) (pstatic stretching or a dynamic warm-up routine. This suggests that the practice of a subsequent high-intensity skill based warm-up restored the differences between the two warm-up interventions. Hence, if static stretching is to be included in the warm-up period, it is recommended that a period of high-intensity sport-specific skills based activity is included prior to the on-court/field performance.

  9. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt the concept of pheromone to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81, 016113(2010)]. In the test stage, pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded by the global dynamic routing strategy. After that, static paths are generated according to the density of pheromone. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resource than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  10. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122389 Cai Lianyou ( No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China );Weng Wangfei Geologic Characteristic and Ore-Control Factors of the Nanshan W-Mo Polymetallic Ore Deposit in South Anhui Province ( Geological Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135,CN12-1353 / P,34 ( 4 ), 2011,p.290-298,3 illus.,1table,14refs. ) Key words:tungsten ores,molybdenum ores,ore guide of prospecting,Anhui Province

  11. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110165 Chen Jiawei(The 3rd Geological Team,Henan Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Xinyang 464000,China)Ore Control Conditions and Genetic Model for the Bodaoling Ag-Au Deposit in Guangshan,Henan Province(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,30(1),2010,p.28-30,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)Key words:gold ores,Henan Province20110166 Chen Mingquan(Geological Team 306,Yunnan Bureau of Nonferrous Geology,Kunming 650216,Ch

  12. Analytic three-loop static potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roman N.; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    We present analytic results for the three-loop static potential of two heavy quarks. The analytic calculation of the missing ingredients is outlined, and results for the singlet and octet potential are provided.

  13. Static Stress Analysis of Security Injection Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The static structural analysis of the security injection tank is made to make sure whether the tank can withstand concerned loads or not on all conditions conforming to concerned code prescripts and design requirements. The tanks

  14. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  15. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  16. On static equilibrium and balance puzzler

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Samrat; Saikia, Dipankar; Kalita, Deepjyoti; Debbarma, Anamika; Wahab, Shaheen Akhtar; Sarma, Saurabh

    2012-01-01

    The principles of static equilibrium are of special interest to civil engineers. For a rigid body to be in static equilibrium the condition is that net force and net torque acting on the body should be zero. That clearly signifies that if equal weights are placed on either sides of a balance, the balance should be in equilibrium, even if its beam is not horizontal (we have considered the beam to be straight and have no thickness, an ideal case). Thus, although the weights are equal, they will appear different which is puzzling. This also shows that the concept of equilibrium is confusing, especially neutral equilibrium is confused to be stable equilibrium. The study not only throws more light on the concept of static equilibrium, but also clarifies that a structure need not be firm and steady even if it is in static equilibrium.

  17. Statics formulas and problems : engineering mechanics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Wriggers, Peter; Schröder, Jörg; Müller, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the most important formulas and more than 160 completely solved problems from Statics. It provides engineering students material to improve their skills and helps to gain experience in solving engineering problems. Particular emphasis is placed on finding the solution path and formulating the basic equations. Topics include: - Equilibrium - Center of Gravity, Center of Mass, Centroids - Support Reactions - Trusses - Beams, Frames, Arches - Cables - Work and Potential Energy - Static and Kinetic Friction - Moments of Inertia.

  18. Typification of Statice dichotoma Cav. (Plumbaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer-Gallego, P. Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A lectotype and an epitype are here designated for Statice dichotoma Cav. (Plumbaginaceae, an endemic taxon from the central part of the Iberian Peninsula, which is currently named Limonium dichotomum (Cav. KuntzeSe designan un lectótipo y un epítipo para Statice dichotoma Cav. (Plumbaginaceae, un taxon endémico del centro de la península Ibérica, actualmente denominado Limonium dichotomum (Cav. Kuntze.

  19. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol is formali......The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol...

  20. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111761 Chen Hua(115 Geological Party,Guizhou Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration & Development,Guiyang 551400,China);Deng Chao Analysis on the Metallogenic Environment of Maochang Bauxite in Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(3),2010,p.198-201,2 illus.,1 table,8 refs.)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province By long time physical and chemical process,the carbonate rock after Central Guizhou uplidft,becomes red clay,after further weathering,the red clay decomposed into the oxide,hydroxide of Al and Fe,in the dissolution hole and depression,it concentrates primary fragmentary tight and earthy karst bauxite ore.Because the variation of landform,it decomposes and cracks again,affords the material source

  1. Development of poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) composites for calcium carbonate and sulphate scale inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithil Kumar, N; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Jagadeesh, Dani; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2015-01-01

    Polyaspartic acid (PSI) is suitable for the inhibition of inorganic scale deposition. To enhance its scale inhibition efficiency, PSI was modified by reacting aspartic acid with malic acid (MA) using thermal polycondensation polymerization. This reaction resulted in poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) (PSI-co-MA) dual polymer. The structural, chemical and thermal properties of the dual polymers were analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography. The effectiveness of six different molar ratios of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate scale inhibition at laboratory scale batch experiments was evaluated with synthetic brine solution at selected doses of polymer at 65-70°C by the static scale test method. The performance of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for the inhibition of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitation was compared with that of a PSI single polymer. The PSI-co-MA exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 85.36% calcium carbonate inhibition and 100% calcium sulphate inhibition at a level of 10 mg/L PSI-co-MA, respectively. Therefore, it may be reasonably concluded that PSI-co-MA is a highly effective scale inhibitor for cooling water treatment applications.

  2. Temporally Dynamic, Spatially Static, Cobble Bedforms In Reversing Subtidal Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkade, Akirat; Carling, Paul; Zong, Quanli; Leyland, Julian; Thompson, Charlie

    2016-04-01

    Cobble bedforms, transverse to the reversing tidal currents, are exposed at extreme low-water Spring tides on an inter-tidal bedrock shelf in the macro-tidal Severn Estuary, UK. Near-bed flow velocities during Spring tides can exceed 1.5m/s, with water depths varying from zero to in excess of 10m. During neap tides the bedforms are not exposed, and sediment is expected to be of limited mobility. When exposed, the bedform geometry tends to be asymmetric; orientated down estuary with the ebb current. During Spring tides, vigorous bedload transport of gravel (including large cobbles) occurs during both flood and ebb over the crests and yet, despite this temporal dynamism, the bedforms remain spatially static over long time periods or show weak down-estuary migration. Stasis implies that the tidal bedload transport vectors are essentially in balance. Near-bed shear stress and bed roughness values vary systematically with the Spring-tide current speeds and the predicted grain-size of the bed load using the Shields criterion is in accord with observed coarser grain-sizes in transport. These hydrodynamic data, delimited by estimates of the threshold of motion, and integrated over either flood or ebb tides are being used to explain the apparent stability of the bedforms. The bulk hydraulic data are supplemented by particle tracer studies and laser-scanning of bed configurations between tides. The high-energy environment results in two forms of armouring. Pronounced steep imbrication of platy-cobbles visible on the exposed up-estuary side of dunes is probably disrupted during flood tides leading to rapid reworking of the toe deposits facing up-estuary. In contrast, some crest and leeside locations have been stable for prolonged periods such that closely-fitted fabrics result; these portions of the bedforms are static and effectively are 'armour-plated'. Ebb-tide deposits of finer, ephemeral sandy-units occur on the down estuary side of the bedforms. Sandy-units (although

  3. Interstitial Perfusion Culture with Specific Soluble Factors Inhibits Type I Collagen Production from Human Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes in Clinical-Grade Collagen Sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talò, Giuseppe; Lovati, Arianna B.; Pasdeloup, Marielle; Riboldi, Stefania A.; Moretti, Matteo; Mallein-Gerin, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Articular cartilage has poor healing ability and cartilage injuries often evolve to osteoarthritis. Cell-based strategies aiming to engineer cartilaginous tissue through the combination of biocompatible scaffolds and articular chondrocytes represent an alternative to standard surgical techniques. In this context, perfusion bioreactors have been introduced to enhance cellular access to oxygen and nutrients, hence overcoming the limitations of static culture and improving matrix deposition. Here, we combined an optimized cocktail of soluble factors, the BIT (BMP-2, Insulin, Thyroxin), and clinical-grade collagen sponges with a bidirectional perfusion bioreactor, namely the oscillating perfusion bioreactor (OPB), to engineer in vitro articular cartilage by human articular chondrocytes (HACs) obtained from osteoarthritic patients. After amplification, HACs were seeded and cultivated in collagen sponges either in static or dynamic conditions. Chondrocyte phenotype and the nature of the matrix synthesized by HACs were assessed using western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses. Finally, the stability of the cartilaginous tissue produced by HACs was evaluated in vivo by subcutaneous implantation in nude mice. Our results showed that perfusion improved the distribution and quality of cartilaginous matrix deposited within the sponges, compared to static conditions. Specifically, dynamic culture in the OPB, in combination with the BIT cocktail, resulted in the homogeneous production of extracellular matrix rich in type II collagen. Remarkably, the production of type I collagen, a marker of fibrous tissues, was also inhibited, indicating that the association of the OPB with the BIT cocktail limits fibrocartilage formation, favoring the reconstruction of hyaline cartilage. PMID:27584727

  4. Static analysis of function calls in Erlang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Horpácsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Functions and their relations can affect numerous properties and metrics of a functional program. To identify and represent the functions and their calling connections, software analysers commonly apply semantic function analysis, which derives the static call graph of the program, based on its source code. Function calls however may be dynamic and complex, making it difficult to statically identify the callee. Dynamic calls are determined just at run-time, static analysis therefore cannot be expected to fully identify every call. Nevertheless, by utilising the results of a properly performed data-flow analysis as well as taking ambiguous references into account, numerous dynamic calls are discoverable and representable. We consider cases where the identifiers of the callee are statically determined, but they flow into the call expression from a different program point, and also, we manage to handle function calls whose identifiers are not fully identifiable at compile-time. By utilising the improved reference analysis, we extend the static call graph with various information about dynamic function calls. We investigate such a function call analysis in the programming language Erlang.

  5. Application of disorganized monolayer films on gold electrodes to the prevention of surfactant inhibition of the voltammetric detection of trace metals via anodic stripping of underpotential deposits: detection of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Grégoire; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2003-01-15

    Development of an approach to prevention of electrode surface fouling by surfactants in samples is demonstrated. Spontaneously adsorbed monolayer systems employing short alkyl chains and bulky end groups are used to form porous disorganized monolayers on gold electrodes. Detection of copper by stripping of underpotential deposits formed at electrodes modified with disorganized films of mercaptoethanesulfonate (MES), mercaptopropanesulfonate, mercaptoacetic acid, and mercaptopropanoic acid was possible, and to a much lesser extent at aminoethanethiol and L-cysteine films. Use of short deposition times in conjunction with linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry allowed detection of Cu2+ ions down to 1 x 10(-6) M in sulfuric acid solution, using underpotential deposition as the deposition step of the procedure. Calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range (1-80) x 10(-6) M Cu2+ using 15-s deposition at 0.00 V versus Ag/AgCl. The surfactants Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X-100 were found to have no affect on detection of Cu2+ ions in the calibration curve concentration range using MES-modified gold electrodes, whereas at unmodified gold electrodes very severe attenuation of the detection capability was manifested. The average slope for all calibration curves at the MES-modified electrode in the absence and presence of the surfactants at two different concentration levels was 0.0710 +/- 0.0024 microA microM(-1); in contrast, the slope of the calibration line at uncoated gold electrodes in the presence of surfactant was 0.0268 microA microM(-1). These results indicate the excellent ability of a disorganized, porous monolayer for prevention of fouling of the electrode surface by the surfactants.

  6. Strong static-magnetic field alters operant responding by rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, M.; Matsuda, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Forty male rats of the Wistar ST strain were trained and observed for Sidman avoidance (SA) for 7 weeks or for discriminative avoidance (DA) for 14 weeks to determine the effects of exposure to a strong static-magnetic field. Before avoidance conditioning was completed, rats in the SA group were exposed to the static field at 0.6 T, 16 h/day for 4 days during the fifth week, and those in the DA group were exposed for 6 h/day for 4 days during the seventh week. In the SA conditioning, frequency of lever-pressing by exposed rats gradually decreased during 1 week of exposure and stayed low for at least 2 weeks after exposure. Frequencies of electric shocks received by the rats increased dramatically during the second day of exposure and consistently stayed higher than those of control rats. In the DA condition, exposed rats responded at lower rates than did control rats throughout the observation period. They received more shocks during the 2 weeks following exposure. The data indicate that performance of avoidance responses was inhibited by a comparatively long exposure to a strong magnetic field.

  7. From Flow Logic to Static Type Systems in Coordination Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Nicola, Rocco; Gorla, Daniele; Hansen, René Rydhof;

    2008-01-01

    ; therefore, the correctness properties cannot be statically enforced. By contrast, static analysis approaches based on Flow Logic usually guarantee properties statically. In this paper we show how to combine these two approaches to obtain a static type system for describing secure access to tuple spaces...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6602 - Static electricity dissipation during loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static electricity dissipation during loading... MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6602 Static electricity dissipation... generates a static electricity hazard— (a) An evaluation of the potential static electricity hazard shall be...

  9. Investigating Static and Dynamic Light Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yong

    2011-01-01

    A new size, static radii $R_{s}$, can be measured accurately using Static Light Scattering (SLS) technique when the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is valid for dilute homogenous spherical particles in dispersion. The method proposed in this work not only can measures the particle size distribution and average molar mass accurately but also enables us to explore Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) technique further. Detailed investigation of the normalized time auto-correlation function of the scattered light intensity $g^{2)}(\\tau)$ shows that the measurements of DLS can be expected accurately and the static and hydrodynamic radii of nanoparticles are different. Only at some special conditions, the Z-average hydrodynamic radius can be measured accurately at a given scattering angle. The fact that the values of average hydrodynamic radius measured at different scattering angles are consistent or the values of polydispersity index are small does not mean the particle size distribution is narrow or monodisperse.

  10. Static Analysis for JavaScript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Holm

    Web applications present unique challenges to designers of static analysis tools. One of these challenges is the language JavaScript used for client side scripting in the browser. JavaScript is a complex language with many pitfalls and poor tool support compared to other languages....... This dissertation describes the design and implementation of a static analysis for JavaScript that can assist programmers in finding bugs in code during development. We describe the design of a static analysis tool for JavaScript, built using the monotone framework. This analysis infers detailed type information...... about programs. This information can be used to detect bugs such as null pointer dereferences and unintended type coercions. The analysis is sound, enabling it to prove the absence of certain program errors. JavaScript is usually run within the context of the browser and the DOM API. The major...

  11. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  12. Statics and rotational dynamics of composite beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ghorashi, Mehrdaad

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive study of the nonlinear statics and dynamics of composite beams and consists of solutions with and without active elements embedded in the beams. The static solution provides the initial conditions for the dynamic analysis. The dynamic problems considered include the analyses of clamped (hingeless) and articulated (hinged) accelerating rotating beams. Two independent numerical solutions for the steady state and the transient responses are presented. The author illustrates that the transient solution of the nonlinear formulation of accelerating rotating beam converges to the steady state solution obtained by the shooting method. Other key areas considered include calculation of the effect of perturbing the steady state solution, coupled nonlinear flap-lag dynamics of a rotating articulated beam with hinge offset and aerodynamic damping, and static and dynamic responses of nonlinear composite beams with embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. The book is intended as a t...

  13. Extending and Enhancing SAS (Static Analysis Suite)

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, David

    2016-01-01

    The Static Analysis Suite (SAS) is an open-source software package used to perform static analysis on C and C++ code, helping to ensure safety, readability and maintainability. In this Summer Student project, SAS was enhanced to improve ease of use and user customisation. A straightforward method of integrating static analysis into a project at compilation time was provided using the automated build tool CMake. The process of adding checkers to the suite was streamlined and simplied by developing an automatic code generator. To make SAS more suitable for continuous integration, a reporting mechanism summarising results was added. This suitability has been demonstrated by inclusion of SAS in the Future Circular Collider Software nightly build system. Scalability of the improved package was demonstrated by using the tool to analyse the ROOT code base.

  14. Static multiplicities in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Klavs; Andersen, Torben Ravn; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the results of a bifurcation analysis on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences are given. Two sequences suitable for ethanol dehydration are compared: The 'direct' and the 'indirect' sequence. It is shown, that the two sequences, despite their similarities, exhibit very...... different static behavior. The method of Petlyuk and Avet'yan (1971), Bekiaris et al. (1993), which assumes infinite reflux and infinite number of stages, is extended to and applied on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences. The predictions are substantiated through simulations. The static sequence...

  15. Static cylindrical symmetry and conformal flatness

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, L; Marcilhacy, G; Santos, N O

    2004-01-01

    We present the whole set of equations with regularity and matching conditions required for the description of physically meaningful static cylindrically symmmetric distributions of matter, smoothly matched to Levi-Civita vacuum spacetime. It is shown that the conformally flat solution with equal principal stresses represents an incompressible fluid. It is also proved that any conformally flat cylindrically symmetric static source cannot be matched through Darmois conditions to the Levi-Civita spacetime. Further evidence is given that when the Newtonian mass per unit length reaches 1/2 the spacetime has plane symmetry.

  16. QuickChecking Static Analysis Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs......, to verified fixed point checking. In this paper we demonstrate how quickchecking can be useful for testing a range of static analysis properties with limited effort. We show how to check a range of algebraic lattice properties, to help ensure that an implementation follows the formal specification...

  17. MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Younis, Mohammad I

    2011-01-01

    MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume

  18. Static and dynamic properties of Fibonacci multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, L. D.; Bezerra, C. G.; Correa, M. A.; Chesman, C.; Pearson, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.

    2013-05-01

    We theoretically investigate static and dynamic properties of quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers. We considered identical ferromagnetic layers separated by non-magnetic spacers with two different thicknesses chosen based on the Fibonacci sequence. Using parameters for Fe/Cr, the minimum energy was determined and the equilibrium magnetization directions found were used to calculate magnetoresistance curves. Regarding dynamic behavior, ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) curves were calculated using an approximation known from the literature. Our numerical results illustrate the effects of quasiperiodicity on the static and dynamic properties of these structures.

  19. Static compensators (STATCOMs) in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shahnia, Farhad; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    A static compensator (STATCOM), also known as static synchronous compensator, is a member of the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. It is a power-electronics based regulating device which is composed of a voltage source converter (VSC) and is shunt-connected to alternating current electricity transmission and distribution networks. The voltage source is created from a DC capacitor and the STATCOM can exchange reactive power with the network. It can also supply some active power to the network, if a DC source of power is connected across the capacitor. A STATCOM

  20. Deposit model for volcanogenic uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, George N.; Hall, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanism is a major contributor to the formation of important uranium deposits both close to centers of eruption and more distal as a result of deposition of ash with leachable uranium. Hydrothermal fluids that are driven by magmatic heat proximal to some volcanic centers directly form some deposits. These fluids leach uranium from U-bearing silicic volcanic rocks and concentrate it at sites of deposition within veins, stockworks, breccias, volcaniclastic rocks, and lacustrine caldera sediments. The volcanogenic uranium deposit model presented here summarizes attributes of those deposits and follows the focus of the International Atomic Energy Agency caldera-hosted uranium deposit model. Although inferred by some to have a volcanic component to their origin, iron oxide-copper-gold deposits with economically recoverable uranium contents are not considered in this model.

  1. Static Theory for Planar Ferromagnets and Antiferromagnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Bo HANG; Fang Hua LIN

    2001-01-01

    Here we generalize the "BBH"-asymptotic analysis to a simplified mathematical model for the planar ferromagnets and antiferromagncts. To develop such a static theory is a necessary step for a rigorous mathematical justification of dynamical laws for the magnetic vortices formally derived in [1] and [2].

  2. Structural Encoding of Static Single Assignment Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Static Single Assignment (SSA) form is often used as an intermediate representation during code optimization in Java Virtual Machines. Recently, SSA has successfully been used for bytecode verification. However, constructing SSA at the code consumer is costly. SSAbased mobile code transport formats...

  3. Monotone Comparative Statics for the Industry Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    2015-01-01

    We let heterogeneous firms face decisions on a number of complementary activities in a monopolistically-competitive industry. The endogenous level of competition and selection regarding entry and exit of firms introduces a wedge between monotone comparative statics (MCS) at the firm level and MCS...

  4. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol is formali...

  5. Static Typing for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1994-01-01

    We develop a theory of statically typed object-oriented languages. It represents classes as labeled, regular trees, types as finit sets of classes , and sub-classing as a partial order on trees. We show that our sub-classing order strictly generalizes inheritance, and that a novel genericity...

  6. The longitudinal static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98. Cranfield University

  7. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The work of Abadi and Fournet introduces the notion of a frame to describe the knowledge of the environment of a cryptographic protocol. Frames are lists of terms; two frames are indistinguishable under the notion of static equivalence if they satisfy the same equations on terms. We present a first...

  8. Static shapes of levitated viscous drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemin, L.; Lister, J. R.; Lange, U.

    2005-06-01

    We consider the levitation of a drop of molten glass above a spherical porous mould, through which air is injected with constant velocity. The glass is assumed to be sufficiently viscous compared to air that motion in the drop is negligible. Thus static equilibrium shapes are determined by the coupling between the lubricating pressure in the supporting air cushion and the Young-Laplace equation. The upper surface of the drop is under constant atmospheric pressure; the static shape of the lower surface of the drop is computed using lubrication theory for the thin air film. Matching of the sessile curvature of the upper surface to the curvature of the mould gives rise to a series of capillary "brim" waves near the edge of the drop which scale with powers of a modified capillary number. Several branches of static solutions are found, such that there are multiple solutions for some drop volumes, but no physically reasonable solutions for other drop volumes. Comparison with experiments and full Navier-Stokes calculations suggests that the stability of the process can be predicted from the solution branches for the static shapes, and related to the persistence of brim waves to the centre of the drop. This suggestion remains to be confirmed by a formal stability analysis.

  9. Effects of insoles contact on static balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk; Yi, Chae Woo

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effect of the degree of the contact area between the insoles and soles on static balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male and female adults voluntarily participated. All of the subjects wore three different types of insoles (no orthotic insole, partial contact, full contact) in the present experiment. The subjects were instructed to place both feet parallel to each other and maintain static balance for 30 seconds. Center of pressure parameters (range, total distance, and mean velocity) were analyzed. [Results] The results show that the anteroposterior range and mediolateral (ML) total distance and velocity decreased when orthotic insoles with partial contact or full contact were used in comparison to when a flat insole (no orthotic insole) was used. Also, the ML range and total distance were lower with full contact than in the other two conditions. These results indicate that static balance improves as the degree of contact between the soles and insoles increases. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggests that using insoles with increased sole contact area would improve static balance ability.

  10. Hall effect accompanying a static skin effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkenshtein, N.V.; Marchenkov, V.V.; Startsev, V.E.; Cherepanov, A.N.; Glin' skii, M.

    1985-05-10

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of tungsten single crystals with rho/sub 293K//rho/sub 4.2K/ = 80 000 have been measured at 4.2 K in magnetic fields up to 150 kOe. The results reveal that a static skin effect gives rise to an anomalously pronounced increase in the Hall coefficient.

  11. The atomic and molecular reaction statics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; ZhengHe

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a new science called atomic and molecular reaction statics (AMRS). There are four parts for AMRS, i.e. the group theoretical derivation of molecular electronic states, the principle of microscopic reversibility, the principle of microscopic transitivity and the optimum energy process rule. AMRS has been developed for about twenty years.

  12. Static Analysis for Java Servlets and JSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for statically reasoning about the behavior of Web applications that are developed using Java Servlets and JSP. Specifically, we attack the problems of guaranteeing that all output is well-formed and valid XML and ensuring consistency of XHTML form fields and session state...

  13. Energy consumption in static muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerhuis, CL; Hof, AL; van der Heide, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Energy consumption during static contraction of the human triceps surae muscles was studied in 11 healthy subjects. The subjects had to stand intermittently on the left and then right foot at different frequencies (for periods of 15 s, 10 s or 5 s), first on the whole foot and then on the forefoot.

  14. Forces between static-light mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The isospin, spin and parity dependent potential of a pair of static-light mesons is computed using Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with two flavors of degenerate dynamical quarks. From the results a simple rule can be deduced stating, which isospin, spin and parity combinations correspond to attractive and which to repulsive forces.

  15. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan;

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic prog...

  16. Energy consumption in static muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerhuis, CL; Hof, AL; van der Heide, F.M.

    Energy consumption during static contraction of the human triceps surae muscles was studied in 11 healthy subjects. The subjects had to stand intermittently on the left and then right foot at different frequencies (for periods of 15 s, 10 s or 5 s), first on the whole foot and then on the forefoot.

  17. Onthe static and spherically symmetric gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Ioan; Maftei, Gheorghe; Mociutchi, Cleopatra

    Starting from a generalization of Einstein 's theory of gravitation, proposed by one of the authors (Cleopatra Mociutchi), the authors study a particular spherical symmetric case. Among other one obtain the compatibility conditions for the existence of the static and spherically symmetruic gravitational filed in the case of extended Einstein equation.

  18. New schemes of static mass spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baisanov, O.A. [Military Institute of Air Defense Forces, Aktobe (Kazakhstan); Doskeyev, G.A. [Aktobe State University named after K. Zhubanov, Aktobe (Kazakhstan); Spivak-Lavrov, I.F., E-mail: baisanov@mail.ru [Aktobe State University named after K. Zhubanov, Aktobe (Kazakhstan)

    2011-07-21

    Different possibilities to increase the 'quality', or Q-quantity, of static mass spectrometers by expanding the ion beam before it enters the magnetic field are analyzed. The design of mass spectrometers using a cone-shaped achromatic prism is discussed. Different variants of achromatic mass spectrometers using electrostatic prisms and sector magnetic fields are also considered.

  19. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hills, M.A.; Klint, P.; Vinju, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two complementary analy

  20. Static and Dynamic Analysis of a Pump Impeller with a Balancing Device Part I: Static Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundera C.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This part of the work presents the design and static analysis of an impeller for a single-stage pump. The impeller is directly connected with a balancing device. The impeller needs to have a properly designed system of longitudinal and lateral clearances on both sides. With the simplifying assumptions concerning the flow and distribution of pressure in the longitudinal and lateral clearances, the static analysis involved deriving relationships between the impeller geometry and the basic performance parameters of the pump. A numerical example was used to show the calculation procedure of static characteristics for the predetermined parameters

  1. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 229 - Static Noise Test Protocols-In-Cab Static

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for the in-cab static measurements of locomotives. I. Measurement Instrumentation The instrumentation... electronic form. (1) Name(s) of persons conducting the test, and the date of the test. (2) Description...

  2. Effect of static vs. dynamic imaging on particle transport in CT-based numerical models of human central airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2016-10-01

    Advances in quantitative computed tomography (CT) has provided methods to assess the detailed structure of the pulmonary airways and parenchyma, providing the means of applying computational fluid dynamics-based modeling to better understand subject-specific differences in structure-to-function relationships. Most of the previous numerical studies, seeking to predict patterns of inhaled particle deposition, have considered airway geometry and regional ventilation derived from static images. Because geometric alterations of the airway and parenchyma associated with regional ventilation may greatly affect particle transport, we have sought to investigate the effect of rigid vs. deforming airways, linear vs. nonlinear airway deformations, and step-wise static vs. dynamic imaging on particle deposition with varying numbers of intermediate lung volume increments. Airway geometry and regional ventilation at different time points were defined by four-dimensional (space and time) dynamic or static CT images. Laminar, transitional, and turbulent air flows were reproduced with a three-dimensional eddy-resolving computational fluid dynamics model. Finally, trajectories of particles were computed with the Lagrangian tracking algorithm. The results demonstrated that static-imaging-based models can contribute 7% uncertainty to overall particle distribution and deposition primarily due to regional flow rate (ventilation) differences as opposed to geometric alterations. The effect of rigid vs. deforming airways on serial distribution of particles over generations was significantly smaller than reported in a previous study that used the symmetric Weibel geometric model with smaller flow rate. Rigid vs. deforming airways were also shown to affect parallel particle distribution over lobes by 8% and the differences associated with use of static vs. dynamic imaging was 18%. These differences demonstrate that estimates derived from static vs. dynamic imaging can significantly affect the

  3. Static Checking of Interrupt-driven Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brylow, Dennis; Damgaard, Niels; Palsberg, Jens

    2001-01-01

    in a few seconds on a standard PC. Our tool is one of the first to give an efficient and useful static analysis of assembly code. It enables increased confidence in correctness, significantly reduced testing requirements, and support for maintenance throughout the system life-cycle....... require extensive brute-force testing, making development and maintenance costly. This is particularly true for system components that are written in assembly language. Static checking has the potential of alleviating these problems, but until now there has been little tool support for programming...... fundamental safety and liveness properties. Our approach is based on a known algorithm for model checking of pushdown systems, and produces a control-flow graph annotated with information about time, space, safety, and liveness. Each benchmark is approximately 1000 lines of code, and the checking is done...

  4. Perturbative static four-quark potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, J; Green, A M

    1995-01-01

    A first attempt to understand hadron dynamics at low energies in terms of the fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom incorporates the effects of the gluonic field into a potential depending only on the spatial positions of the quarks, which are considered in the infinite mass limit. A suitable framework for calculating such potentials between static quarks, i.e.\\ a generalization of the Wilson loop will be discussed. Making a connection with recent Monte Carlo lattice simulations for the lowest two energies of a system of two quarks and two antiquarks, the static qq\\bar{q}\\bar{q}-potential will be calculated in perturbation theory to fourth order. The result will be shown to be exactly equal to the prediction of a straightforward two-body approach, which in Monte Carlo lattice simulations has been found to be a reasonable approximation for very small interquark distances.

  5. Static inelastic analysis of RC shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Qian, Jiaru

    2002-06-01

    A macro-model of a reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall is developed for static inelastic analysis. The model is composed of RC column elements and RC membrane elements. The column elements are used to model the boundary zone and the membrane elements are used to model the wall panel. Various types of constitutive relationships of concrete could be adopted for the two kinds of elements. To perform analysis, the wall is divided into layers along its height. Two adjacent layers are connected with a rigid beam. There are only three unknown displacement components for each layer. A method called single degree of freedom compensation is adopted to solve the peak value of the capacity curve. The post-peak stage analysis is performed using a forced iteration approach. The macro-model developed in the study and the complete process analysis methodology are verified by the experimental and static inelastic analytical results of four RC shear wall specimens.

