WorldWideScience

Sample records for depositos parafinicos estatico

  1. Polymers pipeline study (PP and PEAD) for paraffin deposits inhibition: static (contact angle) and with flow (depolarization of the petroleum fluorescence); Estudo de dutos polimericos (PP e PEAD) para inibicao de depositos parafinicos: estatico (angulo de contato) e com fluxo (despolarizacao da fluorescencia do petroleo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintella, Cristina M.; Castro, Martha T.P.O.; Musse, Ana Paula S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This work evaluated the formation of paraffin deposits as a function of the chemical constitution of the pipeline walls. Two low cost polymers, available in the Brazilian market either as solids or as extruded films, were studied: polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (PEAD). The static interfacial interactions were evaluated by contact angle and showed that the interaction between crude oil and PEAD was 16% stronger than with PP. For the dynamic studies a flow cell was developed in order to observe mainly the boundary layers. The paraffin deposits were identified through the decrease of the intermolecular alignment within the flowing oil. PEAD proved to be 43% more efficient that PP in interacting with the crude oil. Under flowing conditions, the chemical interfacial effects became more pronounced due to the molecular effects overcoming the hydrodynamic effects. Photos of the cell walls showed globular paraffin deposits on PEAD and their absence on PP. As both polymers are linear, the higher tendency of PEAD to yield paraffin deposits was attributed to the absence of lateral branches of methyl groups. There by PP was found to be better than PEAD to avoid paraffin deposition. (author)

  2. Perilaku Konsumsi Upaya Meningkatkan Potensi Produk Deposito di Bank Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Mulanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Perbankan syari’ah saat ini telah memiliki payung hukum yang kuat dengan hadirnya undang-undang nomor 21 tahun 2008 tentang perbankan syari’ah. Hal ini sangat berpengaruh terhadap eksistensi dari perbankan syari’ah yang semakin diminati oleh banyak kalangan.Bank syari’ah membutuhkan dana dalam menjalankan produk pembiayaannya. Deposito merupakan salah satu produk penghimpunan di bank syariah. Deposito di bank syariah terus mengalami pertumbuhan. Walaupun demikian bank syariah tetap harus meningkatkan produk deposito, untuk mencapai market share 5 persen. Untuk meningkatkan volume deposito bank syariah perlu memahami bentuk perilaku konsumsi masyarakat. Dari data yang ada kontribusi dana pihak ketiga bank syariah diberikan oleh produk deposito sebesar 71,15 persen.Penulisan ini menggunakan jenis deskriptif kualitatif, Batasan dalam tulisan ini difokuskan pada produk deposito di bank syari’ah perilaku konsumen.Tulisan ini menggunakan studi pustaka kajian dari berbagai sumber. Hasil dari tulisan ini bahwa deposito di bank syariah terus mengalami perkembangan, pada tahun 2015 pertumbuhan deposito di bank syariah mencapai 4,12 persen. Perilaku konsumsi memiliki banyak faktor dan bisa memberi pengaruh terhadap peningkatan produk deposito di bank syariah. Sehingga bank syariah perlu memahami perilaku konsumsi masyarakat dalam upaya meningkatkan potensi pengembangan produk deposito di bank syariah.potensi pengembangan produk pembiayaan mudharabah di bank syari’ah masih sangat besar.Potensi pengembangan produk deposito masih sangat besar dan sangat luas. Bank of Shariah now has a solid legal with the presence of the law number 21 in 2008 about Bank of Shariah.  This adversely affects the existence of the Shari'ah Bank that increasingly catches interest many people. Bank of Shari'ah requires funds in running financing products. Deposits are ones’ product accumulation in Islamic banks. Deposits in Islamic banks continued to grow

  3. Analisis Pengaruh Monetary Policy Shock Terhadap Jumlah Deposito Perbankan Islam Dalam Sistem Perbankan Ganda: Studi Kasus Indonesia Dan Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Mutiah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah ingin menguji secara empiris, apakah perilaku nasabah perbankan Islam di Indonesia dan di Malaysia terpengaruh oleh kebijakan moneter yang dikeluarkan oleh bank sentral pada masingmasing negara. Selain itu, apakah negara dengan karakteristik ekonomi dan kebijakan yang hampir sama – Indonesia dan Malaysia -, akan menghasilkan perilaku nasabah terhadap deposito perbankan Islam yang sama atau tidak. Metode analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah yang pertama , metode ekonometrika VAR (Vector Auto Regression yang bila terjadi kointegrasi pada data yang stasioner di 1st difference akan dilanjutkan pada VECM (Vector Error Correction Models dan yang kedua, analisis elastisitas permintaan deposito perbankan Islam terhadap variabel-variabel yang diuji dalam penelitian ini pada periode Januari 2005 sampai dengan Desember 2009. Hasil dari penelitian ini menujukkan bahwa dalam jangka panjang variabel moneter di Indonesia berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap deposito perbankan Islam. Berbeda dengan di Malaysia di mana variable moneter tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap deposito perbankan Islam. Begitupun hasil analisis elastisitas permintaan deposito perbankan Islam di kedua negara. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa deposito perbankan Islam di Indonesia lebih sensitif terhadap perubahan kebijakan moneter, dibandingkan dengan yang ada di Malaysia.JEL Classifications : E41, E52, G21.Keywords : Kebijakan Moneter; Deposito; Perbankan Islam; VECM; Elastisitas.

  4. Ultrafiltration in laxative treatment of urban solid residues dump. Experience in the Deposito Controlado de Puigpalter (Girona, Spain); Ultrafiltracion en el tratamiento de lixiviados de vertedero de RSU. Experiencia en el Deposito Controlado de Puigpalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of lixiviates owes fundamentally to the degradation of the organic matter present in the solid residues of dump and his dragging for rain water percolated. These liquids are characterized by high concentrations of organic pollutants, ammonia nitrogen, metallic ions and other potentially toxic substances. Several technologies for lixiviates treatment are used in Deposito Controlado de Puigpalter (Girona), like ultrafiltration, which has demonstrated his efficiency and reliability during the first 12 months of exploitation. (Author)

  5. Ultrafiltration in laxative treatment of urban solid residues dump. Experience in the Deposito Controlado de Puigpalter (Girona, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of lixiviates owes fundamentally to the degradation of the organic matter present in the solid residues of dump and his dragging for rain water percolated. These liquids are characterized by high concentrations of organic pollutants, ammonia nitrogen, metallic ions and other potentially toxic substances. Several technologies for lixiviates treatment are used in Deposito Controlado de Puigpalter (Girona), like ultrafiltration, which has demonstrated his efficiency and reliability during the first 12 months of exploitation. (Author)

  6. Sviluppo e utilizzo di un sistema per l’archiviazione, la revisione e il deposito di tesi elettroniche e dissertazioni destinato alle Università

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Edelman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La North Carolina State University ha sviluppato un sistema completamente automatizzato per il deposito, la revisione e l’archiviazione digitale delle tesi di laurea e delle dissertazioni, chiamato ETD (Electronic Thesis and Dissertation. Il sistema ETD migliora l’accessibilità e sostanzialmente riduce i tempi richiesti per sottoporre i lavori, se paragonato ai metodi di deposito cartacei, da parte dei gruppi coinvolti nella valutazione e nel processo di approvazione delle tesi / dissertazioni: studenti, membri del comitato di valutazione, diplomati, curatori di tesi, archivisti (per esempio bibliotecari universitari e ricercatori.

  7. Implantación de Cross Dock para Danone de México en el deposito Querétaro

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa García, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Este proyecto es un Cross Dock el cual se aplico para la empresa Danone de México en el depósito de Querétaro con la finalidad de reducir costos y aumentar la productividad de y efectividad del deposito. El Crossdock es una técnica de logística que elimina el almacenaje. Son básicamente instalaciones de trasbordo donde llega el camión con material y se pasa a otros camiones de salida. Sin embargo, la aplicación del Crossdock requiere disciplina y además de la disciplina...

  8. PENGARUH SUKU BUNGA DEPOSITO DAN LAYANAN ATM TERHADAP EKUITAS MEREK SERTA DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN KONSUMEN UNTUK MENJADI NASABAH DI KANTOR CABANG UTAMA PT BANK JABAR DAN BANTEN TBK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donni Juni Priansa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Banks are business entities that raise funds from the public and channel them to the public in the form of credit or other forms. Associated with the function of the banking, deposit and ATM services are two important things that are often considered by consumers. This study aims to analyze the influence of deposits interest rates and ATM services to brand equity, as well as the influence of deposits interest rates, ATM services, and brand equity on consumer's decision to become a customer. This study uses descriptive and explanatory survey, with primary data obtained from questionnaires. The population of this research is consumers that’s become customers at PT Bank Jabar Banten Tbk Branch Office and utilizing deposits and ATM services. The unit of analysis in the study were 40 samples were obtained by using the formula Slovin, while sampling technique used was simple random sampling. Data were analyzed using path analysis with SPSS 20.00. The results showed that the deposits interest rates and ATM services has positive dan significant effect on brand equity. The study also found that deposits interest rates, ATM services, and brand equity has a positive and significant effect on the consumer's decision to become a customer at PT Bank Jabar Banten Tbk Main Branches.   Keyword: Deposits Interest Rates, ATM Services, and Consumer's Decision     Abstrak - Bank adalah badan usaha yang menghimpun dana dari masyarakat dan menyalurkannya kembali dalam bentuk kredit dan atau bentuk-bentuk lainnya. Terkait dengan fungsi perbankan tersebut, suku bunga deposito dan layanan ATM merupakan dua hal penting yang sering dipertimbangkan oleh konsumen untuk menjadi nasabah bank. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh suku bunga deposito dan layanan ATM terhadap ekuitas merek, juga pengaruh suku bunga deposito, layanan ATM, dan ekuitas merek terhadap keputusan konsumen untuk menjadi nasabah. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode

  9. Non cardiopatic and cardiopatic beta thalassaemic patients: quantitative and qualitative cardiac iron deposition evaluation with MRI; Pazienti {beta} talassemici non cardiopatici e cardiopatici: valutazione quantitativa e qualitativa del deposito di ferro cardiaco con RM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macarini, Luca; Marini, Stefania; Scardapane, Arnaldo [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). DIMIMP-Sezione di Diagnostica per Immagini; Pietrapertosa, Anna [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). MIDIM-Cattedra di Ematologia II; Ettore, Giovanni Carlo [Foggia Univ., Foggia (Italy). Cattedra di Radiologia

    2005-02-01

    thalassaemic groups, with more widespread distribution in cardiopatic patients. Conclusions: We found cardiac iron deposition also in non-cardiopatic {beta} thalassaemic patients and a qualitative difference in cardiac iron distribution between non-cardiopatic and cardiopatic patients. The qualitative evaluation of cardiac iron deposition was useful for an easier classification of the disease, bypassing the SI quantitative value which is affected by the extremely uneven distribution of iron deposition and by the sampling technique used. MR evaluation of non-cardiopatic thalassaemic patients may be useful to evaluate early iron deposition and to establish the most suitable chelation therapy. [Italian] Scopo: La cardiomiopatia e' una delle maggiori complicanze della {beta} talassemia major ed e' legata al sovraccarico di ferro conseguente alla necessaria terapia trasfusionale. Scopo del nostro studio e' quello di valutare con la RM se esistono differenze di intensita' di segnale o di distribuzione del deposito di ferro cardiaco tra pazienti affetti da {beta} talassemia non cardiopatici e pazienti con {beta} talassemia cardiopatici, per verificare se esiste un rapporto tra cardiopatia e deposito di ferro. Materiale e metodi: Abbiamo studiato 20 pazienti affetti da {beta} talassemia major, di cui 10 non cardiopatici e 10 cardiopatici, e 10 soggetti volontari sani, che hanno rappresentato il gruppo controllo. Nei pazienti talassemici sono stati considerati i valori di ferritina sierica e, con esame ecocardiografico, la frazione di eiezione del ventricolo sinistro. Tutti i pazienti sono stati studiati con apparecchiatura RM da 1,5 Tesla con sequenze cardio-sincronizzate GE cine-RM pesate in T2*, SE pesate in T1 e GE pesate in T2*. In tutti i casi, utilizzando una ROI di dimensioni adeguate, sono stete calcolate l'intensita' di segnale (SI) del miocardio e del muscolo scheletrico, il rapporto d'intensita' di segnale (SIR) miocardio

  10. Una formulacion matricial generalizada. 1-analisis estatico

    OpenAIRE

    Molins, C.; Roca, P.; Mari, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Se presenta una Formulación Matricial Generalizada (FMG) para el análisis de estructuras formadas por entramados espaciales de elementos de directriz curva y sección variable. La principal característica de la FMG reside en que su formulación establece el equilibrio

  11. Deposito pretensado – Örebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson, Kurt

    1958-09-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo depósito elevado de Örebro, se halla ubicado en el centro de la ciudad y por tanto ha tenido que considerarse cuidadosamente su composición exterior. Debido al gran volumen, unos 9.000 m3, y una altura de unos 50 m entre el suelo y el nivel superior de aguas, la solución cilíndrica con soportes dispuestos circularmente o de paredes cilíndricas hubiese resultado excesivamente masiva. El hormigón pretensado permitió llegar a una estructura más ligera y de línea más elegante, cuya forma se fue perfilando desde los primeros tanteos.

  12. Treatment of paraffin problems in petroleum production with chemicals; Tratamento de problemas parafinicos com agentes quimicos na producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, David; Yin, Ralph; Weispfennig, Klaus; Newberry, Mike [Baker Petrolite, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Paraffin problems can greatly reduce production of certain crude oils, if correct methods to control the problems are not used. These problems are primarily related to flow line deposition and reduction in crude oil flow properties caused by wax network growth. Deep water production and production of high-wax content crude oils can be especially problematic. Much of the petroleum production in Brazil falls in these categories: in the Campos Basin and in Bahia. Paraffin problems can be controlled with diverse methods. These methods include use of: pigging, insulation, heating, and chemicals. Sometimes, the use of chemicals can be very practical, alone or in combination with other methods. This paper discusses the use of chemicals for the treatment of paraffin problems. Three types of treatments are discussed: prevention of deposition in flow lines with paraffin inhibitors; improvement in flow properties of crude oils with pour point depressants, and removal of paraffin deposits with dispersants. The discussion includes the physical effects of the treatment chemicals and field examples. (author)

  13. Analysis of static concentrator photovoltaic modules on facades; Analise de modulos fotovoltaicos concentradores estaticos em fachadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanesco, Izete; Moehlecke, Adriano; Pereira, Marcia S.; Severo, Tiago C. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro Brasileiro para Desenvolvimento da Energia Solar Fotovoltaica - CB-Solar]. E-mail: izete@pucrs.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the optimization and the analysis of a static concentrator photovoltaic module PEC-44D designed for building facade. The linear optical system were designed for the facial solar cells. The acceptance angles {theta}{sub P} and {xi} were optimized, considering a vertical facade (90 degree) inclination angle faced to the north.

