WorldWideScience

Sample records for deposits electronic resource

  1. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  2. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  3. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  4. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  5. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  6. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments.

  7. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  8. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  9. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  10. Electron beam niobium oxide powder deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, D.S. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Nono, M.C.A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, C.R.M. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Zirconium oxide applied by Electron Beam –Physical Vapor Deposition can produce high quality coatings for high temperature blades. In this work niobium, yttrium and zirconium oxides were applied on metallic substrates, using EB-PVD, aiming thermal conductivity reduction. Coating characterization has been performed by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffractometry shows only tetragonal phase for the composition range evaluated, with tetragonality increase for higher niobium oxide amounts. Higher amounts of niobium promote reduction of ceramic coating theoretical density and thermal conductivity. (author)

  11. Stratiform chromite deposit model: Chapter E in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    A new descriptive stratiform chromite deposit model was prepared which will provide a framework for understanding the characteristics of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. Previous stratiform chromite deposit models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been referred to as Bushveld chromium, because the Bushveld Complex in South Africa is the only stratified, mafic-ultramafic intrusion presently mined for chromite and is the most intensely researched. As part of the on-going effort by the USGS Mineral Resources Program to update existing deposit models for the upcoming national mineral resource assessment, this revised stratiform chromite deposit model includes new data on the geological, mineralogical, geophysical, and geochemical attributes of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. This model will be a valuable tool in future chromite resource and environmental assessments and supplement previously published models used for mineral resource evaluation.

  12. Ion sputtered deposit analysis by electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, T.R.; Kraus, B.; Swann, P.R. (GATAN, Inc., Warrendale, PA (USA))

    1983-12-15

    The collected deposit formed by sputtering a specimen provides a permanent record of the elemental surface composition. For analysis by X-rays or energy loss in a transmission electron microscope, all the sputtered particles (both ions and neutrals) are collected on a carbon or SiO thin film. Surface analysis can be obtained by exposing different areas of the specimen to the ion beam. Information available in the angular distributions of sputtered particles is retained on the thin film substrate. Depth profiling can be performed by the sequential exposure of different areas of the thin film substrate to the sputtered specimen particles. Examples from stainless steels and silicon compounds are given. The advantage of this ion sputtered deposit analysis (ISDA) technique, apart from its collection efficiency, is its ability to store permanently all the elemental information obtained from a particular experiment. This information can then be processed in a parallel or serial fashion at any time after the sputtering experiment.

  13. Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Dennis C.

    2002-01-01

    This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

  14. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  15. Focused electron beam induced deposition: A perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID is a direct-writing technique with nanometer resolution, which has received strongly increasing attention within the last decade. In FEBID a precursor previously adsorbed on a substrate surface is dissociated in the focus of an electron beam. After 20 years of continuous development FEBID has reached a stage at which this technique is now particularly attractive for several areas in both, basic and applied research. The present topical review addresses selected examples that highlight this development in the areas of charge-transport regimes in nanogranular metals close to an insulator-to-metal transition, the use of these materials for strain- and magnetic-field sensing, and the prospect of extending FEBID to multicomponent systems, such as binary alloys and intermetallic compounds with cooperative ground states.Results: After a brief introduction to the technique, recent work concerning FEBID of Pt–Si alloys and (hard-magnetic Co–Pt intermetallic compounds on the nanometer scale is reviewed. The growth process in the presence of two precursors, whose flux is independently controlled, is analyzed within a continuum model of FEBID that employs rate equations. Predictions are made for the tunability of the composition of the Co–Pt system by simply changing the dwell time of the electron beam during the writing process. The charge-transport regimes of nanogranular metals are reviewed next with a focus on recent theoretical advancements in the field. As a case study the transport properties of Pt–C nanogranular FEBID structures are discussed. It is shown that by means of a post-growth electron-irradiation treatment the electronic intergrain-coupling strength can be continuously tuned over a wide range. This provides unique access to the transport properties of this material close to the insulator-to-metal transition. In the last part of the review, recent developments in mechanical

  16. Compilation of gallium resource data for bauxite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Foley, Nora K.

    2014-01-01

    Gallium (Ga) concentrations for bauxite deposits worldwide have been compiled from the literature to provide a basis for research regarding the occurrence and distribution of Ga worldwide, as well as between types of bauxite deposits. In addition, this report is an attempt to bring together reported Ga concentration data into one database to supplement ongoing U.S. Geological Survey studies of critical mineral resources. The compilation of Ga data consists of location, deposit size, bauxite type and host rock, development status, major oxide data, trace element (Ga) data and analytical method(s) used to derive the data, and tonnage values for deposits within bauxite provinces and districts worldwide. The range in Ga concentrations for bauxite deposits worldwide is

  17. Library Training to Promote Electronic Resource Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  18. Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and…

  19. Impact of Electronic Banking Innovations on Bank Deposit Market Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmari A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Development and diversity of electronic banking services is one of the aspects of financial innovation of banks. In Iran’s banking system, the development of multiple channels representing electronic banking services such as SWIFT system, ATM, POS, PIN pads, internet banking, mobile banking and telephone banking are made for more facility in paying money, so today, the development of this channels is one of the most competitive areas between banks for attracting resources. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate this innovation, which needs a heavy cost in terms of money and time, on the share of each bank in attracting deposit as one of the most important goals and competitive tools of a bank. By using Panel Data Vector Autoregressive methods (Panel-VAR and Granger causality test, data of 23 Iranian banks in the 7 years (2007-2013 has been studied. The results show that based on the Granger Causality Test, the number of ATM machines, POS, PIN pad, SWIFT system and amount of banking facilities provided by each bank, has causal relation in explaining the increase of the bank’s share in attracting deposits; but the Market Share was recognized as the cause of the innovation. Also, the causality direction of deposits’ share and the amount of facilities were noticed to be bilateral.

  20. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-07-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  1. Electron-stimulated purification of platinum nanostructures grown via focused electron beam induced deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Brett B. Lewis; Stanford, Michael G.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Kevin Lester; Harald Plank; Philip D. Rack

    2015-01-01

    Platinum–carbon nanostructures deposited via electron beam induced deposition from MeCpPt(IV)Me3 are purified during a post-deposition electron exposure treatment in a localized oxygen ambient at room temperature. Time-dependent studies demonstrate that the process occurs from the top–down. Electron beam energy and current studies demonstrate that the process is controlled by a confluence of the electron energy loss and oxygen concentration. Furthermore, the experimental results are modeled a...

  2. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  3. Solid gold nanostructures fabricated by electron beam deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Rasmussen, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Direct writing with gold by electron beam deposition is a method for rapid fabrication of electrically conducting nanostructures. An environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) equipped with a source of the precursor gas dimethylacetylacetonate gold(Ill) was used to fabricate nanoscale tips...... and bridges. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study how the composition of these structures was affected when the background gas in the ESEM chamber and the electron beam parameters were varied. The nanostructures were layered composites of up to three different materials each characterized...... by a certain range of gold/carbon ratios. Above a certain threshold of ESEM chamber water vapor pressure and a certain threshold of electron beam current, the deposited tips contained a solid polycrystalline gold core. The deposition technique was used to fabricate free-standing nanowires and to solder free...

  4. Electron-stimulated purification of platinum nanostructures grown via focused electron beam induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett B. Lewis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Platinum–carbon nanostructures deposited via electron beam induced deposition from MeCpPt(IVMe3 are purified during a post-deposition electron exposure treatment in a localized oxygen ambient at room temperature. Time-dependent studies demonstrate that the process occurs from the top–down. Electron beam energy and current studies demonstrate that the process is controlled by a confluence of the electron energy loss and oxygen concentration. Furthermore, the experimental results are modeled as a 2nd order reaction which is dependent on both the electron energy loss density and the oxygen concentration. In addition to purification, the post-deposition electron stimulated oxygen purification process enhances the resolution of the EBID process due to the isotropic carbon removal from the as-deposited materials which produces high-fidelity shape retention.

  5. Electron-stimulated purification of platinum nanostructures grown via focused electron beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brett B; Stanford, Michael G; Fowlkes, Jason D; Lester, Kevin; Plank, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Platinum–carbon nanostructures deposited via electron beam induced deposition from MeCpPt(IV)Me3 are purified during a post-deposition electron exposure treatment in a localized oxygen ambient at room temperature. Time-dependent studies demonstrate that the process occurs from the top–down. Electron beam energy and current studies demonstrate that the process is controlled by a confluence of the electron energy loss and oxygen concentration. Furthermore, the experimental results are modeled as a 2nd order reaction which is dependent on both the electron energy loss density and the oxygen concentration. In addition to purification, the post-deposition electron stimulated oxygen purification process enhances the resolution of the EBID process due to the isotropic carbon removal from the as-deposited materials which produces high-fidelity shape retention. PMID:25977862

  6. Electron beam deposition for nanofabrication : Insights from surface science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wnuk, J. D.; Rosenberg, S. G.; Gorham, J. M.; van Dorp, W. F.; Hagen, C. W.; Fairbrother, D. H.

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) is a direct-write lithographic technique that utilizes the dissociation of volatile precursors by a focused electron beam in a low vacuum environment to create nanostructures. Notable advantages of EBID over competing lithographic techniques are that it is a s

  7. CTS and CZTS for solar cells made by pulsed laser deposition and pulsed electron deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt

    , which make them promising alternatives to the commercially successful solar cell material copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Complementing our group's work on pulsed laser deposition of CZTS, we collaborated with IMEM-CNR in Parma, Italy, to deposit CZTS by pulsed electron deposition for the first...... time. We compared the results of CZTS deposition by PLD at DTU in Denmark to CZTS made by PED at IMEM-CNR, where CIGS solar cells have successfully been fabricated at very low processing temperatures. The main results of this work were as follows: Monoclinic-phase CTS films were made by pulsed laser...

  8. Nanocrystalline Diamond Films Deposited by Electron Assisted Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films were deposited on polished Si wafer surface with electron assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition at 1 kPa gas pressure, the deposited films were characterized and observed by Raman spectrum, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and semiconductor characterization system. The results show that when 8 A bias current is applied for 5 h, the surface roughness decreases to 28.5 nm. After 6 and 8 A bias current are applied for 1 h, and the nanocrystalline films deposition continue for 4 h with 0 A bias current at 1 kPa gas pressure. The nanocrystalline diamond films with 0.5×109 and 1×1010 Ω·cm resistivity respectively are obtained. It is demonstrated that electron bombardment plays an important role of nucleation to deposit diamond films with smooth surface and high resistivity.

  9. Porphyry copper deposit model: Chapter B in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Barton, Mark D.; Blakely, Richard J.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Dilles, John H.; Gray, Floyd; Graybeal, Fred T.; Mars, John L.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Seal, Robert R., II; Taylor, Ryan D.; Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains a revised descriptive model of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs), the world's largest source (about 60 percent) and resource (about 65 percent) of copper and a major source of molybdenum, gold and silver. Despite relatively low grades (average 0.44 percent copper in 2008), PCDs have significant economic and societal impacts due to their large size (commonly hundreds of millions to billions of metric tons), long mine lives (decades), and high production rates (billions of kilograms of copper per year). The revised model describes the geotectonic setting of PCDs, and provides extensive regional- to deposit-scale descriptions and illustrations of geological, geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics. Current genetic theories are reviewed and evaluated, knowledge gaps are identified, and a variety of exploration and assessment guides are presented. A summary is included for users seeking overviews of specific topics.

  10. Metallocarbohedrenes: Transmission Electron Microscopy of Mass Gated Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, M. E. Lyn, Jr.

    2002-03-01

    Titanium and zirconium Met-Car cluster ions have been detected from the direct laser vaporization of metal-graphite mixtures using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Optimization of the production conditions enabled sufficient intensities to mass select and deposit Met-Cars on surfaces. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images of mass gated Met-Car species reveals deposited nanocrystals 2 nm in diameter. Diffraction patterns indicate the presence of multiple species and shows that the deposits have spatial orientation. Lattice parameters have been extracted. The implication of the findings will be discussed. Support for the work has been from the AFOSR F49620-01-1-0122.

  11. GEANT4 simulation of electron energy deposition in extended media

    CERN Document Server

    Kadri, O; Gharbi, F; Trabelsi, A

    2007-01-01

    The present work demonstrates that GEANT4 yields a consistent description of electron transport processes in semi-infinite homogeneous and heterogeneous extended media. This comparison covers the e− energy deposition profiles in a range of elements from aluminum to tantalum through molybdenum at source energies from 0.3 to 1.0 MeV and at incident angles from 0° to 60°. The good agreement between simulation results and data confirms that the Monte Carlo used code is capable of accurate electron beam energy deposition calculation even under such conditions.

  12. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  13. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at Makerere University. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types ...

  14. Electron microscopy study of direct laser deposited IN718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, R.G., E-mail: r.ding@bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Huang, Z.W.; Li, H.Y. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Mitchell, I.; Baxter, G. [Rolls-Royce plc., Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Bowen, P. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    The microstructure of direct laser deposited (DLD) IN718 has been investigated in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results confirm that the dendrite core microstructure can be linked to the cooling rate experienced during the deposition. A ~ 100 μm wide δ partially dissolved region in the IN718 substrate was observed close to the substrate/deposit boundary. In the deposited IN718, γ/Laves eutectic constituent is the predominant minor microconstituent. Irregular and regular (small) (Nb,Ti)C carbides and a mixture of the carbides and Laves were observed. Most M{sub 3}B{sub 2} borides were nucleated around a (Nb,Ti)C carbide. Needles of δ phase precipitated from the Laves phase were also observed. A complex constituent (of Laves, δ, α-Cr, γ″, and γ matrix) is reported in IN718 for the first time. The formation of α-Cr particles could be related to Cr rejection during the formation and growth of Cr-depleted δ phase. - Highlights: • Secondary phases in IN718 deposits were identified using electron diffraction and EDS. • MC, M{sub 3}B{sub 2}, γ/Laves eutectic and γ/NbC/Laves eutectic were observed. • Needle-like δ phases were precipitated from the Laves phase. • A complex constituent (Laves, δ, α-Cr, γ″ and γ) was reported for the first time.

  15. Fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures with electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, H.

    2013-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was shaped by the goal---coming up new approaches to fabricate plasmonic materials with electron beam induced deposition (EBID). One-step, bottom-up and direct-write are typical adjectives that are used to indicate the advantageous properties of this technique. Thes

  16. Electron-beam-induced deposition of gold from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schardein, G; Donev, E U; Hastings, J T, E-mail: hastings@engr.uky.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CeNSE), University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2011-01-07

    Focused electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) using bulk liquid precursors is a novel approach to nanofabrication that has shown improvements in purity compared to EBID with gas-phase precursors. Here we report the first EBID of gold using bulk liquid precursors. We study the differences in gold deposited from three different aqueous solutions containing chloroauric acid (HAuCl{sub 4}), sodium tetrachloroaurate (NaAuCl{sub 4}), and the disulfitoaurate complex ([Au(SO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup 3-}). We also examine the dependence of threshold dose upon precursor concentration and demonstrate high-resolution patterning with a pitch as small as 50 nm. Finally, we show that the purity of gold deposited using these liquid precursors is significantly improved in comparison with deposits from metal-organic gaseous precursors.

  17. Effectiveness Analysis of Electronic Resources at the Hacettepe University

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    It is important to collect and analyze the usage data of electronic databases and periodicals in order to make policies regarding the composition, improvement and more extensive utilization of electronic resources of libraries. The aim of this study is to investigate how efficiently the full text accessible electronic resources of Hacettepe University Libraries are used. For this purpose the usage data obtained from COUNTER Software regarding the electronic databases to which Hacettepe Univer...

  18. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Yen Yu; Jiann-Cherng Shieh

    2014-01-01

    With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics ...

  19. Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R., II; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2012-01-01

    Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the

  20. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  1. Technology basis and perspectives on focused electron beam induced deposition and focused ion beam induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rius, Gemma, E-mail: rius.gemma@nitech.ac.jp

    2014-12-15

    The main characteristics of focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) and focused ion beam induced deposition (FIBID) are presented. FEBID and FIBID are two nanopatterning techniques that allow the fabrication of submicron patterns with nanometer resolution on selected locations of any kind of substrate, even on highly structured supports. The process consists of mask less serial deposition and can be applied to a wide variety of materials, depending strictly on the precursor material source used. The basic mechanism of FEBID and FIBID is the adsorption of volatile precursor molecules onto the sample surface and decomposition of the molecules induced by the energetic electron and ion focused beams. The essential similarities of the two techniques are presented and especial emphasis is dedicated to highlighting their main differences, such as aspects related to resolution, deposition rate, deposits purity, substrate integrity, etc. In both cases, the factors interplay and complex mechanisms are still understood in a qualitative basis, so much work can still be done in terms of modeling and simulating the processes involved in FEBID and FIBID. Current work on FEBID and FIBID is presented through examples of achievements, interesting results and novel approaches.

  2. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm structure

  3. The role of electron-stimulated desorption in focused electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dorp, Willem F.; Hansen, Thomas W.; Wagner, Jakob B.; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of our study about the deposition rate of focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP) as a function of the substrate temperature with the substrate being an electron-transparent amorphous carbon membrane. When W(CO)(6) is used as a precursor it is observed that the growth

  4. Electron-beam deposition of vanadium dioxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvel, R.E.; Appavoo, K. [Vanderbilt University, Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Nashville, TN (United States); Choi, B.K. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nashville, TN (United States); Nag, J. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Haglund, R.F. [Vanderbilt University, Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University, Institute for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Developing a reliable and efficient fabrication method for phase-transition thin-film technology is critical for electronic and photonic applications. We demonstrate a novel method for fabricating polycrystalline, switchable vanadium dioxide thin films on glass and silicon substrates and show that the optical switching contrast is not strongly affected by post-processing annealing times. The method relies on electron-beam evaporation of a nominally stoichiometric powder, followed by fast annealing. As a result of the short annealing procedure we demonstrate that films deposited on silicon substrates appear to be smoother, in comparison to pulsed laser deposition and sputtering. However, optical performance of e-beam evaporated film on silicon is affected by annealing time, in contrast to glass. (orig.)

  5. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S

    2015-10-01

    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  6. An Analysis of the Published Mineral Resource Estimates of the Haji-Gak Iron Deposit, Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutphin, David M., E-mail: dsutphin@usgs.gov; Renaud, Karine M.; Drew, Lawrence J. [U.S. Geological Survey (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The Haji-Gak iron deposit of eastern Bamyan Province, eastern Afghanistan, was studied extensively and resource calculations were made in the 1960s by Afghan and Russian geologists. Recalculation of the resource estimates verifies the original estimates for categories A (in-place resources known in detail), B (in-place resources known in moderate detail), and C{sub 1} (in-place resources estimated on sparse data), totaling 110.8 Mt, or about 6% of the resources as being supportable for the methods used in the 1960s. C{sub 2} (based on a loose exploration grid with little data) resources are based on one ore grade from one drill hole, and P{sub 2} (prognosis) resources are based on field observations, field measurements, and an ore grade derived from averaging grades from three better sampled ore bodies. C{sub 2} and P{sub 2} resources are 1,659.1 Mt or about 94% of the total resources in the deposit. The vast P{sub 2} resources have not been drilled or sampled to confirm their extent or quality. The purpose of this article is to independently evaluate the resources of the Haji-Gak iron deposit by using the available geologic and mineral resource information including geologic maps and cross sections, sampling data, and the analog-estimating techniques of the 1960s to determine the size and tenor of the deposit.

  7. Indium-Free Fully Transparent Electronics Deposited Entirely by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Pradipta K; Wang, Zhenwei; Alshareef, Husam N

    2016-09-01

    Indium-free, fully transparent thin-film transistors are fabricated entirely by the atomic layer deposition technique on rigid and flexible substrates at a low temperature of 160 °C. The transistors show high saturation mobility, large switching ratio, and small subthreshold swing value. The inverters and ring oscillators show large gain value and small propagation delay time, indicating the potential of this process in transparent electronic devices.

  8. Cataloging and Indexing of Electronic Information Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    digital library, but it facilitates the exchange of these objects among digital libraries . METS provides an XML DTD that can point to metadata in other...International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). (2002). Digital Libraries : Metadata Resources. Retrieved May 3, 2002 from the

  9. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and frequency count). ... for doing assignment, Google search, for personal development, and getting ... major problems encountered when using electronic Information Resources.

  10. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  11. Ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits - An ideal lunar resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, B. R.; Clark, B.; Coombs, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    With a view of investigating possible economic benefits that a permanent lunar settlement might provide to the near-earth space infrastructures, consideration was given to the ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits as sources of oxygen (for use as a propellant) and He-3 (for nuclear fusion fuel). This paper demonstrates that ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits would be excellent sources of a wide variety of valuable elements besides O and He-3, including Fe, Ti, H2, N, C, S, Cu, Zn, Cd, Bi, and Pb. It is shown that several ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits of regional extent exist on the lunar surface. The suitability of regional pyroclastic deposits for lunar mining operations, construction activities, and the establishment of permanent lunar settlements is examined.

  12. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm structures after 2013, as described by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), or can be used for rapid prototyping in research applications. The key point is to combine the throughp...

  13. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  14. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  15. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  16. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  17. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  18. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  19. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  20. Nickel-cobalt laterites: a deposit model: Chapter H in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Erin; Anderson, Eric J.; Gray, Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are supergene enrichments of Ni±Co that form from intense chemical and mechanical weathering of ultramafic parent rocks. These regolith deposits typically form within 26 degrees of the equator, although there are a few exceptions. They form in active continental margins and stable cratonic settings. It takes as little as one million years for a laterite profile to develop. Three subtypes of Ni-Co laterite deposits are classified according to the dominant Ni-bearing mineralogy, which include hydrous magnesium (Mg)-silicate, smectite, and oxide. These minerals form in weathering horizons that begin with the unweathered protolith at the base, saprolite next, a smectite transition zone only in profiles where drainage is very poor, followed by limonite, and then capped with ferricrete at the top. The saprolite contains Ni-rich hydrous Mg-silicates, the Ni-rich clays occur in the transition horizon, and Ni-rich goethite occurs in the limonite. Although these subtypes of deposits are the more widely used terms for classification of Ni-Co laterite deposits, most deposits have economic concentrations of Ni in more than one horizon. Because of their complex mineralogy and heterogeneous concentrations, mining of these metallurgically complex deposits can be challenging. Deposits range in size from 2.5 to about 400 million tonnes, with Ni and Co grades of 0.66–2.4 percent (median 1.3) and 0.01–0.15 percent (median 0.08), respectively. Modern techniques of ore delineation and mineralogical identification are being developed to aid in streamlining the Ni-Co laterite mining process, and low-temperature and low-pressure ore processing techniques are being tested that will treat the entire weathered profile. There is evidence that the production of Ni and Co from laterites is more energy intensive than that of sulfide ores, reflecting the environmental impact of producing a Ni-Co laterite deposit. Tailings may include high levels of

  1. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  2. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  3. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  4. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  5. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  6. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  7. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  8. Focused electron beam induced deposition of magnetic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Teresa, Jose M.

    2011-03-01

    Nanopatterning strategies of magnetic materials normally rely on standard techniques such as electron-beam lithography using electron-sensitive resists. Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is currently being investigated as an alternative single-step route to produce functional magnetic nanostructures. Thus, Co-based and Fe-based precursors have been recently investigated for the growth of magnetic nanostructures by FEBID. In the present contribution, I will give an overview of the existing literature on magnetic nanostructures by FEBID and I will focus on the growth of Co nanostructures by FEBID using Co 2 (CO)8 as precursor gas. The Co content in the nanostructures can reach 95%. Magnetotransport experiments indicate that full metallic behaviour is displayed with relatively low residual resistivity and standard anisotropic magnetoresistance (0.8%). The coercive field of nanowires with changing aspect ratio has been determined in nanowires with width down to 150 nm by means of Magneto-optical Kerr Effect and the magnetization reversal has been imaged by means of Magnetic Force Microscopy, Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy as well as Lorentz Microscopy experiments. Nano-Hall probes have been grown with remarkable minimum detectable magnetic flux. Noticeably, it has been found that the domain-wall propagation field is lower than the domain-wall nucleation field in L-shaped nanowires, with potential applications in magnetic logic, sensing and storage. The spin polarization of these Co nanodeposits has been determined through Andreev-Reflection experiments in ferromagnetic-superconducting nanocontacts and amounts to 35%. Recent results obtained in Fe-based nanostructures by FEBID using Fe 2 (CO)9 precursor will be also presented. I acknowledge the collaboration in this field with A. Fernandez-Pacheco, R. Cordoba, L. Serrano, S. Sangiao, L.A. Rodriguez, C. Magen, E. Snoeck, L. Morellon, M.R. Ibarra.

  9. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S

    2016-01-01

    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first

  10. A deposit model for Mississippi Valley-Type lead-zinc ores: Chapter A in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David L.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Fey, David L.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a descriptive model of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits that presents their geological, mineralogical and geochemical attributes and is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new models that will be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment. This deposit modeling effort by the USGS is intended to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Included in this report are geological, geophysical and geochemical assessment guides to assist in mineral resource estimation. The deposit attributes, including grade and tonnage of the deposits described in this report are based on a new mineral deposits data set of all known MVT deposits in the world.

  11. Proceedings for a Workshop on Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskey, Joseph A.; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2007-01-01

    Preface The world's use of nonfuel mineral resources continues to increase to support a growing population and increasing standards of living. The ability to meet this increasing demand is affected especially by concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. What information does the world need to support global minerals development in a sustainable way? Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and future mineral resource supply require a long-term perspective and an integrated approach to resource, land use, economic, and environmental management worldwide. Such perspective and approach require unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation. The U.S. Geological Survey and the former Deposit Modeling Program of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a workshop on 'Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development' at the 31st International Geological Congress (IGC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 18-19, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in mineral deposit modeling and resource assessment and to examine the role of global assessments of nonfuel mineral resources in sustainable development. The workshop addressed questions such as the following: Which of the available mineral deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral exploration information? How can mineral resource assessments be used to address economic and

  12. Electronic and photo-electronic transport in sputter deposited MoS2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasala, Milinda; Ghosh, Sujoy; Zhang, Jie; Richie, Julianna; Mazumdar, Dipanjan; Kar, Swastik; Talapatra, Saikat

    2015-03-01

    Here we report on the electrical transport as well as photo response of large area sputter deposited few-layers of thin MoS2. Temperature dependent (55 K -275K) electronic conductivity measured on these samples show evidence of 2D Variable Range Hopping (2D-VRH) mechanism within 100K-275K. Photoconductivity measurements investigated using a continuous laser of λ = 658nm (E =1.88eV), over a broad range of illuminating laser intensity, P (0.19 μW OISE-0968405.

  13. Roles of secondary electrons and sputtered atoms in ion-beam-induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, P.; Salemink, H.W.M.; Alkemade, P.F.A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the results of investigating two models for ion-beam-induced deposition (IBID). These models describe IBID in terms of the impact of secondary electrons and of sputtered atoms, respectively. The yields of deposition, sputtering, and secondary electron emission, as well as the ener

  14. Electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum at low landing energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botman, A.; De Winter, D.A.M.; Mulders, J.J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum from methylcyclopentadienyl-platinum-trimethyl was performed with a focused electron beam at low landing energies, down to 10 eV. The deposition growth rate is maximal at 140 eV, with the process being over ten times more efficient than at 20 kV. No signi

  15. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  16. Electron postgrowth irradiation of platinum-containing nanostructures grown by electron-beam-induced deposition from Pt(PF3)4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botman, A.; Hagen, C.W.; Li, J.; Thiel, B.L.; Dunn, K.A.; Mulders, J.J.L.; Randolph, S.; Toth, M.

    2009-01-01

    The material grown in a scanning electron microscope by electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) using Pt(PF3)4 precursor is shown to be electron beam sensitive. The effects of deposition time and postgrowth electron irradiation on the microstructure and resistivity of the deposits were assessed by t

  17. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis JM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Elizabeth T Masters,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 David M Smith,1 Steven Faulkner4 1Truven Health Analytics, Life Sciences, Outcomes Research, Bethesda, MD, 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes & Evidence, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Statistics, Groton, CT, 4Pfizer Inc, North American Medical Affairs, Medical Outcomes Specialists, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: The management of fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results: Patients were predominantly female (81.4%, Caucasian (87.7%, with a mean (standard deviation age of 54.4 (14.8 years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5 drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1 office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients

  18. Online Electronic Resources and Slovenian Bibliography: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Škerget

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractConsidering the fact that the number of publications available online only is growing, the question whether to include online electronic resources into the Slovenian bibliography, and if so, in which way, and what are the requirements for the inclusion, is raised. To answer these questions, the research on the growth of the Slovenian online scientific production in comparison with production in printed form was conducted in the case of original scientific articles. Results showed a rapid growth of the number of original scientific articles available online only, which indicates the necessity to form a separate Slovenian bibliography of online resources. The selection criteria for the Slovenian bibliography of online resources are also presented. This kind of bibliography would, along with the informational value, add to the historical value of intellectual production in a given time frame, enriched with a link to the resource preserved in another location (archive, repository, in case of unavailability of the resource on its original location.

  19. Legal Deposit in Denmark - the New Law and Electronic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Dupont

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 Denmark celebrated the tricententenary of its legal deposit legislation and at the same time created a new law that surpassed the former 1927 text, which was out of date due to technological and political developments. In the first law on legal deposit, maps were not mentioned explicitly and we have no known examples of maps delivered before a revision of the law in 1781, which explicitly stated that maps and prints had to be deposited. It was only after 1850 that it became possible to follow what was deposited exactly. The number of maps deposited before was limited, not even including the first national survey maps. Maps were only produced in a limited number and the annual deposit did not exceed 600. We assume that all in all some 40,000 maps have been delivered to the collections by legal deposit. Each year since the Second World War the maps have been listed in the annual „Dansk Kortfortegnelse” and since 1980 all new maps have been catalogued in the REX database of the Royal Library.

  20. Journals, Data and Abstracts Make an Integrated Electronic Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, P.

    1996-12-01

    Astronomy now has an integrated, Web-based information resource for research papers, data and bibliographic information. The major scholarly research journals, a comprehensive abstract service and the astronomical data centers are now linked together to provide an information resource which is not available to most other scientific disciplines. As of January, 1997, the Astrophysical Journal joins the ApJ Letters on the Web. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements now has a page image version. Elsevier's electronic journal New Astronomy has recently made its appearance. Over forty percent of the new peer-reviewed, astronomical literature is now available electronically. The main Astronomy and Astrophysics journal, the Astronomical Journal and others will be available by 1998, at which point ninety percent of the literature will be available electronically, a figure not approached by any other scientific discipline. With so many different sources, one of the challenges has been to integrate the on-line, peer-reviewed literature into a resource which serves the astronomical community in a unified and coherent manner. Following the lead of the AAS, the major publishers have chosen to rely upon the NASA-supported Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the astronomical data centers to provide the means by which the various separate journals can interoperate. The data centers and the ADS have developed unique identification codes for journal articles. By adopting the existing standard "bibcodes" and integrating them into their WWW links, each of the major astronomical journals are able to link to the abstracts of most of the referenced articles. Since the ADS also serves as an on-line repository for page images of the past twenty years of the major astronomical journals, the full text of many of the referenced articles are available, too. The articles in the ADS have recently been linked through their references, both forward and backward in time. With the "bibcode" providing

  1. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  2. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  3. Discipline, Availability of Electronic Resources and the Use of Finnish National Electronic Library-- FinELib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmä, Sanna; Vakkari, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic…

  4. Lanthanum Deposition in the Stomach: Usefulness of Scanning Electron Microscopy for Its Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Urata, Haruo; Tanaka, Takehiro; Ando, Akemi; Nada, Takahiro; Kimura, Kosuke; Yamauchi, Kenji; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Otsuka, Fumio; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    After having been treated with lanthanum carbonate administration for 4 years for hyperphosphatemia, a 75-year-old Japanese woman undergoing hemodialysis was diagnosed with lanthanum phosphate deposition in the stomach. The deposition, seen as white microgranules, was observed using esophagogastroduodenoscopy with magnifying observation. To the best of our knowledge, these are the minutest endoscopy images of lanthanum phosphate deposition in the gastric mucosa. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation enabled easier identification of the deposited material, which was visible as bright areas. The present case suggests the usefulness of SEM observation in the detection of lanthanum phosphate deposition in the gastrointestinal tract.

  5. The role of low-energy electrons in focused electron beam induced deposition: four case studies of representative precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Thorman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID is a single-step, direct-write nanofabrication technique capable of writing three-dimensional metal-containing nanoscale structures on surfaces using electron-induced reactions of organometallic precursors. Currently FEBID is, however, limited in resolution due to deposition outside the area of the primary electron beam and in metal purity due to incomplete precursor decomposition. Both limitations are likely in part caused by reactions of precursor molecules with low-energy (3, Pt(PF34, Co(CO3NO, and W(CO6. Through these case studies, it is evident that this combination of studies can provide valuable insight into potential mechanisms governing deposit formation in FEBID. Although further experiments and new approaches are needed, these studies are an important stepping-stone toward better understanding the fundamental physics behind the deposition process and establishing design criteria for optimized FEBID precursors.

  6. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial......Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  7. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  8. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  9. Surface electronic and structural properties of nanostructured titanium oxide grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusi, M.; Maccallini, E.; Caruso, T.; Casari, C. S.; Bassi, A. Li; Bottani, C. E.; Rudolf, P.; Prince, K. C.; Agostino, R. G.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium oxide nanostructured thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) were here characterized with a multi-technique approach to investigate the relation between surface electronic, structural and morphological properties. Depending on the growth parameters, these films present chara

  10. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  11. Deposition of dielectric films on silicon using a fore-vacuum plasma electron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, D B; Oks, E M; Tyunkov, A V; Yushkov, Yu G

    2016-06-01

    We describe an experiment on the use of a fore-vacuum-pressure, plasma-cathode, electron beam source with current up to 100 mA and beam energy up to 15 keV for deposition of Mg and Al oxide films on Si substrates in an oxygen atmosphere at a pressure of 10 Pa. The metals (Al and Mg) were evaporated and ionized using the electron beam with the formation of a gas-metal beam-plasma. The plasma was deposited on the surface of Si substrates. The elemental composition of the deposited films was analyzed.

  12. Deposition of dielectric films on silicon using a fore-vacuum plasma electron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotukhin, D. B.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Yushkov, Yu. G., E-mail: yuyushkov@gmail.com [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Oks, E. M. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    We describe an experiment on the use of a fore-vacuum-pressure, plasma-cathode, electron beam source with current up to 100 mA and beam energy up to 15 keV for deposition of Mg and Al oxide films on Si substrates in an oxygen atmosphere at a pressure of 10 Pa. The metals (Al and Mg) were evaporated and ionized using the electron beam with the formation of a gas-metal beam-plasma. The plasma was deposited on the surface of Si substrates. The elemental composition of the deposited films was analyzed.

  13. Texture-Induced Anisotropy in an Inconel 718 Alloy Deposited Using Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayon, W.; Shenoy, R.; Bird, R.; Hafley, R.; Redding, M.

    2014-01-01

    A test block of Inconel (IN) 718 was fabricated using electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) to examine how the EBF(sup 3) deposition process affects the microstructure, crystallographic texture, and mechanical properties of IN 718. Tests revealed significant anisotropy in the elastic modulus for the as-deposited IN 718. Subsequent tests were conducted on specimens subjected to a heat treatment designed to decrease the level of anisotropy. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to characterize crystallographic texture in the as-deposited and heat treated conditions. The anisotropy in the as-deposited condition was strongly affected by texture as evidenced by its dependence on orientation relative to the deposition direction. Heat treatment resulted in a significant improvement in modulus of the EBF(sup 3) product to a level nearly equivalent to that for wrought IN 718 with reduced anisotropy; reduction in texture through recrystallization; and production of a more homogeneous microstructure.

  14. Creating pure nanostructures from electron-beam-induced deposition using purification techniques: a technology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botman, A.; Mulders, J.J.L.; Hagen, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    The creation of functional nanostructures by electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is becoming more widespread. The benefits of the technology include fast ‘point-and-shoot’ creation of three-dimensional nanostructures at predefined locations directly within a scanning electron microscope. One sig

  15. Nanoscale Soldering of Positioned Carbon Nanotubes using Highly Conductive Electron Beam Induced Gold Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Mølhave, Kristian; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an in-situ method for controlled positioning of carbon nanotubes followed by highly conductive contacting of the nanotubes, using electron beam assisted deposition of gold. The positioning and soldering process takes place inside an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (E...

  16. Simulation of the secondary electrons energy deposition produced by proton beams in PMMA: influence of the target electronic excitation description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapor, Maurizio; Abril, Isabel; de Vera, Pablo; Garcia-Molina, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    We have studied the radial dependence of the energy deposition of the secondary electron generated by swift proton beams incident with energies T = 50 keV-5 MeV on poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA). Two different approaches have been used to model the electronic excitation spectrum of PMMA through its energy loss function (ELF), namely the extended-Drude ELF and the Mermin ELF. The singly differential cross section and the total cross section for ionization, as well as the average energy of the generated secondary electrons, show sizeable differences at T ⩽ 0.1 MeV when evaluated with these two ELF models. In order to know the radial distribution around the proton track of the energy deposited by the cascade of secondary electrons, a simulation has been performed that follows the motion of the electrons through the target taking into account both the inelastic interactions (via electronic ionizations and excitations as well as electron-phonon and electron trapping by polaron creation) and the elastic interactions. The radial distribution of the energy deposited by the secondary electrons around the proton track shows notable differences between the simulations performed with the extended-Drude ELF or the Mermin ELF, being the former more spread out (and, therefore, less peaked) than the latter. The highest intensity and sharpness of the deposited energy distributions takes place for proton beams incident with T ~ 0.1-1 MeV. We have also studied the influence in the radial distribution of deposited energy of using a full energy distribution of secondary electrons generated by proton impact or using a single value (namely, the average value of the distribution); our results show that differences between both simulations become important for proton energies larger than ~0.1 MeV. The results presented in this work have potential applications in materials science, as well as hadron therapy (due to the use of PMMA as a tissue phantom) in order to properly consider the

  17. Lateral resolution in focused electron beam-induced deposition: scaling laws for pulsed and static exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkudlarek, Aleksandra [Empa, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Thun (Switzerland); AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Szmyt, Wojciech; Kapusta, Czeslaw [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Utke, Ivo [Empa, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Thun (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    In this work, we review the single-adsorbate time-dependent continuum model for focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID). The differential equation for the adsorption rate will be expressed by dimensionless parameters describing the contributions of adsorption, desorption, dissociation, and the surface diffusion of the precursor adsorbates. The contributions are individually presented in order to elucidate their influence during variations in the electron beam exposure time. The findings are condensed into three new scaling laws for pulsed exposure FEBID (or FEB-induced etching) relating the lateral resolution of deposits or etch pits to surface diffusion and electron beam exposure dwell time for a given adsorbate depletion state. (orig.)

  18. Simulation calculation for the energy deposition profile and the transmission fraction of intense pulsed electron beam at various incident angles

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Hai Liang; Zhang Jia Sheng; Huang Jian Jun; Sun Jian Feng

    2002-01-01

    The incident angles have a heavy effect on the intense pulsed electron beam energy deposition profile, energy deposition fraction and beam current transmission fraction in material. The author presents electron beam energy deposition profile and energy deposition fraction versus electron energy (0.5-2.0 MeV), at various incident angles for three aluminum targets of various thickness via theoretical calculation. The intense pulsed electron beam current transmission fractions versus electron energy (0.4-1.4 MeV) at various incident angles for three thickness of carbon targets were also theoretically calculated. The calculation results indicate that the deposition energy in unit mass of material surface layer increase with the rise of electron beam incident angle, and electron beam with low incident angle (closer to normal incident angle) penetrates deeper into the target material. The electron beams deposit more energy in unit mass of material surface layer at 60 degree-70 degree incident angle

  19. Analytical Electron Microscopic Study of Mineral Deposits in a Case of Calcionsis Universalis

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAKAMI, TOSHIYUKI; NAKAMURA, CHIHITO; Hasegawa, Hiromasa; EDA, SHIGEO

    1988-01-01

    Calcinosis universalis with dermatomyositis occurred in a 58-year-old woman. Tissues removed from the patient's sublingual region were studied mainly by analytical electron microscopic methods. According to an elemental analysis using a wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscope, most of the mineral deposits contained the elements sodium, phosphorus, calcium, rhenium, and some deposits also contained sulphur and magnesium. The elements sodium, sulphur, chlorine, and calcium were found in the st...

  20. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  1. Nitrogen as a carrier gas for regime control in focused electron beam induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachter Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID using a custom built gas injection system (GIS equipped with nitrogen as a gas carrier. We have deposited cobalt from Co2(CO8, which is usually achieved by a heated GIS. In contrast to a heated GIS, our strategy allows avoiding problems caused by eventual temperature gradients along the GIS. Moreover, the use of the gas carrier enables a high control over process conditions and consequently the properties of the synthesized nanostructures. Chemical composition and growth rate are investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and atomic force microscopy (AFM, respectively. We demonstrate that the N2 flux is strongly affecting the deposit growth rate without the need of heating the precursor in order to increase its vapour pressure. Particularly, AFM volume estimation of the deposited structures showed that increasing the nitrogen resulted in an enhanced deposition rate. The wide range of achievable precursor fluxes allowed to clearly distinguish between precursor- and electron-limited regime. With the carrier-based GIS an optimized deposition procedure with regards to the desired deposition regime has been enabled

  2. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  3. 3D geological modeling for mineral resource assessment of the Tongshan Cu deposit, Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongwen Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM assists geologists to quantitatively study in three-dimensional (3D space structures that define temporal and spatial relationships between geological objects. The 3D property model can also be used to infer or deduce causes of geological objects. 3DGM technology provides technical support for extraction of diverse geoscience information, 3D modeling, and quantitative calculation of mineral resources. Based on metallogenic concepts and an ore deposit model, 3DGM technology is applied to analyze geological characteristics of the Tongshan Cu deposit in order to define a metallogenic model and develop a virtual borehole technology; a BP neural network and a 3D interpolation technique were combined to integrate multiple geoscience information in a 3D environment. The results indicate: (1 on basis of the concept of magmatic-hydrothermal Cu polymetallic mineralization and a porphyry Cu deposit model, a spatial relational database of multiple geoscience information for mineralization in the study area (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, borehole, and cross-section data was established, and 3D metallogenic geological objects including mineralization stratum, granodiorite, alteration rock, and magnetic anomaly were constructed; (2 on basis of the 3D ore deposit model, 23,800 effective surveys from 94 boreholes and 21 sections were applied to establish 3D orebody models with a kriging interpolation method; (3 combined 23,800 surveys involving 21 sections, using VC++ and OpenGL platform, virtual borehole and virtual section with BP network, and an improved inverse distance interpolation (IDW method were used to predict and delineate mineralization potential targets (Cu-grade of cell not less than 0.1%; (4 comparison of 3D ore bodies, metallogenic geological objects of mineralization, and potential targets of mineralization models in the study area, delineated the 3D spatial and temporal relationship and causal

  4. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of the behaviour of electrons during electron-assisted chemical vapour deposition of diamond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丽芳; 陈俊英; 董国义; 尚勇

    2002-01-01

    The behaviour of electrons during electron-assisted chemical vapour deposition of diamond is investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. The electron energy distribution and velocity distribution are obtained over a wide range of reduced field E/N (the ratio of the electric field to gas molecule density) from 100 to 2000 in units of 1Td=10-17Vcm2.Their effects on the diamond growth are also discussed. Themain results obtained are as follows. (1) The velocity profile is asymmetric for the component parallel to the field.Ihe velocity distribution has a peak shift in the field direction. Most electrons possess non-zero velocity parallel to the substrate. (2) The number of atomic H is a function of E/N. (3) High-quality diamond can be obtained under the condition of E/N from 50 to 800Td due to sufficient atomic H and electron bombardment.

  6. Single-crystal nanowires grown via electron-beam-induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, K. L.; Randolph, S. J.; Fowlkes, J. D.; Allard, L. F.; Meyer, H. M., III; Simpson, M. L.; Rack, P. D.

    2008-08-01

    Electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a useful technique for direct-writing of three-dimensional dielectric, semiconductor, and metallic materials with nanoscale precision and resolution. The EBID process, however, has been limited in many cases because precursor byproducts (typically from organic precursors like W(CO)6) are incorporated into the deposited material resulting in contaminated and amorphous structures. In this work, we have investigated the structure and composition of EBID tungsten nanostructures as-deposited from a tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) precursor. High resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electron spectroscopy were employed to determine the effects that the electron beam scanning conditions have on the deposit characteristics. The results show that slow, one-dimensional lateral scanning produces textured β-tungsten nanowire cores surrounded by an oxide secondary layer, while stationary vertical growth leads to single-crystal [100]-oriented W3O nanowires. Furthermore we correlate how the growth kinetics affect the resultant nanowire structure and composition.

  7. Single-crystal nanowires grown via electron-beam-induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, K L; Randolph, S J; Simpson, M L; Rack, P D [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, 434 Dougherty Hall, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Fowlkes, J D [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Allard, L F; III, H M Meyer [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)], E-mail: prack@utk.edu

    2008-08-27

    Electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a useful technique for direct-writing of three-dimensional dielectric, semiconductor, and metallic materials with nanoscale precision and resolution. The EBID process, however, has been limited in many cases because precursor byproducts (typically from organic precursors like W(CO){sub 6}) are incorporated into the deposited material resulting in contaminated and amorphous structures. In this work, we have investigated the structure and composition of EBID tungsten nanostructures as-deposited from a tungsten hexafluoride (WF{sub 6}) precursor. High resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electron spectroscopy were employed to determine the effects that the electron beam scanning conditions have on the deposit characteristics. The results show that slow, one-dimensional lateral scanning produces textured {beta}-tungsten nanowire cores surrounded by an oxide secondary layer, while stationary vertical growth leads to single-crystal [100]-oriented W{sub 3}O nanowires. Furthermore we correlate how the growth kinetics affect the resultant nanowire structure and composition.

  8. Helium-Charged Titanium Films Deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition in an Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Helium Plasma Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金钦华; 胡佩钢; 凌浩; 吴嘉达; 施立群; 周筑颖

    2003-01-01

    Titanium thin films incorporated with helium are produced by pulsed laser deposition in an electron cyclotron resonance helium plasma environment. Helium is distributed evenly in the film and a relatively high He/Ti atomic ratio (~ 20%) is obtained from the proton backscattering spectroscopy. This high concentration ofhelium leads to a surface blistering which is observed by scanning electron microscopy. Laser repetition rate has little influence on film characters. Substrate bias voltage is also changed for the helium incorporating mechanism study, and this is a helium ion implantation process during the film growth. Choosing suitable substrate bias voltage, one can avoid the damage produced by ion implantation, which is always present in general implantation case.