  6. Power analysis of static VAr compensators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintela, F.R.; Arevalo, J.M.G.; Redondo, R.C. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad de Salamanca, 37700 Bejar (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    Analysis of three-phase loads usually assume them to be three impedances in a star or triangle connection. This is the reason why obtained results can only be considered valid for passive loads, strictly speaking. Analysis leading to the proposal of some static compensators is usually performed in this way, which induces to believe that this compensators are only valid for passive loads. An analysis procedure, which uses only powers to describe loads, is expounded in this paper. If applied to the analysis of static compensators, it reveals unequivocally their usefulness with active and passive three-phase loads. Therefore, this method is more general and, as it will be seen, easier. (author)

  7. Observational evidence favours a static universe

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, David F

    2010-01-01

    The common attribute of all Big Bang cosmologies is that they are based on the assumption that the universe is expanding. However examination of the evidence for this expansion clearly favours a static universe. The major topics considered are: Tolman surface brightness, angular size, type 1a supernovae, gamma ray bursts, galaxy distributions, quasar distributions, X-ray background radiation, cosmic microwave background radiation, radio source counts, quasar variability and the Butcher--Oemler effect. An analysis of the best raw data for these topics shows that they are consistent with expansion only if there is evolution that cancels the effects of expansion. An alternate cosmology, curvature cosmology, is in full agreement with the raw data. This tired-light cosmology predicts a well defined static and stable universe and is fully described. It not only predicts accurate values for the Hubble constant and the temperature of cosmic microwave background radiation but shows excellent agreement with most of the...

  8. Optimal Static Range Reporting in One Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rauhe, Theis

    2001-01-01

    We consider static one dimensional range searching problems. These problems are to build static data structures for an integer set S \\subseteq U, where U = \\{0,1,\\dots,2^w-1\\}, which support various queries for integer intervals of U. For the query of reporting all integers in S contained within...... a query interval, we present an optimal data structure with linear space cost and with query time linear in the number of integers reported. This result holds in the unit cost RAM model with word size w and a standard instruction set. We also present a linear space data structure for approximate range...... counting. A range counting query for an interval returns the number of integers in S contained within the interval. For any constant &egr;>0, our range counting data structure returns in constant time an approximate answer which is within a factor of at most 1+&egr; of the correct answer....

  9. Static inelastic analysis of RC shear walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勤; 钱稼茹

    2002-01-01

    A macro-model of a reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall is developed for static inelastic analysis. The model iscomposed of RC column elements and RC membrane elements. The column elements are used to model the boundary zone andthe membrane elements are used to model the wall panel. Various types of constitutive relationships of concrete could beadopted for the two kinds of elements. To perform analysis, the wall is divided into layers along its height. Two adjacent layersare connected with a rigid beam. There are only three unknown displacement components for each layer. A method called singledegree of freedom compensation is adopted to solve the peak value of the capacity curve. The post-peak stage analysis isperformed using a forced iteration approach. The macro-model developed in the study and the complete process analysismethodology are verified by the experimental and static inelastic analytical results of four RC shear wall specimens.

  10. Variational approach for static mirror structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, E. A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninsky Ave., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Space Research Institute RAS, 84/32 Profsoyuznaya str., 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 2 Kosygin str., 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L. [UNS, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Ruban, V. P. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 2 Kosygin str., 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-15

    Anisotropic static plasma equilibria where the parallel and perpendicular pressures are only functions of the amplitude of the local magnetic field are shown to be amenable to a variational principle with a free energy density given by the parallel tension. This approach is used to demonstrate that two-dimensional small-amplitude static magnetic holes constructed from a Grad-Shafranov type equation slightly below the (subcritical) mirror instability threshold identify with lump solitons of KPII equation, but turn out to be unstable. Differently, large-amplitude magnetic structures, which are stable as they realize a minimum of the free energy, are computed using a gradient method within two-dimensional numerical simulations where the regularizing effect of finite Larmor radius corrections is retained. Interestingly, these structures transform from stripes to bubbles when the angle of the magnetic field with the coordinate plane is increased.

  11. Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A generator for producing an electric field for with an inspection technology system is provided. The generator provides the required variable magnitude quasi-static electric fields for the "illumination" of objects, areas and volumes to be inspected by the system, and produces human-safe electric fields that are only visible to the system. The generator includes a casing, a driven, non-conducting and triboelectrically neutral rotation shaft mounted therein, an ungrounded electrostatic dipole element which works in the quasi-static range, and a non-conducting support for mounting the dipole element to the shaft. The dipole element has a wireless motor system and a charging system which are wholly contained within the dipole element and the support that uses an electrostatic approach to charge the dipole element.

  12. Static spherically symmetric wormholes with isotropic pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Cataldo, Mauricio; Rodríguez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study static spherically symmetric wormhole solutions sustained by matter sources with isotropic pressure. We show that such spherical wormholes do not exist in the framework of zero-tidal-force wormholes. On the other hand, it is shown that for the often used power-law shape function there is no spherically symmetric traversable wormholes sustained by sources with a linear equation of state $p=\\omega \\rho$ for the isotropic pressure, independently of the form of the redshift function $\\phi(r)$. We consider a solution obtained by Tolman at 1939 for describing static spheres of isotropic fluids, and show that it also may describe wormhole spacetimes with a power-law redshift function, which leads to a polynomial shape function, generalizing a power-law shape function, and inducing a solid angle deficit.

  13. Geodesics in the static Mallett spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Olum, Ken D

    2010-01-01

    Mallett has exhibited a cylindrically symmetric spacetime containing closed timelike curves produced by a light beam circulating around a line singularity. I analyze the static version of this spacetime obtained by setting the intensity of the light to zero. Some null geodesics can escape to infinity, but all timelike geodesics in this spacetime originate and terminate at the singularity. Freely falling matter originally at rest quickly attains relativistic velocity inward and is destroyed at the singularity.

  14. Static Gauge Potential from Noncritical Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Enrique; Alvarez, Enrique; Manjarin, Juan Jose

    2001-01-01

    The static gauge potential between heavy sources is computed from a recently introduced non-critical bosonic string background. When the sources are located at the infinity of the holographic coordinate, the linear dilaton behavior is recovered, which means that the potential is exactly linear in the separation between the sources. When the sources are moved towards the origin, a competing overconfining cubic branch appears, which is however disfavored energetically.

  15. Non-self-dual static gauge fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, C. H.; Teh, Rosy

    1980-01-01

    We exhibit exact non-self-dual static solutions to the SU(2) Yang-Mills field equations by solving the equation ∇2V+λV3=0 using cylindrical and spherical coordinates. The resulting gauge fields are complex and have singularities. For the cylindrically symmetric solution, we convert it into a real gauge field coupled to the Higgs field in the limit in which the self-interaction potential of the Higgs field vanishes.

  16. Comparing numerically exact and modelled static friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krengel Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there exists no mechanically consistent “numerically exact” implementation of static and dynamic Coulomb friction for general soft particle simulations with arbitrary contact situations in two or three dimension, but only along one dimension. We outline a differential-algebraic equation approach for a “numerically exact” computation of friction in two dimensions and compare its application to the Cundall-Strack model in some test cases.

  17. numerical and numerical and experimental modeling of the static ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    flange width on the static response of these type of structural elements under service load ... walled reinforced concrete box girder bridges under .... [15] carried out a static live-load test of a ... accurately predicts the exterior girder distribution.

  18. Static Consistency Checking of Web Applications with WebDSL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemel, Z.; Groenewegen, D.M.; Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.

    2010-01-01

    Modern web application development frameworks provide web application developers with highlevel abstractions to improve their productivity. However, their support for static verification of applications is limited. Inconsistencies in an application are often not detected statically, but appear as

  19. Static Consistency Checking of Web Applications with WebDSL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemel, Z.; Groenewegen, D.M.; Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.

    2010-01-01

    Modern web application development frameworks provide web application developers with highlevel abstractions to improve their productivity. However, their support for static verification of applications is limited. Inconsistencies in an application are often not detected statically, but appear as er

  20. Static Versus Dynamic Stretching Effect on Agility Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Troumbley, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare effects of static and dynamic stretching on explosive agility movements, and to examine the effect of the interaction of dynamic and static stretching prior to explosive agility movements. Fourteen men and 10 women performed the different warm-up protocols, including no warm-up (NWU), static stretching (SS), dynamic stretching (DS), and dynamic stretching with static stretching (DS+SS). The T-Drill was used to assess agility. The results indicated n...

  1. Person Identification System using Static-dynamic signatures fusion

    OpenAIRE

    S.A Daramola; T.S Ibiyemi

    2010-01-01

    Off-line signature verification systems rely on static image of signature for person identification. Imposter can easily imitate the static image of signature of the genuine user due to lack of dynamic features. This paper proposes person identity verification system using fused static-dynamic signature features. Computational efficient technique is developed to extract and fuse static and dynamic features extracted from offline and online signatures of the same person. The training stage use...

  2. 14 CFR 33.64 - Pressurized engine static parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... engine static parts. (a) Strength. The applicant must establish by test, validated analysis, or a combination of both, that all static parts subject to significant gas or liquid pressure loads for a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressurized engine static parts....

  3. 14 CFR 25.1325 - Static pressure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pressure systems. (a) Each instrument with static air case connections must be vented to the outside... or other foreign matter, and that the correlation between air pressure in the static pressure system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static pressure systems. 25.1325 Section 25...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1325 - Static pressure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pressure systems. (a) Each instrument with static air case connections must be vented so that the influence... located in such manner that the correlation between air pressure in the static pressure system and true... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static pressure systems. 27.1325 Section 27...

  5. 14 CFR 27.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection....610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft must be protected against... static electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6602 - Static electricity dissipation during loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static electricity dissipation during loading... Explosives Extraneous Electricity § 56.6602 Static electricity dissipation during loading. When explosive material is loaded pneumatically into a blasthole in a manner that generates a static electricity hazard...

  7. 49 CFR 238.203 - Static end strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Static end strength. 238.203 Section 238.203... Equipment § 238.203 Static end strength. (a)(1) Except as further specified in this paragraph or in.... (2) For a passenger car or a locomotive, the static end strength of unoccupied volumes may be...

  8. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  9. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  10. Static Enforcement of Static Separation-of-Duty Policies in Usage Control Authorization Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Li, Ruixuan; Hu, Jinwei; Xu, Dewu

    Separation-of-Duty (SoD) is a fundamental security principle for prevention of fraud and errors in computer security. It has been studied extensively in traditional access control models. However, the research of SoD policy in the recently proposed usage control (UCON) model has not been well studied. This paper formulates and studies the fundamental problem of static enforcement of static SoD (SSoD) policies in the context of UCONA, a sub-model of UCON only considering authorizations. Firstly, we define a set-based specification of SSoD policies, and the safety checking problem for SSoD in UCONA. Secondly, we study the problem of determining whether an SSoD policy is enforceable. Thirdly, we show that it is intractable (coNP-complete) to direct statically enforce SSoD policies in UCONA, while checking whether a UCONA state satisfies a set of static mutually exclusive attribute (SMEA) constraints is efficient, which provides a justification for using SMEA constraints to enforce SSoD policies. Finally, we introduce a indirect static enforcement for SSoD policies in UCONA. We show how to generate the least restrictive SMEA constraints for enforcing SSoD policies in UCONA, by using the attribute-level SSoD requirement as an intermediate step. The results are fundamental to understanding SSoD policies in UCON.

  11. Assessing Static Performance of the Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge by Monitoring the Correlation between Temperature Field and Its Static Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Xin Wang; You-Liang Ding; Peng Sun; Lai-Li Wu; Qing Yue

    2015-01-01

    Taking advantage of the structural health monitoring system installed on the steel truss arch girder of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge, the temperature field data and static strain data are collected and analyzed for the static performance assessment of the bridge. Through analysis, it is found that the static strain changes are mainly caused by temperature field (temperature and temperature difference) and train. After the train-induced static strains are removed, the correlation between the rem...

  12. Static analysis of large-scale multibody system using joint coordinates and spatial algebra operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Initial transient oscillations inhibited in the dynamic simulations responses of multibody systems can lead to inaccurate results, unrealistic load prediction, or simulation failure. These transients could result from incompatible initial conditions, initial constraints violation, and inadequate kinematic assembly. Performing static equilibrium analysis before the dynamic simulation can eliminate these transients and lead to stable simulation. Most exiting multibody formulations determine the static equilibrium position by minimizing the system potential energy. This paper presents a new general purpose approach for solving the static equilibrium in large-scale articulated multibody. The proposed approach introduces an energy drainage mechanism based on Baumgarte constraint stabilization approach to determine the static equilibrium position. The spatial algebra operator is used to express the kinematic and dynamic equations of the closed-loop multibody system. The proposed multibody system formulation utilizes the joint coordinates and modal elastic coordinates as the system generalized coordinates. The recursive nonlinear equations of motion are formulated using the Cartesian coordinates and the joint coordinates to form an augmented set of differential algebraic equations. Then system connectivity matrix is derived from the system topological relations and used to project the Cartesian quantities into the joint subspace leading to minimum set of differential equations.

  13. Fixed-premium deposit insurance and international credit crunches

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Mark M.

    1996-01-01

    This article introduces a monopolistically competitive model of foreign lending in which both explicit and implicit fixed-premium deposit insurance increase the degree to which bank participation in relending to problem debtors falls below its globally optimal level. This provides a channel for fixed-premium deposit insurance to inhibit credit extension in bad states, resulting in an increase in the expected default percentage and an increase in the expected burden on the deposit insurance in...

  14. Monotone Comparative Statics for the Industry Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    for the industry composition. The latter phenomenon is dened as rst-order stochastic dominance shifts in the equilibrium distributions of all activities across active rms. We provide sucient conditions for MCS at both levels of analysis and show that we may have either type of MCS without the other....... It is therefore possible that rm-level complementarities manifest themselves more clearly at the industry level than at the rm level during comparative statics. This turns out to be the case for a large number of models and shocks considered in the recent trade literature for which we provide strong, novel...

  15. Does Acute Static Stretching Reduce Muscle Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis M. Kozub

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Stretching is commonly used as a technique for injury prevention in the training and clinical setting. Recently, stretching in the warm-up has been shown to decrease several muscular performance variables, but the dose-response of this effect is unknown and moreover these stretching bouts are not representative of athletes during warm up procedures, as they are usually time consuming. Our findings may improve the understanding of the neuromuscular responses to stretching and help sportsmen, coaches, physiotherapist and clinicians make decisions for integrating stretching as a part of warm up or rehabilitation treatment plan.Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine whether acute static stretching is responsible for losses in isokinetic peak torque production and if it does, than which time of stretching effect muscle peak torque?Design: Randomized, counterbalanced, within-subjects experimental design.Setting: A university human project laboratory.Methods: Twenty (n=20 light to moderate young exercisers, male and female, from University of Limerick community, with an average age of 22.1±3.6 years, height of 175.6±5 cm, and weight of 73.1±9.9 kg, were randomly selected to take part in the study. Prior to the main study, volunteers attended the lab on two occasions to be familiarized with the knee extension protocol on the Con - trex isokinetic system and with the static stretching protocol. All participants than performed five additional static stretching protocols randomly, in non-consecutive training session. The stretching protocols were 0, 60,120, 180 and 180 with alternative pattern.Results: The results of the statistical analysis (P > 0.05 indicated that peak torque remained unchanged following the static stretching for 0-180 sec at 60 & 180° s−1 angular velocities.Conclusion: The findings suggest that an athletic stretching (shorter duration ranging from 0-180 sec does not produce decreases in peak torque. Athletes

  16. Cancer progression modeling using static sample data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yijun; Yao, Jin; Nowak, Norma J; Goodison, Steve

    2014-01-01

    As molecular profiling data continues to accumulate, the design of integrative computational analyses that can provide insights into the dynamic aspects of cancer progression becomes feasible. Here, we present a novel computational method for the construction of cancer progression models based on the analysis of static tumor samples. We demonstrate the reliability of the method with simulated data, and describe the application to breast cancer data. Our findings support a linear, branching model for breast cancer progression. An interactive model facilitates the identification of key molecular events in the advance of disease to malignancy.

  17. Static aeroelastic analysis for generic configuration wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, IN; Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, Mladen K.

    1991-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that calculates flexible air loads for generic configuration wings was developed. It was made possible by integrating a finite element structural analysis code (MSC/NASTRAN) and a panel code of aerodynamic analysis based on linear potential flow theory. The framework already built in MSC/NASTRAN was used, and the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix was computed externally and inserted in the NASTRAN by means of a DMAP program. It was shown that deformation and flexible air loads of an oblique wing configuration including asymmetric wings can be calculated reliably by this code both in subsonic and supersonic speeds.

  18. Compiler-assisted static checkpoint insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Junsheng; Fuchs, W. K.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a compiler-assisted approach for static checkpoint insertion. Instead of fixing the checkpoint location before program execution, a compiler enhanced polling mechanism is utilized to maintain both the desired checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint 1ocations. The technique has been implemented in a GNU CC compiler for Sun 3 and Sun 4 (Sparc) processors. Experiments demonstrate that the approach provides for stable checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint placements with performance overhead comparable to a previously presented compiler assisted dynamic scheme (CATCH) utilizing the system clock.

  19. Static Analysis for Java Servlets and JSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for statically reasoning about the behavior of Web applications that are developed using Java Servlets and JSP. Specifically, we attack the problems of guaranteeing that all output is well-formed and valid XML and ensuring consistency of XHTML form fields and session state....... Our approach builds on a collection of program analysis techniques developed earlier in the JWIG and Xact projects, combined with work on balanced context-free grammars. Together, this provides the necessary foundation concerning reasoning about output streams and application control flow....

  20. Relativistic Static Thin Disks of Polarized Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Anamaria; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González, Guillermo A.

    2017-03-01

    An infinite family of exact solutions of the electrovacuum Einstein-Maxwell equations is presented. The family is static, axially symmetric and describe thin disks composed by electrically polarized material in a conformastatic spacetime. The form of the conformastatic metric allows us to write down the metric functions and the electromagnetic potentials in terms of a solution of the Laplace equation. We find a general expression for the surface energy density of the disk, the pressure, the polarization vector, the electromagnetic fields and the velocity rotation for circular orbits. As an example, we present the first model of the family and show the behavior of the different physical variables.

  1. Static Model of Cement Rotary Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar D. Hernández-Arboleda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a static model of cement rotary kilns is proposed. The system model is obtained through polynomial series. The proposed model is contrasted with data of a real plant, where optimal results are obtained. Expected results are measured with respect to the clinker production and the combustible consumption is measured in relation with the consumption calorific. The expected result of the approach is the increase of the profitability of the factory through the decrease of the consumption of the combustible.

  2. QuickChecking Static Analysis Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    , to verified fixed point checking. In this paper we demonstrate how quickchecking can be useful for testing a range of static analysis properties with limited effort. We show how to check a range of algebraic lattice properties, to help ensure that an implementation follows the formal specification...... of a lattice. Moreover, we offer a number of generic, type-safe combinators to check transfer functions and operators on lattices, to help ensure that these are, e.g., monotone, strict, or invariant. We substantiate our claims by quickchecking a type analysis for the Lua programming language...

  3. Static analysis of software the abstract interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature currently available to students and researchers is very general, covering only the formal techniques of static analysis. This book presents real examples of the formal techniques called ""abstract interpretation"" currently being used in various industrial fields: railway, aeronautics, space, automotive, etc. The purpose of this book is to present students and researchers, in a single book, with the wealth of experience of people who are intrinsically involved in the realization and evaluation of software-based safety critical systems. As the authors are people curr

  4. Statics and dynamics of fluids in nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Gouin, Henri

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study the statics and dynamics of nanotubes by using the methods of continuum mechanics. The nanotube can be filled with only a liquid or a vapour phase according to the physicochemical characteristics of the wall and to the disjoining pressure associated with the liquid and vapour mother bulks of the fluid, regardless of the nature of the external mother bulk. In dynamics, flows through nanotubes can be much more important than classical Poiseuille flows. When the external mother bulk is of vapour, the flow can be a million times larger than the classical flows when slippage on wall does not exist.

  5. Management of Statically Modifiable Prolog Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨曦; 慈云桂

    1989-01-01

    The Warren Abstract Machine is an efficient execution model for Prolog,which has become the basis of many high performance Prolog systems.However.little support for the implementation of the non-logical components of Prolog is provided in the WAM.The original Warren code is not modifiable.In this paper,we show how static modifications of Warren code can be achieved by adding a few instructions and a little extra information to the code.The implementation of the code manager is discussed.Algorithms for some basic operations are given.

  6. STATIC AND DYNAMIC THEORIES OF LIQUID CRYSTALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林芳华; 刘春

    2001-01-01

    The study of liquid crystals givesrise to many fascinating but difficult mathematical problems. The purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize some recent advances, as well as to describe the present state of art of the theory of liquid crystals.For the static theory, we emphasis on the theory of defects and the theory of Smectic A materials. We will also study the Ericksen-Leslie theory for the liquid crystal flow.The well-posedness as well as the motion of the defects will be discussed.

  7. Static validation of licence conformance policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2008-01-01

    Policy conformance is a security property gaining importance due to commercial interest like Digital Rights Management. It is well known that static analysis can be used to validate a number of more classical security policies, such as discretionary and mandatory access control policies, as well...... as communication protocols using symmetric and asymmetric cryptography. In this work we show how to develop a Flow Logic for validating the conformance of client software with respect to a licence conformance policy. Our approach is sufficiently flexible that it extends to fully open systems that can admit new...

  8. Cross-ocean GPS long distance rapid static positioning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of cross-ocean GPS long distance rapid static positioning has become one of the main technical means of GPS static positioning away from the mainland. The key technology had been analyzed including data preprocessing and quality control, long distance integer ambiguity resolution and static Kalman filter parameter estimation. Effective data processing method of cross-ocean GPS long baseline rapid static positioning had been proposed. Through the analysis of practical examples of coastal and ocean, the feasibility of cross-ocean GPS long distance rapid static positioning based on the method is testified and verified. The results show that the accuracy of one-hour single baseline static positioning for the 500–600 km distance can be better than 10 cm in the three-dimensional coordinates, which can suffice static positioning accuracy in the special ocean environment.

  9. Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Peterson, Curt

    2003-01-01

    The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have been compiled from 52 studies, documenting 59 sites from northern California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia that contain known or potential tsunami deposits. Bibliographical references are provided for all sites included in the database. Cascadia tsunami deposits are usually seen as anomalous sand layers in coastal marsh or lake sediments. The studies cited in the database use numerous criteria based on sedimentary characteristics to distinguish tsunami deposits from sand layers deposited by other processes, such as river flooding and storm surges. Several studies cited in the database contain evidence for more than one tsunami at a site. Data categories include age, thickness, layering, grainsize, and other sedimentological characteristics of Cascadia tsunami deposits. The database documents the variability observed in tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin.

  10. Robot-Crawler: Statically Balanced Gaits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new statically balanced walking technique for a robot‐crawler. The gait design and the control of the robot crawler aim to achieve stability while walking. This statically balanced gait has to be designed in a different fashion to a wheeled robot, as there are discrete changes in the support of the robot when its legs are lifted or placed on the ground. The stability of the robot depends on how the legs are positioned relative to the body and also on the sequence and timing with which the legs are lifted and placed. In order to reduce the risk of stability loss while walking, a measure for the robot stability (so‐called stability margin is typically used in the gait and motion planning. In this paper different biological behaviours of four‐legged animals are studied and mapped on a quad-legrobot‐crawler. Experiments were carried out on the forward walking gaits of lizards and horses. Based on these results, the stability margins of different gaits are discussed and compared.

  11. Static Code Analysis with Gitlab-CI

    CERN Document Server

    Datko, Szymon Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Static Code Analysis is a simple but efficient way to ensure that application’s source code is free from known flaws and security vulnerabilities. Although such analysis tools are often coming with more advanced code editors, there are a lot of people who prefer less complicated environments. The easiest solution would involve education – where to get and how to use the aforementioned tools. However, counting on the manual usage of such tools still does not guarantee their actual usage. On the other hand, reducing the required effort, according to the idea “setup once, use anytime without sweat” seems like a more promising approach. In this paper, the approach to automate code scanning, within the existing CERN’s Gitlab installation, is described. For realization of that project, the Gitlab-CI service (the “CI” stands for "Continuous Integration"), with Docker assistance, was employed to provide a variety of static code analysers for different programming languages. This document covers the gene...

  12. On static Poincar\\'e-Einstein metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    The classification of solutions of the static vacuum Einstein equations, on a given closed manifold or an asymptotically flat one, is a long-standing and much-studied problem. Solutions are characterized by a complete Riemannian $n$-manifold $(M,g)$ and a positive function $N$, called the lapse. We study this problem on Asymptotically Poincar\\'e-Einstein $n$-manifolds, $n\\ge 3$, when the conformal boundary-at-infinity is either a round sphere, a flat torus or smooth quotient thereof, or a compact hyperbolic manifold. Such manifolds have well-defined Wang mass, and are time-symmetric slices of static, vacuum, asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. By integrating a mildly generalized form of an identity first found by Wang, we give a mass formula for such manifolds. There are no solutions with positive mass. In consequence, we observe that either the lapse is trivial and $(M,g)$ is Poincar\\'e-Einstein or the Wang mass is negative, as in the case of time symmetric slices of the AdS soliton. As an application,...

  13. Static non-reciprocity in mechanical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulais, Corentin; Sounas, Dimitrios; Alù, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Reciprocity is a general, fundamental principle governing various physical systems, which ensures that the transfer function—the transmission of a physical quantity, say light intensity—between any two points in space is identical, regardless of geometrical or material asymmetries. Breaking this transmission symmetry offers enhanced control over signal transport, isolation and source protection. So far, devices that break reciprocity (and therefore show non-reciprocity) have been mostly considered in dynamic systems involving electromagnetic, acoustic and mechanical wave propagation associated with fields varying in space and time. Here we show that it is possible to break reciprocity in static systems, realizing mechanical metamaterials that exhibit vastly different output displacements under excitation from different sides, as well as one-way displacement amplification. This is achieved by combining large nonlinearities with suitable geometrical asymmetries and/or topological features. In addition to extending non-reciprocity and isolation to statics, our work sheds light on energy propagation in nonlinear materials with asymmetric crystalline structures and topological properties. We anticipate that breaking reciprocity will open avenues for energy absorption, conversion and harvesting, soft robotics, prosthetics and optomechanics.

  14. CESA TRAFFICKING INHIBITOR inhibits cellulose deposition and interferes with the trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes and their associated proteins KORRIGAN1 and POM2/CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE PROTEIN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Natasha; Wilkop, Thomas E; Esteve, Victor Esteva; Jeannotte, Richard; Lathe, Rahul; Vernhettes, Samantha; Weimer, Bart; Hicks, Glenn; Alonso, Jose; Labavitch, John; Persson, Staffan; Ehrhardt, David; Drakakaki, Georgia

    2015-02-01

    Cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) at the plasma membrane (PM) are aligned with cortical microtubules (MTs) and direct the biosynthesis of cellulose. The mechanism of the interaction between CSCs and MTs, and the cellular determinants that control the delivery of CSCs at the PM, are not yet well understood. We identified a unique small molecule, CESA TRAFFICKING INHIBITOR (CESTRIN), which reduces cellulose content and alters the anisotropic growth of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls. We monitored the distribution and mobility of fluorescently labeled cellulose synthases (CESAs) in live Arabidopsis cells under chemical exposure to characterize their subcellular effects. CESTRIN reduces the velocity of PM CSCs and causes their accumulation in the cell cortex. The CSC-associated proteins KORRIGAN1 (KOR1) and POM2/CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTIVE PROTEIN1 (CSI1) were differentially affected by CESTRIN treatment, indicating different forms of association with the PM CSCs. KOR1 accumulated in bodies similar to CESA; however, POM2/CSI1 dissociated into the cytoplasm. In addition, MT stability was altered without direct inhibition of MT polymerization, suggesting a feedback mechanism caused by cellulose interference. The selectivity of CESTRIN was assessed using a variety of subcellular markers for which no morphological effect was observed. The association of CESAs with vesicles decorated by the trans-Golgi network-localized protein SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS61 (SYP61) was increased under CESTRIN treatment, implicating SYP61 compartments in CESA trafficking. The properties of CESTRIN compared with known CESA inhibitors afford unique avenues to study and understand the mechanism under which PM-associated CSCs are maintained and interact with MTs and to dissect their trafficking routes in etiolated hypocotyls.

  15. Super pharmacological levels of calcitriol (1,25-(OH)2D3) inhibits mineral deposition and decreases cell proliferation in a strain dependent manner in chicken mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenic differentiation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Vivek V; Chousalkar, Kapil C; Bhanugopan, Marie S; Quinn, Jane C

    2015-11-01

    The biologically active form of vitamin D₃, calcitriol (1,25-(OH)₂D₃), plays a key role in mineral homeostasis and bone formation and dietary vitamin D₃deficiency is a major cause of bone disorders in poultry. Supplementary dietary cholecalciferol (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25-OH), the precursor of calcitriol, is commonly employed to combat this problem; however, dosage must be carefully determined as excess dietary vitamin D can cause toxicity resulting in a decrease in bone calcification, hypercalcinemia and renal failure. Despite much research on the therapeutic administration of dietary vitamin D in humans, the relative sensitivity of avian species to exogenous vitamin D has not been well defined. In order to determine the effects of exogenous 1,25-(OH)₂D₃during avian osteogenesis, chicken bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were exposed to varying doses of 1,25-(OH)₂D₃during in vitro osteogenic differentiation and examined for markers of early proliferation and osteogenic induction. Similar to humans and other mammals, poultry BM-MSCs were found to be highly sensitive to exogenous 1,25-(OH)₂D₃with super pharmacological levels exerting significant inhibition of mineralization and loss of cell proliferation in vitro. Strain related differences were apparent, with BM-MCSs derived from layers strains showing a higher level of sensitivity to 1,25-(OH)₂D₃than those from broilers. These data suggest that understanding species and strain specific sensitivities to 1,25-(OH)₂D₃is important for optimizing bone health in the poultry industry and that use of avian BM-MSCs are a useful tool for examining underlying effects of genetic variation in poultry.

  16. Study of the Deposition of Ammonium Perchlorate Following the Static Firing of MK-58 Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    hyperthyroidism , gas generators, electrolytes for lithium cells, and as chemical reagents. The occurrence of perchlorate in the environment is... treatments for the remediation of perchlorate in the environment (Refs. 10, 11). The debate on the acceptable levels of perchlorate in drinking...Biodegradation for Water Treatment ”, Environ. Sci. and Tecnol., Vol. 39 pp. 239A-247A, 2005. [11] Hatzinger, P.B., Whittier, C.M., Arkins, M.D., Bryan

  17. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, P. C.; Campbell, A. A.; Tarasevich, B. J.; Fryxell, G. E.; Bentjen, S. B.