  14. Hydraulic modeling of air valves using static tests; Caracterizacion hidraulica de las ventosas mediante ensayos estaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Miquel, V. S.; Iglesias Rey, P. L.; Perez Garcia, R.; Martinez Solano, F. J. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The presence of air in water supply systems is, in many cases, unavoidable. The air develops into the pipes due to very different reasons and causes a big number of problems, which can become even catastrophic for the installations. A good solution for avoiding these problems is the use of air valves. Most manufacturers provide the graphic behaviour of their air valves by means of curves representing heal losses vs. air flow through the valve. In the Polytechnic University of Valencia static tests for a big number of these valves have been performed. When comparing the results from these tests with the data provided by the manufactures, important differences have been found. This fact can have dramatic consequences. (Author) 4 refs.

  15. Development of static photovoltaic concentrator modules with diffuse reflector; Desenvolvimento de modulos fotovoltaicos concentradores estaticos com refletor difuso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehn Febras, Filipe

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was to manufacture and to characterize prototypes of flat static concentrator modules, called MEC-P. This concentrator consists of strings of bifacial cells and a white reflecting plane. Then the reflected radiation can reach the rear face of the bifacial cells. Two prototypes had been manufactured: prototype A, with 615 mm x 315 mm x 60 mm, and prototype B, with 615 mm x 365 x mm x 60 mm, considering length, width and height. These dimensions are based on previous work of optimization of the MEC-P, and the difference between prototype A and prototype B is the distance between the most external string and the edge of the module. Commercial white paints had been tested on the reflecting plane. The best result is achieved with the paint named Hammerite{sup R}, with averaged reflectance above 90 % for wavelengths from 400 nm to 1050 nm. The selected paint was aged in external conditions and in an ultraviolet radiation accelerated aging chamber. It was observed a reflectance degradation from its original value after exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Nevertheless, when the sample painted was exposed to UV radiations under a glass plate laminated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), the reflectance of the samples remained the same. The prototypes had been installed in Porto Alegre, 48 deg tilted to the horizontal, with the strings toward east-west or north-south. To characterize the prototypes, solar cells had been installed to measure the incident irradiance in six regions of the prototypes and to evaluate the operating temperature. Taking into account the optical concentration (C{sub OP}) for the worst irradiance on the rear face of the bifacial cell, we observed that the prototype B with strings toward the north-south shows the larger C{sub OP} and mainly, constant during the period with higher irradiance for cloudless days. MEC-P prototypes presented operating 18 temperatures from 15 deg C to 26 deg C above the ambient temperature, similar to the temperature in conventional modules. (author)

  16. Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case; Acoplamiento de Nod1D y HOTCHANNEL: caso estatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A.M. [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ovando C, R. [IIE-Gcia. de Energia Nuclear, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)

  17. El deposito de materiales de la Edad del Bronce de Gamonedo (Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel de BLAS CORTINA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El desprendimiento de tierras en un talud en las proximidades de Gamonedo —en la zona oriental de Asturias— puso al descubierto un depósito de materiales metálicos integrado por un hacha plana, una decena de lingotes de fundición y varios fragmentos metálicos informes. El lote puede considerarse como una ocultación de productos semiacabados, con un probable carácter de tesaurización. En el territorio donde se produjo el hallazgo son frecuentes las formaciones cupríferas, algunas explotadas ya durante la Edad del Bronce (Mina del Aramo, con las que pudiera guardar relación el depósito de Gamonedo. Los análisis espectrográficos de los materiales establecieron la composición de cobre con arsénico característica del Bronce Antiguo de la Península. A partir de estos datos y del estudio tipológico del conjunto podría fecharse el depósito de Gamonedo hacia mediados del segundo milenio a. de J. C.ABSTRACT: A landslide in a talus near Gamonedo —in the eastern of Asturias— discovered a hoard of metal objects constiting of a flat axe, some ten smelted ingots and various metal fragments. The hoard can be considered as a stash of unfinished products (in a store. In the territory where the find was discovered copper formations are frequent, some already exploited from the Bronze Age (the Aramo mine to which the Gamonedo hoard migth be related. Analyses by spectrographic of the objects established their composition as bein of copper with traces of arsenic characteristic of the Early Bronze Age of the Peninsula. From this data and the type study of the whole of Gamonedo hoard can be dated situated around the middle of the second millenium B.C.

  18. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain; Mapas de Deposito Acido en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    Annual and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To de this, updated database with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5 x 5 km``2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedance over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs.

  19. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain; Mapas de Deposito Acido en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C.

    1998-07-01

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km{sup 2} grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs.

  20. OPTIMIZACION DE LA MORFOLOGIA DE ELECTRO-DEPOSITOS DE POLITIOFENO, CON VISTA A SUS POSIBLES APLICACIONES

    OpenAIRE

    GACITUA SANTALICES, MANUEL ALEJANDRO; GACITUA SANTALICES, MANUEL ALEJANDRO

    2012-01-01

    El impactante número de investigaciones relacionadas con los polímeros conductores, seguramente se explica por las mismas razones que justificaron el Premio Nobel a sus descubridores el primer año de este milenio: su enorme impacto social, por su gran diversidad de aplicaciones, algunas de las cuales ya se concretan, mientras otras son todavía incipientes, o sólo se vislumbran por parte de algunos visionarios. En todo caso, los principales desafíos actuales en el área los co...

  1. Deposit of thin films for Tokamaks conditioning; Deposito de peliculas delgadas para acondicionar Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia A, R

    2006-07-01

    As a main objective of this work, we present some experimental results obtained from studying the process of extracting those impurities created by the interaction plasma with its vessel wall in the case of Novillo tokamak. Likewise, we describe the main cleaning and conditioning techniques applied to it, fundamentally that of glow discharge cleaning at a low electron temperature (<10 eV), both in noble and reactive gases, as well as the conditioning by thin film deposits of hydrogen rich amorphous carbon (carbonization) leading to a reduction in the plasma resistivity from 8.99 x 10{sup -6} to 4.5 x 10{sup -6} {omega}-m, thus taking the Z{sub ef} value from 3.46 to 2.07 which considerably improved the operational parameters of the machine. With a view to justifying the fact that controlled nuclear fusion is a feasible alternative for the energy demand that humanity will face in the future, we review in Chapter 1 some fundamentals of the energy production by nuclear fusion reactions while, in Chapter 2, we examine two relevant plasma wall interaction processes. Our experimental array used to produce both cleaning and intense plasma discharges is described in Chapter 3 along with the associated diagnostics equipment. Chapter 4 contains a description of the vessel conditioning techniques followed in the process. Finally, we report our results in Chapter 5 while, in Chapter 6, some conclusions and remarks are presented. It is widely known that tokamak impurities are generated mainly by the plasma-wall interaction, particularly in the presence of high potentials between the plasma sheath and the limiter or wall. Given that impurities affect most adversely the plasma behaviour, understanding and controlling the impurity extraction mechanisms is crucial for optimizing the cleaning and wall conditioning discharge processes. Our study of one impurity extraction mechanism for both low and high Z in Novillo tokamak was carried out though mass spectrometry, optical emission spectroscopy and plasma resistivity measurement. Such mechanism depends fundamentally on the mass of the ions that interact with the wall during the plasma current formation phase. The reaction products generated by the glow discharge plasma, created in a calibrated mixture of methane-hydrogen during the hydrogenated amorphous carbon film deposit on the vessel wall of Novillo tokamak, were determined by mass spectrometry. By way of measuring the emission lines of the carbon and oxygen impurities in intense discharges, the time required by the plasma to interact with the wall was estimated. In addition to it, the temporal conduct of the emission line intensity of these impurities was observed by means of an intensified CCD detector. Once an {approx} 10 % of helium was introduced in the operating gas of the tokamak discharges, a 25-42 eV time variation of the electron temperature was measured using the intensity ratio technique. (Author)

  2. Pengaruh Bunga Deposito, Kurs Mata Uang, dan Harga Emas terhadap Indeks Harga Saham Gabungan (Ihsg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntur Irianto

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Article explores the effects of rate, rupiah, and US dollar kurs, and gold price to the IHSG by using a linier double regression model. It is concluded that deposit rate, rupiah and US dollar have a significant negatif effect to IHSG. Those two variables have interrelated substations to the exchange; otherwise the gold price had a posite effect to IHSG (EH.

  3. Synthesis of polyisoprene and its evaluation as reducer of flow loss temperature of paraffinic drilling fluid; Sintese de poliisopreno e sua avaliacao como redutor da temperatura de perda de fluidez de fluido de perfuracao parafinico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palermo, Luiz Carlos; Pires, Renata V.; Sant' Anna, Monica; Cardoso, Jaciene J.F.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/ Instituto de Macromoleculas/ Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizpalermo@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    N-paraffin fluids are widely used in drilling oil wells. However, under low temperature, such as those found in deep water, they lose their ability to flow due to solidification of paraffins. In order to keep the fluid flowing, isoparaffins are added to fluids. Nevertheless, the safety of the process is affected, due to its low flash point, especially during the storage in platforms offshore. This paper aims to obtain polymeric additives that can reduce the flow loss temperature of the n-paraffin fluid, replacing the isoparaffin, without affecting its rheological properties. So, oligomers/polymers based on isoprene were synthesized and the rheological behavior of the products and their mixtures with n-paraffin, as a function of decreasing temperature, was evaluated. Products from chemical degradation of natural rubber (NR) were also evaluated. The results showed that samples presenting relatively low molar mass, about 5,000 g/mol, exhibited good performance. When obtaining product by polymerization, a chain transfer agent must be used. (author)

  4. Solid-liquid equilibrium data acquisitions for paraffin systems through thermometry and thermodynamic modeling with modified UNIFAC; Obtencao de dados de equilibrio solido-liquido para sistemas parafinicos via termometria e modelagem termodinamica com UNIFAC modificado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa Junior, Wellington; Queiroga, Renan Nobrega Gadelha; Nascimento, Mairon Antonio Hosannah do; Souza, Carlson Pereira de; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: wbjunior@eq.ufrn.br

    2003-07-01

    In the petroleum industry a great problem found is the formation of solids during the production, transport and the storage, which are mainly paraffins. It was mainly used the thermometry for determination of paraffin formation, or the solubility of paraffin in the other hydrocarbon solvent as function of the composition. The gas chromatography was used to determine if the system light hydrocarbon and paraffin form solid solution, applying a simplified analytical method with thermostatized filtration and glass syringe. The experimental data obtained was used with the aid of the modified UNIFAC model for representing both the liquid and solid solution phases in equilibrium. (author)

  5. Innovating a solar concentrator of static reflector and movable center for heat processes; Un concentrador solar innovador de reflector estatico y foco movil para procesos de calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, V.; Pujol, R.; Moia, A.

    2008-07-01

    The development of a solar thermal collector with fixed reflector and tracking absorber, especially designed for supplying process heat in industrial processes and solar cooling is described. the final solution consists in a mesh of 32 Sydney evacuates tubes with a total aperture of 24 m{sup 2} and maximum focus length of about 800 mm. With this design it is expected to reach about 40% annual averaged efficiency (referred to beam radiation at latitude of 39 degree centigrade) with temperatures in the range from 120 to 150 degree centigrade. At moment the first prototype is starting operation. (Author)

  6. Innovative current mode voltage mode control for distributed energy generation static systems; Controle inovador modo corrente modo tensao para sistemas estaticos de geracao distribuida de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Junior, Azauri Albano de; Maciel, Carlos Dias; Cichy, Elineri Cassia C.; Gongora, Vicente de Lima [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia], Emails: azaurijr@sel.eesc.usp.br, maciel@sel.eesc.usp.br, elineri@uol.com.br, vicente@ldapalm.com.br; Barbosa, Lucio dos Reis [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)], Email: lbarbosa@uel.br; Pereira, Adriano Alves [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil)], Email: aapereira@ufu.br

    2006-07-01

    This work focuses on control of power inverter technologies for connecting any possible Dc energy system to a single-phase using a Current Mode Voltage Mode Control-CMVMC. In this way a CMVMC can control only one power inverter in two operation modes. In current mode the control inject the active power in the utility and voltage control keeping loads always on with energy from the alternative DC sources. When installed near big centers the control will choose the correctly operation or current mode or voltage mode depend on if the utility is present or no. This advanced, robust control strategies can determine the maximum on-line limit current from the DC energy, without DC current component and also free of island operation. The feasibility of this new control was digitally simulated and implemented in analogic way. (author)

  7. Methodology for probability of failure assessment of offshore pipelines; Metodologia qualitativa de avaliacao da probabilidade de falha de dutos rigidos submarinos estaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzi Filho, Mario [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In this study it is presented a methodology for assessing the likelihood of failure for every failure mechanism defined for carbon steel static offshore pipelines. This methodology is aimed to comply with the Integrity Management policy established by the Company. Decision trees are used for the development of the methodology and the evaluation of the extent and the significance of these failure mechanisms. Decision trees enable also the visualization of the logical structure of algorithms which eventually will be used in risk assessment software. The benefits of the proposed methodology are presented and it is recommended that it be tested on static offshore pipelines installed in different assets for validation. (author)

  8. Evaluation of external exposure in a radioactive waste deposit; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em um deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser; Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida; Silva, Ana Claudia Antunes; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: luisdores@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.go.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio

    2011-10-26

    The ore treatment unit (OTU) of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located at Caldas municipality - Minas Gerais, Brazil, posses a radioactive deposit, coming mainly from the chemical processing of monazite sands for obtention of 'rare earths'. The main components of these waste are the 'torta II (thorium rich residues) and the 'mesothorium' ({sup 228}Ra rich residues) - conditioned in steel drums (200 liters), plastic pumps (100 liters) or underground silos. These loaders are deposited in waste loading warehouses existent at the OTU and periodic evaluations of the external exposure rates (mR/h) are part of the 'Programa de Monitoracao Radiologica Ocupacional' of the unit. This paper presents a brief history of origins of this waste deposit and the material found there, and also the result of a routine monitoring of the external exposure rates

  9. CAMBIO AMBIENTAL DEL CUATERNARIO TARDIO EN DEPOSITOS LACUSTRES EN LA CUENCA DE ZACAPU, MICHOACAN.RECONSTRUCCION PRELIMINAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Metcalfe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Los depósitos superficiales alrededor de las márgenes de la cuenca lacustre cerrada de Zacapu, Michoacán (19 ̊51'N, 101°40' W han sido examinados como parte de una investigación del cambio ambiental del cuaternario tardío en el centro de México. Las diatomitas lacustres están intercaladas con arenas de playas, suelos pantanosos orgánicos y depósitos coluviales. Esta secuencia refleja fluctuaciones en el nivel del lago y cambios en la importancia relativa de los procesos lacustres y terrestres en la cuenca. El examen de estas secciones sobre la base del ambiente de las fuentes de sedimento, usando diferentes técnicas, provee un medio de evaluar la importancia relativa de factores específicos, tales como el cambio climático o el impacto del hombre, que causan las fluctuaciones registrados por los depósitos.

  10. ANALISIS PENGARUH JUMLAH UANG BEREDAR (M1, SUKU BUNGA SBI, NILAI TUKAR SUKU BUNGA DEPOSITO TERHADAP TINGKAT INFLASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadli Ferdiansyah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflation is one of the effects of a prolonged economic crisis that hit the country. Inflation is a situation where there is an increase in general prices which continuesover the  long term. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the money supply, interrst rate, deposit interest rate and exchange rate (Rp/USD of the inflation in 2006 – 2011.6 The result of this study suges that the suppy of money have no significant positive effect on inflation. SBI rate have positive and significant effect on inflation. Deposit have rate and no significant negative effect on inflation. Exchange Rate have no significant negative effect on inflation. Keywords : Money Supply, Interest Rates, Deposit Interest Rates, Exchange Rate    (IDR /USD, Multiple  Linear Regression, Inflation

  11. Uranium deposits obtention for fission chambers; Obtencion de depositos de uranio para fabricacion de camaras de fision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artacho Saviron, E.