  9. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  10. Characterization of Si:O:C:H films fabricated using electron emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrant, Steven F. [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Campus Experimental de Sorocaba, Universidade Estadual Paulista-UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, 511, Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180, Soracaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: steve@sorocaba.unesp.br; Rouxinol, Francisco P.M.; Gelamo, Rogerio V. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Trasferetti, B. Claudio [Present address: Superintendencia Regional da Policia Federal em Sao Paulo, Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Rua Hugo d' Antola 95/10o Andar, Lapa de Baixo, 05038-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Davanzo, C.U. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bica de Moraes, Mario A. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Silicon-based polymers and oxides may be formed when vapours of oxygen-containing organosilicone compounds are exposed to energetic electrons drawn from a hot filament by a bias potential applied to a second electrode in a controlled atmosphere in a vacuum chamber. As little deposition occurs in the absence of the bias potential, electron impact fragmentation is the key mechanism in film fabrication using electron-emission enhanced chemical vapour deposition (EEECVD). The feasibility of depositing amorphous hydrogenated carbon films also containing silicon from plasmas of tetramethylsilane or hexamethyldisiloxane has already been shown. In this work, we report the deposition of diverse films from plasmas of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)-argon mixtures and the characterization of the materials obtained. The effects of changes in the substrate holder bias (V{sub S}) and of the proportion of TEOS in the mixture (X{sub T}) on the chemical structure of the films are examined by infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) at near-normal and oblique incidence using unpolarised and p-polarised, light, respectively. The latter is particularly useful in detecting vibrational modes not observed when using conventional near-normal incidence. Elemental analyses of the film were carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which was also useful in complementary structural investigations. In addition, the dependencies of the deposition rate on V{sub S} and X{sub T} are presented.

  11. Fe:O:C grown by focused-electron-beam-induced deposition: magnetic and electric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrijsen, R; Schoenaker, F J; Ellis, T H; Barcones, B; Kohlhepp, J T; Swagten, H J M; Koopmans, B [Department of Applied Physics, Center for NanoMaterials and COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Cordoba, R; Ibarra, M R [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); De Teresa, J M; Magen, C [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Trompenaars, P; Mulders, J J L, E-mail: r.lavrijsen@tue.nl, E-mail: deteresa@unizar.es [FEI Electron Optics, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 GG Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-01-14

    We systematically study the effect of oxygen content on the magneto-transport and microstructure of Fe:O:C nanowires deposited by focused-electron-beam-induced (FEBID) deposition. The Fe/O ratio can be varied with an Fe content varying between {approx} 50 and 80 at.% with overall low C content ({approx}16 {+-} 3 at.%) by adding H{sub 2}O during the deposition while keeping the beam parameters constant as measured by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The room-temperature magnetic properties for deposits with an Fe content of 66-71 at.% are investigated using the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and electric magneto-transport measurements. The nanostructure of the deposits is investigated through cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging, allowing us to link the observed magneto-resistance and resistivity to the transport mechanism in the deposits. These results demonstrate that functional magnetic nanostructures can be created, paving the way for new magnetic or even spintronics devices.

  12. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  13. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  14. Approximation of charge-deposition density in thin slabs irradiated by electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Alouani-Bibi, F; Rogov, Y V; Tabata, T

    2000-01-01

    Charge-deposition distributions in thin slabs irradiated by plane-parallel electron beams are studied. The slabs considered are made of elements with atomic numbers ranging from 4 to 79. The slab thicknesses are from 0.5 to 50 mg/cm sup 2 , and the electron beam energies are from 1 to 10 MeV. Using a new Monte Carlo method (called the trajectory translation method), data on the charge-deposition density have been obtained. Theoretical analysis of these data has been performed. Based on this analysis, a semiempirical model that describes charge-deposition distributions in thin slabs has been developed. The results obtained by the semiempirical model have been compared with those obtained by the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code and show moderate agreement.

  15. Electronic structure and chemical reaction of Ca deposition on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; GUO YuXian; FENG XueFei; ZHANG Liang; ZHANG WenHua; ZHU JunFa

    2009-01-01

    Conjugated polymer, regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rr-P3HT), films were prepared by spin-coating the rr-P3HT chloroform solution onto clean silicon wafer surfaces. The chemical re-action and electronic structure of Ca deposition on rr-P3HT surfaces were in situ investigated by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SRPES) and X-ray photoemission spectros-copy (XPS). Upon Ca deposition, Ca-induced band bending of rr-P3HT is observed. In addition, Ca atoms preferentially react with S atoms of rr-P3HT. No obvious reaction between Ca and C atoms can be found. Through the investigation of the evolution of valence band spectra and secondary electron cut-off of rr-P3HT during the process of Ca deposition, an energy level alignment diagram at the Ca/rr-P3HT interface is derived.

  16. Pulsed electron beam deposition of highly oriented thin films of polytetrafluoroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Vimlesh [Materials Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Manoharan, Solomon S. [Materials Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)], E-mail: ssundar@iitk.ac.in

    2008-04-30

    Thin films of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were deposited by pulsed electron deposition (PED) technique. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the RT fabricated (20 A thick) film on carbon coated copper grid shows crystalline nature. Infrared spectra show one to one correspondence between PED ablated film and the PTFE bulk target. The asymmetrical and symmetrical -CF{sub 2}- stretching modes were observed at 1220 and 1156 cm{sup -1}, respectively. The -CF{sub 2}- wagging and bending modes occur at 644 and 512 cm{sup -1}, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns of the film deposited at room temperature (RT) show oriented film along (1 0 0) plane of hexagonal structure and the crystalline nature is retained up to 300 deg. C on vacuum annealing. The room temperature fabricated film shows smooth and pin hole free surface whereas post-annealing brings discontinuity, roughness and pin holes.

  17. Towards high purity nanostructures from electron beam induced deposition of platinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botman, A.P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) is a novel nanofabrication technique allowing the rapid prototyping of three-dimensional nanodevices and the metallic wiring of nanostructures, and is a promising technique for many applications in nanoresearch. EBID is a process wherein a precursor molecule

  18. Charging effects during focused electron beam induced deposition of silicon oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Sanne K.; van Dorp, Willem F.; De Hosson, Jeff Th. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper concentrates on focused electron beam induced deposition of silicon oxide. Silicon oxide pillars are written using 2, 4, 6, 8, 10-pentamethyl-cyclopenta-siloxane (PMCPS) as precursor. It is observed that branching of the pillar occurs above a minimum pillar height. The branching is attrib

  19. Investigation of morphological changes in platinum-containing nanostructures created by electron-beam-induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botman, A.; Hesselberth, M.; Mulders, J.J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Focused electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) allows the rapid fabrication of three-dimensional nanodevices and metallic wiring of nanostructures, and is a promising technique for many applications in nanoresearch. The authors present two topics on platinum-containing nanostructures created by EBI

  20. BN coatings deposition by magnetron sputtering of B and BN targets in electron beam generated plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetskikh, A. S.; Gavrilov, N. V.; Koryakova, O. V.; Cholakh, S. O.

    2017-05-01

    Boron nitride coatings were deposited by reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering of B and BN targets (50 kHz, 10 µs for B; 13.56 MHz for BN) at 2-20 mA/cm2 ion current density on the substrate. The effect of electron beam generated plasma on characteristics of magnetron discharge and phase composition of coatings was studied.

  1. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  2. Pulsed electron beam deposition of transparent conducting Al-doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quang, Pham Hong, E-mail: phquang2711@yahoo.com [Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sang, Ngo Dinh [National University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong Street, Hai Ba Trung, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ngoc, Do Quang [Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2012-08-31

    Good quality transparent conducting Al-doped ZnO films were deposited on quartz substrates from a high purity target using pulsed electron deposition (PED). Two series of films were made, one deposited at room temperature but at four pressures, viz., 0.7, 1.3, 2.0 and 2.7 Pa of oxygen and one deposited at 1.3 Pa oxygen pressure but at the substrate temperature ranged from room temperature to 600 Degree-Sign C. In order to evaluate the effect of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure on the properties of obtained films, various characterization techniques were employed including X-ray diffraction, stylus profiler, scanning electron microscope, optical spectrophotometer and electrical resistivity. For the first series films, the optimal oxygen pressure of 1.3 Pa was found to bring about the appropriate energetic deposition atoms which results in the best crystallinity. For the second series films, the lowest resistivity was obtained in the film grown at 400 Degree-Sign C. An attempt was made to reduce the resistivity by lowering the oxygen pressure to 0.5 Pa which was the lower limit of working pressure of the PED system. The obtained results indicate that PED is a suitable technique for growing transparent conducting ZnO films. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transparent conducting Al-doped ZnO films grown by pulsed electron deposition (PED). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film properties were found to depend strongly on the deposition conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The best film was grown at the oxygen pressure of 0.5 Pa and at 400 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PED is found to be a suitable technique for growing transparent conducting ZnO films.

  3. Highly conductive and pure gold nanostructures grown by electron beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawrav, Mostafa M.; Taus, Philipp; Wanzenboeck, Heinz D.; Schinnerl, M.; Stöger-Pollach, M.; Schwarz, S.; Steiger-Thirsfeld, A.; Bertagnolli, Emmerich

    2016-09-01

    This work introduces an additive direct-write nanofabrication technique for producing extremely conductive gold nanostructures from a commercial metalorganic precursor. Gold content of 91 atomic % (at. %) was achieved by using water as an oxidative enhancer during direct-write deposition. A model was developed based on the deposition rate and the chemical composition, and it explains the surface processes that lead to the increases in gold purity and deposition yield. Co-injection of an oxidative enhancer enabled Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID)—a maskless, resistless deposition method for three dimensional (3D) nanostructures—to directly yield pure gold in a single process step, without post-deposition purification. Gold nanowires displayed resistivity down to 8.8 μΩ cm. This is the highest conductivity achieved so far from FEBID and it opens the possibility of applications in nanoelectronics, such as direct-write contacts to nanomaterials. The increased gold deposition yield and the ultralow carbon level will facilitate future applications such as the fabrication of 3D nanostructures in nanoplasmonics and biomolecule immobilization.

  4. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  5. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  6. The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

  7. Purity and resistivity improvements for electron-beam-induced deposition of Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulders, J.J.L. [FEI Company, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) of platinum is used by many researchers. Its main application is the formation of a protective layer and the ''welding material'' for making a TEM lamella with a focused ion beam thinning process. For this application, the actual composition of the deposition is less relevant, and in practice, both the mechanical strength and the conductivity are sufficient. Another important application is the creation of an electrical connection to nanoscale structures such as nano-wires and graphene. To serve as an electrical contact, the resistivity of the Pt deposited structure has to be sufficiently low. Using the commonly used precursor MeCpPtMe{sub 3} for deposition, the resistivity as created by the basic process is 10{sup +5}-10{sup +6} higher than the value for bulk Pt, which is 10.6 μΩ cm. The reason for this is the high abundance of carbon in the deposition. To improve the deposition process, much attention has been given by the research community to parameter optimization, to ex situ or in situ removal of carbon by anneal steps, to prevention of carbon deposition by use of a carbon-free precursor, to electron beam irradiation under a high flux of oxygen and to the combination with other techniques such as atomic layer deposition (ALD). In the latter technique, the EBID structures are used as a 1-nm-thick seed layer only, while the ALD is used to selectively add pure Pt. These techniques have resulted in a low resistivity, today approaching the 10-150 μΩ cm, while the size and shape of the structure are preserved. Therefore, now, the technique is ready for application in the field of contacting nano-wires. (orig.)

  8. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V.; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    This study, covering the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Yukon Planning Area (CYPA), Alaska, was prepared to aid BLM mineral resource management planning. Estimated mineral resource potential and certainty are mapped for six selected mineral deposit groups: (1) rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic intrusive igneous rocks, (2) placer and paleoplacer gold, (3) platinum group element (PGE) deposits associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks, (4) carbonate-hosted copper deposits, (5) sandstone uranium deposits, and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum-fluorspar deposits associated with specialized granites. These six deposit groups include most of the strategic and critical elements of greatest interest in current exploration.

  9. Electron-beam induced deposition and autocatalytic decomposition of Co(CO3NO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Vollnhals

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The autocatalytic growth of arbitrarily shaped nanostructures fabricated by electron beam-induced deposition (EBID and electron beam-induced surface activation (EBISA is studied for two precursors: iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO5, and cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl, Co(CO3NO. Different deposits are prepared on silicon nitride membranes and silicon wafers under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, and are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM, including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS spectroscopy. It has previously been shown that Fe(CO5 decomposes autocatalytically on Fe seed layers (EBID and on certain electron beam-activated surfaces, yielding high purity, polycrystalline Fe nanostructures. In this contribution, we investigate the growth of structures from Co(CO3NO and compare it to results obtained from Fe(CO5. Co(CO3NO exhibits autocatalytic growth on Co-containing seed layers prepared by EBID using the same precursor. The growth yields granular, oxygen-, carbon- and nitrogen-containing deposits. In contrast to Fe(CO5 no decomposition on electron beam-activated surfaces is observed. In addition, we show that the autocatalytic growth of nanostructures from Co(CO3NO can also be initiated by an Fe seed layer, which presents a novel approach to the fabrication of layered nanostructures.

  10. Electron-beam induced deposition and autocatalytic decomposition of Co(CO)3NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollnhals, Florian; Drost, Martin; Tu, Fan; Carrasco, Esther; Späth, Andreas; Fink, Rainer H; Steinrück, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary The autocatalytic growth of arbitrarily shaped nanostructures fabricated by electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) and electron beam-induced surface activation (EBISA) is studied for two precursors: iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5, and cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl, Co(CO)3NO. Different deposits are prepared on silicon nitride membranes and silicon wafers under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, and are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. It has previously been shown that Fe(CO)5 decomposes autocatalytically on Fe seed layers (EBID) and on certain electron beam-activated surfaces, yielding high purity, polycrystalline Fe nanostructures. In this contribution, we investigate the growth of structures from Co(CO)3NO and compare it to results obtained from Fe(CO)5. Co(CO)3NO exhibits autocatalytic growth on Co-containing seed layers prepared by EBID using the same precursor. The growth yields granular, oxygen-, carbon- and nitrogen-containing deposits. In contrast to Fe(CO)5 no decomposition on electron beam-activated surfaces is observed. In addition, we show that the autocatalytic growth of nanostructures from Co(CO)3NO can also be initiated by an Fe seed layer, which presents a novel approach to the fabrication of layered nanostructures. PMID:25161851

  11. Electron-beam induced deposition and autocatalytic decomposition of Co(CO)3NO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollnhals, Florian; Drost, Martin; Tu, Fan; Carrasco, Esther; Späth, Andreas; Fink, Rainer H; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Marbach, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    The autocatalytic growth of arbitrarily shaped nanostructures fabricated by electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) and electron beam-induced surface activation (EBISA) is studied for two precursors: iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5, and cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl, Co(CO)3NO. Different deposits are prepared on silicon nitride membranes and silicon wafers under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, and are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. It has previously been shown that Fe(CO)5 decomposes autocatalytically on Fe seed layers (EBID) and on certain electron beam-activated surfaces, yielding high purity, polycrystalline Fe nanostructures. In this contribution, we investigate the growth of structures from Co(CO)3NO and compare it to results obtained from Fe(CO)5. Co(CO)3NO exhibits autocatalytic growth on Co-containing seed layers prepared by EBID using the same precursor. The growth yields granular, oxygen-, carbon- and nitrogen-containing deposits. In contrast to Fe(CO)5 no decomposition on electron beam-activated surfaces is observed. In addition, we show that the autocatalytic growth of nanostructures from Co(CO)3NO can also be initiated by an Fe seed layer, which presents a novel approach to the fabrication of layered nanostructures.

  12. Thermal imaging for assessment of electron-beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) additive manufacturing deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Hafley, Robert A.; Taminger, Karen M.; Domack, Christopher S.; Brewer, Amy; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-05-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapidly growing field where 3-dimensional parts can be produced layer by layer. NASA's electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) technology is being evaluated to manufacture metallic parts in a space environment. The benefits of EBF3 technology are weight savings to support space missions, rapid prototyping in a zero gravity environment, and improved vehicle readiness. The EBF3 system is composed of 3 main components: electron beam gun, multi-axis position system, and metallic wire feeder. The electron beam is used to melt the wire and the multi-axis positioning system is used to build the part layer by layer. To insure a quality deposit, a near infrared (NIR) camera is used to image the melt pool and solidification areas. This paper describes the calibration and application of a NIR camera for temperature measurement. In addition, image processing techniques are presented for deposit assessment metrics.

  13. ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition: A material for transparent electronics and organic heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziewicz, E.; Godlewski, M.; Krajewski, T.; Wachnicki, Ł.; Szczepanik, A.; Kopalko, K.; Wójcik-Głodowska, A.; Przeździecka, E.; Paszkowicz, W.; Łusakowska, E.; Kruszewski, P.; Huby, N.; Tallarida, G.; Ferrari, S.

    2009-06-01

    We report on zinc oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition at a low temperature, which is compatible with a low thermal budget required for some novel electronic devices. By selecting appropriate precursors and process parameters, we were able to obtain films with controllable electrical parameters, from heavily n-type to the resistive ones. Optimization of the growth process together with the low temperature deposition led to ZnO thin films, in which no defect-related photoluminescence bands are observed. Such films show anticorrelation between mobility and free-electron concentration, which indicates that low n electron concentration is a result of lower number of defects rather than the self-compensation effect.

  14. Substrate temperature and electron fluence effects on metallic films created by electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, S.G.; Landheer, K.; Hagen, C.W.; Fairbrother, D.H.

    2012-01-01

    Using three different precursors [MeCpPtMe3, Pt(PF3)4, and W(CO)6], an ultra-high vacuum surface science approach has been used to identify and rationalize the effects of substrate temperature and electron fluence on the chemical composition and bonding in films created by electron beam induced

  15. Spatial chemistry evolution during focused electron beam-induced deposition: origins and workarounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Robert; Geier, Barbara [Graz Centre for Electron Microscopy, Graz (Austria); Plank, Harald [Graz Centre for Electron Microscopy, Graz (Austria); Graz University of Technology, Institute for Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    The successful application of functional nanostructures, fabricated via focused electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID), is known to depend crucially on its chemistry as FEBID tends to strong incorporation of carbon. Hence, it is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms which finally determine the elemental composition after fabrication. In this study we focus on these processes from a fundamental point of view by means of (1) varying electron emission on the deposit surface; and (2) changing replenishment mechanism, both driven by the growing deposit itself. First, we revisit previous results concerning chemical variations in nanopillars (with a quasi-1D footprint) depending on the process parameters. In a second step we expand the investigations to deposits with a 3D footprint which are more relevant in the context of applications. Then, we demonstrate how technical setups and directional gas fluxes influence final chemistries. Finally, we put the findings in a bigger context with respect to functionalities which demonstrates the crucial importance of carefully set up fabrication processes to achieve controllable, predictable and reproducible chemistries for FEBID deposits as a key element for industrially oriented applications. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  17. Comparison of Pd electron beam induced deposition using two precursors and an oxygen purification strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, C.; Zondag, Y.; Mulders, J. J. L.; Trompenaars, P. H. F.

    2017-09-01

    Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) allows the creation of nanoscale structures through dissociation of an organo-metallic precursor by electrons at the beam impact point. The deposition of Pd can be interesting for its catalytic behavior and ability to contact carbon based materials. Two precursors were investigated—Pd(hfac)2 and (Cp)Pd(allyl)—and two deposition methods: with and without an in situ oxygen purification process. The deposition parameters can be tuned for the Pd(hfac)2 precursor to provide a deposition with 23 ± 2 at.% of Pd and a main component of C at 51 ± 3 at.% and minor components of O and F. An in situ purification process using O2 was much faster than expected and improved the Pd content to up to >65 at.% while reducing the C to ∼20 at.%, and avoiding the oxidation of Pd. The resistivity was ∼100 μOhm · cm and compares favorably with a bulk value of 10 μOhm · cm. The (Cp)Pd(allyl) precursor is interesting because it does not release fluorine during the deposition and hence it does not etch a possible substrate. Its FEBID deposition had a composition of 26 ± 5 at.% of Pd with 74 ± 5 at.% of C. The O2 purification process can improve the Pd content up to ∼60 at.% while reducing C to <20 at.%, but also increasing the O content to 18 at%, which was released afterwards. The best resistivity was measured at ∼1000 μOhm · cm, although better values can be anticipated for longer post treatment times.

  18. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and ... Web (WWW) and the internet to make information more accessible. On the other ... access points on the campus and computer literacy is till .... resources are often faster to consult than.

  19. Effect of Source, Surfactant, and Deposition Process on Electronic Properties of Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The electronic properties of arrays of carbon nanotubes from several different sources differing in the manufacturing process used with a variety of average properties such as length, diameter, and chirality are studied. We used several common surfactants to disperse each of these nanotubes and then deposited them on Si wafers from their aqueous solutions using dielectrophoresis. Transport measurements were performed to compare and determine the effect of different surfactants, deposition processes, and synthesis processes on nanotubes synthesized using CVD, CoMoCAT, laser ablation, and HiPCO.

  20. Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass after heat treating and electron irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Rørdam, Troels Peter; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the formation of Ge nanoclusters in silica glass thin films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). We studied the samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy after annealing. TEM investigation shows that the Ge nanoclusters...... at two areaswere formed by different mechanisms. The Ge nanoclusters formed in a single row along the interface of a silicon substrate and the silica glass film by annealing during high-temperature heat treatment. Ge nanoclusters did not initially form in the bulk of the film but could be subsequently...

  1. A novel electron beam evaporation technique for the deposition of superconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M. G.; Muralidhar, G. K.; Rao, K. N.; Rao, G. M.; Mohan, S.

    1991-05-01

    Superconducting thin films of BiSrCaCuO have been deposited using a novel electron beam evaporation technique. In this technique the crucible has a groove around its circumference and rotates continuously during deposition. The source material is loaded in the form of pellets of the composite. Both oxides as well as flourides have been used in the starting material and a comparison of the film properties has been made. The best film was obtained on a MgO(100) substrate with a Tc onset at 85 K and Tc zero at 77 K using calcium flouride in the source material.

  2. Remote Electronic Resources and the OPAC: Illustrated by the Unisa Library Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Ina; Van Eeden, Welna; Hartzer, Sandra

    This paper describes the Unisa (University of South Africa) Library's experience with cataloging remote electronic resources, including electronic journals, electronic text files, online databases, digital images, Unisa campus Web sites, and mailing list discussions. The first section discusses the decision to add bibliographic references for…

  3. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe analysis of calcific deposits on intrauterine contraceptive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, S.R.; Wilkinson, E.J.

    1985-07-01

    Deposits found on intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) were studied by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis. All seven devices, including five plastic and two copper IUDs, were coated with a crust containing cellular, acellular, and fibrillar material. The cellular material was composed of erythrocytes, leukocytes, cells of epithelial origin, sperm, and bacteria. Some of the bacteria were filamentous, with acute-angle branching. The fibrillar material appeared to be fibrin. Most of the acellular material was amorphous; calcite was identified by x-ray diffraction, and x-ray microanalysis showed only calcium. Some of the acellular material, particularly that on the IUD side of the crust, was organized in spherulitic crystals and was identified as calcium phosphate by x-ray microanalysis. The crust was joined to the IUD surface by a layer of fibrillar and amorphous material. It is suggested that the initial event in the formation of calcific deposits on IUD surfaces is the deposition of an amorphous and fibrillar layer. Various types of cells present in the endometrial environment adhere to this layer and then calcify. Thus, the deposition of calcific material on the IUDs is a calcification phenomenon, not unlike the formation of plaque on teeth.

  4. Deposit model for heavy-mineral sands in coastal environments: Chapter L in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Shah, Anjana K.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model of heavy-mineral sands, which are sedimentary deposits of dense minerals that accumulate with sand, silt, and clay in coastal environments, locally forming economic concentrations of the heavy minerals. This deposit type is the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, through recovery of the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Heavy-mineral sands are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4) and its zirconium oxide; zircon is often recovered as a coproduct. Other heavy minerals produced as coproducts from some deposits are sillimanite/kyanite, staurolite, monazite, and garnet. Monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is a source of rare earth elements as well as thorium, which is used in thorium-based nuclear power under development in India and elsewhere.

  5. Energy deposition of quasi-two temperature relativistic electrons in fast-shock ignition scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Seyed Abolfazl; Farahbod, Amir Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Previous calculations from Solodov et al. (2008) indicate that classical stopping and scattering dominate electrons energy deposition and transport when the electrons reach the dense plasma in FSI inertial confinement fusion concept [1]. Our calculations show that, by using quasi- two temperature electrons energy distribution function [2] in comparison with exponential [3] or monoenergetic distribution function and also increasing fast electrons energy to about 7 MeV, the ratio of beam blooming to straggling definitely decreases. Our analytical analysis shows that for fuel mass more than 1 mg and for fast ignitor wavelength λif > 0.53 μ m, straggling and beam blooming increases. Meanwhile, by reducing fast ignitor wavelength from 0.53 to 0.35 micron, and for fuel mass about 2 mg, electron penetration into the dense fuel slightly increases. Therefore, reduction of scattering (blooming and straggling) of electrons and enhancement of electron penetration into the dense fuel, can be obtained in relativistic regime with high energy fast electrons of the order of 5 Mev and more. Such derivations can be used in theoretical studies of the ignition conditions and PIC simulations of the electron transport in fast ignition scenario.

  6. Unveiling the optical properties of a metamaterial synthesized by electron-beam-induced deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Woźniak, Paweł; Brönstrup, Gerald; Banyer, Peter; Christiansen, Silke; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    The direct writing using a focused electron beam allows for fabricating truly three-dimensional structures of sub-wavelength dimensions in the visible spectral regime. The resulting sophisticated geometries are perfectly suited for studying light-matter interaction at the nanoscale. Their overall optical response will strongly depend not only on geometry but also on the optical properties of the deposited material. In case of the typically used metal-organic precursors, the deposits show a substructure of metallic nanocrystals embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. Since gold-containing precursor media are especially interesting for optical applications, we experimentally determine the effective permittivity of such an effective material. Our experiment is based on spectroscopic measurements of planar deposits. The retrieved permittivity shows a systematic dependence on the gold particle density and cannot be sufficiently described using the common Maxwell-Garnett approach for effective medium.

  7. Electron molecular beam epitaxy: Layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides via pulsed electron-beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan; Liu Hongxue; Lu Jiwei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Gu, Man [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Khokhlov, Mikhail; Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Guilford College, Greensboro, North Carolina 27410 (United States)

    2013-01-14

    Complex oxide epitaxial film growth is a rich and exciting field, owing to the wide variety of physical properties present in oxides. These properties include ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, spin-polarization, and a variety of other correlated phenomena. Traditionally, high quality epitaxial oxide films have been grown via oxide molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition. Here, we present the growth of high quality epitaxial films using an alternative approach, the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. We demonstrate all three epitaxial growth modes in different oxide systems: Frank-van der Merwe (layer-by-layer); Stranski-Krastanov (layer-then-island); and Volmer-Weber (island). Analysis of film quality and morphology is presented and techniques to optimize the morphology of films are discussed.

  8. Electron molecular beam epitaxy: Layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides via pulsed electron-beam deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comes, Ryan; Gu, Man; Khokhlov, Mikhail; Liu, Hongxue; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Complex oxide epitaxial film growth is a rich and exciting field, owing to the wide variety of physical properties present in oxides. These properties include ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, spin-polarization, and a variety of other correlated phenomena. Traditionally, high quality epitaxial oxide films have been grown via oxide molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition. Here, we present the growth of high quality epitaxial films using an alternative approach, the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. We demonstrate all three epitaxial growth modes in different oxide systems: Frank-van der Merwe (layer-by-layer); Stranski-Krastanov (layer-then-island); and Volmer-Weber (island). Analysis of film quality and morphology is presented and techniques to optimize the morphology of films are discussed.

  9. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  10. Direct-write deposition and focused-electron-beam-induced purification of gold nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belić, Domagoj; Shawrav, Mostafa M; Gavagnin, Marco; Stöger-Pollach, Michael; Wanzenboeck, Heinz D; Bertagnolli, Emmerich

    2015-02-04

    Three-dimensional gold (Au) nanostructures offer promise in nanoplasmonics, biomedical applications, electrochemical sensing and as contacts for carbon-based electronics. Direct-write techniques such as focused-electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) can provide such precisely patterned nanostructures. Unfortunately, FEBID Au traditionally suffers from a high nonmetallic content and cannot meet the purity requirements for these applications. Here we report exceptionally pure pristine FEBID Au nanostructures comprising submicrometer-large monocrystalline Au sections. On the basis of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy results and Monte Carlo simulations of electron trajectories in the deposited nanostructures, we propose a curing mechanism that elucidates the observed phenomena. The in situ focused-electron-beam-induced curing mechanism was supported by postdeposition ex situ curing and, in combination with oxygen plasma cleaning, is utilized as a straightforward purification method for planar FEBID structures. This work paves the way for the application of FEBID Au nanostructures in a new generation of biosensors and plasmonic nanodevices.

  11. Multiple electron cyclotron power deposition location tracking by break-in-slope analysis in TCV plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curchod, L; Felici, F; Pochelon, A; Goodman, T P; Moret, J-M; Paley, J I [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM - Confederation Suisse, CH - 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Decker, J; Peysson, Y, E-mail: loic.curchod@epfl.ch [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2011-11-15

    Modulation of the amplitude of externally injected electron cyclotron (EC) power is a frequent method used to determine the radial power deposition profile in fusion plasmas. There are many tools to analyze the plasma response to the power modulations under quasi-stationary conditions. This paper focuses on the unique ability of the break-in-slope (BIS) method to retrieve a quasi-instantaneous estimate of the power deposition profile at each power step in the modulation, an outcome particularly relevant to track the power deposition location under non-stationary conditions. Here, the BIS analysis method is applied to the signals of a fast and high radial resolution wire-chamber soft x-ray camera in the Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV) where the plasma magnetic configuration and thus the EC resonance location are varied during the plasma discharge. As a step to validate this technique before real-time control experiments, the time-varying EC power deposition location of a single beam is successfully monitored by off-line BIS analysis. Simultaneous tracking of deposition locations of two EC beams gives promising results.

  12. Energy deposition and non-equilibrium infared radiation of energetic auroral electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yadong; Gao, Bo; Zhu, Guangsheng; Li, Ziguang

    2016-07-01

    Infrared radiation caused by energetic auroral electrons plays an important role in the thermospheric hear budget, and may be seen as background by infrared surveillance sensors. The auroral electron deposition leads to the ionization, excitation, and dissociation of neutral species(N2,O2,and O), and initiates a series of chemical reaction in the upper atmosphere, finally causes the optical emission of infared excited emitters. In this study, the whole progress from the initial auroral electrons energy deposition to the final infrared emissions has been modeled, which including space plasma, atmospheric physical chemistry, and radiative transfer. The initial atmosphere parameters before auroral disturbing are given by MSIS00 model. The primary electron flux at the top of atmosphere is given by a statistical fitting with the sum of three distribution terms, a power law, a Maxwellian and a Guassian. A semi-emprical model is used in the calculation of energy depositon of single primary electron. The total integral ion pairs production rate is obtained after combining with the initial primary electron flux. The production rate and flux of secondary electrons are modeled with a continuous slow down approximation, using different excitation, ionization, dissociation cross sections of N2, O2, and O to electrons. The photochemical reactions with auroral disturbance is analysed, and its calculation model is established. A "three-step" calculation method is created to obtain number densities of eleven species in the hight between 90-160 km, which containing N2+, O2+, O+, O2+(a4Π), O+(2D), O+(2P), N2(A3Σ), N(2D), N(4S), NO+, and N+. Number densities of different vibraional levels of NO and NO+ are got with steady state assumption, considering 1-12 vibrational levels of NO and 1-14 vibrational levels of NO+. The infared emissions and the spectral lines of the two radiating bodies are calculated with a fuzzy model of spectral band.

  13. Ion assistance effects on electron beam deposited MgF sub 2 films

    CERN Document Server

    Alvisi, M; Della Patria, A; Di Giulio, M; Masetti, E; Perrone, M R; Protopapa, M L; Tepore, A

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of MgF sub 2 have been deposited by the ion-assisted electron-beam evaporation technique in order to find out the ion beam parameters leading to films of high laser damage threshold whose optical properties are stable under uncontrolled atmosphere conditions. It has been found that the ion-assisted electron-beam evaporation technique allows getting films with optical properties (refraction index and extinction coefficient) of high environmental stability by properly choosing the ion-source voltage and current. But, the laser damage fluence at 308 nm was quite dependent on the assisting ion beam parameters. Larger laser damage fluences have been found for the films deposited by using assisting ion beams delivered at lower anode voltage and current values. It has also been found that the films deposited without ion assistance were characterized by the highest laser damage fluence (5.9 J/cm sup 2) and the lowest environmental stability. The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the irradiated areas...

  14. An Evaluation of Electronic Product Design Education Using Hypermedia-Resourced Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2006-01-01

    The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year…

  15. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  16. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  17. Electron beam deposition and characterization of thin film Ti-Ni for shape memory applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NOH Hae-Yong; JEE Kwang-Koo; LEE Kyu-Hwan; LEE Young-Kook

    2006-01-01

    Thin film of Ti-Ni alloy has a potential to perform the microactuation functions required in the microelectromechanical system (MEMS).It is essential, however, to have good uniformity in both chemical composition and thickness to realize its full potential as an active component of MEMS devices.Electron beam evaporation technique was employed in this study to fabricate the thin films of Ti-Ni alloy on different substrates.The targets used for the evaporation were first prepared by electron beam melting.The uniformity of composition and microstructure of the thin films were characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The mechanical property of the thin films was evaluated by the nano-indentation test.The martensitic transformation temperature was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).It is confirmed that the chemical composition of deposited thin films is identical to that of the target materials.Furthermore, results from depth profiling of the chemical composition variation reveal that the electron beam evaporation process yields better compositional homogeneity than other conventional methods such as sputtering and thermal evaporation.Microstructural observation by TEM shows that nanometer size precipitates are preferentially distributed along the grain boundaries of a few micron size grains.The hardness and elastic modulus of thin films decreases with an increase in Ti contents.

  18. Factors affecting the superconductivity in the process of depositing Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4-δ by the pulsed electron deposition technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; YanFeng

    2007-01-01

    On SrTiO3 single crystal substrate, by using the pulsed electron deposition technique, the high-quality electron doped Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4-δsuperconducting film was successfully fabricated. After careful study on the R-T curves of the obtained samples deposited with different substrate temperatures, thicknesses, annealing methods and pulse frequencies, the effects of them on the superconductivity of the films were found, and the reasons were also analyzed. Additionally, by using the same model of the pulsed laser deposition technique, the relation between the target-to-substrate distance and the deposition pressure was drawn out as a quantitative one.  ……

  19. Energy deposition model based on electron scattering cross section data from water molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A; Oiler, J C [Centra de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avenida Complutense s.n., 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gorfinkiel, J D [Department of Physiscs and Astronomy, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Limao-Vieira, P [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Maira-Vidal, A; Borge, M J G; Tengblad, O [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid, Spam (Spain); Huerga, C; Tellez, M [Hospital Universitario La Paz, paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, G [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientifIcas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: g.garcia@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2008-10-01

    A complete set of electrons scattering cross sections by water molecules over a broad energy range, from the me V to the Me V ranges, is presented in this study. These data have been obtained by combining experiments and calculations and cover most relevant processes, both elastic and inelastic, which can take place in the considered energy range. A new Monte Carlo simulation programme has been developed using as input parameter these cross sectional data as well as experimental energy loss spectra. The simulation procedure has been applied to obtain electron tracks and energy deposition plots in water when irradiated by a Ru-106 plaque as those used for brachytherapy of ocular tumours. Finally, the low energy electron tracks provided by the present model have been compared with those obtained with other codes available in the literature.

  20. Intrinsic electron traps in atomic-layer deposited HfO{sub 2} insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerbu, F.; Madia, O.; Afanas' ev, V. V.; Houssa, M.; Stesmans, A. [Laboratory of Semiconductor Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Andreev, D. V. [Laboratory of Semiconductor Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Bauman Moscow State Technical University—Kaluga Branch, 248000 Kaluga, Moscow obl. (Russian Federation); Fadida, S.; Eizenberg, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Breuil, L. [imec, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lisoni, J. G. [imec, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile); Kittl, J. A. [Laboratory of Semiconductor Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Advanced Logic Lab, Samsung Semiconductor, Inc., Austin, 78754 Texas (United States); Strand, J.; Shluger, A. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-30

    Analysis of photodepopulation of electron traps in HfO{sub 2} films grown by atomic layer deposition is shown to provide the trap energy distribution across the entire oxide bandgap. The presence is revealed of two kinds of deep electron traps energetically distributed at around E{sub t} ≈ 2.0 eV and E{sub t} ≈ 3.0 eV below the oxide conduction band. Comparison of the trapped electron energy distributions in HfO{sub 2} layers prepared using different precursors or subjected to thermal treatment suggests that these centers are intrinsic in origin. However, the common assumption that these would implicate O vacancies cannot explain the charging behavior of HfO{sub 2}, suggesting that alternative defect models should be considered.

  1. Benchmark study for charge deposition by high energy electrons in thick slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, I.

    2002-01-01

    The charge deposition profiles created when highenergy (1, 10, and 100 MeV) electrons impinge ona thick slab of elemental aluminum, copper, andtungsten are presented in this paper. The chargedeposition profiles were computed using existing representative Monte Carlo codes: TIGER3.0 (1D module of ITS3.0) and MCNP version 4B. The results showed that TIGER3.0 and MCNP4B agree very well (within 20% of each other) in the majority of the problem geometry. The TIGER results were considered to be accurate based on previous studies. Thus, it was demonstrated that MCNP, with its powerful geometry capability and flexible source and tally options, could be used in calculations of electron charging in high energy electron-rich space radiation environments.

  2. The station of modeling the mine resources in economical geology investigations and determination of mineral deposits genes & reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif, J.A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent days, computer is becoming one of the most essential instruments in advanced countries for the researchers and the domain of its application is going to be increased every day. Using the 3D modeling of the earth, its mine resources and the brilliant details which are given by the models, the researching and exploring groups will find out the inconspicuous and attractive aspects of the genetic structure and the geological history of these resources. In this paper which is a result of the researches done as the case study on a group of aragonite deposits in West Azarbaijan province, modeling of under study mineral deposits and the genetic approaches obtained from the models lead into explore and discover some other resources of the same minerals which is widely accepted recently in the market of decorative rocks in Iran. In modeling procedure of these resources which is a product of the geysers, the profile of these lime generating springs and their directional order on some specific hidden fracture is determined and approximate location of the new resources for the next explorations is assigned. At the moment, these assigned locations as new resources are being explored and even exploited.

  3. Exogenous nutrients and carbon resource change the responses of soil organic matter decomposition and nitrogen immobilization to nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Wan, Song-Ze; Fang, Xiang-Min; Wang, Fang-Chao; Chen, Fu-Sheng

    2016-03-29

    It is unclear whether exogenous nutrients and carbon (C) additions alter substrate immobilization to deposited nitrogen (N) during decomposition. In this study, we used laboratory microcosm experiments and (15)N isotope tracer techniques with five different treatments including N addition, N+non-N nutrients addition, N+C addition, N+non-N nutrients+C addition and control, to investigate the coupling effects of non-N nutrients, C addition and N deposition on forest floor decomposition in subtropical China. The results indicated that N deposition inhibited soil organic matter and litter decomposition by 66% and 38%, respectively. Soil immobilized (15)N following N addition was lowest among treatments. Litter (15)N immobilized following N addition was significantly higher and lower than that of combined treatments during the early and late decomposition stage, respectively. Both soil and litter extractable mineral N were lower in combined treatments than in N addition treatment. Since soil N immobilization and litter N release were respectively enhanced and inhibited with elevated non-N nutrient and C resources, it can be speculated that the N leaching due to N deposition decreases with increasing nutrient and C resources. This study should advance our understanding of how forests responds the elevated N deposition.

  4. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  5. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  6. Microstructural control over soluble pentacene deposited by capillary pen printing for organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wi Hyoung; Min, Honggi; Park, Namwoo; Lee, Junghwi; Seo, Eunsuk; Kang, Boseok; Cho, Kilwon; Lee, Hwa Sung

    2013-08-28

    Research into printing techniques has received special attention for the commercialization of cost-efficient organic electronics. Here, we have developed a capillary pen printing technique to realize a large-area pattern array of organic transistors and systematically investigated self-organization behavior of printed soluble organic semiconductor ink. The capillary pen-printed deposits of organic semiconductor, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS_PEN), was well-optimized in terms of morphological and microstructural properties by using ink with mixed solvents of chlorobenzene (CB) and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Especially, a 1:1 solvent ratio results in the best transistor performances. This result is attributed to the unique evaporation characteristics of the TIPS_PEN deposits where fast evaporation of CB induces a morphological evolution at the initial printed position, and the remaining DCB with slow evaporation rate offers a favorable crystal evolution at the pinned position. Finally, a large-area transistor array was facilely fabricated by drawing organic electrodes and active layers with a versatile capillary pen. Our approach provides an efficient printing technique for fabricating large-area arrays of organic electronics and further suggests a methodology to enhance their performances by microstructural control of the printed organic semiconducting deposits.

  7. Structural transitions in electron beam deposited Co–carbonyl suspended nanowires at high electrical current densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Carlo Gazzadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Suspended nanowires (SNWs have been deposited from Co–carbonyl precursor (Co2(CO8 by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID. The SNWs dimensions are about 30–50 nm in diameter and 600–850 nm in length. The as-deposited material has a nanogranular structure of mixed face-centered cubic (FCC and hexagonal close-packed (HCP Co phases, and a composition of 80 atom % Co, 15 atom % O and 5 atom % C, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis and by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, respectively. Current (I–voltage (V measurements with current densities up to 107 A/cm2 determine different structural transitions in the SNWs, depending on the I–V history. A single measurement with a sudden current burst leads to a polycrystalline FCC Co structure extended over the whole wire. Repeated measurements at increasing currents produce wires with a split structure: one half is polycrystalline FCC Co and the other half is graphitized C. The breakdown current density is found at 2.1 × 107 A/cm2. The role played by resistive heating and electromigration in these transitions is discussed.

  8. Structural transitions in electron beam deposited Co-carbonyl suspended nanowires at high electrical current densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Frabboni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Suspended nanowires (SNWs) have been deposited from Co-carbonyl precursor (Co2(CO)8) by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). The SNWs dimensions are about 30-50 nm in diameter and 600-850 nm in length. The as-deposited material has a nanogranular structure of mixed face-centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal close-packed (HCP) Co phases, and a composition of 80 atom % Co, 15 atom % O and 5 atom % C, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, respectively. Current (I)-voltage (V) measurements with current densities up to 10(7) A/cm(2) determine different structural transitions in the SNWs, depending on the I-V history. A single measurement with a sudden current burst leads to a polycrystalline FCC Co structure extended over the whole wire. Repeated measurements at increasing currents produce wires with a split structure: one half is polycrystalline FCC Co and the other half is graphitized C. The breakdown current density is found at 2.1 × 10(7) A/cm(2). The role played by resistive heating and electromigration in these transitions is discussed.

  9. Cobalt-based magnetic nanostructures grown by focused-electron-beam-induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begun, Evgeniya; Schwenk, Johannes; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The fabrication of magnetic nanostructures by means of the direct-writing technique focused-electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) is an alternative to more conventional lithographic methods. We have grown magnetic cobalt structures by FEBID using the precursor dicobaltoctacarbonyl Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}. The obtained structures have a large metal content of about 85 at.% as compared to other metal-based deposits grown by the same technique, such as tungsten-based structures with 34 at.% maximum tungsten content and platin-based structures with about 24 at.% maximum platin content. We present a growth strategy for cobalt structures with tunable metal content. In particular, we show the influence of different combinations of electron-beam energy and current, the dwell time and the refresh time on the deposit composition, which was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) at 5 keV. First results of magnetotransport measurements on these cobalt-based structures are presented.

  10. Measuring atomic oxygen densities and electron properties in an Inductively Coupled Plasma for thin film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, David; Gibson, Andrew; Booth, Jean-Paul; Wagenaars, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Plasma Enhanced Pulsed Laser Deposition (PE-PLD) is an advanced way of depositing thin films of oxide materials by using a laser to ablate a target, and passing the resulting plasma plume through a background Inductively-Coupled Plasma (ICP), instead of a background gas as is done in traditional PLD. The main advantage of PE-PLD is the control of film stoichiometry via the direct control of the reactive oxygen species in the ICP instead of relying on a neutral gas background. The aim is to deposit zinc oxide films from a zinc metal target and an oxygen ICP. In this work, we characterise the range of compositions of the reactive oxygen species achievable in ICPs; in particular the atomic oxygen density. The density of atomic oxygen has been determined within two ICPs of two different geometries over a range of plasma powers and pressures with the use of Energy Resolved Actinometry (ERA). ERA is a robust diagnostic technique with determines both the dissociation degree and average electron energy by comparing the excitation ratios of two oxygen and one argon transition. Alongside this the electron densities have been determined with the use of a hairpin probe. This work received financial support from the EPSRC, and York-Paris CIRC.

  11. In vitro particle size distributions in electronic and conventional cigarette aerosols suggest comparable deposition patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping; Sumner, Walton; Chen, Da-Ren

    2013-02-01

    Electronic cigarette users ("vapers") inhale aerosols of water, nicotine, and propylene glycol (PG) or vegetable glycerin (VG). Aerosol particle sizes should affect deposition patterns in vapers and bystanders. Aerosols were generated by a smoking machine and an electronic cigarette filled with 16mg/ml nicotine in aqueous PG or VG solution. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) counted particles of 10-1,000 nm diameters. A single puff experiment counted particles immediately and after aging 10 and 40 s. A steady-state experiment counted particles emitted from a collection chamber, untreated and after desiccation or organic vapor removal. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) human respiratory tract model was used to estimate deposition. Results were compared to similar data from reference cigarettes. Puffs generated peak particle counts at (VG) 180 nm and (PG) 120 nm. Steady-state peaks occurred around 400 nm. Organic vapor removal eliminated small particles and reduced the size and number of large particles. Desiccation reduced the total volume of particles by 70% (VG, small PG) to 88% (large PG). The ICRP model predicted 7%-18% alveolar delivery; 9%-19% venous delivery, mostly in the head; and 73%-80% losses by exhalation. Reference cigarettes generated more particles initially, but were otherwise similar; however, in vivo smoke particle deposition is higher than the model predicts. Nicotine delivery may depend on vaping technique, particle evolution, and cloud effects. Predicted 10% arterial and 15% venous delivery may describe bystander exposure better than vapers exposure.

  12. Energy deposition and thermal effects of runaway electrons in ITER-FEAT plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddaluno, G. E-mail: maddaluno@frascati.enea.it; Maruccia, G.; Merola, M.; Rollet, S

    2003-03-01

    The profile of energy deposited by runaway electrons (RAEs) of 10 or 50 MeV in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-Fusion Energy Advanced Tokamak (ITER-FEAT) plasma facing components (PFCs) and the subsequent temperature pattern have been calculated by using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA and the finite element heat conduction code ANSYS. The RAE energy deposition density was assumed to be 50 MJ/m{sup 2} and both 10 and 100 ms deposition times were considered. Five different configurations of PFCs were investigated: primary first wall armoured with Be, with and without protecting CFC poloidal limiters, both port limiter first wall options (Be flat tile and CFC monoblock), divertor baffle first wall, armoured with W. The analysis has outlined that for all the configurations but one (port limiter with Be flat tile) the heat sink and the cooling tube beneath the armour are well protected for both RAE energies and for both energy deposition times. On the other hand large melting (W, Be) or sublimation (C) of the surface layer occurs, eventually affecting the PFCs lifetime.