    1991-04-01

    Surfaces derivatized with organic functional groups were used to promote the deposition of thin films of inorganic minerals. These derivatized surfaces were designed to mimic the nucleation proteins that control mineral deposition during formation of bone, shell, and other hard tissues in living organisms. By the use of derivatized substrates control was obtained over the phase of mineral deposited, the orientation of the crystal lattice and the location of deposition. These features are of considerable importance in many technically important thin films, coatings, and composite materials. Methods of derivatizing surfaces are considered and examples of controlled mineral deposition are presented.

  18. Bauxite Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨化洲

    1989-01-01

    Bauxite deposits in China,rangin in age from Late Paleozoic to Cenozoic ,are distributed mainly in Shanxi,Shandong Henan,Guizhou,Guangxi and Yunnan.Based on stratigraphic relations they can be clas-sified as 6 types:inter-system marine,inter-system continental,intra-system marine,intra-system continent-tal,weathering lateritic and weathering accumulation types.But in terms of depositional environments,only four types are distinguished,I.e.the marine deposits,continental deposits,lateritic deposits and weath-ering-accumulation deposits.These deposits have been formed in two steps:firstly,the depression of paraplatform or front basin margins in paleocontinents and secondly,the development of littoral-lagoons on the eroded surface of karstified carbonate bedrocks.The aluminum may have been derived from the carbonate rocks with which the ores are associated,or from adjacent aluminosilicate rocks.

  19. Static and dynamic oxidation of Ti-14Al-21Nb and coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, K. E.; Sankaran, S. N.; Clark, R. K.; Wallace, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    The oxidation of Ti-14Al-21Nb (wt pct) was studied under static conditions at 649 to 1093 C for as long as 120 hr, and under simulated hypersonic flight (dynamic oxidation) conditions at 982 C for as many as 16 half-hour cycles. Under simulated hypersonic flight conditions heavy oxidation and spalling of the oxide was observed. It was concluded that titanium aluminides used in hypersonic applications must have oxidation-protective coatings. In this preliminary study coatings about 1 micron thick were applied by sputter deposition, from solutions, and from sol-gels. It was found that, because of cracks and porosity, the sputter-deposited coatings did not have sufficient film integrity to shield the alloy. Some of the coatings applied from sol-gels demonstrated film integrity in 1 hr exposures at 982 C.

  20. Plate shell structures - statics and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the basic structural system, statics and spatial stability of plate shells. The structural system can be considered as a single layer of planar elements, where each element only transfers in-plane (membrane) forces to its neighbouring elements. External out-of-plane loads...... are carried into the structure as in-plane forces by plate action in each element. These in-plane forces are then carried through the plate structure to the supports as in-plane forces by membrane action. The consequence is that the spatial stability of the structure can be simply analysed by considering...... the plate system as only subject to in-plane loads. The stability of such systems is based on the fact that each plane element is held fixed in space by three fixed support lines and that these support lines can be provided by three plane neighbour elements. This means that the spatial stability of a plate...

  1. Network Completion for Static Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsu Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tackle the problem of completing and inferring genetic networks under stationary conditions from static data, where network completion is to make the minimum amount of modifications to an initial network so that the completed network is most consistent with the expression data in which addition of edges and deletion of edges are basic modification operations. For this problem, we present a new method for network completion using dynamic programming and least-squares fitting. This method can find an optimal solution in polynomial time if the maximum indegree of the network is bounded by a constant. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method through computational experiments using synthetic data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our proposed method can distinguish the differences between two types of genetic networks under stationary conditions from lung cancer and normal gene expression data.

  2. Static aeroelastic analysis of composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, IN; Hong, Chang Sun; Miura, Hirokazu; Kim, Seung KO

    1990-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that can predict aerodynamic loads for the deformed shape of the composite wing has been developed. The finite element method (FEM) was used for composite plate structural analysis, and the linear vortex lattice method (VLM) was used for steady aerodynamic analysis. The final deformed shape of the wing due to applied forces is determined by iterative manner using FEM and VLM. FEM and VLM analysis are related by a surface spline interpolation procedure. The wing with Gr/Ep composite material has been investigated to see the wing deformation effect. Aerodynamic load change due to wing flexibility has been investigated. Also, the effect of fiber orientation and sweep angle on the deformation pattern and aerodynamic coefficients are examined. For a certain fiber orientation, the deflection and aerodynamic loading of the composite wing is very much reduced. The swept forward wing has more significant effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic coefficient than the swept back wing does.

  3. Static aeroelastic analysis for generic configuration aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, IN; Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, Mladen K.

    1987-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that can calculate flexible air loads for generic configuration aircraft was developed. It was made possible by integrating a finite element structural analysis code (MSC/NASTRAN) and a panel code of aerodynamic analysis based on linear potential flow theory. The framework already built in MSC/NASTRAN was used and the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix is computed externally and inserted in the NASTRAN by means of a DMAP program. It was shown that deformation and flexible airloads of an oblique wing aircraft can be calculated reliably by this code both in subsonic and supersonic speeds. Preliminary results indicating importance of flexibility in calculating air loads for this type of aircraft are presented.

  4. Distributed static linear Gaussian models using consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanovic, Pavle; Valcarcel Macua, Sergio; Zazo, Santiago

    2012-10-01

    Algorithms for distributed agreement are a powerful means for formulating distributed versions of existing centralized algorithms. We present a toolkit for this task and show how it can be used systematically to design fully distributed algorithms for static linear Gaussian models, including principal component analysis, factor analysis, and probabilistic principal component analysis. These algorithms do not rely on a fusion center, require only low-volume local (1-hop neighborhood) communications, and are thus efficient, scalable, and robust. We show how they are also guaranteed to asymptotically converge to the same solution as the corresponding existing centralized algorithms. Finally, we illustrate the functioning of our algorithms on two examples, and examine the inherent cost-performance trade-off.

  5. The Spectrum of Static Subtracted Geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Tomas; Cohen-Maldonado, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Subtracted geometries are black hole solutions of the four dimensional STU model with rather interesting ties to asymptotically flat black holes. In addition, a peculiar feature is that the solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation on this subtracted background can be organized according to representations of the conformal group $SO(2,2)$. We test if this behavior persists for the linearized fluctuations of gravitational and matter fields on static, electrically charged backgrounds of this kind. We find that there is a subsector of the modes that do display conformal symmetry, while some modes do not. We also discuss two different effective actions that describe these subtracted geometries and how the spectrum of quasinormal modes is dramatically different depending upon the action used.

  6. Construction of STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Onodera, Seiji; Hirose, Hideyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-08-01

    Two critical assemblies, STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility) and TRACY (Transient Experiment Critical Facility), were constructed in NUCEF (Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility) to promote researches on the criticality safety at a reprocessing facility. STACY aims at providing critical data of uranium nitrate solution, plutonium nitrate solution and their mixture while varying concentration of solution fuel, core tank shape and size and neutron reflecting condition. STACY achieved first criticality in February 1995, and passed the licensing inspection by STA (Science and Technology Agency of Japan) in May. After that a series of critical experiments commenced with 10 w/o enriched uranium solution. This report describes the outline of STACY at the end of FY 1996. (author)

  7. Electrovacuum Static Counterrotating Relativistic Dust Disks

    CERN Document Server

    García-Reyes, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study is presented of the counterrotating model (CRM) for generic electrovacuum static axially symmetric relativistic thin disks without radial pressure. We find a general constraint over the counterrotating tangential velocities needed to cast the surface energy-momentum tensor of the disk as the superposition of two counterrotating charged dust fluids. We also find explicit expressions for the energy densities, charge densities and velocities of the counterrotating fluids. We then show that this constraint can be satisfied if we take the two counterrotating streams as circulating along electro-geodesics. However, we show that, in general, it is not possible to take the two counterrotating fluids as circulating along electro-geodesics nor take the two counterrotating tangential velocities as equal and opposite. Four simple families of models of counterrotating charged disks based on Chazy-Curzon-like, Zipoy-Voorhees-like, Bonnor-Sackfield-like and Kerr-like electrovacuum solutions are considered w...

  8. Static analysis of an office desk construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Novotný

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is a static analysis of a desk construction and the determination of its probable mechanical behaviour using Finite Element Method. The construction was modelled and numerically analysed in Autocad Inventor 2011 and the stability of the entire desk was calculated with the size and placement of the loading force based on the standards and cited literature. Possible locations and directions of the deformation were analysed and a solution for its prevention was proposed and the stability of the desk as well as the extreme position of the stand were calculated. The verification of the obtained results in an accredited furniture testing lab is planned using a prototype of the office desk.

  9. Multipoint vibrometry with dynamic and static holograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haist, T.; Lingel, C.; Osten, W. [Institut für Technische Optik, Stuttgart Research Center of Photonic Engineering (SCOPE), University of Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Winter, M.; Giesen, M.; Ritter, F.; Sandfort, K.; Rembe, C. [Polytec GmbH, Polytec-Platz 1-7, D-76337 Waldbronn (Germany); Bendel, K. [Corporate Sector Research and Advanced Engineering, Robert Bosch GmbH, Gerlingen (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    We report on two multipoint vibrometers with user-adjustable position of the measurement spots. Both systems are using holograms for beam deflection. The measurement is based on heterodyne interferometry with a frequency difference of 5 MHz between reference and object beam. One of the systems uses programmable positioning of the spots in the object volume but is limited concerning the light efficiency. The other system is based on static holograms in combination with mechanical adjustment of the measurement spots and does not have such a general efficiency restriction. Design considerations are given and we show measurement results for both systems. In addition, we analyze the sensitivity of the systems which is a major limitation compared to single point scanning systems.

  10. Static Load Distribution in Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A numerical procedure for computing the internal loading distribution in statically loaded, single-row, angular-contact ball bearings when subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load is presented. The combined radial and thrust load must be applied in order to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings. The numerical procedure requires the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations - where Z is the number of the balls - to yield an exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles. Numerical results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature and show significant differences in the magnitudes of the ball loads, contact angles, and the extent of the loading zone.

  11. Static and dynamic friction of hierarchical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical structures are very common in nature, but only recently have they been systematically studied in materials science, in order to understand the specific effects they can have on the mechanical properties of various systems. Structural hierarchy provides a way to tune and optimize macroscopic mechanical properties starting from simple base constituents and new materials are nowadays designed exploiting this possibility. This can be true also in the field of tribology. In this paper we study the effect of hierarchical patterned surfaces on the static and dynamic friction coefficients of an elastic material. Our results are obtained by means of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional spring-block model, which has previously been used to investigate various aspects of friction. Despite the simplicity of the model, we highlight some possible mechanisms that explain how hierarchical structures can significantly modify the friction coefficients of a material, providing a means to achieve tunability.

  12. Static impedance behavior of programmable metallization cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, S.; Saremi, M.; Barnaby, H. J.; Edwards, A.; Kozicki, M. N.; Mitkova, M.; Mahalanabis, D.; Gonzalez-Velo, Y.; Mahmud, A.

    2015-04-01

    Programmable metallization cell (PMC) devices work by growing and dissolving a conducting metallic bridge across a chalcogenide glass (ChG) solid electrolyte, which changes the resistance of the cell. PMC operation relies on the incorporation of metal ions in the ChG films via photo-doping to lower the off-state resistance and stabilize resistive switching, and subsequent transport of these ions by electric fields induced from an externally applied bias. In this paper, the static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film with active Ag and inert Ni electrodes is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities.

  13. Landau problem in the static schwarzschild universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jafari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  This paper considers the Landau problem in an elected static space time and the are erased levels shifts which are erased as a metric deviation from the Minkowski space time. This research is based on the Weber’s method. We try to rewrite the equation of motion of particles in the presence of the gravitational effects and consider the regions limited with the tangent spaces conditions. I t would be reasonable to assume the nonrelativistic particles with low speed. We show that due to the Weber’s method, the tangent space is always available. Another assumption of this article is time independent tangent space of Schwarzschild universe and use of Riemann’s normal coordinates.

  14. Distributed parameter statics of magnetic catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunay, Ilker

    2011-01-01

    We discuss how to use special Cosserat rod theory for deriving distributed-parameter static equilibrium equations of magnetic catheters. These medical devices are used for minimally-invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and can be operated remotely or controlled by automated algorithms. The magnetic material can be lumped in rigid segments or distributed in flexible segments. The position vector of the cross-section centroid and quaternion representation of an orthonormal triad are selected as DOF. The strain energy for transversely isotropic, hyperelastic rods is augmented with the mechanical potential energy of the magnetic field and a penalty term to enforce the quaternion unity constraint. Numerical solution is found by 1D finite elements. Material properties of polymer tubes in extension, bending and twist are determined by mechanical and magnetic experiments. Software experiments with commercial FEM software indicate that the computational effort with the proposed method is at least one order of magnitude less than standard 3D FEM.

  15. Anisotropy in Quasi-Static Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-08-01

    In this review we summarise the current status of the quasi-static magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The energy spectrum is steeper than Kolmogorov’s k -5/3 spectrum due to the decrease of the kinetic energy flux with wavenumber k as a result of Joule dissipation. The spectral index decreases with the increase of interaction parameter. The flow is quasi two-dimensional with strong {{\\mathbf{U}}\\bot} at small k and weak {{U}\\parallel} at large k, where {{\\mathbf{U}}\\bot} and {{U}\\parallel} are the perpendicular and parallel components of velocity relative to the external magnetic field. For small k, the energy flux of {{\\mathbf{U}}\\bot} is negative, but for large k, the energy flux of {{U}\\parallel} is positive. Pressure mediates the energy transfer from {{\\mathbf{U}}\\bot} to {{U}\\parallel} .

  16. VIRTEX-4 VQ static SEU Characterization Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gregory; Swift, Gary; Carmichael, Carl

    2008-01-01

    This report is the result of the combined efforts of members within the Xilinx Radiation Test Consortium (XRTC), sometimes known as the Xilinx SEE Test Consortium. The XRTC is a voluntary association of aerospace entities, including leading aerospace companies, universities and national laboratories, combining resources to characterize reconfigurable FPGAs for aerospace applications. Previous publications of Virtex-4 radiation results are for commercial (non-epitaxial) devices; see, for example, Refs. 1-4. A notable exception is Ref. 5, which presents XRTC upset measurements of storage elements in the PowerPC405s in the XQR4VFX60. This report of upset susceptibility to heavy ions and protons of the static memory elements in the Virtex-4QV family is a direct parallel to the XRTC report on the thin epitaxial devices in the Virtex-2 family released four years ago.

  17. Static hand gesture recognition from a video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokade, Rajeshree S.; Doye, Dharmpal

    2011-10-01

    A sign language (also signed language) is a language which, instead of acoustically conveyed sound patterns, uses visually transmitted sign patterns to convey meaning- "simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands". Sign languages commonly develop in deaf communities, which can include interpreters, friends and families of deaf people as well as people who are deaf or hard of hearing themselves. In this paper, we proposed a novel system for recognition of static hand gestures from a video, based on Kohonen neural network. We proposed algorithm to separate out key frames, which include correct gestures from a video sequence. We segment, hand images from complex and non uniform background. Features are extracted by applying Kohonen on key frames and recognition is done.

  18. Assessing Static Performance of the Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge by Monitoring the Correlation between Temperature Field and Its Static Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Xin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the structural health monitoring system installed on the steel truss arch girder of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge, the temperature field data and static strain data are collected and analyzed for the static performance assessment of the bridge. Through analysis, it is found that the static strain changes are mainly caused by temperature field (temperature and temperature difference and train. After the train-induced static strains are removed, the correlation between the remaining static strains and the temperature field shows apparent linear characteristics, which can be mathematically modeled for the description of static performance. Therefore, multivariate linear regression function combined with principal component analysis is introduced to mathematically model the correlation. Furthermore, the residual static strains of mathematical model are adopted as assessment indicator and three kinds of degradation regulations of static performance are obtained after simulation of the residual static strains. Finally, it is concluded that the static performance of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge was in a good condition during that period.

  19. Static gravitational equations of general relativity and "the fifth force"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A.

    2015-10-01

    Einstein's static field equations are investigated in various coordinate charts. After comparing Newtonian gravitational theory (in a curvilinear coordinate chart) with various charts of Einstein's static gravitational equations, the most appropriate choice of the coordinate chart for Einstein's static field equations is made. As a consequence, Einstein's equations imply the non-linear potential equation instead of the usual Poisson's equation of the Newtonian theory. Investigating the non-linear potential equation above in the spherically symmetric cases, the corresponding potentials yield scenarios comparable to "the fifth force". Next, static gravitational and electric fields generated by an incoherent charged dust are investigated. The corresponding non-linear potential equation is derived. Finally, the static Einstein-Maxwell-Klein-Gordon equations are explored and again, the corresponding non-linear potential equation is obtained. This potential resembles the static Higgs boson field.

  20. Effects of static magnetic fields on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, O.

    In our recent experiment on STS-107 (MFA-Biotube) we took advantage of the magnetic heterogeneity of the gravity receptor cells of flax roots, namely stronger diamagnetism of starch-filled amyloplasts compared to cytoplasm (Δ ≊ HGMF, grad(H2/2) up to 109-1010 Oe2/cm) of the experimental chambers (MFCs) repelled amyloplasts from the zones of stronger field thus providing a directional stimulus for plant gravisensing system in microgravity, and causing the roots to react. Such reaction was observed in the video downlink pictures. Unfortunately, the ``Columbia'' tragedy caused loss of the plant material and most of the images, thus preventing us from detailed studies of the results. Currently we are looking for a possibility to repeat this experiment. Therefore, it is very important to understand, what other effects (besides displacing amyloplasts) static magnetic fields with intensities 0 to 2.5104 Oe, and with the size of the area of non-uniformity 10-3 to 1 cm. These effects were estimated theoretically and tested experimentally. No statistically significant differences in growth rates or rates of gravicurvature were observed in experiments with Linum, Arabidopsis, Hordeum, Avena, Ceratodon and Chara between the plants grown in uniform magnetic fields of various intensities (102 to 2.5104 Oe) and those grown in the Earth's magnetic field. Microscopic studies also did not detect any structural differences between test and control plants. The magnitudes of possible effects of static magnetic fields on plant cells and organs (including effects on ion currents, magneto-hydrodynamic effects in moving cytoplasm, ponderomotive forces on other cellular structures, effects on some biochemical reactions and biomolecules) were estimated theoretically. The estimations have shown, that these effects are small compared to the thermodynamic noise and thus are insignificant. Both theoretical estimations and control experiments confirm, that intracellular magnetophoresis of

  1. One minute static stretch of plantar flexors transiently increases H reflex excitability and exerts no effect on corticospinal pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Francesco; Gallasch, Eugen; Christova, Monica; Rafolt, Dietmar; Rauscher, Andreas Benedikt; Tilp, Markus

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? What mediates neural responses following static stretching, and how long do these influences last? What is the main finding and its importance? This study shows that 1 min of static stretching inhibits the tendon tap reflex and facilitates the H reflex without influencing motor-evoked potentials. The results indicate that at least two different mechanisms mediate neural responses after static stretching. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the neural responses observed after static stretching are mediated by sensitivity of muscle spindles, spinal excitability or cortical excitability and how long these influences last. Nineteen volunteers (25.7 ± 5.6 years old) were tested for the tendon tap reflex (T-reflex), H reflex and motor-evoked potentials on ankle flexors and extensors immediately, 5 and 10 min after 1 min static stretching applied at individual maximal ankle dorsiflexion, as well as immediately, 5 and 10 min after a control period of the same duration. Comparison of measurements collected immediately after stretching or control conditions revealed that the T-reflex was weaker after stretching than after control (-59.2% P = 0.000). The T-reflex showed a slow recovery rate within the first 150 s after stretching, but 5 min after the inhibition had disappeared. The H reflex increased immediately after stretching (+18.3%, P = 0.036), showed a quick tendency to recover and returned to control values within 5 min from stretching. Motor-evoked potentials were not affected by the procedure. These results suggest that 1 min of static stretching primarily decreases muscle spindle sensitivity and facilitates the H reflex, whereas effects on the motor cortex can be excluded. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  2. Static model for a 3-DOF underactuated finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guay

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a static model of a three-degree-of-freedom underactuated finger. The model includes all static forces, namely actuation forces, return forces and gravity. All geometric and static parameters can be freely changed (pulley radius, member's mass, etc.. Hence, the model allows complete static simulations to be performed and it can also be used for numerical optimization.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  3. Static magnets: what are they and what do they do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Laakso

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic static magnets have gained wide community acceptance for neuromusculoskeletal pain relief in many countries yet, apart from strong anecdotal reports of benefit, there is a paucity of scientific evidence for their use. OBJECTIVES: In this review we describe the physical characteristics of traditional and commonplace unipolar and bipolar static magnets as well as newer quadripolar magnetic arrays; discuss what is known of the physiological effects of static magnets and the strength of the literature; and make suggestions for targeted future research for static magnets in the management of neuromusculoskeletal pain conditions.

  4. Static Signature Synthesis: A Neuromotor Inspired Approach for Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Miguel A; Diaz-Cabrera, Moises; Morales, Aythami

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we propose a new method for generating synthetic handwritten signature images for biometric applications. The procedures we introduce imitate the mechanism of motor equivalence which divides human handwriting into two steps: the working out of an effector independent action plan and its execution via the corresponding neuromuscular path. The action plan is represented as a trajectory on a spatial grid. This contains both the signature text and its flourish, if there is one. The neuromuscular path is simulated by applying a kinematic Kaiser filter to the trajectory plan. The length of the filter depends on the pen speed which is generated using a scalar version of the sigma lognormal model. An ink deposition model, applied pixel by pixel to the pen trajectory, provides realistic static signature images. The lexical and morphological properties of the synthesized signatures as well as the range of the synthesis parameters have been estimated from real databases of real signatures such as the MCYT Off-line and the GPDS960GraySignature corpuses. The performance experiments show that by tuning only four parameters it is possible to generate synthetic identities with different stability and forgers with different skills. Therefore it is possible to create datasets of synthetic signatures with a performance similar to databases of real signatures. Moreover, we can customize the created dataset to produce skilled forgeries or simple forgeries which are easier to detect, depending on what the researcher needs. Perceptual evaluation gives an average confusion of 44.06 percent between real and synthetic signatures which shows the realism of the synthetic ones. The utility of the synthesized signatures is demonstrated by studying the influence of the pen type and number of users on an automatic signature verifier.

  5. ElectroSpark Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    ElectroSpark Deposition Hard Chrome Alternatives Team Joint Cadmium Alternatives Team Canadian Hard Chrome Alternatives Team Joint Group on Pollution...00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ElectroSpark Deposition 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Processes, Inc. ElectroSpark Deposition (ESD) Results of Materials Testing and Technology Insertion January 25, 2007 Advanced Surfaces And Processes, Inc. 3

  6. Latent Constructs of the Static-99R and Static-2002R: A Three-Factor Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette-Alarie, Sébastien; Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Helmus, Leslie-Maaike

    2016-02-01

    The most commonly used risk assessment tools for predicting sexual violence focus almost exclusively on static, historical factors (e.g., characteristics of prior offences). Consequently, they are assumed to be unable to directly inform the selection of treatment targets or evaluate change. In this article, we argue that this limitation can be mitigated by using latent variable models as a framework to link historical risk factors to the psychological characteristics of offenders. Accordingly, we conducted a factor analysis of the 13 nonredundant items from the two most commonly used risk tools for sexual offenders (Static-99R and Static-2002R) to identify the psychological information contained in these tools. Three factors were identified: (a) persistence/paraphilia, a construct related to sexual criminality, especially of the pedophilic type; (b) youthful stranger aggression, a construct centered on young age and offence seriousness; and (c) general criminality, a construct that reflected the diversity and magnitude of criminal careers. These constructs predicted sexual recidivism with similar accuracy, but only youthful stranger aggression and general criminality predicted nonsexual recidivism. These results indicate that risk tools for sexual violence are multidimensional, and support a shift from a focus on atheoretical risk markers to the assessment of psychologically meaningful constructs.

  7. Static pressure drives proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells via caveolin-1/ERK1/2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Di-xian, E-mail: luodixian_2@163.com [Division of Pharmacoproteomics, Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Research Center of Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); The First People' s Hospital of Chenzhou City, Chenzhou, Hunan 421001 (China); Cheng, Jiming [Internal Medicine and SimmonsCooper Cancer Institute, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 911 N. Rutledge Street, Springfield, IL 62794-9626 (United States); Suzhou Health College of Technology, 20 Shuyuanxiang, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215002 (China); Xiong, Yan [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Li, Junmo [Division of Pharmacoproteomics, Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Research Center of Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Xia, Chenglai [Division of Pharmacoproteomics, Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Research Center of Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); School of Pharmaceutics, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China); Xu, Canxin; Wang, Chun; Zhu, Bingyang [Division of Pharmacoproteomics, Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Research Center of Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Hu, Zhuowei [Institute of Materia Medical, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730 (China); Liao, Duan-fang, E-mail: dfliao66@yahoo.com.cn [Division of Pharmacoproteomics, Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Research Center of Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China)

    2010-01-22

    Intimal hyperplasia plays an important role in various types of vascular remodeling. Mechanical forces derived from blood flow are associated with the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). This contributes to many vascular disorders such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). In this study, we show that static pressure induces the proliferation of VSMC and activates its related signal pathway. VSMC from a rat aorta were treated with different pressures (0, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mm Hg) in a custom-made pressure incubator for 24 h. The most active proliferation of VSMC was detected at a pressure of 120 mm Hg. VSMC was also incubated under a static pressure of 120 mm Hg for different time intervals (0, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h). We found that static pressure significantly stimulates VSMC proliferation. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation showed a peak at the pressure of 120 mm Hg at 4-h time point. Moreover, caveolin-1 expression was significantly inhibited by rising static pressure. Downregulation of VSMC proliferation could be found after PD98059 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation inhibitor) treatment. Our data also showed that a siRNA-mediated caveolin-1 knock down increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and VSMC proliferation. These results demonstrate that static pressure promotes VSMC proliferation via the Caveolin-1/ERK1/2 pathway.

  8. Instructional Animation versus Static Pictures: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffler, Tim N.; Leutner, Detlev

    2007-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 26 primary studies, yielding 76 pair-wise comparisons of dynamic and static visualizations, reveals a medium-sized overall advantage of instructional animations over static pictures. The mean weighted effect size on learning outcome is d = 0.37 (95% CI 0.25-0.49). Moderator analyses indicate even more substantial effect sizes…

  9. Static and Transient Cavitation Threshold Measurements for Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga, F.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1999-11-14

    Transient and static cavitation thresholds for mercury as a function of the cover gas (helium or air), and pressure are reported. Both static and transient cavitation onset pressure thresholds increase linearly with cover gas pressure. Additionally, the cavitation thresholds as a function of dissolved gases were also measured and are reported.

  10. Theory of static and dynamic properties of Gd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1986-01-01

    Gadolinium is a Heisenberg magnet intermediate between the localized EuO and the itinerant Fe and Ni. The authors develop a correlation theory for Gd and calculate self-consistently both static and dynamic properties. One finds that the high frequency spin waves persist for T>Tc. The static...

  11. 14 CFR 29.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection... § 29.610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft structure must be protected... electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of electric...

  12. All Charged Up!--Experimenting with Static Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Build-up of static electricity happens readily when the air is cold and dry and is a common part of life. There are lots of ways to make students aware of static electricity--and many things one can teach them about its applications in today's industry. In this article, the author describes examples and experiments that will bring static…

  13. CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF HYDROXYPROPYL STARCH IN A STATIC MIXER REACTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAMMERS, G; STAMHUIS, EJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1993-01-01

    A novel type of reactor for the chemical derivatization of starch pastes is presented. The design is based on the application of static mixers. The reactor shows excellent plug flow behaviour with a Peclet number of about 100. The viscosity behaviour of concentrated starch pastes in the static mixer

  14. Static energy meter errors caused by conducted electromagnetic interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Melentjev, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Static, or electronic, energy meters are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. Consumers are some-times complaining about higher energy readings and billing after the change to a static meter, but there is not a clear common or root cause at present. Electromagnetic interference has

  15. 49 CFR 238.405 - Longitudinal static compressive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longitudinal static compressive strength. 238.405 Section 238.405 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... II Passenger Equipment § 238.405 Longitudinal static compressive strength. (a) To form an...

  16. All Charged Up!--Experimenting with Static Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Build-up of static electricity happens readily when the air is cold and dry and is a common part of life. There are lots of ways to make students aware of static electricity--and many things one can teach them about its applications in today's industry. In this article, the author describes examples and experiments that will bring static…

  17. Static energy meter errors caused by conducted electromagnetic interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Keyer, Cees; Melentjev, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Static, or electronic, energy meters are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. Consumers are some-times complaining about higher energy readings and billing after the change to a static meter, but there is not a clear common or root cause at present. Electromagnetic interference has b

  18. 14 CFR 23.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 23.681 Section 23.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Control Systems § 23.681 Limit load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this...

  19. 14 CFR 25.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 25.681 Section 25.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this Part must be shown by tests...

  20. 14 CFR 29.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 29.681 Section 29.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... load static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this part must be shown by tests...

  1. 14 CFR 27.681 - Limit load static tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit load static tests. 27.681 Section 27.681 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... static tests. (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this part must be shown by tests in...

  2. The Active-Static Nature of Amuzgo (Otomanguean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Thomas C. Smith; Garcia, Fermin Tapia

    An analysis of Amuzgo, a language within the Otomanguean family of Mexico, suggests that it is an active-static language with patterns similar but not parallel to those of Chocho. In the report, data on the characteristics of Chocho are summarized, theory and research on active-static languages is reviewed, and the data on Amuzgo are presented.…

  3. Non-static vacuum strings: exterior and interior solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    New non-static cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einsteins's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent string-like objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a non-vacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string. 12 refs.

  4. Integrable cases of gravitating static isothermal fluid spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, B V

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that different approaches towards the solution of the Einstein equations for a static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with a gamma-law equation of state lead to an Abel differential equation of the second kind. Its only integrable cases at present are flat spacetime, de Sitter solution and its Buchdahl transform, Einstein static universe and the Klein-Tolman solution.