    1972-07-01

    The obtention of uranium deposits of the required quality for small cylindrical fission chambers presents some difficulties. With the method of electroplating here described the uniformity, reproducibility and adherence of the obtained deposits were satisfactory. (Author) 6 refs.

  12. Alteraciones hipocampales y cambios cognitivos preceden al deposito de placas amiloides en un modelo murino de la enfermedad de Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Beauquis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Existen múltiples evidencias de alteraciones neuronales y gliales en etapas avanzadas de la enfemedad de Alzheimer con abundantes depósitos cerebrales de beta amiloide, aunque hay pocos datos de cambios tempranos que podrían contribuir al desarrollo de la enfermedad. Evaluamos alteraciones morfológicas neuronales y gliales, y cambios cognitivos y emocionales tempranos en ratones transgénicos PDAPP-J20 (Tg, portadores del gen humano de APP (amyloid precursor protein mutado, a los 5 meses de edad, aún sin depósitos amiloides en el hipocampo y con niveles bajos de péptidos amiloides cerebrales. Mediante inmunohistoquímica para NeuN, los Tg presentaron menor número de neuronas piramidales y granulares en el hipocampo, junto con un menor volumen de la estructura, en comparación con los controles no transgénicos. La neurogénesis se encontró afectada, evidenciada por reducido número de neuronas DCX+ en el giro dentado. En la región CA3, hubo una menor densidad de sinaptofisina sugiriendo alteraciones sinápticas entre neuronas granulares y piramidales, sin cambios en la densidad de espinas dendríticas en CA1. Utilizando microscopía confocal, observamos una disminución del número de astrocitos GFAP+ con una reducción de la complejidad celular, sugiriendo atrofia glial. Se detectó un déficit cognitivo (reconocimiento de localización novedosa de un objeto y un aumento de la ansiedad (campo abierto en los Tg, con aumento en los núcleos c-Fos+ en amígdala, evidenciando el papel de la emocionalidad en los inicios de la enfermedad. El estudio de las alteraciones iniciales en la enfermedad amiloide podría contribuir al desarrollo de métodos de diagnóstico temprano y de terapéutica preventiva.

  13. Hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease: imaging aspects and biological behavior; Doenca de deposito de hidroxiapatita: aspectos por imagem e comportamento biologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aquino, Danilo Olavarria; Pinto, Alexandre de Lavra; Costa, Mauro Jose Brandao da; Fanelli, Vania A. [Hospital Sao Francisco, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: documenta@netside.com.br; Abud, Lucas Giansante [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2005-04-15

    Objective: to demonstrate, using imaging methods (x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US), the phases of hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease in joints, particularly in the shoulder, from the silent phase to the intra-osseous migration of calcifications and radiologic follow-up examinations showing complete remission after physical therapy. Material and method: we evaluated 27 joints (25 shoulders, one hip and one elbow) of patients followed-up with radiographs. Patients extremely symptomatic and refractory to treatment were referred to MRI or US. Results: total remission of calcifications was observed in 15 joints after treatment - 14 shoulders and one elbow. In two joint, migration of the calcification to bone was observed: one to the bursa subdeltoidea, one to biceps tendon, one to subcoracoid recess and one to the interior of the infra spinal muscle. In two cases MRI and CT scans showed a high inflammatory process triggered by the disease. Conclusion: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease affects multiple joints and can vary from asymptomatic to extremely symptomatic. Imaging methods show all phases of the disease, including the migratory phase. In general, the use of x-ray is enough for the diagnosis and follow-up. MRI and CT provide a more accurate diagnosis in the active phase of the disease. In this paper, remission was seen with physiotherapy (iontophoresis) in 55% of the cases. (author)

  14. Efecto de aditivos en la dureza de los depositos de níquel utilizando corriente pulsante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS ARANGO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo comprende el estudio experimental del efecto conjunto de la inclusión de aditivos (sacarina de sodio y cloruro de amonio, y la utilización de una onda de corriente rectangular, en la dureza de níquel electro-depositado sobre cobre usando baños Watts y Sulfamato. Se obtuvieron recubrimientos brillantes y con altas durezas con la utilización de sacarina de sodio. El uso de cloruro de amonio produjo depósitos opacos y no tuvo un efecto significativo sobre la dureza. Adicionalmente, son mostrados los cambios morfológicos en la superficie de los electro-depósitos con microscopía de barrido de electrones (SEM.

  15. Efecto de aditivos en la dureza de los depositos de níquel utilizando corriente pulsante

    OpenAIRE

    Arango, Luis; Carmona, Juan; Vallejo, Elkin; Hoyos, Bibian

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo comprende el estudio experimental del efecto conjunto de la inclusión de aditivos (sacarina de sodio y cloruro de amonio), y la utilización de una onda de corriente rectangular, en la dureza de níquel electro-depositado sobre cobre usando baños Watts y Sulfamato. Se obtuvieron recubrimientos brillantes y con altas durezas con la utilización de sacarina de sodio. El uso de cloruro de amonio produjo depósitos opacos y no tuvo un efecto significativo sobre la dureza. Adi...

  16. Alteraciones hipocampales y cambios cognitivos preceden al deposito de placas amiloides en un modelo murino de la enfermedad de Alzheimer

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Beauquis; Ángeles Vinuesa; Carlos Pomilio; Patricio Pavía; Flavia Saravia

    2014-01-01

    Existen múltiples evidencias de alteraciones neuronales y gliales en etapas avanzadas de la enfemedad de Alzheimer con abundantes depósitos cerebrales de beta amiloide, aunque hay pocos datos de cambios tempranos que podrían contribuir al desarrollo de la enfermedad. Evaluamos alteraciones morfológicas neuronales y gliales, y cambios cognitivos y emocionales tempranos en ratones transgénicos PDAPP-J20 (Tg), portadores del gen humano de APP (amyloid precursor protein) mutado, a los 5 meses de ...

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance system with continuous flow of polarized water to obtain the traceability to static magnetic fields; Sistema de ressonancia magnetica nuclear com fluxo continuo de agua polarizada para obtencao da rastreabilidade para campos magneticos estaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ramon Valls; Nazarre, Diego Joriro, E-mail: ramon@ipt.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    We have developed a system to obtain the traceability of field or magnetic induction intensity in the range of 2 μT up to 2 T, even in the presence of magnetic field gradients or noisy environments. The system is based on a nuclear magnetic resonance magnetometer, built in streaming water. The calibration procedure of a coil for magnetic field generation is described, as well as the results obtained and the estimated uncertainty (author)

  18. Dimensional verification and location of the reactive static compensator in 220 kV; Verificacion del dimensionamiento y ubicacion del compensador estatico de reactivos en 220 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Krekeler, Ubaldo [Administracion Nacional de Electricidad (ANDE), Asuncion (Paraguay)]. E-mail: ufernandez@ieee.org; Cardozo Sanchez, Freddy [Mirant Americas (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This work presents a determination verification of the compensation range and the location of reactive static compensator (RSC) in 220 kV. The verification is accomplished by analyses of the RSC effects in relation to the losses, loading and system voltage stability. The needed compensation range is investigated in full details, whereas that the required conversion level is directly related to this range. It is concluded that the RSC installation, foreseen for 2002, might be postponed for 2005/10 still without reinforcements in 500 kV. The Limpio substation seems to be the more suitable location in relation to the most analysed cases.

  19. Effect of the combined action of gamma radiation and static fields in human cells;Efeito da acao combinada de radiacao gama e campo eletrico estatico em celulas humanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moron, Michelle Mendes

    2008-07-01

    Our goal is the study in human cells of the effect resulting from the association of irradiation with exposure to exogenous static electric fields. The T47D cell line of breast cancer cells was irradiated with gammas in the 0 8 Gy doses range. The viability of this T47D cells exposed to both gamma radiation and 1.250 V/cm static electric field (SEF) was about 12% lower than when only irradiated. The sole exposure of the cells to SEF by 24 and 72 hours did not induce toxicity. Immunofluorescence runs carried out in irradiated normal MRC5 cell line of human lung fibroblast have quantified the expression of the g-H2AX histone. The amount of phosphorylated histones was approximately 40% higher after irradiation with 2 Gy plus exposure to a SEF by 1 hour, showing that the electric field negatively interfered in the repairing process of the DNA double strand breaks. The flow cytometry analysis with FACS showed that in T47D cells treated with 1 and 2 Gy by 24 hours the SEF also negatively interfered in the DNA repairing process, as evidenced by the higher accumulation of cells in the S phase. (author)

  20. Factors influencing the organic matter extraction from the coal by using the process of liquefaction in static system; Fatores que influenciam a extracao da materia organica do carvao mineral atraves do processo de liequefacao em sistema estatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Livia Mari; Lancas, Fernando Mauro

    1996-07-01

    This work describes the liquefaction process for extraction of the organic matter from coal, presently researched in Brazil, particularly with supercritical fluids. The extraction can be a future economically viable and environmentally correct alternative for supplying the emerging necessities of fuels, pharmaceuticals and chemicals sources.

  1. Study of the combined action of gamma radiation and static electric fields in human cells; Estudo da acao combinada de radiacao gama e campo eletrico estatico em celulas humanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moron, Michelle Mendes

    2008-07-01

    The basic principle of radiotherapy is the one of maximizing damage to the tumor, while minimizing it in neighboring health tissues. Several strategies have been worked out aiming at increasing cellular radiosensitivity, and among them is the use of exogenous fields. Our goal in this work is the study in human cells of the effect resulting from the association of irradiation with exposure to exogenous static electric fields. The T47D cell line of breast cancer cells was irradiated with gammas in the 0 - 8 Gy doses range. The corresponding survival curve provided information on the radiosensitivity of this cell line. The rate of cell deaths per Gray in the 0 - 8 Gy range exhibited a maximum at 2 Gy, which corresponds to the most efficient irradiation dose. The viability of this T47D cells exposed to both gamma radiation and 1.250 V/cm static electric field (SEF) was about 12% lower than when only irradiated. The sole exposure of the cells to SEF by 24 and 72 hours didn't induce toxicity. Immunofluorescence runs carried out in irradiated normal MRC5 cell line of human lung fibroblast, without and with exposition to a SEF, have quantified the expression of the y- H2AX histone. The amount of phosphorylated histones was approximately 40% higher after irradiation with 2 Gy plus exposure to a SEF by 1 hour, showing that the electric field negatively interfered in the repairing process of the DNA double strand breaks. The flow cytometry analysis with FACS allowed the investigation of a possible interference of radiation and SEF in the cell distributions among the cellular cycle phases. It was found that in T47D cells treated with 1 and 2 Gy by 24 hours the SEF also negatively interfered in the DNA repairing process, as evidenced by the higher accumulation of cells in the S phase. Therefore, it would be possible to conclude that static and exogenous electric fields are able of negatively interfering in the cellular repair and, presumably, in DNA repair. (author)

  2. Technological upgrade of static system excitation of a hydraulic generator of 700 Mwats of the Hydroelectric Power Station Guri; Actualizacion tecnologica del sistema de excitacion estatico de un generador hidraulico de 700 MVA de la Central Hidroelectrica de Guri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Romy; Guevara, Olivia [C.V.G. Electrificacion del Caroni, C.A. (EDELCA) (Venezuela)

    2004-07-01

    The Generating Units of 700 Mwatts of the Guri Plant from EDELCA are equipped with static excitation systems of analogue technology that using the closure and field's opening switch as a mechanism for the respective processes of excitation and generator dropout. This operational pattern, although functional, has been discontinuing by existing producers because of the inconvenience involved in the management of energy stored in field generator during the dropout. Alternatively, the manufacturers employ a technique of dropout without opening the switch field, based on return to the excitation transformer the energy contained in the field generator. This paper summarizes the EDELCA initiative to upgrade technologically their Generating Units, converting the excitement and dropout switch without opening the field. The project started with a phase of preliminary tests that showed the feasibility of the change and ended with the final implementation of the new scheme in a first unit (Generator n. 15). The results were successful, covering the expectations of the company, so it was decided to continue the project, extending it to the rest of the Generating Units. (author)

  3. Impact of hydrotreaters ammonium chloride salt deposition of refinery operations; Formacao de depositos de sais de amonio em Unidades de Hidrotramento (HDT'S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Nelmo Furtado; Cunha, Fabiana A.; Alvise, Paulo Pio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Fouling and consequent under deposit corrosion caused by ammonium salts, especially ammonium chloride, have serious impact on the reliability of operation of various process units. In hydrotreating units salt deposition on heat exchanger tubes causes a decrease in heat transfer efficiency, decrease hydrotreating efficiency, increased pressure drops, and corrosion. This paper will discuss the causes of ammonium chloride fouling,methods to help prevent and/or mitigate the fouling, and provide a case history demonstrating the effects of ammonium chloride formations in one refinery operation. (author)

  4. Comparação entre tecnicas morfometricas aplicadas ao epitelio vaginal apos uso prolongado do contraceptivo injetavel acetato de medroxiprogesterona de deposito

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Augusto Hart Madureira Filho

    2001-01-01

    Resumo: O acetato de medroxiprogesterona de depósito (AMPD) é um contraceptivo de depósito, de absorção lenta, extensamente usado no mundo. Tem sido sugerido que esta droga possa alterar a mucosa vaginal e assim poderia aumentar o risco de transmissão de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, facilitando, por exemplo, a aquisição do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). Em experiências com animais, foi mostrado que injeções de AMPD provocavam uma atrofia no epitélio vaginal, ocorrendo um aumen...

  5. Are the Carajas copper deposits of Cu-Au-U-(ETR) kind?; Sao os depositos cupriferos de Carajas do tipo Cu-Au-U-(ETR)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Sergio Roberto Bacelar [Rio Doce Geologia e Mineracao S.A. (DOCEGEO), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Distrito Amazonia

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the main characteristics of the copper deposits in the Carajas Basin, Para State, Brazil. The major part of the deposits is associated to the deforming rupturable processes, where frequently the mineralized zone is associated to the zone of intense fissuring and stockwork pattern. The Carajas Basin contains three main units agglomerated in the Supergrupo Itacaiunas: Parauapebas Formation, Carajas Formation and Salobo Sequence 20 refs.