  13. In situ growth optimization in focused electron-beam induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Weirich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the application of an evolutionary genetic algorithm for the in situ optimization of nanostructures that are prepared by focused electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID. It allows us to tune the properties of the deposits towards the highest conductivity by using the time gradient of the measured in situ rate of change of conductance as the fitness parameter for the algorithm. The effectiveness of the procedure is presented for the precursor W(CO6 as well as for post-treatment of Pt–C deposits, which were obtained by the dissociation of MeCpPt(Me3. For W(CO6-based structures an increase of conductivity by one order of magnitude can be achieved, whereas the effect for MeCpPt(Me3 is largely suppressed. The presented technique can be applied to all beam-induced deposition processes and has great potential for a further optimization or tuning of parameters for nanostructures that are prepared by FEBID or related techniques.

  14. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites: Chapter K in Mineral Deposit Models for Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V).

  15. Electronic state of polyaniline deposited on carbon nanotube or ordered mesoporous carbon templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulusheva, L.G.; Fedorovskaya, E.O.; Okotrub, A.V.; Maximovskiy, E.A. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, 3 Acad. Lavrentiev ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vyalikh, D.V. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Chen, Xiaohong; Song, Huaihe [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Polyaniline (PANI) has been deposited on a carbon template by chemical oxidation of aniline chloride in acidic aqueous medium using sodium persulfate as oxidant. Two kinds of templates were used: array of aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown on silicon substrate and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) material. Electronic structure of composites was examined using near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Analysis of the spectra showed that PANI developed on the CNT surface is mainly protonated while it contains a marked amount of imine (=N-) nitrogen when deposited into the porous of OMC. Testing of electrochemical cell indicated enhancement of performance of composite electrodes as compared with unsupported PANI. XPS N 1s spectra of composites of PANI with OMC material (PANI/OMC) and aligned multiwall CNTs (PANI/CNT). (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. An indigenously developed electronic control system for Langmuir-Blodgett film deposition set-up

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C P Navathe; B L Dashora; Archana Jaiswal; D S Thakur; U N Roy; L M Kukreja

    2001-06-01

    An indigenous and simple electronic control system for Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film deposition set-up has been developed. This set-up consists of a microstepping circuit to drive the stepper motors with precision and smooth motion, essential for controlled movement of the barriers and substrate in the LB set-up. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)-based displacement measuring device has been developed and used to measure the surface pressure of the monolayer material spread on the water surface. A control program is written which incorporates all operational modes required to drive the set-up and to acquire the data in situ using a set of user-friendly commands. This control set-up has been successfully used to plot the pressure-area isotherm of various amphiphilic compounds such as ferric stearate, zinc arachidate etc. and for deposition of ordered LB films of ferric stearate.

  17. Three-dimensional core-shell ferromagnetic nanowires grown by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo-Navarro, Javier; Magén, César; María de Teresa, José

    2016-07-01

    Functional nanostructured materials often rely on the combination of more than one material to confer the desired functionality or an enhanced performance of the device. Here we report the procedure to create nanoscale heterostructured materials in the form of core-shell nanowires by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) technologies. In our case, three-dimensional (3D) nanowires (nanostructures to demonstrate that the morphology of the shell is conserved during Pt coating, the surface oxidation is suppressed or confined to the Pt layer, and the average magnetization of the core is strengthened up to 30%. The proposed approach paves the way to the fabrication of 3D FEBID nanostructures based on the smart alternate deposition of two or more materials combining different physical properties or added functionalities.

  18. Laser assisted modification and chemical metallization of electron-beam deposited ceria thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumov, E., E-mail: emodk@clf.bas.bg [Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses ' Acad. Jordan Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgy Bonchev Str., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Starbov, N.; Starbova, K. [Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses ' Acad. Jordan Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgy Bonchev Str., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Perea, A.; Solis, J. [Instituto de Optica ' Daza de Valdes' , CSIC, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    Excimer laser processing is applied for tailoring the surface morphology and phase composition of CeO{sub 2} ceramic thin films. E-beam evaporation technique is used to deposit samples on stainless steel and silicate glass substrates. The films are then irradiated with ArF* excimer laser pulses under different exposure conditions. Scanning electron microscopy, optical spectrophotometry, X-ray diffractometry and EDS microanalysis are used to characterize the non-irradiated and laser-processed films. Upon UV laser exposure there is large increase of the surface roughness that is accompanied by photo-darkening and ceria reduction. It is shown that the laser induced changes in the CeO{sub 2} films facilitate the deposition of metal nano-aggregates in a commercial copper electroless plating bath. The significance of laser modification as a novel approach for the production of CeO{sub 2} based thin film catalysts is discussed.

  19. Electron microscopy characterization of Ni-Cr-B-Si-C laser deposited coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, I; Rao, J C; Ocelík, V; De Hosson, J Th M

    2013-02-01

    During laser deposition of Ni-Cr-B-Si-C alloys with high amounts of Cr and B, various microstructures and phases can be generated from the same chemical composition that results in heterogeneous properties in the clad layer. In this study, the microstructure and phase constitution of a high-alloy Ni-Cr-B-Si-C coating deposited by laser cladding were analyzed by a combination of several microscopy characterization techniques including scanning electron microscopy in secondary and backscatter imaging modes, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The combination of EDS and EBSD allowed unequivocal identification of micron-sized precipitates as polycrystalline orthorhombic CrB, single crystal tetragonal Cr5B3, and single crystal hexagonal Cr7C3. In addition, TEM characterization showed various equilibrium and metastable Ni-B, Ni-Si, and Ni-Si-B eutectic products in the alloy matrix. The findings of this study can be used to explain the phase formation reactions and to tune the microstructure of Ni-Cr-B-Si-C coatings to obtain the desired properties.

  20. KDEP: A Resource for Calculating Particle Deposition in the Respiratory Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, John; Bertelli, Luiz

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents KDEP, an open-source implementation of the ICRP lung deposition model developed by the authors. KDEP, which is freely available to the public, can be used to calculate lung deposition values under a variety of different conditions using the ICRP methodology. The paper describes how KDEP implements this model and discusses some key points of the implementation. The published lung deposition values for intakes by workers were reproduced, and new deposition values were calculated for intakes by members of the public. KDEP can be obtained for free at github.com or by emailing the authors directly.

  1. Electronic and optical studies of pulse laser deposited ZnO/NiO bilayer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraskar, P.; Dar, T. A.; Choudhary, R. J.; Sen, P. K.; Sen, P.

    2016-10-01

    We report the structural, optical and electronic properties of polycrystalline ZnO and NiO thin films and amorphous ZnO/NiO bilayer film, prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique. Despite of the presence of both Zn and Ni in +2 state in the bilayer film, the grown bilayer shows no reflections (in XRD) corresponding to ZnO or NiO. The difference in crystal structure of ZnO and NiO leads to the strain in the grown bilayer film. An increase in the band gap has been observed in bilayer film which can be attributed to the amorphous nature of the structure.

  2. Electronic and structural properties of deposited silver nanoparticles. A STM and GISAXS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, Kristian

    2010-12-15

    The properties of supported Ag nanoparticles are investigated, with the focus on specific structural and electronic qualities. Using a statistical analysis it is shown that large Ag particles move over the surface after being deposited on Si(111)7 x 7. Surface photovoltage measurements reveal the band topology of nanoscale metal-semiconductor systems. The findings are discussed with a band topology model and in terms of current transport mechanisms. Grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering is used to monitor in situ the size and shape change of Ag nanoparticles during a catalytic reaction. (orig.)

  3. Thermal/residual stress in an electron beam physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.; Jordan, E.H.; Barber, B.; Gell, M. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1998-10-09

    Elastic-plastic finite element models are used to define the thermal/residual stress state responsible for the observed failure behavior of an electron beam physical vapor deposited yttria stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coating on a Pt-Al bond coat. The failures were observed to start at grain boundary ridges, some of which evolved into oxide filled cavities. Finite element models are made of the actual interface geometries through the use of metallographic sectioning and imaging processing. There is a one to one correspondence of calculated tension in the oxide layer and the observed localized damage. Purely elastic analysis failed to show some important tensile regions associated with the observed failure.

  4. MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM Solution at York University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron August Lupton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, did just that by building a system called Managing University Library Electronic Resources (MULER. The article details the background and history of how electronic resources were managed pre-MULER; why a new ERM was needed; the planning process; the current and innovative functions of MULER, including integration of MULER data into York University Libraries search and discovery layer, Vufind; subject tagging in MULER; new functions to be added; and lessons learned from the project. Positive and negative implications of choosing an in-house project over paying for a commercial product are also discussed.

  5. Angular distributions of electrons emitted from free and deposited Na{sub 8} clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Matthias [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Erlangen (Germany); Dinh, Phuong Mai; Suraud, Eric [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, IRSAMC, UPS and CNRS, Universite de Toulouse (France); Moskaleva, Lyudmila V.; Roesch, Notker [Department Chemie and Catalysis Research Center, Theoretische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Erlangen (Germany); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, IRSAMC, UPS and CNRS, Universite de Toulouse (France)

    2010-05-15

    We explore from a theoretical perspective angular distributions of electrons emitted from a Na{sub 8} cluster after excitation by a short laser pulse. The tool of the study is time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) at the level of the local-density approximation (LDA) augmented by a self-interaction correction (SIC) to put emission properties in order. We consider free Na{sub 8} and Na{sub 8} deposited on the surfaces MgO(001) or Ar(001). For the case of free Na{sub 8}, we distinguish between a hypothetical situation of known cluster orientation and a more realistic ensemble of orientations. We also consider the angular distributions for emission from separate single-electron levels. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Atomic layer deposition of an Al2O3 dielectric on ultrathin graphite by using electron beam irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Ran; Meng Lingguo; Zhang Xijian; Hyung-Suk Jung; Cheol Seong Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition ofan Al2O3 dielectric on ultrathin graphite is studied in order to investigate the integration of a high k dielectric with graphite-based substrates.Electron beam irradiation on the graphite surface is followed by a standard atomic layer deposition of Al2O3.Improvement of the Al2O3 layer deposition morphology was observed when using this radiation exposure on graphite.This result may be attributed to the amorphous change of the graphite layers during electron beam irradiation.

  7. Influence of deposition rate on the properties of ZrO2 thin films prepared in electron beam evaporation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongping Zhang(张东平); Meiqiong Zhan(占美琼); Ming Fang(方明); Hongbo He(贺洪波); Jianda Shao(邵建达); Zhengxiu Fan(范正修)

    2004-01-01

    ZrO2 thin films were prepared in electron beam thermal evaporation method. And the deposition rate changed from 1.3 to 6.3 nm/s in our study. X-ray diffractometer and spectrophotometer were employed to characterize the films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra pattern shows that films structure changed from amorphous to polycrystalline with deposition rate increasing. The results indicate that internal stresses of the films are compressive in most case. Thin films deposited in our study are inhomogeneous, and the inhomogeneity is enhanced with the deposition rate increasing.

  8. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  9. Towards a single step process to create high purity gold structures by electron beam induced deposition at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, C.; Mehendale, S.; Mulders, J. J. L.; Trompenaars, P. H. F.

    2016-10-01

    Highly pure metallic structures can be deposited by electron beam induced deposition and they have many important applications in different fields. The organo-metallic precursor is decomposed and deposited under the electron beam, and typically it is purified with post-irradiation in presence of O2. However, this approach limits the purification to the surface of the deposit. Therefore, ‘in situ’ purification during deposition using simultaneous flows of both O2 and precursor in parallel with two gas injector needles has been tested and verified. To simplify the practical arrangements, a special concentric nozzle has been designed allowing deposition and purification performed together in a single step. With this new device metallic structures with high purity can be obtained more easily, while there is no limit on the height of the structures within a practical time frame. In this work, we summarize the first results obtained for ‘in situ’ Au purification using this concentric nozzle, which is described in more detail, including flow simulations. The operational parameter space is explored in order to optimize the shape as well as the purity of the deposits, which are evaluated through scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements, respectively. The observed variations are interpreted in relation to other variables, such as the deposition yield. The resistivity of purified lines is also measured, and the influence of additional post treatments as a last purification step is studied.

  10. The electron beam deposition of titanium on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and the resulting enhanced biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cheol-Min; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag; Kim, Keung N; Ha, Yoon; Kuh, Sung-Uk

    2010-05-01

    The surface of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) was coated with a pure titanium (Ti) layer using an electron beam (e-beam) deposition method in order to enhance its biocompatibility and adhesion to bone tissue. The e-beam deposition method was a low-temperature coating process that formed a dense, uniform and well crystallized Ti layer without deteriorating the characteristics of the PEEK implant. The Ti coating layer strongly adhered to the substrate and remarkably enhanced its wettability. The Ti-coated samples were evaluated in terms of their in vitro cellular behaviors and in vivo osteointegration, and the results were compared to a pure PEEK substrate. The level of proliferation of the cells (MC3T3-E1) was measured using a methoxyphenyl tetrazolium salt (MTS) assay and more than doubled after the Ti coating. The differentiation level of cells was measured using the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and also doubled. Furthermore, the in vivo animal tests showed that the Ti-coated PEEK implants had a much higher bone-in-contact (BIC) ratio than the pure PEEK implants. These in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the e-beam deposited Ti coating significantly improved the potential of PEEK for hard tissue applications. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Compilation of Mineral Resource Data for Mississippi Valley-Type and Clastic-Dominated Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Leach, David L.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Pisarevsky, Sergei A.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains a global compilation of the mineral resource data for sediment-hosted lead-zinc (SH Pb-Zn) deposits. Sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits are historically the most significant sources of lead and zinc, and are mined throughout the world. The most important SH Pb-Zn deposits are hosted in clastic-dominated sedimentary rock sequences (CD Pb-Zn) that are traditionally called sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits, and those in carbonate-dominated sequences that are known as Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) Pb-Zn deposits. In this report, we do not include sandstone-Pb, sandstone-hosted Pb, or Pb-Zn vein districts such as those in Freiberg, Germany, or Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, because these deposits probably represent different deposit types (Leach and others, 2005). We do not include fracture-controlled deposits in which fluorite is dominant and barite typically abundant (for example, Central Kentucky; Hansonburg, N. Mex.) or the stratabound fluorite-rich, but also lead- and zinc-bearing deposits, such as those in southern Illinois, which are considered a genetic variant of carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits (Leach and Sangster, 1993). This report updates the Pb, Zn, copper (Cu), and silver (Ag) grade and tonnage data in Leach and others (2005), which itself was based on efforts in the Canadian Geological Survey World Minerals Geoscience Database Project (contributions of D.F. Sangster to Sinclair and others, 1999). New geological or geochronological data, classifications of the tectonic environment in which the deposits formed, and key references to the geology of the deposits are presented in our report. Data for 121 CD deposits, 113 MVT deposits, and 6 unclassified deposits that were previously classified as either SEDEX or MVT in the Leach and others (2005) compilation, are given in appendix table A1. In some cases, mineral resource data were available only for total district resources, but not for individual mines within the district. For these

  12. Studies on high electronic energy deposition in transparent conducting indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Gudage, Y G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Ghosh, A [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Vyas, J C [Technical and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (MS) (India); Singh, F [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Tripathi, A [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sharma, Ramphal [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India)

    2008-02-07

    We have examined the effect of swift heavy ions using 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} ions on the electrical properties of transparent, conducting indium tin oxide polycrystalline films with resistivity of 0.58 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm and optical transmission greater than 78% (pristine). We report on the modifications occurring after high electronic energy deposition. With the increase in fluency, x-ray line intensity of the peaks corresponding to the planes (1 1 0), (4 0 0), (4 4 1) increased, while (3 3 1) remained constant. Surface morphological studies showed a pomegranate structure of pristine samples, which was highly disturbed with a high dose of irradiation. For the high dose, there was a formation of small spherical domes uniformly distributed over the entire surface. The transmittance was seen to be decreasing with the increase in ion fluency. At higher doses, the resistivity and photoluminescence intensity was seen to be decreased. In addition, the carrier concentration was seen to be increased, which was in accordance with the decrease in resistivity. The observed modifications after high electronic energy deposition in these films may lead to fruitful device applications.

  13. Processing and characterization of high temperature superconductor thin films deposited by electron beam co-evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jeong-Uk

    Ever since the high temperature superconductors (HTS) were discovered in the late 1980s, there have been enormous efforts to make this into applications such as power transmission cables, transformers, motors and generators. However, many obstacles in performance and high manufacturing cost made this difficult. The first generation HTS wires had low critical current density and were expensive to fabricate. The motivation of this research was to make high performance and low cost second generation HTS coated conductor. Electron beam co-evaporation technique was used to deposit YBCO(YBa2Cu3O7-x ) film at a high rate (10nm/s and higher) on single crystals and metal tapes. The oxygen pressure at the stage of depositing Y, Ba, Cu was 5x10 -5 Torr and the process temperature was 810-840°C. In-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to monitor the optical properties of the YBCO during and after deposition. The deposit transformed to a glassy amorphous mixture of Y, Ba and Cu at 3 mTorr of oxygen. YBCO crystallization occurred after extra oxygen was applied to several Torr. FTIR showed almost the same signature during the formation of YBCO and liquid Ba-Cu-O during deposition, which indicates the liquid played an important role in determining the properties of YBCO in terms of providing epitaxy and fast transport of atoms to nucleate on the film-metal interface. The transformation was very rapid---seconds to minutes, compared to minutes to hours for other post-reaction processes. The oxygen partial pressure and the rate of oxidation (supersaturation) in the liquid region defined in the YBCO phase stability diagram determined the electrical and microstructural properties. In-situ X-ray diffraction heating stage with ambient control was utilized to study this supersaturation effect and explore the temperature-pressure space during YBCO growth. With all the information gathered from FTIR and XRD in-situ experiments and also with nano-engineering during

  14. Volcanogenic massive sulfide occurrence model: Chapter C in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Koski, Randolph A.; Mosier, Dan L.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Slack, John F.; Ridley, W. Ian; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Seal, Robert R., II; Piatak, Nadine M.; Shanks, W.C. Pat; Thurston, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, also known as volcanic-hosted massive sulfide, volcanic-associated massive sulfide, or seafloor massive sulfide deposits, are important sources of copper, zinc, lead, gold, and silver (Cu, Zn, Pb, Au, and Ag). These deposits form at or near the seafloor where circulating hydrothermal fluids driven by magmatic heat are quenched through mixing with bottom waters or porewaters in near-seafloor lithologies. Massive sulfide lenses vary widely in shape and size and may be podlike or sheetlike. They are generally stratiform and may occur as multiple lenses.

  15. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  16. Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M

    2011-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs.

  17. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  18. Use of regression-based models to map sensitivity of aquatic resources to atmospheric deposition in Yosemite National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Nanus, Leora; Huggett, Brian

    2010-01-01

    An abundance of exposed bedrock, sparse soil and vegetation, and fast hydrologic flushing rates make aquatic ecosystems in Yosemite National Park susceptible to nutrient enrichment and episodic acidification due to atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S). In this study, multiple linear regression (MLR) models were created to estimate fall-season nitrate and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in surface water in Yosemite wilderness. Input data included estimated winter N deposition, fall-season surface-water chemistry measurements at 52 sites, and basin characteristics derived from geographic information system layers of topography, geology, and vegetation. The MLR models accounted for 84% and 70% of the variance in surface-water nitrate and ANC, respectively. Explanatory variables (and the sign of their coefficients) for nitrate included elevation (positive) and the abundance of neoglacial and talus deposits (positive), unvegetated terrain (positive), alluvium (negative), and riparian (negative) areas in the basins. Explanatory variables for ANC included basin area (positive) and the abundance of metamorphic rocks (positive), unvegetated terrain (negative), water (negative), and winter N deposition (negative) in the basins. The MLR equations were applied to 1407 stream reaches delineated in the National Hydrography Data Set for Yosemite, and maps of predicted surface-water nitrate and ANC concentrations were created. Predicted surface-water nitrate concentrations were highest in small, high-elevation cirques, and concentrations declined downstream. Predicted ANC concentrations showed the opposite pattern, except in high-elevation areas underlain by metamorphic rocks along the Sierran Crest, which had relatively high predicted ANC (>200 μeq L-1). Maps were created to show where basin characteristics predispose aquatic resources to nutrient enrichment and acidification effects from N and S deposition. The maps can be used to help guide development of

  19. High-purity 3D nano-objects grown by focused-electron-beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Sharma, Nidhi; Kölling, Sebastian; Koenraad, Paul M.; Koopmans, Bert

    2016-09-01

    To increase the efficiency of current electronics, a specific challenge for the next generation of memory, sensing and logic devices is to find suitable strategies to move from two- to three-dimensional (3D) architectures. However, the creation of real 3D nano-objects is not trivial. Emerging non-conventional nanofabrication tools are required for this purpose. One attractive method is focused-electron-beam induced deposition (FEBID), a direct-write process of 3D nano-objects. Here, we grow 3D iron and cobalt nanopillars by FEBID using diiron nonacarbonyl Fe2(CO)9, and dicobalt octacarbonyl Co2(CO)8, respectively, as starting materials. In addition, we systematically study the composition of these nanopillars at the sub-nanometer scale by atom probe tomography, explicitly mapping the homogeneity of the radial and longitudinal composition distributions. We show a way of fabricating high-purity 3D vertical nanostructures of ˜50 nm in diameter and a few micrometers in length. Our results suggest that the purity of such 3D nanoelements (above 90 at% Fe and above 95 at% Co) is directly linked to their growth regime, in which the selected deposition conditions are crucial for the final quality of the nanostructure. Moreover, we demonstrate that FEBID and the proposed characterization technique not only allow for growth and chemical analysis of single-element structures, but also offers a new way to directly study 3D core-shell architectures. This straightforward concept could establish a promising route to the design of 3D elements for future nano-electronic devices.

  20. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  1. Optical modeling of plasma-deposited ZnO films: Electron scattering at different length scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoops, Harm C. M., E-mail: H.C.M.Knoops@tue.nl; Loo, Bas W. H. van de; Smit, Sjoerd; Ponomarev, Mikhail V.; Weber, Jan-Willem; Sharma, Kashish [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kessels, Wilhelmus M. M.; Creatore, Mariadriana, E-mail: M.Creatore@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands and Solliance, High Tech Campus 5, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    In this work, an optical modeling study on electron scattering mechanisms in plasma-deposited ZnO layers is presented. Because various applications of ZnO films pose a limit on the electron carrier density due to its effect on the film transmittance, higher electron mobility values are generally preferred instead. Hence, insights into the electron scattering contributions affecting the carrier mobility are required. In optical models, the Drude oscillator is adopted to represent the free-electron contribution and the obtained optical mobility can be then correlated with the macroscopic material properties. However, the influence of scattering phenomena on the optical mobility depends on the considered range of photon energy. For example, the grain-boundary scattering is generally not probed by means of optical measurements and the ionized-impurity scattering contribution decreases toward higher photon energies. To understand this frequency dependence and quantify contributions from different scattering phenomena to the mobility, several case studies were analyzed in this work by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry and Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The obtained electrical parameters were compared to the results inferred by Hall measurements. For intrinsic ZnO (i-ZnO), the in-grain mobility was obtained by fitting reflection data with a normal Drude model in the IR range. For Al-doped ZnO (Al:ZnO), besides a normal Drude fit in the IR range, an Extended Drude fit in the UV-vis range could be used to obtain the in-grain mobility. Scattering mechanisms for a thickness series of Al:ZnO films were discerned using the more intuitive parameter “scattering frequency” instead of the parameter “mobility”. The interaction distance concept was introduced to give a physical interpretation to the frequency dependence of the scattering frequency. This physical interpretation furthermore allows the prediction of which Drude models can be used in a specific

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW Fabrication and characterization of nanostructures on insulator substrates by electron-beam-induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Song and Kazuo Furuya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication, characterization, and decoration with metallic nanoparticles of nanostructures such as nanowhiskers, nanodendrites, and fractal-like nanotrees on insulator substrates by electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID are reviewed. Nanostructures with different morphologies of whiskers, dendrites, or trees are fabricated on insulator (Al2O3 or SiO2 substrates by EBID in transmission electron microscopes by controlling the irradiation conditions such as the electron beam intensity. The growth of the nanostructure is related to the accumulation of charges on the surface of a substrate during electron-beam irradiation. A high concentration of the target metallic element and nanocrystal grains of the element are contained in the fabricated nanostructures. The process of growth of the nanostructures is explained qualitatively on the basis of mechanisms in which the formation of the nanostructures is considered to be related to the nanoscaled unevenness of the charge distribution on the surface of the substrate, the movement of the charges to the convex surface of the substrate, and the accumulation of charges at the tip of the grown nanostructure. Novel composite structures of Pt nanoparticle/tungsten (W nanodendrite or Au nanoparticle/W nanodendrite are fabricated by the decoration of W nanodendrites with metallic elements. Because they have superior features, such as a large specific surface area, a freestanding structure on substrates, a typical size of several nanometers of the tip or the branch, and high purity, the nanostructures may have applications in technologies such as catalysts, sensors, and electron emitters. However, there are still some subjects that should be further studied before their application.

  3. Ultrafast triggered transient energy storage by atomic layer deposition into porous silicon for integrated transient electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Anna; Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Share, Keith; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-03-01

    Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics.Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (i) Experimental details for ALD and material fabrication, ellipsometry film thickness, preparation of gel electrolyte and separator, details for electrochemical measurements, HRTEM image of VOx coated porous silicon, Raman spectroscopy for VOx as-deposited as well as annealed in air for 1 hour at 450 °C, SEM and transient behavior dissolution tests of uniformly coated VOx on

  4. Closed-Loop Process Control for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Deposition Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Hafley, Robert A. (Inventor); Martin, Richard E. (Inventor); Hofmeister, William H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A closed-loop control method for an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) process includes detecting a feature of interest during the process using a sensor(s), continuously evaluating the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein, and automatically modifying control parameters to control the EBF(sup 3) process. An apparatus provides closed-loop control method of the process, and includes an electron gun for generating an electron beam, a wire feeder for feeding a wire toward a substrate, wherein the wire is melted and progressively deposited in layers onto the substrate, a sensor(s), and a host machine. The sensor(s) measure the feature of interest during the process, and the host machine continuously evaluates the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein. The host machine automatically modifies control parameters to the EBF(sup 3) apparatus to control the EBF(sup 3) process in a closed-loop manner.

  5. Using Electronic Information Resources Centers by Faculty Members at University Education: Competencies, Needs and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelenein, Yousri

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the factual situation of electronic information resources centers to faculty members at university education. Competencies that faculty members should possess regarding this issue were determined. Also their needs for (scientific research skills and teaching) were assessed. In addition, problems that hinder their…

  6. Localising versus standardising electronic human resource management: complexities and tensions between HRM and IT departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tate, Mary; Furtmueller, E.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an analysis of the complexities involved during global e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management) implementation. We present findings from a case study on the challenge of global integration versus local responsiveness of e-HRM systems. We take a local site lens, analysin

  7. Use of Electronic Information Resources among Research Scholars in the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Anam; Ahmed, Shamshad; Bin Naeem, Salman

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of electronic resources among academic scholars of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Punjab, Pakistan. A quantitative survey was found most convenient and useful for this study. The total population of the study was 169 research students in IUB. The response rate was 79% and 133 utilizable responses were coded…

  8. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  9. 75 FR 3863 - Mandatory Deposit of Published Electronic Works Available Only Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... largest repository of knowledge and creativity. With the adoption of this amendment, mandatory deposit... permanent exemption for mandatory deposit for photographs and databases are more appropriately raised...

  10. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, This data set consists of mineral deposit areas (KMDAs) for locatable minerals., Published in 1993, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset as of 1993. It is described as 'This data set consists of mineral deposit areas (KMDAs) for locatable minerals.'. Data...

  11. Acidic deposition along the Appalachian Trail corridor and its effects on acid-sensitive terrestrial and aquatic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Burns, Douglas A.; Bailey, Scott W.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Dovciak, Martin; Ewing, Holly A.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Minocha, Rakesh; Riemann, Rachel; Quant, Juliana; Rice, Karen C.; Siemion, Jason; Weathers, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT), a unit of the National Park Service (NPS), spans nearly 2,200 miles from Georgia to Maine, encompassing a diverse range of ecosystems. Acidic deposition (acid rain) threatens the AT’s natural resources. Acid rain is a result of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) compounds produced from fossil fuel combustion, motor vehicles, and agricultural practices. The AT is particularly vulnerable to S and N because it passes along ridgetops that receive higher levels of acid rain than lower valley terrain, and these ridges are often underlain by bedrock with minimal ability to buffer acidic inputs. Further, there are numerous S and N emission sources across the region. In the environment, acidic deposition can lower the pH of streams and soils which can ultimately affect fish, invertebrates, and vegetation that inhabit these areas. To address this concern, the MegaTransect Deposition Effects Study evaluated the condition and sensitivity of the AT corridor with respect to acidic deposition, and defined air pollution thresholds (critical and target loads) and recovery rates. Findings indicate that additional S emission

  12. Coastal deposits of heavy mineral sands; Global significance and US resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Bedinger, George M.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient and modern coastal deposits of heavy mineral sands (HMS) are the principal source of several heavy industrial minerals, with mining and processing operations on every continent except Antarctica. For example, HMS deposits are the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, obtained from the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2) and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). HMS deposits are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4), from which zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) is obtained for uses mostly in refractory products. Sometimes monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is recovered as a byproduct mineral, sought for its rare earth elements and thorium (Ault and others, 2016; Sengupta and Van Gosen, 2016; Van Gosen and Tulsidas, 2016). 

  13. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy characterization of nickel deposition on bacterial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Recently bacterial cells have become attractive biological templates for the fabrication of metal nano- structures or nanomaterials due to their inherent small size, various standard geometrical shapes and abundant source. In this paper, nickel-coated bacterial cells (gram-negative bacteria of Escherichia coli) were fabricated via electroless chemical plating. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization results reveal evident morphological difference between bacterial cells before and after deposition with nickel. The bare cells with smooth surface presented transverse outspreading effect at mica surface. Great changes took place in surface roughness for those bacterial cells after metallization. A large number of nickel nanoparticles were observed to be equably distributed at bacterial surface after activation and subsequent metallization. Furthermore, ultra thin section analytic results validated the presence and uniformity of thin nickel coating at bacterial surface after metallization.

  14. Galectin-3 binding protein links circulating microparticles with electron dense glomerular deposits in lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C T; Østergaard, O; Rekvig, O P

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A high level of galectin-3-binding protein (G3BP) appears to distinguish circulating cell-derived microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study is to characterize the population of G3BP-positive microparticles from SLE patients compared to healthy controls......, explore putative clinical correlates, and examine if G3BP is present in immune complex deposits in kidney biopsies from patients with lupus nephritis. METHODS: Numbers of annexin V-binding and G3BP-exposing plasma microparticles from 56 SLE patients and 36 healthy controls were determined by flow...... in kidney biopsies from one non-SLE control and from patients with class IV (n = 2) and class V (n = 1) lupus nephritis using co-localization immune electron microscopy. RESULTS: Microparticle-G3BP, microparticle-C1q and microparticle-immunoglobulins were significantly (P 

  15. Mechanism of spallation in platinum aluminide/electron beam physical vapor-deposited thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, M.; Vaidyanathan, K.; Barber, B.; Cheng, J.; Jordan, E. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1999-02-01

    The spallation failure of a commercial thermal barrier coating (TBC), consisting of a single-crystal RENE N5 superalloy, a platinum aluminide (Pt-Al) bond coat, and an electron beam-deposited 7 wt pct yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic layer (7YSZ), was studied following cyclic furnace testing. In the uncycled state and prior to deposition of the ceramic, the Pt-Al bond-coat surface contains a cellular network of ridges corresponding to the underlying bond-coat grain-boundary structure. With thermal cycling, the ridges and associated grain boundaries are the sites of preferential oxidation and cracking, which results in the formation of cavities that are partially filled with oxide. Using a fluorescent penetrant dye in conjunction with a direct-pull test, it is shown that, when specimens are cycled to about 80 pct of life, these grain-boundary regions show extensive debonding. The roles of oxidation and cyclic stress in localized grain boundary region spallation are discussed. The additional factors leading to large-scale TBC spallation are described.

  16. 电子资源的编目策略%Cataloging Strategies of Electronic Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚林

    2012-01-01

    Compared with traditional paper resources, electronic resources have following characteristics which determine different cataloging strategies from paper resources. These characteristics are huge quantity, updating rapidly, coexistence of a variety of manifestations. The source data of electronic resources is usually provided by the database agent. The cataloging of electronic resources is based on the Chapter IX of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Library of Congress Rule Interpretations and rules of Cooperative Online Serials. There are two major cataloging methods for electronic resources abroad, they are single record approach and separate record approach. Peking University Library chooses the latter method and batches cataloging automatically using the source data.%电子资源吲传统纸质资源相比,具有数量大、更新快、多种载体表现并行等特点,且大部分出版机构能够提供数据源数据。这些特点决定了.电子资源应采取与纸质文献不同的编目策略。电子资源编日的主要依据是《英美编日条例》的第9章、美国《国会图书馆条例解释》及全美期刊合作编目计划的规定。对于电子资源的编目,国外有单一记录编目法和分散记录编目法。北京大学图书馆采用后者,同时利用数据源数据批舒自动编目。

  17. Electronic structure investigation of atomic layer deposition ruthenium(oxide) thin films using photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Michael, E-mail: mvschaefer@mail.usf.edu, E-mail: schlaf@mail.usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Schlaf, Rudy, E-mail: mvschaefer@mail.usf.edu, E-mail: schlaf@mail.usf.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Analyzing and manipulating the electronic band line-up of interfaces in novel micro- and nanoelectronic devices is important to achieve further advancement in this field. Such band alignment modifications can be achieved by introducing thin conformal interfacial dipole layers. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling angstrom-precise control over thin film thickness, is an ideal technique for this challenge. Ruthenium (Ru{sup 0}) and its oxide (RuO{sub 2}) have gained interest in the past decade as interfacial dipole layers because of their favorable properties like metal-equivalent work functions, conductivity, etc. In this study, initial results of the electronic structure investigation of ALD Ru{sup 0} and RuO{sub 2} films via photoemission spectroscopy are presented. These experiments give insight into the band alignment, growth behavior, surface structure termination, and dipole formation. The experiments were performed in an integrated vacuum system attached to a home-built, stop-flow type ALD reactor without exposing the samples to the ambient in between deposition and analysis. Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium(II) was used as precursor and oxygen as reactant. The analysis chamber was outfitted with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS, XPS). The determined growth modes are consistent with a strong growth inhibition situation with a maximum average growth rate of 0.21 Å/cycle for RuO{sub 2} and 0.04 Å/cycle for Ru.{sup 0} An interface dipole of up to −0.93 eV was observed, supporting the assumption of a strongly physisorbed interface. A separate experiment where the surface of a RuO film was sputtered suggests that the surface is terminated by an intermediate, stable, non-stoichiometric RuO{sub 2}/OH compound whose surface is saturated with hydroxyl groups.

  18. Atomic layer deposition on polymer fibers and fabrics for multifunctional and electronic textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozena, Alexandra H.; Oldham, Christopher J.; Parsons, Gregory N., E-mail: gnp@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Textile materials, including woven cotton, polymer knit fabrics, and synthetic nonwoven fiber mats, are being explored as low-cost, flexible, and light-weight platforms for wearable electronic sensing, communication, energy generation, and storage. The natural porosity and high surface area in textiles is also useful for new applications in environmental protection, chemical decontamination, pharmaceutical and chemical manufacturing, catalytic support, tissue regeneration, and others. These applications raise opportunities for new chemistries, chemical processes, biological coupling, and nanodevice systems that can readily combine with textile manufacturing to create new “multifunctional” fabrics. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has a unique ability to form highly uniform and conformal thin films at low processing temperature on nonuniform high aspect ratio surfaces. Recent research shows how ALD can coat, modify, and otherwise improve polymer fibers and textiles by incorporating new materials for viable electronic and other multifunctional capabilities. This article provides a current overview of the understanding of ALD coating and modification of textiles, including current capabilities and outstanding problems, with the goal of providing a starting point for further research and advances in this field. After a brief introduction to textile materials and current textile treatment methods, the authors discuss unique properties of ALD-coated textiles, followed by a review of recent electronic and multifunctional textiles that use ALD coatings either as direct functional components or as critical nucleation layers for active materials integration. The article concludes with possible future directions for ALD on textiles, including the challenges in materials, manufacturing, and manufacturing integration that must be overcome for ALD to reach its full potential in electronic and other emerging multifunctional textile systems.

  19. Power resource management and low-power remote wireless RF electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Walter, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    Battery power resource management becomes a critical issue in the case of self-powered remote wireless RF electronics, where the basic parameter is time of system operation before battery recharging or battery replacement. In such cases, very often related to physical protection against antitampering (AT), proper theoretical modeling of a battery driven power supply in the context of a given digital electronic system is of utmost importance. Such modeling should include various types of batteries (primary and secondary), various self-discharge processes in different temperatures, and even energy harvesting, the latter to supply power for long-term content, low-power electronic subsystems. In this paper we analyze simple modeling of resource power management, including variations of all of these parameters and energy harvesting.

  20. XPS study of thermal and electron-induced decomposition of Ni and Co acetylacetonate thin films for metal deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Theodor; Warneke, Jonas; Zielasek, Volkmar, E-mail: zielasek@uni-bremen.de; Swiderek, Petra; Bäumer, Marcus [Institut für Angewandte und Physikalische Chemie, Universität Bremen, Postfach 330440, D-28334 Bremen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Optimizing thin metal film deposition techniques from metal-organic precursors such as atomic layer deposition, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), or electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) with the help of surface science analysis tools in ultrahigh vacuum requires a contamination-free precursor delivery technique, especially in the case of the less volatile precursors. For this purpose, the preparation of layers of undecomposed Ni(acac){sub 2} and Co(acac){sub 2} was tried via pulsed spray evaporation of a liquid solution of the precursors in ethanol into a flow of nitrogen on a CVD reactor. Solvent-free layers of intact precursor molecules were obtained when the substrate was held at a temperature of 115 °C. A qualitative comparison of thermally initiated and electron-induced precursor decomposition and metal center reduction was carried out. All deposited films were analyzed with respect to chemical composition quasi in situ by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Thermally initiated decomposition yielded higher metal-to-metal oxide ratios in the deposit than the electron-induced process for which ratios of 60:40 and 20:80 were achieved for Ni and Co, resp. Compared to continuous EBID processes, all deposits showed low levels of carbon impurities of ∼10 at. %. Therefore, postdeposition irradiation of metal acetylacetonate layers by a focused electron beam and subsequent removal of intact precursor by dissolution in ethanol or by heating is proposed as electron beam lithography technique on the laboratory scale for the production of the metal nanostructures.

  1. Mechanisms of spallation of electron beam physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings with and without platinum aluminide bond coat ridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidyanathan, K.; Gell, M. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgy; Jordan, E. [Dept. Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, CT-06269, Storrs (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Grain boundary ridges, that form on the surface of platinum aluminide [(Ni,Pt)Al] bond coats prior to the deposition of the yttria stabilized zirconia ceramic layer by the electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process, were shown to be the sites for spallation damage initiation in (Ni,Pt)Al/EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings. When these ridges are removed prior to deposition of the ceramic layer, a 3 x life improvement is achieved. This study compares the spallation mechanisms in specimens with and without bond coat ridges, in order to explain the improvement in spallation life. (orig.)

  2. Thickness effect on properties of titanium film deposited by d.c. magnetron sputtering and electron beam evaporation techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishat Arshi; Junqing Lu; Chan Gyu Lee; Jae Hong Yoon; Bon Heun Koo; Faheem Ahmed

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports effect of thickness on the properties of titanium (Ti) film deposited on Si/SiO2 (100) substrate using two different methods: d.c. magnetron sputtering and electron beam (e-beam) evaporation technique. The structural and morphological characterization of Ti film were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD pattern revealed that the films deposited using d.c. magnetron sputtering have HCP symmetry with preferred orientation along (002) plane, while those deposited with e-beam evaporation possessed fcc symmetry with preferred orientation along (200) plane. The presence of metallic Ti was also confirmed by XPS analysis. FESEM images depicted that the finite sized grains were uniformly distributed on the surface and AFM micrographs revealed roughness of the film. The electrical resistivity measured using four-point probe showed that the film deposited using d.c. magnetron sputtering has lower resistivity of ∼13 cm than the film deposited using e-beam evaporation technique, i.e. ∼60 cm. The hardness of Ti films deposited using d.c. magnetron sputtering has lower value (∼7.9 GPa) than the film deposited using e-beam technique (∼9.4 GPa).

  3. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  4. Investigations of vapour-phase deposited transition metal dichalcogenide films for future electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatensby, Riley; Hallam, Toby; Lee, Kangho; McEvoy, Niall; Duesberg, Georg S.

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are of major interest to the research and electrical engineering community. A number of TMDs are semiconducting and have a wide range of bandgaps, they can exhibit n- or p-type behaviour, and the electronic structure changes with the number of layers. These exceptional properties hold much promise for a host of electrical applications including low- or high power field-effect transistors, sensors and diodes. Moreover, the unique optical properties of TMDs make them attractive for optoelectronic applications such as light-emitting diodes, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. A prerequisite for all of these applications is a synthesis route which is well controlled, scalable, reproducible and compatible with semiconductor industry process flows. Thermally assisted conversion (TAC), a variant of chemical vapour deposition, shows much promise for meeting these requirements. Herein we review the current progress and challenges of research on 2D semiconducting materials for electronics with a special focus on TAC produced TMD thin films.

  5. Depositional sequence stratigraphy and architecture of the cretaceous ferron sandstone: Implications for coal and coalbed methane resources - A field excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, J.R.; Van Den, Bergh; Barker, C.E.; Tabet, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This Field Excursion will visit outcrops of the fluvial-deltaic Upper Cretaceous (Turonian) Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, known as the Last Chance delta or Upper Ferron Sandstone. This field guide and the field stops will outline the architecture and depositional sequence stratigraphy of the Upper Ferron Sandstone clastic wedge and explore the stratigraphic positions and compositions of major coal zones. The implications of the architecture and stratigraphy of the Ferron fluvial-deltaic complex for coal and coalbed methane resources will be discussed. Early works suggested that the southwesterly derived deltaic deposits of the the upper Ferron Sandstone clastic wedge were a Type-2 third-order depositional sequence, informally called the Ferron Sequence. These works suggested that the Ferron Sequence is separated by a type-2 sequence boundary from the underlying 3rd-order Hyatti Sequence, which has its sediment source from the northwest. Within the 3rd-order depositional sequence, the deltaic events of the Ferron clastic wedge, recognized as parasequence sets, appear to be stacked into progradational, aggradational, and retrogradational patterns reflecting a generally decreasing sediment supply during an overall slow sea-level rise. The architecture of both near-marine facies and non-marine fluvial facies exhibit well defined trends in response to this decrease in available sediment. Recent studies have concluded that, unless coincident with a depositional sequence boundary, regionally extensive coal zones occur at the tops of the parasequence sets within the Ferron clastic wedge. These coal zones consist of coal seams and their laterally equivalent fissile carbonaceous shales, mudstones, and siltstones, paleosols, and flood plain mudstones. Although the compositions of coal zones vary along depositional dip, the presence of these laterally extensive stratigraphic horizons, above parasequence sets, provides a means of correlating and defining the tops

  6. Microfabrication of passive electronic components with printed graphene-oxide deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinar, Dogan; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas

    2014-03-01

    Flexible electronic circuitry is an emerging technology that will significantly impact the future of healthcare and medicine, food safety inspection, environmental monitoring, and public security. Recent advances in drop-on-demand printing technology and electrically conductive inks have enabled simple electronic circuits to be fabricated on mechanically flexible polymers, paper, and bioresorbable silk. Research has shown that graphene, and its derivative formulations, can be used to create low-cost electrically conductive inks. Graphene is a one atom thick two-dimensional layer composed of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice forming a material with very high fracture strength, high Young's Modulus, and low electrical resistance. Non-conductive graphene-oxide (GO) inks can also be synthesized from inexpensive graphite powders. Once deposited on the flexible substrate the electrical conductivity of the printed GO microcircuit traces can be restored through thermal reduction. In this paper, a femtosecond laser with a wavelength of 775nm and pulse width of 120fs is used to transform the non-conductive printed GO film into electrically conductive oxygen reduced graphene-oxide (rGO) passive electronic components by the process of laser assisted thermal reduction. The heat affected zone produced during the process was minimized because of the femtosecond pulsed laser. The degree of conductivity exhibited by the microstructure is directly related to the laser power level and exposure time. Although rGO films have higher resistances than pristine graphene, the ability to inkjet print capacitive elements and modify local resistive properties provides for a new method of fabricating sensor microcircuits on a variety of substrate surfaces.

  7. Library Electronic Resource Sharing Among Liberal Arts Colleges: ACS Palladian Alliance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxian Zhang

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Effective electronic resource sharing is critical to library information services of the 1990s. Explosion of data and increased cost of information force libraries to work together, and technological advancements present the library service profession a platform for resource sharing. The Palladian Alliance Project of the Associated Colleges of the South is designed to provides ACS member institutions an effective means to enhance information access for their faculty and students, and achieve significant cost containment in the years to come.

  8. Electron Induced Surface Reactions of cis-Pt(CO)2Cl2: A Route to Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition of Pure Pt Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julie A; Wu, Yung-Chien; McElwee-White, Lisa; Fairbrother, D Howard

    2016-07-27

    Using mechanistic data from surface science studies on electron-induced reactions of organometallic precursors, cis-Pt(CO)2Cl2 (1) was designed specifically for use in focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) of Pt nanostructures. Electron induced decomposition of adsorbed 1 under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions proceeds through initial CO loss as determined by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Although the Pt-Cl bonds remain intact during the initial decomposition step, larger electron doses induce removal of the residual chloride through an electron-stimulated desorption process. FEBID structures created from cis-Pt(CO)2Cl2 under steady state deposition conditions in an Auger spectrometer were determined to be PtCl2, free of carbon and oxygen. Coupled with the electron stimulated removal of chlorine demonstrated in the UHV experiments, the Auger deposition data establish a route to FEBID of pure Pt. Results from this study demonstrate that structure-activity relationships can be used to design new precursors specifically for FEBID.

  9. Thorium Deposits of the United States - Energy Resources for the Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Gillerman, Virginia S.; Armbrustmacher, Theodore J.

    2009-01-01

    Many nations are exploring new ways to meet their growing energy supply needs, with a particular focus upon methods that produce lower carbon dioxide emissions compared to traditional oil, natural gas, and coal power plants. As a result, thorium-based nuclear power has experienced renewed attention as a potential energy source. Thus, it benefits the United States and other countries to identify and evaluate their indigenous thorium resources. This report describes the geology and resources of the principal thorium districts of the United States.

  10. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  11. Deep-sea ferromanganese deposits and their resource potentials for India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    Indian Ocean. Nearly 700 million tonnes of nodule resources are estimated in this mine site, which are expected to contain around 14 million tonnes of combined Cu and Ni metals valued approximately over Rs. 1000 billion at current average market rate...

  12. Structural changes of electron and ion beam-deposited contacts in annealed carbon-based electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Nitin M.; Patole, Shashikant P.; Abdelkader, Ahmed; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Deepak, Francis L.; Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2015-11-01

    The use of electron and ion beam deposition to make devices containing discrete nanostructures as interconnectors is a well-known nanofabrication process. Classically, one-dimensional materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been electrically characterized by resorting to these beam deposition methods. While much attention has been given to the interconnectors, less is known about the contacting electrodes (or leads). In particular, the structure and chemistry of the electrode-interconnector interface is a topic that deserves more attention, as it is critical to understand the device behavior. Here, the structure and chemistry of Pt electrodes, deposited either with electron or ion beams and contacted to a CNT, are analyzed before and after thermally annealing the device in a vacuum. Free-standing Pt nanorods, acting as beam-deposited electrode models, are also characterized pre- and post-annealing. Overall, the as-deposited leads contain a non-negligible amount of amorphous carbon that is consolidated, upon heating, as a partially graphitized outer shell enveloping a Pt core. This observation raises pertinent questions regarding the definition of electrode-nanostructure interfaces in electrical devices, in particular long-standing assumptions of metal-CNT contacts fabricated by direct beam deposition methods.