  5. Observation of static gestures influences speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarick, Michelle; Jones, Jeffery A

    2008-08-01

    Research investigating 'mirror neurons' has demonstrated the presence of an observation-execution matching system in humans. One hypothesized role for this system might be to aid in action understanding by encoding the underlying intentions of the actor. To investigate this hypothesis, we asked participants to observe photographs of an actor making orofacial gestures (implying verbal or non-verbal acts), and to produce syllables that were compatible or incompatible with the gesture they observed. We predicted that if mirror neurons encode the intentions of an actor, then the pictures implying verbal gestures would affect speech production, whereas the non-verbal gestures would not. Our results showed that the observation of compatible verbal gestures facilitated verbal responses, while incompatible verbal gestures caused interference. Although this compatibility effect did not reach statistical significance when the photographs implied a non-verbal act, responses were faster on average when the gesture implied the use of similar articulators as those involved with the production of the target syllable. Altogether, these behavioral findings compliment previous neuroimaging studies indicating that static pictures portraying gestures activate brain regions associated with an observation-execution matching system.

  6. Preservation of Laboratory Instruments in Static Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, J. L.; Shackelford, M. A.

    1950-02-22

    It is desirable to place laboratory instruments in static storage so that they may be put into operation with only normal servicing. Such instruments may be subject to many forms of deterioration. There may be deterioration of metal parts due to chemical and electrolytic corrosion and the effects of moisture, excessive dryness, and microorganisms, i.e., mildew on organic parts. To preserve such instruments without disassembly or troublesome surface coatings, requires methods that will remove the major cause of deterioration - that is, excessive humidity, by reducing and maintaining the relative humidity of the air surrounding the item at 30 per cent or less. It is also necessary to eliminate or separate hygroscopic materials from the item since they will cause corrosion, by surface adsorption and condensation, even though a dry atmosphere is maintained. The methods and materials used must not only be efficient and economical but also require a minimun of maintenance, Protection against physical damage and temperature extremes is dependent upon the storage site and is not considered in this report.

  7. Review of Static Compensation of Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarnath Banerji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deregulation of the electric power energy market has thrown open opportunities for tapping the large number of small pockets of renewable energy sources with the asynchronous generators. Whether the power is supplied by asynchronous generator or by the grid at the remote location, its quality has become an important aspect for consumers of electricity. Efforts have been made to improve the power quality using passive filters, active filters and the new concept of Custom Power. Use of Custom power devices ensures that a load do not pollute the power supply of the other loads. One such custom power device is the DSTATCOM (Distribution Static Compensator which is connected in shunt at the load end. The heart of the DSTATCOM is an inverter. The focus on the autonomous generation has increased in the recent years. The paper presents a comprehensive review of the DSTATCOM used for autonomous generation. It is aimed at providing a broad perspective on the status of DSTATCOM, used with Asynchronous generators, vis-à-vis its working principle, topology, solid state switching devices and technology, supply system, control methodologies and approaches, technical and economic considerations, etc. to researchers and application engineers dealing with power quality aspects of Autonomous Systems. Classified manner in which the references are presented in this paper will serve them as quick and useful reference.

  8. Liquid methanol under a static electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassone, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.cassone@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Giaquinta, Paolo V., E-mail: paolo.giaquinta@unime.it [Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); Saija, Franz, E-mail: saija@ipcf.cnr.it [CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Saitta, A. Marco, E-mail: marco.saitta@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-02-07

    We report on an ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol under the effect of a static electric field. We found that the hydrogen-bond structure of methanol is more robust and persistent for field intensities below the molecular dissociation threshold whose value (≈0.31 V/Å) turns out to be moderately larger than the corresponding estimate obtained for liquid water. A sustained ionic current, with ohmic current-voltage behavior, flows in this material for field intensities above 0.36 V/Å, as is also the case of water, but the resulting ionic conductivity (≈0.40 S cm{sup −1}) is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of water, a circumstance that evidences a lower efficiency of proton transfer processes. We surmise that this study may be relevant for the understanding of the properties and functioning of technological materials which exploit ionic conduction, such as direct-methanol fuel cells and Nafion membranes.

  9. Non static cosmic strings in Lyra geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rahaman, Farook

    2007-01-01

    The gravitational field of both local and global non static cosmic strings in the context of Lyra geometry are investigated. Local strings are characterized by having an energy momentum tensor whose only non null components are $T_{tt} = T_{zz}$ . As linearized Einstein equations are formally analogous to the Maxwell equations, the exterior solution does not depend on the radial distribution of the source and hence a Dirac d function was used to approximate the radial distribution of the energy momentum tensor for a local cosmic string along the z-axis: $T_{ab} = \\delta(x) \\delta(y)diag (\\sigma, 0, 0, \\sigma) $, $\\sigma $being the energy density of the string [A.Vilenkin. Phys.Rep.(1985)121,263]. For a global string, the energy momentum tensor components are calculated from the action density for a complex scalar field y along with a Maxican hat potential. The gravitational field of the global string is shown to be attractive in nature.

  10. The influence of music on static posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Stella; Filipponi, Eliana; Di Berardino, Federica; Barozzi, Stefania; Cesarani, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that high intensity sounds modify balance by activating the saccule, which is sensitive to both vestibular and acoustic stimuli. Few studies have examined the effects of music on the postural responses in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different types of music (Mozart, Köhler, Köhler with a carrier of 12 KHz and subjects' favourite music) on twelve healthy subjects standing on a stabilometric platform. With each type of music, all subjects underwent static posturography with eyes opened and eyes closed, and with and without foam pads. We evaluated the length and the surface of body sway and the correlation between them, and we analyzed the visual, vestibular and somatosensory sub-components. Listening to different types of music did not significantly change the stabilometric variables, with the exception of listening to Mozart's Jupiter, which caused a significant reduction in the visual component with a consequent increase in both the vestibular and somatosensory inputs. Further studies are needed to determine the effect of Mozart's music in modifying the sensory strategy in the rehabilitation of patients with vestibular impairments.

  11. A multinuclear static NMR study of geopolymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favier, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.favier@epfl.ch [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Habert, Guillaume [Institute for Construction and Infrastructure Management, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Roussel, Nicolas [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); D' Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste [Ecole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Indusrtrielles de la Ville de Paris (ESPCI), ParisTech, PSL Research University, Soft Matter Sciences and Engineering Laboratory SIMM, CNRS UMR 7615, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-09-15

    Geopolymers are inorganic binders obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicates. While the structure of geopolymers is now well understood, the details of the geopolymerisation reaction and their impact on the rheology of the paste remain uncertain. In this work, we follow the elastic properties of a paste made with metakaolin and sodium silicate solution. After the first sharp increase of elastic modulus occurring a few hundred of seconds after mixing and related to the heterogeneous formation of an alumina–silicate gel with a molar ratio Si/Al < 4 located at the grains boundaries, we focus on the progressive increase in elastic modulus on a period of few hours during the setting of the geopolymer. In this study, we combine the study of rheological properties of the paste with {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si static NMR measurement in order to better understand the origin of this second increase in elastic modulus. Our results show that, after a few hours, Al and Na evolution in the liquid phase are concomitant. This suggests the precipitation of an aluminosilicate phase where Al is in tetrahedral position and Na compensates the charge. Furthermore, Si speciation confirms this result and allows us to identify the precipitation of a product, which has a chemical composition close to the final composition of geopolymer. This study provides strong evidence for a heterogeneous formation of an aluminosilicate glass directly from the first gel and the silicate solution without the need for a reorganisation of Gel 1 into Gel 2.

  12. Comparative statics of games between relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchtaich, Igal

    2006-03-01

    According to Hamilton's theory of kin selection, species tend to evolve behavior such that each organism appears to be attempting to maximize its inclusive fitness. In particular, two neighbors are likely to help each other if the cost of doing so is less than the benefit multiplied by r, their coefficient of relatedness. Since the latter is less than unity, mutual altruism benefits both neighbors. However, is it theoretically possible that acting so as to maximize the inclusive, rather than personal, fitness may harm both parties. This may occur in strategic symmetric pairwise interactions (more specifically, nxn games), in which the outcome depends on both sides' actions. In this case, the equilibrium outcome may be less favorable to the interactants' personal fitness than if each of them acted so as to maximize the latter. This paper shows, however, that such negative effect of relatedness on fitness is incompatible with evolutionary stability. If the symmetric equilibrium strategies are evolutionarily stable, a higher coefficient of relatedness can only entail higher personal fitness for the two neighbors. This suggests that negative comparative statics as above are not likely to occur in nature.

  13. Scalar Static Polarizabilities of Lanthanides and Actinides

    CERN Document Server

    Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V

    2014-01-01

    We calculate scalar static polarizabilities for lanthanides and actinides, the atoms with open $4f$ or $5f$ subshell. We show that polarizabilities of the low states are approximately the same for all states of given configuration and present a way of calculating them reducing valence space to just two or three valence electrons occupying $6s$ and $5d$ states for lanthanides or $7s$ and $6d$ states for actinides while $4f$ and $5f$ states are considered to be in the core. Configuration interaction technique is used to calculate polarizabilities of lanthanides and actinides for all states of the $4f^n6s^2$ and $4f^{n-1}6s^25d$ configurations of lanthanides and all states of the $5f^{n}7s^2$ and $5f^{n-1}7s^26d$ configurations of actinides. Polarizability of the electron core (including f-orbitals) has been calculated in the RPA approximation.

  14. Intracellular Biopotentials During Static Extracellular Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Maurice

    1973-01-01

    Two properties of the intracellular potentials and electric fields resulting from static extracellular stimulation are obtained for arbitrarily shaped cells. First, the values of intracellular potential are shown to be bounded by the maximum and minimum values of extracellular potential on the surface of the cell. Second, the volume average of the magnitude of intracellular electric field is shown to have an upper bound given by the ratio of the magnitude of the largest extracellular potential difference on the surface of the cell to a generalized length constant λ = [σintraVcell/(σmemb Acell)]1/2, where Vcell and Acell are the volume and surface area of the cell, σintra is the intracellular conductivity (reciprocal ohms per centimeter), and σmemb is the membrane conductivity (reciprocal ohms per square centimeter). The use of the upper bound on the volume average of the magnitude of intracellular electric field as an estimate for intracellular isopotentiality is discussed and the use of the generalized length constant for electrically describing arbitrary cells is illustrated for cylindrical- and spheroidal-shaped cells. PMID:4726882

  15. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P., E-mail: annapaola.caricato@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Arima, V.; Catalano, M. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesaria, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cozzoli, P.D. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Scarfiello, R. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tunno, T. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Zacheo, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  16. Contagion processes on the static and activity driven coupling networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Yanjun; Guo, Quantong; Ma, Yifang; Li, Meng; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of network structure and the spreading of epidemic are common coexistent dynamical processes. In most cases, network structure is treated either static or time-varying, supposing the whole network is observed in a same time window. In this paper, we consider the epidemic spreading on a network consisting of both static and time-varying structures. At meanwhile, the time-varying part and the epidemic spreading are supposed to be of the same time scale. We introduce a static and activity driven coupling (SADC) network model to characterize the coupling between static (strong) structure and dynamic (weak) structure. Epidemic thresholds of SIS and SIR model are studied on SADC both analytically and numerically with various coupling strategies, where the strong structure is of homogeneous or heterogeneous degree distribution. Theoretical thresholds obtained from SADC model can both recover and generalize the classical results in static and time-varying networks. It is demonstrated that weak structure...

  17. Solid on liquid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmet, J., E-mail: jerome.charmet@he-arc.c [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquees ARC, HES-SO Arc, Eplatures-Grise 17, 2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Banakh, O.; Laux, E.; Graf, B.; Dias, F.; Dunand, A.; Keppner, H. [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquees ARC, HES-SO Arc, Eplatures-Grise 17, 2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Gorodyska, G.; Textor, M. [BioInterface group, ETHZ, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, ETH Hoenggerberg HCI H 525 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Noell, W.; Rooij, N.F. de [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute of Microengineering, Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems laboratory, Rue Jaquet Droz 1, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Neels, A.; Dadras, M.; Dommann, A.; Knapp, H. [Centre Suisse d' Electronique et de Microtechnique SA, Rue Jacquet-Droz 1, 2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Borter, Ch.; Benkhaira, M. [COMELEC SA, Rue de la Paix 129, 2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    A process for the deposition of a solid layer onto a liquid is presented. The polymer poly-di-chloro-para-xylylene, also known as Parylene C, was grown on low vapour pressure liquids using the conventional low pressure chemical vapour deposition process. A reactor was built and a process developed to enable the deposition of Parylene C at atmospheric pressure over high vapour pressure liquids. It was used to deposit Parylene C over water among others. In all cases Parylene C encapsulated the liquid without influencing its initial shape. The results presented here show also that the Parylene C properties are not affected by its growth on liquid templates and the roughness of the Parylene C surface in contact with the liquid during the deposition is extremely low.

  18. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  19. Static and flicker perimetry in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Chi D; Dimitrov, Peter N; Wu, Zhichao; Ayton, Lauren N; Makeyeva, Galina; Aung, Khin-Zaw; Varsamidis, Mary; Robman, Luba; Vingrys, Algis J; Guymer, Robyn H

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between clinical severity of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and macular function has not been well established. In this study, we investigated the correlation between clinical severity and functional deficits as detected by static and flicker perimetry. This cross-sectional study consisted of 279 AMD subjects and 24 control participants. AMD subjects were allocated into 1 of 10 AMD severity groups depending on the status of the designated study eye and the fellow eye, as assessed by color fundus photographs. Visual acuity, and static and flicker perimetry were tested on one eye during the same session. The geometric means, SDs, and percentage of abnormal eyes of static and flicker sensitivity of each AMD severity group were determined and compared. The pattern of change in sensitivity and percentage of abnormal eyes for static perimetry across all AMD severity groups were similar to flicker perimetry. Eyes with drusen > 125 μm (P[static] = 0.018, P[flicker] = 0.024), drusenoid epithelial detachment (P[static and flicker] static and flicker] static and flicker sensitivities compared to normal eyes. Static (β-coefficient -1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] -4.78-1.60) and flicker (β-coefficient -1.29, 95% CI -4.66-2.08) sensitivities declined at a similar rate in eyes that showed clinical signs of progression. Static and flicker perimetry were affected similarly across the spectrum of AMD severity, and methods appeared to be valid techniques for assessing retinal sensitivity in AMD once drusen > 125 μm are present, but before the development of late AMD.

  20. Tsunami Deposit Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, B. H.; Wanink, M.

    2007-05-01

    A digital database has been established describing tsunami deposits around the world (3 phases; 15 months). The projects involved the review and tabulation of data derived from books, catalogs, journals, preprints, citations and abstracts (currently 1000 references), into a database designed to provide a comprehensive review of the types of tsunami deposits, their geographic distribution and location, sedimentary characteristics, fossil content, age, preservation, run-up, wave height and inundation observations, etc. (34 parameters). The tsunami occurrences can be divided into many subjects, e.g., Volcanogenic (N=375), Seismites (N=49), Co-seismic (N=258), K/T Boundary Impact-triggered debris flows (N=97), Landslides (N=43), etc. Numerous publications compare tsunami deposits to storm deposits (N=38), or analyze the origin of megaboulders (N=22). Tsunami deposits occur throughout geologic time (Pre-Cambrian to present day), and because of plate tectonics, they occur along plate margins (primarily subduction zones) as well as interior to plates. In addition, they occur in epi-continental seas, fjords, etc. Few publications describe depositional processes. Deposits generated by tsunamis occur in multiple environments such as the marine, fresh water, and subaerial. Common characteristics of tsunami deposits include: 1) Deposition of thin sand sheets (can be normal, massive, inversely graded, chaotic or bimodal). 2) Erosional: basal uncomformity, mud balls, rip-up clasts, reworked fossils produced by scouring. 3) Lithology: Stacks of couplets reflecting marine incursions (often sands) into fresh water or subaerial environments (mud, soil, peat). 4) Fossil: Couplets reflects marine fossils, fresh water fossils or a mixed assemblage. 5) Geomorphology: The sand sheets taper landward and can rise in elevation. 6) Deformation: syn-depositional (soft sediments) and intraformational (stiff sediments).

  1. Literature review Quasi-static and Dynamic pile load tests: Primarily report on non-static pile load tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Pile testing, which plays an importance role in the field of deep foundation design, is performed by static and non-static methods to provide information about the following issues: (Poulos, 1998) - The ultimate capacity of a single pile. - The load-displacement behavior of a pile. - The performance

  2. Literature review Quasi-static and Dynamic pile load tests: Primarily report on non-static pile load tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Pile testing, which plays an importance role in the field of deep foundation design, is performed by static and non-static methods to provide information about the following issues: (Poulos, 1998) - The ultimate capacity of a single pile. - The load-displacement behavior of a pile. - The performance

  3. Compact static stars in minimal dilatonic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiziev, Plamen P.

    2017-09-01

    In the version1 of this paper we presented for the first time the basic equations and relations for relativistic static spherically symmetric stars (SSSS) in the model of minimal dilatonic gravity (MDG). This model is locally equivalent to the f(R) theory of gravity and gives an alternative description of the effects of dark matter and dark energy using the Brans-Dicke dilaton Φ. To outline the basic properties of the MDG model of SSSS and to compare them with general relativistic results, in this paper we use the relativistic equation of state (EOS) of neutron matter as an ideal Fermi neutron gas at zero temperature. We overcome the well-known difficulties of the physics of SSSS in the f(R) theories of gravity2,3 applying novel highly nontrivial nonlinear boundary conditions, which depend on the global properties of the solution and on the EOS. We also introduce two pairs of new notions: cosmological-energy-pressure densities and dilaton-energy-pressure densities, as well as two new EOSs for them: cosmological EOS (CEOS) and dilaton EOS (DEOS). Special attention is paid to the dilatonic sphere (in brief — disphere) of SSSS, introduced in this paper for the first time. Using several realistic EOS for neutron star (NS): SLy, BSk19, BSk20 and BSk21, and current observational two-solar-masses-limit, we derive an estimate for scalar-field-mass mΦ ˜ 10‑13eV/c2 ÷ 4 × 10‑11eV/c2. Thus, the present version of the paper reflects some of the recent developments of the topic.

  4. High temperature static strain gage development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, C. O.; Bailey, R. S.; Grant, H. P.; Anderson, W. L.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Final results are presented from a program to develop a thin film static strain gage for use on the blades and vanes of running, test stand gas turbine engines with goals of an 3 x 3 mm gage area and total errors of less than 10 pct. of + or - 2,000 microstrain after 50 hrs at 1250 K. Pd containing 13 Wt. pct. Cr was previously identified as a new strain sensor alloy that appeared to be potentially usable to 1250 K. Subsequently, it was discovered, in contrast with its behavior in bulk, that Pd-13Cr suffered from oxidation attack when prepared as a 4.5 micron thick thin film. Continuing problems with electrical leakage to the substrate and the inability of sputtered alumina overcoats to prevent oxidation led to the discovery that sputtered alumina contains appreciable amounts of entrapped argon. After the argon has been exsolved by heating to elevated temperatures, the alumina films undergo a linear shrinkage of about 2 pct. resulting in formation of cracks. These problems can be largely overcome by sputtering the alumina with the substrate heated to 870 K. With 2 micron thick hot sputtered alumina insulation and overcoat films, total 50 hr drifts of about 100 microstrain (2 tests) and about 500 microstrain (1 test) were observed at 1000 and 1100 K, respectively. Results of tests on complete strain gage systems on constant moment bend bars with Pd temperature compensation grids revealed that oxidation of the Pd grid was a major problem even when the grid was overcoated with a hot or cold sputtered alumina overcoat.

  5. 14 CFR 29.1325 - Static pressure and pressure altimeter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Installation § 29.1325 Static pressure and pressure altimeter systems. (a) Each instrument with static air case... between air pressure in the static pressure system and true ambient atmospheric static pressure is not..., when on the alternate static pressure system, differs from the reading of altimeter when on the primary...

  6. Principles of inhibiting of corrosion-static crack growth in constructional steels caused by hydrogen embrittlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaniv, O.N.; Nikiforchin, G.N.; Tsirul' nik, A.T.

    1987-11-01

    The effectiveness of a range of organic and inorganic corrosion inhibitors was studied on a series of structural chromium steels--including 45KhN2MFA, 60KhS, and 30KhGSN2A--of different strength levels and certain principles are formulated for developing and selecting inhibitors based on the hydrogen mechanism of corrosive media. The inhibitors tested include monoethanol amine, urotropin, sodium benzoate, thiourea, sodium phosphates and chromates, various nitrates, and the IRT range of inhibitors.

  7. ROPS performance during field upset and static testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J R; McKenzie, E A; Etherton, J R; Cantis, D M; Ronaghi, M

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture remains one of the most hazardous occupations in the U.S. By conservative estimates, tractor overturns alone claim 120 lives annually. A rollover protective structure (ROPS) and a seatbelt are a highly effective engineering safety control that can prevent many of these fatalities and reduce the severity of injuries associated with tractor overturn. SAE J2194 is a consensus performance standard established for agricultural ROPS. According to this standard, satisfactory ROPS performance can be demonstrated through static testing, field upset testing, or impact testing. A previous modeling study suggested that static testing may underpredict the strain induced in a ROPS during afield upset. In the current study, field upset testing and laboratory static testing results were compared. Field upset testing included six rear and six side upset tests performed according to SAE J2194 guidelines. Additionally, static testing was performed on a ROPS of the same model. The results support findings from the modeling study. Near the lowest sections of the ROPS, the plastic strain resulting from rear upset testing exceeded the plastic strain from static testing for 18 of 24 data points. Conversely, the ROPS plastic strain from side upset testing was typically less than plastic strain from laboratory static testing. However, data indicate that the side upset test may not be very repeatable. This study suggests that the longitudinal loading energy criterion for static testing might not be a conservative predictor of rear upset ROPS response.

  8. Effects of static magnetic field on mutagenesis in in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikehata, M; Yoshie, S; Hayakawa, T [Railway Technical Research Institute, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Hirota, N [Nano Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 277-8561 (Japan)], E-mail: ikehata@rtri.or.jp

    2009-03-01

    Effects of static magnetic field up to 13 T were estimated in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We observed that exposure to a 5 T static magnetic field resulted in a slight but significant increase in gene recombination frequency while frequency of reverse point mutation was not altered in S. cerevisiae. This mutagenic effect showed a dose response relationship as J-shape. To investigate an involvement of reactive oxygen species in possible mutagenic effect of static magnetic field, SOD deficient E. coli QC774 was used in thymine synthesis-based mutation assay. The result shows that static magnetic field up to 13 T did not indicate mutagenicity. Thus, it is suggested that frequency of point mutation does not changed under static magnetic field regardless of its susceptibility to superoxide. These results suggest that strong static magnetic field would have small but detectable mutagenic potential. Although mechanism of the mutagenic effect of static magnetic field has not been elucidated yet, the extent of this effect is estimated extremely small by comparison with other mutagens such as ultraviolet irradiation.

  9. Pre-exposure to moving form enhances static form sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S A Wallis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motion-defined form can seem to persist briefly after motion ceases, before seeming to gradually disappear into the background. Here we investigate if this subjective persistence reflects a signal capable of improving objective measures of sensitivity to static form. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented a sinusoidal modulation of luminance, masked by a background noise pattern. The sinusoidal luminance modulation was usually subjectively invisible when static, but visible when moving. We found that drifting then stopping the waveform resulted in a transient subjective persistence of the waveform in the static display. Observers' objective sensitivity to the position of the static waveform was also improved after viewing moving waveforms, compared to viewing static waveforms for a matched duration. This facilitation did not occur simply because movement provided more perspectives of the waveform, since performance following pre-exposure to scrambled animations did not match that following pre-exposure to smooth motion. Observers did not simply remember waveform positions at motion offset, since removing the waveform before testing reduced performance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Motion processing therefore interacts with subsequent static visual inputs in a way that can improve performance in objective sensitivity measures. We suggest that the brief subjective persistence of motion-defined forms that can occur after motion offsets is a consequence of the decay of a static form signal that has been transiently enhanced by motion processing.

  10. An eigen theory of static electromagnetic field for anisotropic media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-hua GUO

    2009-01-01

    Static electromagnetic fields are studied based on standard spaces of the physical presentation,and the modal equations of static electromagnetic fields for anisotropic media are derived. By introducing a new set of first-order potential functions,several novel theoretical results are obtained. It is found that,for isotropic media,electric or magnetic potentials are scalar; while for anisotropic media,they are vectors. Magnitude and direction of the vector potentials are related to the anisotropic subspaces. Based on these results,we discuss the laws of static electromagnetic fields for anisotropic media.

  11. Another look at Statics and Dynamics of Switching Power Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Seigo; Watanabe, Haruo

    Three types of switching power supply, which are buck, boost, buck/boost converter, are statically and dynamically analysed. A framework of large signal analysis presents characteristics of converters which vary with operating points, and discusses a relationship between statics and dynamics. It is shown that boost and buck/boost converters substantially change their characteristics. There exists the operating points where for low frequencies the phases become -90° or -180° and the gains fall off to low values. The phenomenon is characterized by a zero of transfer function of the converter and also by the statics.

  12. Axisymmetric Natural Frequencies of Statically Loaded Annular Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eihab M. Abdel-Rahman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical procedure to solve the axisymmetric vibration problem of statically loaded annular plates. We use the von Kármán nonlinear plate model to account for large deformations and study the effect of static deflections on the natural frequencies and mode shapes for six combinations of boundary conditions. The shooting method is used to solve the resulting eigenvalue problem. Our results show that static deformations have a significant effect on the natural frequencies and small effect on the mode shapes of the plate. Further, the results show that the presence of in-plane stresses has a significant effect on the natural frequencies.

  13. Complete classification of spherically symmetric static spacetimes via Noether symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Farhad; Ali, Sajid

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a complete classification of spherically symmetric static space-times by their Noether symmetries. The determining equations for Noether symmetries are obtained by using the usual Lagrangian of a general spherically symmetric static spacetime which are integrated for each case. In particular we observe that spherically symmetric static spacetimes are categorized into six distinct classes corresponding to Noether algebra of dimensions 5, 6, 7, 9, 11 and 17. Using Noether`s theorem we also write down the first integrals for each class of such spacetimes corresponding to their Noether symmetries.

  14. Static sensitivity calculation of a novel fiber optic biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongchen Bai; Shuijie Qin; Jing Li; Dashun Huang; Xin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A novel structure of fiber optic biosensor and its principle are introduced. The sample is detected in microchannels of several microns diameter in fiber optic biosensors. The relation between the optic fiber tapered angle and the fluorescence incident angle is calculated in signal receiving part. As the sensor is a zero-order system, calculating formula of the static sensitivity is derived. When ZnSe nano-crystalline cluster is used for marking the molecules, the static sensitivity for fiber optic biosensors is calculated. At the same time, the relation between the static sensitivity and the ratio of exciting wavelength to fluorescence wavelength is presented.

  15. Characterization of Acryl amide Resins Using Static Light Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libi, Sumit; Norwood, David

    2012-02-01

    Our research is based on the use of light scattering technique for the characterization of known and unknown particles within a liquid. The research focused specifically on the detection of resin polymer that may be present in the given samples using static light scattering. The sample was delivered into a high performance liquid chromatography system with static light scattering, refractive index and viscosity detectors. Static Light scattering measures the intensity of the light scattered as the function of scattering angle and polymer sample concentration. Based on these results the molecular weight and radius of gyration of the given sample can be calculated.

  16. OPTIMASI KINERJA PROTOKOL AODV DENGAN STATIC INTERSECTION NODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Ericka Wahyu Prakasa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available VANET adalah sebuah pengembangan teknologi yang memungkinkan komunikasi antar kendaraan meskipun tidak terdapat koneksi secara langsung antara kendaraan yang berkomunikasi. Untuk meningkatkan performa protokol routing, maka pada penelitian ini akan ditambahkan SIN (Static Intersection Node. Static Intersection Node adalah RSU (Road Side Unit yang diletakkan di persimpangan jalan (intersection. Fungsi dari Static Intersection Node pada penelitian ini adalah sebagai repeater untuk membantu mengirimkan paket data ke kendaraan lain yang berada disekitarnya sehingga dapat meningkatkan Packet Delivery Ratio serta meminimalkan Packet Loss dan End to End Delay.

  17. QUASI-STATIC ANALYSIS FOR VISCOELASTIC TIMOSHENKO BEAMS WITH DAMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on convolution-type constitutive equations for linear viscoelastic materials with damage and the hypotheses of Timoshenko beams, the equations governing quasi-static and dynamical behavior of Timoshenko beams with damage were first derived. The quasi-static behavior of the viscoelastic Timoshenko beam under step loading was analyzed and the analytical solution was obtained in the Laplace transformation domain. The deflection and damage curves at different time were obtained by using the numerical inverse transform and the influences of material parameters on the quasi-static behavior of the beam were investigated in detail.

  18. Podiform chromite deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Location and characteristics of 1,124 individual mineral deposits of this type, with grade and tonnage models for chromium as well as several related elements.

  19. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  20. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  1. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  2. Chemically deposited tin sulphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkari, A., E-mail: anis.akkari@ies.univ-montp2.f [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunisie 2092 (Tunisia); Institut d' Electronique du Sud, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i), Universite Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, CC 082, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Guasch, C. [Institut d' Electronique du Sud, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i), Universite Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, CC 082, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Kamoun-Turki, N. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunisie 2092 (Tunisia)

    2010-02-04

    SnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates after multi-deposition runs by chemical bath deposition from aqueous solution containing 30 ml triethanolamine (TEA) (C{sub 6}H{sub 15}NO{sub 3}) (50%), 10 ml thioacetamide (CH{sub 3}CSNH{sub 2}), 8 ml ammonia (NH{sub 3}) solution and 10 ml of Sn{sup 2+}(0.1 M). These films were characterised with X-ray diffraction (XRD), with scanning electron microscopy, and with spectrophotometric measurements. The obtained thin films exhibit the zinc blend structure, the crystallinity seems to be improved as the film thickness increases and the band gap energy is found to be about 1.76 eV for film prepared after six depositions runs.