  6. I certificati di deposito nel sistema bancario degli Stati Uniti: esperienze e prospettive. (The CD in American banking: a retrospect and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. HETH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The negotiable time certificate of deposit (CD has played an important role in the competitive struggle of commercial banks in the US since 1961, enabling them to tap sources of funds they had neglected since the banking reforms of the 1930s. The aggressive employment of the CD has already brought about various changes in banking practices, and may lead to further modifications in the functions performed by commercial banks and in the banking structure. The present article is devoted to the CD phenomenon as it affects the role of commercial banks as financial intermediaries and the structure of the banking industry. The effects of interest rate regulation on the development of the CD as a potential source of funds is also considered. The author concludes that the emergence of the CD, while overcoming some of the barriers to effective competition in the financial markets, has highlighted the continued existence of others.JEL: G21, G23

  7. Transformaciones edaficas y diageneticas de los depositos aluviales distales del mioceno de la cuenca de Madrid, area de Paracuellos de Jarama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarza, A. Mª

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The distal aluvial fan and the palustrine deposits of the Paracuellos de Jarama area display a variety of specific pedogenic and diagenetic features. The processes affecting these sediments were controlled by: the sedimentary environment, the lithology and initia1 texture of the sediments and by the pedogenic-diagenetic environment in which the transformations occurred. Thus, in the distal alluvial areas (PEL profile the first processes were the formation of thin carbonate laminae and sepiolite, further, these deposits were silicified and later, a spheroidal dolomite is formed on the opaline chert. In lacustnne environments (UPC profile, drying and root activity led to the formation of palustrine carbonates that were silicified, and the initial texture and structure were preserved. The silicification consisted on a pseudomorphic replacement that produced mainly opal whereas quartz was formed mostly by cementation and ageing of previous opal. In both environments, when the silicification occurs on sepiolite, or micrite with sepiolite, atypical microfibrous opal is produced. This replacement can lead to the release of Mg, favounng a later formation of dolomite on the opaline chert, with evidence of bacteria1 activity. Al1 these processes occurred in a shallow phreatic or even vadose environment.Los depósitos distales de los abanicos aluviales arcósicos y también los carbonatos palustres del área de Paracuellos de Jarama presentan rasgos muy específicos debidos a los procesos edáficos y diagenéticos que han sufrido. Los procesos que han afectado a estos sedimentos, y su intensidad, estuvieron controlados por: el ambiente sedimentario, la litología y textura/estructura inicial del material y también por el ambiente pedogénico- diagenético superficial en el que se han desarrollado las transformaciones. Así, en las lutitas de las zonas distales de los abanicos (perfil PEL se forman inicialmente láminas de carbonato edáfico y sepiolita, posteriormente tiene lugar la silicificación y, a continuación, la formación de dolomías esencialmente esferoidales. En ambientes lacustres (perfil UPC, la intensa desecación y la actividad biológica conducen a la formación de calizas palustres que posteriormente se silicifican conservando la textura y estructura. La silicificación es, en gran parte, un reemplazamiento pseudomórfico que origina principalmente ópalo, mientras que el cuarzo se forma por cementación y también por envejecimiento del ópalo. En ambos ambientes, cuando la silicificación se produce sobre arcillas, probablemente sepiolíticas, o sobre carbonatos muy ricos en sepiolita, se generan ópalos atípicos de microestructura fibrosa. Este proceso puede liberar magnesio, que posteriormente puede ser utilizado para la formación de dolomita de posible origen bacteriano sobre el sílex opalino (perfil PEL. Todos estos procesos tuvieron lugar en ambiente freático somero o incluso vadoso.

  8. Deposit of bilayers of LiNiO{sub 2}/alumina by laser ablation; Deposito de bicapas de LiNiO{sub 2}/alumina por ablacion laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez I, J.; Escobar A, L.; Camps, E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Camacho L, M.E. [UAEM, Facultad de Quimica, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Thin films of lithium nickel oxide (LiNiO{sub 2}) were deposited on silicon substrates at two substrate temperatures: ambient temperature and 165 C ; varying in each case the fluence from 3 up to 20 J/cm{sup 2}. The used target got ready starting from the solid state reaction between NiO and Li{sub 2}O this last in excess of 50% in weight, with the purpose of obtaining stoichiometric LiNiO{sub 2}. Later to the deposit it was carried out a thermal treatment to all the films at 300 C by 2 hours, with the purpose of improving the crystalline structure of the deposited material. The deposits were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, showing for all the films a wide band with a maximum approximately in 550 cm{sup -1} for the deposits not thermally treated and in 500 cm{sup -1} for the deposits with thermal treatment. Bilayers of LiNiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were deposited, to be used as cathode material in rechargeable micro batteries, those results of the Raman spectroscopy didn't show variation in the intensity, position and wide of the band shown for the LiNiO{sub 2}. On the other hand the deposits were also analyzed by infrared spectroscopy with the purpose of confirming the Raman results. (Author)

  9. Electrolytic installation in order to obtain deuterium and to fill the pressure deposits; Instalacion electrolitica para la obtencion de deuterio y llenado de depositos a preseion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero Lopez, F.; Tanarro Sanz, A.

    1959-07-01

    In order to obtain deuterium to feed the ion sources of the accelerators an easy and automatic electrolytic installation has been prepared. this installation and a small compressor designed and constructed for this purpose permit to fill deposits of 1 or 2 liters capacity with deuterium, till a 4 atmosphere pressure in few hours of operation. The electrolytic cell has V shape and permits operation with 3 cc heavy water only as it has small dead volume; the electrodes are platinum and as electrolyte an OH Na solution in a proportion of 15 w/o is used. (Author) 3 refs.

  10. Virtual reality in simulation of operational procedures in radioactive waste deposits; Realidade virtual na simulacao de procedimentos operacionais em depositos de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Victor Goncalves Gloria

    2016-07-01

    One of the biggest problems in the nuclear area are still the radioactive waste generated in the various applications of this form of energy, all these tailings are stored in warehouses that often are monitored and restructured for better allocation of then. These tailings are stored until it is safe to release into the environment. This work presents a methodology based on virtual reality, for the development of virtual deposits of radioactive waste in order to enable virtual simulations in these deposits. As application will be developed virtually the nuclear waste repository located at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering IEN/CNEN. The development of a virtual warehouse, more specifically, makes it possible to simulate/train the allocation and reallocation of materials with low and medium level of radioactivity, seen the possibility of locomotion of virtual objects and dynamic calculation of the rate of radiation in this environment. Using this methodology it also possible know the accumulated dose, by the virtual character, during the procedures run in the virtual environment. (author)

  11. Storm water detention tanks in Barcelona; Los depositos de retencion de aguas pluviales de Barcelona: un nuevo enfoque en la lucha contra las inundaciones y la proteccion medioambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pere Malgrat i Bregolat, P.; Verdejo, J. M.; Vilalta i Cambra, A.

    2004-07-01

    Storm water detention tanks are being implemented at first as a solution to the urban flooding problem and afterwards a second function was added to reduce the pollution of the sewerage waters before its overflow to the receiving bodies because these spills can contribute with up to 50% of the total pollution spilled. These solutions are often cheaper and have less impact on the urban activities than the classical solutions such as trunk sewers. In Spain, Barcelona was the first city to build this tanks to avoid flooding and also to reduce the contamination to the receiving waters, with a total volume of 492.200 m''3, operated by Clavegueram de Barcelona (Clabsa). These works have meant a big improvement in the management of the wet weather flows in Barcelona. These tanks have increased the capacity of the sewerage system and decreased the combined sewer overflows to the receiving waters (Besos river and Mediterranean sea). Another advantage is the protection of WWTP against flow variations. The environmental improvement achieved with the tanks is so hug that can even reduce the contamination spilled to the receiving waters around 30% and avoid the destruction of some ecosystems. Also, the contaminated sediments trapped in the detention tank are sen to to the WWTP so the don't reach the receiving waters. Also. the urban space close to the relieving waters are becoming more appreciated for leisure so the recovery and protection of these waters is a must. (Author)

  12. Radiation protection in transference of radioactive wastes among buildings of an intermediary deposit; Radioprotecao na transferencia de rejeitos radioativos entre edificios de um deposito intermediario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitake, Malvina Boni; Suzuki, Fabio Fumio, E-mail: mbmitake@ipen.b, E-mail: ffsuzuki@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/-CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Radioprotecao

    2011-10-26

    This paper describes the planning of radioprotection realized for transfer operation of radioactive wastes from two old buildings for a one of the new buildings. For planning purposes the operation was divided into nine stages and, for evaluation of collective dose, it was considered various relevant factors. The result of radioprotection optimization it was expected a total collective dose of 58.6 mSv per person. The measured dose per dosemeter of direct reading was of 3.9 mSv per person. These difference among the values is due to conservative factors used in the calculation

  13. The return, devolution and deposit systems (RDDS), what do they involve?; Los sistemas de deposito devolucion y retorno (SDDR), Que implican?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz de Siria Alvarez, L.

    2003-07-01

    The return, devolution and deposit systems (RDDS), what do they involve?. In this article, we try to clarify these doubts about SDDR (Return, Devolution and Deposit Systems) and show the differences between obligations regarding domestic packages and industrial ones. In addition to this, it is important to know if we are treating pure waste or a re-usable product. One of the most unknown features in the 11/97 Law of Packages and Remainders of Packages are the RDDS. This is because of the large number of obligations and the small area of action that they have. Because of that, application of this system is practically null as an alternative to the integrated management systems (IMS). (Author)

  14. AUTOIGNICION 3-D EN DEPOSITOS DE LODOS PROVENIENTES DE TRATAMIENTOS DE AGUAS RESIDUALES 3D SELF IGNITION IN SEWAGE SLUDGE WASTE WATER TREAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Moraga B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el transporte de calor y de oxígeno por difusión en pilas de compostajes provenientes de tratamiento de aguas municipales. El modelo 3-D transiente incluye la generación de calor originada por microorganismos y por la descomposición de la celulosa. El sistema de ecuaciones acopladas de difusión de calor y materia se resuelve con el método de volúmenes finitos. Los resultados predicen la variación en el tiempo de la distribución de temperatura y oxígeno. El análisis de los resultados permite proponer un nuevo sistema para el almacenamiento de lodos con el fin de evitar su autoignición.Heat and oxygen transport by diffusion in sewage sludge piles obtained from water treatment is studied. The 3D unsteady mathematical model incorporates the heat generated by microorganisms and by cellulose decomposition. The coupled heat and mass diffusion equations system of partial differential equations is solved by the finite volume method. The results obtained allow predicting the time history of temperature and oxygen concentration distributions. Results analysis suggests a new way to build the solid waste compost piles.

  15. Deposit of thin films of nitrided amorphous carbon using the laser ablation technique; Deposito de peliculas delgadas de carbono amorfo nitrurado utilizando la tecnica de ablacion laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebollo, P.B.; Escobar A, L.; Camps C, E. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, C.P. 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Haro P, E.; Camacho L, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa (Mexico); Muhl S, S. [Instituto de Investigacion en Materiales, UNAM (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    It is reported the synthesis and characterization of thin films of amorphous carbon (a-C) nitrided, deposited by laser ablation in a nitrogen atmosphere at pressures which are from 4.5 x 10 {sup -4} Torr until 7.5 x 10 {sup -2} Torr. The structural properties of the films are studied by Raman spectroscopy obtaining similar spectra at the reported for carbon films type diamond. The study of behavior of the energy gap and the ratio nitrogen/carbon (N/C) in the films, shows that the energy gap is reduced when the nitrogen incorporation is increased. It is showed that the refraction index of the thin films diminish as nitrogen pressure is increased, indicating the formation of graphitic material. (Author)

  16. Design of a chamber for deposit of thin films by laser ablation; Diseno de una camara para el deposito de peliculas delgadas por ablacion laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirino O, S

    2001-07-01

    The present work has as purpose to design a vacuum chamber, to the one that is denominated chamber of ablation, in which were carried out deposits of thin films using the well-known technique as laser ablation. To fulfill the purpose, the work has been distributed in the following way: in the chapter 1 there are discussed the generalities of the technique of ablation laser for the obtaining of materials in form of thin film, in the chapter 2 the basic concepts of the vacuum technology are mentioned that includes among other things, systems to produce vacuum and vacuum gages and in the chapter 3 the design of the chamber is presented with the accessories and specific systems. (Author)

  17. Characterization of noble metals deposits and oxides in conditions of BWR reactors; Caracterizacion de depositos de metales nobles y oxidos en condiciones de reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganis J, C.R.; Aguilar T, J.A.; Contreras R, A. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The oxides deposited on steel 304l under normal chemistry conditions (NWC) and hydrogen chemistry (HWC) with presence of Zn, being that the first ones present hexagonal oxides of Hematite and the second bipyramidal crystals possibly Magnetite with traces of Zn. Deposits of Pt on the oxidized surfaces under NWC conditions were obtained, being glasses from 2 to 4 {mu}m and Pt-Rh deposits were obtained on the oxidized surfaces in presence of Zn, by its size its were not possible to observe them by scanning electron microscopy. The kinetics of the surfaces of Hematite and of the deposits of Pt it was measured by means of the Tafel extrapolation technique, being proven the catalytic effect of the Pt, even in sizes of 11 {mu}m. (Author)

  18. Superficial characterization by XP S of silver nanoparticles and their hydrothermal deposit over zircaloy; Caracterizacion superficial por XPS de nanoparticulas de plata y su deposito hidrotermal sobre zircaloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras R, A.; Gutierrez W, C.; Martinez M, I.; Medina A, A. L., E-mail: aida.contreras@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento de Tecnologia de Materiales, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The analysis technique of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S) is sensitive exclusively to the first layers of the solids surface, which allows obtaining information about the chemical, physical and electronic properties of them. The combustible elements of the boiling water nuclear reactors (BWR) are formed by zircaloy pipes that contain in their interior pellets or uranium dioxide. In this work is studied the zircaloy surface, oxidized zircaloy under similar conditions to those of a reactor BWR type and oxidized zircaloy with a hydrothermal deposit of silver nanoparticles and zinc. The silver deposit is a proposal of the Materials Technology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in Mexico, which has the same objective that the noble metals deposit (Pt, Pd, and Rh) that is practiced in some of the reactors BWR, in order to mitigating the speed of crack growth for IGSCC in stainless steels 304 Ss. (Author)

  19. Financial compensation owed to municipalities that host radioactive waste disposal; Compensacao financeira devida aos municipios que hospedem depositos de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Renata Amaral da

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to perform calculation about the financial compensation due to municipalities with viability for construction of radioactive waste deposits fro, low and medium activity. It was used as methodology the frameweork of normative act in the Resolution n. 96, August 10th, 2010. ('Model of Calculation for Financial Compensation due to Municipalities') where there are establidhed the parameters for the wastes, the facilities and the deployment sites. The calculation was made according with interim storage or definitive disposal of solid wastes, e.e. personal protection equipment (gloves, shoes, masks etc) resins and filters used in waste water treatment from nuclear and radioactivity facilities. SOme examples of countries in which compensation, financial or not, was practiced in favor of municipalities due to construction of waste deposits were sown and in some cases, the way that occurred the negotiation bweween the stakeholders. Were also presented other forms of financial compensation in Brazil due to large-scale industrial activities that result in potential risk for the surrounding population and environment, as oil and natural gas, hydropower plants and mining. Were used the waste inventory designed by RMBN project (Waste Repository of Low and Medium Activity) developed in CDTN (2009) which presents the implementation of a repository for disposal of radioactive waste. Based on these data it was possible to develop a case study, establishing four scenarios for initial/interim storage and final disposal of wastes. The results reached monthly values that ranged from 2,6 to 79,8 thousand Brazilian Reais, from which it was performed a critical analysis of the range of parameters and the apportionment of the amount due. Likewise, these values were compared with the budget revenues of some previously selected municipalities and were examined divergent points in the normative act as well. (author)