  13. On the magnetic properties of iron nanostructures fabricated via focused electron beam induced deposition and autocatalytic growth processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, F.; Drost, M.; Vollnhals, F.; Späth, A.; Carrasco, E.; Fink, R. H.; Marbach, H.

    2016-09-01

    We employ Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) in combination with autocatalytic growth (AG) processes to fabricate magnetic nanostructures with controllable shapes and thicknesses. Following this route, different Fe deposits were prepared on silicon nitride membranes under ultra-high vacuum conditions and studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission x-ray microspectroscopy (STXM). The originally deposited Fe nanostructures are composed of pure iron, especially when fabricated via autocatalytic growth processes. Quantitative near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy was employed to derive information on the thickness dependent composition. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) in STXM was used to derive the magnetic properties of the EBID prepared structures. STXM and XMCD analysis evinces the existence of a thin iron oxide layer at the deposit-vacuum interface, which is formed during exposure to ambient conditions. We were able to extract magnetic hysteresis loops for individual deposits from XMCD micrographs with varying external magnetic field. Within the investigated thickness range (2-16 nm), the magnetic coercivity, as evaluated from the width of the hysteresis loops, increases with deposit thickness and reaches a maximum value of ˜160 Oe at around 10 nm. In summary, we present a viable technique to fabricate ferromagnetic nanostructures in a controllable way and gain detailed insight into their chemical and magnetic properties.

  14. Structural changes of electron and ion beam-deposited contacts in annealed carbon-based electrical devices

    KAUST Repository

    Batra, Nitin M

    2015-10-09

    The use of electron and ion beam deposition to make devices containing discrete nanostructures as interconnectors is a well-known nanofabrication process. Classically, one-dimensional materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been electrically characterized by resorting to these beam deposition methods. While much attention has been given to the interconnectors, less is known about the contacting electrodes (or leads). In particular, the structure and chemistry of the electrode–interconnector interface is a topic that deserves more attention, as it is critical to understand the device behavior. Here, the structure and chemistry of Pt electrodes, deposited either with electron or ion beams and contacted to a CNT, are analyzed before and after thermally annealing the device in a vacuum. Free-standing Pt nanorods, acting as beam-deposited electrode models, are also characterized pre- and post-annealing. Overall, the as-deposited leads contain a non-negligible amount of amorphous carbon that is consolidated, upon heating, as a partially graphitized outer shell enveloping a Pt core. This observation raises pertinent questions regarding the definition of electrode–nanostructure interfaces in electrical devices, in particular long-standing assumptions of metal-CNT contacts fabricated by direct beam deposition methods.

  15. DFT calculations on electronic properties of ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, J.M.; Reynoso, V.C.; Azevedo, D.H.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Introduction - Thin films of Zinc oxide (ZnO) has a wide range of technological applications, as transparent conducting electrodes in solar cells, flat panel displays, and sensors, for example. More recently applications in optoelectronics, like light emitter diodes and laser diodes, due to its large band gap, are been explored. Studies of ZnO thin films are important for these applications. Methodology - In this study thin films of ZnO have been deposited by spray pyrolysis on glass substrate. The films were characterized by XRD and UV-VIS techniques and the electronic properties as a function of the film thickness have been investigated by DFT calculations with B3LYP hybrid potential implemented in the CRYSTAL09 code. Results - The diffractograms obtained for the ZnO thin films as a function of the thickness are shown. The films exhibit a hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred c-axis orientation in (002) direction of ZnO crystal. A quantum mechanical approach based on the periodic Density Functional Theory (DFT), with B3LYP hybrid potential was used to investigate the electronic structure of the films as a function of the thickness. The CRYSTAL09 code has been used for the calculations on the wurtzite hexagonal structure of ZnO - spatial group P63mc. For optimizing the geometry of the pure ZnO crystal, the experimental lattice parameters were got as follows: a= 0.325 nm, b= 0.325 nm, c= 0.5207 nm with c/a= 1.602. Considering to the calculations of the band structure, it is suggested that the semiconducting properties of ZnO arises from the overlapping of the 4s orbital of the conducting band of Zn and the 2p orbital of the top of valence band of O. Conclusions - The structure of ZnO thin film deposited on glass substrate present preferential orientation in (002) direction. Variation in the optical properties as a function of the film thickness was observed. The band gap energy was determined from optical analysis to be ∼ 3.27 eV. The refractive

  16. RTRO–Coal: Real-Time Resource-Reconciliation and Optimization for Exploitation of Coal Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Benndorf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents an innovative and integrated framework for real-time-process reconciliation and optimization (RTRO in large continuous open pit coal mines. RTRO-Coal is currently developed, validated, tested and implemented as part of a multi-national multi-partner European Union funded R&D project. The key concept is to promote a shift in paradigm from intermittent discontinuous to a continuous process monitoring and quality management system in large scale coal mining operations. The framework is based on a real-time feedback control loop linking online data acquired during extraction rapidly with a sequentially up-datable resource model. The up-to-date model is integrated with a real-time optimization of short-term sequencing and production control decisions. Improved decisions are expected to lead to increased resource-and process efficiency and support a sustainable extraction of natural resources. This contribution introduces to the framework, discusses main building blocks and illustrates the value added by the means of selected examples.

  17. Chemical Vapour Deposition of Graphene with Re-useable Pt and Cu substrates for Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamat, Shumaila; Sonusen, Selda; Celik, Umit; Uysalli, Yigit; Oral, Ahmet

    2015-03-01

    Graphene has gained the attention of scientific world due to its outstanding physical properties. The future demand of flexible electronics such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, photo-detectors and touch screen technology requires more exploration of graphene properties on flexible substrates. The most interesting application of graphene is in organic light emitting diodes (OLED) where efforts are in progress to replace brittle indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode with a flexible graphene electrode because ITO raw materials are becoming increasingly expensive, and its brittle nature makes it unsuitable for flexible devices. In this work, we grow graphene on Pt and Cu substrates using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and transferred it to a polymer material (PVA) using lamination technique. We used hydrogen bubbling method for separating graphene from Pt and Cu catalyst to reuse the substrates many times. After successful transfer of graphene on polymer samples, we checked the resistivity values of the graphene sheet which varies with growth conditions. Furthermore, Raman, atomic force microscopy (AFM), I-V and Force-displacement measurements will be presented for these samples.

  18. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices.

  19. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  20. Growth of doped silicon nanowires by pulsed laser deposition and their analysis by electron beam induced current imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhawer, B; Berger, A; Christiansen, S [Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Zhang, D; Clavel, R [Laboratory of Robotic Systems, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Michler, J, E-mail: bjoern.eisenhawer@ipht-jena.de [Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures Laboratory, EMPA-Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland)

    2011-02-18

    Doped silicon nanowires (NWs) were epitaxially grown on silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition following a vapour-liquid-solid process, in which dopants together with silicon atoms were introduced into the gas phase by laser ablation of lightly and highly doped silicon target material. p-n or p{sup ++}-p junctions located at the NW-silicon substrate interfaces were thus realized. To detect these junctions and visualize them the electron beam induced current technique and two-point probe current-voltage measurements were used, based on nanoprobing individual silicon NWs in a scanning electron microscope. Successful silicon NW doping by pulsed laser deposition of doped target material could experimentally be demonstrated. This doping strategy compared to the commonly used doping from the gas phase during chemical vapour deposition is evaluated essentially with a view to potentially overcoming the limitations of chemical vapour deposition doping, which shows doping inhomogeneities between the top and bottom of the NW as well as between the core and shell of NWs and structural lattice defects, especially when high doping levels are envisaged. The pulsed laser deposition doping technique yields homogeneously doped NWs and the doping level can be controlled by the choice of the target material. As a further benefit, this doping procedure does not require the use of poisonous gases and may be applied to grow not only silicon NWs but also other kinds of doped semiconductor NWs, e.g. group III nitrides or arsenides.

  1. Fabrication of metallic single electron transistors featuring plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of tunnel barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasian, Golnaz

    The continuing increase of the device density in integrated circuits (ICs) gives rise to the high level of power that is dissipated per unit area and consequently a high temperature in the circuits. Since temperature affects the performance and reliability of the circuits, minimization of the energy consumption in logic devices is now the center of attention. According to the International Technology Roadmaps for Semiconductors (ITRS), single electron transistors (SETs) hold the promise of achieving the lowest power of any known logic device, as low as 1x10-18 J per switching event. Moreover, SETs are the most sensitive electrometers to date, and are capable of detecting a fraction of an electron charge. Despite their low power consumption and high sensitivity for charge detection, room temperature operation of these devices is quite challenging mainly due to lithographical constraints in fabricating structures with the required dimensions of less than 10 nm. Silicon based SETs have been reported to operate at room temperature. However, they all suffer from significant variation in batch-to-batch performance, low fabrication yield, and temperature-dependent tunnel barrier height. In this project, we explored the fabrication of SETs featuring metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel junctions. While Si-based SETs suffer from undesirable effect of dopants that result in irregularities in the device behavior, in metal-based SETs the device components (tunnel barrier, island, and the leads) are well-defined. Therefore, metal SETs are potentially more predictable in behavior, making them easier to incorporate into circuits, and easier to check against theoretical models. Here, the proposed fabrication method takes advantage of unique properties of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). Chemical mechanical polishing provides a path for tuning the dimensions of the tunnel junctions, surpassing the limits imposed by electron beam

  2. Structural and growth aspects of electron beam physical vapor deposited NiO-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuanr, Sushil Kumar; K, Suresh Babu, E-mail: sureshbabu.nst@pondiuni.edu.in [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Madanjeet School of Green Energy Technologies, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Deposition of composite materials as thin film by electron beam physical vapor deposition technique (EB-PVD) still remains as a challenge. Here, the authors report the deposition of NiO-CeO{sub 2} (30/70 wt. %) composites on quartz substrate by EB-PVD. Two NiO-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite targets—one as green compact and the other after sintering at 1250 °C—were used for the deposition. Though the targets varied with respect to physical properties such as crystallite size (11–45 nm) and relative density (44% and 96%), the resultant thin films exhibited a mean crystallite size in the range of 20–25 nm underlining the role of physical nature of deposition. In spite of the crystalline nature of the targets and similar elemental concentration, a transformation from amorphous to crystalline structure was observed in thin films on using sintered target. Postannealing of the as deposited film at 800 °C resulted in a polycrystalline structure consisting of CeO{sub 2} and NiO. Deposition using pure CeO{sub 2} or NiO as target resulted in the preferential orientation toward (111) and (200) planes, respectively, showing the influence of adatoms on the evaporation and growth process of NiO-CeO{sub 2} composite. The results demonstrate the influence of electron beam gun power on the adatom energy for the growth process of composite oxide thin films.

  3. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis on the microstructures of electrolytic Cu deposition in the through hole filling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C.E., E-mail: ceho1975@hotmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liao, C.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan, ROC (China); School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Pan, C.X. [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Chen, H.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, J.C.; Chen, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-10-01

    Through hole (TH) filling by electrolytic Cu deposition has become a critical process for high density interconnection technologies associated with three-dimensional packaging. In this study, the morphological and crystallographic evolutions of the electrolytic Cu TH filling with the plating time (t) were investigated using an optical microscope and a field-emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis system. The Cu deposition rate in the TH was strongly dependent on t, which was established at a moderate rate of ∼ 0.3 μm/min at t = 40 min–74 min, then dramatically accelerated to ∼ 4 μm/min at t = 74 min–80 min (termed “fast deposition regime”), and subsequently decelerated in the final plating regime (t = 80 min–100 min). EBSD analyses showed that the electrolytic Cu predominantly possessed high-angle grain boundaries with strong coincidence site lattices at ∑3 (60° rotation at <111>) and ∑9 (38.9° rotation at <101>) for all t examined. Interestingly, the [111]‖TD (transverse direction) orientation displayed a relatively strong presence in the initial induction regime, while the [111]‖TD + [101]‖TD orientations with large grain sizes became dominant in the fast deposition regime (i.e., t = 74 min–80 min), and there was a very low concentration of the [111]‖TD orientation in the final deposition regime. This research offered a better understanding of the morphological and crystallographic evolutions in each stage of the electrolytic Cu TH filling. - Highlights: • Through hole (TH) filling by electrolytic Cu deposition • The Cu deposition rate is strongly dependent on the plating time in the THs. • The dominant Cu orientations were [111]‖TD (transverse direction) and [101]‖TD. • Cu possessed high angle grain boundaries with strong coincidence site lattices.

  4. Correlation between energy deposition and molecular damage from Auger electrons: A case study of ultra-low energy (5–18 eV) electron interactions with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaee, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Rezaee@USherbrooke.ca; Hunting, Darel J.; Sanche, Léon [Groupe en Sciences des Radiations, Département de Médecine Nucléaire et Radiobiologie, Faculté de Médecine et des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The present study introduces a new method to establish a direct correlation between biologically related physical parameters (i.e., stopping and damaging cross sections, respectively) for an Auger-electron emitting radionuclide decaying within a target molecule (e.g., DNA), so as to evaluate the efficacy of the radionuclide at the molecular level. These parameters can be applied to the dosimetry of Auger electrons and the quantification of their biological effects, which are the main criteria to assess the therapeutic efficacy of Auger-electron emitting radionuclides. Methods: Absorbed dose and stopping cross section for the Auger electrons of 5–18 eV emitted by{sup 125}I within DNA were determined by developing a nanodosimetric model. The molecular damages induced by these Auger electrons were investigated by measuring damaging cross section, including that for the formation of DNA single- and double-strand breaks. Nanoscale films of pure plasmid DNA were prepared via the freeze-drying technique and subsequently irradiated with low-energy electrons at various fluences. The damaging cross sections were determined by employing a molecular survival model to the measured exposure–response curves for induction of DNA strand breaks. Results: For a single decay of{sup 125}I within DNA, the Auger electrons of 5–18 eV deposit the energies of 12.1 and 9.1 eV within a 4.2-nm{sup 3} volume of a hydrated or dry DNA, which results in the absorbed doses of 270 and 210 kGy, respectively. DNA bases have a major contribution to the deposited energies. Ten-electronvolt and high linear energy transfer 100-eV electrons have a similar cross section for the formation of DNA double-strand break, while 100-eV electrons are twice as efficient as 10 eV in the induction of single-strand break. Conclusions: Ultra-low-energy electrons (<18 eV) substantially contribute to the absorbed dose and to the molecular damage from Auger-electron emitting radionuclides; hence, they should

  5. Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of hominid-bearing deposits in the Caverna delle Fate, Ligure, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgueres, Christophe; Yokoyama, Yuji; Bibron, Roland

    1990-07-01

    Stalagmitic floors interstratified with Mousterian deposits from the Caverna delle Fate (Italy) have been dated by the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. Three samples dated fall between 60,000 and 74,000 yr and indicate the age of the Mousterian deposits. They are in good agreement with ages determined by nondestructive γ-ray spectrometry of the human remains from 231Pa/ 235U and 230Th /234U ratios, which are, respectively, 75,000 -14,000+21,000 and 82,000 -25,000+36,000 yr. These dates are consistent with the morphological characteristics of the bones as Neanderthal remains.

  6. The Effect of Annealing on the Structural and Optical Properties of Titanium Dioxide Films Deposited by Electron Beam Assisted PVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser M. Abdulraheem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide thin films were deposited on crystalline silicon substrates by electron beam physical vapor deposition. The deposition was performed under vacuum ranging from 10−5 to 10−6 Torr without process gases, resulting in homogeneous TiO2-x layers with a thickness of around 100 nm. Samples were then annealed at high temperatures ranging from 500°C to 800°C for 4 hours under nitrogen, and their structural and optical properties along with their chemical structure were characterized before and after annealing. The chemical and structural characterization revealed a substoichiometric TiO2-x film with oxygen vacancies, voids, and an interface oxide layer. It was found from X-ray diffraction that the deposited films were amorphous and crystallization to anatase phase occurred for annealed samples and was more pronounced for annealing temperatures above 700°C. The refractive index obtained through spectroscopic ellipsometry ranged between 2.09 and 2.37 in the wavelength range, 900 nm to 400 nm for the as-deposited sample, and jumped to the range between 2.23 and 2.65 for samples annealed at 800°C. The minimum surface reflectance changed from around 0.6% for the as-deposited samples to 2.5% for the samples annealed at 800°C.

  7. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  8. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  9. Electronic properties of high-temperature superconducting thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, Daniel; Cloetta, D.; Margaritondo, Giorgio; Pavuna, Davor

    2002-11-01

    We use a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) setup to grow ultra-thin films of high temperature superconductors (HTSC) and transfer them in-situ into a photoemission chamber. Photoemission measurements on such films allow us to study non-cleavable materials, but can also give insights into aspects never measured before, like the influence of strain on the low energy electronic structure. Systematic studies of many different materials grown as films showed that Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x, Bi2Sr2Cu1O6+x, Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+x and La2-xSrxCuO4 films exhibit a conductor-like Fermi edge, but materials containing chains (such as YBa2Cu3O7-x) are prone to very rapid surface degradation, possibly related to critical oxygen loss at the surface. Among HTSC materials, La2-xSrxCuO4 is extremely interesting because of its rather simple structure and the fact that its critical temperature Tc can be enhanced by epitaxial strain. Here we present our first high resolution angular resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) results on 8 unit-cell thin La2-xSrxCuO4 films on SrLaAlO4 [001] substrates. Due to the lattice mismatch, such films are compressed in the copper oxygen planes and expanded in the c-axis direction. Results show a surprisingly modified Fermi surface compared to the one of non-strained samples.

  10. NanoSQUID magnetometry of individual cobalt nanoparticles grown by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, M. J.; Müller, B.; Schwebius, D.; Korinski, D.; Kleiner, R.; Sesé, J.; Koelle, D.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the operation of low-noise nano superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) based on the high critical field and high critical temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) as ultra-sensitive magnetometers for single magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The nanoSQUIDs exploit the Josephson behavior of YBCO grain boundaries and have been patterned by focused ion beam milling. This allows us to precisely define the lateral dimensions of the SQUIDs so as to achieve large magnetic coupling between the nanoloop and individual MNPs. By means of focused electron beam induced deposition, cobalt MNPs with a typical size of several tens of nm have been grown directly on the surface of the sensors with nanometric spatial resolution. Remarkably, the nanoSQUIDs are operative over extremely broad ranges of applied magnetic field (-1 T \\lt {μ }0H\\lt 1 T) and temperature (0.3 K \\lt T\\lt 80 K). All these features together have allowed us to perform magnetization measurements under different ambient conditions and to detect the magnetization reversal of individual Co MNPs with magnetic moments (1-30) × {10}6 {μ }{{B}}. Depending on the dimensions and shape of the particles we have distinguished between two different magnetic states yielding different reversal mechanisms. The magnetization reversal is thermally activated over an energy barrier, which has been quantified for the (quasi) single-domain particles. Our measurements serve to show not only the high sensitivity achievable with YBCO nanoSQUIDs, but also demonstrate that these sensors are exceptional magnetometers for the investigation of the properties of individual nanomagnets.

  11. Aufwand und Nutzen des Electronic Resource Management Systems RMS an der UB Kassel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Pohlmann

    2016-03-01

    The university library of Kassel therefore uses SemperTool’s web-based electronic resource management system RMS. This paper presents the functionality of this system and makes an estimate of the expenditure of work necessary to enter all relevant information about licensed databases, e-book and e-journal packages with the corresponding individual resources. It also describes existing and projected tools for analysis and evaluation, which are decisive for the usefulness of such a system, and concludes with the satisfaction reached at the university library of Kassel. These experiences may help other libraries to decide whether or not to introduce RMS or a comparable system.

  12. Plasmonic Gold Helices for the visible range fabricated by oxygen plasma purification of electron beam induced deposits

    CERN Document Server

    Haverkamp, Caspar; Jäckle, Sara; Manzoni, Anna; Christiansen, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) currently provides the only direct writing technique for truly three-dimensional nanostructures with geometrical features below 50 nm. Unfortunately, the depositions from metal-organic precursors suffer from a substantial carbon content. This hinders many applications, especially in plasmonics where the metallic nature of the geometric surfaces is mandatory. To overcome this problem a post-deposition treatment with oxygen plasma at room temperature was investigated for the purification of gold containing EBID structures. Upon plasma treatment, the structures experience a shrinkage in diameter of about 18 nm but entirely keep their initial shape. The proposed purification step results in a core-shell structure with the core consisting of mainly unaffected EBID material and a gold shell of about 20 nm in thickness. These purified structures are plasmonically active in the visible wavelength range as shown by dark field optical microscopy on helical nanostructures. Most no...

  13. Characteristics and properties of metal aluminum thin films prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Yu-Qing; Li Xing-Cun; Chen Qiang; Lei Wen-Wen; Zhao Qiao; Sang Li-Jun; Liu Zhong-Wei; Wang Zheng-Duo; Yang Li-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Metal aluminum (Al) thin films are prepared by 2450 MHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition on glass and p-Si substrates using trimethylaluminum as the precursor and hydrogen as the reductive gas.We focus our attention on the plasma source for the thin-film preparation and annealing of the as-deposited films relative to the surface square resistivity.The square resistivity of as-deposited Al films is greatly reduced after annealing and almost reaches the value of bulk metal.Through chemical and structural analysis,we conclude that the square resistivity is determined by neither the contaminant concentration nor the surface morphology,but by both the crystallinity and crystal size in this process.

  14. High-Quality ZrO2 Thin Films Deposited on Silicon by High Vacuum Electron Beam Evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章宁琳; 万青; 宋志棠; 沈勤我; 祝向荣; 林成鲁

    2002-01-01

    Zirconium oxide films were deposited on p-type Si(l00) substrates using high vacuum electron beam evaporation (HVEBE) at room temperature. X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy shows that the dominant chemical state of zirconia thin films is in the fully oxidized state of Zr4+, no matter whether annealed in oxygen. The structural information from x-ray diffraction shows that zirconia thin films deposited at room temperature by HVEBEwere completely amorphous before and after the annealing. The spreading resistance profile indicates that ZrO2 thin films have excellent insulation property (with a resistance of more than 10s Ω) and the thickness is 800A.After thermal treatment at 600°C in O2 ambient, the root-mean-square roughness changed from 8.09 A of the as-deposited film to 13.8A across an area of i × 1μm2.

  15. Applying a new understanding of supergene REE deposit formation to global exploration initiatives for environmentally sustainable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Liam; Smith, Martin; Hood, Leo; Heller, Shaun; Faltyn, Rowan; Blum, Astrid; Bamberger, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Two new models have recently been proposed for the formation of REE ion-adsorption deposits and it is likely that they are both active in their related study profiles described in the Ambohimirahavavy Complex in Madagascar (Marquis et al, 2016) and the Serra de Monchique (SDM) complex in Portugal (Hardy et al, 2016). These are two separate environments presenting two different soil systems in terms of flora, protolith and structure. In the latosol profiles of SDM the natural sweating cycle of eucalyptus trees is proposed as the main geochemical cycling control for some 40% of Fe and 30% of Y, which have been observed migrating up and down profile seasonally between upper horizons and the rooting depths of these intensively farmed trees. If, through their natural cycle, eucalyptus trees in SDM are capable of concentrating depleted protolithic Y contents of 4-10ppm to some 140-160ppm in their enriched 150-200cm deep E horizons in only the 40 years since they were introduced to the region (Jenkins, 1979), then what potential deposits and concentrations may lay underneath older plantations across Brazil, Chile, China and most importantly, Australia, where these trees naturally cover some 16% of the entire continent. Eucalyptus is mostly farmed as pulp for paper mills and has lost its market value with the demand for paper decreasing, as the demand for REEs increases, ironically driven by the demand for the accessible technology to replace paper (EPA, 2012). Not only might there be great resources below these forests, but the removal of the aggressive intrusive species would be welcomed across Southern Europe and South America where they have limited market value and have destroyed local ecosystems and water supplies (Brito, 1999), where local people are actively seeking an alternative use of their lands. References: Brito, J. G. (1999). Management strategies for conservation of the lizard Lacerta schreiberi in Portugal. Biological conservation, 311-319. EPA. (2012

  16. The use of electron Rutherford backscattering to characterize novel electronic materials as illustrated by a case study of sputter-deposited NbO{sub x} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, M., E-mail: maarten.vos@anu.edu.au [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Liu, X. [Electronic Materials Engineering Department, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Grande, P.L. [Electronic Materials Engineering Department, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nandi, S.K. [Electronic Materials Engineering Department, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Venkatachalam, D.K.; Elliman, R.G. [Electronic Materials Engineering Department, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    Electrons scattered over large angles at relatively high energies (40 keV) are used to study NbO{sub x} films. These films were deposited by reactive sputter deposition on a Si substrate using a Nb target and an Ar/O{sub 2} gas mixture. Energy spectra of electrons scattered from such samples exhibit elastic scattering peaks for each component due to the energy difference associated with scattering from different masses. The spectra provide in this way information about the film thickness as well as its stoichiometry. The stoichiometry and the deposition rate depends on the concentration of O{sub 2} in the mixture. For Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-like films the energy loss measurements also give an estimate of the band gap, but for Nb films with lower O concentration the band gap is not resolved. This work illustrates the possibility of characterizing modern transition metal oxide films in a fairly simple electron scattering experiment.

  17. Aggregation of estimated numbers of undiscovered deposits: an R-script with an example from the Chu Sarysu Basin, Kazakhtan: Chapter B in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemeyer, John H.; Zientek, Michael L.; Box, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments completed by the U.S. Geological Survey during the past three decades express geologically based estimates of numbers of undiscovered mineral deposits as probability distributions. Numbers of undiscovered deposits of a given type are estimated in geologically defined regions. Using Monte Carlo simulations, these undiscovered deposit estimates are combined with tonnage and grade models to derive a probability distribution describing amounts of commodities and rock that could be present in undiscovered deposits within a study area. In some situations, it is desirable to aggregate the assessment results from several study areas. This report provides a script developed in open-source statistical software, R, that aggregates undiscovered deposit estimates of a given type, assuming independence, total dependence, or some degree of correlation among aggregated areas, given a user-specified correlation matrix.

  18. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  19. Activation of Metal-Organic Precursors by Electron Bombardment in the Gas Phase for Enhanced Deposition of Solid Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huaxing; Qin, Xiangdong; Zaera, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    The incorporation of gas-phase electron-impact ionization and activation of metal-organic compounds into atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is reported as a way to enhance film growth with stable precursors. Specifically, it is shown here that gas-phase activation of methylcyclopentadienylmanganese tricarbonyl, MeCpMn(CO)3, which was accomplished by using a typical nude ion gauge employed in many ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) studies, enhances its dissociative adsorption on silicon surfaces, affording the design of ALD cycles with more extensive Mn deposition and at lower temperatures. Significantly higher Mn uptakes were demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on both silicon dioxide films and on Si(100) wafers Ar(+)-sputtered to remove their native oxide layer. The effectiveness of this electron-impact activation approach in ALD is explained in terms of the cracking patterns seen in mass spectrometry for the metal-organic precursor used.

  20. Thickness and component distributions of yttrium-titanium alloy films in electron-beam physical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ShuaiHui; SHU YongHua; FAN Jing

    2008-01-01

    Thickness and component distributions of large-area thin films are an issue of in-ternational concern in the field of material processing. The present wor0k employs experiments and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to investigate three-dimensional low-density, non-equilibrium jets of yttrium and titanium vapor atoms in an electron-beams physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) system furnished with two or three electron-beams, and obtains their deposition thickness and component distributions onto 4-inch and 6-inch mono-crystal silicon wafers. The DSMC results are found in excellent agreement with our measurements, such as evaporation rates of yttrium and titanium measured in-situ by quartz crystal reso-nators, deposited film thickness distribution measured by Rutherford backscat-tering spectrometer (RBS) and surface profilometer and deposited film molar ratio distribution measured by RBS and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). This can be taken as an indication that a combination of DSMC method with elaborate measurements may be satisfactory for predicting and designing accurately the transport process of EBPVD at the atomic level.

  1. Thickness and component distributions of yttrium-titanium alloy films in electron-beam physical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Thickness and component distributions of large-area thin films are an issue of in-ternational concern in the field of material processing. The present work employs experiments and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to investigate three-dimensional low-density, non-equilibrium jets of yttrium and titanium vapor atoms in an electron-beams physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) system furnished with two or three electron-beams, and obtains their deposition thickness and component distributions onto 4-inch and 6-inch mono-crystal silicon wafers. The DSMC results are found in excellent agreement with our measurements, such as evaporation rates of yttrium and titanium measured in-situ by quartz crystal reso-nators, deposited film thickness distribution measured by Rutherford backscat-tering spectrometer (RBS) and surface profilometer and deposited film molar ratio distribution measured by RBS and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). This can be taken as an indication that a combination of DSMC method with elaborate measurements may be satisfactory for predicting and designing accurately the transport process of EBPVD at the atomic level.

  2. A database of frequency distributions of energy depositions in small-size targets by electrons and ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikjoo, H; Uehara, S; Emfietzoglou, D; Pinsky, L

    2011-02-01

    Linear energy transfer (LET) is an average quantity, which cannot display the stochastics of the interactions of radiation tracks in the target volume. For this reason, microdosimetry distributions have been defined to overcome the LET shortcomings. In this paper, model calculations of frequency distributions for energy depositions in nanometre size targets, diameters 1-100 nm, and for a 1 μm diameter wall-less TEPC, for electrons, protons, alpha particles and carbon ions are reported. Frequency distributions for energy depositions in small-size targets with dimensions similar to those of biological molecules are useful for modelling and calculations of DNA damage. Monte Carlo track structure codes KURBUC and PITS99 were used to generate tracks of primary electrons 10 eV to 1 MeV, and ions 1 keV µm(-1) to 300 MeV µm(-1) energies. Distribution of absolute frequencies of energy depositions in volumes with diameters of 1-100 nm randomly positioned in unit density water irradiated with 1 Gy of the given radiation was obtained. Data are presented for frequency of energy depositions and microdosimetry quantities including mean lineal energy, dose mean lineal energy, frequency mean specific energy and dose mean specific energy. The modelling and calculations presented in this work are useful for characterisation of the quality of radiation beam in biophysical studies and in radiation therapy.

  3. Dielectric and Insulating Properties of Embedded Capacitor for Flexible Electronics Prepared by Aerosol-Type Nanoparticle Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Yoshihiko; Amada, Hideyuki; Kumasaka, Fumiaki

    2013-05-01

    The rapid evolution in electronic equipment has created a demand for advanced devices that are flexible, thin, and light in weight. This demand is driving the development of a core technology for flexible and stretchable electronic devices. To produce wearable computers, we need to fabricate functional membranes that contain passive devices, such as capacitors and resistors, on resin sheets at low temperatures. These sheets can then serve as mounting boards for various electronic devices. By improving the technique for room-temperature aerosol-type nanoparticle deposition of a ceramic material, we have established a technology for forming a dielectric inorganic BaTiO3 film with an excellent degree of crystallinity and favorable electric properties for use in the production of flexible and stretchable electronic devices on a polyimide sheet. By this method of forming a homogeneous nanoparticle structure inside a film, we produced a capacitor film with a dielectric constant of 200 on a polyimide sheet at room temperature.

  4. Electronic density functional theory in the grand canonical ensemble, electrochemistry, and the underpotential deposition of Cu/Pt(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Weaver, Kendra; Arias, Tomas

    2012-02-01

    The study of electrochemical systems within electronic density functional theory requires the handling of non-neutral electronic systems in the plane-wave basis in order to accurately describe charged metallic surfaces; this can be accomplished in joint density functional theory by adding an electrolyte with Debye screening ootnotetextK. L. Weaver and T. A. Arias (under preparation). This capability opens up the opportunity to work in the grand canonical ensemble at fixed chemical potential μ for the electrons, which corresponds directly to the experimental setting in electrochemistry. We present efficient techniques for electronic density functional calculations at fixed μ, and demonstrate the improvement in predictive power over conventional neutral calculations using the underpotential deposition of Cu/Pt(111) as an example: for the first time, we calculate absolute voltages for electrochemical processes in excellent agreement with experiment, instead of voltage shifts alone.

  5. Progress on Low-Temperature Pulsed Electron Deposition of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Mazzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The quest for single-stage deposition of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS is an open race to replace very effective but capital intensive thin film solar cell manufacturing processes like multiple-stage coevaporation or sputtering combined with high pressure selenisation treatments. In this paper the most recent achievements of Low Temperature Pulsed Electron Deposition (LTPED, a novel single stage deposition process by which CIGS can be deposited at 250 °C, are presented and discussed. We show that selenium loss during the film deposition is not a problem with LTPED as good crystalline films are formed very close to the melting temperature of selenium. The mechanism of formation of good ohmic contacts between CIGS and Mo in the absence of any MoSe2 transition layers is also illustrated, followed by a brief summary of the measured characteristics of test solar cells grown by LTPED. The 17% efficiency target achieved by lab-scale CIGS devices without bandgap modulation, antireflection coating or K-doping is considered to be a crucial milestone along the path to the industrial scale-up of LTPED. The paper ends with a brief review of the open scientific and technological issues related to the scale-up and the possible future applications of the new technology.

  6. Engineering the mechanical properties of ultrabarrier films grown by atomic layer deposition for the encapsulation of printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulusu, A.; Singh, A.; Kim, H. [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Wang, C. Y.; Dindar, A.; Fuentes-Hernandez, C.; Kippelen, B. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Cullen, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 MS-6064, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Graham, S., E-mail: sgraham@gatech.edu [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 MS-6064, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Direct deposition of barrier films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto printed electronics presents a promising method for packaging devices. Films made by ALD have been shown to possess desired ultrabarrier properties, but face challenges when directly grown onto surfaces with varying composition and topography. Challenges include differing nucleation and growth rates across the surface, stress concentrations from topography and coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch, elastic constant mismatch, and particle contamination that may impact the performance of the ALD barrier. In such cases, a polymer smoothing layer may be needed to coat the surface prior to ALD barrier film deposition. We present the impact of architecture on the performance of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})/hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) ALD nanolaminate barrier films deposited on fluorinated polymer layer using an optical calcium (Ca) test under damp heat. It is found that with increasing polymer thickness, the barrier films with residual tensile stress are prone to cracking resulting in rapid failure of the Ca sensor at 50 °C/85% relative humidity. Inserting a SiN{sub x} layer with residual compressive stress between the polymer and ALD layers is found to prevent cracking over a range of polymer thicknesses with more than 95% of the Ca sensor remaining after 500 h of testing. These results suggest that controlling mechanical properties and film architecture play an important role in the performance of direct deposited ALD barriers.

  7. Engineering the mechanical properties of ultrabarrier films grown by atomic layer deposition for the encapsulation of printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulusu, A.; Singh, A.; Wang, C. Y.; Dindar, A.; Fuentes-Hernandez, C.; Kim, H.; Cullen, D.; Kippelen, B.; Graham, S.

    2015-08-01

    Direct deposition of barrier films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto printed electronics presents a promising method for packaging devices. Films made by ALD have been shown to possess desired ultrabarrier properties, but face challenges when directly grown onto surfaces with varying composition and topography. Challenges include differing nucleation and growth rates across the surface, stress concentrations from topography and coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch, elastic constant mismatch, and particle contamination that may impact the performance of the ALD barrier. In such cases, a polymer smoothing layer may be needed to coat the surface prior to ALD barrier film deposition. We present the impact of architecture on the performance of aluminum oxide (Al2O3)/hafnium oxide (HfO2) ALD nanolaminate barrier films deposited on fluorinated polymer layer using an optical calcium (Ca) test under damp heat. It is found that with increasing polymer thickness, the barrier films with residual tensile stress are prone to cracking resulting in rapid failure of the Ca sensor at 50 °C/85% relative humidity. Inserting a SiNx layer with residual compressive stress between the polymer and ALD layers is found to prevent cracking over a range of polymer thicknesses with more than 95% of the Ca sensor remaining after 500 h of testing. These results suggest that controlling mechanical properties and film architecture play an important role in the performance of direct deposited ALD barriers.

  8. Teachers' Link to Electronic Resources in the Library Media Center: A Local Study of Awareness, Knowledge, and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Teresa D.; Grimble, Bonnie J.; Irwin, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    High school students often use online databases and the Internet in the school library media center (SLMC) to complete teachers' assignments. This case study used a survey to assess teachers' awareness of electronic resources, and to determine whether their directions influence student use of these resources in the SLMC. Participants were teachers…

  9. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  10. Z-scan studies of the nonlinear optical properties of gold nanoparticles prepared by electron beam deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, M H; Nady, A; Penny, R; Chong, W Y; Zakaria, R

    2015-11-20

    This paper details the fabrication process for placing single-layer gold (Au) nanoparticles on a planar substrate, and investigation of the resulting optical properties that can be exploited for nonlinear optics applications. Preparation of Au nanoparticles on the substrate involved electron beam deposition and subsequent thermal dewetting. The obtained thin films of Au had a variation in thicknesses related to the controllable deposition time during the electron beam deposition process. These samples were then subjected to thermal annealing at 600°C to produce a randomly distributed layer of Au nanoparticles. Observation from field-effect scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images indicated the size of Au nanoparticles ranges from ∼13 to ∼48  nm. Details of the optical properties related to peak absorption of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the nanoparticle were revealed by use of UV-Vis spectroscopy. The Z-scan technique was used to measure the nonlinear effects on the fabricated Au nanoparticle layers where it strongly relates LSPR and nonlinear optical properties.

  11. Reducing Clinical Trial Monitoring Resource Allocation and Costs Through Remote Access to Electronic Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Shannon C.; Kirkman, Mitchell B.; Dalton, Brad S.; Zalcberg, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. Methods: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Results: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Conclusion: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials. PMID:23633977

  12. Characterization of an innovative method for RuO2 deposition using Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo

    Many photocatalysts work better or exclusively when a suitable cocatalyst, such as RuO2, is deposited on their surface. An innovative method of RuO2 deposition has been found to improve the performance of photocatalysts such as (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx), WO3, SrTiO3 and TiO2. Here we use high angle annu...

  13. Solution processed deposition of electron transport layers on perovskite crystal surface-A modeling based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortuza, S. M.; Taufique, M. F. N.; Banerjee, Soumik

    2017-02-01

    The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has reached up to ∼20%. However, structural and chemicals defects that lead to hysteresis in the perovskite based thin film pose challenges. Recent work has shown that thin films of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) deposited on the photo absorption layer, using solution processing techniques, minimize surface pin holes and defects thereby increasing the PCE. We developed and employed a multiscale model based on molecular dynamics (MD) and kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to establish a relationship between deposition rate and surface coverage on perovskite surface. The MD simulations of PCBMs dispersed in chlorobenzene, sandwiched between (110) perovskite substrates, indicate that PCBMs are deposited through anchoring of the oxygen atom of carbonyl group to the exposed lead (Pb) atom of (110) perovskite surface. Based on rates of distinct deposition events calculated from MD, kMC simulations were run to determine surface coverage at much larger time and length scales than accessible by MD alone. Based on the model, a generic relationship is established between deposition rate of PCBMs and surface coverage on perovskite crystal. The study also provides detailed insights into the morphology of the deposited film.

  14. Atomic radical abatement of organic impurities from electron beam deposited metallic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wnuk, J.D.; Gorham, J.M.; Rosenberg, S.G.; Madey, T.E.; Hagen, C.W.; Fairbrother, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP) of volatile organometallic precursors has become an effective and versatile method of fabricating metal-containing nanostructures. However, the electron stimulated decomposition process responsible for the growth of these nanostructures traps much of

  15. Atomic radical abatement of organic impurities from electron beam deposited metallic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wnuk, J.D.; Gorham, J.M.; Rosenberg, S.G.; Madey, T.E.; Hagen, C.W.; Fairbrother, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP) of volatile organometallic precursors has become an effective and versatile method of fabricating metal-containing nanostructures. However, the electron stimulated decomposition process responsible for the growth of these nanostructures traps much of

  16. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  17. Defects, stoichiometry, and electronic transport in SrTiO3-δ epilayers: A high pressure oxygen sputter deposition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambwani, P.; Xu, P.; Haugstad, G.; Jeong, J. S.; Deng, R.; Mkhoyan, K. A.; Jalan, B.; Leighton, C.

    2016-08-01

    SrTiO3 is not only of enduring interest due to its unique dielectric, structural, and lattice dynamical properties, but is also the archetypal perovskite oxide semiconductor and a foundational material in oxide heterostructures and electronics. This has naturally focused attention on growth, stoichiometry, and defects in SrTiO3, one exciting recent development being such precisely stoichiometric defect-managed thin films that electron mobilities have finally exceeded bulk crystals. This has been achieved only by molecular beam epitaxy, however (and to a somewhat lesser extent pulsed laser deposition (PLD)), and numerous open questions remain. Here, we present a study of the stoichiometry, defects, and structure in SrTiO3 synthesized by a different method, high pressure oxygen sputtering, relating the results to electronic transport. We find that this form of sputter deposition is also capable of homoepitaxy of precisely stoichiometric SrTiO3, but only provided that substrate and target preparation, temperature, pressure, and deposition rate are carefully controlled. Even under these conditions, oxygen-vacancy-doped heteroepitaxial SrTiO3 films are found to have carrier density, mobility, and conductivity significantly lower than bulk. While surface depletion plays a role, it is argued from particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) measurements of trace impurities in commercial sputtering targets that this is also due to deep acceptors such as Fe at 100's of parts-per-million levels. Comparisons of PIXE from SrTiO3 crystals and polycrystalline targets are shown to be of general interest, with clear implications for sputter and PLD deposition of this important material.

  18. Enhancement mode AlGaN/GaN MOS high-electron-mobility transistors with ZrO2 gate dielectric deposited by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis J.; Wheeler, Virginia D.; Shahin, David I.; Tadjer, Marko J.; Koehler, Andrew D.; Hobart, Karl D.; Christou, Aris; Kub, Francis J.; Eddy, Charles R., Jr.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced applications of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) in high-power RF and power switching are driving the need for insulated gate technology. We present a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate structure using atomic-layer-deposited ZrO2 as a high-k, high-breakdown gate dielectric for reduced gate leakage and a recessed barrier structure for enhancement mode operation. Compared to a Schottky metal-gate HEMT, the recessed MOS-HEMT structure demonstrated a reduction in the gate leakage current by 4 orders of magnitude and a threshold voltage shift of +6 V to a record +3.99 V, enabled by a combination of a recessed barrier structure and negative oxide charge.

  19. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  20. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  1. Spectroscopic investigation of the electronic structure of thin atomic layer deposition HfO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrêa, Silma Alberton, E-mail: silma.alberton@ufrgs.br; Brizzi, Simone; Schmeisser, Dieter [Applied Physics and Sensors, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 17, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The electronic structure of HfO{sub 2} thin films is investigated employing resonant photoelectron spectroscopy (resPES). The detailed analysis of the O1s resonance profile enables the determination of the partial density of states for the valence and the conduction bands as well as the electronic band gap to be 6.2 eV. The position of the charge neutrality level is evaluated. Thereby, it is demonstrated that the resPES data are able to combine information both for the valence as well as for the conduction band states. In addition, evidences for intrinsic in-gap states attributed to polaronic and charge transfer states are given. Electronic charges within the atomic layer deposition-HfO{sub 2} films are identified, pointing out that the amount of charges is essential to determine the accurate position of the surface potentials.

  2. Exploration of mineral resource deposits based on analysis of aerial and satellite image data employing artificial intelligence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Gennady

    2013-04-01

    We propose a solution to the problem of exploration of various mineral resource deposits, determination of their forms / classification of types (oil, gas, minerals, gold, etc.) with the help of satellite photography of the region of interest. Images received from satellite are processed and analyzed to reveal the presence of specific signs of deposits of various minerals. Course of data processing and making forecast can be divided into some stages: Pre-processing of images. Normalization of color and luminosity characteristics, determination of the necessary contrast level and integration of a great number of separate photos into a single map of the region are performed. Construction of semantic map image. Recognition of bitmapped image and allocation of objects and primitives known to system are realized. Intelligent analysis. At this stage acquired information is analyzed with the help of a knowledge base, which contain so-called "attention landscapes" of experts. Used methods of recognition and identification of images: a) combined method of image recognition, b)semantic analysis of posterized images, c) reconstruction of three-dimensional objects from bitmapped images, d)cognitive technology of processing and interpretation of images. This stage is fundamentally new and it distinguishes suggested technology from all others. Automatic registration of allocation of experts` attention - registration of so-called "attention landscape" of experts - is the base of the technology. Landscapes of attention are, essentially, highly effective filters that cut off unnecessary information and emphasize exactly the factors used by an expert for making a decision. The technology based on denoted principles involves the next stages, which are implemented in corresponding program agents. Training mode -> Creation of base of ophthalmologic images (OI) -> Processing and making generalized OI (GOI) -> Mode of recognition and interpretation of unknown images. Training mode

  3. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  4. Effects of Al interlayer coating and thermal treatment on electron emission characteristics of carbon nanotubes deposited by electrophoretic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Kim, Jong-Pil; Park, Jin-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aluminum (Al) interlayer coating and thermal post-treatment on the electron emission characteristics of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated. These CNTs were deposited on conical-shaped tungsten (W) substrates using an electrophoretic method. The Al interlayers were coated on the W substrates via magnetron sputtering prior to the deposition of CNTs. Compared with the as-deposited CNTs, the thermally treated CNTs revealed significantly improved electron emission characteristics, such as the decrease of turn-on electric fields and the increase of emission currents. The observations of Raman spectra confirmed that the improved emission characteristics of the thermally treated CNTs were ascribed to their enhanced crystal qualities. The coating of Al interlayers played a role in enhancing the long-term emission stabilities of the CNTs. The thermally treated CNTs with Al interlayers sustained stable emission currents without any significant degradation even after continuous operation of 20 h. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study suggested that the cohesive forces between the CNTs and the underlying substrates were strengthened by the coating of Al interlayers.

  5. Effects of Al interlayer coating and thermal treatment on electron emission characteristics of carbon nanotubes deposited by electrophoretic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Kim, Jong-Pil; Park, Jin-Seok

    2014-05-01

    The effects of aluminum (Al) interlayer coating and thermal post-treatment on the electron emission characteristics of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated. These CNTs were deposited on conical-shaped tungsten (W) substrates using an electrophoretic method. The Al interlayers were coated on the W substrates via magnetron sputtering prior to the deposition of CNTs. Compared with the as-deposited CNTs, the thermally treated CNTs revealed significantly improved electron emission characteristics, such as the decrease of turn-on electric fields and the increase of emission currents. The observations of Raman spectra confirmed that the improved emission characteristics of the thermally treated CNTs were ascribed to their enhanced crystal qualities. The coating of Al interlayers played a role in enhancing the long-term emission stabilities of the CNTs. The thermally treated CNTs with Al interlayers sustained stable emission currents without any significant degradation even after continuous operation of 20 h. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study suggested that the cohesive forces between the CNTs and the underlying substrates were strengthened by the coating of Al interlayers.