  3. Static sampling of dynamic processes - a paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mälicke, Mirko; Neuper, Malte; Jackisch, Conrad; Hassler, Sibylle; Zehe, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental systems monitoring aims at its core at the detection of spatio-temporal patterns of processes and system states, which is a pre-requisite for understanding and explaining their baffling heterogeneity. Most observation networks rely on distributed point sampling of states and fluxes of interest, which is combined with proxy-variables from either remote sensing or near surface geophysics. The cardinal question on the appropriate experimental design of such a monitoring network has up to now been answered in many different ways. Suggested approaches range from sampling in a dense regular grid using for the so-called green machine, transects along typical catenas, clustering of several observations sensors in presumed functional units or HRUs, arrangements of those cluster along presumed lateral flow paths to last not least a nested, randomized stratified arrangement of sensors or samples. Common to all these approaches is that they provide a rather static spatial sampling, while state variables and their spatial covariance structure dynamically change in time. It is hence of key interest how much of our still incomplete understanding stems from inappropriate sampling and how much needs to be attributed to an inappropriate analysis of spatial data sets. We suggest that it is much more promising to analyze the spatial variability of processes, for instance changes in soil moisture values, than to investigate the spatial variability of soil moisture states themselves. This is because wetting of the soil, reflected in a soil moisture increase, is causes by a totally different meteorological driver - rainfall - than drying of the soil. We hence propose that the rising and the falling limbs of soil moisture time series belong essentially to different ensembles, as they are influenced by different drivers. Positive and negative temporal changes in soil moisture need, hence, to be analyzed separately. We test this idea using the CAOS data set as a benchmark

  4. Complete corrosion inhibition through graphene defect passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Hofmann, Mario; Chang, Kai-Wen; Jhu, Jian Gang; Li, Yuan-Yao; Chen, Kuang Yao; Yang, Chang Chung; Chang, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2014-01-28

    Graphene is expected to enable superior corrosion protection due to its impermeability and chemical inertness. Previous reports, however, demonstrate limited corrosion inhibition and even corrosion enhancement of graphene on metal surfaces. To enable the reliable and complete passivation, the origin of the low inhibition efficiency of graphene was investigated. Combining electrochemical and morphological characterization techniques, nanometer-sized structural defects in chemical vapor deposition grown graphene were found to be the cause for the limited passivation effect. Extremely fast mass transport on the order of meters per second both across and parallel to graphene layers results in an inhibition efficiency of only ∼50% for Cu covered with up to three graphene layers. Through selective passivation of the defects by atomic layer deposition (ALD) an enhanced corrosion protection of more than 99% was achieved, which compares favorably with commercial corrosion protection methods.

  5. Electrospark deposition coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely, W. F.

    1986-11-01

    Hard surfacing for wear resistant and low-friction coatings has been improved by means of advances in the computer controls in electronic circuitry of the electrospark deposition (ESD) process. coatings of nearly any electrically conductive metal alloy or cermet can be deposited on conductive materials. Thickness is usually two mils or less, but can be as high as 10 mils. ESD coatings can quadrupole cutting tool life.

  6. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinović, Zoran; Simić, Vladimir; Jelenković, Rade; Ilić, Miloje

    2016-06-01

    Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc.), jasper (picture, landscape, red etc.), common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc.), silica masses (undivided), and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.). Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine), garnet (almandine and pyrope), tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  7. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc., jasper (picture, landscape, red etc., common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc., silica masses (undivided, and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.. Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine, garnet (almandine and pyrope, tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  8. Surface Modification of Conventional Polymers by Depositing Plasma Polymers of Trimethylsilane and of Trimethylsilane + O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikart; Miyama; Yasuda

    1999-03-01

    The static wetting properties of TMS (trimethylsilane) and TMS + O2 plasma deposited films on eleven low energy conventional polymers were investigated using the sessile droplet method. The static advancing contact angle is an excellent indication of the change in surface state properties from plasma surface modification. However, traditional contact angle measuring techniques possess a methodological limitation, which can leave a water droplet on the substrate surface for up to 3 min before a measurement is obtained. The static "advancing" contact angles of different size water droplets on teflon and nylon surfaces were observed to change significantly in 2 min while equilibrating with the surface and surroundings. A new quick image-capturing device enables static contact angle measurement 2 to 4 s after contact with the substrate. This technique virtually eliminates the time dependent effects of evaporation and surface state change, which are believed to be responsible for the change in static advancing contact angles. Furthermore, static contact angles independent of droplet volume and contact time may be taken as a surface characteristic property, which is denoted as the intrinsic static contact angle, θS. The static "advancing" contact angle, measured in this fashion, indicated that the wetting properties of TMS and TMS + O2 plasma polymer deposition on 10 conventional polymers were modified virtually independent of the underlying substrate. The average advancing contact angles on TMS and TMS + O2 modified polymers are θS = 94 +/- 2.2 (cos θS = -0.0645) and θS = 32 +/- 6.9 (cos θS = 0.8452), respectively. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. A Transformational Approach to Parametric Accumulated-Cost Static Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haemmerlé, Rémy; López García, Pedro; Liqat, Umer

    2016-01-01

    Traditional static resource analyses estimate the total resource usage of a program, without executing it. In this paper we present a novel resource analysis whose aim is instead the static profiling of accumulated cost, i.e., to discover, for selected parts of the program, an estimate or bound...... of the resource usage accumulated in each of those parts. Traditional resource analyses are parametric in the sense that the results can be functions on input data sizes. Our static profiling is also parametric, i.e., our accumulated cost estimates are also parameterized by input data sizes. Our proposal is based...... on the concept of cost centers and a program transformation that allows the static inference of functions that return bounds on these accumulated costs depending on input data sizes, for each cost center of interest. Such information is much more useful to the software developer than the traditional resource...

  10. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  11. Static and Dynamic Views of Culture and Intercultural Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching culture in the second language classroom. Examines the difference between teaching the static or dynamic view of culture. Focuses on intercultural language teaching and developing intercultural competence. (Author/VWL)

  12. Separation distance and static transmission error of involute spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, David K.; Lin, Hsiang H.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of separation distance and deflection of gear teeth on the static transmission error of involute spur gears are investigated. In this paper, only low-contact-ratio gears with true involute profile are studied. Gear ratio and tooth addendum are varied to examine their effects on the separation distance and static transmission error. Results obtained from the investigation shows that the contact ratio and static transmission error are affected significantly if considering the separation distance. In general, the magnitude of contact ratio has been increased and the variation of static transmission error has been smoothed. The most significant change occurs for a gear pair with a theoretical contact ratio close to 1.95.

  13. Separation distance and static transmission error of involute spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, David K.; Lin, Hsiang H.

    1992-07-01

    The effects of separation distance and deflection of gear teeth on the static transmission error of involute spur gears are investigated. In this paper, only low-contact-ratio gears with true involute profile are studied. Gear ratio and tooth addendum are varied to examine their effects on the separation distance and static transmission error. Results obtained from the investigation shows that the contact ratio and static transmission error are affected significantly if considering the separation distance. In general, the magnitude of contact ratio has been increased and the variation of static transmission error has been smoothed. The most significant change occurs for a gear pair with a theoretical contact ratio close to 1.95.

  14. Person Identification System using Static-dynamic signatures fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A Daramola

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Off-line signature verification systems rely on static image of signature for person identification. Imposter can easily imitate the static image of signature of the genuine user due to lack of dynamic features. This paper proposes person identity verification system using fused static-dynamic signature features. Computational efficient technique is developed to extract and fuse static and dynamic features extracted from offline and online signatures of the same person. The training stage used the fused features to generate couple reference data and classification stage compared the couple test signatures with the reference data based on the set threshold values. The system performance is encouraging against imposter attacker in comparison with previous single sensor offline signature identification systems.

  15. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  16. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2014-01-01

    .... Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic...

  17. HIRENASD Experimental Data, Static Cp Plots and Data files

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tecplot (ascii) and matlab files are posted here for the Static pressure coefficient data sets. To download all of the data in either tecplot format or matlab...

  18. Thévenin equivalent based static contingency assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for static security assessment of a power system and a real time static security assessment system for assessing a power system, the power system having a plurality of generators, the plurality of generators being represented in the network by a plurality...... of voltage controlled nodes, wherein the method for static security assessment of the power system comprises receiving information of a present state of the power system, determining a Thevenin equivalent for each voltage controlled node, determining for each voltage controlled node on basis......, and evaluating the voltage angles to determine whether the network having at least one contingency admit a steady state. Also a method of providing information on a real time static security assessment of a power system is disclosed....

  19. Passive Elimination of Static Electricity in Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićo Gaćanović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.

  20. Passive elimination of static electricity in oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaćanović Mićo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.

  1. Interaction mechanisms and biological effects of static magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-06-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems are described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving, ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecules structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary is also presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields. There is convincing experimental evidence for magnetoreception mechanisms in several classes of lower organisms, including bacteria and marine organisms. However, in more highly evolved species of animals, there is no evidence that the interactions of static magnetic fields with flux densities up to 2 Tesla (1 Tesla [T] = 10{sup 4} Gauss) produce either behavioral or physiolocical alterations. These results, based on controlled studies with laboratory animals, are consistent with the outcome of recent epidemiological surveys on human populations exposed occupationally to static magnetic fields.

  2. Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaumer, Harry

    2013-01-01

    In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogeneous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Einstein's fundamental equation also allowed dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Geroges Lemaitre, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaitre's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often repeated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.

  3. Corrosion inhibition of a hygroscopic inorganic dust-depressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Longzhe Jin; Lu Wang; Dongke Chen

    2006-01-01

    Metallic corrosion is a serious problem in the application of a hygroscopic inorganic dust-depressor. The basic characteristics of a hygroscopic inorganic dust-depressor and its corrosivity, corrosion mechanism, as well as the principle of corrosion inhibition were analyzed. The static mass-loss test was carried out to investigate the corrosion behavior and the effect of the dustdepressor. The static corrosion rates of steel specimens were measured in six different corrosion inhibitor solutions of the dustdepressor, and the suitable corrosion inhibitors for the dust-depressor to reduce the corrosivity were found out.

  4. Scale Inhibition of Green Inhibitor Polyepoxysuccinic Sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Hui-xia; Wang Yi; Yu Shu-rong; Liang Bao-feng

    2004-01-01

    Polyepoxysuccinic acid (PESA) is the green water treatment agents recognized all over the world[1-3]. It is found that when PESA is used alone, it had good scale inhibition. PESA should be included in the category of green scale inhibitor.PESA is synthesized with maleicanhydride in the presence of catalysts. The effect on scale-in-hibiting property of the product from amount and feed times of catalyst, the reaction temperature, the reaction time were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions are as follows:n(maleic anhydride):n(Ca(OH)2):n(NaOH)=1:0.05-0.2:0.5, reaction temperature 95C, reaction time 4h.In all the references about PESA, PESA is researched as a kind of highly effective scale inhibitor or chelate. In this paper, the performance of scale inhibition of PESA is evaluated by scale static inhibitor.The results are shown in Figture1.It is evident from our experimental data (Figture1) that when inhibition for CaCO3.With the increase of PESA dosage, scale inhibition increases. When dosage is more than 6mg/L, inhibition efficiency is over 50%. The formulas give scale inhibition efficiency more than 95% at 12mg/L of total dosage.

  5. The Contact Ageing Effect on Fretting Damage of an Electro-Deposited Coating against an AISI52100 Steel Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungmok Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the effect of contact ageing on fretting damage of an epoxy-based cathodic electro-deposited coating for use on automotive seat slide tracks (made of cold-rolled high strength steel. Static normal load was induced at the contact between the coating and an AISI52100 ball for a certain duration. It was identified that plastically deformed contact area increased logarithmically as a function of time when the contact was under static normal load. Fretting tests after various durations of static contact were conducted using a ball-on-flat plate apparatus. All fretting tests were halted when the friction coefficient reached a critical value of 0.5, indicating complete coating failure. The total number of fretting cycles to the critical friction coefficient was found to vary with the duration of static contact before fretting. It was identified that the number of cycles to the critical friction coefficient decreased with the increased duration of static contact. Meanwhile, the friction coefficient at steady-state sliding was not greatly affected by the duration of static contact before fretting. Finally, the relation between coating thickness after indentation creep and the number of cycles to the critical friction coefficient was found to be linear. Obtained results show that the duration of static contact before fretting has an influence on the fretting lifetime of an electro-deposited coating.

  6. Static and kinematic formulation of planar reciprocal assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed extending the theory of pin-jointed assemblies....... This formulation is used to evaluate the static and kinematic determinacy of reciprocal assemblies from the properties of their equilibrium and kinematic matrices...

  7. Static Facial Slings: Approaches to Rehabilitation of the Paralyzed Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Morgan; Singh, Prabhjyot

    2016-02-01

    Facial paralysis results from a variety of different causes. Patients with facial paralysis have cosmetic and functional defects that significantly affect quality of life. Surgical intervention has the potential to help improve cosmetic and functional outcomes. The 2 main categories of surgical rehabilitation are static and dynamic surgical procedures. Static rehabilitation of the midface is typically performed using autologous tissue grafts, allografts, synthetic grafts, permanent suspension sutures, and a novel technique using percutaneous suture-based slings.

  8. Static Standing Balance in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya, M. Adoracion; Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Moros-Garcia, Teresa; de la Flor Marin, Mario; Moreno, Luis A.; Casajus, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To analyse static-standing-balance of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Methods: Thirty-two adolescents with DS aged 10-19 years (DSG); 33 adolescents, age/sex-matched, without DS (CG). Static-standing-balance under four conditions (C1: open-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C2: closed-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C3: open-eyes/compliant-foot-support;…

  9. Problem Handling and Improvement of Imported SCR Static Excitation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Shanwu; Li Weimin; Liang Jianfen; Chu Xue

    2006-01-01

    @@ Static self-excitation system has been more and more widely used for large turbogenerator units in China and achieved very good results in recent years. However, new problems have arisen along with the development of high-power thyristor technology, etc. In view of the actual operating condition of SEE900/5000 SCR static excitation system imported from Siemens, Germany, some technical renovations were carried out.

  10. New Sufficient LMI Conditions for Static Output Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new linear matrix inequality conditions to the static output feedback stabilization problem. Although the conditions are only sufficient, numerical experiments show excellent success rates in finding a stabilizing controller.......This paper presents new linear matrix inequality conditions to the static output feedback stabilization problem. Although the conditions are only sufficient, numerical experiments show excellent success rates in finding a stabilizing controller....

  11. Extending Graphic Statics for User-Controlled Structural Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fivet, Corentin; Zastavni, Denis; Cap, Jean-François; Structural Morphology Group International Seminar 2011

    2011-01-01

    The first geometrical definitions of any structure are of primary importance when considering pertinence and efficiency in structural design processes. Engineering history has taught us how graphic statics can be a very powerful tool since it allows the designer to take shapes and forces into account simultaneously. However, current and past graphic statics methods are more suitable for analysis than structural morphogenesis. This contribution introduces new graphical methods that can supp...

  12. Static power dissipation in adder circuits: the UDSM domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayouette, Steve; Al-Khalili, Dhamin

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents adder circuits of various architectures aimed at reducing static power dissipation. Circuit topologies for basic building blocks were evaluated for fabrication technologies of 65nm down to 32nm, and simulation results are presented. This work has lead to the development of various low power adder circuits and provides comparative analysis leading to the recommendation that a variable size block carry select adder is the best performer, taking into consideration both static and dynamic power dissipation.

  13. Static and rotating solutions for vector-Galileon theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Hassaine, Mokhtar; Oliva, Julio; Rinaldi, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    We consider a particular truncation of the generalized Proca field theory in four dimensions for which we construct static and axisymmetric rotating black hole "stealth solutions," namely solutions with (anti) de Sitter or Kerr metric but nontrivial vector field. The static configuration is promoted to a backreacting black hole with asymptotic (anti) de Sitter behavior by turning on a nonlinear electrodynamic source given as a fixed power of the Maxwell invariant. Finally we extend our solutions to arbitrary dimensions.

  14. Static and rotating solutions for Vector-Galileon theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Oliva, Julio; Rinaldi, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    We consider a particular truncation of the generalized Proca field theory in four dimensions for which we construct a static and axisymmetric rotating black hole "stealth solutions", namely solutions with (Anti) de Sitter or Kerr metric but non-trivial vector field. The static configuration is promoted to a backreacting black hole with asymptotic (Anti) de Sitter behavior by turning on a nonlinear electrodynamic source given as a fixed power of the Maxwell invariant. Finally we extend our solutions to arbitrary dimensions.

  15. New static spheroidal solution in Jordan-Brands-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyrev, S M

    2010-01-01

    The static spheroidal solutions of Jordan-Brands-Dicke theory (JBD) are studied. We consider the effect of the anisotropic stresses of scalar field on the shape of JBD self-graviting objects. It is shown that scalar fields can have significant effect on the structure and properties of self-graviting objects. In contrast with general relativity in JBD theory there are nonflat static spheroidal solutions.

  16. Global test of seismic static stress triggering model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万永革; 吴忠良; 周公威; 黄静; 秦立新

    2002-01-01

    Seismic static stress triggering model is tested using Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution catalogue of 1976~2000 and concept of (earthquake doublet(. Result shows that seismic static stress triggering effect does exist in the view of global earthquakes, but the effect is very weak. Dividing the earthquakes into thrust focal mechanism, normal focal mechanism, strike-slip focal mechanism, we find that non-strike-slip focal mechanism earthquakes have significant triggering effect, whereas, the triggering effect in strike-slip focal mechanism earthquakes is not obvious. Divided the subsequent events delay time of (earthquake doublet( into 5 classes of t(1, t<1, t(10, t<10, 1(t(10 (t is in unit of d), then seismic static stress triggering effect does not change with delay time in short time period after earthquakes. The research on seismic static stress triggering in different regions of the world indicates that triggering effect is significant in subduction belts. Seismic static stress triggering model is tested by using (earthquake doublets( in China and its adjacent region. The result indicates that seismic static stress triggering effect cannot be observed easily in China and its adjacent region due to the seismic focal mechanism type (most of the earthquakes are strike-slip earthquakes).

  17. Characteristics of enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose under static condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneda, Daisuke; Ueno, Yoshiki; Ikeo, Makoto; Okino, Shohei

    2012-10-01

    The effect of enzyme loading under static and agitated conditions was investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis of 10 w/v% de-lignified cellulose slurry such as filter paper, avicel and pulp was conducted under agitated (120 rpm) and static condition, and the enzyme loading ranging from 1.2 to 120 mg-protein/g-dry substrate. Under the agitated condition, the final sugar concentration decreased with the decreasing enzyme loading. Under the static condition, the final sugar concentration was maintained even if the enzyme loading was decreased. The above phenomenon was caused by a rapid precipitation of cellobiohydrolase 2 (CBH2) under the agitated condition, which was not observed under the static condition. The hydrolysis experiments using enzymes containing different ratios of cellobiohydrolase 1 (CBH1) and CBH2 under the static condition suggested that preservation of CBH2 and its synergism with CBH1 is essential for static condition's characteristics, and for efficient hydrolysis of cellulose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Static and dynamic balance deficiencies in chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigkanos, Christos; Gaskell, Lynne; Smirniotou, Athanasia; Tsigkanos, Georgios

    2016-11-21

    According to previously conducted studies, people with Low Back Pain (LBP) present with static balance deficiencies. The aim of the present study was to compare static, as well as dynamic balance ability between Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) and healthy subjects. The CLBP group comprised 17 subjects and the control group of 16 subjects, matched for age, BMI and gender. The protocol applied compared the balance ability when performing the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and the static 1-leg stance position. The innovation introduced in the protocol was that the participants performed not only the static 1-leg stance, but also the dynamic SEBT on a force plate which recorded the target sway (TS), i.e. the Center of Pressure (CoP) excursion. The CLBP group had significantly reduced performance in SEBT, coupled with greater static and dynamic TS values. Age and especially BMI also bear a significant effect on SEBT execution. The inclusion of SEBT and TS derived scores in a stepwise logistic regression equation lead to the correct classification of 85% of the subjects. Dynamic and static balance ability provide supplementary information for the identification of the presence of CLBP, with dynamic balance being more instrumental.

  19. Pulsed laser deposition: Prospects for commercial deposition of epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchausen, R.E.

    1999-03-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique for the deposition of thin films. The vapor source is induced by the flash evaporation that occurs when a laser pulse of sufficient intensity (about 100 MW/cm{sup 2}) is absorbed by a target. In this paper the author briefly defines pulsed laser deposition, current applications, research directed at gaining a better understanding of the pulsed laser deposition process, and suggests some future directions to enable commercial applications.

  20. A comparison of adsorbed and grafted fibronectin coatings under static and dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño-Machado, Vanessa; Hugoni, Ludivine; Díaz-Rodríguez, Sergio; Tolouei, Ranna; Chevallier, Pascale; Pauthe, Emmanuel; Mantovani, Diego

    2016-09-21

    Coatings for medical devices are expected to improve their surface biocompatibility mainly by being bioactive, i.e. stimulating healing-oriented interactions with living cells, tissues and organs. In particular, for stent applications, coatings are often designed to enhance the endothelialization process. The coating strategy will be primarily responsible for the interfacial properties between the substrate and the coating, which must show high stability. Therefore, the present work aims at comparing the stability of adsorbed and grafted fibronectin, a protein well-known to promote endothelialization. Fibronectin coatings were deposited on fluorocarbon films generated by a plasma-based process on stainless steel substrates. Then, deformation tests were performed in order to simulate the stenting procedure and stability tests were completed under static and under-flow conditions. Coatings were characterized by XPS, AFM, water contact angle, immunostaining and ToF-SIMS analyses. The results show higher stability for the grafted coatings; indeed, the integrity of the protein simply adsorbed was strongly compromised especially after under-flow tests. Both coatings exhibited similar behavior after deformation and static tests. These results clearly show the impact of the coating strategy on the overall stability of the coatings as well as the importance of under-flow investigations.

  1. Thickness effect in the statics and dynamics of wetting on soft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Menghua; Roche, Matthieu; Dervaux, Julien; Royon, Laurent; Narita, Tetsuharu; Lequeux, François; Limat, Laurent; Matière et Systèmes Complexes-UMR 7057 Team; Sciences et Ingénierie de la Matière Molle-UMR 7615 Team

    2016-11-01

    The wetting of liquids on soft materials such as elastomers has received a great deal of attention in the past decades. Many experiments were performed to gain insight into both the statics and dynamics of wetting in such systems, but most neglected the effect of finite thickness of the gel. Here we report results of a study of the thickness effect on both the statics and dynamics of wetting. We vary the thickness of soft silicone elastomers from 10-2 to a few mm. First, we develop a quantitative Schlieren optics enabling us to observe the surface deformation after the deposition of droplets. We measure the vertical deformation outside droplets as a function of droplet size, gel thickness and elasticity. We identify a submicrometer-deep dimple, that extends over mm away from the contact line. Second, we characterize the receding dynamics and we show that the dynamic contact angle, hence dissipation, depends on the thickness of the sample. We rationalize our experiments, with an analytical model accounting for the linear elastic response of the gel bulk and its surface tension. We find excellent agreement with experiments.

  2. The Estimation and Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data with Static Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Zhou, J.; Zhang, J.; Min, G.; Xia, S.

    2015-12-01

    IntroductionIn magnetotelluric sounding data processing, the static shift correction is one of the most important steps. Due to the complexity of near-surface inhomogeneous bodies distribution, it is difficult to estimate the static shift of measured data. For this problem, we put forward on the basis of the inversion model for static shift estimation, and reconstructed the initial model with using the original data for 2D or 3D inversion. Estimation and Inversion methodThe magnetotelluric impedance phase has the characteristics of not influenced by the static shift in Two-dimensional electrical structure. The objective function for static shift estimation can be constructed based on impedance phase data. On the basis of normal inversion, utilizing one-dimensional linear search algorithm, combined with the forward modeling, the MT static shift can be estimated.Using estimation results for translation of anomaly measured curve. According to the inversion(1-D) of these translated curve, the initial model for two-dimensional or two-dimensional inversion can be reconstructed. On this basis, we do inversion for the original data, which not only can effectively eliminate the influence of static shift on the deep structure of inversion model, but also can get the right shallow electrical structure in the inversionConclusionThe estimation value of static shift based on impedance phase can be close to the true value. This estimation results can be used to modify the initial model, which makes the deep electric structure of the model more reasonable. On this basis, the inversion of the original data can ensure the correctness of the final inversion results (including shallow and deep).Acknowledgement This paper is supported by National Natural Science Foundation (41274078) and National 863 High Technology Research and Development Program (2014AA06A612).Reference[1] deGroot-Hedlin C. Removal of static shift in two dimensions by regularized inversion[J]. Geophysics, 1991, 56

  3. Inhibition of Spontaneous Breast Cancer Metastasis by Anti—Thomsen-Friedenreich Antigen Monoclonal Antibody JAA-F11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Heimburg

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF-Ag is expressed in many carcinomas, including those of the breast, colon, bladder, prostate. TF-Ag is important in adhesion and metastasis and as a potential immunotherapy target. We hypothesized that passive transfer of JAAF11, an anti -TF-Ag monoclonal antibody, may create a survival advantage for patients with TIF-Ag -expressing tumors by cytotoxicity, blocking of tumor cell adhesion, inhibition of metastasis. This was tested using in vitro models of tumor cell growth; cytotoxicity assays; in vitro, ex vivo, in vivo models of cancer metastasis; and, finally, in vivo effects in mice with metastatic breast cancer. Unlike some anti-TF-Ag antibodies, JAA-F11 did not enhance breast carcinoma cell growth. JAA-F11 did not induce the killing of 4T1 tumor cells through complement-dependent cytotoxicity or apoptotic mechanisms. However, JAA-F11 blocked the stages of metastasis that involve the adhesion of human breast carcinoma cells to human endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human bone marrow endothelial cells 60 in in vitro static adhesion models, in a perfused ex vivo model, in murine lung vasculature in an in vivo metastatic deposit formation assay. JAA-F11 significantly extended the median survival time of animals bearing metastatic 4T1 breast tumors and caused a > 50% inhibition of lung metastasis.

  4. STATIC{sub T}EMP: a useful computer code for calculating static formation temperatures in geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoyo, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Temixco (Mexico); Garcia, A.; Santoyo, S. [Unidad Geotermia, Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco (Mexico); Espinosa, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Co. Vicentina (Mexico); Hernandez, I. [ITESM, Centro de Sistemas de Manufactura, Monterrey (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The development and application of the computer code STATIC{sub T}EMP, a useful tool for calculating static formation temperatures from actual bottomhole temperature data logged in geothermal wells is described. STATIC{sub T}EMP is based on five analytical methods which are the most frequently used in the geothermal industry. Conductive and convective heat flow models (radial, spherical/radial and cylindrical/radial) were selected. The computer code is a useful tool that can be reliably used in situ to determine static formation temperatures before or during the completion stages of geothermal wells (drilling and cementing). Shut-in time and bottomhole temperature measurements logged during well completion activities are required as input data. Output results can include up to seven computations of the static formation temperature by each wellbore temperature data set analysed. STATIC{sub T}EMP was written in Fortran-77 Microsoft language for MS-DOS environment using structured programming techniques. It runs on most IBM compatible personal computers. The source code and its computational architecture as well as the input and output files are described in detail. Validation and application examples on the use of this computer code with wellbore temperature data (obtained from specialised literature) and with actual bottomhole temperature data (taken from completion operations of some geothermal wells) are also presented. (Author)

  5. How Static Is the Statics Classroom? An Investigation into How Innovations, Specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies, Are Adopted into the Statics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Stephanie Leigh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate how educational research, specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies (RBIS), is adopted by education practice, specifically within the engineering Statics classroom. Using a systematic approach, changes in classroom teaching practices were investigated from the instructors' perspective.…

  6. Thermal stabilization of static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, Michael; Schwaller, Christian; Tremmel, Anton J.; Koch, Alexander W.

    2017-05-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy has become a standard method for spectral analysis of infrared light. With this method, an interferogram is created by two beam interference which is subsequently Fourier-transformed. Most Fourier transform spectrometers used today provide the interferogram in the temporal domain. In contrast, static Fourier transform spectrometers generate interferograms in the spatial domain. One example of this type of spectrometer is the static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer which offers a high etendue in combination with a simple, miniaturized optics design. As no moving parts are required, it also features a high vibration resistance and high measurement rates. However, it is susceptible to temperature variations. In this paper, we therefore discuss the main sources for temperature-induced errors in static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers: changes in the refractive index of the optical components used, variations of the detector sensitivity, and thermal expansion of the housing. As these errors manifest themselves in temperature-dependent wavenumber shifts and intensity shifts, they prevent static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers from delivering long-term stable spectra. To eliminate these shifts, we additionally present a work concept for the thermal stabilization of the spectrometer. With this stabilization, static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometers are made suitable for infrared process spectroscopy under harsh thermal environmental conditions. As the static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer uses the so-called source-doubling principle, many of the mentioned findings are transferable to other designs of static Fourier transform spectrometers based on the same principle.

  7. Comparison of static and dynamic properties in a shale rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnelye, Audrey; Pimienta, Lucas; Schubnel, Alexandre; David, Christian

    2017-04-01

    When trying to understand the elastic properties of rocks in order to ultimately compare laboratory and field data, two opposite measuring techniques can be used: the "static" and "dynamic" measurement techniques. The "static" measurement technique consists in characterising the medium by its strain response to an applied stress. The strain rate is generally low enough that the measurement can be addressed as static. Using ultrasonic wave velocity, the "dynamic" measurements are obtained. Those allow obtaining accurately the full set of elastic constants characterising the medium. However, such measuring procedure is at high frequency, implying the risk for dispersion and attenuation effects to occur. When comparing the "static" and "dynamic" measurements, and investigating their differences, the effect of the measuring frequency is often the parameter considered. However, it is not the only parameter that may play a role. Indeed, often, "static" measurements rely on strain amplitudes above 10-4. On the other hand, "dynamic" measurements rely on strain amplitudes below 10-6. Such difference may play an important role in comparing measurements in weak materials such as shales. For this particular rock, the effect of strain amplitude on the "static" measurements is investigated by decreasing the amplitude of stress variations. Moreover, due to both multiscale and sedimentary nature, shale materials can exhibit strong anisotropic properties, usually described as transversly isotropic. In this study we propose to compare the different ways of measuring elastic moduli of Tournemire shale (IRSN underground laboratory, Aveyron, Southern France). In a first part, static moduli were calculated on three sets of samples with different bedding orientations (90°, 0°, 45°) deformed under deviatoric pressure at different confining pressures (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80MPa). During these deformation experiments, elastic wave velocities were continuously measured along different

  8. Are static and dynamic kinematics comparable after total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saevarsson, Stefan K; Romeo, Carolina I; Anglin, Carolyn

    2013-04-05

    Knee kinematics provide information about how the femoral, tibial and patellar bones or prosthetic components move relative to each other. Accurate knowledge of kinematics is valuable for implant design, comparisons between designs or surgical techniques, and to identify differences between patients with good and poor outcomes. Both static and dynamic imaging techniques have been used to evaluate kinematics. In general, static imaging is used to capture better quality images or to capture views that cannot be acquired by dynamic imaging, whereas dynamic imaging is used to capture real-life movements. How well static kinematics represent dynamic kinematics is subject to frequent debate and has not been adequately addressed, especially after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We compared the static and dynamic weightbearing kinematics of 10 female subjects after TKA. Using the same clinical scanner for both methods, static images were taken using our standard protocol, sequential-biplane radiographs at multiple flexion angles, as well as with dynamic video fluoroscopy during a step up activity. The static method can reliably measure all 12 degrees of freedom (DOF) after TKA, however only seven were compared due to the poorer out-of-plane reliability in the single-plane dynamic imaging. No differences were found between the static and dynamic kinematics for nine out of ten subjects. For one subject, however, a difference of 5-8° in internal/external tibial rotation was found. The research question, study purpose and the advantages and disadvantages of each method need to be considered when determining which imaging method to use.