  20. Superficial characterization and zircaloy-2 electrochemistry with hydrothermal deposit of platinum; Caracterizacion superficial y electroquimica de zircaloy-2 con deposito hidrotermal de platino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras R, A.; Arganis J, C. R.; Medina A, A. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Gris C, M. M., E-mail: aida.contreras@inin.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The combustible elements of the boiling water nuclear reactors (BWR) are formed by zircaloy-2 tubes that contain in their interior UO{sub 2} pellets. With the objective of mitigating the speed of crack growth by IGSCC to a minimum negative impact on the BWR operation, General Electric developed the noble metals chemical addition (NMCA), in where noble metals particles as Pt, Pd, and Rh, are deposited on the surface of the metal to catalyze the recombination of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Hydrogen is also injected to have it in excess and to favor this recombination (HWC) and zinc to reduce dose. In this work was oxidized zircaloy-2 low similar conditions to the HWC, platinum was deposited starting from a solution of Na{sub 2}Pt(OH){sub 6} with 30 ppm of Pt, in refined samples and without polishing, they were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersed spectroscopy, XPS and electrochemistry, by means of Tafel curves and cyclical polarization. On the zircaloy surface was found a ZrO{sub 2} layer that remains under the different study conditions. Under HWC conditions is the oxides formation, possibly complex oxides of zirconium, iron and tin. After the platinum deposit these oxides decrease forming the sub-oxides: Zr{sub 2}O, Zr O, Zr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The Tafel curves indicates the reduction of the oxygen of the sample with platinum and the cyclical polarization curves show that the reactions that happen on the zircaloy electrodes are not dur to located corrosion. (Author)

  1. Technological characterization of new clay deposits in the south region of Amapa, Brazil aiming applications in the ceramic industry; Caracterizacao tecnologica de novos depositos de argilas da regiao sul do Amapa visando aplicacoes na industriav ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adriano Lima da; Luna, Carlos Bruno Barreto; Chaves, Alexsandra Cristina; Neves, Gelmires de Araujo, E-mail: adrianolimadasilva@hotmail.com, E-mail: brunobarretodemaufcg@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-01-15

    The objective of the present work was to characterize two new Clay deposits (A and B) from the south region of Amapa state, aiming to establish their adequate uses as ceramic raw materials and to promote the potential of the ceramic industry in the region. Were prepared specimens by uniaxial pressing, being applied a two phase pressing of 13,4 MPa and 20 MPa, respectively. The samples were dried in an oven at 110 deg C, and submitted to burning at 850, 1000 and 1200 deg C. Were determined linear firing shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity and modulus of flexural modulus of rupture, as well as mineralogical evolution after burning. Finishing, the microstructure of the sintered clay at 1200 deg C was evaluated in a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the clay A presented a better mechanical development, having a red coloration and, therefore, potential to the red ceramic industry. On the other hand, the clay B presented a light color, due to a low content of iron oxide and, therefore, having potential as refractory raw material. In general, one clay is suitable to be used in white ceramic and the other in red ceramic. (author)

  2. Carbon and oxygen isotopes of marbles associated to the phosphorous-uranium deposit of Itataia, Ceara state, Brazil; Isotopos de carbono e oxigenio dos marmores associados com o deposito fosforo uranifero de Itataia, Ceara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Givaldo Lessa [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: givaldolessa@rapix.com.br; Parente, Clovis Vaz; Verissimo, Cesar Ulisses Vieira; Garcia, Maria da Gloria Motta; Melo, Rafael Castro de; Santos, Aldiney Almeida [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC/INB), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail : clovis@ufc.br; Sial, Alcides Nobrega [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). NEG-LABISE. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: ans@ufpe.br; Santos, Roberto Ventura [Universidade de Brasilia (UNB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias]. E-mail: rventura@unb.br

    2005-06-15

    The phosphorous-uranium deposit of Itataia, Ceara State, NE Brazil, is characterized by colophanites that occur as massive and irregular bodies, and as veins, associated to marbles and calc-silicate lenses that are enclosed in Meso to neo proterozoic pelitic and psamitic metasediments rocks metamorphosed under high amphibolite-facies. Centimetric to metric muscovite- and tourmaline-bearing pegmatitic bodies are common and crosscut both the metapelites and their anatetic products. Plagioclase-rich phyllosilicate-poor pegmatites cut different marble levels, some of which are mineralized in colophane. The marble beds, which are the main ore host-rock, show a heterogeneous structural pattern as a result of complex folding and thrusting. C and O isotope analyses in carbonates from one of the sections that crosscut partially mineralized monocarbonate rocks show {delta}13{sub PDB} values ranging from +2,0 to -5,0 per mille and {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SMOW} values from +16,3 to +24,2 per mille. Changes in the original isotopic ratios are mainly related to regional metamorphism, as well as to ductile and ductile-brittle post-depositional events associated with infiltration of hydrothermal and/or supergenic fluids and karstification. The thin, impure dolomitic marble bodies, which show the lowest isotopic ratios, were the most affected by these events. Retromorphic mylonitic levels and especially karstic dissolution breccias found at depths of 144 m and inserted in the carbonate levels are likely to represent fluid percolation channels. The thicker monocarbonate levels, which show the highest delta{sup 13}{sub CPDB} and delta{sup 18}O{sub SMOW} ratios (0{+-} 2 per mille and >20 per mille, respectively), represent isotopically best-preserved beds. The mineral assemblage (deposed, scapolite, phlogopite, clinochlore and tremolite) indicates that devolatilization and/or de carbonation reactions did occur, but this does not preclude the hypothesis of external fluid interaction as responsible for the isotopic variation. (author)

  3. Design and fabrication of a chamber for the deposit of thin films by laser ablation; Diseno y fabricacion de una camara para el deposito de peliculas delgadas por ablacion laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirino O, S.; Escobar A, I.; Camps C, E.; Garcia E, J.I. [Departamento de Fisica, ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The laser ablation technique is an alternative for the obtention of thin films which is less expensive, more reliable, efficient and with some advantages with respect to conventional processes. On of the most important components which forms a laser ablation system is the vacuum chamber, that has as general purposes the following: a) To carry out studies about plasma such as optical emission spectroscopy and measurements by deflectometry. b) To carry out an In situ monitoring about the film growth through the reflectivity measurements of the combination substrate-film. c) To deposit thin films of different materials such as oxides, carbon, metals, etc. In this work it is showed how the vacuum chamber was designed and made to perform the store of thin films by laser ablation and for characterising the formed plasma as a result of the ablation process. The chamber design was enough versatile that will allow to add it more accessory just making it simple modifications. Its cost was very cheap more or less one twentieth of a commercial chamber. (Author)

  4. Effect of the polyacrylamide concentration on the quality of the copper deposit obtained by electrolytic refining; Efecto de la concentracion de poliacrilamida sobre la calidad del deposito de cobre obtenido por refino electrolitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, J.; Ipinza, J.; Camus, J.; Vargas, A.; Saavedra, R.

    2013-07-01

    The effect of the additive non ionic polyacrylamide (PAM), was studied at the laboratory level, as refining crystalline grain in the copper electrorefining. Experiments were performed 24 h of electrolysis, using an electrolyte of copper sulphate acid, with 0.5 to 10 mg{sup -}1 polyacrylamide at 55 degree centigrade and a current density of 260 Am{sup -}2. The effectiveness of these organic additives in copper electrorefining was determined by directly measuring the surface roughness of the copper deposit and contrasted with the results of other instrumental techniques (SEM and metallographic analysis). The results of the analysis SEM, metallographic analysis and measurement of the surface roughness of the copper deposit, show that to concentrations as low as 0.5 mg{sup -}1 of this additive is manifested its property of tuner of grain. However, in the range of 7 to 10 mg{sup -}1 of polyacrylamide, it reaches an optimum size of grain for the deposit of copper in the cathodes. (Author)

  5. Stability of tailings ponds in the mining district of Mazarron (SE Spain): potential risks for the Moreras Rambla; Estudio de estabilidad en depositos de lodos del Distrito Minero de Mazarron (SE Espana): Riesgos potenciales sobre la Rambla de Las Moreras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, J. A.; Martinez-Martinez, S.; Martinez-Pagan, P.; Zornoza, R.; Carmona, D. M.; Faz, A.

    2011-07-01

    We have used geochemical, geophysical and geotechnical techniques to identify and quantify the environmental risks of the San Cristobal and Las Moreras tailing ponds, which have been left since the closing down of Pb-Zn mining activities in a semi-arid Mediterranean area. The results show that the tailings ponds present a potential risk to nearby ecosystems because of their high acidity, high salinity and high concentrations of metals, especially Pb and Zn contain. If the pond dams were to fail or if erosion carried dry sludge to the surrounding areas, the result would be pollution, acidification, salinization, compaction and nutrient depletion of the soil, thus reducing the biodiversity of the area. Geoelectrical tomography has shown the depth of the deposits, their volume and the geomorphology of the basement. The profiles reveal that in none of the pseudo-sections are there any regions betraying cracks that might affect the stability of the structures. In fact, geotechnical studies indicate that on a large scale both ponds are stable. Nevertheless, if we contemplate circular rupture and seismic action in the San Cristobal pond, the safety factor values become critical. It is recommended, therefore, that periodic inspections should be carried out to assess moisture, upsurges and settlements in the dam. To reduce erosion of the surface sludge in the tailing ponds we suggest the application of alkaline and organic remediation so as to improve their geochemical characteristics and encourage the establishment of natural vegetation. (Author) 48 refs.

  6. Effect of glycerin and formic acid in the efficiency of deposit on Zn-Ni, obtained by electrodeposition; Efeito da glicerina e do acido formico na eficiencia de deposito da liga Zn-Ni, obtido atraves de eletrodeposicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroza, G.A.G.; Souza, C.A.C.; Lima, L.R.P.A.; Ferreira, D.M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia - Escola Politecnica, BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Additives are added to the electrodeposition of metal coatings to improve the characteristics of the deposit. However, the objective was to investigate the effect of adding glycerin and formic acid in the deposition efficiency and deposit structure of zinc-nickel alloy obtained by electrodeposition. The depositions were made at a galvanostatic current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2} to obtain a deposit of about 5 mm in thickness. The deposition efficiency was determined through measures of mass, chemical composition of the deposit in the presence and absence of additives was examined by X-ray Spectrometer Fluorescence (XRF) and surface characterization of coatings was performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The high levels of glycerin (0,07 M) and formic acid (0,26 M) in bath deposition increased the deposition efficiency of around 10% to 12% by mass, respectively. (author)

  7. Determining internal movement costs at a warehouse using activity-based costing: offshore petroleum production application; Determinacao dos custos de movimentacao interna de um deposito utilizando a metodologia de custeio baseado em atividades: aplicacao a producao de petroleo offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Italo Ricardo Moreira de [Brasil Supply S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Leal, Jose Eugenio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    As from the flexibilization of the petroleum monopoly, which took place in the second half of the 1990's, the petroleum and gas sector in Brazil has undergone a series of changes that have directly impacted the commercial relations among the companies in the sector. The increases in operational efficiency and reduction of costs have become basic factors for the companies wishing to compete in this market. This paper presents a study whose objective is to map, model, and determine the costs involved in the process for internal movement in a warehouse used as logistics support to offshore petroleum production. Based on the description of the internal movement process for product storage, the main resources are identified. Then, a mathematical model based on Activity-Based Costing is draw up, in which the results generated comprise the values for internal movement costs for each type of product moved in the warehouse. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the mineralogical characterization of several smectite clay deposits of the state of Paraiba, Brazil using statistical analysis of variance; Avaliacao da caracterizacao mineralogica de diversos depositos de argilas esmectiticas do estado da Paraiba utilizando analise estatistica de variancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, A.J.A.; Menezes, R.R.; Neves, G.A.; Brito, A.L.F. de, E-mail: agama@reitoria.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Currently over 80% of industrialized bentonite clay produced in Brazil in sodium form for use in various industrial applications come from the deposits in Boa Vista - PB. Recently they were discovered new bentonite deposits situated in the municipalities of Cubati - PB, Drawn Stone - PB, Sossego - PB, and last in olive groves - PB, requiring systematic studies to develop all its industrial potential. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate chemical characterization several deposits of smectite clays from various regions of the state of Paraíba through the analysis of statistical variance. Chemical analysis form determined by fluorescence x-ray (EDX). Then analyzes were carried out of variance statistics and Tukey test using the statistical soft MINITAB® 17.0. The results showed that the chemical composition of bentonite clay of new deposits showed different amounts of silica, aluminum, magnesium and calcium in relation clays in Boa Vista, and clays imported. (author)

  9. Thin films of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) obtained through chemical vapor deposition assisted by plasma; Peliculas delgadas de carbono amorfo hidrogenado (a-C:H) obtenidas mediante deposito quimico de vapores asistido por plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia H, J.A.; Camps C, E.E.; Escobar A, L.; Romero H, S.; Chirino O, S. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Muhl S, S. [IIM-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Films of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) were deposited using one source of microwave plasma with magnetic field (type ECR), using mixtures of H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} in relationship of 80/20 and 95/05 as precursory gases, with work pressures of 4X10{sup -4} to 6x10{sup -4} Torr and an incident power of the discharge of microwaves with a constant value of 400 W. It was analyzed the influence among the properties of the films, as the deposit rate, the composition and the bonding types, and the deposit conditions, such as the flow rates of the precursory gases and the polarization voltage of the sample holders. (Author)

  10. L’economia napoletana e il commercio internazionale tra ‘800 e ‘900: I Magazzini Generali e il Deposito Franco = The neapolitan economy and international trade between 800 and 900: The Magazzini Generali and the Free Warehouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Potito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo I Magazzini Generali, creati su modello dei docks inglesi e dei magazzini francesi e regolamentati da una legge del 1871 si diffusero nelle maggiori città italiane, con alterna fortuna: comune era lo scopo di provvedere alla custodia delle merci, rilasciando speciali titoli di commercio, e di agevolare l’incontro tra produttore e acquirente, riducendo i tempi di negoziazione. Essi sono, dunque, da annoverare fra gli strumenti commerciali con cui si intendeva intensificare e favorire i traffici di merci nel periodo in cui il commercio internazionale su larga scala andava riducendo le barriere tra paesi, accompagnato dallo sviluppo e ammodernamento delle infrastrutture. Nell’ambito del dibattito sul tentativo italiano di ritagliarsi un ruolo durante la prima globalizzazione con la crescita della liberalizzazione del commercio internazionale e, nello stesso tempo, lo sviluppo del protezionismo moderno la presente ricerca mette a fuoco l’esperienza della costituzione dei Magazzini Generali di Napoli, per alcuni decenni i più importanti d’Italia. La Società Meridionale dei Magazzini Generali ne assunse la gestione nel 1874 e attraverso lo studio di testimonianze dell’epoca, degli Atti del Consiglio Comunale e della Camera di Commercio, di dati di bilancio presenti nell’Archivio di Stato di Napoli questo saggio ne ripercorre l’iter costitutivo e le vicende dei primi anni. Oltre a offrire un quadro della situazione politica ed economica del Mezzogiorno d’Italia, ed in particolare di Napoli, nella congiuntura economica tra fine ‘800 e inizio ‘900, emergono spunti interessanti relativi all’ammodernamento delle infrastrutture portuali cittadine, e alla questione della creazione di un punto franco (uno degli ipotetici cardini dello sviluppo industriale della città: in un quadro di occasioni mancate ed ostacoli legati alle caratteristiche del processo storico, dal confronto con economie di differenti realtà europee. Abstract The Magazzini Generali, created on the model of the British docks and of the French magasins généraux and regulated by an Act of 1871 became widespread in major Italian cities, with varying success: common purpose was to provide for the custody of the goods, issuing special bonds trade, and to facilitate the meeting between producer and buyer, reducing the time of negotiation. They are therefore to be counted among the commercial tools with which it was intended to intensify and facilitate the traffic of goods in the period in which international trade on a large scale was reducing the barriers between countries, accompanied by the development and modernization of infrastructure. In the debate on the Italian attempt to carve out a role during the first globalization with the growth of international trade liberalization and, at the same time, the development of modern protectionism the present research focuses on the experience of the constitution of Magazzini Generali of Naples, for several decades the most important ones in Italy. The Società Meridionale of Magazzini Generali took over the management in 1874 and through the study of contemporary testimonies, of the Acts of the City Council and of the Chamber of Commerce, of balance sheet data present in the State Archives of Naples this essay traces its incorporation process and the events of the early years. In addition to providing an overview of the political and economic situation of Southern Italy, especially in Naples, during the economic situation between the end of '800 and '900, interesting ideas emerge relating to the modernization of port infrastructure, and about the question of creating a free point (one of the hypothetical cornerstones of the industrial development of the city: in a framework of missed opportunities and of obstacles related to the characteristics of the historical process, by comparing with the economies of different European realities.