  6. Parametric evaluation of electron cyclotron resonance deposited SiO{sub 2} using a multicusp plasma applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckle, K.A.; Pastor, K. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Constantine, C.; Johnson, D. [Plasma-Therm Industrial Products, Inc., St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Plasma deposition of SiO{sub 2} on silicon substrates in a microwave (2.45 GHz) electron cyclotron resonance N{sub 2}O/SiH{sub 4}/He discharge has been investigated as a function of radio frequency (13.56 MHz) self-biasing of the sample, pressure, and microwave power, substrate temperature, and gas mixture. Deposition rates between 30 and 90 nm/min have been observed with quality films over a range of parameter combinations. The films have been analyzed for thickness and index of refraction by ellipsometry and for chemical structure by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The deposition process yielded films with virtually no Si-H, N-H, or Si-N bonding groups and only traces of OH bonds. Analysis of the Si-O-Si stretching peak reveals a film quality which compares favorably with good quality thermal oxides grown at much higher substrate bulk temperatures. Also, the relative insensitivity to the He content of the gas mixture indicates the surface chemistry of this process is fundamentally different from previously reported plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition processes. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Analysis of the dopant distribution in Co-deposited organic thin films by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Yolanda A. [Center of Nanotechnology and Nanoscience, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui 171-5-31B (Ecuador); Campos, Andrea P.C.; Achete, Carlos A. [DIMAT—INMETRO, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Cremona, Marco [DIMAT—INMETRO, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Department of Physics, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22453-970 (Brazil)

    2015-12-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes using phosphorescent dyes (PHOLEDs) have excellent performance, with internal quantum efficiencies approaching 100%. To maximize their performance, PHOLED devices use a conductive organic host material with a sufficiently dispersed phosphorescent guest to avoid concentration quenching. Fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium, [Ir(ppy){sub 3}] is one of the most widely used green phosphorescent organic compounds. In this work, we used scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) equipped with HAADF (high-angle annular dark-field) and EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) detectors to analyze the distribution of the [Ir(ppy){sub 3}] concentration in the host material. This analysis technique, employed for the first time in co-deposited organic thin films, can simultaneously obtain an image and its respective chemical information, allowing for definitive characterization of the distribution and morphology of [Ir(ppy){sub 3}]. The technique was also used to analyze the effect of the vibration of the substrate during thermal co-deposition of the [Ir(ppy){sub 3}] molecules into an organic matrix. - Highlights: • We present a methodology to analyze the dopant distribution in organic thin films. • The method combines HAADF-STEM imaging and EDS X-ray spectroscopy. • Ir(ppy){sub 3} dopant was co-deposited into Spiro2-CBP organic matrix. • The dopant was co-deposited with and without substrate vibration. • Images and chemical information of the dopant were simultaneously obtained.

  8. Intertwisted fibrillar diamond-like carbon films prepared by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨武保; 王久丽; 张谷令; 范松华; 刘赤子; 杨思泽

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the structures, optical and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon films are studied, which are prepared by a self-fabricated electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition method at room temperature in the ambient gases of mixed acetylene and nitrogen. The morphology and microstructure of the processed film are characterized by the atomic force microscope image, Raman spectra and middle Fourier transform infrared transmittance spectra, which reveal that there is an intertwisted fibrillar diamond-like structure in the film and the film is mainly composed of sp3 CH, sp3 C-C, sp2 C=C, C=N and C60. The film micro-hardness and bulk modulus are measured by a nano-indenter and the refractive constant and deposition rate are also calculated.

  9. Microstructural characterization of electron beam-physical vapor deposition thermal barrier coatings through high-resolution computed microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand; Herman, Herbert; Decarlo, Francesco; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2004-07-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), deposited using the electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process, comprise a unique architecture of porosity capable of bridging the technological gap between insulation/life extension and prime reliance. The TBC microstructures consist of columnar structure, nucleated via vapor condensation, along with a high degree of intercolumnar porosity, thus providing enhanced stress relief on thermomechanical loading and also accommodating misfit stresses resulting from CTE mismatch. In this article, we report the characterization of these coatings using high-resolution synchrotron-based X-ray computed microtomography (XMT) at 1.3- µm resolution. Experiments focused on quantitative characterization/visualization of imperfections in these coatings and on the relative changes in microstructural features upon isothermal annealing. The influence of time/temperature of exposure was investigated and the results were correlated with elastic modulus.

  10. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  11. [HYGIENIC REGULATION OF THE USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MODERN SCHOOL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M I; Aleksandrova, I E; Sazanyuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Lashneva, L P; Shumkova, T V; Berezina, N O

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of academic studies with the use a notebook computer and interactive whiteboard on the functional state of an organism of schoolchildren. Using a complex of hygienic and physiological methods of the study we established that regulation of the computer activity of students must take into account not only duration but its intensity either. Design features of a notebook computer were shown both to impede keeping the optimal working posture in primary school children and increase the risk offormation of disorders of vision and musculoskeletal system. There were established the activating influence of the interactive whiteboard on performance activities and favorable dynamics of indices of the functional state of the organism of students under keeping optimal density of the academic study and the duration of its use. There are determined safety regulations of the work of schoolchildren with electronic resources in the educational process.

  12. Medical Image Resource Center--making electronic teaching files from PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Hui, Francis

    2003-12-01

    A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and store teaching files; neither is there a standardized method for sharing such teaching images. The Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) is a new central image repository that defines standards for data exchange among different centers. We developed an ETF server that retrieves digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) images from PACS, and enables users to create teaching files that conform to the new MIRC schema. We test-populated our ETF server with illustrative images from the clinical case load of the National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore. Together, PACS and MIRC have the potential to benefit radiology teaching and research.

  13. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitimaporn Choochote

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent, employee engagement (55 percent, organizational file structure (10 percent, idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent and assessment system (6 percent. However, considered as 100 percent, the hotel business has not prepared to apply the use of the e-HRM in salary system, learning and training program, welfare allocation and career development.

  14. Structural evolution of a Ta-filament during hot-wire chemical vapour deposition of Silicon investigated by electron backscatter diffraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oliphant, CJ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the structural changes of a burnt-out tantalum filament that was operated at typical hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon synthesis conditions in our hot-wire chemical vapour deposition chamber. Scanning electron...

  15. The mechanism of PTFE and PE friction deposition: a combined scanning electron and scanning force microscopy study on highly oriented polymeric sliders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeben, H.; Vancso, G. Julius

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of friction deposition of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyethylene (PE) was studied by scanning electron (SEM) and scanning force microscopy (SFM) on the worn surfaces of PTFE and PE sliders that were used in friction deposition on glass substrates. These surfaces exhibited a fi

  16. The mechanism of PTFE and PE friction deposition: a combined scanning electron and scanning force microscopy study on highly oriented polymeric sliders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönherr, Holger; Schaeben, H.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of friction deposition of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyethylene (PE) was studied by scanning electron (SEM) and scanning force microscopy (SFM) on the worn surfaces of PTFE and PE sliders that were used in friction deposition on glass substrates. These surfaces exhibited a

  17. Room Temperature Deposition Processes Mediated By Ultrafast Photo-Excited Hot Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-30

    unreliable fabrication methods . Further, a technique to mass-produce diamond wafers, such as the Czochralski method for silicon, has not yet been...developed the first known method for the selective heteroepitaxial deposition of diamond patterning, potentially paving the way for an all-diamond

  18. Electron Microscopy Characterization of Ni-Cr-B-Si-C Laser Deposited Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmati, I.; Rao, J. C.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    During laser deposition of Ni-Cr-B-Si-C alloys with high amounts of Cr and B, various microstructures and phases can be generated from the same chemical composition that results in heterogeneous properties in the clad layer. In this study, the microstructure and phase constitution of a high-alloy

  19. GIS-based identification of areas that have resource potential for critical minerals in six Selected Groups of Deposit Types in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Susan M.; Jones, III, James V.; Hayes, Timothy S.

    2016-11-16

    Alaska has considerable potential for undiscovered mineral resources. This report evaluates potential for undiscovered critical minerals in Alaska. Critical minerals are those for which the United States imports more than half of its total supply and which are largely derived from nations that cannot be considered reliable trading partners. In this report, estimated resource potential and certainty for the state of Alaska are analyzed and mapped for the following six selected mineral deposit groups that may contain one or more critical minerals: (1) rare earth elements-thorium-yttrium-niobium(-uranium-zirconium) [REE-Th-Y-Nb(-U-Zr)] deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic igneous intrusive rocks; (2) placer and paleoplacer gold (Au) deposits that in some places might also produce platinum group elements (PGE), chromium (Cr), tin (Sn), tungsten (W), silver (Ag), or titanium (Ti); (3) platinum group elements(-cobalt-chromium-nickel-titanium-vanadium) [PGE(-Co-Cr-Ni-Ti-V)] deposits associated with mafic to ultramafic intrusive rocks; (4) carbonate-hosted copper(-cobalt-silver-germanium-gallium) [Cu(-Co-Ag-Ge-Ga)] deposits; (5) sandstone-hosted uranium(-vanadium-copper) [U(-V-Cu)] deposits; and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum(-tantalum-indium-fluorspar) [Sn-W-Mo(-Ta-In-fluorspar)] deposits associated with specialized granites.This study used a data-driven, geographic information system (GIS)-implemented method to identify areas that have mineral resource potential in Alaska. This method systematically and simultaneously analyzes geoscience data from multiple geospatially referenced datasets and uses individual subwatersheds (12-digit hydrologic units) as the spatial unit of classification. The final map output uses a red, yellow, green, and gray color scheme to portray estimated relative potential (High, Medium, Low, Unknown) for each of the six groups of mineral deposit types, and it indicates the relative certainty (High, Medium, Low) of that estimate for

  20. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  1. Electron-microscopical Studies on the Sclerosed Dentin Second Report : Comparative observations on the intertubular deposits in the coronal dentin, dental calculus and salivary stone

    OpenAIRE

    赤羽, 章司; 枝, 重夫; 川上, 敏行; 中村, 千仁; 河住, 信

    1982-01-01

    For the purpose of serchirg the origin of the intratubular deposits in the coronal sclerosed dentin, the deposits were compared with dental calculus and salivary stone by a scanning electron microscope and electron probe microanalysers with energy and wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopies including the contour map method. Results were as follows: 1. The layer of minute crystals covered on the attrition surface contained the elements of Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br. 2. The rho...

  2. 76 FR 21043 - Notice of Public Meeting: Technical Aspects of Mandatory Deposit of Published Electronic Works...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... regulation permits the Copyright Office to acquire, on behalf of the Library of Congress, electronic works... services, and organizations focusing on library and electronic information standards. We encourage these... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LIBRARY OF...

  3. PLD deposition of tungsten carbide contact for diamond photodiodes. Influence of process conditions on electronic and chemical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, E.; Bellucci, A.; Orlando, S.; Trucchi, D. M.; Mezzi, A.; Valentini, V.

    2013-08-01

    Tungsten carbide, WC, contacts behave as very reliable Schottky contacts for opto-electronic diamond devices. Diamond is characterized by superior properties in high-power, high frequency and high-temperature applications, provided that thermally stable electrode contacts will be realized. Ohmic contacts can be easily achieved by using carbide-forming metals, while is difficult to get stable Schottky contacts at elevated temperatures, due to the interface reaction and/or inter-diffusion between metals and diamond. Novel type of contacts, made of tungsten carbide, WC, seem to be the best solution, for their excellent thermal stability, high melting point, oxidation and radiation resistance and good electrical conductivity. Our research was aimed at using pulsed laser deposition for WC thin film deposition, optimizing experimental parameters, to obtain a final device characterized by excellent electronic properties, as a detector for radiation in deep UV or as X-ray dosimeter. We deposited our films by laser ablation from a target of pure WC, using different reaction conditions (i.e., substrate heating, vacuum or reactive atmosphere (CH4/Ar), RF plasma activated), to optimize both the stoichiometry of the film and its structure. Trying to obtain a material with the best electronic response, we used also two sources of laser radiation for target ablation, i.e., nano-second pulsed excimer laser ArF, and ultra-short fs Ti:Sapphire laser. The structure and chemical aspects have been evaluated by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while the dosimeter photodiode response has been tested by the I-V measurements, under soft X-ray irradiation.

  4. PLD deposition of tungsten carbide contact for diamond photodiodes. Influence of process conditions on electronic and chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, E., E-mail: emilia.cappelli@imip.cnr.it [CNR-IMIP, Montelibretti, via Salaria Km 29.3, P.O.B. 10, 00016 Rome (Italy); Bellucci, A. [CNR-IMIP, Montelibretti, via Salaria Km 29.3, P.O.B. 10, 00016 Rome (Italy); Orlando, S. [CNR-IMIP sez. Potenza, 85050 Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy); Trucchi, D.M. [CNR-IMIP, Montelibretti, via Salaria Km 29.3, P.O.B. 10, 00016 Rome (Italy); Mezzi, A. [CNR-ISMN, Montelibretti, via Salaria Km 29.3, P.O.B. 10, 00016 Rome (Italy); Valentini, V. [CNR-IMIP, Montelibretti, via Salaria Km 29.3, P.O.B. 10, 00016 Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Tungsten carbide, WC, contacts behave as very reliable Schottky contacts for opto-electronic diamond devices. Diamond is characterized by superior properties in high-power, high frequency and high-temperature applications, provided that thermally stable electrode contacts will be realized. Ohmic contacts can be easily achieved by using carbide-forming metals, while is difficult to get stable Schottky contacts at elevated temperatures, due to the interface reaction and/or inter-diffusion between metals and diamond. Novel type of contacts, made of tungsten carbide, WC, seem to be the best solution, for their excellent thermal stability, high melting point, oxidation and radiation resistance and good electrical conductivity. Our research was aimed at using pulsed laser deposition for WC thin film deposition, optimizing experimental parameters, to obtain a final device characterized by excellent electronic properties, as a detector for radiation in deep UV or as X-ray dosimeter. We deposited our films by laser ablation from a target of pure WC, using different reaction conditions (i.e., substrate heating, vacuum or reactive atmosphere (CH{sub 4}/Ar), RF plasma activated), to optimize both the stoichiometry of the film and its structure. Trying to obtain a material with the best electronic response, we used also two sources of laser radiation for target ablation, i.e., nano-second pulsed excimer laser ArF, and ultra-short fs Ti:Sapphire laser. The structure and chemical aspects have been evaluated by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while the dosimeter photodiode response has been tested by the I–V measurements, under soft X-ray irradiation.

  5. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140876 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550025,China);Yang Ruidong Study on the Strontium Isotopic Composition of Large Devonian Barite Deposits from Zhenning,Guizhou Province(Geochimica,

  6. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  7. Reprecipitation phenomena arising during the preparation of demineralised sections. III Scanning electron microscopic examinations of secondary calcium phosphate deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhariwal, R S; Johnson, G A; Browne, R M; Rowles, S L

    1976-11-01

    Sections of teeth partly demineralized in 10% formic acid were examined by X-ray diffraction, microradiography and scanning electron microscopy. In the undemineralized circumpulpal dentin, the tubules were empty, lying in a matrix containing hydroxyapatite. In the "plume" areas of remineralisation, the tubules were filled with mineral deposits. X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of brushite and monetite in these areas. In the outer layers of dentin the tubules were empty, lying in a matrix containing some residual hydroxyapatite. These findings confirmed that the remineralisation process occurred within the dentinal tubules.

  8. Growth direction of oblique angle electron beam deposited silicon monoxide thin films identified by optical second-harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejling Andersen, Søren; Lund Trolle, Mads; Pedersen, Kjeld [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)

    2013-12-02

    Oblique angle deposited (OAD) silicon monoxide (SiO) thin films forming tilted columnar structures have been characterized by second-harmonic generation. It was found that OAD SiO leads to a rotationally anisotropic second-harmonic response, depending on the optical angle of incidence. A model for the observed dependence of the second-harmonic signal on optical angle of incidence allows extraction of the growth direction of OAD films. The optically determined growth directions show convincing agreement with cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images. In addition to a powerful characterization tool, these results demonstrate the possibilities for designing nonlinear optical devices through SiO OAD.

  9. Analysis on Residual Stress in Electron Beam-Physical Vapor Deposited Thermal Barrier Coating using Hard Synchrotron X-Rays

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 賢治; 松本, 一秀; 久保, 貴博; 町屋, 修太郎; 田中, 啓介; 秋庭, 義明; SUZUKI, Kenji; MATSUMOTO, Kazuhide; Kubo, Takahiro; Machiya, Syutaro; Tanaka, Keisuke; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of the residual stress in the thermal barrier coating, which was made by an electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) method, was determined using X-ray stress measurements. As the bond coating, NiCoCrAlY was low-pressure plasma sprayed on the substrate of austenitic stainless steel. The 8 mass% Y_2O_3-ZrO_2 was coated on the bond coating using the EB-PVD method as the top coating. The top coating had the preferred orientation with the axis direction perpendicular to ...

  10. Mineral Resource Assessment of Marine Sand Resources in Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits in Three Tracts, New York and New Jersey, United States Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Demand is growing in the United States and worldwide for information about the geology of offshore continental shelf regions, the character of the seafloor, and sediments comprising the seafloor and subbottom. Interest in locating sand bodies or high quality deposits that have potential as sources for beach nourishment and ecosystem restoration is especially great in some regions of the country. The Atlantic coast, particularly New York and New Jersey, has been the focus of these studies for the past 40 years with widely varying results. This study is the first attempt at applying probability statistics to modeling Holocene-age cape-and ridge-associated sand deposits and thus focuses on distinct sand body morphology. This modeling technique may have application for other continental shelf regions that have similar geologic character and late Quaternary sea-level transgression history. An estimated volume of 3.9 billion m3 of marine sand resources is predicted in the cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits in three representative regions or tracts on the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. These estimates are taken from probabilistic distributions of sand resources and are produced using deposit models and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) techniques. The estimated sand resources presented here are for only three tracts as described below and for Holocene age sand resources contained in cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposit types within this area. Other areas may qualify as tracts for this deposit type and other deposit types and geologic ages (for example, paleo-stream channels, blanket and outwash deposits, ebb-tide shoals, and lower sea level-stand deltas), which are present on the New Jersey and New York continental shelf area but are not delineated and modeled in this initial evaluation. Admittedly, only a portion of these probable sand resources will ultimately be available and suitable for production, dependent largely on

  11. The DEPOSIT computer code: Calculations of electron-loss cross-sections for complex ions colliding with neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsarev, Mikhail S.

    2013-02-01

    A description of the DEPOSIT computer code is presented. The code is intended to calculate total and m-fold electron-loss cross-sections (m is the number of ionized electrons) and the energy T(b) deposited to the projectile (positive or negative ion) during a collision with a neutral atom at low and intermediate collision energies as a function of the impact parameter b. The deposited energy is calculated as a 3D integral over the projectile coordinate space in the classical energy-deposition model. Examples of the calculated deposited energies, ionization probabilities and electron-loss cross-sections are given as well as the description of the input and output data. Program summaryProgram title: DEPOSIT Catalogue identifier: AENP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8726 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 126650 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Any computer that can run C++ compiler. Operating system: Any operating system that can run C++. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: An MPI version is included in the distribution. Classification: 2.4, 2.6, 4.10, 4.11. Nature of problem: For a given impact parameter b to calculate the deposited energy T(b) as a 3D integral over a coordinate space, and ionization probabilities Pm(b). For a given energy to calculate the total and m-fold electron-loss cross-sections using T(b) values. Solution method: Direct calculation of the 3D integral T(b). The one-dimensional quadrature formula of the highest accuracy based upon the nodes of the Yacobi polynomials for the cosθ=x∈[-1,1] angular variable is applied. The Simpson rule for the φ∈[0,2π] angular variable is used. The Newton-Cotes pattern of the seventh order

  12. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  13. Imaging pulsed laser deposition growth of homo-epitaxial SrTiO3 by low-energy electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Torren, A. J. H.; van der Molen, S. J.; Aarts, J.

    2016-12-01

    By combining low-energy electron microscopy with in situ pulsed laser deposition we have developed a new technique for film growth analysis, making use of both diffraction and real-space information. Working at the growth temperature, we can use: the intensity and profile variations of the specular beam to follow the coverage in a layer-by-layer fashion; real-space microscopy to follow e.g. atomic steps at the surface; and electron reflectivity to probe the unoccupied band structure of the grown material. Here, we demonstrate our methodology for homo-epitaxial growth of SrTiO3. Interestingly, the same combination of techniques will also be applicable to hetero-epitaxial oxide growth, largely extending the scope of research possibilities.

  14. Transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and capacitance spectroscopy on GaAs/Si grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremond, Georges E.; Said, Hicham; Guillot, Gerard; Meddeb, Jaafar; Pitaval, M.; Draidia, Nasser; Azoulay, Rozette

    1991-03-01

    We present a complete characterization study of GaAs/Si heteroepitaxial layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) at 750C using the two-step method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy secondary ion mass spectroscopy deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy have been performed to study the initial stage of growth misfit and threading dislocations Si diffusion and the deep levels in the GaAs layer. We describe the influence of GaAs/AlAs superlattices in the buffer layer on the decrease of dislocation density and on Si diffusion from the substrate and the existence of deep electron traps induced by the heteroepitaxy. DLTS reveals hole traps attributed to Si incorporation on the basis of PL measurements which could contribute to the reduction of the minority carrier lifetime. We also show an improvement of the layer quality by the use of selective epitaxy.

  15. Calculation of electron trajectory and energy deposition in no screening region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: m_r_kia@aut.ac.ir; Noshad, Houshyar, E-mail: hnoshad@aut.ac.ir

    2016-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF) of energy for inelastic collision is obtained by solving the integro-differential form of the quantity equation with the Bhabha differential cross section for particles with spin 1/2. Hence, the total PDF in no screening region is determined by folding theory with the following two assumptions: (1) the electron loses energy by collision and radiation and (2) the electron velocity does not change with a thin absorber. Therefore, a set of coupled stochastic differential equations based on the deviation and energy loss PDFs for electron is presented to obtain the electron trajectory inside the target. The energy PDFs for an electron beam with incident energy of 15.7 MeV inside aluminum and copper are calculated. Besides, the dose distributions for an electron beam with incident energies of 20, 10.2, 6, and 0.5 MeV in water are obtained. The results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  16. Plasmonic gold helices for the visible range fabricated by oxygen plasma purification of electron beam induced deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Caspar; Höflich, Katja; Jäckle, Sara; Manzoni, Anna; Christiansen, Silke

    2017-02-01

    Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) currently provides the only direct writing technique for truly three-dimensional nanostructures with geometrical features below 50 nm. Unfortunately, the depositions from metal-organic precursors suffer from a substantial carbon content. This hinders many applications, especially in plasmonics where the metallic nature of the geometric surfaces is mandatory. To overcome this problem a post-deposition treatment with oxygen plasma at room temperature was investigated for the purification of gold containing EBID structures. Upon plasma treatment, the structures experience a shrinkage in diameter of about 18 nm but entirely keep their initial shape. The proposed purification step results in a core-shell structure with the core consisting of mainly unaffected EBID material and a gold shell of about 20 nm in thickness. These purified structures are plasmonically active in the visible wavelength range as shown by dark field optical microscopy on helical nanostructures. Most notably, electromagnetic modeling of the corresponding scattering spectra verified that the thickness and quality of the resulting gold shell ensures an optical response equal to that of pure gold nanostructures.

  17. Improvement in luminance efficiency of organic light emitting diodes by suppression of secondary electron bombardment of substrate during sputter deposition of top electrode films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Daichi; Kobayashi, Shin-ichi; Uchida, Takayuki; Sawada, Yutaka; Lei, Hao; Hoshi, Yoichi

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the degradation mechanisms of the luminance performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) when their top electrode films were deposited by sputter deposition process. During the sputter deposition of the top electrode films, the suppression of the incidence of high-energy electrons on the substrate was attempted using various methods. As a result, we found that during electrode deposition, the incidence of the high-energy secondary electrons, which were emitted from the target surface, on the substrate was the main cause of the significant degradation of the luminance performance. It was also found that the application of a magnetic field by setting permanent magnets near the substrate holder and the insertion of a shield plate near the target cathode were effective in suppressing the incidence of secondary electrons on the substrate.

  18. Electronic transport in highly conducting Si-doped ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir L.; Vai, Alex T.; Edwards, Peter P., E-mail: peter.edwards@chem.ox.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Al-Mamouri, Malek; Stuart Abell, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Pepper, Michael [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-07

    Highly conducting (ρ = 3.9 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm) and transparent (83%) polycrystalline Si-doped ZnO (SiZO) thin films have been deposited onto borosilicate glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition from (ZnO){sub 1−x}(SiO{sub 2}){sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) ceramic targets prepared using a sol-gel technique. Along with their structural, chemical, and optical properties, the electronic transport within these SiZO samples has been investigated as a function of silicon doping level and temperature. Measurements made between 80 and 350 K reveal an almost temperature-independent carrier concentration consistent with degenerate metallic conduction in all of these samples. The temperature-dependent Hall mobility has been modeled by considering the varying contribution of grain boundary and electron-phonon scattering in samples with different nominal silicon concentrations.

  19. Atomic-Layer-Deposited SnO2 as Gate Electrode for Indium-Free Transparent Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Fwzah H.

    2017-08-04

    Atomic-layer-deposited SnO2 is used as a gate electrode to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in thin-film transistors and circuits for the first time. The SnO2 films deposited at 200 °C show low electrical resistivity of ≈3.1 × 10−3 Ω cm with ≈93% transparency in most of the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thin-film transistors fabricated with SnO2 gates show excellent transistor properties including saturation mobility of 15.3 cm2 V−1 s−1, a low subthreshold swing of ≈130 mV dec−1, a high on/off ratio of ≈109, and an excellent electrical stability under constant-voltage stressing conditions to the gate terminal. Moreover, the SnO2-gated thin-film transistors show excellent electrical characteristics when used in electronic circuits such as negative channel metal oxide semiconductor (NMOS) inverters and ring oscillators. The NMOS inverters exhibit a low propagation stage delay of ≈150 ns with high DC voltage gain of ≈382. A high oscillation frequency of ≈303 kHz is obtained from the output sinusoidal signal of the 11-stage NMOS inverter-based ring oscillators. These results show that SnO2 can effectively replace ITO in transparent electronics and sensor applications.

  20. Structure and electronic properties of SiC thin-films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ji-cheng; ZHENG Xu-qiang

    2007-01-01

    SiC thin-films were prepared by RF-magnetron sputtering technique(RMS) with the target of single crystalline SiC and then annealed. The surface morphology of thin-films was characterized by AFM. The result shows that the surface of the thin-films is smooth and compact; XRD analysis reveals that the thin-films are amorphous. The thickness, square-resistance and curves of resistance-temperature were measured. The results show that the curves of lnR versus 1/kT both before and after annealing satisfy the expression of lnR∝△W/kT, where △W is electron excitation energy in the range of 0.014 2-0.018 5 eV, and it has a trend of increasing when the temperature is increased. After synthetical analysis we get the conclusion that the electronic mechanism of the thin-films is short distance transition between the localized states in the temperature range of 25-250 ℃. The resistivity is in the range of 2.4×10-3-4.4×10-3 Ω·cm and it has the same trend as electron excitation energy when annealing temperature is increased, which further confirms the electronic mechanism of thin-films and the trend of electron excitation energy versus annealing temperature.

  1. ASTM E 1559 method for measuring material outgassing/deposition kinetics has applications to aerospace, electronics, and semiconductor industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, J. W.; Glassford, A. P. M.; Steakley, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials has published a new standard test method for characterizing time and temperature-dependence of material outgassing kinetics and the deposition kinetics of outgassed species on surfaces at various temperatures. This new ASTM standard, E 1559(1), uses the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) collection measurement approach. The test method was originally developed under a program sponsored by the United States Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) to create a standard test method for obtaining outgassing and deposition kinetics data for spacecraft materials. Standardization by ASTM recognizes that the method has applications beyond aerospace. In particular, the method will provide data of use to the electronics, semiconductor, and high vacuum industries. In ASTM E 1559 the material sample is held in vacuum in a temperature-controlled effusion cell, while its outgassing flux impinges on several QCM's which view the orifice of the effusion cell. Sample isothermal total mass loss (TML) is measured as a function of time from the mass collected on one of the QCM's which is cooled by liquid nitrogen, and the view factor from this QCM to the cell. The amount of outgassed volatile condensable material (VCM) on surfaces at higher temperatures is measured as a function of time during the isothermal outgassing test by controlling the temperatures of the remaining QCM's to selected values. The VCM on surfaces at temperatures in between those of the collector QCM's is determined at the end of the isothermal test by heating the QCM's at a controlled rate and measuring the mass loss from the end of the QCM's as a function of time and temperature. This reevaporation of the deposit collected on the QCM's is referred to as QCM thermogravimetric analysis. Isothermal outgassing and deposition rates can be determined by differentiating the isothermal TML and VCM data, respectively, while the evaporation rates of the species can be obtained as a

  2. Aerosol deposition doses in the human respiratory tree of electronic cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigrasso, Maurizio; Buonanno, Giorgio; Fuoco, Fernanda Carmen; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Aerosols from eight e-cigarettes at different nicotine levels and flavoring were characterized as particle number size distributions in the range 5.6-560 nm by FMPS and CPC. Results were used to provided osimetry estimates applying the MMPD model.Particle number concentrations varied between 3.26 x 10(9) and 4.09 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids without nicotine and between 5.08 x 10(9) and 5.29 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids with nicotine. No flavor effects were detected on particle concentration data. Particle size distributions were unimodal with modes between 107-165 nm and 165-255 nm, for number and volume metrics, respectively. Averagely, 6.25 x 10(10) particles were deposited in respiratory tree after a single puff. Highest deposition densities and mean layer thickness of e-cigarette liquid on the lung epithelium were estimated at lobar bronchi. Our study shows that e-cigarette aerosol is source of high particle dose in respiratory system, from 23%to 35% of the daily dose of a no-smoking individual.

  3. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131565 Cai Lianyou(No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China);Weng Wangfei Geological Characteristics and Genesis Analysis of Guocun Navajoite Deposit in South Anhui Province(Mineral Resources and Geology,

  4. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  5. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  6. In situ electron spectroscopic identification of carbon species deposited by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samano, E.C.; Gamietea, A.; Cota, L. [IFUNAM, Ensenada (Mexico). Lab. de Ensenada; Soto, G. [IFUNAM, Ensenada (Mexico). Lab. de Ensenada]|[Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (Mexico). Programa de Posgrado en Fisica de Materiales

    1997-05-01

    Thin carbon films were grown on Si (111) substrates by ablating a graphite target utilizing an excimer pulsed laser in a UHV Riber {copyright} LDM-32 system. Two kinds of films were produced, a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) type and a diamond-like carbon (DLC) type. A relationship of the films microstructure with laser power density and substrate conditions was observed. The HOPG films were homogeneous but the DLC films were heterogeneous, as shown by micrographs. The thin films are monitored and analyzed in situ during the first stages of the deposition process. The monitoring was done by RHEED and the characterization by several surface spectroscopic techniques, AES, XPS and EELS. The formation of a SiC interface was observed for both films due to the reaction of the first carbon species with the substrate surface.

  7. Electron energy deposition to the fusion target core for fast ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W M; Sheng, Z M; Li, Y T; Hao, B; Zhang, J [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Norreys, P A; Sherlock, M; Trines, R; Robinson, A P L, E-mail: hbwwml@aphy.iphy.ac.e, E-mail: tzmsheng@sjtu.edu.c [Central Laser Facility, CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    Heating of the target core for fast ignition by electron beams is investigated by two-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. It is found that the electron beams emitted from the core surface with the initial energy of 1.4MeV, 2.4MeV, and 4.2MeV can heat most efficiently the core with {rho}r = 0.75g/cm{sup 2}, 1.5g/cm{sup 2}, and 3g/cm{sup 2}, respectively, when taking {rho} = 300g/cm{sup 3}, where {rho} and r are the mass density and radius of the core, respectively.

  8. Distribution of Energy Deposited in Plastic Tubing and Copper-Wire Insulation by Electron Beam Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Walther Batsberg; Miller, Arne; Pejtersen, K.

    1978-01-01

    Scanned electron beam treatment is used to improve the physical properties of certain polymers, such as shrinkable plastic tubing and insulated wire and cable. Tubing or wires are passed at high speed under the beam scanner, and the material is irradiated to absorbed doses of several Mrad...... as uniformly as possible, usually by means of a multipass arrangement. In the present study, using irradiation by a scanned 0.4 MeV electron beam, measurements were made of high-resolution distributions of absorbed dose in polyethylene tubing and copper wire coated with polyethylene, nylon, or polyvinyl...... chloride insulation. Radiochromic dye films equivalent to the insulating materials were used as accurate dosimeters having a response independent of dose rate. Irradiations were in various geometries, wire and plastic thicknesses, positions along the beam scan, and with different backing materials near...

  9. Transmission electron microscopy studies of YBCO coated conductors prepared by pulsed-laser deposition and multiple-stage chemical vapor deposition processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takeharu [Materials R and D Lab, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)]. E-mail: tkato@jfcc.or.jp; Sasaki, Hirokazu [Materials R and D Lab, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Iwai, Hiroyuki [SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, ISTEC, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Ibi, Akira [SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, ISTEC, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Kashima, Naoji [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Niwa, Toshiharu [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Muroga, Takemi [SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, ISTEC, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Miyata, Seiki [SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, ISTEC, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Watanabe, Tomonori; Yamada, Yutaka; Izumi, Teruo [SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, ISTEC, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Iijima, Yasuhiro; Kakimoto, Kazuomi; Sutoh, Yasunori [Material Technology Lab, Fujikura Ltd., 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Nagaya, Shigeo [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Saitoh, Takashi [Material Technology Lab, Fujikura Ltd., 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Sasaki, Yukichi; Hirayama, Tsukasa [Materials R and D Lab, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Shiohara, Yuh [SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, ISTEC, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)]|[SRL-Division of Superconducting Tapes and Wires, ISTEC, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Ikuhara, Yuichi [Materials R and D Lab, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    Three types of YBCO films were deposited on metal tapes with biaxially textured CeO{sub 2}/Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} multilayer. One YBCO film 4 {mu}m in thickness was formed by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) on the stationary substrate and another film 3 {mu}m in thickness by PLD using a reel-to-reel substrate tape transferring system. I {sub c} values of the films were 173 A and 293 A, respectively A further film 1 {mu}m in thickness was fabricated by multiple-stage chemical vapor deposition (MSCVD). The I {sub c} value of the MSCVD-YBCO film was 100 A. The microstructures of these YBCO films were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the PLD-YBCO films, the films less than 1 {mu}m thick were predominantly composed of c-axis oriented grains which were considered to grow spirally, however, irregular instances of a-axis oriented grains were also found. The a-axis oriented grains size increased with increasing thickness of the YBCO films. In the 4 {mu}m-thick PLD-YBCO film with an I {sub c} value of 173 A, a-axis oriented grains were considered to nucleate on the CeO{sub 2}. We found many Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and cupper oxides at the boundaries between a- and c-axes oriented grains and the orientation relationships between YBCO and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} were determined to be as follows: (0 0 1)YBCO//(0 0 1)Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and (1 0 0)YBCO//(1 1 0)Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. We also found many gaps and pores between YBCO grains. Nucleation of a-axis oriented grains was completely suppressed on the CeO{sub 2} in the 3 {mu}m-thick PLD-YBCO film with an I {sub c} value of 293 A. In the MSCVD-YBCO film, the YBCO film mostly consisted of c-axis oriented grains, however a-axis oriented grains and polycrystal also formed in the film. As the MSCVD-YBCO film became thicker, the a-axis oriented grains grew large, as same as in the PLD-YBCO films. The growth rate of a-axis oriented grain along the substrate normal was much higher than that of c-axis oriented grains in

  10. Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition and Its Application to the Growth of the Heterostructure Hot Electron Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    shown to be germanium , silicon , tin, sulfur, tellurium, carbon and zinc.39 The highest 77K mobility reported for MOCVD grown GaAs is 190,000 cm2 /v-s...FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP I MOCVD, OMVPE, NDR , negative differential resistance 9- ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if neceary and identify by block number...terminal electronic device that exhibits S-shaped negative differential resistance ( NDR ) in the dc I-V characteristic. The proposed switching

  11. Nanopatterning on fragile or 3D surfaces with sterol-based vapor-deposited electron beam resist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legario, Ron R.; Kelkar, Prasad S.; Beauvais, Jacques; Lavallee, Eric; Drouin, Dominique; Cloutier, Melanie; Turcotte, David; Yang, Pan; Mun, Lau K.; Awad, Yousef; Lafrance, Pierre J.

    2004-05-01

    A novel and effective approach to nano-fabrication lithography is the vapour deposition of the negative tone electron beam resists QSR-5 and QSR-15 (Quantiscript"s sterol based resist) onto a substrate. Vapour deposition is especially conducive for patterning thin delicate membranes (e.g. advanced masks for X-ray lithography - XRL, and Low Energy Electron Proximity Projection Lithography - LEEPL), that are susceptible to breakage during the spin coating process. With the capability for depositing highly uniform thin layers (optical fibre with the goal of improving the coupling of diode laser emission into the fiber. This application clearly shows the capabilities of this process for producing nano-scale patterns on very small area surfaces that are completely unsuitable for spin-coating of the resist. A second demonstration of the resist's capabilities is the patterning of optical diffractive elements directly on the facet of a semiconductor laser. This opens the way to direct patterning on laser diode facets in order to control the emission profile from the device. It has also proven capabilities in the manufacture of delicate photo masks. In their natural state, QSR-5 and QSR-15 are solids at room temperature and are sterol based heterocyclic compounds, with unsaturated bonding capable of cross linking. On their own merit, QSR-5 and QSR-15 are capable of cross linking under electron beam exposure and are comparable in certain properties to conventional spin-coated resists such as PMMA. When cross linked, their heterocyclic structure gives it excellent selective resistance to solvent based developers (such as alcohols and ketones) for pattern formation. They have also been shown to be highly resistant to etching solutions, even when working with thin high resolution layers on the order of 30 nm. They are highly stable and have a relatively long shelf life, greater than one year. Compared to conventional resists utilizing complex, toxic, and expensive resin systems

  12. Synthesis of ultrathin polymer insulating layers by initiated chemical vapour deposition for low-power soft electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hanul; Seong, Hyejeong; Shin, Woo Cheol; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Mincheol; Lee, Seungwon; Bong, Jae Hoon; Noh, Yong-Young; Cho, Byung Jin; Yoo, Seunghyup; Im, Sung Gap

    2015-06-01

    Insulating layers based on oxides and nitrides provide high capacitance, low leakage, high breakdown field and resistance to electrical stresses when used in electronic devices based on rigid substrates. However, their typically high process temperatures and brittleness make it difficult to achieve similar performance in flexible or organic electronics. Here, we show that poly(1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinyl cyclotrisiloxane) (pV3D3) prepared via a one-step, solvent-free technique called initiated chemical vapour deposition (iCVD) is a versatile polymeric insulating layer that meets a wide range of requirements for next-generation electronic devices. Highly uniform and pure ultrathin films of pV3D3 with excellent insulating properties, a large energy gap (>8 eV), tunnelling-limited leakage characteristics and resistance to a tensile strain of up to 4% are demonstrated. The low process temperature, surface-growth character, and solvent-free nature of the iCVD process enable pV3D3 to be grown conformally on plastic substrates to yield flexible field-effect transistors as well as on a variety of channel layers, including organics, oxides, and graphene.

  13. Near-interface Si substrate 3d metal contamination during atomic layer deposition processing detected by electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A. P. D.; Stesmans, A.; Hiller, D.; Zacharias, M.

    2012-06-01

    A K- and Q-band electron spin resonance (ESR) study has been carried out on (100)Si/SiO2 entities manufactured by low temperature (150 °C) atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a high-quality SiO2 layer on Si using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, H2O, and ozone in a three-step process. Whereas previous work has demonstrated the high quality of the deposited SiO2 layer, the current ESR analysis reports on the tracing of growth-related contamination of near interface Si substrate layers by two transition metals. This includes, first, detection of the signal of interstitial Cr+ (S = 5/2) impurities in c-Si, characterized by an isotropic central g value of 1.9980 ± 0.0002, an isotropic 53Cr (I = 3/2) hyperfine interaction of splitting Aiso = 11.8 G, and cubic crystal field splitting parameter a = +32.2 G, well in agreement with the known bulk c-Si case; A small anisotropic contribution to the hyperfine interaction has additionally been revealed. The total Cr+ defect density is inferred as ˜5 × 1011 cm-2. Second, a single signal is observed at isotropic g = 2.070 ± 0.001, corresponding to interstitial Fe impurities (Fei)0 (S = 1) positioned in a c-Si matrix. Defect density depth profiling reveals the impurities to be confined to a few μm thick Si substrate top layer, the density decaying exponential-like from the Si/SiO2 interface inward the Si substrate. The total of the results points to a contamination of reactor-environment origin, connected with the layer deposition process. It concerns a weak contamination, in which detection the ESR technique emerges as a powerful technique able to unveil very low levels of contamination of near-surface Si substrate layers.

  14. Thermal shock behavior of platinum aluminide bond coat/electron beam-physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhxuciac@163.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, Jianwei [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Niu, Jing [Shenyang Liming Aero-engine (Group) Corporation Ltd., Institute of Metallurgical Technology, Technical Center, Shengyang 110043 (China); Li, Na; Huang, Guanghong; He, Limin [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • TBCs of (Ni, Pt)Al bond coat with grit blasting process and YSZ ceramic coating. • Grain boundary ridges are the sites for spallation damage initiation in TBCs. • Ridges removed, cavities formation appeared and the damage initiation deteriorated. • Damage initiation and progression at interface lead to a buckling failure. - Abstract: Thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) including of chemical vapor deposited (Ni, Pt)Al bond coat with grit blasting process and electron beam physical vapor deposited Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized-ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ) ceramic coating were investigated. The phase structures, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, thermal shock behaviors and residual stresses of the coatings were studied in detail. Grain boundary ridges still remain on the surface of bond coat prior to the deposition of the ceramic coating, which are shown to be the major sites for spallation damage initiation in TBCs. When these ridges are mostly removed, they appear some of cavities formation and then the damage initiation mode is deteriorated. Damage initiation and progression occurs at the bond coat to thermally grown oxide (TGO) interface leading to a buckling failure behavior. A buckle failure once started may be arrested when it runs into a region of high bond coat to TGO interface toughness. Thus, complete failure requires further loss in toughness of the bond coat to TGO interface during cooling. The suppressed cavities formation, the removed ridges at the grain boundaries, the relative high TGO to bond coat interface toughness, the uniform growth behavior of TGO thickening and the lower of the residual stress are the primary factors for prolonging the lifetime of TBCs.

  15. Multifractal spectra of scanning electron microscope images of SnO2 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. W.; Lai, J. K. L.; Shek, C. H.

    2005-09-01

    The concept of fractal geometry has proved useful in describing structures and processes in experimental systems. In this Letter, the surface topographies of SnO2 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition for various substrate temperatures were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Multifractal spectra f(α) show that the higher the substrate temperature, the wider the spectrum, and the larger the Δf(Δf=f(α)-f(α)). It is apparent that the nonuniformity of the height distribution increases with the increasing substrate temperature, and the liquid droplets of SnO2 thin films are formed on previous thin films. These results show that the SEM images can be characterized by the multifractal spectra.

  16. Multifractal spectra of scanning electron microscope images of SnO{sub 2} thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: cnzwchen@yahoo.com.cn; Lai, J.K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Shek, C.H. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-09-26

    The concept of fractal geometry has proved useful in describing structures and processes in experimental systems. In this Letter, the surface topographies of SnO{sub 2} thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition for various substrate temperatures were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Multifractal spectra f({alpha}) show that the higher the substrate temperature, the wider the spectrum, and the larger the {delta}f({delta}f=f({alpha}{sub min})-f({alpha}{sub max})). It is apparent that the nonuniformity of the height distribution increases with the increasing substrate temperature, and the liquid droplets of SnO{sub 2} thin films are formed on previous thin films. These results show that the SEM images can be characterized by the multifractal spectra.

  17. The effect of oxygen flow rate on refractive index of aluminum oxide film deposited by electron beam evaporation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shakouri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of oxygen flow rate on refractive index of aluminum oxide film have been investigated. The Al2O3 films are deposited by electron beam on glass substrate at different oxygen flow rates. The substrate was heated to reach  and the temperature was constant during the thin film growth. The transmittance spectrum of samples was recorded in the wavelength 400-800 nm.  Then, using the maxima and minima of transmittance the refractive index and the extinction coefficient of samples were determined. It has been found that if we reduce the oxygen flow, while the evaporation rate is kept constant, the refractive index of Al2O3 films increases. On the other hand, reduced oxygen pressure causes the Al2O3 films to have some absorption.

  18. Fabrication of single TiO2 nanotube devices with Pt interconnections using electron- and ion-beam-assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mingun; Cha, Dongkyu; Huang, Jie; Ha, Min-Woo; Kim, Jiyoung

    2016-06-01

    Device fabrication using nanostructured materials, such as nanotubes, requires appropriate metal interconnections between nanotubes and electrical probing pads. Here, electron-beam-assisted deposition (EBAD) and ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) techniques for fabrication of Pt interconnections for single TiO2 nanotube devices are investigated. IBAD conditions were optimized to reduce the leakage current as a result of Pt spreading. The resistivity of the IBAD-Pt was about three orders of magnitude less than that of the EBAD-Pt, due to low carbon concentration and Ga doping, as indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The total resistances of single TiO2 nanotube devices with EBAD- or IBAD-Pt interconnections were 3.82 × 1010 and 4.76 × 108 Ω, respectively. When the resistivity of a single nanotube is low, the high series resistance of EBAD-Pt cannot be ignored. IBAD is a suitable method for nanotechnology applications, such as photocatalysis and biosensors.

  19. Structural and electronic characterization of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition and transferred onto sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joucken, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.joucken@unamur.be; Colomer, Jean-François; Sporken, Robert; Reckinger, Nicolas

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • CVD graphene is transferred onto sapphire. • Transport measurements reveal relatively low charge carriers mobility. • Scanning probe microscopy experiments reveal the presence of robust contaminant layers between the graphene and the sapphire, responsible for the low carriers mobility. - Abstract: We present a combination of magnetotransport and local probe measurements on graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil and subsequently transferred onto a sapphire substrate. A rather strong p-doping is observed (∼9 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}) together with quite low carrier mobility (∼1350 cm{sup 2}/V s). Atomic force and tunneling imaging performed on the transport devices reveals the presence of contaminants between sapphire and graphene, explaining the limited performance of our devices. The transferred graphene displays ridges similar to those observed whilst graphene is still on the copper foil. We show that, on sapphire, these ridges are made of different thicknesses of the contamination layer and that, contrary to what was reported for hBN or certain transition metal dichalcogenides, no self-cleansing process of the sapphire substrate is observed.

  20. Electron transport in Al-doped ZnO nanolayers obtained by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoev, B. S.; Dimitrov, D. Z.; Mehandzhiev, V. B.; Kovacheva, D.; Terziyska, P.; Pavlic, J.; Lovchinov, K.; Mateev, E.; Leclercq, J.; Sveshtarov, P.