  9. Static and Dynamic Handgrip Strength Endurance: Test-Retest Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Psychou, Dimitra; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Zafeiridis, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the reliability of static and dynamic handgrip strength endurance using different protocols and indicators for the assessment of strength endurance. Forty young, healthy men and women (age, 18-22 years) performed 2 handgrip strength endurance protocols: a static protocol (sustained submaximal contraction at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction) and a dynamic one (8, 10, and 12 maximal repetitions). The participants executed each protocol twice to assess the test-retest reproducibility. Total work and total time were used as indicators of strength endurance in the static protocol; the strength recorded at each maximal repetition, the percentage change, and fatigue index were used as indicators of strength endurance in the dynamic protocol. The static protocol showed high reliability irrespective of sex and hand for total time and work. The 12-repetition dynamic protocol exhibited moderate-high reliability for repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change; the 8- and 10-repetition protocols demonstrated lower reliability irrespective of sex and hand. The fatigue index was not a reliable indicator for the assessment of dynamic handgrip endurance. Static handgrip endurance can be measured reliably using the total time and total work as indicators of strength endurance. For the evaluation of dynamic handgrip endurance, the 12-repetition protocol is recommended, using the repeated maximal repetitions and percentage change as indicators of strength endurance. Practitioners should consider the static (50% maximal voluntary contraction) and dynamic (12 repeated maximal repetitions) protocols as reliable for the assessment of handgrip strength endurance. The evaluation of static endurance in conjunction with dynamic endurance would provide more complete information about hand function. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  11. Inhibition of urinary calculi -- a spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia; Govani, Jayesh; Durrer, William; Reza, Layra; Pinales, Luis

    2008-10-01

    Although a considerable number of investigations have already been undertaken and many causes such as life habits, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors have been noted as sources that accelerate calculi depositions and aggregations, there are still plenty of unanswered questions regarding efficient inhibition and treatment mechanisms. Thus, in an attempt to acquire more insights, we propose here a detailed scientific study of kidney stone formation and growth inhibition based on a traditional medicine approach with Rotula Aquatica Lour (RAL) herbal extracts. A simplified single diffusion gel growth technique was used for synthesizing the samples for the present study. The unexpected Zn presence in the sample with RAL inhibitor, as revealed by XPS measurements, explains the inhibition process and the dramatic reflectance of the incident light observed in the infrared transmission studies. Raman data demonstrate potential binding of the inhibitor with the oxygen of the kidney stone. Photoluminescence results corroborate to provide additional evidence of Zn-related inhibition.

  12. An Eigenstructure Assignment for a Static Synchronous Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad N. Al-Husban

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Power flow through an AC transmission line is influenced by three basic electrical parameters, which are line impedance, magnitudes and phase-shift angle between the sending and receiving voltages. Therefore, the change in any of the three basic parameters means a change in the power flow through the transmission line. The aims of this research paper are: increase the power transfer capability of transmission systems, minimize the transmission losses, support a good voltage profile and retain system stability under large disturbances. Study the use of eigenstructure techniques for state feedback control of the power system static compensator. Therefore, the mathematical analysis was performed for eigenvector assignment, power flow transmission line and for the static compensator analysis based on the transformation of the three-phase into d-q frame. Approach: A novel control method for regulating the power system in case of abnormal conditions was carried out. The system considered is a static synchronous compensator. The study includes a detailed mathematical analysis of the impact of the shunt compensator on the power flow; investigation of the system constraints and their effects on the static compensator control; in addition simulation of static compensator to control a transmitted active power flow on the transmission line. The conducted method provides a way of constructing the state feedback gain matrix to satisfy a certain prescribed performance. Results: The solutions of the obtained equation were conducted using the computer simulation method for both open-loop and static compensator techniques. The result shows fast tracking of the power flow transient response when using the static compensator technique comparing with open-loop technique. However, the same trend of the behavior was observed for all cases. Conclusion: A new method for developing a parameterized feedback matrix that assigns a closed-loop prespecified

  13. On convection and static stability during the AMMA SOP3 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embolo Embolo, G. B.; Lenouo, André; Nzeukou, Armand T.; Vondou, Derbetini A.; Kamga, F. Mkankam

    2017-01-01

    Using radiosonde dataset from 15 weather stations over West Africa, this paper investigates the contribution of the couple convection-static stability in the framework of the African monsoon multidisciplinary analyses Special Observing Period 3 (AMMA SOP3) experiment. Within this 31-day period, the boundary layer-winds depictions have revealed the West African monsoon's (WAM) depth (around 1500 m) is not thick enough to trigger intense convection. However, the midlevel winds distribution (700-600 hPa) has shown the average African easterly jet core strength (15 m s-1) is sufficient to allow the development of African easterly waves (AEWs) necessary for squall lines activities. In return, in the upper levels (200-100 hPa), the speed (below 18 m s-1) of the mean Tropical easterly jet (TEJ) core cannot favor midlevel updrafts. The free tropospheric humidity (FTH) depiction has indicated convective events are more likely in the western Sahel where the highest FTH (FTH >50 %) are recorded. The static stability analysis has testified that convection is stronger in the semi-arid (SA) area during night time (0000 GMT). However, convective activities are inhibited in the wet equatorial (WE) region due to mean low-level stability. We used METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG) infrared (IR10.8) imagery of the 8th September 2006 to confirm that result. Furthermore, a maximum midtropospheric static stability combined with maximum relative humidity (RH) was found on the fringe of the Saharan air layer's (SAL) top (altitude around 5.3 km) in the WE region.

  14. Design and Analysis of AN Static Aeroelastic Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying-Yu; Yuan, Kai-Hua; Lv, Ji-Nan; Liu, Zi-Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Static aeroelastic experiments are very common in the United States and Russia. The objective of static aeroelastic experiments is to investigate deformation and loads of elastic structure in flow field. Generally speaking, prerequisite of this experiment is that the stiffness distribution of structure is known. This paper describes a method for designing experimental models, in the case where the stiffness distribution and boundary condition of a real aircraft are both uncertain. The stiffness distribution form of the structure can be calculated via finite element modeling and simulation calculation and F141 steels and rigid foam are used to make elastic model. In this paper, the design and manufacturing process of static aeroelastic models is presented and a set of experiment model was designed to simulate the stiffness of the designed wings, a set of experiments was designed to check the results. The test results show that the experimental method can effectively complete the design work of elastic model. This paper introduces the whole process of the static aeroelastic experiment, and the experimental results are analyzed. This paper developed a static aeroelasticity experiment technique and established an experiment model targeting at the swept wing of a certain kind of large aspect ratio aircraft.

  15. Static friction between silicon nanowires and elastomeric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qingquan; Zhu, Yong

    2011-09-27

    This paper reports the first direct measurements of static friction force and interfacial shear strength between silicon (Si) nanowires (NWs) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). A micromanipulator is used to manipulate and deform the NWs under a high-magnification optical microscope in real time. The static friction force is measured based on "the most-bent state" of the NWs. The static friction and interface shear strength are found to depend on the ultraviolet/ozone (UVO) treatment of PDMS. The shear strength starts at 0.30 MPa without UVO treatment, increases rapidly up to 10.57 MPa at 60 min of treatment and decreases for longer treatment. Water contact angle measurements suggest that the UVO-induced hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion of PDMS surface is responsible for the increase in the static friction, while the hydrophobic recovery effect contributes to the decrease. The static friction between NWs and PDMS is of critical relevance to many device applications of NWs including NW-based flexible/stretchable electronics, NW assembly and nanocomposites (e.g., supercapacitors). Our results will enable quantitative interface design and control for such applications.

  16. REQUIREMENTS AND CONSTRUCTIVE DIFFERENCES OF A STATIC CONVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uskov A. E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article technical requirements to static converters are examined. We can treat as the basic parameters: efficiency and quality of a target voltage. Weight-dimensional parameters, reliability, maintainability are basic operational parameters, as well as target capacity, size of an starting and target voltage belong to key parameters of static converters. As a rule designing of converters is a uniform constructive complex. As at designing, time of an operating time until first failure is taken into account, time of guaranteed work of the separate elements included in the static converter, are determined on the statistical data. Failure of separate elements of parts of converters are possible because of internal (time of guaranteed work and external (short circuits, overloads factors. In the article we have offered the ways of reduction of influence of external factors (for example, we used high-speed automatic switches or iterative static converters in which parts of a power circuit were included in parallel. Using universal static converters allows raising some parameters of efficiency simultaneously. In the article we have also considered a scheme of the iterative converter with variable structure which allows (depending on start and target conditions or requirements forming an output capacity of the required level and quality without constructive change

  17. A systematic review on dynamic versus static distal tibiofibular fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, S Y; Pull Ter Gunne, A F; Aarts, C A M; Bemelman, M

    2016-12-01

    In the last couple of years dynamic fixation for syndesmosis injuries, using a suture-button technique, raised more interest due to its advantages over the static fixation. In the current systematic review suture-button fixation is compared to the traditionally applied static fixation in unstable ankle fractures accompanied with distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury, including the functional outcome, post-operative complications, reoperation rate, recurrent diastasis and financial aspects. A computerized literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted in search of suitable articles between January 2006 and February 2016. A total of 4 suture-button studies, 5 suture-button vs. static fixation studies and 1 study discussing the financial aspects were identified. The AOFAS of 104 patients treated with the suture-button device was 91.08 points with an average study-follow up of 24.85 months. The AOFAS of 106 patients treated with a static fixation device was 87.95 with an average follow-up of 24.78 months. Removal of the suture-button device was reported in 10.5% of 229 patients and removal of the screws in 38.5%. Dynamic fixation demonstrated to be a viable alternative to the static fixation device, with lower reoperation rates and less complications. They can accurately stabilize the ruptured syndesmosis without device breakage or loss of reduction. 1A economic/decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dosimetric comparison between jaw tracking and static jaw techniques in intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhongsu; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Yibao; Zhang, Yunjun; Cheng, Jinsheng; Su, Xu

    2015-01-27

    To compare the dosimetric differences between jaw tracking technique (JTT) and static jaw technique (SJT) in dynamic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (d-IMRT) and assess the potential advantages of jaw tracking technique. Two techniques, jaw tracking and static jaw, were used respectively to develop the d-IMRT plans for 28 cancer patients with various lesion sites: head and neck, lungs, esophageal, abdominal, prostate, rectal and cervical. The dose volume histograms (DVH) and selected dosimetric indexes for the whole body and for organs at risk (OARs) were compared. A two dimensional ionization chamber Array Seven29 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) and OCTAVIUS Octagonal phantom (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) were used to verify all the plans. For all patients, the treatment plans using both techniques met the clinical requirements. The V5, V10, V20, V30, V40 (volumes receiving 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 Gy at least, respectively), mean dose (Dmean) for the whole body and V5, V10, V20, Dmean for lungs in the JTT d-IMRT plans were significantly less than the corresponding values of the SJT d-IMRT plans (p < 0.001). The JTT d-IMRT plans deposited lower maximum dose (Dmax) to the lens, eyes, brainstem, spinal cord, and right optic nerve, the doses reductions for these OARs ranged from 2.2% to 28.6%. The JTT d-IMRT plans deposited significantly lower Dmean to various OARs (all p values < 0.05), the mean doses reductions for these OARs ranged from 1.1% to 31.0%, and the value reductions depend on the volume and the location of the OARs. The γ evaluation method showed an excellent agreement between calculation and measurement for all techniques with criteria of 3%/3 mm. Both jaw tracking and static jaw d-IMRT plans can achieve comparable target dose coverage. JTT displays superior OARs sparing than SJT plans. These results are of clinical importance, especially for the patients with large and complex targets but close to some highly radio-sensitive organs to spare, and for patients

  19. Integrated dynamic and static tactile sensor: focus on static force sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettels, Nicholas; Pletner, Baruch

    2012-04-01

    Object grasping by robotic hands in unstructured environments demands a sensor that is durable, compliant, and responsive to static and dynamic force conditions. In order for a tactile sensor to be useful for grasp control in these, it should have the following properties: tri-axial force sensing (two shear plus normal component), dynamic event sensing across slip frequencies, compliant surface for grip, wide dynamic range (depending on application), insensitivity to environmental conditions, ability to withstand abuse and good sensing behavior (e.g. low hysteresis, high repeatability). These features can be combined in a novel multimodal tactile sensor. This sensor combines commercial-off-the-shelf MEMS technology with two proprietary force sensors: a high bandwidth device based on PZT technology and low bandwidth device based on elastomers and optics. In this study, we focus on the latter transduction mechanism and the proposed architecture of the completed device. In this study, an embedded LED was utilized to produce a constant light source throughout a layer of silicon rubber which covered a plastic mandrel containing a set of sensitive phototransistors. Features about the contacted object such as center of pressure and force vectors can be extracted from the information in the changing patterns of light. The voltage versus force relationship obtained with this molded humanlike finger had a wide dynamic range that coincided with forces relevant for most human grip tasks.

  20. How Static is the Statics Classroom? An investigation into how innovations, specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies, are adopted into the Statics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Stephanie Leigh

    The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate how educational research, specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies (RBIS), is adopted by education practice, specifically within the engineering Statics classroom. Using a systematic approach, changes in classroom teaching practices were investigated from the instructors' perspective. Both researchers and practitioners are included in the process, combining efforts to improve student learning, which is a critical goal for engineering education. The study is divided into 3 stages and each is discussed in an individual manuscript. Manuscript 1 provides an assessment of current teaching practices; Manuscript 2 explores RBIS use by Statics instructors and perceived barriers of adoption; and Manuscript 3 evaluates adoption using Fidelity of Implementation. A common set of concurrent mixed methods was used for each stage of this study. A quantitative national survey of Statics instructors (n =166) and 18 qualitative interviews were conducted to examine activities used in the Statics classroom and familiarity with nine RBIS. The results of this study show that lecturing is the most common activity throughout Statics classrooms, but is not the only activity. Other common activities included working examples and students working on problems individually and in groups. As discussed by the interview participants, each of Rogers' characteristics influenced adoption for different reasons. For example, Complexity (level of difficulty with implementation of an RBIS) was most commonly identified as a barrier. His study also evaluated the Fidelity of Implementation for each RBIS and found it to be higher for RBIS that were less complex (in terms of the number of critical components). Many of the critical components (i.e. activities required for implementation, as described in the literature) were found to statistically distinguish RBIS users and non-users. This dissertation offers four contributions: (1) an

  1. A comparison of cleaning regimes for the effective removal of fingerprint deposits from brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Emma; Bond, John W; Hillman, A Robert

    2010-01-01

    Effective removal of fingerprint deposits is crucial for experimentation related to the corrosion of metals by fingerprint deposits. Such removal is also necessary prior to deposition of test fingerprints. The effectiveness of four regimes in removing fingerprint deposits from brass is considered. Sustained wiping of the deposit with a tissue at applied pressures of up to c. 1430 Pa or rubbing while the brass was immersed in acetone both failed to remove completely all traces of fingerprint deposits. Heating the brass to 600 degrees C was an effective remover; however, this also oxidized the surface of the metal except where inhibited by fingerprint deposits. The most effective regime, and the only one of the four that removed all traces of deposit without affecting the properties of the metal surface, was immersion in warm soapy water while rubbing with a tissue. We propose this as the preferred method for fingerprint removal.

  2. On the stability of Einstein static universe in massive bigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mousavi, M

    2016-01-01

    We study the static cosmological solutions and their stability in the framework of massive bigravity theory with Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metrics. By the modification proposed in the cosmological equations subject to a perfect fluid we obtain new solutions interpreted as the Einstein static universe. It turns out that the non-vanishing size of initial scale factor of Einstein static universe depends on the non-vanishing three-dimensional spatial curvature of FRW metrics and also the graviton's mass. By dynamical system approach and numerical analysis, we find that the extracted solutions for closed an open universes can be stable for some ranges of equation of state parameter and the values of fraction of two scale factors.

  3. Black hole stereotyping: induced gravito-static polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Barak; Smolkin, Michael

    2012-02-01

    We discuss the black hole effective action and define its static subsector. We determine the induced gravito-static polarization constants (electric Love numbers) of static black holes (Schwarzschild) in an arbitrary dimension, namely the induced mass multipole as a result of an external gravitational field. We demonstrate that in 4d these constants vanish thereby settling a disagreement in the literature. Yet in higher dimensions these constants are non-vanishing, thereby disproving (at least in d > 4) speculations that black holes have no effective couplings beyond the point particle action. In particular, when l/( d-3) is half integral these constants demonstrate a (classical) renormalization flow consistent with the divergences of the effective field theory. In some other cases the constants are negative indicating a novel non-spherical instability. The theory of hypergeometric functions plays a central role.

  4. Determinacy in Static Analysis of jQuery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Esben; Møller, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Static analysis for JavaScript can potentially help programmers find errors early during development. Although much progress has been made on analysis techniques, a major obstacle is the prevalence of libraries, in particular jQuery, which apply programming patterns that have detrimental conseque......Static analysis for JavaScript can potentially help programmers find errors early during development. Although much progress has been made on analysis techniques, a major obstacle is the prevalence of libraries, in particular jQuery, which apply programming patterns that have detrimental...... present a static dataflow analysis for JavaScript that infers and exploits determinacy information on-the-fly, to enable analysis of some of the most complex parts of jQuery. The techniques are implemented in the TAJS analysis tool and evaluated on a collection of small programs that use jQuery. Our...

  5. Static and Dynamic Sensory Comfort of Knit Underwear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-ling; FANG Fang; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper relationships have been investigated between overall comfort estimate and five main factors on nine knit underwear at (29±2)℃ and relative humidity, (85±2)% .The values of thermal and moisture comfort rise obviously,yet the values of roughness, softness and tightness are near the static values after finishing movement. The analysis shows that the overall estimation has the negative correlation with the thermal and moisture comfort and the positive correlation with the roughness and softness under static state. After movement the effects on overall estimate of thermal and moisture increase. Oppositely, the effects of roughness and softness decrease. Overall estimation has positive correlation with tightness at static. But it has no evident effect on overall comfort after movement and 5-minute-rest according to this experiment. The relationships between tightness and thermal, moisture, roughness,softness were also discussed in this paper.

  6. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  7. Chloride permeability of concrete under static and repeated compressive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Mitsuru; Ishimori, Hiroshi [Kanazawa Inst. of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1995-05-01

    The chloride permeability of normal weight concrete subjected to static and repeated compressive loading was evaluated by using the AASHTO T277 test method. The results of concrete under static loading showed that the application of loads up to 90% of the ultimate strength had little effect on the chloride permeability. It was found from the results of concrete under repeated loading that load repetitions at the maximum stress levels of 60% or more caused the chloride permeability to increase significantly. The test results also indicated that the chloride permeability of concrete subjected to static and repeated loading increased at an increasing rate with its residual strain. The relation between the chloride permeability obtained and the cracking behavior of concrete previously reported was discussed.

  8. A New Static and Fatigue Compression Test Method for Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Goutianos, Stergios; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom;

    2011-01-01

    the test through a mechanical mechanism, which automatically maintains the gripping pressure. The combined loading method has proven very efficient in static loading and is used in the new fixture which is specially designed for fatigue testing. Optimum gripping (shear loading) and alignment of the test......A new test method to determine the compressive properties of composite materials under both static and fatigue loading was developed. The novel fixture is based on the concept of transmitting the load by a fixed ratio of end-to-shear loading. The end-to-shear load ratio is kept fixed during...... coupon are achieved throughout the fatigue life. The fatigue strength obtained is more reliable because bending of the specimen due to poor gripping and alignment is minimised. The application of the new fixture to static and fatigue compression is demonstrated by using unidirectional carbon...

  9. The effect of static pressure on the inertial cavitation threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Kenneth B; Raymond, Jason L; Mobley, Joel; Church, Charles C; Felipe Gaitan, D

    2012-08-01

    The amplitude of the acoustic pressure required to nucleate a gas or vapor bubble in a fluid, and to have that bubble undergo an inertial collapse, is termed the inertial cavitation threshold. The magnitude of the inertial cavitation threshold is typically limited by mechanisms other than homogeneous nucleation such that the theoretical maximum is never achieved. However, the onset of inertial cavitation can be suppressed by increasing the static pressure of the fluid. The inertial cavitation threshold was measured in ultrapure water at static pressures up to 30 MPa (300 bars) by exciting a radially symmetric standing wave field in a spherical resonator driven at a resonant frequency of 25.5 kHz. The threshold was found to increase linearly with the static pressure; an exponentially decaying temperature dependence was also found. The nature and properties of the nucleating mechanisms were investigated by comparing the measured thresholds to an independent analysis of the particulate content and available models for nucleation.

  10. Black hole stereotyping: Induced gravito-static polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Kol, Barak

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the black hole effective action and define its static subsector. We determine the induced gravito-static polarization constants (electric Love numbers) of static black holes (Schwarzschild) in an arbitrary dimension, namely the induced mass multipole as a result of an external gravitational field. We demonstrate that in 4d these constants vanish thereby settling a disagreement in the literature. Yet in higher dimensions these constants are non-vanishing, thereby disproving (at least in d>4) speculations that black holes have no effective couplings beyond the point particle action. In particular, when l/(d-3) is half integral these constants demonstrate a (classical) renormalization flow consistent with the divergences of the effective field theory. In some other cases the constants are negative indicating a novel non-spherical instability. The theory of hypergeometric functions plays a central role.

  11. Determinacy in Static Analysis of jQuery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Esben; Møller, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Static analysis for JavaScript can potentially help programmers find errors early during development. Although much progress has been made on analysis techniques, a major obstacle is the prevalence of libraries, in particular jQuery, which apply programming patterns that have detrimental...... present a static dataflow analysis for JavaScript that infers and exploits determinacy information on-the-fly, to enable analysis of some of the most complex parts of jQuery. The techniques are implemented in the TAJS analysis tool and evaluated on a collection of small programs that use jQuery. Our...... consequences on the analysis precision and performance. Previous work on dynamic determinacy analysis has demonstrated how information about program expressions that always resolve to a fixed value in some call context may lead to significant scalability improvements of static analysis for such code. We...

  12. Static dipole polarizabilities of Scn (n≤15) clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xi-Bo; Wang Hong-Yan; Luo Jiang-Shan; Guo Yun-Dong; Wu Wei-Dong; Tang Yong-Jian

    2009-01-01

    The static dipole polarizabilities of scandium clusters with up to 15 atoms are determined by using the numerically finite field method in the framework of density functional theory. The electronic effects on the polarizabilities are investigated for the scandium clusters.We examine a large highest occupied molecular orbital-the lowest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) gap of a scandium cluster usually corresponds to a large dipole moment.The static polarizability per atom decreases slowly and exhibits local minimum with increasing cluster size.The polarizability anisotropy and the ratio of mean static polarizability to the HOMO-LUMO gap can also reflect the cluster stability.The polarizability of the scandium cluster is partially related to the HOMO-LUMO gap and is also dependent on geometrical characteristics.A strong correlation between the polarizability and ionization energy is observed.

  13. Non-local means filter for trim statics

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong

    2014-08-05

    Structures will be mispositioned across prestack migration gathers in the presence of inaccuracies in the velocity model. Stacking these misaligned gathers runs the risk of destroying important structures in the stacked migration image. To mitigate this problem, we propose a trim statics inspired by the non-local means algorithm originally developed for image denoising. This method differs from the conventional one in two fundamental respects. First, the trim statics are computed by comparing image patches instead of individual image traces. Second, no global pilot trace is needed because only two migration images at a time participate in trim statics and are stacked into one image. A multitude of migration images are stacked recursively in this two-to-one fashion. Tests with a Gulf of Mexico dataset show a noticeable improvement in the feature coherency of the stacked migration image.

  14. Static spherically symmetric metrics and their cosmological interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Velez, Camilo Santa

    2016-01-01

    We find the transformation between static coordinates and the Newton gauge for the Schwarzschild-De-Sitter (SDS) solution, confirming it coincides with the weak field limit of the McVittie solution. We then consider different generalized classes of static spherically symmetric (SSS) metrics and using the same method we transform them to the Newton gauge, which could be used to test these modifications of the SDS solution using physical observables which are more conveniently computed within the framework of cosmological perturbation theory. Using the gauge invariance of the Bardeen potentials we then obtain a gauge invariant definition of the turn around radius, checking it is consistent with the result obtained in static coordinates for the SDS metric and for other SSS metrics.

  15. Static and dynamic critical behavior of thin magnetic Ising films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabogal-Suárez, D.; Alzate-Cardona, J. D.; Restrepo-Parra, E.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents a study of the effect of film thickness on the static and dynamic critical behavior of thin magnetic Ising films. Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff algorithm were performed to determine the static and dynamic critical exponents of the films. A dimensionality crossover from 2D to 3D (due to the finiteness of the films) in the static and dynamic critical behavior was observed as the film thickness increases. In addition, a slight increase in the effective dimension deff and a considerable increase in the critical temperature Tc(∞) were found. Small values for the dynamic critical exponents were obtained, indicating that the Wolff algorithm is a very efficient method for these magnetic systems.

  16. AGENT based structural static and dynamic collaborative optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A static and dynamic collaborative optimization mode for complex machine system and itsontology project relationship are put forward, on which an agent-based structural static and dynamiccollaborative optimization system is constructed as two agent colonies: optimization agent colony andfinite element analysis colony. And a two-level solving strategy as well as the necessity and possibilityfor handing with finite element analysis model in multi-level mode is discussed. Furthermore, the coop-eration of all FEA agents for optimal design of complicated structural is studied in detail. Structural stat-ic and dynamic collaborative optimization of hydraulic excavator working equimpent is taken as an ex-ample to show that the system is reliable.

  17. Static- and Stationary-complete Spacetimes: Algebraic and Causal Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Steven G

    2014-01-01

    This is intended as an analysis of the global properties of static and stationary spacetimes with complete (timelike) Killing field, with particular attention to quotients by group actions. This is presented in terms of algebraic structures which are fairly simple for the static case and more involved for the stationary case; the most important tool, the fundamental cocycle, is a cohomological class for static spacetimes but of somewhat looser structure in the stationary case. In particular: (1) A new measurement, similar to the spacetime interval in Minkowski space, is devised for detecting whether two points are causally related in a stationary spacetime; this proves very useful for analysis. (2) All stationary spacetimes are categorized by how they behave with respect to the fundamental cocycle; this enables a complete characterization of global causality properties. (3) It is shown how these tools determine whether global hyperbolicity of a stationary spacetime is inherited by its quotients. (4) Examples ...

  18. Static Enforcement of Timing Policies Using Code Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-07

    to suggest that that would be a bad idea, but it is not how TALT works. 22 CHAPTER 2. TALT BACKGROUND Kinds K ::= T | Ti | TD | N | k1 → k2 Static...Terms c, τ, x ::= α | nsi | B0 | Bi | τ1 × τ2 | τ ↑ x | box(τ) | mbox(τ) | sptr(τ) | Γ → 0 | set=(x) | set<(x) | set>(x) | ∀α:K.τ | ∃α:K.τ | τ1 ∧ τ2 | τ1...second level, which we call static terms. The class of static terms is comprised of the types (of kinds Ti, TD and T) and the number terms (of kind N). By

  19. Static and dynamic buckling of thin-walled plate structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    This monograph deals with buckling and postbuckling behavior of thin plates and thin-walled structures with flat wall subjected to static and dynamic load. The investigations are carried out in elastic range. The basic assumption here is the  thin plate theory. This method is used to determination the buckling load and postbuckling analysis of thin-walled structures subjected to static and dynamic load. The book introduces two methods for static and dynamic buckling investigation which allow for a wider understanding of the phenomenon. Two different methods also can allow uncoupling of the phenomena occurring at the same time and attempt to estimate their impact on the final result. A general mathematical model, adopted in proposed analytical-numerical method, enables the consideration of all types of stability loss i.e.local, global and interactive forms of buckling. The applied numerical-numerical method includes adjacent of walls, shear-lag phenomenon and a deplanation of cross-sections.

  20. Fiber loop ring down for static ice pressure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Yang, Lingzhen; Zhang, Zongwei; Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Juanfen; Zhang, Li; Deng, Xiao; Zhang, Zhaoxia

    2017-07-01

    We studied static ice pressure detection of hydraulic structures based on fiber loop ring down technology. Our detection system consists of a mode-locked laser, two 2 × 1 optical fiber couplers, a piece of single-mode fiber, the on-line micro-bend fiber sensor and a photo-detector. The static ice pressure was monitored based on measuring the change of the ring down time induced by external ice pressure on on-line micro-bend fiber sensor. We monitored the static ice pressure during ice growth and melting from -10 °C to 6 °C. The detection sensitivity is 0.00998/(μs·kPa). The proposed pressure sensing method has many advantages such as free from the fluctuation of the light power, simple structure, fast response and high sensitivity.

  1. Android Application Protection against Static Reverse Engineering based on Multidexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nak Young Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available DEX files are executable files of Android applications. Since DEX files are in the format of Java bytecodes, their Java source codes can be easily obtained using static reverse engineering tools. This results in numerous Android application thefts. There are some tools (e.g. bangcle, ijiami, liapp that protect Android applications against static reverse engineering utilizing dynamic code loading. These tools usually encrypt classes.dex in an APK file. When the application is launched, the encrypted classes.dex file is decrypted and dynamically loaded. However, these tools fail to protect multidex APKs, which include more than one DEX files (classes2.dex, classes3.dex, ... to accommodate large-sized execution codes. In this paper, we propose a technique that protects multidex Android applications against static reverse engineering. The technique can encrypt/decrypt multiple DEX files in APK files and dynamically load them. The experimental results show that the proposed technique can effiectively protect multidex APKs.

  2. Quantifying hypoxia in human cancers using static PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward; Yeung, Ivan; Keller, Harald; Wouters, Bradley G.; Milosevic, Michael; Hedley, David W.; Jaffray, David A.