  11. L’economia napoletana e il commercio internazionale tra ‘800 e ‘900: I Magazzini Generali e il Deposito Franco = The Neapolitan economy and international trade between 800 and 900: The Magazzini Generali and the Free Warehouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Potito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available I Magazzini Generali, creati su modello dei docks inglesi e dei magazzini francesi -e regolamentati da una legge del 1871- si diffusero nelle maggiori città italiane, con alterna fortuna: comune era lo scopo di provvedere alla custodia delle merci, rilasciando speciali titoli di commercio, e di agevolare l’incontro tra produttore e acquirente, riducendo i tempi di negoziazione. Essi sono, dunque, da annoverare fra gli strumenti commerciali con cui si intendeva intensificare e favorire i traffici di merci nel periodo in cui il commercio internazionale su larga scala andava riducendo le barriere tra paesi, accompagnato dallo sviluppo e ammodernamento delle infrastrutture. Nell’ambito del dibattito sul tentativo italiano di ritagliarsi un ruolo durante la prima globalizzazione -con la crescita della liberalizzazione del commercio internazionale e, nello stesso tempo, lo sviluppo del protezionismo moderno- la presente ricerca mette a fuoco l’esperienza della costituzione dei Magazzini Generali di Napoli, per alcuni decenni i più importanti d’Italia. La Società Meridionale dei Magazzini Generali ne assunse la gestione nel 1874 e -attraverso lo studio di testimonianze dell’epoca, degli Atti del Consiglio Comunale e della Camera di Commercio, di dati di bilancio presenti nell’Archivio di Stato di Napoli- questo saggio ne ripercorre l’iter costitutivo e le vicende dei primi anni. Oltre a offrire un quadro della situazione politica ed economica del Mezzogiorno d’Italia, ed in particolare di Napoli, nella congiuntura economica tra fine ‘800 e inizio ‘900, emergono spunti interessanti relativi all’ammodernamento delle infrastrutture portuali cittadine, e alla questione della creazione di un punto franco (uno degli ipotetici cardini dello sviluppo industriale della città: in un quadro di occasioni mancate ed ostacoli legati alle caratteristiche del processo storico, dal confronto con economie di differenti realtà europee.The Magazzini Generali, created on the model of the British docks and of the French magasins généraux -and regulated by an Act of 1871- became widespread in major Italian cities, with varying success: common purpose was to provide for the custody of the goods, issuing special bonds trade, and to facilitate the meeting between producer and buyer, reducing the time of negotiation. They are -therefore- to be counted among the commercial tools with which it was intended to intensify and facilitate the traffic of goods in the period in which international trade -on a large scale- was reducing the barriers between countries, accompanied by the development and modernization of infrastructure. In the debate on the Italian attempt to carve out a role during the first globalization -with the growth of international trade liberalization and, at the same time, the development of modern protectionism- the present research focuses on the experience of the constitution of Magazzini Generali of Naples, for several decades the most important ones in Italy. The Società Meridionale of Magazzini Generali took over the management in 1874 and -through the study of contemporary testimonies, of the Acts of the City Council and of the Chamber of Commerce, of balance sheet data present in the State Archives of Naples- this essay traces its incorporation process and the events of the early years. In addition to providing an overview of the political and economic situation of Southern Italy, especially in Naples, during the economic situation between the end of '800 and '900, interesting ideas emerge relating to the modernization of port infrastructure, and about the question of creating a free point (one of the hypothetical cornerstones of the industrial development of the city: in a framework of missed opportunities and of obstacles related to the characteristics of the historical process, by comparing with the economies of different European realities.

  12. Characterization of the electrochemical behavior of coating by steel welding 308l and in presence of noble metals deposits; Caracterizacion del comportamiento electroquimico de recubrimiento por soldadura de acero 308L y en presencia de depositos de metales nobles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedras, P.; Arganis J, C. R., E-mail: pedro.piedras@hotmail.es [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work the oxide deposits and noble metals deposit were characterized (Ag and Pt) on a coating of stainless steel 308l that were deposited by the shield metal arc welding (SMAW) on steel A36 by means of scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The extrapolation of Tafel technique was also used to obtain the corrosion potential (Ec) for the pre-rusty steel and for the samples with deposits of Pt and Ag under conditions of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), demonstrating that this parameter diminishes with the presence of this deposits. (Author)

  13. Deposition and characterization of thin films of materials with application in cathodes for lithium rechargeable micro batteries; Deposito y caracterizacion de peliculas delgadas de materiales con aplicacion en catodos para microbaterias recargables de litio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez I, J. [UAEM, Facultad de Quimica, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this thesis work is reported the deposition and characterization of thin films of materials of the type LiMO{sub 2}, with M=Co and Ni, which have application in cathodes for micro-batteries of lithium ions. In the last years some investigators have reported that the electrochemical operation of the lithium ions batteries it can improve recovering the cathode, in bundle form, with some metal oxides as the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; for that the study of the formation of thin films in bilayer form LiMO{sub 2}/AI{sub 2}O{sub 3} is of interest in the development of lithium ions micro batteries. The thin films were deposited using the laser ablation technique studying the effect of some deposit parameters in the properties of the one formed material, as: laser fluence, substrate temperature and working atmosphere, with the purpose of optimizing it. In the case of the LiCoO{sub 2} it was found that to use an inert atmosphere of argon allows to obtain the material with the correct composition. Additionally, with the use of a temperature in the substrate of 150 C is possible to obtain to the material with certain crystallinity grade that to the subjected being to a post-deposit thermal treatment at 300 C for three hours, it gives as result a totally crystalline material. In the case of the thin films of LiNiO{sub 2}, it was necessary to synthesize the oxide starting from a reaction of solid state among nickel oxide (NiO) and lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) obtaining stoichiometric LiNiO{sub 2}. For the formation of the thin films of LiNiO{sub 2} it was used an argon atmosphere and the laser fluence was varied, the deposits were carried out to two different substrates temperatures, atmosphere and 160 C. In both cases the material it was recovered with an alumina layer, found that this layer didn't modify the structural properties of the base oxide (LiCoO{sub 2} and LiNiO{sub 2}). (Author)

  14. Deposit of thin films of TiN, a-C, Ti/TiN/a-C by laser ablation; Deposito de peliculas delgadas de TiN, a-C, Ti/TiN/a-C por ablacion laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, I.S.; Escobar A, L.; Camps, E.; Romero, S. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de mexico (Mexico); Muhl, S. [IIM, UNAM, A.P. 364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Thin films of titanium nitride (TiN), amorphous carbon (a-C), as well as bilayers of Ti/TiN/a-C were deposited by means of the laser ablation technique. It was investigated the effect that it has the laser fluence used to ablation the targets in the structure and mechanical properties of the TiN deposited films. The TiN obtained films have a preferential orientation in the direction (200). The results show that the hardness of this material is influenced by the laser fluence. It is observed that the hardness is increased in an approximately lineal way with the increment of the fluence up to 19 J/cm{sup 2}. The films of amorphous carbon present hardness of the order of 11.2 GPa. Likewise it was found that the multilayers of Ti/TiN/aC presented a bigger hardness that of its individual components. (Author)

  15. Hazard and socioenvironmental weakness: radioactive waste final disposal in the perception of the Abadia de Goias residents, GO, Brazil; Risco e vulnerabilidade socioambiental: o deposito definitivo de rejeitos radioativos na percepcao dos moradores de Abadia de Goias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Elaine Campos

    2005-07-01

    The work searches into the hazard and the weakness which involves the community around the radioactive waste final disposal, localized in Abadia de Goias municipality, Goias state, Brazil. In order to obtain a deep knowledge on the characteristic hazards of the modernity, the sociological aspects under discussion has been researched in the Anthony Giddens and Ulrich Beck works. The phenomenon was analyzed based on the the subjective experiences of the residents, which live there for approximately 16 years. This temporal analysis is related to the social impact suffered by the residents due to the radioactive wastes originated from the radiation accident with 137 cesium in Goiania, GO, Brazil, in 1987. In spite of the local security, they identified the disposal as a hazard source, although the longer time residents have been better adaptation. The weakness of the local is significant by the proximity of residences near the area of the radioactive waste final disposal. (author)

  16. Technological characterization of a mineral deposit. A case study: the niobium of Catalao I, Goias State, Brazil; Caracterizacao tecnologica de um deposito mineral. Um estudo de caso: o niobio de Catalao I, Goias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant`Agostino, Lilia Mascarenhas

    1996-12-31

    This thesis presents a contribution to the subject of ore technological characterization integrated to orebody context, regarding sample, ore characteristics, ore types definition and distribution through the mineral occurrence, and ore reserves modeling using technological parameters. A professional experience in this specialization based a conceptual discussion of the matter, supported by a practical approach. The initial approach is the subject definition, and it`s importance for technological and economical feasibility studies, in all phases of mining research and development, as a tool for beneficiation alternatives definition. The multidisciplinary aspect of the knowledge involved for ore characterization is remarked, considering that is an interface segment to be conduced interactively with others. It is an applied mineralogy, that needs some geological and some ore dressing imputes. After the general considerations about importance and applicability, it follows a methodological approach of laboratory procedures and analytical techniques, as a result of practical experience acquired in the study of several ores. The main points discussed are related with criterion to organized laboratory preparation scheme and to select appropriated analytical techniques, without detailing them, for what some specialized bibliography is indicated. Finalizing the theoretical explanation, there is a concise description about computers resources for 3D orebody modeling, and integrated software applied for geology and mining. For illustration, it is exposed a complex ore case study: niobium mineralization associated with the alkaline-carbonatitic occurrence of Catalao I, located in Goias State, Brazil. Besides the explanation of laboratory procedures and methods applied, results treatment and interpretation are emphasized, under both characterization and economic point of view. (author) 135 refs., 57 figs., 38 tabs.

  17. Geochronology and crustal evolution of the deposit area Cu-Au Gameleira, Carajas mineral province, Para state, Brazil; Geocronologia e evolucao crustal da area do deposito de Cu-Au Gameleira, provincia mineral de Carajas (Para), Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarza, Marco Antonio; Macambira, Moacir Jose Buenano [Para Univ. (UFPA), Belem (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias. Lab. de Geologia Isotopica (Para-Iso)

    2002-12-15

    The Gameleira Cu-Au deposit is hosted by rocks of the Igarape Pojuca Group, Itacaiunas Supergroup, Carajas Mineral Province, southeastern Amazonian Craton. This group is represented mainly by mafic metavolcanic rocks (MVN), amphibolite, biotite schist, banded iron formation and/or hydrothermalite and cut by intrusive mafic rocks (IMR) as well as by deformed Itacaiunas granites of Archean age (2.56 Ga) and Pojuca and Gameleira granites of Proterozoic age (1.87 and 1.58 Ga). Zircon crystals from a saprolite (2615 {+-} 10 Ma and 2683 {+-} 7 Ma) and from an IMR sample (2705 {+-} 2 Ma) are coeval with those from gabbros of the neighboring Aguas Claras deposit. Pb-Pb dating of whole rock samples and chalcopyrite from the MVR indicated ages of 2245 {+-} 29 Ma and 2419 {+-} 12 Ma, respectively, while leached chalcopyrite yielded ages of 2217 {+-} 19 Ma and 2180 {+-} 84 Ma. These ages are interpreted as due to partial resetting provoked by the Proterozoic granitic intrusions or by tectonic reactivation along the Carajas and Cinzento strike slip systems or alternatively, as due to total resetting provoked by the last one. The T{sub DM} ages between 3.12 and 3.33 Ga for the MVR and IMR, and the initial epsilon{sub Nd} (t) values of -0.89 to -3.26 suggest continental contribution from older crustal material and possibly magma generation in a continental rift or active continental margin environment. (author)

  18. The primary extinction and static Debye-Waller factor in the characterization of textured nickel by X-ray diffraction; La extincion primaria y el factor estatico de Debye-Waller en la caracterizacion de niquel con textura mediante difraccion de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshtab, T.; Palacios G, J. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Cadena A, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, Av. IPN s/n, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Kryvko, A., E-mail: kryshtab@gmail.com [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Unidad Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    The texture analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) implies measurement of pole figures (Pf) from the diffracted intensities considering the model of kinematical dispersion. The extinction phenomenon results in a decrease of diffracted intensity and that in turn in a decrease of pole densities (Pds). The phenomenon appears in the kinematical theory of XRD as the primary extinction and the secondary extinction to characterize the loss of intensity of kinematical dispersion. In turn, the static Debye-Waller factor is an integral characteristic of defects in crystals that is introduced in the kinematical theory of XRD and also is used in dynamical theory of XRD. In this work the correlation between the primary extinction coefficient and the static Debye-Waller factor in the case of textured nickel was determined. The value of static Debye-Waller factor was determined from the value of the calculated primary extinction coefficient. For the evaluation there were used Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for 111 and 200 reflections with Mo Kα radiation, and the Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for the first and second orders of these reflections with Cu Kα and Co Kα radiations. There were calculated the dislocation densities in grains using values of static Debye-Waller factor and the extinction coefficients. The dislocation densities calculated from these two characteristics are practically equal. (Author)

  19. Model of the motion of a charged particle into a plasma during the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating in the direction of a static and homogeneous magnetic field; Modelo del movimiento de una particula cargada en un plasma durante la interaccion de un pulso electromagnetico elipticamente polarizado propagandose en la direccion de un campo magnetico estatico y homogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez R, F. [UAEM, A.P. 2-139, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ondarza R, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    An analytical model for the description of the movement of a charged particle in the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating along of a static and homogeneous external magnetic field in a plasma starting from the force equation is presented. The method allows to express the solution in terms of the invariant phase, obtaining differential equations for the trajectory of the accelerated particle by means of an electromagnetic pulse of arbitrary amplitude and modulated by an encircling Gaussian. The numerical solutions reported in this work can find varied applications, for example in the physics of the interaction laser-plasma, in the acceleration of particles, in hot plasma and in radiative effects. (Author)