    2016-03-01

    Al-doped ZnO thin films with different Al content were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). To carry out thermal ALD, diethyl zinc (DEZ) and tri-methyl aluminium (TMA) were used as Zn and Al precursors, respectively, and water vapor as oxidant. Various numbers n of DEZ and m TMA cycles was used to obtain different [ZnO] n [Al2O3] m films, where n = 100 - 95, m = 1 - 5. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed a predominantly (100) oriented polycrystalline phase for the ZnO:Al films with a low Al content (m = 1 - 3) and an amorphous structure for pure Al2O3. In ZnO:Al with a higher Al content (m = 4 - 6) the (100) reflection disappeared and the (002) peak increased. The resistivity of the films decreased with the increase in the Al content, reaching a minimum of 3.3×10-3 Ω cm at about 1.1 % Al2O3 for the [ZnO]99[Al2O3]2 sample; for higher dopant concentrations, the resistivity increased because of the increased crystal inhomogeneity due to axis reorientation.

  1. Electronic and optical properties of CdS films deposited by evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, L.; Wei, Z.L.; Zhang, F.M.; Wu, X.S., E-mail: xswu@nju.edu.cn

    2015-11-05

    CdS films grown by thermal evaporation on glass substrate under ultra-high vacuum are prepared with varying the growth temperature and atmosphere environment. The minimum resistivity of the films is as low as 2.0 Ω·cm, and the carrier density even reaches 1.6 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}, which is much less than that prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The transmittance and band gap increase with the set the argon atmosphere and the growth temperature in the optimum value. Our results indicate the CdS films grown by evaporation at high vacuum may be more suitable for the application in optoelectronic devices, such as the solar cell materials. - Highlights: • CdS films are grown by the ultra-high vacuum evaporation. • CdS film here with the high carrier density reaches to 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} is obtained. • The film has low resistivity, which is as low as 2 Ω∙ cm. • The optical band gap become wider from 2.42 eV to 2.54 eV.

  2. Laser-induced emission of atoms and electrons from deposited Si atoms on the Si(100) 2x1 surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, In Keun; Kanasaki, Jun' ichi; Nakai, Yasuo; Itoh, Noriaki [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    We have measured the emissions of electrons and Si atoms induced by laser irradiation on a Si(100) 2x1 surface with Si atoms deposited in a coverage range between 4.6 x 10{sup -4} and 1.67 x 10{sup -1} monolayers (ML) at room temperature. Two types of configurations, referred to as configuration R and S, of deposited atoms are differentiated.. The atom emission from configuration R occurs above a laser fluence of 310 mJ/cm{sup 2} for 28-ns laser pulses with a photon energy of 2.48 eV, while that from configuration S occurs only above a fluence of 540 mJ/cm{sup 2}. The electron emission from configuration R gives rise to a peak at a binding energy of 5.0 eV, while that from configuration S gives rise to a peak at 4.85 eV. Component R grows in proportion to the Si coverage in a coverage range below 4.0 x 10{sup -2} ML and then saturates, while component S grows in proportion to the square of the coverage at initial stage before saturation occurs. The yield of atom emitted from configuration S is reduced only for small coverages. Based on the number of atoms emitted by laser irradiation, the concentrations of configuration R and S after saturation were estimated to be 1.2 x 10{sup -4} ML and 1.94 x 10{sup -3} ML, respectively. It is suggested that configuration R is an adatom weakly bonded by the step edge or a defect and configuration S is an ad-dimer.

  3. Acidic Deposition along the Appalachian Trail Corridor and its Effects on Acid-Sensitive Terrestrial and Aquatic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G. B.; Sullivan, T. J.; Burns, D. A.; Bailey, S. W.; Cosby, B. J., Jr.; Dovciak, M.; Ewing, H. A.; McDonnell, T. C.; Riemann, R.; Quant, J.; Rice, K. C.; Siemion, J.; Weathers, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) spans 3,500 km from Georgia to Maine. Over its length, the trail passes through a corridor with wide variations in climate, bedrock type, soils, and stream water quality. These factors create a diverse range of ecosystems. The health of these ecosystems is a cause for concern because the AT passes through the heavily populated eastern U.S. with its many sources of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions that produce acidic deposition. To address concerns about the health of the AT, a study was designed to evaluate the condition and sensitivity of the AT corridor with respect to acidic deposition. Collections of stream water (265 sites), soil (60 sites), tree cores (15 sites) and atmospheric deposition samples (4 sites) were made along with understory and overstory vegetation measurements (30 sites) over the full trail length within a 40 km-wide corridor. Existing data on atmospheric deposition, geology, vegetation, stream chemistry, and soil chemistry were also used in the analysis. Mean acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) was lowest in the streams in the North section, intermediate in the Central section and highest the South section, despite the South having the highest acid rain levels. At least 40% of the study streams exhibited pH and/or Ali measurements that indicated potential harm to biota. Approximately 70% of the soil sites had values of base saturation under 20%, the threshold below which acidic deposition can mobilize inorganic aluminum (Ali), the form harmful to terrestrial and aquatic life. Compositional similarity of understory and canopy species was positively correlated with acidic deposition, suggesting that during past decades, species poorly adapted to acidic deposition were replaced with tolerant species. Target loads modeling indicated that exceedance of sulfur target loads to achieve stream ANC = 50 μeq/L by the year 2100occurred throughout the trail corridor.

  4. Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Nguyen B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

  5. Maps showing mineral resource assessment for porphyry and stockwork deposits of copper, molybdenum, and tungsten and for stockwork and disseminated deposits of gold and silver in the Butte 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Moll, S.H.; Wallace, C.A.; Lee, G.K.; Antweiler, J.C.; Lidke, D.J.; Rowan, L.C.; Hanna, W.F.; Trautwein, C.M.; Dwyer, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the assessment for potential occurrences of undiscovered porphyry and stockwork deposits of copper, molybdenum, and tungsten (porphyry Cu-Mo-W) and stockwork and disseminated deposits of gold and silver (disseminated Au-Ag) in the Butte 1 °X2° quadrangle. The Butte quadrangle, in west-central Montana, is one of the best known mineral producing regions in the U.S. Mining districts in the quadrangle, including the world famous Butte or Summit Valley district, have produced a variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities valued at more than $6.4 billion (at the time of production). Because of its importance as a mineral producing region, the Butte quadrangle was selected for study by the U.S. Geological Survey under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Under this program, new data on geology, geochemistry, geophysics, geochronology, mineral resources, and remote sensing were collected and synthesized. The field and laboratory studies were supported, in part, by funding from the Geologic Framework and Synthesis Program and the Wilderness Program. The methods used in this resource assessment for porphyry Cu-Mo-W and disseminated Au-Ag deposits in the quadrangle include a compilation of all data, the development of descriptive occurrence models, and the analysis of data using techniques provided by a Geographic Information System (GIS). This map is one of several maps on the Butte 1 °X2° quadrangle. Other deposit types have been assessed for the Butte quadrangle, and maps (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Miscellaneous Investigation Series Maps) for each of the following have been prepared: Vein and replacement deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, manganese, and tungsten (Elliott, Wallace, and others, 1992a) and skarn deposits of gold, silver, copper, tungsten, and iron (Elliott and others, 1992b ). Other publications resulting from this study include linear features map (Rowan and others, 1991

  6. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  7. More stable hybrid organic solar cells deposited on amorphous Si electron transfer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samiee, Mehran; Modtland, Brian; Dalal, Vikram L., E-mail: vdalal@iastate.edu [Iowa State University, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Aidarkhanov, Damir [Nazarbayev University, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2014-05-26

    We report on defect densities, performance, and stability of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells produced using n-doped inorganic amorphous silicon-carbide layers as the electron transport layer (ETL). The organic material was poly-3-hexyl-thiophene (P3HT) and heterojunction was formed using phenyl-C{sub 71}-Butyric-Acid-Methyl Ester (PCBM). For comparison, inverted solar cells fabricated using Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as ETL were fabricated. Defect densities and subgap quantum efficiency curves were found to be nearly identical for both types of cells. The cells were subjected to 2xsun illumination and it was found that the cells produced using doped a-Si as ETL were much more stable than the cells produced using Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.

  8. Two-Dimensional Electron Gas at SrTiO3-Based Oxide Heterostructures via Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG at an oxide interface has been attracting considerable attention for physics research and nanoelectronic applications. Early studies reported the formation of 2DEG at semiconductor interfaces (e.g., AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with interesting electrical properties such as high electron mobility. Besides 2DEG formation at semiconductor junctions, 2DEG was realized at the interface of an oxide heterostructure such as the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO heterojunction. The origin of 2DEG was attributed to the well-known “polar catastrophe” mechanism in oxide heterostructures, which consist of an epitaxial LAO layer on a single crystalline STO substrate among proposed mechanisms. Recently, it was reported that the creation of 2DEG was achieved using the atomic layer deposition (ALD technique, which opens new functionality of ALD in emerging nanoelectronics. This review is focused on the origin of 2DEG at oxide heterostructures using the ALD process. In particular, it addresses the origin of 2DEG at oxide interfaces based on an alternative mechanism (i.e., oxygen vacancies.

  9. Comparison of hydrolytic and non-hydrolytic atomic layer deposition chemistries: Interfacial electronic properties at alumina-silicon interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marstell, Roderick J.; Strandwitz, Nicholas C., E-mail: strand@lehigh.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2015-11-14

    We report the differences in the passivation and electronic properties of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) deposited on silicon via traditional hydrolytic atomic layer deposition (ALD) and non-hydrolytic (NH) ALD chemistries. Traditional films were grown using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water and NHALD films grown using TMA and isopropanol at 300 °C. Hydrolytically grown ALD films contain a smaller amount of fixed charge than NHALD films (oxide fixed charge Q{sub f} {sub Traditional} = −8.1 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2} and Q{sub f} {sub NHALD} = −3.6 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}), and a larger degree of chemical passivation than NHALD films (density of interface trap states, D{sub it} {sub Traditional} = 5.4 × 10{sup 11 }eV{sup −1 }cm{sup −2} and D{sub it} {sub NHALD} = 2.9 × 10{sup 12 }eV{sup −1 }cm{sup −2}). Oxides grown with both chemistries were found to have a band gap of 7.1 eV. The conduction band offset was 3.21 eV for traditionally grown films and 3.38 eV for NHALD. The increased D{sub it} for NHALD films may stem from carbon impurities in the oxide layer that are at and near the silicon surface, as evidenced by both the larger trap state time constant (τ{sub Traditional} = 2.2 × 10{sup −9} s and τ{sub NHALD} = 1.7 × 10{sup −7} s) and the larger carbon concentration. We have shown that the use of alcohol-based oxygen sources in NHALD chemistry can significantly affect the resulting interfacial electronic behavior presenting an additional parameter for understanding and controlling interfacial electronic properties at semiconductor-dielectric interfaces.

  10. Growth and Characterization of Silicon Carbide (SiC) Nanowires by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) for Electronic Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Karina

    In recent years nanowires have gained a generous amount of interest because of the possible application of nanowires within electronic devices. A nanowire is a one dimensional semiconductor nanostructure with a diameter less than 100 nm. Nanowires have the potential to be a replacement for the present day complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology; it is believed by 2020, a 5--6 nm gate length within field effect transistors (FET) would be realized and cease further miniaturization of electronic devices. SiC processes several unique chemical and physical properties that make it an attractive alternative to Si as a semiconductor material. Silicon carbide's properties make it a perfect candidate for applications such as high temperature sensors, x-ray emitters and high radiation sensors. The main objective of this thesis is to successfully grow silicon carbide nanowires on silicon substrates with the assistance of a metal catalyst, by the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The contributions made by the work carried out in this thesis are broad. This is the first study that has carried out a comprehensive investigation into a wide range of metal catalyst for the growth of SiC nanowires by the process of chemical vapor deposition. The study proved that the surface tension interactions between the silicon substrate and the metal catalyst are the controlling factor in the determination of the diameter of the nanowires grown. This study also proved that the silicon substrate orientation has no impact on the growth of the nanowires, similar growth patterns occurred on both Si and Si substrates. The nanowires grown were characterized by a variety of different methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and raman spectroscopy. The effect of temperature, growth temperature, growth time and the catalyst type used are investigated to determine the most suitable conditions necessary for SiC nanowire

  11. Electronic properties of atomic layer deposition films, anatase and rutile TiO2 studied by resonant photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, C.; Richter, M.; Tallarida, M.; Schmeisser, D.

    2016-07-01

    The TiO2 films are prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method using titanium isopropoxide precursors at 250 °C and analyzed using resonant photoemission spectroscopy (resPES). We report on the Ti2p and O1s core levels, on the valence band (VB) spectra and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data, and on the resonant photoelectron spectroscopy (resPES) profiles at the O1s and the Ti3p absorption edges. We determine the elemental abundance, the position of the VB maxima, the partial density of states (PDOS) in the VB and in the conduction band (CB) and collect these data in a band scheme. In addition, we analyze the band-gap states as well as the intrinsic states due to polarons and charge-transfer excitations. These states are found to cause multiple Auger decay processes upon resonant excitation. We identify several of these processes and determine their relative contribution to the Auger signal quantitatively. As our resPES data allow a quantitative analysis of these defect states, we determine the relative abundance of the PDOS in the VB and in CB and also the charge neutrality level. The anatase and rutile polymorphs of TiO2 are analyzed in the same way as the TiO2 ALD layer. The electronic properties of the TiO2 ALD layer are compared with the anatase and rutile polymorphs of TiO2. In our comparative study, we find that ALD has its own characteristic electronic structure that is distinct from that of anatase and rutile. However, many details of the electronic structure are comparable and we benefit from our spectroscopic data and our careful analysis to find these differences. These can be attributed to a stronger hybridization of the O2p and Ti3d4s states for the ALD films when compared to the anatase and rutile polymorphs.

  12. Electron Scattering and Doping Mechanisms in Solid-Phase-Crystallized In2O3:H Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macco, Bart; Knoops, Harm C M; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen-doped indium oxide (In2O3:H) has recently emerged as an enabling transparent conductive oxide for solar cells, in particular for silicon heterojunction solar cells because its high electron mobility (>100 cm(2)/(V s)) allows for a simultaneously high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Here, we report on high-quality In2O3:H prepared by a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process and present insights into the doping mechanism and the electron scattering processes that limit the carrier mobility in such films. The process consists of ALD of amorphous In2O3:H at 100 °C and subsequent solid-phase crystallization at 150-200 °C to obtain large-grained polycrystalline In2O3:H films. The changes in optoelectronic properties upon crystallization have been monitored both electrically by Hall measurements and optically by analysis of the Drude response. After crystallization, an excellent carrier mobility of 128 ± 4 cm(2)/(V s) can be obtained at a carrier density of 1.8 × 10(20) cm(-3), irrespective of the annealing temperature. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements have revealed that electron scattering is dominated by unavoidable phonon and ionized impurity scattering from singly charged H-donors. Extrinsic defect scattering related to material quality such as grain boundary and neutral impurity scattering was found to be negligible in crystallized films indicating that the carrier mobility is maximized. Furthermore, by comparison of the absolute H-concentration and the carrier density in crystallized films, it is deduced that <4% of the incorporated H is an active dopant in crystallized films. Therefore, it can be concluded that inactive H atoms do not (significantly) contribute to defect scattering, which potentially explains why In2O3:H films are capable of achieving a much higher carrier mobility than conventional In2O3:Sn (ITO).

  13. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  14. Copper deposit resource potential and prospecting targets in Afghanistan%阿富汗铜矿资源潜力与找矿方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高辉; 梅燕雄; 王浩琳; 范世家

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan is located in the convergence of Ancient India subcontinent and Asia plate, and it is sure to be a preferable regional prospecting area where Tethys - Himalaya metallogenic belt and magmatic arc running through. There are good conditions for mineralization and extremely metal - rich mineral resources in the region. About more than 300 documented copper deposits (occurrences) have been discovered in Afghanistan, which are composed of sediment - hosted, skarn, porphyry and vein -hosted type, including the world - class sedimentary stratabound Aynak deposit. The research indicates that Tethys - Himalaya metallogenic belt has undergone alternative deposition and uplift during the old and new Tethys Ocean's expansion and closure, and two large - scale phases of subduction and collision of tectonic plate as well, and then folded and formed the youngest Mesozoic and Cenozoic Orogenic Belts on Earth. Afghanistan has also undergone a complicated tectonic evolution of long history with regional metallogenic background environment' s conversion from the former Cambrian inner continent to convergent orogenic environment. The pre Neo - proterozoic and Meso - proterozoic ore - sourced terranes and the magma reactivated, and the magmatism and derivative mineralization/process occurred, and the mineralization had the favorable conditions such as the mineralization preferentiality and the best coupling. The porphyry copper deposits and sand shale copper deposits developed broadly in Afghanistan with huge copper resources potential. The sand shale copper deposits and the porphyry copper deposits are significant exploration targets. The skarn copper deposits and vein copper deposits, which developed broadly, are the symbols and favorable zones for deep exploration of porphyry copper/gold deposit.%阿富汗位于远古印度次大陆同亚洲大陆板块碰撞的交汇处,也是全球性成矿带——特提斯—喜马拉雅造山带(岩浆弧)成矿有利区段,金属

  15. How Human Resource Professionals Use Electronic Channels to Communicate CSR : A case study focused on Solvay's French industrial sites

    OpenAIRE

    Fournet, Clara; Pauly, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a large concern for many companies with the rise of globalization. Oftentimes, companies are encouraged to communicate CSR externally, but not internally. This research focuses upon the internal communication of CSR, specifically how Human Resource (HR) professionals use electronic channels to communicate to employees. The scope of this research is focused solely upon HR professionals within Solvay’s French industrial sites, which produce chemi...

  16. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  17. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  18. The impact of electronic healthcare associated infection surveillance software on infection prevention resources: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Shaban, Ramon Z; MacBeth, Deborough; Carter, Abigail; Mitchell, Brett G

    2017-09-08

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is fundamental for infection prevention. The methods and practices for surveillance have evolved as technology becomes more advanced. The availability of electronic surveillance software (ESS) has increased, and yet adoption of ESS is slow. It is argued that ESS deliver savings through automation, particularly in terms of human resourcing and infection prevention (IP) staff time. This paper describes the findings of a systematic review on the impact of ESS on IP resources. A systematic search was conducted of electronic databases Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature published between 1st January 2006 and 31(st) December 2016 with analysis using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 2832 articles were reviewed of which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. IP resources were identified as time undertaken on surveillance. A reduction in IP staff time to undertake surveillance was demonstrated in 13 studies. The reduction proportion ranged from 12.5% - 98.4% (mean 73.9%). The remaining three did not allow for any estimation of the effect in terms of IP staff time. None of the studies demonstrated an increase in IP staff time. The results of this review demonstrate that adopting ESS yield considerable dividends in IP staff time relating to data collection and case ascertainment whilst maintaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity. This has the potential to enable reinvestment into other components of IP to maximise efficient use of scare IP resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Flux pinning properties of MgB{sub 2} thin films on Al tape substrates deposited by electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonekura, K., E-mail: kenji@st.cs.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Fujiyoshi, T.; Sueyoshi, T. [Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Doi, T.; Nishikawa, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40, Koorimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    MgB{sub 2} thin films were deposited on Al tape substrates by EBE. The MgB{sub 2} thin films on Al tapes show much higher J{sub c} values compared to those of MgB{sub 2} wires fabricated by PIT method. The MgB{sub 2} thin films on Al tapes have c-axis correlated pinning centers. The scaling analysis of macroscopic pinning force indicates that a main pinning center is grain boundary. Flux pinning properties have been investigated in two kinds of MgB{sub 2} thin films deposited on Al tapes by electron beam evaporation: One is a stoichiometric composition and the other is a slightly B-rich composition. The values of critical current density J{sub c} in both MgB{sub 2} thin films on Al tape substrates at 10 K in the magnetic field parallel to the c-axis are higher than those in MgB{sub 2} thin films on Si and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates prepared by the same method. Both the MgB{sub 2} thin films on Al tapes show the large peaks for a magnetic field, B//c in the field-angular dependence of J{sub c}. This result indicates that the MgB{sub 2} thin films have the c-axis correlated pinning centers. Scaling analysis in the reduced macroscopic pinning force density versus the reduced magnetic field at 20 K implies that a main pinning center in both the MgB{sub 2} thin films is grain boundaries. In addition, it was suggested that a nonstoichiometric MgB{sub 2} thin film has additional pinning centers which act effectively in a high magnetic field.

  20. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  1. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J

    2017-09-05

    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  2. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  3. Study of materials and machines for 3D printed large-scale, flexible electronic structures using fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seyeon

    The 3 dimensional printing (3DP), called to additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), is emerged to revolutionize manufacturing and completely transform how products are designed and fabricated. A great deal of research activities have been carried out to apply this new technology to a variety of fields. In spite of many endeavors, much more research is still required to perfect the processes of the 3D printing techniques especially in the area of the large-scale additive manufacturing and flexible printed electronics. The principles of various 3D printing processes are briefly outlined in the Introduction Section. New types of thermoplastic polymer composites aiming to specified functional applications are also introduced in this section. Chapter 2 shows studies about the metal/polymer composite filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM) process. Various metal particles, copper and iron particles, are added into thermoplastics polymer matrices as the reinforcement filler. The thermo-mechanical properties, such as thermal conductivity, hardness, tensile strength, and fracture mechanism, of composites are tested to figure out the effects of metal fillers on 3D printed composite structures for the large-scale printing process. In Chapter 3, carbon/polymer composite filaments are developed by a simple mechanical blending process with an aim of fabricating the flexible 3D printed electronics as a single structure. Various types of carbon particles consisting of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), conductive carbon black (CCB), and graphite are used as the conductive fillers to provide the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with improved electrical conductivity. The mechanical behavior and conduction mechanisms of the developed composite materials are observed in terms of the loading amount of carbon fillers in this section. Finally, the prototype flexible electronics are modeled and manufactured by the FDM process using Carbon/TPU composite filaments and

  4. Large-Area Chemical Vapor Deposited MoS2 with Transparent Conducting Oxide Contacts toward Fully Transparent 2D Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Zhenyu

    2017-09-08

    2D semiconductors are poised to revolutionize the future of electronics and photonics, much like transparent oxide conductors and semiconductors have revolutionized the display industry. Herein, these two types of materials are combined to realize fully transparent 2D electronic devices and circuits. Specifically, a large-area chemical vapor deposition process is developed to grow monolayer MoS2 continuous films, which are, for the first time, combined with transparent conducting oxide (TCO) contacts. Transparent conducting aluminum doped zinc oxide contacts are deposited by atomic layer deposition, with composition tuning to achieve optimal conductivity and band-offsets with MoS2. The optimized process gives fully transparent TCO/MoS2 2D electronics with average visible-range transmittance of 85%. The transistors show high mobility (4.2 cm2 V−1 s−1), fast switching speed (0.114 V dec−1), very low threshold voltage (0.69 V), and large switching ratio (4 × 108). To our knowledge, these are the lowest threshold voltage and subthreshold swing values reported for monolayer chemical vapor deposition MoS2 transistors. The transparent inverters show fast switching properties with a gain of 155 at a supply voltage of 10 V. The results demonstrate that transparent conducting oxides can be used as contact materials for 2D semiconductors, which opens new possibilities in 2D electronic and photonic applications.

  5. Comparison of TiO2 and ZrO2 Films Deposited by Electron-Beam Evaporation and by Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jian-Ke; LI Hai-Yuan; FAN Zheng-Xiu; TANG Yong-Xing; JIN Yun-Xia; ZHAO Yuan-An; HE Hong-Bo; SHAO Jian-Da

    2007-01-01

    TiO2 and ZrO2 films are deposited by electron-beam (EB) evaporation and by sol-gel process. The film properties are characterized by visible and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, x-ray diffraction analysis, surface roughness measure, absorption and laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) test. It is found that the sol-gel films have lower refractive index, packing density and roughness than EB deposited films due to their amorphous structure and high OH group concentration in the film. The high LIDT of sol-gel films is mainly due to their amorphous and porous structure, and low absorption. LIDT of EB deposited film is considerably affected by defects in the film, and LIDT of sol-gel deposited film is mainly effected by residual organic impurities and solvent trapped in the film.

  6. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  7. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  8. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  9. Evaluation of freestanding boron-doped diamond grown by chemical vapour deposition as substrates for vertical power electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issaoui, R.; Achard, J.; Tallaire, A.; Silva, F.; Gicquel, A. [LSPM-CNRS (formerly LIMHP), Universite Paris 13, 99, Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bisaro, R.; Servet, B.; Garry, G. [Thales Research and Technology France, Campus de Polytechnique, 1 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, F-91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Barjon, J. [GEMaC-CNRS, Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin Batiment Fermat, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)

    2012-03-19

    In this study, 4 x 4 mm{sup 2} freestanding boron-doped diamond single crystals with thickness up to 260 {mu}m have been fabricated by plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition. The boron concentrations measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy were 10{sup 18} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} which is in a good agreement with the values calculated from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, thus indicating that almost all incorporated boron is electrically active. The dependence of lattice parameters and crystal mosaicity on boron concentrations have also been extracted from high resolution x-ray diffraction experiments on (004) planes. The widths of x-ray rocking curves have globally shown the high quality of the material despite a substantial broadening of the peak, indicating a decrease of structural quality with increasing boron doping levels. Finally, the suitability of these crystals for the development of vertical power electronic devices has been confirmed by four-point probe measurements from which electrical resistivities as low as 0.26 {Omega} cm have been obtained.

  10. Relating Electronic and Geometric Structure of Atomic Layer Deposited BaTiO3 to its Electrical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Jan; Acharya, Shinjita; Dadlani, Anup Lal; Petousis, Ioannis; Kim, Yongmin; Trejo, Orlando; Nordlund, Dennis; Prinz, Fritz B

    2016-04-21

    Atomic layer deposition allows the fabrication of BaTiO3 (BTO) ultrathin films with tunable dielectric properties, which is a promising material for electronic and optical technology. Industrial applicability necessitates a better understanding of their atomic structure and corresponding properties. Through the use of element-specific X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, O K-edge of BTO as a function of cation composition and underlying substrate (RuO2 and SiO2) is revealed. By employing density functional theory and multiple scattering simulations, we analyze the distortions in BTO's bonding environment captured by the XANES spectra. The spectral weight shifts to lower energy with increasing Ti content and provides an atomic scale (microscopic) explanation for the increase in leakage current density. Differences in film morphologies in the first few layers near substrate-film interfaces reveal BTO's homogeneous growth on RuO2 and its distorted growth on SiO2. This work links structural changes to BTO thin-film properties and provides insight necessary for optimizing future BTO and other ternary metal oxide-based thin-film devices.

  11. Probing electronic lifetimes and phonon anharmonicities in high-quality chemical vapor deposited graphene by magneto-Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Christoph, E-mail: cneumann@physik.rwth-aachen.de; Stampfer, Christoph [JARA-FIT and 2nd Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Halpaap, Donatus; Banszerus, Luca; Schmitz, Michael; Beschoten, Bernd [JARA-FIT and 2nd Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Reichardt, Sven [JARA-FIT and 2nd Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Physics and Materials Science Research Unit, Université du Luxembourg, 1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2015-12-07

    We present a magneto-Raman study on high-quality single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) that is fully encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride by a dry transfer technique. By analyzing the Raman D, G, and 2D peaks, we find that the structural quality of the samples is comparable with state-of-the-art exfoliated graphene flakes. From B-field dependent Raman measurements, we extract the broadening and associated lifetime of the G peak due to anharmonic effects. Furthermore, we determine the decay width and lifetime of Landau level (LL) transitions from magneto-phonon resonances as a function of laser power. At low laser power, we find a minimal decay width of 140 cm{sup −1} highlighting the high electronic quality of the CVD-grown graphene. At higher laser power, we observe an increase of the LL decay width leading to a saturation, with the corresponding lifetime saturating at a minimal value of 18 fs.

  12. Computer resource model of the Matra-Bukkalja, Hungary, lignite deposit for production planning, inspection and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fust, A.; Zergi, I.

    1985-01-01

    For the planning of lignite surface mining, a reliable geologic model is needed which can be updated by new survey data and used for the operative control of production. A computer model is proposed to analyze control, planning and inspection of production. The model is composed of two components, one from the geologic survey data, and the other refined by the production data. The half variograms of the Matra-Bukkalja lignite deposits are presented. The model can be used for the checking of forecast data.

  13. Interaction of protons with the C{sub 60} molecule: calculation of deposited energies and electronic stopping cross sections (v{sub {<=}}5 au)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P. [Laboratoire CAR, IRSAMC, UMR 5589 CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)]. E-mail: pmc@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Rentenier, A.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A. [Laboratoire CAR, IRSAMC, UMR 5589 CNRS, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)

    2001-09-28

    The energy deposited by a proton in a C{sub 60} molecule is calculated over a broad collision velocity range from 0.1 to 5 au, using the free-electron gas model of Lindhard and Winther (1964 Mat. Fys. Medd. K Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. 34) and the C{sub 60} electron density distribution calculated by Puska and Nieminen. The energy lost by the proton is maximum near 1.8 au collision velocity in contrast with the saturation found in the low-velocity regime, in the 0.25-0.5 au velocity range, by Kunert and Schmidt. From the impact parameter dependence we deduce the distributions of deposited energies, the averaged energy losses and the C{sub 60} electronic stopping cross sections. It is found that the C{sub 60} molecule behaves as a carbon foil giving very similar absolute stopping cross sections per atom. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  14. Intention to use and actual use of electronic information resources: further exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2009-11-14

    Following up a previous study that examined public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that the determinants of intention-to-use significantly predict actual use behavior. Direct impact of perceived usefulness and indirect impact of perceived ease of use to both behavior intention and actual behavior indicated the importance of ease of use at the early stage of technology acceptance. Non-significant intention-behavior relationship prompted thoughts on the measurement of actual behavior and multidimensional characteristics of the intention construct.

  15. Electronic state of ruthenium deposited onto oxide supports: An XPS study taking into account the final state effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larichev, Yurii V.; Moroz, Boris L.; Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I.

    2011-12-01

    The electronic state of ruthenium in the supported Ru/EOx (EOx = MgO, Al2O3 or SiO2) catalysts prepared by with the use of Ru(OH)Cl3 or Ru(acac)3 (acac = acetylacetonate) and reduced with H2 at 723 K is characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in the Ru 3d, Cl 2p and O 1s regions. The influence of the final state effects (the differential charging and variation of the relaxation energy) on the binding energy (BE) of Ru 3d5/2 core level measured for supported Ru nanoparticles is estimated by comparison of the Fermi levels and the modified Auger parameters determined for the Ru/EOx samples with the corresponding characteristics of the bulk Ru metal. It is found that the negative shift of the Ru 3d5/2 peak which is observed in the spectrum of ruthenium deposited onto MgO (BE = 279.5-279.7 eV) with respect to that of Ru black (BE = 280.2 eV) or ruthenium supported on γ-Al2O3 and SiO2 (BE = 280.4 eV) is caused not by the transfer of electron density from basic sites of MgO, as considered earlier, but by the differential charging of the supported Ru particles compared with the support surface. Correction for the differential charging value reveals that the initial state energies of ruthenium in the Ru/EOx systems are almost identical (BE = 280.5 ± 0.1 eV) irrespectively of acid-base properties of the support, the mean size of supported Ru crystallites (within the range of 2-10 nm) and the surface Cl content. The results obtained suggest that the difference in ammonia synthesis activity between the Ru catalysts supported on MgO and on the acidic supports is accounted for by not different electronic state of ruthenium on the surface of these oxides but by some other reasons.

  16. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131601 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550003,China);Yang Ruidong Hydrothermal Venting-Flowing Sedimentation Characteristics of Devonian Barite Deposits from Leji,Zhenning County,Guizhou Province(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,CN62-1038/P,30(3),

  17. Use of Geochemical and Geophysical Techniques to Characterize and Prospect for Geothermal Resources and Hydrothermal Ore Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert E. Criss

    2015-01-01

    Fluid-rock interactions alter the geochemical, isotopic, petrographic and physical character of host rocks, producing a permanent record of hydrothermal activity. Maps of altered rock properties show regular variations that disclose master geologic controls and delineate likely sites for geothermal and mineral resources. In many cases, geochemical and stable isotope data re-veal the origins of thermal fluids, and they can also provide estimates of reservoir temperatures and identify zones of fluid recharge.

  18. Gadolinium released from MR contrast agents is deposited in brain tumors: in situ demonstration using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Daniel; Davis, Richard L.; Crawford, Judith A.; Abraham, Jerrold L. (Dept. of Pathology, SUNY Upstate Medical Univ., Syracuse, NY (United States)), e-mail: abrahamj@upstate.edu

    2010-12-15

    Background: Gadolinium (Gd)-containing MRI contrast agents (GdCA) are widely used in studies of brain tumors, and a number of reports suggest that under certain conditions, such as renal failure, Gd may be released from GdCA into patient's tissues. Whether this may happen in abnormal tissues in the absence of renal failure has not been studied. Purpose: To test the hypothesis that the local retention of GdCA resulting from brain tumor-associated alterations in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may result in the deposition of Gd released from the GdCA, depending on stability. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, 30 selected brain tumor biopsies from 28 patients (taken before and after an institutional switch from a less stable to an intermediate stable GdCA) were searched for Gd-containing deposits using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Relevant histories and laboratory results were obtained through institutional electronic records. Associations between the presence of deposits and other variables were tested for statistical significance using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: Insoluble deposits containing Gd associated with phosphorus and calcium were found in seven biopsies from five patients. These deposits were found in patients with estimated GFRs above 53 ml/min, and were detected more often in those receiving GdCA before the switch from a less stable to an intermediate stable GdCA (P = 0.04), and may be more frequent in patients receiving more than one contrast-enhanced MR scan (P = 0.15). Conclusion: Gd-containing deposits are present in brain tumors following contrast-enhanced MR scans in patients without severe renal disease. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical importance of the deposits we observed and to determine whether they are also found in other conditions that alter the integrity of the BBB

  19. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  20. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  1. Nucleation and Oriented Textured Growth of Diamond Films on Si(100) via Electron Emission in Ho.t Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Oriented textured diamond films were obtained on Si(100) substrate via electron emission in hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD). A dc bias voltage relative to the filament was applied to the tungsten electrode between the substrate and the filament. The nucleation and subsequent growth of diamond films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the electron emission from the diamond coating on the electrode played a critical role during the nucleation.The maximum value of nucleation density was up to 1011 cm-2 on pristine Si surface at emission current of 250 mA. The effect of the electron emission on the reactive gas composition was analyzed by in situ infrared absorption, indicating that the concentration of CH3 and C2H2 near the substrate surface was extremely increased. This may be responsible for the enhanced nucleation by electron emission.

  2. Electronic resources at the University of Sharjah medical library: an investigation of students' information-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumarafi, Behdja

    2010-10-01

    Electronic information is becoming prevalent worldwide, and its use is growing exponentially as more and more users are recognizing the potential that it offers in terms of access and delivery. However, with the introduction of new tools for e-information searching and retrieval, users have to readjust their information-seeking behavior to cope with the corresponding changes. The University of Sharjah library is steadily increasing its investment in e-resources to offer ubiquitous access to the growing body of literature in areas that interest the community it serves. This study reports the findings of a survey conducted to investigate the information-seeking behavior of medical students at the medical library. Results showed evidence of use of e-resources, but they did not explicitly establish that some of the major problems mentioned by participants did hinder the information searches of the respondents. An extensive literature review sets the background for the study.

  3. 图书馆电子信息资源利用效果评价研究%Study on Utilization Effect Evaluation of Library Electronic Information Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋晓强; 贺培风; 何忠印

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses utilization effect of electronic information resources combining with the characteristics of electronic information resources, makes evaluation system of library electronic information resource utilization effect from three aspects : the library, the users and the data providers, hoping for providing valuable reference for the efficient use of library electronic resources.%本文结合电子信息资源的特性对电子信息资源的利用进行初步探讨,从图书馆、用户和数据服务商三个角度构建图书馆电子信息资源利用效果的评价体系,希望能为图书馆电子信息资源的高效利用提供参考。

  4. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  5. Dielectric spectroscopy of electron beam deposited yttrium oxide films examined in metal–insulator–metal sandwich type structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiktorczyk, Tadeusz, E-mail: Tadeusz.Wiktorczyk@pwr.wroc.pl; Biegański, Piotr

    2014-01-31

    This report describes the dielectric properties of electron-beam deposited Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films examined in metal–insulator–metal-type structures fabricated onto quartz substrates. The dielectric measurements have been carried out in the frequency domain from 10 mHz to 10 MHz, with a frequency response analyser. Frequency characteristics of the complex capacitance, as well as Cole–Cole and Nyquist graphs, have been presented and discussed for the temperature range 398–523 K. The results have been analyzed in terms of equivalent circuit models containing resistance–capacitance and constant phase elements (CPE). We have determined the values of the resistance, capacitance and CPE, which characterize the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} film and near-electrode regions. It has been shown that for high frequencies/low temperatures the dielectric properties are connected with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} film, while for low frequencies/high temperatures the dielectric response is dominated by the near-electrode regions. In the frequency range 0.1–10 MHz the important contribution of series resistance of electrodes and leads has been observed. - Highlights: • We examine the Al/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al thin film capacitors for frequency range 10 mHz–10 MHz. • The dielectric data are assigned to Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and to metal/insulator interfaces. • The capacitance, resistance and constant phase elements describe their properties. • The values of these elements are estimated for temperatures from 398 K to 523 K.

  6. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  7. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  8. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  9. Equalizing Access to Electronic Networked Resources: A Model for Rural Libraries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevitch, Judith J.; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current state of networking technology in rural libraries and describes a model for educating rural librarians in accessing electronic networks. Topics discussed include information needs in rural libraries; telecommunications technology access in rural areas; and examples of services to enhance information access.…

  10. Chemical and electronic interface structure of spray pyrolysis deposited undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films on a commercial Cz-Si solar cell substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabas, M.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Lab. de Materiales y Superficies, Universidad de Malaga 29071 Malaga (Spain); Barrett, N.T. [CEA DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Gota, S. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, UMR 012 CEA-CNRS CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Rojas, T.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC, Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Lopez-Escalante, M.C. [Isofoton S.A., Parque Tecnologico de Andalucia, Severo Ochoa, 50, 29590 Malaga (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    We have studied differences in the interface between undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films deposited on commercial Si solar cell substrates. The undoped ZnO film is significantly thicker than the Al-doped film for the same deposition time. An extended silicate-like interface is present in both samples. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) probe the presence of a zinc silicate and several Si oxides in both cases. Although Al doping improves the conductivity of ZnO, we present evidence for Al segregation at the interface during deposition on the Si substrate and suggest the presence of considerable fixed charge near the oxidized Si interface layer. The induced distortion in the valence band, compared to that of undoped ZnO, could be responsible for considerable reduction in the solar cell performance. (author)

  11. Superconductivity and metallic behavior in Pb{sub x}C{sub y}O{sub δ} structures prepared by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winhold, M., E-mail: winhold@Physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Weirich, P. M.; Schwalb, C. H.; Huth, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-20

    Focused electron beam induced deposition as a direct-write approach possesses great potential to meet the demands for superconducting nanostructure fabrication especially regarding its 3D patterning capabilities combined with the high resolution in the nanometer regime. So far, however, it was not possible to fabricate superconducting structures with this technique. In this work, we present a lead-based superconductor prepared by focused electron beam induced deposition by dissociation of the precursor tetraethyllead. The as-grown structures exhibit metallic behavior and a minimum resistivity in the normal state of ρ = 16 μΩcm at T = 9 K followed by a superconducting transition at T{sub c} = 7.2 K.

  12. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110947 Chen Xinglong(Guizhou Bureau of Nonferrous Metal and Nuclear Geology,Guiyang 550005,China);Gong Heqiang Endowment Factors and Development & Utilization Strategy of Bauxite Resource in North Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(2),2010,p.106-110,6 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province20110948 Dang Yanxia(Mineral Resource & Reservoir Evaluation Center,Urumiq 830000,China);Fan Wenjun Geological Features and a Primary Study of Metallogenesis of the Wucaiwang Zeolite Deposit,Fuyun County(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(2),2010,p.167-170,2 illus.,1 table,5 refs.)Key words:zeolite deposit,Xinjiang Nearly all zeolite deposits in the world result from low-temperature-alteration of glass-bearing volcanic rocks.The southern slope of the Kalamali Mountain is one of the regions where medium to acid volcanics are major lithological type,thus it is a preferred area to look for zeolite deposit.The Wucaiwang zeolite ore district consists of mainly acid volcanic-clastic rocks.

  13. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  14. Fabrication of Ag:TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films by Sol-Gel Followed by Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ag:TiO2 nanocomposite films have been synthesized by sol-gel method followed by electron beam physical vapour deposition. Targets for this deposition were prepared by a hydraulic press using a powder containing Ag and TiO2 prepared by sol-gel technique. Microstructure, surface, and plasmonic properties of nanocomposite films were studied using glancing angle X-ray diffractometer, atomic force microscopy, field emission secondary electron microscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Microstructural study reveals that Ag nanoparticles are embedded in TiO2 matrix consisting of mixed phases of anatase and rutile. Size estimation using Scherrer formula reveals that average crystallite size of Ag nanoparticles is 23 nm. Surface morphological studies indicate that deposited films are uniform and intact to the substrate and have very low value of root mean square roughness. Optical studies exhibit a surface plasmon resonance induced absorption band in visible region, which is the characteristic feature of Ag nanoparticles. The intensity of this absorption band is found to increase with the increase in deposition time. Multiple peaks observed in absorption band were explained using the concepts of extended Mie scattering. Preliminary experiments also suggested that these nanocomposite films exhibit promising photocatalytic properties, which can be used for water treatment.

  15. A Complete Reporting of MCNP6 Validation Results for Electron Energy Deposition in Single-Layer Extended Media for Source Energies <= 1-MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hughes, Henry Grady [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-04

    In this paper, we expand on previous validation work by Dixon and Hughes. That is, we present a more complete suite of validation results with respect to to the well-known Lockwood energy deposition experiment. Lockwood et al. measured energy deposition in materials including beryllium, carbon, aluminum, iron, copper, molybdenum, tantalum, and uranium, for both single- and multi-layer 1-D geometries. Source configurations included mono-energetic, mono-directional electron beams with energies of 0.05-MeV, 0.1-MeV, 0.3- MeV, 0.5-MeV, and 1-MeV, in both normal and off-normal angles of incidence. These experiments are particularly valuable for validating electron transport codes, because they are closely represented by simulating pencil beams incident on 1-D semi-infinite slabs with and without material interfaces. Herein, we include total energy deposition and energy deposition profiles for the single-layer experiments reported by Lockwood et al. (a more complete multi-layer validation will follow in another report).

  16. Global atmospheric energy deposition by energetic electrons - Quantitative spatial and temporal characteristics inferred from the Atmospheric X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (PEM/AXIS) on UARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenette, D. L.; Datlowe, D. W.; Robinson, R. M.; Schumaker, T. L.; Vondrak, R. R.; Frahm, R. A.; Sharber, J. R.; Winningham, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    The primary purpose of PEM/AXIS is to provide a global monitor of the energy input to the upper atmosphere due to energetic electrons. The design, development, and calibration of AXIS are described and an assessment of its excellent on-orbit performance is presented. The unique capabilities of X-ray imaging spectrometers to monitor the global patterns of electron energy deposition in the atmosphere are shown through an analysis of some specific cases during the first year of the UARS mission.

  17. Scanning transmission electron microscope analysis of amorphous-Si insertion layers prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition, causing low surface recombination velocities on crystalline silicon wafers

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Microstructures of stacked silicon-nitride/amorphous-silicon/crystalline-silicon (SiN_x/a-Si/c-Si) layers prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition were investigated with scanning transmission electron microscopy to clarify the origin of the sensitive dependence of surface recombination velocities (SRVs) of the stacked structure on the thickness of the a-Si layer. Stacked structures with a-Si layers with thicknesses greater than 10 nm exhibit long effective carrier lifetimes, while thos...

  18. Collaboration in electronic resource provision in university libraries: SHEDL, a Scottish case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, T

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines the growth of collaboration among Scottish higher education institutions. Following a summary of the work of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries (SCURL), more detailed information is provided on collaboration in the fields of acquisition, licensing, selection, and purchasing. Some of the UK background is outlined, relating to NESLi2 in particular, in order to illuminate the options within Scotland. The origins of negotiations on electronic ...

  19. Effect of deposition temperature on electron-beam evaporated polycrystalline silicon thin-film and crystallized by diode laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J., E-mail: j.yun@unsw.edu.au; Varalmov, S.; Huang, J.; Green, M. A. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Kim, K. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Suntech R and D Australia, Botany, New South Wales 2019 (Australia)

    2014-06-16

    The effects of the deposition temperature on the microstructure, crystallographic orientation, and electrical properties of a 10-μm thick evaporated Si thin-film deposited on glass and crystallized using a diode laser, are investigated. The crystallization of the Si thin-film is initiated at a deposition temperature between 450 and 550 °C, and the predominant (110) orientation in the normal direction is found. Pole figure maps confirm that all films have a fiber texture and that it becomes stronger with increasing deposition temperature. Diode laser crystallization is performed, resulting in the formation of lateral grains along the laser scan direction. The laser power required to form lateral grains is higher in case of films deposited below 450 °C for all scan speeds. Pole figure maps show 75% occupancies of the (110) orientation in the normal direction when the laser crystallized film is deposited above 550 °C. A higher density of grain boundaries is obtained when the laser crystallized film is deposited below 450 °C, which limits the solar cell performance by n = 2 recombination, and a performance degradation is expected due to severe shunting.

  20. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material.

  1. Anisotropic high-k deposition for gate-last processing of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor utilizing electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Yoshiaki, E-mail: kikuchi.y.ao@m.titech.ac.jp; Gao, Jun; Sano, Takahiro; Ohmi, Shun-ichiro, E-mail: ohmi@ep.titech.ac.jp

    2012-01-31

    A high-k/metal gate structure has been investigated for application to state-of-the-art metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. In the high-k/metal gate structure, the 32-nm technology node was realized by using the high-k-last, metal-last integration process. We investigated anisotropic deposition for 3-dimensional gate structures on Si substrates utilizing electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma sputtering to reduce parasitic capacitance. Anisotropic HfN film deposition was realized and the deposition thickness on the side wall was reduced with decreasing sputtering gas pressure, from 0.15 to 0.06 Pa, corresponding to Ar/N{sub 2} flow ratios of 20/1 and 5/1 sccm. The HfSiON gate insulator formed from the anisotropically deposited HfN film showed an equivalent-oxide-thickness of 2.1 nm and a gate leakage of 3.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}A/cm{sup 2} at V{sub FB}-1.0. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-k film deposition was controlled by the deposition pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pressure decreases with a reduction of gas flow rate during the high-k film deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A flat band voltage shows negative shifts with reduction of gas flow rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A reason of the flat band voltage shift is an increase in Si-N bonding.

  2. National uranium resource evaluation. Geology and recognition criteria for sandstone uranium deposits of the salt wash type, Colorado Plateau Province. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamm, J.K.; Kovschak, A.A. Jr.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The uranium-vanadium deposits of the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation in the Colorado Plateau are similar to sandstone uranium deposits elsewhere in the USA. The differences between Salt Wash deposits and other sandstone uranium deposits are also significant. The Salt Wash deposits are unique among sandstone deposits in that they are dominantly vanadium deposits with accessory uranium. The Salt Wash ores generally occur entirely within reduced sandstone, without adjacent tongues of oxidized sandstone. They are more like the deposits of Grants, which similarly occur in reduced sandstones. Recent studies of the Grants deposits have identified alteration assemblages which are asymmetrically distributed about the deposits and provide a basis for a genetic model for those deposits. The alteration types recognized by Shawe in the Slick Rock district may provide similar constraints on ore formation when expanded to broader areas and more complete chemical analyses.