    2016-11-01

    Compared to FDG, the signal of 18F-labelled hypoxia-sensitive tracers in tumours is low. This means that in addition to the presence of hypoxic cells, transport properties contribute significantly to the uptake signal in static PET images. This sensitivity to transport must be minimized in order for static PET to provide a reliable standard for hypoxia quantification. A dynamic compartmental model based on a reaction-diffusion formalism was developed to interpret tracer pharmacokinetics and applied to static images of FAZA in twenty patients with pancreatic cancer. We use our model to identify tumour properties—well-perfused without substantial necrosis or partitioning—for which static PET images can reliably quantify hypoxia. Normalizing the measured activity in a tumour voxel by the value in blood leads to a reduction in the sensitivity to variations in ‘inter-corporal’ transport properties—blood volume and clearance rate—as well as imaging study protocols. Normalization thus enhances the correlation between static PET images and the FAZA binding rate K 3, a quantity which quantifies hypoxia in a biologically significant way. The ratio of FAZA uptake in spinal muscle and blood can vary substantially across patients due to long muscle equilibration times. Normalized static PET images of hypoxia-sensitive tracers can reliably quantify hypoxia for homogeneously well-perfused tumours with minimal tissue partitioning. The ideal normalizing reference tissue is blood, either drawn from the patient before PET scanning or imaged using PET. If blood is not available, uniform, homogeneously well-perfused muscle can be used. For tumours that are not homogeneously well-perfused or for which partitioning is significant, only an analysis of dynamic PET scans can reliably quantify hypoxia.

  3. Static cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation remains intact during deep hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dheeraj; McLeod, Katherine; Leonard, Samantha; Kibler, Kathleen; Easley, Ronald Blaine; Fraser, Charles D; Andropoulos, Dean; Brady, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Clinical studies measuring cerebral blood flow in infants during deep hypothermia have demonstrated diminished cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation. The coexistence of hypotension in these cohorts confounds the conclusion that deep hypothermia impairs cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation. We sought to compare the lower limit of autoregulation and the static rate of autoregulation between normothermic and hypothermic piglets. Twenty anesthetized neonatal piglets (5-7 days old; 10 normothermic and 10 hypothermic to 20°C) had continuous measurements of cortical red cell flux using laser Doppler flowmetry, while hemorrhagic hypotension was induced without cardiopulmonary bypass. Lower limit of autoregulation was determined for each subject using piecewise regression and SRoR was determined above and below each lower limit of autoregulation as (%change cerebrovascular resistance/%change cerebral perfusion pressure). The estimated difference in lower limit of autoregulation was 1.4 mm Hg (lower in the hypothermic piglets; 95% C.I. -10 to 14 mm Hg; P=0.6). The median lower limit of autoregulation in the normothermic group was 39 mm Hg [IQR 38-51] vs 35 mm Hg [31-50] in the hypothermic group. Intact steady-state pressure autoregulation was defined as static rate of autoregulation >0.5 and was demonstrated in all normothermic subjects (static rate of autoregulation=0.72 [0.65-0.87]) and in 9/10 of the hypothermic subjects (static rate of autoregulation=0.65 [0.52-0.87]). This difference in static rate of autoregulation of 0.06 (95% C.I. -0.3 to 0.1) was not significant (P=0.4). Intact steady-state cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation is demonstrated in a swine model of profound hypothermia. Lower limit of autoregulation and static rate of autoregulation were similar in hypothermic and normothermic subjects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Static or dynamic intramedullary nailing of femur and tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerovic, Djemil; Lazovic, Faruk; Hadzimehmedagic, Amel

    2015-04-01

    The basic principle of non-surgical fracture treatment is to restore the original anatomical position of fractured fragments by different techniques, without direct access to the bone and without further traumatizing of tissues. Intramedullary nailing is synthesis and consolidation of fracture fragments with the main goal to gain strength and permanent placement of the implants. Two techniques of intramedullary osteosynthesis are used: with dynamic or with static intramedullary nail. Dynamization include conversion of static nail by removing screws from the longest fragment. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in the speed and quality of healing of the type A and B fractures of the femur and tibia treated by static or dynamic intramedullary nails and to compare the results. The study was conducted at the Clinic for Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Clinical Center University Sarajevo from January 2004 to June 2009. The study was retrospective-prospective, manipulative, controlled and it was conducted on a total of 129 patients with closed fractures of the diaphysis of the femur and tibia type A and type B, with different segments of bone, regardless of sex and age structure, with the exception of children under 14 years of age. Precisely there were 47 patients with femoral fractures and 82 patients with tibial fractures. The average number of weeks of healing femoral and tibial fractures was slightly in advantage of static intramedullary osteosynthesis, it was 17.08 weeks (SD=3.382). The average number of weeks of healing in 23 patients with fractures of the femur, treated by dynamic intramedullary osteosynthesis was 17.83 (SD=2.978). We can conclude that static intramedullary nailing osteosynthesis unable movements between fragments which directly stimulates bone formation and formation of minimal callus. Static intramedullary osteosynthesis resolve the problem of stabilizing the fracture, limb shortening and rotation of fragments.

  5. Quantifying hypoxia in human cancers using static PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward; Yeung, Ivan; Keller, Harald; Wouters, Bradley G; Milosevic, Michael; Hedley, David W; Jaffray, David A

    2016-11-21

    Compared to FDG, the signal of (18)F-labelled hypoxia-sensitive tracers in tumours is low. This means that in addition to the presence of hypoxic cells, transport properties contribute significantly to the uptake signal in static PET images. This sensitivity to transport must be minimized in order for static PET to provide a reliable standard for hypoxia quantification. A dynamic compartmental model based on a reaction-diffusion formalism was developed to interpret tracer pharmacokinetics and applied to static images of FAZA in twenty patients with pancreatic cancer. We use our model to identify tumour properties-well-perfused without substantial necrosis or partitioning-for which static PET images can reliably quantify hypoxia. Normalizing the measured activity in a tumour voxel by the value in blood leads to a reduction in the sensitivity to variations in 'inter-corporal' transport properties-blood volume and clearance rate-as well as imaging study protocols. Normalization thus enhances the correlation between static PET images and the FAZA binding rate K 3, a quantity which quantifies hypoxia in a biologically significant way. The ratio of FAZA uptake in spinal muscle and blood can vary substantially across patients due to long muscle equilibration times. Normalized static PET images of hypoxia-sensitive tracers can reliably quantify hypoxia for homogeneously well-perfused tumours with minimal tissue partitioning. The ideal normalizing reference tissue is blood, either drawn from the patient before PET scanning or imaged using PET. If blood is not available, uniform, homogeneously well-perfused muscle can be used. For tumours that are not homogeneously well-perfused or for which partitioning is significant, only an analysis of dynamic PET scans can reliably quantify hypoxia.

  6. Granitoid intrusions and related deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟良义; 李绪俊

    1996-01-01

    Taking the Bainaimiao copper and gold deposits, Inner Mongolia and the Wushan copper deposits, Jiangxi Province as examples, a discussion is devoted to the relationship between the granitoid intrusions and related deposits from different lines of evidence: the spatial distribution, country rocks and alteration of the deposits, trace element contents and vertical zoning of elements in deposits, the metallogenic preference of granitoid intrusions, the metallogenic models and stable isotopic geology. It is concluded that the ore-bearing fluids mainly come from granitoid magmas and granitoid intrusions are closely associated with the related deposits in space.

  7. Measurement and evaluation of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hružík Lumír

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experimental equipment for measurement of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor. It is possible to measure flow, pressure, temperature, speed and torque by means of this equipment. It deals with measurement of static characteristics of a gear rotary hydraulic motor. Mineral oil is used as hydraulic liquid in this case. Flow, torque and speed characteristics are evaluated from measured parameters. Measured mechanical-hydraulic, flow and total efficiencies of the rotary hydraulic motor are adduced in the paper. It is possible to diagnose technical conditions of the hydraulic motor (eventually to recommend its exchange from the experimental measurements.

  8. Static shape control of a flat shell structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The eight-node and forty-DOF piezoelectric shell element were applied to shape control of a flat shell structure. By the direct and converse effects, a distributed piezoelectric sensor layer was used to monitor the shape deformation and a distributed actuator layer was used to suppresse the deflection. A finite element model was for static response of laminated shell with piezoelectric sensors/actuators was derived. The model was verified by calculating piezoelectric polymeric PVDF bimorph beam. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by theoretical analysis of Tzou[1] and Hwang[2]. A case study of the static shape control of a flat shell structure is presented.

  9. A HYBRID POLYMER GEL AND ITS STATIC NONERGODICIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Zhao; Chi Wu

    2002-01-01

    We used a thermally reversible hybrid gel made of billions of physically jam-packed swollen thermally sensitive poly(N-isopropyl-acrylamide) chemical microgels. Laser light scattering study on a series of such hybrid gels formed at different gelling rates and temperatures revealed that the position-dependence of the scattering speckle pattern (static nonergodicity) came from large voids formed during the sol-gel transition. With a proper preparation, such a nonergodicity could be completely removed, indicating that the static nonergodicity generally observed in a gel is not intrinsic, but comes from the clustering "island" structure formed during the gelation process.

  10. Recovering map static nonlinearities from chaotic data using dynamical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis Antonio

    1997-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the estimation from chaotic data of maps with static nonlinearities. A number of issues concerning model construction such as structure selection, over-parametrization and model validation are discussed in the light of the shape of the static non-linearities reproduced by the estimated maps. A new interpretation of term clusters and cluster coefficients of polynomial models is provided based on this approach. The paper discusses model limitations and some useful principles to select the structure of nonlinear maps. Some of the ideas have been tested using several nonlinear systems including a boost voltage regulator map and a set of real data from a chaotic circuit.

  11. Quasi-static Deployment Simulation for Deployable Space Truss Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈务军; 付功义; 何艳丽; 董石麟

    2004-01-01

    A new method was proposed for quasi-static deployment analysis of deployable space truss structures. The structure is assumed a rigid assembly, whose constraints are classified as three categories:rigid member constraint, joint-attached kinematic constraint and boundary constraint. And their geometric constraint equations and derivative matrices are formulated. The basis of the null space and M-P inverse of the geometric constraint matrix are employed to determine the solution for quasi-static deployment analysis. The influence introduced by higher terms of constraints is evaluated subsequently. The numerical tests show that the new method is efficient.

  12. Structural testing for static failure, flutter and other scary things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Ground test and flight test methods are described that may be used to highlight potential structural problems that occur on aircraft. Primary interest is focused on light-weight general aviation airplanes. The structural problems described include static strength failure, aileron reversal, static divergence, and flutter. An example of each of the problems is discussed to illustrate how the data acquired during the tests may be used to predict the occurrence of the structural problem. While some rules of thumb for the prediction of structural problems are given the report is not intended to be used explicitly as a structural analysis handbook.

  13. Human body capacitance: static or dynamic concept? [ESD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1998-01-01

    A standing human body insulated from ground by footwear and/or floor covering is in principle an insulated conductor and has, as such, a capacitance, i.e. the ability to store a charge and possibly discharge the stored energy in a spark discharge. In the human body, the human body capacitance (HBC...... when a substantial part of the flux extends itself through badly defined stray fields. Since the concept of human body capacitance is normally used in a static (electric) context, it is suggested that the HBC be determined by a static method. No theoretical explanation of the observed differences...

  14. Static stability of collapsible tube conveying non-Newtonian fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Yushutin, V S

    2014-01-01

    The global static stability of a Starling Resistor conveying non-Newtonian fluid is considered. The Starling Resistor consists of two rigid circular tubes and axisymmetric collapsible tube mounted between them. Upstream and downstream pressures are the boundary condition as well as external to the collapsible tube pressure. Quasi one-dimensional model has been proposed and a boundary value problem in terms of nondimensional parameters obtained. Nonuniqueness of the boundary value problem is regarded as static instability. The analytical condition of instability which defines a surface in parameter space has been studied numerically. The influence of fluid rheology on stability of collapsible tube is established.

  15. Static critical fluctuations on the freeze-out surface

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Lijia; Song, Huichao

    2016-01-01

    In this proceeding, we summarize the main results of our recent paper, which introduces a freeze-out scheme to the dynamical models near the QCD critical point. Within such framework of static critical fluctuations, the Beam Energy Scan (BES) data of $C_4$ and $\\kappa \\sigma^2$ for net protons within different $p_T$ ranges can be roughly described. Besides, the momentum acceptance dependence of higher cumulants at lower collision energies can also be qualitatively described. However, $C_2$ and $C_3$ are always over-predicted due to the positive static critical fluctuations.

  16. The acceleration of a neutron in a static electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, R. L.

    2012-06-01

    We show that when a non-relativistic neutron travels in a static electric field, the acceleration vector operator is perpendicular to the velocity operator. Kinetic energy is conserved. A spin-dependent field term in the canonical momentum gives rise to a non-dispersive contribution to the quantum mechanical (Aharonov-Casher) phase. This motion differs from that in a static magnetic field which has no field term in the canonical momentum and no conservation of kinetic energy. For the geometry of the Aharonov-Casher effect, there is no acceleration, while in Mott-Schwinger scattering, the acceleration causes a spin-dependent change in neutron direction.

  17. Counterrotating perfect fluid discs as sources of electrovacuum static spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    García-Reyes, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    The interpretation of some electrovacuum spacetimes in terms of counterrotating perfect fluid discs is presented. The interpretation is mades by means of an "inverse problem" approach used to obtain disc sources of known static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations. In order to do such interpretation, a detailed study is presented of the counterrotating model (CRM) for generic electrovacuum static axially symmetric relativistic thin discs with nonzero radial pressure. Four simple families of models of counterrotating charged discs based on Chazy-Curzon-type, Zipoy-Voorhees-type, Bonnor-Sackfield-type, and charged and magnetized Darmois electrovacuum metrics are considered where we obtain some discs with a CRM well behaved.

  18. Quasilocal Energy for Static Charged Black Holes in String Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shi-Liang; JING Ji-Liang; WANG Yong-Jiu

    2001-01-01

    The Brown-York quasilocal energies of some static charged dilaton black holes are calculated, and then the validity of Martinez's conjecture is explored in string theory. It is shown that the energy is positive and monotonically decreases to the ADM mass at spatial infinity, and the conjecture that the Brown-York quasilocal energy at the outer horizon of black hole reduces to twice of its irreducible mass is still applicable for the static charged black holes in string theory. The result is different from Bose-Naing's one.``

  19. Dynamic Inheritance and Static Analysis can be Reconciled

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    1998-01-01

    In the area of object-orientation there is a long-standingschism between the rigid but safe statically typed languages, and theexpressive and exible but less safe \\typeless" languages. Many e ortshave aimed at combining the best of both. This paper presents a lan-guage mechanism which enhances....... With dynamic inheritance, pre-methoding becomesmore expressive, supporting control structures as rst class values whichmay be constructed and combined dynamically. Even though the conceptof pre-methoding is missing from most other languages, the basic ideacould be applied to any statically typed object-oriented...

  20. Adaptive financial networks with static and dynamic thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Tian; Chen, Guang

    2010-01-01

    Based on the daily data of American and Chinese stock markets, the dynamic behavior of a financial network with static and dynamic thresholds is investigated. Compared with the static threshold, the dynamic threshold suppresses the large fluctuation induced by the cross-correlation of individual stock prices, and leads to a stable topological structure in the dynamic evolution. Long-range time-correlations are revealed for the average clustering coefficient, average degree and cross-correlation of degrees. The dynamic network shows a two-peak behavior in the degree distribution.

  1. High-codimensional static bifurcations of strongly nonlinear oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qi-Chang; Wang Wei; Liu Fu-Hao

    2008-01-01

    The static bifurcation of the parametrically excited strongly nonlinear oscillator is studied.We consider the averaged equations of a system subject to Duffing-van der Pol and quintic strong nonlinearity by introducing the undetermined fundamental frequency into the computation in the complex normal form.To discuss the static bifurcation,the bifurcation problem is described as a 3-codimensional unfolding with Z2 symmetry on the basis of singularity theory.The transition set and bifurcation diagrams for the singularity are presented,while the stability of the zero solution is studied by using the eigenvalues in various parameter regions.

  2. Induced static magnetic field by a cellular phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einat, M.; Yahalom, A.

    2011-08-01

    Recent claims regarding the safety of cellular phones suggest that weak static magnetic fields are induced around the phone, and this field and its gradients may pose a health risk to the user. An experiment was conducted to measure the induced static magnetic field around a cellular phone. 65 μT variations and 18 μT/cm gradients were measured in the magnetic field at 6 cm from the phone. An analytical model is derived to explain the results. The influence that the measured magnetic fields may have on the user is beyond the scope of this research.

  3. Static and quasi-static analysis of lobed-pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi; Sasaki, Makoto; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Saito, Yoshitaka; Izutsu, Naoki

    The present study is motivated by the need to improve design methodology for super pressure balloon with 3D gore design concept, currently being developed at the Scientific Balloon Center of ISAS/JAXA. The distinctive feature of the 3-D gore design is that the balloon film has excess materials not only in the circumferential direction but also in the meridional direction; the meridional excess is gained by attaching the film boundaries to the corresponding tendons of a shorter length with a controlled shortening rate. The resulting balloon shape is a pumpkin-like shape with large bulges formed between adjacent tendons. The balloon film, when fully inflated, develops wrinkles in the circumferential direction over its entire region, so that the stresses in the film are limited to a small amount of uniaxial tension in the circumferential direction while the high meridional loads are carried by re-enforced tendons. Naturally, the amount of wrinkling in the film is dominated by the shortening rate between the film boundaries and the tendon curve. In the 3-D gore design, as a consequence, the shortening rate becomes a fundamental design parameter along with the geometric parameters of the gore. In view of this, we have carried out a series of numerical study of the lobed-pumpkin balloon with varying gore geometry as well as with varying shortening rate. The numerical simula-tions were carried out with a nonlinear finite element code incorporating the wrinkling effect. Numerical results show that there is a threshold value for the shortening rate beyond which the stresses in the balloon film increases disproportionately. We have also carried out quasi-static simulations of the inflation process of the lobed-pumpkin balloon, and have obtained asymmetric deformations when the balloon films are in uniaxial tension state.

  4. 20 CFR 703.306 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Act in the amount fixed by the Office under the regulations in this part shall deposit any... deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. 703.306 Section 703.306 Employees' Benefits... negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. A self-insurer or...

  5. Bone Response to Static Compressive Stress at Bone-Implant Interface: A Pilot Study of Critical Static Compressive Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikumi, Noriharu; Suzawa, Tetsuo; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical imbalance caused by mechanical overload or poor bone quality around a dental implant can result in osseointegration failure. To avoid that, it is important to identify an appropriate safety stress margin (critical stress level). For this study, a novel device was developed to generate a quantitative amount of static compressive stress under an aseptic closed condition. The aim was to clarify the amount of critical stress produced on the cortical bone when static compression is applied to the osseointegrated bone-implant interface. Small parts for bone sustaining, load generation, and load transmittance were developed to generate quantitative static compressive stress at the bone-implant interface and implanted inside the tibial cortical bone in adult beagle dogs. Each tibia in two dogs received bone-sustaining parts, then after 2 months, the load-transmitting parts were placed into the bone-sustaining parts. After another 2 months, various magnitudes of static compressive stress (0-180 MPa) were generated by tightening the load-generating part to the osseointegrated bone-implant interface. After 7 days, the animals were euthanized, and dissected blocks were prepared for histomorphometric analyses. There were no obvious signs of bone resorption or loss of osseointegration in any of the dogs. The change in shape of osteon was not influenced by the amount of static compressive stress. However, periosteal reactions were observed under the cortical bone on the opposite side. These results indicate that osseointegrated bone-implant interfaces show minimal response based on the magnitude of static compressive stress, even when such stress is greater than 120 MPa.

  6. Inkjet deposited circuit components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoki, S. M.; Nouri, J.; Heidari, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    All-printed electronics as a means of achieving ultra-low-cost electronic circuits has attracted great interest in recent years. Inkjet printing is one of the most promising techniques by which the circuit components can be ultimately drawn (i.e. printed) onto the substrate in one step. Here, the inkjet printing technique was used to chemically deposit silver nanoparticles (10-200 nm) simply by ejection of silver nitrate and reducing solutions onto different substrates such as paper, PET plastic film and textile fabrics. The silver patterns were tested for their functionality to work as circuit components like conductor, resistor, capacitor and inductor. Different levels of conductivity were achieved simply by changing the printing sequence, inks ratio and concentration. The highest level of conductivity achieved by an office thermal inkjet printer (300 dpi) was 5.54 × 105 S m-1 on paper. Inkjet deposited capacitors could exhibit a capacitance of more than 1.5 nF (parallel plate 45 × 45 mm2) and induction coils displayed an inductance of around 400 µH (planar coil 10 cm in diameter). Comparison of electronic performance of inkjet deposited components to the performance of conventionally etched items makes the technique highly promising for fabricating different printed electronic devices.

  7. Research on new software compensation method of static and quasi-static errors for precision motion controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mechanical vibrations induced by big errors compensation, a new software compensation method based on an improved digital differential analyzer (DDA) interpolator for static and quasi-static errors of machine tools is proposed. Based on principle of traditional DDA interpolator, a DDA interpolator is divided into command generator and command analyzer. There are three types of errors, considering the difference of positions between compensation points and interpolation segments. According to the classification, errors are distributed evenly in data processing and compensated to certain interpolation segments in machining. On-line implementation results show that the proposed approach greatly improves positioning accuracy of computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools.

  8. The acute effects of static stretching on the sprint performance of collegiate men in the 60- and 100-m dash after a dynamic warm-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Brandon M; Walsh, Mark S; Horn, Thelma S; Cox, Ronald H

    2010-09-01

    Previous research has shown that static stretching has an inhibitory effect on sprinting performances up to 50 m. The purpose of this study was to see what would happen to these effects at longer distances such as those seen in competition. This study used a within-subjects design to investigate the effects of passive static stretching vs. no stretching on the 60- and 100-m sprint performance of college track athletes after a dynamic warm-up. Eighteen male subjects completed both the static stretching and the no stretching conditions in counterbalanced order across 2 days of testing. On each day, all subjects first completed a generalized dynamic warm-up routine that included a self-paced 800-m run, followed by a series of dynamic movements, sprint, and hurdle drills. At the end of this generalized warm-up, athletes were assigned to either a static stretching or a no-stretching condition. They then immediately performed 2 100-m trials with timing gates set up at 20, 40, 60, and 100 m. Results revealed a significant slowing in performance with static stretching (p sprint trials. After the first 40 m, static stretching exhibited no additional inhibition of performance in a 100-m sprint. However, although there was no additional time loss, athletes never gained back the time that was originally lost in the first portion of the trials. Therefore, in strict terms of performance, it seems harmful to include static stretching in the warm-up protocol of collegiate male sprinters in distances up to 100 m.

  9. Influence of specimen-reconstituting method on the undrained response of loose granular soil under static loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noureddine Della; Ahmed Arab; Mostefa Belkhatir

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an experimental study on the undrained shear behaviour of loose sand collected from the location close to the epicenter of the recent Chlef (Algeria) Earthquake (October 10,1980).The study focuses on the effects of the mode of the soil deposition on the liquefaction resistance of the Chlef sand.For this purpose,the results of undrained monotonic triaxial compression tests performed on samples with initial density of 0.29 under initial confining pressures ranged from 50 kPa to 200 kPa are presented.The specimens were prepared by two depositional methods namely dry funnel pluviation and wet deposition.It was found that there was a marked difference in the undrained behaviour of sand in terms of maximal deviatoric stress,peak strength,residual strength and excess pore water pressure,even though the density and stress conditions were identical.The conclusion was that the soil fabric was responsible for this result.The results indicated also that at low confining pressures,the specimens reconstituted by the wet deposition method exhibited complete static liquefaction (zero effective confining pressure and zero stress difference).

  10. The Role of Moderate Static Magnetic Fields on Biomineralization of Osteoblasts on Sulfonated Polystryene Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X Ba; M Hadjiargyrou; E DiMasi; Y Meng; M Simon; Z Tan; M Rafailovich

    2011-12-31

    We have investigated the effects of moderate static magnetic fields (SMFs) on murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, and found that they enhance proliferations and promote differentiation. The increase in proliferation rates in response to SMFs was greater in cultures grown on partially sulfonated polytstyrene (SPS, degree of sulfonation: 33%) than in cultures grown on tissue culture plastic. We have previously shown that when the degree of sulfonation exceeded a critical value (12%) [1], spontaneous fibrillogenesis occured which allowed for direct observation of the ECM fibrillar organization under the influence of external fields. We found that the ECM produced in cultures grown on the SPS in the presence of the SMFs assembled into a lattice with larger dimensions than the ECM of the cultures grown in the absence of SMFs. During the early stages of the biomineralization process (day 7), the SMF exposed cultures also templated mineral deposition more rapidly than the control cultures. The rapid response is attributed to orientation of diamagnetic ECM proteins already present in the serum, which could then initiate further cellular signaling. SMFs also influenced late stage osteoblast differentiation as measured by the increased rate of osteocalcin secretion and gene expression beginning 15 days after SFM exposure. This correlated with a large increase in mineral deposition, and in cell modulus. GIXD and EDXS analysis confirmed early deposition of crystalline hydroxyapatite. Previous studies on the effects of moderate SMF had focused on cellular gene and protein expression, but did not consider the organization of the ECM fibers. Our ability to form these fibers has allowed us explore this additional effect and highlight its significance in the initiation of the biomineralization process.

  11. The role of moderate static magnetic fields on biomineralization of osteoblasts on sulfonated polystyrene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Xiaolan; Hadjiargyrou, Michael; DiMasi, Elaine; Meng, Yizhi; Simon, Marcia; Tan, Zhongkui; Rafailovich, Miriam H

    2011-11-01

    We have investigated the effects of moderate static magnetic fields (SMFs) on murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, and found that they enhance proliferations and promote differentiation. The increase in proliferation rates in response to SMFs was greater in cultures grown on partially sulfonated polytstyrene (SPS, degree of sulfonation: 33%) than in cultures grown on tissue culture plastic. We have previously shown that when the degree of sulfonation exceeded a critical value (12%) [1], spontaneous fibrillogenesis occured which allowed for direct observation of the ECM fibrillar organization under the influence of external fields. We found that the ECM produced in cultures grown on the SPS in the presence of the SMFs assembled into a lattice with larger dimensions than the ECM of the cultures grown in the absence of SMFs. During the early stages of the biomineralization process (day 7), the SMF exposed cultures also templated mineral deposition more rapidly than the control cultures. The rapid response is attributed to orientation of diamagnetic ECM proteins already present in the serum, which could then initiate further cellular signaling. SMFs also influenced late stage osteoblast differentiation as measured by the increased rate of osteocalcin secretion and gene expression beginning 15 days after SFM exposure. This correlated with a large increase in mineral deposition, and in cell modulus. GIXD and EDXS analysis confirmed early deposition of crystalline hydroxyapatite. Previous studies on the effects of moderate SMF had focused on cellular gene and protein expression, but did not consider the organization of the ECM fibers. Our ability to form these fibers has allowed us explore this additional effect and highlight its significance in the initiation of the biomineralization process.

  12. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill

    2014-07-01

    Many security incidents are caused by software developers' failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases.

  13. An Economical Method for Static Headspace Enrichment for Arson Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Bjorn

    2010-01-01

    Static headspace analysis of accelerants from suspected arsons is accomplished by placing an arson sample in a sealed container with a carbon strip suspended above the sample. The sample is heated, cooled to room temperature, and then the organic components are extracted from the carbon strip with carbon disulfide followed by gas chromatography…

  14. Static analysis of a piping system with elbows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, B.J.

    1994-03-01

    Vibration tests of elbows to failure were performed in Japan in the early 1970s. The piping system included two elbows and an eccentric mass. Tests were run both pressurized and unpressurized. This report documents a static analysis of the piping system in which the elbows are subjected to out of plane bending. The effects of internal pressure and material plasticity are investigated.

  15. Java bytecode verification via static single assignment form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian W.; Franz, Michael

    2008-01-01

    that transforms JVM bytecode into Static Single Assignment Form (SSA) and thereby propagates definitions directly to uses. Type checking at control flow merge points can then be performed in a single pass. Our prototype implementation of the new algorithm is faster than the standard JVM bytecode verifier. It has...

  16. Static and dynamic through thickness lamina properties of thick laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuerta, F.; Nijssen, R.P.L.; Van der Meer, F.P.; Sluys, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thick laminates are increasingly present in large composites structures such as wind turbine blades. Different factors are suspected to be involved in the decreased static and dynamic performance of thick laminates. These include the effect of self-heating, the scaling effect, and the manufacturing

  17. Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many security incidents are caused by software developers’ failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases.

  18. Quorum sensing via static coupling demonstrated by Chua's circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpartap; Parmananda, P.

    2013-10-01

    Dynamical quorum sensing, the population based phenomenon, is believed to occur when the elements of a system interact via dynamic coupling. In the present work, we demonstrate an alternate scenario, involving static coupling, that could also lead to quorum sensing behavior. These static and dynamic coupling terms have already been employed by Konishi [Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos Appl. Sci. Eng.IJBEE40218-127410.1142/S0218127407018750 17, 2781 (2007)]. In our context, the coupling is defined as static or dynamic, on the basis of the relative time scales at which the surrounding dynamics and the elements' dynamics evolve. According to this, if the variation in the surrounding dynamics happens on a much larger (fast) time scale than that at which the elements' dynamics are varying (such as seconds and μs), then the coupling is considered to be static, otherwise it is considered to be dynamic. A series of experiments have been performed starting from a system of three Chua's circuits to a system of 20 Chua's circuits to study two types of quorum transitions: the emergence and the extinction of global oscillations (period-1). The numerics involving up to 100 Chua's circuits validate the experimental observations.

  19. Hybrid static-runtime information flow and declassification enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, Bruno P.S.; Conti, Mauro; Etalle, Sandro; Crispo, Bruno

    There are different paradigms for enforcing information flow and declassification policies. These approaches can be divided into static analyzers and runtime enforcers. Each class has its own strengths and weaknesses, each being able to enforce a different set of policies. In this paper, we

  20. Costs and effects of chlamydial screening : Dynamic versus static modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, R; Postma, M; Leidl, R; Kretzschmar, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of modeling type on the economic evaluation of screening programs for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Study: We compared a stochastic network simulation model (dynamic model) with a decision analysis model (static model)

  1. Static analysis of a Model of the LDL degradation pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. As for other ambient calculi static program analysis can be used to compute safe approximations of the behavior of modelled systems. We use these tools ...