  20. Motion model for a charged particle in a plasma during the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating in the direction of a static and homogeneous magnetic field; Modelo del movimiento de una particula cargada en un plasma durante la interaccion de un pulso electromagnetico elipticamente polarizado propagandose en la direccion de un campo magnetico estatico y homogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez R, F. [UAEM, Facultad de Ciencias, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ondarza R, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    An analytic model is presented for the description of the motion of a charged particle in the interaction of an elliptically electromagnetic pulse polarized propagating along a static and homogeneous external magnetic field in a plasma starting from the force equation. The method allows to express the solution in terms of the invariant phase, obtaining differential equations for the trajectory of the accelerated particle by means of an electromagnetic pulse of arbitrary and modulated width by an encircling Gaussian. The numerical solutions reported in this work can find varied applications, for example in the physics of the interaction laser-plasma, in the acceleration of particles, in hot plasma and in radioactive effects. (Author)

  1. Self-excited single-phase induction generator: design and analysis of a system with static regulator of excitation for micro hydro plants; Gerador de inducao monofasico auto-excitado: projeto e analise de um sistema com regulador estatico de excitacao para micro-centrais hidroeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.; Krause, J.I. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1984-12-31

    The project of an alternating current electrical energy generation autonomous system using a single-phase induction machine is presented. The excitation reactive energy is obtained from capacitors and is regulated by a thyristors phase controlled inductor. The system`s voltage control is realized by a proportional integral regulator. the device design criterions are described. Experimental results are presented which shows the system`s performance and allows an evaluation of the project. (author). 5 refs., 9 figs

  2. Iriyaweb 3, portal web de una asociación cultural

    OpenAIRE

    Sagardoy Antoñazas, Borja

    2013-01-01

    El proyecto consiste en la renovacion (rediseño y nueva construccion) del portal web de la asociacion de la tamborrada Iriyarena, que organiza la Unibertsitateko Danborrada. El actual sitio es un sitio estatico que necesita una actualizacion hacia un entorno dinamico. Dado que Iriyarena es una asociacion sin animo de lucro, todas las herramientas que se empleen deben ser de codigo abierto y gratuito que incluya los principales estandares web.

  3. Characterization of Zn-bearing chlorite by Moessbauer and infrared spectroscopy - occurrence associated to the Pb-Zn-Ag deposits of Canoas, PR, Brazil; Caracterizacao de clorita portadora de Zn por espectroscopia Moessbauer e espectroscopia infravermelho - uma ocorrencia associada ao deposito de Pb-Zn-Ag de Canoas, PR, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbernon, Rosely Aparecida Liguori [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EACH/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades; Blot, Alain [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD), Paris (France); Pereira, Vitor Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Franco, Daniel Ribeiro, E-mail: imbernon@usp.br, E-mail: brotalain@free.fr, E-mail: vitor.pereira@ufrgs.br, E-mail: drfranco@on.br [Observatorio Nacional do Brasil (COGE/ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Geofisica

    2011-06-15

    In order to provide new insights on mineralogical aspects of geochemical mapping/natural processes related to the chlorite formation (e.g. crystallochemistry and mechanisms of formation of these materials, which has been applied in different studies of environmental profiles), we investigated chlorite samples associated to the Pb-Zn-Ag sulfide ore from Canoas 1 deposit (Vale do Ribeira, state of Parana, Brazil). By means of Moessbauer (MS) and infrared (IV) spectroscopy, we addressed some issues as those related to the chloritization processes, as well as how Zn would be incorporated into its crystalline structure. Results carried out by ME and IV spectroscopy clearly pointed out for a chlorite occurrence, which in fact incorporates Zn into its structure and also alters the structural patterns for this mineral. Moreover, ME data sets indicated the presence of Fe which is located only in octahedral sites, in trans-configuration, and the Zn emplacement by the chloritization process also occurs in the brucite layer. (author)

  4. Area monitoring in a deposit of radioactive material: high flux air sampling for determination of long half-life alpha emitters; Monitoracao de area em um deposito de material radioativo: amostragem de ar de alto fluxo para determinacao de alfa emissores de meia vida longa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Dores, Luis A. de C.B.; Antunes, Ana Claudia da Silva; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo; Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Dantas, Marcelino V.A. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: luisdores@inb.gov.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: Marcelino@inb.gov.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos

    2011-10-26

    The present paper presents the program of high-flux monitoring and the results obtained in the year 2009. The derivative limit (LD) of air concentration was of 0.25 Bq/m{sup 3}. The permanence control is a important factor in the occupational control of workers, and also the use of EPs the behavioural cares, and the radioprotection training for allowing the access to those areas. Neither workers, inspector nor visitors reached the limit of investigation

  5. Concentration in activity of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 40} K, {sup 232} Th, {sup 226} Ra in waste deposits of the benefits of minerals in the State of Zacatecas; Concentracion en actividad de {sup 137} Cs, {sup 40} K, {sup 232} Th, {sup 226} Ra en depositos de desecho del beneficio de minerales en el Estado de Zacatecas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, B.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Ramirez, F. [UAZ, A.P. 579C, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The necessity to report the changes in the contained radionuclides in the terrestrial crust, or those deposited by the atomic tests around the world, becomes clear when observing the use of material of waste of those mines. With the purpose of quantifying the concentration in activity its were meet a series of waste samples in mines of the municipalities of Zacatecas, Fresnillo, Guadalupe and Veta Grande of the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. The analysis was carried out by gamma spectrometry with a HPGe detector with a resolution of 1.9 keV corresponding to an energy of 1.33 MeV calibrated in efficiency and energy by means of a certified standard multi nuclide in activity with identical geometry to that of the samples. The times of count are of 80000 seconds, with the purpose of to reduce the relative uncertainties and to define well the interest regions. The activity of {sup 226} Ra and {sup 232} Th is obtained through the one {sup 214} Bi and {sup 228} Ac respectively, the concentration was also measured in activity of the one {sup 40} K and the {sup 137} Cs in units of Bq kg{sup -1}. (Author)

  6. Descripción del diseño y construcción de un deposito de hormigón pretensado para 80.000 m2 de capacidad de gas natural licuado. España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández de la Reguera, Ramón

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available La construcción de un nuevo depósito de 80.000 m3>/sup> de capacidad para almacenamiento de gas natural licuado en la Planta que la Empresa Nacional del Gas, S A. (ENAGAS tiene en Barcelona, ha sido realizada por la Empresa Auxiliar de la Industria, S/A. (AUXINI en Agrupación Temporal con PRELOAD SISTEMAS. Esta obra, una de las últimas realizaciones mundiales en el sector, consistente en doble pared de hormigón pretensado, ha permitido a AUXINI constituirse en una de las empresas líderes de la joven y dinámica tecnología criogénica, aportando soluciones constructivas adecuadas para este tipo de depósitos. En el trabajo que sigue se hace hincapié en la descripción del depósito indicando los pormenores constructivos del mismo, tales como la construcción y montaje de la chapa del muro interno, así como el pretensado horizontal tipo Preload utilizado, además de otros procedimientos constructivos como la elevación de la cúpula, la soldadura de la chapa 9% Ni, etc. Este depósito incorpora los últimos requisitos de seguridad que se exigen en el Proyecto de ese tipo de almacenamiento y, por las numerosas innovaciones que se han introducido durante su construcción, ha constituido una obra pionera en su género y de carácter mundial.

  7. Evaluation of radon and their daughters concentration and estimative of effective dose in a waste deposits at the ore treatment unity of INB/Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de radonio e seus filhos e estimativa de dose efetiva em um deposito de rejeitos na unidade de tratamento de minerios da INB/Caldas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo; Antunes, Marcos M.; Junior, Joao V.S.; Py Junior, Delcy A., E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b, E-mail: antunes@inb.gov.b, E-mail: Joao@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Pereira, Wagner S. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Universidade Federal Fluminense (IB/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos

    2011-10-26

    This paper conducts a surveillance of radon and their short half-life daughters gas concentration, inside the warehouse due to these gas inhalation. The results showed that the average concentration inside the warehouse ix approximately 700 Bq/m{sup 3} and the effective dose of an IOE, related to that concentration would be 5.0 mSv/year, therefore being 4 times lower than the established limit of 20 mSv/year

  8. Spectral gamma-ray signature of fluvial deposits: a case study from the Late Permian Rio do Rasto Formation, Parana Basin, Brazil; Assinatura gamaespectrometrica de depositos fluviais: estudo de caso na Formacao do Rio do Rasto, Permiano Superior da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowek, Guilherme Arruda, E-mail: arruda@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geologia; Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca; Vesely, Fernando Farias, E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br, E-mail: vesely@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Setor de Ciencias da Terra; Berton, Fabio, E-mail: fabioberton1@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Fluvial channel-fill deposits form highly heterogeneous hydrocarbon reservoirs. The study of outcrop analogs can help in the characterization of these heterogeneities, which are usually not detected by subsurface geophysical methods. The aim of this research is to compare outcrop log signatures with grain size trends and depositional elements of the fluvial deposits of the Late Permian Rio do Rasto Formation. A series of vertical gamma-ray logs were assembled in two outcrops in order to: 1) characterize log-facies in a succession composed of alternated flood plain, channel fill and eolian strata; 2) define within-channel spectral gamma-ray variability of a mixed-load composite point bar deposit and its relationship with grain size trends and lithofacies; 3) correlate log signatures observed in the outcrop sections with deep exploratory wells drilled several tens of kilometers from the study area. The results of this study show that gamma-ray logs have good correlation with grain size trends and that different depositional elements have distinct signatures. On the other hand, point bar deposits exhibit strong lateral changes in log signature due variations in grain size and mud content within lateral accretion strata. Although frequent, the classic bell-shaped log motif was not always detected, which means that the amount of fluvial channel-fill deposits recognized in subsurface can be underestimated. Similar log signatures were detected in the boreholes, at least in the closest ones, helping in paleoenvironmental interpretation in the subsurface. (author)

  9. The impact of triggering mechanism on flow dynamics and depositional geometry: results from an experimental study of non-conservative density currents; Influencia do mecanismo de iniciacao na dinamica dos fluxos e na geometria dos depositos gerados: observacoes obtidas a partir de estudo experimental de correntes de densidade nao-conservativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manica, Rafael [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas. Nucleo de Estudos de Correntes de Densidade]. E-mail: rmanica@portoweb.com.br; Del Rey, Antonio Cosme; Maestri, Rogerio Dornelles; Borges, Ana Luiza de Oliveira; Viana, Adriano Roessler

    2005-05-01

    This study presents 28 physical simulations of non-conservative density currents used to evaluate their depositional patterns. Two different triggering mechanisms were used: lock gate and fluid injection. The impact of specific gravity, material type and grain size on the mixture were also checked. Dynamic and geometric features, such as head velocity and head/body height, were recorded. Results show flow velocity increase as concentration grows; deposition volumes present a general tendency to exponential decline with distance; the grain size range of the deposits decreases towards the distal portion of the channel. The results obtained have showed the efficiency of physical modeling in the study of turbidites in allowing correlations to be defined between currents and deposition patterns. (author)

  10. High flow air sampling for determination of alpha long half-life emitters: area monitoring of a radioactive material disposal; Amostragem de ar de alto fluxo para determinacao de alfa emissores de meia vida longa: monitoracao de area em um deposito de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (SR/FCN/INB), Itatiaia, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radioprotecao. Fabrica do Combustivel Nuclear; Kelecom, A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais

    2015-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) is a mine and closed uranium plant, located in Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. It has a radioactive material disposal composed primarily of pie II and mesothorium. It is stored in six sheds designated C-01, C-02, C-05, C-06, C-07 and C-09. This study aims to present the high flow area monitoring program and results obtained in 2009. The threshold derived from concentration in the air was 0.25 Bq m{sup -3}. The average of the activity concentrations in 2009 were: for C-01 1.17 Bq m{sup -3}; C-02 0.006 Bq m{sup -3}; C-05 1.98 Bq m{sup -3}; C-06 2.14 Bq m{sup -3}; C-07 0.34 Bq m{sup -3} and C-09 0,025 Bq m{sup -3}. Such values indicate that the control stay is an important factor in occupational workers' control, as well as the use of EPI's and behavioral care, besides radioprotection training to allow the access to the areas. No worker, supervisor or visitor reached the limit research.

  11. Geological setting, isotope studies (C, O and Pb) and associated metals in the Tocantinzinho gold deposit, Tapajos domain, Tapajos-Parima Province; Contexto geologico, estudos isotopicos (C, O e Pb) e associacao metalica do deposito aurifero Tocantinzinho, dominio Tapajos, Provincia Tapajos-Parima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villas, Raimundo Netuno Nobre [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil); Santiago, Erika Suellen Barbosa; Castilho, Marilia Portela, E-mail: netuno@ufpa.br, E-mail: esbsantiago@gmail.com, E-mail: castilho.marilia@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geologia e Geoquimica

    2013-03-15

    The Tocantinzinho ore deposit is located along a NW-SE-trending lineament, southwestern of Itaituba (Para, Brazil), and is the largest known gold deposit of the Tapajos Province. The host Tocantinzinho granite is essentially isotropic and dominated by syenogranites and monzogranites that have been weakly to moderately altered by hydrothermal fluids. Microclinization (earliest), chloritization, sericitization, silicification and carbonatization (latest) are the main types of alteration. Most mineralization was contemporaneous with the sericitization/silicification and is represented by sulfide- and gold-bearing veinlets which locally occur as stockwork. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena are the most common sulfides. Among the ore metals, Cu, Pb and Zn present the highest contents, but Mo, As and Bi locally show anomalous concentrations. The relationship of Au with Cu, Pb or Zn is at random and the Au/Ag ratios range from 0.05 to 0.5. The higher the sulfide contents, the higher the Au concentrations, though it occurs mainly included in pyrite. Zircon monocrystals from the Tocantinzinho granite yielded an average Pb-Pb age of 1982 {+-}8Ma and may represent an earlier event of the Creporizao magmatic arc. {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} values for calcite from the carbonatization stage fall dominantly between -3.45 and -2.29 Per-Mille-Sign , being compatible with a deep crustal source that may include carbonatite reservoirs. In turn, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SMOW} values vary from +5.97 to +14.10 Per-Mille-Sign , being indicative of magmatic derivation, although the less positive values suggest contribution from surficial waters. Unpublished fluid inclusion study reveals the presence of aquo-carbonic fluids, whose CO{sub 2} could have been dissolved in the granitic magma rather than being related to the shear zone. The available data allow the Tocantinzinho deposit to be classified as a granite-hosted, intrusion-related gold deposit. (author)

  12. Zirconium oxide deposits (ZrO{sub 2}) and titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) on 304l stainless steel; Depositos de oxido de circonio (ZrO{sub 2}) y oxido de titanio (TiO{sub 2}) sobre acero inoxidable 304L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila N, M. L.