  3. Direct visualization of initial SEI morphology and growth kinetics during lithium deposition by in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacci, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science adn Technology Division; Dudney, Nancy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science adn Technology Division; More, Karren L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Parent, Lucas R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate; Arslan, Ilke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate; Browning, Nigel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate; Unocic, Raymond R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science

    2013-12-20

    Deposition of Li is a major safety concern existing in Li-ion secondary batteries. We perform the first in situ high spatial resolution measurement coupled with real-time quantitative electrochemistry to characterize SEI formation on gold using a standard battery electrolyte. We also demonstrate that a dendritic SEI forms prior to Li deposition and that it remains on the surface after Li electrodissolution.

  4. Initial deposition and electron paramagnetic resonance defects characterization of TiO{sub 2} films prepared using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yiyong, E-mail: wuyiyong2001@yahoo.com.cn [National Key Laboratory of Materials Behaviors and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. 432, Nan gang District, Harbin, 150080 (China); Shi Yaping [National Key Laboratory of Materials Behaviors and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. 432, Nan gang District, Harbin, 150080 (China); Harbin University of Commerce, P.O. 493, Song bei District, Harbin, 150028 (China); Xu Xianbin; Sun Chengyue [National Key Laboratory of Materials Behaviors and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. 432, Nan gang District, Harbin, 150080 (China)

    2012-06-01

    Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique was considered promisingly to deposit ultra thin titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) films under ambient condition. In this paper, the growth process, structures and paramagnetic defects of the films were characterized by complementary techniques of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results indicate that on glass substrate the SILAR TiO{sub 2} film nucleates in an island mode within the initial five deposition cycles but grows in a layer-by-layer mode afterwards. The growth rate was measured as 4.6 A/cycle. In the as-deposited films, a kind of paramagnetic defects is detected at g (2.0029) and it can be attributed to oxygen vacancies. These as-received oxygen vacancies could be annealed out at 473 K. Ultraviolet irradiation on the as-deposited films can also decrease the density of the defects. The relative mechanisms on the phenomenon were discussed in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} films are deposited on glass at 25 Degree-Sign C by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method with a rate of 4.6 A/cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films nucleate in an island mode initially but grow in a layer mode afterwards. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SILAR TiO{sub 2} films nucleation period is five cycles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that TiO{sub 2} films paramagnetic defects are attributed to oxygen vacancies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They will decrease by anneal or ultraviolet radiation and form hydroxyl or superoxide radicals.

  5. Effects of deposition methods and processing techniques on band gap, interband electronic transitions, and optical absorption in perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwu; Sha, Tingting; Wang, Yan; Yu, Wenlei; Jiang, Kai; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Chuan; Hu, Zhigao; Chu, Junhao

    2017-07-01

    Despite intensive studies on the improvements of conversion efficiencies in solar cells, many questions regarding the effects of deposition techniques on optical properties and electronic band structures of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) remain unresolved. Here, perovskite MAPbI3 films were prepared using different deposition methods and processing techniques. The effects of deposition and processing parameters on dielectric functions and optical absorption were investigated by fitting the reflectance spectra in the photon energy range of 0.5-5.16 eV. It is found that the bandgap (Eg) of the films deposited by two-step spinning (1.591 eV) is larger than that prepared by evaporations (1.514 eV), due to different Pb-I orbital hybridization and spin-orbit coupling. Moreover, the Eg value of the films increases from 1.543 eV to 1.591 eV after toluene solution dripping. Five interband electronic transitions ( Ep 1, Ep 2, Ep 3, Ep 4 , and Ep 5 ) are observed, and the origins of Ep 2, Ep 3 , and Ep 4 are assigned to the direct transitions between the highest valence band and the lowest lying conduction band at the R, M, and X symmetry points. Further, the transition energies of the films deposited by evaporation are less than those prepared by two-step spinning. The present results shed light on preparing more reliable and reproducible high performance MAPbI3-based solar cells.

  6. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091594 Bao Yafan(The Third Geologic Survey of Jilin Province,Siping 136000,China);Liu Yanjun Relations between Bashenerxi Granite,West Dongkunlun and Baiganhu Tungsten-Tin Deposit(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,27(3),2008,p.56-59,67,5 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:tungsten ores,tin ores,monzogranite,Kunlun Mountains20091595 Chen Fuwen(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Yichang 443003,China);Dai Pingyun Metallogenetic and Isotopic Chronological Study on the Shenjiaya Gold Deposit in Xuefeng Mountains,Hunan Province(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,82(7),2008,p.906-911,3 illus.,2 tables,30 refs.)Key words:gold ores,HunanThe Shenjiaya gold deposit is a representative one

  7. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  8. Resource and Geological Characteristics of Gold Deposits in India%印度共和国金矿资源及其地质特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成功; 邱献引; 孙卫宾; 李尚林; 罗彦军

    2015-01-01

    India’s gold mine has four basic types:greenstone belt type,conglomerate-type,alluvial gold mine and associated gold mine.India’s gold mine has a feature of wide distribution,relative concentration,less large and rich mineral deposits,and the great depth and so on.Greenstone type gold mine which is the most important gold type in India,concentrates Precambrian greenstone belt in South India craton and central India craton.Kolar gold mine and Hutii gold mine in the East of Darwar craton in south India are typical greenstone type gold mines. Kolar gold mine is a super-giant gold deposit with an average gold grade of 16 g/t,and gold reserves > 1 000 t;Hutti gold mine is a large gold deposit with an average grade of 4.85 g/t,and gold reserves >150 t.The proved reserves of India’s gold mine is very limited,but a lot of smaller gold deposits are widely distributed in India craton greenstone belts,which indicates there is a very good potential of gold resource.Increasing the investment in the exploration and development of India’s gold mine will make more gold resources with great value be discovered and may also completely change the status quo of India gold.%印度金矿类型主要有4种:绿岩型、砾岩型、砂金及伴生金矿,具有分布广、相对集中、规模小、品位低及埋深较大等特点。绿岩型金矿是印度最重要的金矿类型,集中分布在南印度克拉通和印度中央克拉通的前寒武系绿岩带中。南部东塔尔瓦尔克拉通的科拉尔金矿和胡蒂金矿是典型的绿岩型金矿,其中,科拉尔金矿金平均品位为16 g/t,黄金储量>1000 t,属于超大型金矿床;胡蒂金矿金平均品位为4.85 g/t,黄金储量>150 t,属于大型金矿床。印度金矿探明储量十分有限,但大量较小规模金矿广泛分布在印度克拉通绿岩带,预示印度金矿具有很好的资源潜力。增加印度金矿勘探和开发投入,将发现更多具有重要价值的金

  9. 试论图书馆电子资源与纸本资源的协调发展%The coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雷

    2012-01-01

      纸本资源和电子资源属于公共图书馆文献资源中两个非常重要的资源类型,纸本资源和电子资源的协调发展在图书馆的可持续发展过程中起着非常重要的作用。本文对如何实现图书馆电子资源和纸本资源之间的协调发展进行了探讨,希望能够为图书馆文献资源的管理提供一些参考。%  The paper and electronic resources are two very important types of literature resources of public libraries, the coordinated development of the paper and electronic resources play a very important role in the sustainable development process of the library. This article discusses how to realize the coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources, hope to provide some reference for library literature resource management.

  10. Microstructural analysis and Transport Properties of MoO and MoC nanostructures prepared by focused electron beam-induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makise, Kazumasa; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Shimojo, Masayuki; Shinozaki, Bunju

    2014-07-01

    By electron-beam-induced deposition, we have succeeded in the direct fabrication of nanowires of molybdenum oxide (MoOx) and molybdenum carbide (MoC) on a SiO2 substrate set in a scanning electron microscope. In order to prepare MoOx specimens of high purity, a precursor gas of molybdenum hexacarbonyl [Mo(CO)6] is used, mixed with oxygen gas. On the other hand, MoC is grown by mixing H2O gas with the precursor gas. The electrical transport properties of the nanowires are investigated by the DC four-terminal method. A highly resistive MoOx nanowire prepared from an as-deposited specimen by annealing in air shows nonlinear current-voltage characteristics and a high photoconductivity. The resistivity ρ of an as-deposited amorphous MoC (a-MoC) nanowire takes its maximum at a temperature T ~ 10 K and decreases to ~ 0 with decreasing temperature. This behavior of ρ(T) indicates the possible occurrence of superconductivity in a-MoC nanowires. The characteristic of ρ(T) below the superconducting transition temperature Tc ~ 4 K can be well explained by the quantum phase-slip model with a coherence length ξ(0) ~ 8 nm at T = 0.

  11. On the Development of Electronic Resources and Paper Resources%关于电子资源与纸本资源协调发展的思考和建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军武

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of electronic resources was introduced to the libraries, which has become an im- portant component of library resource system. However, there are also a lot of hot debates about the following issues, such as how to build a traditional paper resources, how to deal with the relationship between paper resources and electronic resources, how to build a library resources development system, etc. These problems also confused many librarians who are building resources in the library. With the combination with the opinions from some experts, research scholars, the paper proposed some guiding principles to deal with the relationship between electronic resources and paper resources. Taking all the aspects into consideration, such as the concepts of the library, the funding of the resources, the policies and structure of the library, cooperative development, the paper also proposes some measures for the development of electronic resources and paper resources.%在复合图书馆环境下,如何协调发展电子资源与纸本资源是图书馆界专家、学者研究和探讨的热点问题,也是许多图书馆工作者在文献资源建设实践中十分困惑的问题。文章结合有关专家、学者的研究成果及图书馆的相关案例,概述了电子资源与纸本资源协调发展应遵循的指导性原则,并从馆藏理念、经费投入、馆藏政策、馆藏结构、合作发展、服务利用等几个方面提出了协调发展电子资源与纸本资源的若干举措。

  12. On the energy deposition by electrons in air and the accurate determination of the air-fluorescence yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arqueros F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty in the absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield still puts a severe limit on the accuracy in the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The precise measurement of this parameter in laboratory is in turn conditioned by a careful evaluation of the energy deposited in the experimental collision chamber. In this work we discuss on the calculation of the energy deposition and its accuracy. Results from an upgraded Monte Carlo algorithm that we have developed are compared with those obtained using Geant4, showing excellent agreement. These updated calculations of energy deposition are used to apply some corrections to the available measurements of the absolute fluorescence yield, allowing us to obtain a reliable world average of this important parameter.

  13. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  14. Preparation of high-quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon film with a new microwave electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapour deposition system assisted with hot wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiu-Hong; Chen Guang-Hua; Yin Sheng-Yi; Rong Yan-Dong; Zhang Wen-Li; Hu Yue-Hui

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of high-quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film with a new microwave electron cyclotron resonance-chemical vapour deposition (MWECR-CVD) system assisted with hot wire is presented. In this system the hot wire plays an important role in perfecting the microstructure as well as improving the stability and the optoelectronic properties of the a-Si:H film. The experimental results indicate that in the microstructure of the a-Si:H film, the concentration of dihydride is decreased and a trace of microcrystalline occurs, which is useful to improve its stability, and that in the optoelectronic properties of the a-Si:H film, the deposition rate reaches above 2.0nm/s and the photosensitivity increases up to 4.71× 105.

  15. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters ET

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  16. Underpotential deposition of lead on Cu(100) in the presence of chloride: Ex-situ low-energy electron diffraction, auger electron spectroscopy, and electrochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisard, G.M.; Zenati, E. [Universite de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Gasteiger, H.A.; Markovic, N.M.; Ross, P.N. Jr. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-04-16

    Electrochemical and ultrahigh vacuum measurements are presented for the underpotential deposition (UPD) of Pb on Cu(100) in the presence of chloride ions. The chemistry is very similar to the for the (111) surface studied previously by the same methods. UPD Pb forms a compact layer of fully discharged atoms having essentially the same density as that in the (100) plane of bulk Pb. The deposition appears to occur via a single process, the nucleation and growth of Pb islands, but other types of growth modes cannot be excluded. The presence of chloride ion in the electrolyte enhances the kinetics of Pb deposition in both the underpotential and overpotential regions and results in a {approx} 0.1 V negative shift in the mean potential for UPD versus that in chloride-free perchloric acid. This shift can be accounted for in a simple thermodynamic model for the total Cu/Pb/Cl system. The only real difference in Pb UPD on the two different Cu crystal faces was the absence of an ordered structure for the compact layer on Cu(100), versus the ordered structure observed on Cu(111). This difference appears to be related to a lower mobility of Pb adatoms due to the greater atomic corrugation of the (100) surface. 32 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for single electron transistors utilizing Pt oxidation and reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Michael S., E-mail: mmcconn5@nd.edu; Schneider, Louisa C.; Karbasian, Golnaz; Rouvimov, Sergei; Orlov, Alexei O.; Snider, Gregory L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 275 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This work describes the fabrication of single electron transistors using electron beam lithography and atomic layer deposition to form nanoscale tunnel transparent junctions of alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on platinum nanowires using either water or ozone as the oxygen precursor and trimethylaluminum as the aluminum precursor. Using room temperature, low frequency conductance measurements between the source and drain, it was found that devices fabricated using water had higher conductance than devices fabricated with ozone. Subsequent annealing caused both water- and ozone-based devices to increase in conductance by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, comparison of devices at low temperatures (∼4 K) showed that annealed devices displayed much closer to the ideal behavior (i.e., constant differential conductance) outside of the Coulomb blockade region and that untreated devices showed nonlinear behavior outside of the Coulomb blockade region (i.e., an increase in differential conductance with source-drain voltage bias). Transmission electron microscopy cross-sectional images showed that annealing did not significantly change device geometry, but energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed an unusually large amount of oxygen in the bottom platinum layer. This suggests that the atomic layer deposition process results in the formation of a thin platinum surface oxide, which either decomposes or is reduced during the anneal step, resulting in a tunnel barrier without the in-series native oxide contribution. Furthermore, the difference between ozone- and water-based devices suggests that ozone promotes atomic layer deposition nucleation by oxidizing the surface but that water relies on physisorption of the precursors. To test this theory, devices were exposed to forming gas at room temperature, which also reduces platinum oxide, and a decrease in resistance was observed, as expected.

  18. Fabrication of FeSi and Fe{sub 3}Si compounds by electron beam induced mixing of [Fe/Si]{sub 2} and [Fe{sub 3}/Si]{sub 2} multilayers grown by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrati, F.; Sachser, R.; Huth, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gazzadi, G. C. [S3 Center, Nanoscience Institute-CNR, Via Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Frabboni, S. [S3 Center, Nanoscience Institute-CNR, Via Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); FIM Department, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2016-06-21

    Fe-Si binary compounds have been fabricated by focused electron beam induced deposition by the alternating use of iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO){sub 5}, and neopentasilane, Si{sub 5}H{sub 12} as precursor gases. The fabrication procedure consisted in preparing multilayer structures which were treated by low-energy electron irradiation and annealing to induce atomic species intermixing. In this way, we are able to fabricate FeSi and Fe{sub 3}Si binary compounds from [Fe/Si]{sub 2} and [Fe{sub 3}/Si]{sub 2} multilayers, as shown by transmission electron microscopy investigations. This fabrication procedure is useful to obtain nanostructured binary alloys from precursors which compete for adsorption sites during growth and, therefore, cannot be used simultaneously.

  19. Survey on User Satisfaction of Electronic Resources in University Libraries%高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈姚竹; 马东

    2011-01-01

    通过分析影响用户对图书馆电子资源利用的因素,以美国顾客满意度指数模型为基础,提出关于各个因素的测量指标,对高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度进行测量。%Through analyzing the influencing factors on utilizing library electronic resources, based on the model of American customer satisfaction index, the paper puts forward corresponding measurement indexes, and then measures the user satisfaction on electronic resources of university library

  20. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis of low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemically vapor deposited a-C:H films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.J.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Kazmerski, L.L.; Wager, J.F.

    1989-05-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has been applied to the analysis of a-C:H films grown on various substrates by a unique low-temperature (<100 /sup 0/C) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process using ethylene and hydrogen gases. EELS data are used to characterize the relative amounts of fourfold coordinated sp/sup 3/ carbon bonding to threefold coordinated sp/sup 2/ carbon bonding as well as the relative order/disorder due to substrate effects. Ellipsometric and transmission measurements provide optical constants for the PECVD a-C:H films.

  1. Na incorporation into Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers deposited on polyimide: Impact on the chemical and electronic surface structure

    OpenAIRE

    Song, X.; Caballero, R.; Félix, R.; Gerlach, D.; Kaufmann, C.A.; H. W. Schock; Wilks, R. G.; Bär, M.

    2012-01-01

    The following article appeared in Journal of Applied Physics 111.3 (2012): 034903 and may be found at http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jap/111/3/10.1063/1.3679604 Na has deliberately been incorporated into Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) chalcopyrite thin-film solar cell absorbers deposited on Mo-coated polyimide flexible substrates by adding differently thick layers of NaF in-between CIGSe absorber and Mo back contact. The impact of Na on the chemical and electronic surface structure of ...

  2. Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline CdTe Thin Films Deposited by Electron Beam Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rigana Begam; N. Madhusudhana Rao; S. Kaleemulla; M. Shobana; N. Sai Krishna; M. Kuppan

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates using electron beam evaporation technique. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdTe thin films has been investigated. All the CdTe films exhibited zinc blende structure with (111) preferential orientation. The crystallite size of the films increased from 35 nm to 116 nm with the increase of substrate temperature and the band gap of the films decre...

  3. Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline CdTe Thin Films Deposited by Electron Beam Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rigana Begam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride (CdTe thin films were deposited onto glass substrates using electron beam evaporation technique. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdTe thin films has been investigated. All the CdTe films exhibited zinc blende structure with (111 preferential orientation. The crystallite size of the films increased from 35 nm to 116 nm with the increase of substrate temperature and the band gap of the films decreased from 2.87 eV to 2.05 eV with the increase of the crystallite size.

  4. Observation of dopant-profile independent electron transport in sub-monolayer TiO{sub x} stacked ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Das, Gangadhar [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)

    2016-01-18

    Dopant-profile independent electron transport has been observed through a combined study of temperature dependent electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements on a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films with varying degree of static-disorder. These films were grown by atomic layer deposition through in-situ vertical stacking of multiple sub-monolayers of TiO{sub x} in ZnO. Upon decreasing ZnO spacer layer thickness, electron transport smoothly evolved from a good metallic to an incipient non-metallic regime due to the intricate interplay of screening of spatial potential fluctuations and strength of static-disorder in the films. Temperature dependent phase-coherence length as extracted from the magnetotransport measurement revealed insignificant role of inter sub-monolayer scattering as an additional channel for electron dephasing, indicating that films were homogeneously disordered three-dimensional electronic systems irrespective of their dopant-profiles. Results of this study are worthy enough for both fundamental physics perspective and efficient applications of multi-stacked ZnO/TiO{sub x} structures in the emerging field of transparent oxide electronics.

  5. Characterization of AgGa{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} thin films deposited by electron-beam technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaagac, H; Parlak, M [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Kaleli, M, E-mail: parlak@metu.edu.t [Department of Physics, Sueleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta (Turkey)

    2009-08-21

    AgGa{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} thin films were deposited onto a quartz substrate by the electron-beam technique. For the investigation of the annealing effect on structural, optical and electrical properties of deposited films, samples were annealed in the temperature range 300-775 {sup 0}C. The composition analyses of the deposited films carried out by energy dispersive x-ray analysis measurements have shown that the deposited AgGa{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} films were indium- and gallium-rich but selenium- and slightly silver-deficient and there was a remarkable change in composition with annealing. As a result of x-ray diffraction measurements, the as-deposited films were found to have an amorphous structure and after annealing at 300 {sup 0}C a polycrystalline structure with different phases was observed. However, subsequent annealing resulted in the formation of single phase AgGa{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} thin film at about 775 {sup 0}C. The absorption coefficient of the films was determined from the transmission spectra and the band gap values were calculated and found to vary between 1.57 and 2.43 eV following annealing in the temperature range 300-775 {sup 0}C. The refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) of the films were evaluated by applying the envelope method to the transmission spectra. The spectral distributions of these quantities for both as-deposited and annealed films were determined in detail and it was observed that there has been a remarkable influence of annealing on these quantities. The electrical properties of AgGa{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} thin films were also investigated by means of temperature dependent conductivity measurements in the temperature range 100-460 K. The resistivity of the samples depending on the annealing temperature varied between 6.5 x 10{sup 5} and 16 {Omega} cm. As a result of the hot-probe method it was observed that the as-deposited films have indicated an n-type behaviour, while all the

  6. Theoretical investigation of energy deposition and electron capture cross-sections for helium ion impact on formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R. [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States); Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, Cuernavaca, Morelos, 62251 (Mexico); Sabin, John R. [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States)]. E-mail: sabin@qtp.ufl.edu; Deumens, Erik [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States); Ohrn, Yngve [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The subject of the work presented here is related to damage caused by energetic, charged particle radiation such as electrons, protons, and alpha particles to prebiotic matter such as that found in interstellar space. The calculations are carried out using an all electron, all nuclei, scheme that explicitly treats the electron-nuclear coupling. We present results for the no-capture, as well as the single and double electron capture probabilities, as well as for the 1s and 2l (l = s, p) contributions to the electron capture cross-sections of {sup 3}He{sup 2+} projectiles on formaldehyde molecules. We find that the summed cross-section peaks at 10 keV/amu, and has a plateau between 0.1 and 1 keV/amu. We also present preliminary results for the nuclear, ro-vibrational and electronic stopping cross-section. We find a large contribution to the electronic stopping cross-section and a maximum shifted towards higher energies in the nuclear stopping cross-section, when compared to SRIM results. We interpret this to be a consequence of molecular bonding.

  7. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. METHODS: Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. RESULTS: Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  8. Occurrence model for magmatic sulfide-rich nickel-copper-(platinum-group element) deposits related to mafic and ultramafic dike-sill complexes: Chapter I in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Seal, Robert R., II; Piatak, Nadine M.; Chandler, Val W.; Mars, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic sulfide deposits containing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), with or without (±) platinum-group elements (PGE), account for approximately 60 percent of the world’s nickel production. Most of the remainder of the Ni production is derived from lateritic deposits, which form by weathering of ultramafic rocks in humid tropical conditions. Magmatic Ni-Cu±PGE sulfide deposits are spatially and genetically related to bodies of mafic and/or ultramafic rocks. The sulfide deposits form when the mantle-derived mafic and/or ultramafic magmas become sulfide-saturated and segregate immiscible sulfide liquid, commonly following interaction with continental crustal rocks.

  9. TEC evidence for near-equatorial energy deposition by 30-keV electrons in the topside ionosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Suvorova, A V; Tsai, L -C; Kunitsyn, V E; Andreeva, E S; Nesterov, I A; Lazutin, L L

    2013-01-01

    Observations of energetic electrons (10 - 300 keV) by NOAA/POES and DMSP satellites at heights <1000 km during the period from 1999 to 2010 allowed finding abnormal intense fluxes of ~10^6 - 10^7 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 for quasi-trapped electrons appearing within the forbidden zone of low latitudes over the African, Indo-China, and Pacific regions. Extreme fluxes appeared often in the early morning and persisted for several hours during the maximum and recovery phase of geomagnetic storms. We analyzed nine storm-time events when extreme electron fluxes first appeared in the Eastern Hemisphere, then drifted further eastward toward the South-Atlantic Anomaly. Using the electron spectra, we estimated the possible ionization effect produced by quasi-trapped electrons in the topside ionosphere. The estimated ionization was found to be large enough to satisfy observed storm-time increases in the ionospheric total electron content determined for the same spatial and temporal ranges from global ionospheric maps. Additional...

  10. Controlled co-deposition of FePt nanoparticles embedded in MgO: a detailed investigation of structure and electronic and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addato, S.; Grillo, V.; di Bona, A.; Luches, P.; Frabboni, S.; Valeri, S.; Lupo, P.; Casoli, F.; Albertini, F.

    2013-12-01

    Films of FePt nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in MgO were obtained by controlled co-deposition of FePt NPs pre-formed by a gas aggregation source and of Mg evaporated in an oxygen atmosphere. Assemblies of core-shell FePt@MgO NPs and films of FePt NPs embedded in MgO matrix could be obtained by varying FePt and Mg deposition rates. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution-TEM revealed the core-shell structure of the NPs, with an FePt core (of average diameter = 4.75 nm) presenting a multitwinned icosahedral structure, and MgO partially in crystalline form. The functional effect of the MgO shell in shielding the FePt core from external oxidation was shown with XPS. Upon controlled annealing, a transition from A1 to L10 ordering could be obtained, with structural and morphological re-arrangement. The magnetic hysteresis loops obtained from alternating gradient field magnetometry at room temperature show a ‘wasp-waist’ shape, with small values of coercive field (Hc = 300-1400 Oe), decreasing at increasing amounts of co-deposited MgO.

  11. Controlled co-deposition of FePt nanoparticles embedded in MgO: a detailed investigation of structure and electronic and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addato, S; Grillo, V; di Bona, A; Luches, P; Frabboni, S; Valeri, S; Lupo, P; Casoli, F; Albertini, F

    2013-12-13

    Films of FePt nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in MgO were obtained by controlled co-deposition of FePt NPs pre-formed by a gas aggregation source and of Mg evaporated in an oxygen atmosphere. Assemblies of core-shell FePt@MgO NPs and films of FePt NPs embedded in MgO matrix could be obtained by varying FePt and Mg deposition rates. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution-TEM revealed the core-shell structure of the NPs, with an FePt core (of average diameter (d) = 4.75 nm) presenting a multitwinned icosahedral structure, and MgO partially in crystalline form. The functional effect of the MgO shell in shielding the FePt core from external oxidation was shown with XPS. Upon controlled annealing, a transition from A1 to L10 ordering could be obtained, with structural and morphological re-arrangement. The magnetic hysteresis loops obtained from alternating gradient field magnetometry at room temperature show a 'wasp-waist' shape, with small values of coercive field (Hc = 300-1400 Oe), decreasing at increasing amounts of co-deposited MgO.

  12. Morphology and electronic transport of polycrystalline silicon films deposited by SiF sub 4 /H sub 2 at a substrate temperature of 200 deg. C

    CERN Document Server

    Hazra, S; Ray, S

    2002-01-01

    Undoped and phosphorous doped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films were deposited using a SiF sub 4 /H sub 2 gas mixture at a substrate temperature of 200 deg. C by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments reveal that the present poly-Si films are equivalent to the poly-Si films deposited at high temperature (>600 deg. C). XRD and scanning electron microscope observations show that the crystalline quality of slightly P-doped film is better compared to that of undoped poly-Si films. Phosphorus atom concentration in the slightly P-doped poly-Si film is 5.0x10 sup 1 sup 6 atoms/cm sup 3. Association of a few phosphorous atoms in the silicon matrix enhances crystallization as eutectic-forming metals do. Dark conductivity of slightly P-doped film is 4 orders of magnitude higher, although mobility-lifetime product (eta mu tau) is 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of undoped film. The presence o...

  13. Atomic Layer Deposition of Electron Selective SnOx and ZnO Films on Mixed Halide Perovskite: Compatibility and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultqvist, Adam; Aitola, Kerttu; Sveinbjörnsson, Kári; Saki, Zahra; Larsson, Fredrik; Törndahl, Tobias; Johansson, Erik; Boschloo, Gerrit; Edoff, Marika

    2017-08-24

    The compatibility of atomic layer deposition directly onto the mixed halide perovskite formamidinium lead iodide:methylammonium lead bromide (CH(NH2)2, CH3NH3)Pb(I,Br)3 (FAPbI3:MAPbBr3) perovskite films is investigated by exposing the perovskite films to the full or partial atomic layer deposition processes for the electron selective layer candidates ZnO and SnOx. Exposing the samples to the heat, the vacuum, and even the counter reactant of H2O of the atomic layer deposition processes does not appear to alter the perovskite films in terms of crystallinity, but the choice of metal precursor is found to be critical. The Zn precursor Zn(C2H5)2 either by itself or in combination with H2O during the ZnO atomic layer deposition (ALD) process is found to enhance the decomposition of the bulk of the perovskite film into PbI2 without even forming ZnO. In contrast, the Sn precursor Sn(N(CH3)2)4 does not seem to degrade the bulk of the perovskite film, and conformal SnOx films can successfully be grown on top of it using atomic layer deposition. Using this SnOx film as the electron selective layer in inverted perovskite solar cells results in a lower power conversion efficiency of 3.4% than the 8.4% for the reference devices using phenyl-C70-butyric acid methyl ester. However, the devices with SnOx show strong hysteresis and can be pushed to an efficiency of 7.8% after biasing treatments. Still, these cells lacks both open circuit voltage and fill factor compared to the references, especially when thicker SnOx films are used. Upon further investigation, a possible cause of these losses could be that the perovskite/SnOx interface is not ideal and more specifically found to be rich in Sn, O, and halides, which is probably a result of the nucleation during the SnOx growth and which might introduce barriers or alter the band alignment for the transport of charge carriers.

  14. Evidence of room temperature ferromagnetism in argon/oxygen annealed TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, P. [School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Kabiraj, D. [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Mandal, R.K. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Kulriya, P.K. [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sinha, A.S.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Rath, Chandana, E-mail: chandanarath@yahoo.com [School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2014-04-15

    TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation technique annealed in either O{sub 2} or Ar atmosphere showed ferromagnetism at room temperature. The pristine amorphous film demonstrates anatase phase after annealing under Ar/O{sub 2} atmosphere. While the pristine film shows a super-paramagnetic behavior, both O{sub 2} and Ar annealed films display hysteresis at 300 K. X-ray photo emission spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford’s backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to refute the possible role of impurities/contaminants in magnetic properties of the films. The saturation magnetization of the O{sub 2} annealed film is found to be higher than the Ar annealed one. It is revealed from shifting of O 1s and Ti 2p core level spectra as well as from the enhancement of high binding energy component of O 1s spectra that the higher magnetic moment is associated with higher oxygen vacancies. In addition, O{sub 2} annealed film demonstrates better crystallinity, uniform deposition and smoother surface than that of the Ar annealed one from glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We conclude that although ferromagnetism is due to oxygen vacancies, the higher magnetization in O{sub 2} annealed film could be due to crystallinity, which has been observed earlier in Co doped TiO{sub 2} film deposited by pulsed laser deposition (Mohanty et al., 2012 [10]). - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} films were deposited by e-beam evaporation technique and post annealed under O{sub 2}/Ar at 500 °C. • The pristine film shows SPM behavior where as O{sub 2} and Ar annealed films demonstrate RTFM. • The presence of magnetic impurities has been discarded by various characterization techniques. • The magnetic moment is found to be higher in O{sub 2} annealed film than the Ar annealed one. • The higher M{sub s} in O{sub 2

  15. Na incorporation into Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers deposited on polyimide: Impact on the chemical and electronic surface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X.; Caballero, R.; Félix, R.; Gerlach, D.; Kaufmann, C. A.; Schock, H.-W.; Wilks, R. G.; Bär, M.

    2012-02-01

    Na has deliberately been incorporated into Cu(In,Ga)Se2 ("CIGSe") chalcopyrite thin-film solar cell absorbers deposited on Mo-coated polyimide flexible substrates by adding differently thick layers of NaF in-between CIGSe absorber and Mo back contact. The impact of Na on the chemical and electronic surface structure of CIGSe absorbers with various Cu-contents deposited at comparatively low temperature (420 °C) has been studied using x-ray photoelectron and x-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy. We observe a higher Na surface content for the Cu-richer CIGSe samples and can distinguish between two different chemical Na environments, best described as selenide-like and oxidized Na species, respectively. Furthermore, we find a Cu-poor surface composition of the CIGSe samples independent of Na content and — for very high Na contents — indications for the formation of a (Cu,Na)-(In,Ga)-Se like compound. With increasing Na surface content, also a shift of the photoemission lines to lower binding energies could be identified, which we interpret as a reduction of the downward band bending toward the CIGSe surface explained by the Na-induced elimination of InCu defects.

  16. Chemical vapor deposition of monolayer MoS2 directly on ultrathin Al2O3 for low-power electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Hadallia; Sangwan, Vinod K.; McMorrow, Julian J.; Campbell, Gavin P.; Balla, Itamar; Liu, Xiaolong; Bedzyk, Michael J.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2017-01-01

    Monolayer MoS2 has recently been identified as a promising material for high-performance electronics. However, monolayer MoS2 must be integrated with ultrathin high-κ gate dielectrics in order to realize practical low-power devices. In this letter, we report the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of monolayer MoS2 directly on 20 nm thick Al2O3 grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The quality of the resulting MoS2 is characterized by a comprehensive set of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Furthermore, a low-temperature (200 °C) Al2O3 ALD process is developed that maintains dielectric integrity following the high-temperature CVD of MoS2 (800 °C). Field-effect transistors (FETs) derived from these MoS2/Al2O3 stacks show minimal hysteresis with a sub-threshold swing as low as ˜220 mV/decade, threshold voltages of ˜2 V, and current ION/IOFF ratio as high as ˜104, where IOFF is defined as the current at zero gate voltage as is customary for determining power consumption in complementary logic circuits. The system presented here concurrently optimizes multiple low-power electronics figures of merit while providing a transfer-free method of integrating monolayer MoS2 with ultrathin high-κ dielectrics, thus enabling a scalable pathway for enhancement-mode FETs for low-power applications.

  17. Electrically conducting, ultra-sharp, high aspect-ratio probes for AFM fabricated by electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jason, E-mail: jason.brown@physics.ox.ac.uk [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Kocher, Paul; Ramanujan, Chandra S; Sharp, David N [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Torimitsu, Keiichi [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, 243-0198 (Japan); Ryan, John F [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    We report on the fabrication of electrically conducting, ultra-sharp, high-aspect ratio probes for atomic force microscopy by electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum. Probes of 4.0 ±1.0 nm radius-of-curvature are routinely produced with high repeatability and near-100% yield. Contact-mode topographical imaging of the granular nature of a sputtered gold surface is used to assess the imaging performance of the probes, and the derived power spectral density plots are used to quantify the enhanced sensitivity as a function of spatial frequency. The ability of the probes to reproduce high aspect-ratio features is illustrated by imaging a close-packed array of nanospheres. The electrical resistance of the probes is measured to be of order 100 kΩ. - Highlights: • Electrically conducting, ultra-sharp, high aspect-ratio probes for AFM with radius-of-curvature 4.0±±1.0 nm. • AFM probe fabrication by electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum. • Enhanced spatial resolution demonstrated through AFM of sputtered gold grains. • AFM imaging of deep clefts and recesses on a close-packed array of nanospheres.

  18. Development of ballistic hot electron emitter and its applications to parallel processing: active-matrix massive direct-write lithography in vacuum and thin films deposition in solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshida, N.; Kojima, A.; Ikegami, N.; Suda, R.; Yagi, M.; Shirakashi, J.; Yoshida, T.; Miyaguchi, H.; Muroyama, M.; Nishino, H.; Yoshida, S.; Sugata, M.; Totsu, K.; Esashi, M.

    2015-03-01

    using any counter electrodes. After the emitter operation, thin metal (Cu, Ni, Co, and so on) and elemental semiconductors (Si and Ge) films are uniformly deposited on the emitting surface. Spectroscopic surface and compositional analyses indicate that there are no significant contaminations in deposited thin films. The implication is that ballistic hot electrons injected into solutions with appropriate kinetic energies induce preferential reduction of positive ions in solutions with no by-products followed by atom migration, nuclei formation, and the subsequent thin film growth. The availability of this technique for depositing thin SiGe films is also demonstrated by using a mixture solution. When patterned fine emission windows are formed on the emitter surface, metal and semiconductor wires array are directly deposited in parallel.

  19. Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coating with Si content on the nanotube-formed Ti–Nb–Zr alloy using electron beam-physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Division of Restorative, Prosthetic and Primary Care Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, 305 W. 12th Ave., Columbus, OH (United States); Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative, Prosthetic and Primary Care Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, 305 W. 12th Ave., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on the nanotube-formed Ti–35Nb–10Zr alloy. The silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si–HA) coatings on the nanotube structure were deposited by electron beam-physical vapor deposition and anodization methods, and biodegradation properties were analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement. The surface characteristics were analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Si–HA layers were deposited with rough features having highly ordered nanotube structures on the titanium alloy substrate. The thickness of the Si–HA coating was less than that of the HA coating. The XRD results confirmed that the Si–HA coating on the nanotube structure consisted of TiO{sub 2} anatase, TiO{sub 2} rutile, hydroxyapatite, and calcium phosphate silicate. The Si–HA coating surface exhibited lower I{sub corr} than the HA coating, and the polarization resistance was increased by substitution of silicon in hydroxyapatite. - Highlights: • Silicon substituted hydroxyapatite (Si–HA) was coated on nanotubular titanium alloy. • The Si–HA coating thickness was less than single hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. • Si–HA coatings consisted of TiO{sub 2}, HA, and Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}. • Polarization resistance of the coating was increased by Si substitution in HA.

  20. 2 MeV electron irradiation effects on bulk and interface of atomic layer deposited high-k gate dielectrics on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, H., E-mail: hecgar@ele.uva.es [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, ETSI Telecomunicación, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Castán, H.; Dueñas, S.; Bailón, L. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, ETSI Telecomunicación, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Campabadal, F.; Rafí, J.M.; Zabala, M.; Beldarrain, O. [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ohyama, H.; Takakura, K.; Tsunoda, I. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Kumamoto National College of Technology, Kumamoto 861-1102 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    2 MeV electron irradiation effects on the electrical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}-based metal–insulator–semiconductor capacitors have been studied. High-k dielectrics were directly grown on silicon by atomic layer deposition. Capacitors were exposed to three different electron irradiation doses of 0.025, 0.25 and 2.5 MGy. Capacitance–voltage, deep-level transient spectroscopy, conductance transients, flat-band voltage transients and current–voltage techniques were used to characterize the defects induced or activated by irradiation on the dielectric bulk and on the interface with silicon substrate. In all cases, positive charge is trapped in the dielectric bulk after irradiation indicating the existence of hole traps in the dielectric. When the samples are exposed to 2 MeV electron beam (e-beam) irradiation, electron–hole pairs are created and holes are then captured by the hole traps. Insulator/semiconductor interface quality slightly improves for low irradiation doses, but it is degraded for high doses. Irradiation always degrades the dielectric layers in terms of gate leakage current: the trapped holes are mobile charge which can contribute to leakage current by hopping from trap to trap. - Highlights: ► Positive charge accumulates inside dielectrics after electron irradiation. ► Irradiation improves oxide/semiconductor interface for low doses. ► Irradiation increases gate leakage current.

  1. Ultrathin barrier AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown at a dramatically reduced growth temperature by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, JunShuai, E-mail: junshuaixue@hotmail.com; Zhang, JinCheng, E-mail: jchzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Hao, Yue [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2015-07-27

    Ultrathin-barrier AlN/GaN heterostructures were grown on sapphire substrates by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PMOCVD) using indium as a surfactant at a dramatically reduced growth temperature of 830 °C. Upon optimization of growth parameters, an electron mobility of 1398 cm{sup 2}/V s together with a two-dimensional-electron-gas density of 1.3 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} was obtained for a 4 nm thick AlN barrier. The grown structures featured well-ordered parallel atomic steps with a root-mean-square roughness of 0.15 nm in a 5 × 5 μm{sup 2} area revealed by atomic-force-microscopic image. Finally, the potential of such structures for device application was demonstrated by fabricating and testing under dc operation AlN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors. These results indicate that this low temperature PMOCVD growth technique is promising for the fabrication of GaN-based electronic devices.

  2. Dimensional crossover of electron weak localization in ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Bhartiya, S. [Laser Materials Development & Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Gupta, M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452 017 (India)

    2016-01-25

    We report on the dimensional crossover of electron weak localization in ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers having well-defined and spatially-localized Ti dopant profiles along film thickness. These films were grown by in situ incorporation of sub-monolayer TiO{sub x} on the growing ZnO film surface and subsequent overgrowth of thin conducting ZnO spacer layer using atomic layer deposition. Film thickness was varied in the range of ∼6–65 nm by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1–7) of ZnO/TiO{sub x} layers of nearly identical dopant-profiles. The evolution of zero-field sheet resistance (R{sub ◻}) versus temperature with decreasing film thickness showed a metal to insulator transition. On the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition, R{sub ◻}(T) and magnetoresistance data were found to be well corroborated with the theoretical framework of electron weak localization in the diffusive transport regime. The temperature dependence of both R{sub ◻} and inelastic scattering length provided strong evidence for a smooth crossover from 2D to 3D weak localization behaviour. Results of this study provide deeper insight into the electron transport in low-dimensional n-type ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers which have potential applications in the field of transparent oxide electronics.

  3. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  4. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  5. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  6. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  7. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuagbe, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  8. Intercellular deposits of basement membrane material in active human pituitary adenomas detected by immunostaining for laminin and electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-eight human pituitary adenomas (24 endocrine active and 14 endocrine inactive tumors) were studied immunohistochemically for the presence of the basement membrane component, laminin, and ultrastructurally for the presence of basement membrane. Immunoreactivity of laminin delineated staining...... and one patient with Cushing's syndrome). Concurrently, at the ultrastructural level, bunches of basement membrane-like material intermingled between the adenoma cells were demonstrated in seven of these ten active adenomas. Furthermore, secretory granules were entrapped occasionally in this intercellular...... matrix, indicating a mutual dependence between excessive hormone extrusion and an increase of "misplaced" deposits of basement membrane components, e.g., laminin....

  9. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122389 Cai Lianyou ( No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China );Weng Wangfei Geologic Characteristic and Ore-Control Factors of the Nanshan W-Mo Polymetallic Ore Deposit in South Anhui Province ( Geological Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135,CN12-1353 / P,34 ( 4 ), 2011,p.290-298,3 illus.,1table,14refs. ) Key words:tungsten ores,molybdenum ores,ore guide of prospecting,Anhui Province

  10. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110165 Chen Jiawei(The 3rd Geological Team,Henan Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Xinyang 464000,China)Ore Control Conditions and Genetic Model for the Bodaoling Ag-Au Deposit in Guangshan,Henan Province(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,30(1),2010,p.28-30,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)Key words:gold ores,Henan Province20110166 Chen Mingquan(Geological Team 306,Yunnan Bureau of Nonferrous Geology,Kunming 650216,Ch

  11. Density of unoccupied electronic states of vapor-deposited films of dioctyl-substituted and diphenyl-substituted perylenedicarboximides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolov, A. S.; Lazneva, E. F.; Gerasimova, N. B.; Panina, Yu. A.; Baramygin, A. V.; Zashikhin, G. D.; Pshenichnyuk, S. A.

    2017-02-01

    The results of the investigation of the density of unoccupied electronic states (DOUS) in the energy range from 5 to 20 eV above the Fermi level ( E F) in dioctyl-substituted perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C8) and diphenyl-substituted perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-Ph) ultrathin films have been presented. The experimental results have been obtained from measurements of the secondary low-energy electron current with the use of the total current spectroscopy (TCS) technique. A theoretical analysis has been performed, including the density functional theory calculation of the energies and spatial distribution of the orbitals of the molecules under investigation and the subsequent scaling of the calculated orbital energies according to the procedure well-proven previously in studies of small conjugated organic molecules. It has been found that, for each of the two types of the studied films, at energies below 8 eV above the Fermi level E F, there are two main maxima of the density of unoccupied electronic states predominantly formed by the π*-orbitals of the molecules. The higher-lying maxima have essentially a σ*-character. The influence of dioctyl- and diphenyl-substituent groups on the density of unoccupied electronic states has been analyzed in comparison with the results obtained for the studied types of films. In the case of the π*-maxima, the relative shift has been observed at an energy of approximately 1 eV. In the region of σ*-electronic states, there is a small transformation of the structure of the maxima.

  12. Reconstructing the energy band electronic structure of pulsed laser deposited CZTS thin films intended for solar cell absorber applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyan, Rajesh; Oulad Elhmaidi, Zakaria; Sekkat, Zouheir; Abd-lefdil, Mohammed; El Khakani, My Ali

    2017-02-01

    We report here on the use of pulsed KrF-laser deposition (PLD) technique for the growth of high-quality Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films onto Si, and glass substrates without resorting to any post sulfurization process. The PLD-CZTS films were deposited at room temperature (RT) and then subjected to post annealing at different temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C in Argon atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the PLD films crystallize in the characteristic kesterite CZTS structure regardless of their annealing temperature (Ta), but their crystallinity is much improved for Ta ≥ 400 °C. The PLD-CZTS films were found to exhibit a relatively dense morphology with a surface roughness (RMS) that increases with Ta (from ∼14 nm at RT to 70 nm at Ta = 500 °C with a value around 40 nm for Ta = 300-400 °C). The optical bandgap of the PLD-CZTS films, was derived from UV-vis transmission spectra analysis, and found to decrease from 1.73 eV for non-annealed films to ∼1.58 eV for those annealed at Ta = 300 °C. These band gap values are very close to the optimum value needed for an ideal solar cell absorber. In order to achieve a complete reconstruction of the one-dimensional energy band structure of these PLD-CZTS absorbers, we have combined both XPS and UPS spectroscopies to determine their chemical bondings, the position of their valence band maximum (relative to Fermi level), and their work function values. This enabled us to sketch out, as accurately as possible, the band alignment of the heterojunction interface formed between CZTS and both CdS and ZnS buffer layer materials.

  13. Structure and electronic properties of AlCrO{sub x}N{sub 1−x} thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, H.; Karimi, A. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics (ICMP), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Oveisi, E. [Electron Spectrometry and Microscopy Laboratory (LSME-ICMP), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Morstein, M. [PLATIT AG, Advanced Coating Systems, CH-2545 Selzach (Switzerland)

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the main attempt is devoted to investigating the microstructure and electronic properties of AlCrO{sub x}N{sub 1−x} films in a wide range of oxygen concentrations from 0 to 1. These oxynitride films were deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering from Al{sub 55}Cr{sub 45} targets. Our results showed that films with x = O/(O + N) < 0.6, exhibit a cubic (B1) lattice with a well-developed columnar structure. The incorporation of oxygen into the films without any oxide segregation results in the formation of a substitutional AlCrO{sub x}N{sub 1−x} solid solution and material system behaves like nitrides electronically. In the range of oxygen contents from 0.6 ≤ O/(O + N) < 0.97, coatings with fine columns, diffuse boundaries and high values of metal vacancies were formed. However, the B1 lattice survived despite the large proportion of oxygen. According to the structural and electronic properties of the corresponding layers, we assign this region to the formation of an amorphous phase and metastable monoxides with a B1 structure. Coatings with O/(O + N) ≥ 0.97 are electronically assigned to a solid solution of α-(Al,Cr){sub 2}(O{sub 0.97},N{sub 0.03}){sub 3} with corundum lattice and finer columnar structure. - Highlights: • AlCr(O{sub x}N{sub 1−x}) layers with variable oxygen content 0 < x < 1 were grown. • The layers with the lowest oxygen content, x < 0.6, electronically behave like nitrides. • Coatings with 0.6 ≤ x < 0.97 are assigned to metastable monoxides. • The oxide region consisted of a solid solution of α-phase with a corundum structure.

  14. Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits: with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter J in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region.

  15. Electronic Properties of Layered Oxides:. Pulsed Laser Deposition of YBCO Films for In-Situ Studies by Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuna, D.; Ariosa, D.; Berger, H.; Christensen, S.; Frazer, B.; Gatt, R.; Grioni, M.; Margaritondo, G.; Misra, S.; Onellion, M.; Schmauder, T.; Vobornik, I.; Xi, X.; Zacchigna, M.; Zwick, F.