  2. Static axisymmetric rings in general relativity: How diverse they are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerák, O.

    2016-11-01

    Three static and axially symmetric (Weyl-type) ring singularities—the Majumdar-Papapetrou-type (extremally charged) ring, the Bach-Weyl ring, and the Appell ring—are studied in general relativity in order to show how remarkably the geometries in their vicinity differ from each other. This is demonstrated on basic measures of the rings and on invariant characteristics given by the metric and by its first and second derivatives (lapse, gravitational acceleration, and curvature), and also on geodesic motion. The results are also compared against the Kerr space-time which possesses a ring singularity too. The Kerr solution is only stationary, not static, but in spite of the consequent complication by dragging, its ring appears to be simpler than the static rings. We show that this mainly applies to the Bach-Weyl ring, although this straightforward counterpart of the Newtonian homogeneous circular ring is by default being taken as the simplest ring solution, and although the other two static ring sources may seem more "artificial." The weird, directional deformation around the Bach-Weyl ring probably indicates that a more adequate coordinate representation and interpretation of this source should exist.

  3. Ischemic Preconditioning of One Forearm Enhances Static and Dynamic Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Rasmussen, Mads Reinholdt; Jattu, Timo

    2014-01-01

    served as control because the warm-up for rowing regularly encompasses intense exercise and therefore reduced muscle oxygenation. METHODS: Six divers performed a dry static breath hold, 11 divers swam underwater in an indoor pool, and 14 oarsmen rowed "1000 m" on an ergometer. RESULTS: Ischemic...

  4. Another Approach to Solving Problems in Rotational Statics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Morton A.; Burnett, Carl, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a technique which aids students in solving static problems involving three or more torques about a given axis. The method is longer and equivalent to the standard method, but students experience success with this new way to treat the more complicated equilibrium problems. (DH)

  5. Static Tension Tests on Axially Loaded Pile Segments in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This paper provides laboratory test results of static axially loaded piles in sand. With a newly developed test setup, the pile-soil interface friction was investigated by using an open-ended steel pile segment with a diameter of 0.5 m. Use of a pile length of 1 m enabled the pile-soil interface...

  6. Static and dynamic aspects of an air gap capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJntema, D.J.; IJntema, Dominicus J.; Tilmans, Harrie A.C.; Tilmans, H.A.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the theory of an air-gap capacitor used as a micromechanical resonator. Both static and dynamic aspects are discussed. A single-element approach for the electrostatic excitation and capacitive detection of the vibrational motion of the resonators is described. The non-linear

  7. 14 CFR 105.47 - Use of static lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... unless that person is a certificated parachute rigger or that person makes the next parachute jump with... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Parachute Equipment and Packing § 105.47 Use of static lines. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no person may conduct a...

  8. Hybrid static-runtime information flow and declassification enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, Bruno P.S.; Conti, Mauro; Etalle, Sandro; Crispo, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    There are different paradigms for enforcing information flow and declassification policies. These approaches can be divided into static analyzers and runtime enforcers. Each class has its own strengths and weaknesses, each being able to enforce a different set of policies. In this paper, we introduc

  9. A Static Burst Test for Composite Flywheel Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Stefan; Schulz, Alexander; Sima, Harald; Koch, Thomas; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    High efficient and safe flywheels are an interesting technology for decentralized energy storage. To ensure all safety aspects, a static test method for a controlled initiation of a burst event for composite flywheel rotors is presented with nearly the same stress distribution as in the dynamic case, rotating with maximum speed. In addition to failure prediction using different maximum stress criteria and a safety factor, a set of tensile and compressive tests is carried out to identify the parameters of the used carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) material. The static finite element (FE) simulation results of the flywheel static burst test (FSBT) compare well to the quasistatic FE-simulation results of the flywheel rotor using inertia loads. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the presented method is a very good controllable and observable possibility to test a high speed flywheel energy storage system (FESS) rotor in a static way. Thereby, a much more expensive and dangerous dynamic spin up test with possible uncertainties can be substituted.

  10. Static Scaling on an Interacting Magnetic Nanoparticle System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, T.; Svedlindh, P.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    1998-01-01

    The field dependence of the ac susceptibility of a concentrated frozen ferrofluid containing ultrafine Fe-C particles of monodisperse nature has been analyzed using static scaling. For the first time, a divergent behavior of the nonlinear susceptibility of a dipole-dipole interacting system...

  11. Statics and kinematics of discrete Cosserat-type granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, N.P.

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical framework is presented for the statics and kinematics of discrete Cosserat-type granular materials. In analogy to the force and moment equilibrium equations for particles, compatibility equations for closed loops are formulated in the two-dimensional case for relative displacements and

  12. Normal Wave Propagation Velocity in a Static Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    34 " " ’ . " . " . " " . " , " " . " -" " " " . " " . " " " " . " * . - " " " , 4 . " . " . " " " . " " "." "-" "." " . . . . . " " " " -w A- INah . . . . . . - - 1 NORMAL WAVE PROPAGATION VELOCITY IN A STATIC WEB By

  13. Einstein Static Universe in Exponential $f(T)$ Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jung-Tsung; Geng, Chao-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the stability of the Einstein static closed and open universe in two types of exponential $f(T)$ gravity theories. We show that the stable solutions exist in these two models. In particular, we find that large regions of parameter space in equation of state $w=p/\\rho$ for the stable universe are allowed in the $f(T)$ theories.

  14. Einstein static universe in exponential f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jung-Tsung; Lee, Chung-Chi; Geng, Chao-Qiang [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China)

    2013-02-15

    We analyze the stability of the Einstein static closed and open universe in two types of exponential f(T) gravity theory. We show that stable solutions exist in these two models. In particular, we find that large regions of parameter space in equation of state w=p/{rho} for the stable universe are allowed in the f(T) theories. (orig.)

  15. A Synthesis Method for Static Anti-Windup Compensators

    OpenAIRE

    Solyom, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Synthesis of static anti-windup compensators is considered. LMIconditions are established for stability and performance analysis of the closedloop system. The performance criterion describes the servo problem forthe resulting closed-loop piecewise linear system. The synthesisof the anti-windup compensators will be given by some bilinear matrix inequalities.

  16. Static and dynamic aspects of an air gap capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJntema, Dominicus J.; Tilmans, Harrie A.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the theory of an air-gap capacitor used as a micromechanical resonator. Both static and dynamic aspects are discussed. A single-element approach for the electrostatic excitation and capacitive detection of the vibrational motion of the resonators is described. The non-linear ch

  17. A Minimum Leakage Quasi-Static RAM Bitcell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Teman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As SRAMs continue to grow and comprise larger percentages of the area and power consumption in advanced systems, the need to minimize static currents becomes essential. This brief presents a novel 9T Quasi-Static RAM Bitcell that provides aggressive leakage reduction and high write margins. The quasi-static operation method of this cell, based on internal feedback and leakage ratios, minimizes static power while maintaining sufficient, albeit depleted, noise margins. This paper presents the concept of the novel cell, and discusses the stability of the cell under hold, read and write operations. The cell was implemented in a low-power 40 nm TSMC process, showing as much as a 12× reduction in leakage current at typical conditions, as compared to a standard 6T or 8T bitcell at the same supply voltage. The implemented cell showed full functionality under global and local process variations at nominal and low voltages, as low as 300 mV.

  18. Integrating and scheduling an open set of static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Mezini, Mira; Kloppenburg, Sven

    2006-01-01

    To improve the productivity of the development process, more and more tools for static software analysis are tightly integrated into the incremental build process of an IDE. If multiple interdependent analyses are used simultaneously, the coordination between the analyses becomes a major obstacle...

  19. Longitudinal static-field model for HD lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baets, R.; Lagasse, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    A new static model for double-heterostructure lasers is presented which can take into account longitudinal effects in the cavity. The model makes use of the beam-propagation method to calculate the field propagation through the lasing waveguide structure.

  20. Detection of static and dynamic activities using uniaxial accelerometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Bussmann, Hans B.J.; de Vries, Wiebe; de Vries, W.; Martens, Wim L.J.; van Lummel, Rob C.

    1996-01-01

    Rehabilitation treatment may be improved by objective analysis of activities of daily living. For this reason, the feasibility of distinguishing several static and dynamic activities (standing, sitting, lying, walking, ascending stairs, descending stairs, cycling) using a small set of two or three

  1. Emotion attribution to basic parametric static and dynamic stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Goudbeek, M.B.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, A.; Pantic, P.

    2009-01-01

    The following research investigates the effect of basic visual stimuli on the attribution of basic emotions by the viewer. In an empirical study (N = 33) we used two groups of visually minimal expressive stimuli: dynamic and static. The dynamic stimuli consisted of an animated circle moving

  2. Emotion attribution to basic parametric static and dynamic stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Goudbeek, M.B.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, A.; Pantic, P.

    2009-01-01

    The following research investigates the effect of basic visual stimuli on the attribution of basic emotions by the viewer. In an empirical study (N = 33) we used two groups of visually minimal expressive stimuli: dynamic and static. The dynamic stimuli consisted of an animated circle moving accordin

  3. Static field dependence of the Raman polarizability, demonstrated in polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussenegg, Franz R.; Lippitsch, Max E.; Möller, Reinhard

    1982-01-01

    The nonlinearity of the Raman polarizability of polystyrene is revealed by applying a static electric field of ≈ 1 MV/cm to the sample while measuring the Raman intensity. A special experimental technique allows registration of relative intensity variations of 10 -3. The results can be understood using a simple theoretical model.

  4. Static and dynamic quenching of luminescent species in polymer media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, P; Leiner, M J; Lippitsch, M E

    1994-12-01

    A method developed for quantitative determination of static and dynamic contributions to luminescence quenching is applied to Ru(II) complexes in polymer matrices (silica gel and polystyrene), quenched by oxygen. This method is based on both intensity and lifetime quenching experiments. The curvature of intensity Stern-Volmer plots is related to the results.

  5. A Micro Dynamically Tuned Gyroscope with Adjustable Static Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Kong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel micro dynamically tuned gyroscope (MDTG with adjustable static capacitance. First, the principle of MDTG is theoretically analyzed. Next, some simulations under the optimized structure parameters are given as a reference for the mask design of the rotor wafer and electrode plates. As two key components, the process flows of the rotor wafer and electrode plates are described in detail. All the scanning electron microscopy (SEM photos show that the fabrication process is effective and optimized. Then, an assembly model is designed for the static capacitance adjustable MDTG, whose static capacitance can be changed by rotating the lower electrode plate support and substituting gasket rings of different thicknesses. Thus, the scale factor is easily changeable. Afterwards, the digitalized closed-loop measurement circuit is simulated. The discrete correction and decoupling modules are designed to make the closed-loop stable and cross-coupling effect small. The dual axis closed-loop system bandwidths can reach more than 60 Hz and the dual axis scale factors are completely symmetrical. All the simulation results demonstrate the proposed fabrication of the MDTG can meet the application requirements. Finally, the paper presents the test results of static and dynamic capacitance values which are consistent with the simulation values.

  6. A micro dynamically tuned gyroscope with adjustable static capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dunzhu; Yu, Cheng; Kong, Lun

    2013-02-06

    This paper presents a novel micro dynamically tuned gyroscope (MDTG) with adjustable static capacitance. First, the principle of MDTG is theoretically analyzed. Next, some simulations under the optimized structure parameters are given as a reference for the mask design of the rotor wafer and electrode plates. As two key components, the process flows of the rotor wafer and electrode plates are described in detail. All the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photos show that the fabrication process is effective and optimized. Then, an assembly model is designed for the static capacitance adjustable MDTG, whose static capacitance can be changed by rotating the lower electrode plate support and substituting gasket rings of different thicknesses. Thus, the scale factor is easily changeable. Afterwards, the digitalized closed-loop measurement circuit is simulated. The discrete correction and decoupling modules are designed to make the closed-loop stable and cross-coupling effect small. The dual axis closed-loop system bandwidths can reach more than 60 Hz and the dual axis scale factors are completely symmetrical. All the simulation results demonstrate the proposed fabrication of the MDTG can meet the application requirements. Finally, the paper presents the test results of static and dynamic capacitance values which are consistent with the simulation values.

  7. Glacial isostatic adjustment in the static gravity field of Fennoscandia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, B.C.; Van der Wal, W.; Novak, P.; Ebbing, J.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the central part of Fennoscandia, the crust is currently rising, because of the delayed response of the viscous mantle to melting of the Late Pleistocene ice sheet. This process, called Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA), causes a negative anomaly in the present-day static gravity field as isosta

  8. Two-dimensional static black holes with pointlike sources

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, M

    2004-01-01

    We study the static black hole solutions of generalized two-dimensional dilaton-gravity theories generated by pointlike mass sources, in the hypothesis that the matter is conformally coupled. We also discuss the motion of test particles. Due to conformal coupling, these follow the geodesics of a metric obtained by rescaling the canonical metric with the dilaton.

  9. Static Generalized Brans-Dicke Universe and Gravitational Waves Amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S; Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    We find a static solution for the scale-factor in a Brans-Dicke generalized theory where the scalar field and the coupling constant vary with time. We find also that in the early Universe there may be amplification of gravitational waves.

  10. Static and Dynamic Moduli of Malm Carbonate: A Poroelastic Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadegan, Alireza; Guérizec, Romain; Reinsch, Thomas; Blöcher, Guido; Zimmermann, Günter; Milsch, Harald

    2016-08-01

    The static and poroelastic moduli of a porous rock, e.g., the drained bulk modulus, can be derived from stress-strain curves in rock mechanical tests, and the dynamic moduli, e.g., dynamic Poisson's ratio, can be determined by acoustic velocity and bulk density measurements. As static and dynamic elastic moduli are different, a correlation is often required to populate geomechanical models. A novel poroelastic approach is introduced to correlate static and dynamic bulk moduli of outcrop analogues samples, representative of Upper-Malm reservoir rock in the Molasse basin, southwestern Germany. Drained and unjacketed poroelastic experiments were performed at two different temperature levels (30 and 60°C). For correlating the static and dynamic elastic moduli, a drained acoustic velocity ratio is introduced, corresponding to the drained Poisson's ratio in poroelasticity. The strength of poroelastic coupling, i.e., the product of Biot and Skempton coefficients here, was the key parameter. The value of this parameter decreased with increasing effective pressure by about 56 ~% from 0.51 at 3 MPa to 0.22 at 73 MPa. In contrast, the maximum change in P- and S-wave velocities was only 3 % in this pressure range. This correlation approach can be used in characterizing underground reservoirs, and can be employed to relate seismicity and geomechanics (seismo-mechanics).

  11. The longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98. Cranfield University

  12. An overview of representation theorems for static risk measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG YongSheng; YAN JiaAn

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of representation theorems for various static risk measures: coherent or convex risk measures, risk measures with comonotonic subadditivity or convexity, law-invariant coherent or convex risk measures, risk measures with comonotonic subadditivity or convexity and respecting stochastic orders.

  13. Implementation of the quasi-static method for neutron transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaro, Fabio; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero, E-mail: fabio.alcaro@polito.it, E-mail: sandra.dulla@polito.it, E-mail: piero.ravetto@polito.it [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Le Tellier, Romain; Suteau, Christophe, E-mail: romain.le-tellier@cea.fr, E-mail: christophe.suteau@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DER/SPRC/LEPh, Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2011-07-01

    The study of the dynamic behavior of next generation nuclear reactors is a fundamental aspect for safety and reliability assessments. Despite the growing performances of modern computers, the full solution of the neutron Boltzmann equation in the time domain is still an impracticable task, thus several approximate dynamic models have been proposed for the simulation of nuclear reactor transients; the quasi-static method represents the standard tool currently adopted for the space-time solution of neutron transport problems. All the practical applications of this method that have been proposed contain a major limit, consisting in the use of isotropic quantities, such as scalar fluxes and isotropic external neutron sources, being the only data structures available in most deterministic transport codes. The loss of the angular information produces both inaccuracies in the solution of the kinetic model and the inconsistency of the quasi-static method itself. The present paper is devoted to the implementation of a consistent quasi-static method. The computational platform developed by CEA in Cadarache has been used for the creation of a kinetic package to be coupled with the existing SNATCH solver, a discrete-ordinate multi-dimensional neutron transport solver, employed for the solution of the steady-state Boltzmann equation. The work aims at highlighting the effects of the angular treatment of the neutron flux on the transient analysis, comparing the results with those produced by the previous implementations of the quasi-static method. (author)

  14. Recognition of Moving and Static Faces by Young Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yumiko; Konishi, Yukuo; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.; Abdi, Herve; O'Toole, Alice J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared 3- to 4-month-olds' recognition of previously unfamiliar faces learned in a moving or a static condition. Infants in the moving condition showed successful recognition with only 30 s familiarization, even when different images of a face were used in the familiarization and test phase (Experiment 1). In contrast, infants in the…

  15. From Static to Dynamic Mathematics: Historical and Representational Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Armella, Luis; Hegedus, Stephen J.; Kaput, James J.

    2008-01-01

    The nature of mathematical reference fields has substantially evolved with the advent of new types of digital technologies enabling students greater access to understanding the use and application of mathematical ideas and procedures. We analyze the evolution of symbolic thinking over time, from static notations to dynamic inscriptions in new…

  16. The acceleration of a neutron in a static electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelletti, R.L., E-mail: ron.cappelletti@nist.gov [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2012-06-18

    We show that when a non-relativistic neutron travels in a static electric field, the acceleration vector operator is perpendicular to the velocity operator. Kinetic energy is conserved. A spin-dependent field term in the canonical momentum gives rise to a non-dispersive contribution to the quantum mechanical (Aharonov–Casher) phase. This motion differs from that in a static magnetic field which has no field term in the canonical momentum and no conservation of kinetic energy. For the geometry of the Aharonov–Casher effect, there is no acceleration, while in Mott–Schwinger scattering, the acceleration causes a spin-dependent change in neutron direction. -- Highlights: ► Acceleration of a neutron in an E field is orthogonal to velocity. KE is conserved. ► For the Aharonov–Casher (AC) effect, acceleration is 0. ► The AC phase arises from the field term in the canonical momentum. ► In a static B field there is no field term in the canonical momentum. ► In a static B field KE is exchanged with Zeeman energy to conserve energy.

  17. Static Solutions of Einstein's Equations with Cylindrical Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafilova, C. S.; Fulling, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    In analogy with the standard derivation of the Schwarzschild solution, we find all static, cylindrically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations for vacuum. These include not only the well-known cone solution, which is locally flat, but others in which the metric coefficients are powers of the radial coordinate and the spacetime is…

  18. Neuron firing frequency dependence on the static magnetic field intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, M. J.; del Moral, A.

    1995-02-01

    The effects of static magnetic field (SMF) of B intensity ( B = 0.003-0.72 T) on neurons are studied. The firing frequency f decreases exponentially with B2 and a threshold field B0 (≈ 0.57 T), where f abruptly drops to zero, is observed. A suitable model is developed where SMF's liberate membrane bounded Ca 2+ ions.

  19. Three-way flexible cantilever probes for static contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Jensen, Helle Vendelbo;

    2011-01-01

    In micro four-point probe measurements, three-way flexible L-shaped cantilever probes show significant advantages over conventional straight cantilever probes. The L-shaped cantilever allows static contact to the sample surface which reduces the frictional wear of the cantilever tips. We analyze...

  20. Static electric dipole polarizability of lithium atoms in Debye plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Li-Na; Qi Yue-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The static electric dipole polarizabilities of the ground state and n ≤ 3 excited states of a lithium atom embedded in a weekly coupled plasma environment are investigated as a function of the plasma screening radium.The plasma screening of the Coulomb interaction is described by the Debye-Hückel potential and the interaction between the valence electron and the atomic core is described by a model potential.The electron energies and wave functions for both the bound and continuum states are calculated by solving the Schr(o)dinger equation numerically using the symplectic integrator.The oscillator strengths,partial-wave,and total static dipole polarizabilities of the ground state and n ≤ 3 excited states of the lithium atom are calculated.Comparison of present results with thosc of other authors,when available,is made.The results for the 2s ground state demonstrated that the oscillator strengths and the static dipole polarizabilities from np orbitals do not always increase or decrease with the plasma screening effect increasing,unlike that for hydrogen-like ions,especially for 2s→3p transition there is a zero value for both the oscillator strength and the static dipole polarizability for screening length D =10.3106a0,which is associated with the Cooper minima.

  1. Model Checking Is Static Analysis of Modal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to the static analysis of programs that has been developed for functional, imperative and object-oriented programming languages and for concurrent, distributed, mobile and cryptographic process calculi. In this paper we extend it; to deal with modal logics and prove...

  2. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPoil Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems.

  3. An overview of representation theorems for static risk measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we give an overview of representation theorems for various static risk measures:coherent or convex risk measures, risk measures with comonotonic subadditivity or convexity, law-invariant coherent or convex risk measures, risk measures with comonotonic subadditivity or convexity and respecting stochastic orders.

  4. Low Redundancy in Static Dictionaries with Constant Query Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    2001-01-01

    A static dictionary is a data structure for storing subsets of a finite universe U, so that membership queries can be answered efficiently. We study this problem in a unit cost RAM model with word size Ω(log |U|), and show that for n-element subsets, constant worst case query time can be obtained...

  5. Cardiovascular responses to voluntary and nonvoluntary static exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, D B; Peel, C; Mitchell, J H

    1992-11-01

    We have measured the cardiovascular responses during voluntary and nonvoluntary (electrically induced) one-leg static exercise in humans. Eight normal subjects were studied at rest and during 5 min of static leg extension at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction performed voluntarily and nonvoluntarily in random order. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cardiac output (CO) were determined, and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) and stroke volume (SV) were calculated. HR increased from approximately 65 +/- 3 beats/min at rest to 80 +/- 4 and 78 +/- 6 beats/min (P voluntary and nonvoluntary contractions, respectively. CO increased from 5.1 +/- 0.7 to 6.0 +/- 0.8 and 6.2 +/- 0.8 l/min (P voluntary and nonvoluntary contractions, respectively. PVR and SV did not change significantly during voluntary or nonvoluntary contractions. Thus the cardiovascular responses were not different between voluntary and electrically induced contractions. These results suggest that the increases in CO, HR, SV, MAP, and PVR during 5 min of static contractions can be elicited without any contribution from a central neural mechanism (central command). However, central command could still have an important role during voluntary static exercise.

  6. Maxwell-Higgs equation on higher dimensional static curved spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanto, Akbar, Fiki Taufik; Gunara, Bobby Eka

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we consider a class of solutions of Maxwell-Higgs equation in higher dimensional static curved spacetimes called Schwarzchild de-Sitter spacetimes. We obtain the general form of the electric fields and magnetic fields in background Schwarzchild de-Sitter spacetimes. However, determining the interaction between photons with the Higgs scalar fields is needed further studies.

  7. Static And Kinematic Formulation Of Planar Reciprocal Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed by extending the work on pin-jointed assemblies by Pe...

  8. Maxwell-Higgs equation on higher dimensional static curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulyanto, E-mail: mulyanto37@gmail.com [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Akbar, Fiki Taufik, E-mail: ftakbar@fi.itb.ac.id; Gunara, Bobby Eka, E-mail: bobby@fi.itb.ac.id [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Indonesia Center for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics (ICTMP) (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    In this paper we consider a class of solutions of Maxwell-Higgs equation in higher dimensional static curved spacetimes called Schwarzchild de-Sitter spacetimes. We obtain the general form of the electric fields and magnetic fields in background Schwarzchild de-Sitter spacetimes. However, determining the interaction between photons with the Higgs scalar fields is needed further studies.

  9. Test chambers for cell culture in static magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinka, Marek, E-mail: mag@iq.pl [Research and Development Centre of Electrical Machines. 188 Rozdzienskiego Street, 40-203 Katowice (Poland); Gawron, Stanisław, E-mail: s.gawron@komel.katowice.pl [Research and Development Centre of Electrical Machines. 188 Rozdzienskiego Street, 40-203 Katowice (Poland); Sieroń, Aleksander, E-mail: sieron1@tlen.pl [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Pawłowska–Góral, Katarzyna, E-mail: kgoral@sum.edu.pl [Department of Food and Nutrition in Sosnowiec. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 8 Jednosci Street, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Cieślar, Grzegorz, E-mail: cieslar1@tlen.pl [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Sieroń–Stołtny, Karolina [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland)

    2013-04-15

    Article presents a test chamber intended to be used for in vitro cell culture in homogenous constant magnetic field with parametrically variable magnitude. We constructed test chambers with constant parameters of control homeostasis of cell culture for the different parameters of static magnetic field. The next step was the computer calculation of 2D and 3D simulation of the static magnetic field distribution in the chamber. The analysis of 2D and 3D calculations of magnetic induction in the cells' exposition plane reveals, in comparison to the detection results, the greater accuracy of 2D calculations (Figs. 9 and 10). The divergence in 2D method was 2–4% and 8 to 10% in 3D method (reaching 10% only out of the cells′ cultures margins). -- Highlights: ► We present test chamber to be used for in vitro cell culture in static magnetic field. ► The technical data of the chamber construction was presented. ► 2D versus 3D simulation of static magnetic field distribution in chamber was reported. ► We report the accuracy of 2D calculation than 3D.

  10. No hair theorems for a static and stationary reflecting star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta

    2017-04-01

    We prove the nonexistence of massive scalar, vector and tensor hairs outside the surface of a static and stationary compact reflecting star. Our result is the extension of the no-hair theorem for black holes to horizonless compact configurations with reflecting boundary condition at the surface. We also generalize the proof for spacetimes with a positive cosmological constant.

  11. Modified lattice-statics approach to dislocation calculations. I - Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterling, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    A modified lattice-statics method to calculate the atomic displacements associated with a screw dislocation is outlined. The model incorporates an anharmonic region wherein the forces are derived from a pair potential. Appropriate energy and force expressions are derived. The modifications necessary for the implementation of the conjugate-gradient function minimization method are also derived.

  12. Static and Dynamic Modeling of a Solar Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2007-09-01

    Recent hydrostatic simulations of solar active regions have shown that it is possible to reproduce both the total intensity and the general morphology of the high-temperature emission observed at soft X-ray wavelengths using static heating models. These static models, however, cannot account for the lower temperature emission. In addition, there is ample observational evidence that the solar corona is highly variable, indicating a significant role for dynamical processes in coronal heating. Because they are computationally demanding, full hydrodynamic simulations of solar active regions have not been considered previously. In this paper we make first application of an impulsive heating model to the simulation of an entire active region, AR 8156 observed on 1998 February 16. We model this region by coupling potential field extrapolations to full solutions of the time-dependent hydrodynamic loop equations. To make the problem more tractable we begin with a static heating model that reproduces the emission observed in four different Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) filters and consider impulsive heating scenarios that yield time-averaged SXT intensities that are consistent with the static case. We find that it is possible to reproduce the total observed soft X-ray emission in all of the SXT filters with a dynamical heating model, indicating that nanoflare heating is consistent with the observational properties of the high-temperature solar corona. At EUV wavelengths the simulated emission shows more coronal loops, but the agreement between the simulation and the observation is still not acceptable.

  13. CPV System with Static Linear Fresnel Lenses in a Greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, Piet; Zahn, H.; Swinkels, Gert-Jan

    2010-01-01

    A new CPV system with a static linear Fresnel lens, silicon PV module suitable for concentrated radiation and an innovative tracking system is integrated in a greenhouse covering. The basic idea of this horticultural application is to develop a greenhouse for pot plants (typical shadow plants) which

  14. Static-light meson masses from twisted mass lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, K; Shindler, A; Wagner, M

    2008-01-01

    We compute the static-light meson spectrum using two-flavor Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. We have considered five different values for the light quark mass corresponding to 300 MeV < m_PS < 600 MeV. We have extrapolated our results, to make predictions regarding the spectrum of B and B_s mesons.

  15. Static friction in elastic adhesive MEMS contacts, models and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Gui, C.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2000-01-01

    Static friction in shearing mode can be expressed as the product of the shear strength of the interface and the real contact area. The influence of roughness on friction in elastic adhesive contact is analyzed. Special attention is paid to low loading conditions, in which the number of contact

  16. Model Checking Is Static Analysis of Modal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to the static analysis of programs that has been developed for functional, imperative and object-oriented programming languages and for concurrent, distributed, mobile and cryptographic process calculi. In this paper we extend it; to deal with modal logics and prove...

  17. Costs and effects of chlamydial screening : Dynamic versus static modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, R; Postma, M; Leidl, R; Kretzschmar, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of modeling type on the economic evaluation of screening programs for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Study: We compared a stochastic network simulation model (dynamic model) with a decision analysis model (static model)

  18. A Light-Weight Statically Scheduled Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Bo; Schoeberl, Martin; Sparsø, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how a light-weight, statically scheduled network-on-chip (NoC) for real-time systems can be designed and implemented. The NoC provides communication channels between all cores with equal bandwidth and latency. The design is FPGA-friendly and consumes a minimum of resources...

  19. Static context model for context aware E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu. M. Das

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Context aware E-Learning systems provide learning content according to a learner’s context. In order to determine a learner’s context, the parameters that constitute the context and the values of these parameters in the current learner’s situation have to be found. There are several existing context aware E-Learning systems and each of these are taking care of some of the context parameters - like learning styles, learner preferences etc. But, a standardized static context model that helps to capture a learner’s context in its ntirety is not available. This paper proposes a static context model that helps to capture a learner’s context. The static context model is developed by consolidating the various context parameters used in the existing context aware E-Learning systems and organizing them into an appropriate structure. The structure of the static context model along with the parameters that constitute the context is explained in the paper

  20. Static axisymmetric rings in general relativity: How diverse they are

    CERN Document Server

    Semerák, O

    2016-01-01

    Three static and axially symmetric (Weyl-type) ring singularities -- the Majumdar-Papapetrou--type (extremally charged) ring, the Bach-Weyl ring and the Appell ring -- are studied in general relativity in order to show how remarkably the geometries in their vicinity differ from each other. This is demonstrated on basic measures of the rings and on invariant characteristics given by the metric and by its first and second derivatives (lapse, gravitational acceleration and curvature), and also on geodesic motion. The results are also compared against the Kerr space-time which possesses a ring singularity too. The Kerr solution is only stationary, not static, but in spite of the consequent complication by dragging, its ring appears to be simpler than the static rings. We show that this mainly applies to the Bach-Weyl ring, although this straightforward counter-part of the Newtonian homogeneous circular ring is by default being taken as the simplest ring solution, and although the other two static ring sources may...