    Due to imperfect surfaces of most cuprate samples, almost all Photoemission studies in the past decade were performed on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x, even though a large fraction of other studies and electronic applications was reported for YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) family of superconducting compounds. In order to systematically study the gap parameter and the Fermi surface variation in high symmetry directions of YBCO and related oxide films we have constructed a new facility at the Wisconsin Synchrotron Radiation Center. We use the pulsed laser ablation (PLD) system that is directly linked to the photoemission chamber. In our unique approach, the samples never leave the controlled ambient and we oxidize our films, either by molecular oxygen or by ozone. In this paper, we, summarize some of the most relevant recent results on electronic properties of layered oxides and describe our new facility for the study of YBCO and related oxide films.

  16. High-energy electron beam irradiation of Al-doped ZnO thin films deposited at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Eui-Jung; Jung, Jin-Woo [Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jong-Ha; Lee, Byung-Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Myung-Hee [Anyang University, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    In this research, we demonstrated the effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation (HEEBI) on the optical and structural properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films grown on transparent corning glass substrates at room temperature (RT) by using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The AZO thin films were treated with HEEBI in air at RT at an electron beam energy of 0.8 MeV and doses of 1 x 10{sup 14} - 1 x 10{sup 16} electrons/cm{sup 2}. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed that the dominant peak at 2.77 eV was a blue emission originating from donor-like defects, oxygen vacancies (V{sub o}), suggesting that the n-type conductivity was preserved in HEEBI-treated films. On the basis of PL, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, we suggest that the density of V{sub o} donor defects is decreased due to in-diffusion of oxygen from the ambient into the films after HEEBI treatment at low doses up to 10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2} while the opposite phenomenon can occur with further increase in the dose. We also found from the XRD analysis that the worse crystallinity with a smaller grain size was observed in HEEBI-treated AZO films at a higher dose, corresponding to a higher oxygen fraction in the films. We believe that our results will contribute to developing high-quality AZO-based materials and devices for space applications.

  17. Electronic properties of layered oxides: Pulsed laser deposition of YBCO films for in-situ studies by photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavuna, D.; Ariosa, D. (Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne (Switzerland)); Berger, H. (and others)

    1998-12-20

    Due to imperfect surfaces of most cuprate samples, almost all photoemission studies in the past decade were performed on Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub 8+x], even though a large fraction of other studies and electronic applications was reported for YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus][delta

  18. Amorphous silicon carbonitride diaphragm for environmental-cell transmission electron microscope fabricated by low-energy ion beam induced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsutani, Takaomi, E-mail: matutani@ele.kindai.ac.jp [Kindai University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Yamasaki, Kayo [Kindai University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Imaeda, Norihiro; Kawasaki, Tadahiro [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    An amorphous silicon carbonitride (a-SiCN) diaphragm for an environmental-cell transmission electron microscope (E-TEM) was fabricated by low-energy ion beam induced chemical vapor deposition (LEIBICVD) with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSN). The films were prepared by using gaseous HMDSN and N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with energies ranging from 300 to 600 eV. The diaphragms were applied to Si (1 0 0) and a Cu grid with 100-μm-diameter holes. With increasing ion energy, these diaphragms became perfectly smooth surfaces (RMS = 0.43 nm at 600 eV), as confirmed by atomic force microscopy and TEM. The diaphragms were amorphous and transparent to 200 kV electrons, and no charge-up was observed. Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectra revealed that the elimination of organic compounds and formation of Si–N and C–N bonds can be promoted in diaphragms by increasing the ion impact energy. The resistance to electron beams and reaction gases in the E-cell was improved when the diaphragm was formed with high ion energy.

  19. Demonstration of InAlN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors with an enhanced breakdown voltage by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, JunShuai, E-mail: junshuaixue@hotmail.com; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2016-01-04

    In this work, InAlN/AlGaN heterostructures employing wider bandgap AlGaN instead of conventional GaN channel were grown on sapphire substrate by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition, where the nominal Al composition in InAlN barrier and AlGaN channel were chosen to be 83% and 5%, respectively, to achieve close lattice-matched condition. An electron mobility of 511 cm{sup 2}/V s along with a sheet carrier density of 1.88 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} were revealed in the prepared heterostructures, both of which were lower compared with lattice-matched InAlN/GaN due to increased intrinsic alloy disorder scattering resulting from AlGaN channel and compressively piezoelectric polarization in barrier, respectively. While the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) processed on these structures not only exhibited a sufficiently high drain output current density of 854 mA/mm but also demonstrated a significantly enhanced breakdown voltage of 87 V, which is twice higher than that of reported InAlN/GaN HEMT with the same device dimension, potential characteristics for high-voltage operation of GaN-based electronic devices.

  20. KF Post-Deposition Treatment of Industrial Cu(In, Ga)(S, Se)2 Thin-Film Surfaces: Modifying the Chemical and Electronic Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Lorelle M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mezher, Michelle [University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV); Horsley, Kimberly [University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV); Blum, Monika [University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV); Wieting, Robert [STION; Weinhardt, Lothar [University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT); Ramanathan, Kannan [STION; Heske, Clemens [University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

    2017-08-14

    The chemical and electronic structures of industrial chalcopyrite photovoltaic absorbers after KF post-deposition treatment (KF-PDT) are investigated using electron spectroscopies to probe the occupied and unoccupied electronic states. In contrast to a variety of recent publications on the impact of KF-PDT, this study focuses on industrial Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 absorbers that also contain sulfur at the surface. We find that the KF-PDT removes surface adsorbates and oxides and also observe a change in the S/Se ratio. Furthermore, the KF-PDT leads to a Cu reduction at the surface but to a much lower degree than the strongly Cu-depleted or even Cu-free surfaces reported for (non-industrial) sulfur-free Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers. The valence band maximum at the surface is found at a lower energy compared to the untreated absorber, and the conduction band minimum is found at a higher energy, overall revealing a widening of the bandgap in the surface region.

  1. Demonstration of InAlN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors with an enhanced breakdown voltage by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, JunShuai; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    In this work, InAlN/AlGaN heterostructures employing wider bandgap AlGaN instead of conventional GaN channel were grown on sapphire substrate by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition, where the nominal Al composition in InAlN barrier and AlGaN channel were chosen to be 83% and 5%, respectively, to achieve close lattice-matched condition. An electron mobility of 511 cm2/V s along with a sheet carrier density of 1.88 × 1013 cm-2 were revealed in the prepared heterostructures, both of which were lower compared with lattice-matched InAlN/GaN due to increased intrinsic alloy disorder scattering resulting from AlGaN channel and compressively piezoelectric polarization in barrier, respectively. While the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) processed on these structures not only exhibited a sufficiently high drain output current density of 854 mA/mm but also demonstrated a significantly enhanced breakdown voltage of 87 V, which is twice higher than that of reported InAlN/GaN HEMT with the same device dimension, potential characteristics for high-voltage operation of GaN-based electronic devices.

  2. Growth and characterization of III-nitrides materials system for photonic and electronic devices by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dongwon

    A wide variety of group III-Nitride-based photonic and electronic devices have opened a new era in the field of semiconductor research in the past ten years. The direct and large bandgap nature, intrinsic high carrier mobility, and the capability of forming heterostructures allow them to dominate photonic and electronic device market such as light emitters, photodiodes, or high-speed/high-power electronic devices. Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) based on group III-Nitrides materials are of interest due to potential capabilities for low dark current densities, high sensitivities and high optical gains in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. Wide-bandgap GaN-based APDs are excellent candidates for short-wavelength photodetectors because they have the capability for cut-off wavelengths in the UV spectral region (lambda operate in the solar-blind spectral regime of lambda 10,000 and 50, respectively. The large stable optical gains are attributed to the improved crystalline quality of epitaxial layers grown on low dislocation density bulk substrates. GaN p-i-n rectifiers have brought much research interest due to its superior physical properties. The AIN-free full-vertical GaN p-i-n rectifiers on n-type 6H-SiC substrates by employing a conducting AIGaN:Si buffer layer provides the advantages of the reduction of sidewall damage from plasma etching and lower forward resistance due to the reduction of current crowding at the bottom n-type layer. The AlGaN:Si nucleation layer was proven to provide excellent electrical properties while also acting as a good buffer role for subsequent GaN growth. The reverse breakdown voltage for a relatively thin 2.5 mum-thick i-region was found to be over -400V.

  3. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  4. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of a craniopharyngioma: x-ray microanalytical study of the intratumoral mineralized deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilches, J.; Lopez, A.; Martinez, M.C.; Gomez, J.; Barbera, J.

    This paper discusses the value of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis in the classification of craniopharyngiomas. This neoplasm shows epithelial nest, cords of cuboid cells, foci of squamous metaplasia, and microcystic degeneration. SEM reveals that the epithelial cysts are lined with elongated cells that possess numerous microvilli and blebs and that some cysts are lined with polyhedral cells. The microvilli are interpreted as characteristic of the fast growing craniopharyngiomas. A microanalytical study of the calcified areas reveals the presence of magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium.

  5. Structural, electronic transport and optical properties of Cr doped PbS thin film by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetha, K. C.

    2017-06-01

    Incorporation of Chromium ions into Lead Sulphide thin films have been achieved by CBD technique. Effects of doping were investigated as a function of Pb/Cr ratio from o to 2 at %. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that films were polycrystalline in nature with increase in crystallite size up to an optimum doping concentration. Scanning electron microscopic study revealed excellent morphology with doping concentration. The low transmittance in the UV-VIS region offered the suitability of the samples as solar control coatings. The thin films were found to be P type and electrical conductivity enhanced on doping.

  6. Study of effect annealing temperature on the structure, morphology and photocatalytic activity of Si doped TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Zhongdan [Key Lab of Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Jiang Xiaohong, E-mail: jiangxh24@mail.njust.edu.cn [Key Lab of Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zhou Bing; Wu Xiaodong; Lu Lude [Key Lab of Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2011-10-01

    Transparent Si-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films (Si-TiO{sub 2}) were deposited on quartz glasses using electron beam evaporation (EBE) and annealed at different temperature in an air atmosphere. The structure and morphology of these films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman microscopy (Raman), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Meanwhile the photocatalytic activity of the films has also been evaluated on the basis of the degradation degree of rhodamine B in aqueous solution. Our experimental results suggest that the annealing temperature impact a strong effect on the structure, morphology and photocatalytic activity of Si-TiO{sub 2} thin films. Furthermore the enhanced thermal stability of Si-TiO{sub 2} films enabled them to elevate the phase transformation temperature of TiO{sub 2} from anatase to rutile and enhanced the photocatalytic efficiency.

  7. Chemical bath deposited (CBD) CuO thin films on n-silicon substrate for electronic and optical applications: Impact of growth time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Jenifar; Paul, Somdatta; Karmakar, Anupam; Yi, Ren; Dalapati, Goutam Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Sanatan

    2017-10-01

    Thin film of p-type cupric oxide (p-CuO) is grown on silicon (n-Si) substrate by using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique and a precise control of thickness from 60 nm to 178 nm has been achieved. The structural properties and stoichiometric composition of the grown films are observed to depend significantly on the growth time. The chemical composition, optical properties, and structural quality are investigated in detail by employing XRD, ellipsometric measurements and SEM images. Also, the elemental composition and the oxidation states of Cu and O in the grown samples have been studied in detail by XPS measurements. Thin film of 110 nm thicknesses exhibited the best performance in terms of crystal quality, refractive index, dielectric constant, band-gap, and optical properties. The study suggests synthesis route for developing high quality CuO thin film using CBD method for electronic and optical applications.

  8. Direct and Dry Deposited Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films Doped with MoO(x) as Electron-Blocking Transparent Electrodes for Flexible Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Il; Cui, Kehang; Chiba, Takaaki; Anisimov, Anton; Nasibulin, Albert G; Kauppinen, Esko I; Maruyama, Shigeo; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2015-07-01

    Organic solar cells have been regarded as a promising electrical energy source. Transparent and conductive carbon nanotube film offers an alternative to commonly used ITO in photovoltaics with superior flexibility. This communication reports carbon nanotube-based indium-free organic solar cells and their flexible application. Direct and dry deposited carbon nanotube film doped with MoO(x) functions as an electron-blocking transparent electrode, and its performance is enhanced further by overcoating with PSS. The single-walled carbon nanotube organic solar cell in this work shows a power conversion efficiency of 6.04%. This value is 83% of the leading ITO-based device performance (7.48%). Flexible application shows 3.91% efficiency and is capable of withstanding a severe cyclic flex test.

  9. The effect of Cr substitution on the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of pulsed laser deposited NiFe2O4 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Kalpana; Tiwari, Shailja; Bapna, Komal; Heda, N. L.; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.; Ahuja, B. L.

    2017-01-01

    We have studied the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of pulsed laser deposited thin films of Ni1-xCrxFe2O4 (x=0.02 and 0.05) on Si (111) and Si (100) substrates. The films reveal single phase, polycrystalline structure with larger grain size on Si (111) substrate than that on Si (100) substrate. Contrary to the expected inverse spinel structure, x-ray photoemission (XPS) studies reveal the mixed spinel structure. XPS results suggest that Ni and Fe ions exist in 2+ and 3+ states, respectively, and they exist in tetrahedral as well as octahedral sites. The deviation from the inverse spinel leads to modified magnetic properties. It is observed that saturation magnetization drastically drops compared to the expected saturation value for inverse spinel structure. Strain in the films and lattice distortion produced by the Cr doping also appear to influence the magnetic properties.

  10. Interaction of argon clusters with intense VUV-laser radiation: the role of electronic structure in the energy-deposition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laarmann, T; De Castro, A R B; Gürtler, P; Laasch, W; Schulz, J; Wabnitz, H; Möller, T

    2004-04-09

    The response of Ar clusters to intense vacuum-ultraviolet pulses is investigated with photoion spec-troscopy. By varying the laser wavelength, the initial excitation was either tuned to absorption bands of surface or bulk atoms of clusters. Multiple ionization is observed, which leads to Coulomb explosion. The efficiency of resonant 2-photon ionization for initial bulk and surface excitation is compared with that of the nonresonant process at different laser intensities. The specific electronic structure of clusters plays almost no role in the explosion dynamics at a peak intensity larger than 1.8 x 10(12) W/cm(2). The inner ionization of atoms for resonant and nonresonant excitation is then saturated and the energy deposition is mainly controlled by the plasma heating rate. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that standard collisional heating cannot fully account for the strong energy absorption.

  11. Pr and F co-doped SnO₂ transparent conductive films with high work function deposited by ion-assisted electron beam evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaohang; Li, Yantao; Luo, Jinsong; Lin, Jie; Fan, Yi; Gan, Zhihong; Liu, Xingyuan

    2014-02-24

    A transparent conductive oxide (TCO) Pr and F co-doped SnO2 (PFTO) film is prepared by ion-assisted electron beam deposition. An optimized PFTO film shows a high average visible optical transmittance of 83.6% and a minimum electrical resistivity of 3.7 × 10(-3) Ω·cm corresponding to a carrier density of 1.298 × 10(20) cm(-3) and Hall mobility of 12.99 cm(2)/V⋅s. This PFTO film shows a high work function of 5.147 eV and favorable surface morphology with an average roughness of 1.45 nm. Praseodymium fluoride is found to be an effective material to dope F into SnO2 that can simplify the fabrication process of SnO2-based TCO films.

  12. Complete filling of 41 nm trench pattern using Cu seed layer deposited by SAM-modified electroless plating and electron-beam evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W. K.; Hwang, G. H.; Hong, S. J.; An, H. H.; Yoon, C. S.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, M. J.; Hong, G.; Park, K. S.; Kang, S. G.

    2010-02-01

    To overcome the limitation of the sputtered Cu seed layer in electroplating of Cu interconnects imposed by the shadow effect, a new method for depositing a Cu seed layer on a 41 nm trench pattern based on combination of electroless plating (ELP) and electron-beam (E-Beam) evaporation was developed. A Cu seed layer formed by ELP alone was too thin to be used for electroplating due to its high resistivity. To solve this problem, an additional Cu layer was deposited on top of the trench by E-Beam evaporator to enhance the electrical conductivity of the Cu seed layer. The electrical resistivity of the resulting Cu layer was reduced to 4.8 μΩ cm, which was sufficient for the conductive seed layer for electroplating the 41 nm trench pattern. The gap-filling capability also improved and there were no voids or seams in the 41 nm trench pattern. The proposed method can be an effective solution for fabrication of a conductive seed layer to fill a 41 nm trench pattern by electroplating.

  13. Effect of F- and CH-Doped on Dielectric Properties of SiCOH Films Deposited by Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Chao; YU Xiao-Zhu; WANG Ting-Ting; NING Zhao-Yuan; XIN Yu; JIANG Mei-Fu

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate the effect of CH-doped and F-doped on dielectric properties of SiCOH films deposited by decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (DMCPS) electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The dielectric constant k is closely related to the configurations of films. For thefilms deposited only using DMCPS, the minimum k is as low as2.88. By adding CH4 in the precursor, the k value can be reduced to 2.45 due to the film density decreasing by incorporating large size CHx groups. By adding CHF3 in the precursor, the k value can also be reduced to 2.48due to the incorporation of the weak-polarization F atom. Thus the dielectric constant for SiCOH films depends on not only the film density but also the polarization of atoms. By increasing the film density or by reducing the polarization of atoms under the condition of a lower film density, the low dielectric constant SiCOH films can be obtained.

  14. AlN Surface Passivation of GaN-Based High Electron Mobility Transistors by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, An-Jye; Chu, Kuo-Hsiung; Lin, I.-Feng; Østreng, Erik; Fang, Yung-Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Peng; Wu, Bo-Wei; Shen, Chang-Hong; Shieh, Jia-Ming; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Chang, Chun-Yen; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2017-04-01

    We report a low current collapse GaN-based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with an excellent thermal stability at 150 °C. The AlN was grown by N2-based plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) and shown a refractive index of 1.94 at 633 nm of wavelength. Prior to deposit AlN on III-nitrides, the H2/NH3 plasma pre-treatment led to remove the native gallium oxide. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectroscopy confirmed that the native oxide can be effectively decomposed by hydrogen plasma. Following the in situ ALD-AlN passivation, the surface traps can be eliminated and corresponding to a 22.1% of current collapse with quiescent drain bias ( V DSQ) at 40 V. Furthermore, the high temperature measurement exhibited a shift-free threshold voltage ( V th), corresponding to a 40.2% of current collapse at 150 °C. The thermal stable HEMT enabled a breakdown voltage (BV) to 687 V at high temperature, promising a good thermal reliability under high power operation.

  15. An Electron-Microscopy Analysis of the Gradient Structure Formed in Titanium During Deposition of a Hard Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Yu. F.; Shugurov, V. V.; Krysina, O. V.; Petrikova, E. A.; Ivanova, O. V.; Tolkachev, O. S.

    2017-09-01

    A titanium nitride coating 0.5 μm in thickness is deposited on specimens of VT1-0 technical-grade titanium using a vacuum-arc, plasma-assisted process. The formation of a multilayer, multiphase highly defective structure is observed, whose thickness reaches up to 40 μm. Surface and transition layers are determined from the morphological characteristics. It is shown that the surface layer (300-350 nm thick), where the major phase is TiN, possesses polycrystalline structure (crystallite size is 20-50 nm). The transition layer, whose major phase is Ti2N, is divided into two sublayers. The sublayer immediately adjacent to the surface layer has columnar structure (transverse cross section of the columns is 50-80 nm). The sublayer bordering the bulk of the specimen is formed by quasi-equiaxed crystallites (150-280 nm). The main reason for formation of the multilayer, multiphase structure is thought to be the multistage character of material modification under conditions of common vacuum.

  16. Damage evolution in an electron beam physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coating as a function of cycle temperature and time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Swetha [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Xie, Liangde [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Jordan, Eric H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)]. E-mail: jordan@engr.uconn.edu; Gell, Maurice [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Murphy, K.S. [Howmet Research Corporation, Howmet Castings, Whitehall, MI 49461 (United States)

    2005-02-25

    Failure of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited on a single-crystal superalloy with a grit-blasted platinum modified nickel aluminide [{beta}-(Ni, Pt) Al] bond coat has been studied as a function of thermal cycling temperature and time. One-hour cyclic furnace tests were conducted at 1100 deg. C, 1121 deg. C and 1151 deg. C, and 24-h tests were run at 1121 deg. C. It was found that all the samples tested in the 1-h cycle failed in the TBC, near the TBC/TGO interface, due to progressive cracking beginning at {approx}20% life fraction. In contrast, the 24-h cyclic test samples failed at the TGO/bond coat interface. Thus, a life prediction for this TBC will ultimately require the use of two independent damage mechanisms and failure will be predicted on the basis of whichever occurs first during the TBC cyclic life. A single-valued relation was found between the rumpling amplitudes and the oxide thickness, independent of temperature and cycle time, consistent with oxidation being rate controlling.

  17. Opto-electronic properties of sputter-deposited Cu{sub 2}O films treated with rapid thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, J.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming-Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Rd., Taishan, Taipei 24301, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jhhsieh@mail.mit.edu.tw; Kuo, P.W.; Peng, K.C.; Liu, S.J. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming-Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Rd., Taishan, Taipei 24301, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, J.D.; Chang, S.C. [Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering. Nation Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2008-06-30

    Cu{sub 2}O thin films were first deposited using magnetron sputtering at 200 deg. C. The samples produced were then annealed by a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system at 550 deg. C in a protective atmosphere with or without the addition of oxygen. After annealing, various Cu{sub 2}O and CuO films were formed. These films were characterized, as a function of oxygen concentration in RTA, using UV-VIS photometer, four-point probe, and Hall measurement system. The results show that these Cu{sub 2}O thin films annealed at 550 deg. C with more than 1.2% oxygen added in the protective argon atmosphere would transform into the CuO phase. Apparently, the results of RTA are sensitive to the amount of oxygen added in the protective atmosphere. The resistivity of these Cu{sub 2}O thin films decreases with the increase in the oxygen amount in the annealing atmosphere, most likely due to the increase in carrier mobility. In addition, Cu{sub 2}O/ZnO (doped with AlSc) junctions were produced at 200 deg. C and annealed. The rectifying effect of P-N junction disappeared after annealing, probably due to the damage of p-n interface, which directly causes current leakage at the junction.

  18. A Study on the Model for Resources Matching of Electronic Bartering%电子易货资源匹配模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴剑云; 张嵩

    2012-01-01

    By exchanging idle goods and services, electronic bartering can help enterprises solve dull sale problems, shortage of funds, overstocks and other problems without sufficient cash. Relying on the Internet and the e-commerce platform, electronic bartering removes the traditional bartering limitations, greatly expands the trading object and range, improves the transaction efficiency, and provides additional channels for economic development. How to promote more successful barters among multiple barterers? A key factor is the matching of barter resources. Focusing on the automatic matching of resources in the electronic barter, this paper proposes a network model to help maximize resources matching and provide recommendation information for barter participants, thereby raising the transaction rate and making the barter market prosperous.According to the type and quantity of barter resources, barter market can be divided into two types. In the first type, the supply and demand of the barter market is related to the same type of resources and each barterer owns only one type of resource. In the second type, the supply and demand of the barter market is linked to many types of resources and each barterer owns multiple resources to be exchanged. The first case has been resolved in the relevant document by using the graph theory to solve digraph circuits. This paper is interested in studying the second type of barter. Suppose the barter market has m barterers and n resources. Each barterer owns diverse types of barter resources, and is interested in other types of resources. The barterer a will provide other barterers his own resources only if he gets the resources he needs from the barterer b. Note that each of the bartered resource is regarded as having equal value to any other resources. The main objective is to maximize the number of resources that are bartered.Next, this paper proposes a math model of automatic resources matching by systematically analyzing resource

  19. Physisorbed-precursor-assisted atomic layer deposition of reliable ultrathin dielectric films on inert graphene surfaces for low-power electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong-Jun; Kim, Hyo Won; Heo, Jinseong; Lee, Min-Hyun; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, JiYeon; Lee, Yunseong; Cho, Yeonchoo; Jeon, Woojin; Suh, Hwansoo; Hwang, Sungwoo; Park, Seongjun

    2016-09-01

    Among the most fundamental challenges encountered in the successful incorporation of graphene in silicon-based electronics is the conformal growth of ultrathin dielectric films, especially those with thicknesses lower than 5 nm, on chemically inert graphene surfaces. Here, we present physisorbed-precursor-assisted atomic layer deposition (pALD) as an extremely robust method for fabricating such films. Using atomic-scale characterisation, it is confirmed that conformal and intact ultrathin Al2O3 films can be synthesised on graphene by pALD. The mechanism underlying the pALD process is identified through first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Further, this novel deposition technique is used to fabricate two types of wafer-scale devices. It is found that the incorporation of a 5 nm-thick pALD Al2O3 gate dielectric film improves the performance of metal-oxide-graphene field-effect transistors to a greater extent than does the incorporation of a conventional ALD Al2O3 film. We also employ a 5 nm-thick pALD HfO2 film as a highly scalable dielectric layer with a capacitance equivalent oxide thickness of 1 nm in graphene-based tunnelling field-effect transistors fabricated on a glass wafer and achieve a subthreshold swing of 30 mV/dec. This significant improvement in switching allows for the low-voltage operation of an inverter within 0.5 V of both the drain and the gate voltages, thus paving the way for low-power electronics.

  20. Techniques, tools and best practices for ligand electron-density analysis and results from their application to deposited crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozharski, Edwin; Weichenberger, Christian X; Rupp, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    As a result of substantial instrumental automation and the continuing improvement of software, crystallographic studies of biomolecules are conducted by non-experts in increasing numbers. While improved validation almost ensures that major mistakes in the protein part of structure models are exceedingly rare, in ligand-protein complex structures, which in general are most interesting to the scientist, ambiguous ligand electron density is often difficult to interpret and the modelled ligands are generally more difficult to properly validate. Here, (i) the primary technical reasons and potential human factors leading to problems in ligand structure models are presented; (ii) the most common categories of building errors or overinterpretation are classified; (iii) a few instructive and specific examples are discussed in detail, including an electron-density-based analysis of ligand structures that do not contain any ligands; (iv) means of avoiding such mistakes are suggested and the implications for database validity are discussed and (v) a user-friendly software tool that allows non-expert users to conveniently inspect ligand density is provided.

  1. Titanium oxide:fullerene composite films as electron collector layer in organic solar cells and the use of an easy-deposition cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Maldonado, José-Luis; Nolasco, Jairo; Ramos-Ortíz, Gabriel; Rodríguez, Mario; Torre, Ulises Mendoza-De la; Meneses-Nava, Marco-Antonio; Barbosa-García, Oracio; García-Ortega, Héctor; Farfán, Norberto; Granados, Giovana; Santillan, Rosa; Juaristi, Eusebio

    2014-06-01

    Here is reported the use of a titanium oxide:fullerene (TiOx:PC71BM) composite film as electron collector layer in organic photovoltaic devices (OPV cells). OPV cells were fabricated under the bulk heterojunction architecture: the active layer was a blend of either the photoconductor polymer MEH-PPV or P3HT with the fullerene derivative PC71BM. As cathode the eutectic alloy of Bi, In and Sn, known as Field’s metal, was used. The melting point of this alloy is above 62 °C, which makes it suitable for a vacuum-free deposition process and easy and fast device test. Cell fabrication and testing were carried out at normal room conditions. For OPV cells based on MEH-PPV, the composite thin electron collector layer improved the power conversion efficiency (η) from 1.12% to 2.07%, thus the η increase was about 85%. Meanwhile, for devices based on P3HT the use of the composite film improved the photocurrent in almost 1 mA/cm2 and the efficiency slightly increase from 2.48% to 2.68%.

  2. Influence of the shape and surface oxidation in the magnetization reversal of thin iron nanowires grown by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron nanostructures grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID are promising for applications in magnetic sensing, storage and logic. Such applications require a precise design and determination of the coercive field (HC, which depends on the shape of the nanostructure. In the present work, we have used the Fe2(CO9 precursor to grow iron nanowires by FEBID in the thickness range from 10 to 45 nm and width range from 50 to 500 nm. These nanowires exhibit an Fe content between 80 and 85%, thus giving a high ferromagnetic signal. Magneto-optical Kerr characterization indicates that HC decreases for increasing thickness and width, providing a route to control the magnetization reversal field through the modification of the nanowire dimensions. Transmission electron microscopy experiments indicate that these wires have a bell-type shape with a surface oxide layer of about 5 nm. Such features are decisive in the actual value of HC as micromagnetic simulations demonstrate. These results will help to make appropriate designs of magnetic nanowires grown by FEBID.

  3. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, PhosphateDeposits1988-This data set represents phosphate deposit areas in Utah., Published in 2001, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2001. It is...

  4. The Use and Maintenance of University Library Electronic Resources%浅议大学图书馆电子资源的利用与维护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鹏飞; 熊豫玲

    2011-01-01

    随着科学技术的飞速发展,高新信息技术的广泛应用,大学图书馆的工作内容和方法也面临新的挑战,为了使用户更好的利用大学图书馆的电子资源,提高电子资源利用率,实现大学图书馆数字化,本文主要从电子资源的利用和维护方面进行探讨。%With the rapid development of science and technology,the extensive application of high-tech information technology, University of content and methods of library work is also facing new challenges in order to make better use of university library users to electronic resources,improve the utilization of electronic resources to achieve the University Library digital,paper, from the use of electronic resources and maintenance were discussed.

  5. Target loads of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition for protection of acid sensitive aquatic resources in the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Cosby, B.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; McDonnell, T.C.; Herlihy, A.T.; Burns, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic watershed acid-base chemistry model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC) was used to calculate target loads (TLs) of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition expected to be protective of aquatic health in lakes in the Adirondack ecoregion of New York. The TLs were calculated for two future dates (2050 and 2100) and three levels of protection against lake acidification (acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of 0, 20, and 50 eq L -1). Regional sulfur and nitrogen deposition estimates were combined with TLs to calculate exceedances. Target load results, and associated exceedances, were extrapolated to the regional population of Adirondack lakes. About 30% of Adirondack lakes had simulated TL of sulfur deposition less than 50 meq m -2 yr to protect lake ANC to 50 eq L -1. About 600 Adirondack lakes receive ambient sulfur deposition that is above this TL, in some cases by more than a factor of 2. Some critical criteria threshold values were simulated to be unobtainable in some lakes even if sulfur deposition was to be decreased to zero and held at zero until the specified endpoint year. We also summarize important lessons for the use of target loads in the management of acid-impacted aquatic ecosystems, such as those in North America, Europe, and Asia. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Sub-band gap photo-enhanced secondary electron emission from high-purity single-crystal chemical-vapor-deposited diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yater, J. E.; Shaw, J. L.; Pate, B. B.; Feygelson, T. I.

    2016-02-01

    Secondary-electron-emission (SEE) current measured from high-purity, single-crystal (100) chemical-vapor-deposited diamond is found to increase when sub-band gap (3.06 eV) photons are incident on the hydrogenated surface. Although the light does not produce photoemission directly, the SEE current increases by more than a factor of 2 before saturating with increasing laser power. In energy distribution curves (EDCs), the emission peak shows a corresponding increase in intensity with increasing laser power. However, the emission-onset energy in the EDCs remains constant, indicating that the bands are pinned at the surface. On the other hand, changes are observed on the high-energy side of the distribution as the laser power increases, with a well-defined shoulder becoming more pronounced. From an analysis of this feature in the EDCs, it is deduced that upward band bending is present in the near-surface region during the SEE measurements and this band bending suppresses the SEE yield. However, sub-band gap photon illumination reduces the band bending and thereby increases the SEE current. Because the bands are pinned at the surface, we conclude that the changes in the band levels occur below the surface in the electron transport region. Sample heating produces similar effects as observed with sub-band gap photon illumination, namely, an increase in SEE current and a reduction in band bending. However, the upward band bending is not fully removed by either increasing laser power or temperature, and a minimum band bending of ˜0.8 eV is established in both cases. The sub-band gap photo-excitation mechanism is under further investigation, although it appears likely at present that defect or gap states play a role in the photo-enhanced SEE process. In the meantime, the study demonstrates the ability of visible light to modify the electronic properties of diamond and enhance the emission capabilities, which may have potential impact for diamond-based vacuum electron

  7. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  8. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  9. Experimental demonstration of single electron transistors featuring SiO{sub 2} plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition in Ni-SiO{sub 2}-Ni tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbasian, Golnaz, E-mail: Golnaz.Karbasian.1@nd.edu; McConnell, Michael S.; Orlov, Alexei O.; Rouvimov, Sergei; Snider, Gregory L. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The authors report the use of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) to fabricate single-electron transistors (SETs) featuring ultrathin (≈1 nm) tunnel-transparent SiO{sub 2} in Ni-SiO{sub 2}-Ni tunnel junctions. They show that, as a result of the O{sub 2} plasma steps in PEALD of SiO{sub 2}, the top surface of the underlying Ni electrode is oxidized. Additionally, the bottom surface of the upper Ni layer is also oxidized where it is in contact with the deposited SiO{sub 2}, most likely as a result of oxygen-containing species on the surface of the SiO{sub 2}. Due to the presence of these surface parasitic layers of NiO, which exhibit features typical of thermally activated transport, the resistance of Ni-SiO{sub 2}-Ni tunnel junctions is drastically increased. Moreover, the transport mechanism is changed from quantum tunneling through the dielectric barrier to one consistent with thermally activated resistors in series with tunnel junctions. The reduction of NiO to Ni is therefore required to restore the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure of the junctions. Rapid thermal annealing in a forming gas ambient at elevated temperatures is presented as a technique to reduce both parasitic oxide layers. This method is of great interest for devices that rely on MIM tunnel junctions with ultrathin barriers. Using this technique, the authors successfully fabricated MIM SETs with minimal trace of parasitic NiO component. They demonstrate that the properties of the tunnel barrier in nanoscale tunnel junctions (with <10{sup −15} m{sup 2} in area) can be evaluated by electrical characterization of SETs.

  10. 电子资源许可使用的发展与创新%The Development and Innovation of the Use of the Electronic Resource License

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2012-01-01

      电子资源许可使用在我国发展时间较短,在其建立过程中还存在许可定价、购买模式、馆际互借以及电子资源的长期保存许可方式等难题。电子资源许可使用的发展与创新,需要根据用户需求制定发展战略,建立图书馆的读者监督管理制度和数字化资源服务制度,规范文献编目制度等,以提高电子信息资源与图书馆信息资源的使用效果和广泛的使用需求%  It's been a short time since the use of electronic resource licenses has developed in China; in addition, many problems ap-pear in the establishment process in terms of license pricing, purchase pattern, inter-library loan and long-term preservation ways of electronic resources. In order to develop and innovate the use of the license, libraries should develop strategies in accordance with the users' needs, establish a reader supervision system and a digital resource service system, and normalize the document cataloging sys-tem to enhance the utilization effect and meet the extensive demand for electronic and library information resources.

  11. Deposition of TiO2/Al2O3 bilayer on hydrogenated diamond for electronic devices: Capacitors, field-effect transistors, and logic inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Imura, M.; Banal, R. G.; Koide, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The wide bandgap semiconductor diamond has been studied to develop high-power and high-frequency electronic devices. Here, high dielectric constant (high-k) TiO2/Al2O3 bilayers are deposited on hydrogenated diamond (H-diamond) channel layers using sputter deposition (SD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques. Thin ALD-Al2O3 films are employed as buffer layers for the SD-TiO2 and ALD-TiO2 on H-diamond to suppress plasma discharge effect and to decrease leakage current density (J), respectively. The electrical properties of the resulting TiO2/Al2O3/H-diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors, MOS field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), and MOSFET logic inverters are investigated. With the same thickness (4.0 nm) for ALD-Al2O3 buffer layer, the ALD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond MOS capacitor shows a lower J and better capacitance-voltage characteristics than the SD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond capacitor. The maximum capacitance of the ALD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond capacitor and the k value of the ALD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3 bilayer are 0.83 μF cm-2 and 27.2, respectively. Valence band offset between ALD-TiO2 and H-diamond is calculated to be 2.3 ± 0.2 eV based on the element binding energies measured using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. Both the SD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond and ALD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond MOSFETs show p-type, pinch-off, and enhancement mode characteristics with on/off current ratios around 109. The subthreshold swings of them are 115 and as low as 79 mV dec-1, respectively. The ALD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond MOSFET logic inverters, when coupled with load resistors, show distinct inversion characteristics with gains of 6.2-12.7.

  12. Application of laser induced electron impact ionization to the deposition chemistry in the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition process with SiH4-NH3 gas mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustergerling, Brett; Hèden, Martin; Shi, Yujun

    2007-11-01

    The application of a laser-induced electron impact (LIEI) ionization source in studying the gas-phase chemistry of the SiH(4)/NH(3) hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) system has been investigated. The LIEI source is achieved by directing an unfocused laser beam containing both 118 nm (10.5 eV) vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and 355 nm UV radiations to the repeller plate in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Comparison of the LIEI source with the conventional 118 nm VUV single-photon ionization (SPI) method has demonstrated that the intensities of the chemical species with ionization potentials (IP) above 10.5 eV, e.g., H(2), N(2) and He, have been significantly enhanced with the incorporation of the LIEI source. It is found that the SPI source due to the 118 nm VUV light coexists in the LIEI source. This allows simultaneous observations of parent ions with enhanced intensity from VUV SPI and their "fingerprint" fragmentation ions from LIEI. It is, therefore, an effective tool to diagnose the gas-phase chemical species involved with both NH(3) and SiH(4) in the HWCVD reactor. In using the LIEI source to SiH(4), NH(3) and their mixtures, it has been shown that the NH(3) decomposition is suppressed with the addition of SiH(4) molecules. Examination of the NH(3) decomposition percentage and the time to reach the N(2) and H(2) steady-state intensities for various NH(3)/SiH(4) mixtures suggests that the extent of the suppression is enhanced with more SiH(4) content in the mixture. With increasing filament temperatures, the negative effect of SiH(4) becomes less important.

  13. Depth dose deposition measurement in electronics packages using optically stimulated luminescence films; Mesure du rendement en profondeur dans un boitier de composant electronique au moyen de films luminescents stimulables optiquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranchoux, G.; Dusseau, L.; Gensanne, D.; Plattard, D.; Polge, G.; Saigne, F.; Fesquet, J.; Gasiot, J. [Montpellier-2 Univ., CEMM2, 34 (France); Menduina, X. [Universite Autonome de Barcelone (Spain); Bessiere, J.C. [CORAD P.I.T. Pompignane, 34 - Montpelliers (France)

    1999-07-01

    The energy deposited by electrons versus depth inside molded Epoxy packages is measured using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dose mapping technique. Longitudinal and transversal depth dose curves are investigated under various angles of irradiation. Experimental results are compared with PENELOPE transport code calculations. Preliminary results are in good agreement with simulations.

  14. AB stacked few layer graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal Rh(1 1 1) and electronic structure characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordatos, Apostolis [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, 15310 (Greece); Kelaidis, Nikolaos, E-mail: n.kelaidis@inn.demokritos.gr [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, 15310 (Greece); Giamini, Sigiava Aminalragia [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, 15310 (Greece); University of Athens, Department of Physics, Section of Solid State Physics, Athens, 15684 Greece (Greece); Marquez-Velasco, Jose [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, 15310 (Greece); National Technical University of Athens, Department of Physics, Athens, 15784 Greece (Greece); Xenogiannopoulou, Evangelia; Tsipas, Polychronis; Kordas, George; Dimoulas, Athanasios [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, 15310 (Greece)

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • Growth of non-defective few layer graphene on Rh(1 1 1) substrates using an ambient- pressure CVD method. • Control of graphene stacking order via the cool-down rate. • Graphene is grown with a mainly AB-stacking geometry on single-crystalline Rhodium for a slow cool-down rate and non-AB for a very fast cool-down. • Good epitaxial orientation of the surface is presented through the RHEED data and confirmed with ARPES characterization for the lower cool-down rate, where graphene's ΓK direction a perfectly aligned with the ΓK direction of the Rh(1 1 1) single crystal. - Abstract: Graphene synthesis on single crystal Rh(1 1 1) catalytic substrates is performed by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) at 1000 °C and atmospheric pressure. Raman analysis shows full substrate coverage with few layer graphene. It is found that the cool-down rate strongly affects the graphene stacking order. When lowered, the percentage of AB (Bernal) -stacked regions increases, leading to an almost full AB stacking order. When increased, the percentage of AB-stacked graphene regions decreases to a point where almost a full non AB-stacked graphene is grown. For a slow cool-down rate, graphene with AB stacking order and good epitaxial orientation with the substrate is achieved. This is indicated mainly by Raman characterization and confirmed by Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) imaging. Additional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) topography data confirm that the grown graphene is mainly an AB-stacked structure. The electronic structure of the graphene/Rh(1 1 1) system is examined by Angle resolved Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (ARPES), where σ and π bands of graphene, are observed. Graphene's ΓK direction is aligned with the ΓK direction of the substrate, indicating no significant contribution from rotated domains.

  15. General relativistic ray-tracing algorithm for the determination of the electron-positron energy deposition rate from neutrino pair annihilation around rotating neutron and quark stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Z.; Harko, T.

    2011-11-01

    We present a full general relativistic numerical code for estimating the energy-momentum deposition rate (EMDR) from neutrino pair annihilation (?). The source of the neutrinos is assumed to be a neutrino-cooled accretion disc around neutron and quark stars. We calculate the neutrino trajectories by using a ray-tracing algorithm with the general relativistic Hamilton's equations for neutrinos and derive the spatial distribution of the EMDR due to the annihilations of neutrinos and antineutrinos around rotating neutron and quark stars. We obtain the EMDR for several classes of rotating neutron stars, described by different equations of state of the neutron matter, and for quark stars, described by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) bag model equation of state and in the colour-flavour-locked (CFL) phase. The distribution of the total annihilation rate of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs around rotating neutron and quark stars is studied for isothermal discs and accretion discs in thermodynamical equilibrium. We demonstrate both the differences in the equations of state for neutron and quark matter and rotation with the general relativistic effects significantly modify the EMDR of the electrons and positrons generated by the neutrino-antineutrino pair annihilation around compact stellar objects, as measured at infinity.

  16. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy investigation of nanostructures in SnO 2 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. W.; Lai, J. K. L.; Shek, C. H.

    2005-03-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was used to grow nanocrystalline SnO 2 thin films onto glass substrates. The nanocrystallites and microstructures in SnO 2 thin films grown by PLD techniques have been investigated in detail by using X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The PLD process was carried out at room temperature under a working pressure of about 2×10 -6 mbar. Experimental results indicate that thin films are composed of a polycrystalline SnO 2 and an amorphous SnO phase. In particular, the presence of such an amorphous SnO phase in the thin films greatly limits their practical use as gas-sensing devices. HRTEM observations revealed that SnO 2 nanocrystallites with tetragonal rutile structure embed in an amorphous SnO matrix, which are approximatively equiaxed. These approximatively equiaxed SnO 2 nanocrystallites contain a high density of defects, such as twin boundaries and edge dislocations. The grain growth of SnO 2 thin films may be discussed in terms of the coalescent particle growth mechanism.

  17. Diamond field-effect transistors for RF power electronics: Novel NO2 hole doping and low-temperature deposited Al2O3 passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasu, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Diamond possesses a combination of exceptional physical properties and is expected to be used as a semiconductor material in high-efficiency and high-power electronic devices. In this study, hole doping was observed when using NO2 molecules on a H-diamond surface. The activation energy of hole concentration in NO2/H-diamond was measured as 0.006 eV, and holes were fully activated at room temperature. A thermal stabilization of the hole channel was realized by passivation with an atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 layer. The passivation method enabled the realization of a thermally stable high-performance diamond field-effect transistor (FET), which exhibited high-performance DC and RF characteristics. NO2 hole-doping and Al2O3-passivation technologies enabled reproducible measurements of MOS structure electric properties. Such technologies also facilitated observations of two-dimensional holes at the MOS interface and type-II band alignment of Al2O3/NO2/H-diamond. Additionally, the band diagram under various gate bias conditions was proposed on the basis of capacitance-voltage measurements and analysis using Poisson’s equations.

  18. Atomic layer-by-layer deposition of h-BN(0001) on cobalt: a building block for spintronics and graphene electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, John; Cao, Yuan; Tanabe, Iori; Sky Driver, M.; Dowben, Peter A.; Kelber, Jeffry A.

    2014-12-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Raman measurements demonstrate that macroscopically continuous hexagonal BN(0001) (h-BN) multilayer layer films can be grown by atomic layer deposition on Co(0001) substrates. The growth procedure involves alternating exposures of BCl3 and NH3 at 550 K, followed by annealing in ultrahigh vacuum above 700 K to induce long-range order. XPS data demonstrate that the films have a consistent B:N atomic ratio of 1:1. LEED data show that the BN layers are azimuthally in registry, with an estimated domain size of ˜170 Å. The films are continuous over a macroscopic (1 cm × 1 cm) area as demonstrated by the fact that exposure of a h-BN(0001) bi-layer film to ambient at room temperature yields no observable Co oxidation, although some N oxidation is observed, and long range order is lost. The ability to grow large area, continuous multilayer BN films on Co, with atomic level control of film thickness, makes possible an array of magnetic tunnel junction and spin filter applications.

  19. Atomic Layer Deposition of Gallium Oxide Films as Gate Dielectrics in AlGaN/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor High-Electron-Mobility Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Chu, Fu-Chuan; Das, Atanu; Lee, Chia-Yu; Chen, Ming-Jang; Lin, Ray-Ming

    2016-12-01

    In this study, films of gallium oxide (Ga2O3) were prepared through remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RP-ALD) using triethylgallium and oxygen plasma. The chemical composition and optical properties of the Ga2O3 thin films were investigated; the saturation growth displayed a linear dependence with respect to the number of ALD cycles. These uniform ALD films exhibited excellent uniformity and smooth Ga2O3-GaN interfaces. An ALD Ga2O3 film was then used as the gate dielectric and surface passivation layer in a metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT), which exhibited device performance superior to that of a corresponding conventional Schottky gate HEMT. Under similar bias conditions, the gate leakage currents of the MOS-HEMT were two orders of magnitude lower than those of the conventional HEMT, with the power-added efficiency enhanced by up to 9 %. The subthreshold swing and effective interfacial state density of the MOS-HEMT were 78 mV decade(-1) and 3.62 × 10(11) eV(-1) cm(-2), respectively. The direct-current and radio-frequency performances of the MOS-HEMT device were greater than those of the conventional HEMT. In addition, the flicker noise of the MOS-HEMT was lower than that of the conventional HEMT.

  20. Optimization of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayers as a transparent composite electrode deposited by electron-beam evaporation at room temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洪涛; 王小平; 寇志起; 王丽军; 王金烨; 孙义清

    2015-01-01

    Highly transparent indium-free composite electrodes of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 are deposited by electron-beam evaporation at room temperature. The effects of Cu thickness and annealing temperature on the electrical and optical properties of the multilayer film are investigated. The critical thickness of Cu mid-layer to form a continuous conducting layer is found to be 11 nm. The multilayer with a mid-Cu thickness of 11 nm is optimized to obtain a resistivity of 7.4×10−5 Ω·cm and an average optical transmittance of 86%in the visible spectral range. The figure of merit of the TiO2/Cu(11 nm)/TiO2 multilayer annealed at 150 ◦C reaches a minimum resistivity of 5.9×10−5 Ω·cm and an average optical transmittance of 88%in the visible spectral range. The experimental results indicate that TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayers can be used as a transparent electrode for solar cell and other display applications.