    2015-07-01

    This research project aims to carry out the surface and electrochemical characterization to obtain the optimum conditions of the hydrothermal deposits of zirconium oxide ZrO{sub 2} (baddeleyite) and titanium oxide TiO{sub 2} (anatase and rutile phases) on 304l stainless steel, simulating an inhibiting protective layer. 304l steel specimens were cut, pre-oxidized in water at a temperature of 288 degrees Celsius and 8 MPa, similar to those of a typical BWR conditions. From the titanium oxide anatase crystalline phase, the rutile phase was obtained by a heat treatment at 1000 degrees Celsius. The Sigma-Aldrich pre-oxidized powders and steel 304l were characterized using techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive energy, chemical mapping and Raman spectrometry. The pre-oxidized steel has two oxide layers, an inner layer with nano metric crystals and another outer of larger crystals to 1μm, with the formation of hematite and magnetite, this predominating. The surface that contacted the sample holder has larger crystals. Hydrothermal deposits were carry out from suspensions of 10, 100 and 1000 ppm, of the crystal phases of anatase, rutile and baddeleyite, on the pre-oxidized steel at a temperature of 150 degrees Celsius for 2 and 7 days, samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive energy, Raman spectrometry and Tafel polarization. The suspension to 1000 ppm for 7 days coated surface most; the baddeleyite deposit is noticed more homogeneous than anatase and rutile. The deposit is favored when hematite and magnetite crystals are larger. The chemical mapping on deposits show that even after being immersed in water to 288 degrees Celsius during 30 days, the deposits are still present although a loss is observed. A reference electrode was assembled to conduct electrochemical tests of Tafel able to withstand a temperature of 288 degrees Celsius and pressure of 8 MPa. The baddeleyite deposit presented the electrochemical corrosion potential versus standard electrode of hydrogen (ECP{sub EEH}) more negative, between -35 and -79 mV{sub EEH}), is indicating that it has the greatest capacity to mitigate the stress corrosion, this at a temperature of 288 degrees Celsius. However at a lower temperature, between 250 and 150 degrees Celsius the rutile coating is having a negative ECP{sub EEH} between -100 and -150 mV{sub EEH}. The cathodic slopes of Tafel curves show that deposits are fulfilling their inhibitor functions. In some cases the anodic part of Tafel curve has a section where the potential remains constant while varying the current, suggesting the formation of oxides. (Author)

  13. Study and characterization of noble metal deposits on similar rusty surfaces to those of the reactor U-1 type BWR of nuclear power station of Laguna Verde; Estudio y caracterizacion de depositos de metales nobles sobre superficies oxidadas similares a las del reactor de la Central de Laguna Verde (CNLV) U1 del tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores S, V. H.

    2011-07-01

    In the present investigation work, were determined the parameters to simulate the conditions of internal oxidation reactor circulation pipes of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz. We used 304l stainless steel cylinders with two faces prepared with abrasive paper of No. 600, with the finality to obtain similar surface to the internal circulation piping nuclear reactor. Oxides was formed within an autoclave (Autoclave MEX-02 unit B), which is a device that simulates the working conditions of the nuclear reactor, but without radiation generated by the fission reaction within the reactor. The oxidation conditions were a temperature of 280 C and pressure of 8 MPa, similar conditions to the reactor operating in nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in Veracruz, Mexico (BWR conditions), with an average conductivity of 4.58 ms / cm and 2352 ppb oxygen to simulate normal water chemistry NWC. Were obtained deposits of noble metal oxides formed on 304l stainless steel samples, in a 250 ml autoclave at a temperature range of 180 to 200 C. The elements that were used to deposit platinum-rhodium (Pt-Rh) with aqueous Na{sub 2}Pt (OH){sub 6} and Na{sub 3}Rh (NO{sub 2}){sub 6}, Silver (Ag) with an aqueous solution of AgNO{sub 3}, zirconium (Zr) with aqueous Zr O (NO{sub 3}) and ZrO{sub 2}, and zinc (Zn) in aqueous solution of Zn (NO{sub 3}){sub 2} under conditions of normal water chemistry. Also there was the oxidation of 304l stainless steel specimens in normal water chemistry with a solution of Zinc (Zn) (NWC + Zn). Oxidation of the specimens in water chemistry with a solution of zinc (Zn + NWC) was prepared in two ways: within the MEX-02 autoclave unit A in a solution of zinc and a flask at constant temperature in zinc solution. The oxides formed and deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, elemental field analysis and X-ray diffraction. By other hand was evaluated the electrochemical behavior of the oxides formed on the surface of 304l stainless steel in normal water chemistry, zirconium deposits on these oxides and deposits formed in a flask at constant temperature in solution of zinc, with power noise technique and electrochemical tafel extrapolation technique. Finally, were presented the results to the nuclear as an alternative mitigation effort stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and thus give support to the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde in the action of existing corrosion phenomenon. (Author)

  14. Sedimentary cyclicity in early Pleistocene, evaporitic, playa-lake lacustrine deposits in the Guadix-Baza basin (Betic Cordillera, Spain); Ciclicidad sedimentaria en depositos lacustres evaporiticos tipo playa-lake del Pleistoceno inferior en la cuenca de Guadix-Baza (Cordillera Betica, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Aguilar, J. M.; Guera-Menchan, A.; Serrano, F.; Palmqvist, P.

    2013-06-01

    The Guadix-Baza basin (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain) contains in its eastern sector an early Pleistocene (Gelasian and lowermost Calabrian) sedimentary unit that was deposited in a shallow lacustrine environment. Given that the chronological limits of this unit lie between 2.5 and 1.6 Ma BP, the thickness of its preserved sediments (400 m) and high sedimentation rate (44.4 cm/ka) are remarkable. Numerous sedimentary cycles marked by an alternation of marls and sands are commonly found in the marginal sectors and marls and gypsum in the central sector, which would owe their origins to permanent flooding and evaporation/ re-flooding phases due to global climatic changes. Spectral analyses carried out using Fourier transform have revealed the existence of temporary frequencies associated with sedimentary cycles of between 0.2 and 5.2 ka. The origin of these cycles may be associated with variations in solar radiation and oscillations in the Moons orbital position, which would induce global climatic changes resulting in the rise and fall of the water table of the lake. Autocorrelation analyses conducted separately on the marly and evaporitic levels support this conclusion, as they indicate the existence of significant direct correlations between about 4 to 12 sedimentary cycles, which would correspond to repetitions of the stratigraphic series over a time span of 1.3 to 4 ka. (Author)

  15. The occurrence of ferropyrosmalite in the mineralized breccias from Igarape Bahia (North region, Brazil) Au-Cu ({+-} ETR-U) deposit, Carajas mineral Province; Ocorrencia de ferropirosmalita nas brechas mineralizadas do deposito de Au-Cu-({+-} ETR-U) de Igarape Bahia, Provincia mineral de Carajas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazava, Edison; Gomes, Newton Souza [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: tazava@degeo.ufop.br; Oliveira, Claudinei Gouveia de [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: gouveia@unb.br

    1999-09-01

    In the last years, several works report the presence of pyrosmalite mineral series [(Fe, Mn){sub 8} Si{sub 6} O{sub 15} (OH, Cl){sub 10}] commonly associated with volcanic exhalative massive sulphide or Fe-Mn metamorphosed deposits. In this paper, we present the inedit occurrence of ferropyrosmalite in the Au-Cu ({+-} REE-U) of Igarape Bahia deposit, located in the Au-Cu district of the Carajas Mineral Province. We consider the Igarape Bahia mineralization as being related to the genesis of iron-oxide class deposit, like the Olympic Dam type. Ferropyrosmalite occurs in two different contexts: associated with carbonate veins; associated with heterolithic breccias, composed by BIF and mafic metavolcanic fragments immersed in a magnetic, chalcopyrite, bornite, pyrite, carbonates (calcite to siderite), uranium and REE minerals, and gold, - rich matrix. The growth of ferropyrosmalite is probably due to the substitution of iron rich minerals (chloride, magnetite and siderite), controlled by magmatic fluid influx rich in chlorine. The permeability of breccias and the discontinuity of veins favour fluid percolation. The mode of occurrence of ferropyrosmalite and its relation with amphibole (ferro-hornblende-actinolite) indicate metasomatic growth of the former under temperatures in the transition of greenschist/amphibolite facies. The ferropyrosmalite of the Igarape Bahia deposit represents an uncommon type of occurrence linked to hydrothermal/magmatic conditions. (author)

  16. Application of the Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb and Sm-Nd systems on the Salobe 3A polymetallic deposit, Carajas Mineral Province, Para, Brazil; Aplicacao dos sistemas Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb e Sm-Nd do deposito polimetalico do Salobo 3A, Provincia Mineral de Carajas, Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellito, Katia Maria

    1998-07-01

    The Salobo 3A polymetallic Cu (Au-Mo-Ag) deposit, located in the northern part of the Carajas Mineral Province, Para, consists of a metavolcano-sedimentary sequence represented by iron formation, amphibolite, schist and quartzite of the Igarape Salobo Group. This rock sequence rest uncomformably on the gneissic basement of the Xingu Complex. The copper mineralization hosted by iron formation consists of bornite-chalcocite and bornite-chalcopyrite disseminations associated with magnetite. The geochronological data determined through the application of the Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Pb-Pb methods, contribute to characterize the complex evolution of both the geological setting and the cupriferous mineralization of the Salobo deposit. The 3.11-2.92 Ga interval (T{sub DM}, Sm-Nd, whole rock) represents the age of the igneous protholith of the gneiss. The {epsilon}{sub Nd} values calculated for the time of the gneiss formation (2859 Ma) vary between +1.02 and -1.08, and indicate a short period between the mantle-crust differentiation epoch and the gneiss formation. Moreover, the {epsilon}{sub Nd} parameter suggest a mantle source with late crustal contamination. The application of the leaching technique allows a gradual extraction of Pb at each leaching step and it was applied to chalcocite and magnetite. The 2762 {+-} 180 Ma and 2776 {+-} 240 Ma ages determined on those minerals are interpreted to be close to the epoch of the formation of the copper mineralization with Uu and Th enrichment and of the iron formation deposition, respectively, in a conventional setting. The leaching technique was also applied to tourmaline from gneiss and quartzite, and the age near to 2400 Ma was attributed to its formation. The random variability of the Pb isotope compositions of the tourmaline together with its petrographic characteristics suggest the boron source is not associated with the metassedimentary rocks of the Igarape Salobo Group. The Sm-Nd mineral isochron attributed to schists yielded an age of 2426 {+-} 13 Ma, ({sup 143} Nd/{sup 144} Nd){sub 0} equal to 0.50936 and MSWD of 1.125, for the formation of the minerals biotite-grunerite-garnet. Transamazonic ages obtained in magnetite from brecciated iron formation (2172{+-} 230 Ma, Pb-Pb) and chloritized gneisses (2135 3{+-}Ma, Rb-Sr, whole rock), are interpreted as related to greenschist facies metamorphic processes. As copper sulfides, gold, molybdenite fill fractured rocks affected by shearing and low grade metamorphism, it is possible that minerals were remobilized, at least in part, during the Transamazonian. The {sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr initial ratio of 0.728 for the Rb-Sr reference isochron shows that such a event affected rocks with sifnificant crustal residence. The high and random {sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr ratios found for tourmaline and carbonate reflect the influence of rocks with significant crustal residence. In conclusion, the analyses of the isotopic data are in accordance with a syngenetic origin for the Salobo copper primary mineralization, and had a polycyclic evolution associated with the Carajas-Cinzento strike-slip system at the northern portion of the Carajas Mineral Province. (author)

  17. La Grotta del Cozzo Palombaro (PA: rivisitazione dell’edito e materiali inediti del Bronzo Antico e Medio siciliano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ardesia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Si presenta una rivisitazione della tipologia e della cronologia dei materiali ceramici editi provenienti dalla grotta di Cozzo del Palombaro (PA, alla luce dello studio completo del complesso, reso possibile dallo studio dei reperti inediti. Si chiarisce l’attribuzione culturale del deposito sulla base di numerosi confronti effettuati con altri contesti del bronzo antico e medio siciliano.

  18. 75 FR 79445 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... DEPOSITO POPULAR DE DROGAS S.A., Cali, Colombia; c/o INVERSIONES Y CONSTRUCCIONES ABC S.A., Cali, Colombia... KRESSFOR DE COLOMBIA S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o INVERSIONES ARA LTDA., Cali, Colombia; c/o VALORES... Foreign Assets Control. [FR Doc. 2010-31804 Filed 12-17-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4810-AL-P ...

  19. 75 FR 21153 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... INVERSIONES RODRIGUEZ MORENO Y CIA. S. EN C., Cali, Colombia; c/o DEPOSITO POPULAR DE DROGAS S.A., Cali, Colombia; c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR LTDA., Bogota, Colombia; DOB 5 Feb 1953; Cedula No. 19194691..., Colombia; c/o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o COOPCREAR, Bogota, Colombia; DOB 2...

  20. Dampak Indikator Makro Ekonomi terhadap Dana Pihak Ketiga Perbankan Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saekhu Saekhu

    2017-10-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis dampak indikator makro ekonomi (suku bunga SBI, nilai tukar, inflasi, Indeks Harga Saham Gabungan Indonesia dan PDB terhadap deposito (Dana Pihak Ketiga Perbankan Syariah di Indonesia. Unit analisis penelitian ini adalah Perbankan Syariah di Indonesia selama periode 1998-2008. Analisis empiris dalam penelitian ini menggunakan data kumpulan waktu agregat periode bulanan dari Januari 2003 sampai Desember 2010. Sumber data diambil dari publikasi Bank Indonesia, berupa Laporan Tahunan Bank Indonesia, Laporan Kebijakan Moneter, Statistik Ekonomi dan Keuangan Indonesia/SEKI, Statistik Perbankan Syariah (SPS dan laporan publikasi Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis Regresi Linier dengan metode Ordinary Least Square (OLS. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa indikator makro ekonomi berdampak pada pendanaan (deposito Bank Syariah Mandiri, suku bunga SBI memiliki dampak negatif, sedangkan nilai tukar, inflasi, Indeks Harga Saham Gabungan Indonesia dan PDB berdampak positif. Berdasarkan metode yang sama, PDB positif terhadap Pendanaan Perbankan Syariah di Indonesia.

  1. Ecotoxicological assessment of some of the main therapeutic groups present in the ‘SIGRE’ containers at pharmacies Valoración ecotoxicológica de algunos de los principales grupos terapéuticos encontrados en depositos SIGRE de oficinas de farmacia Avaliação ecotoxicológica de alguns dos principais grupos terapêuticos encontrados em depósitos SIGRE de farmácias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena García Lobo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Protecting the environment is one of the main challenges of modern society. To this aim, especially in recent years, the European Union (EU has approved legislation establishing the environmental standards that must be met by medicinal products for human and veterinary use, in order to be registered by the regulatory agencies. To minimize as far as possible negative impacts on the environment, the Pharmaceutical Industry has provided a management system exclusively for both empty pharmaceutical packaging and that still containing medicines accumulated in Spanish homes. The Integrated System of Management and Collection of Packaging Waste (SIGRE in the Pharmaceutical Industry is a non-profit organization created for the collection and management of pharmaceutical waste accumulated by citizens in their homes.This study has carried out a pilot project by monitoring the pharmaceutical packaging deposited by the population in containers at two Pharmacies located in the town of Coslada in Madrid. A literature review was also conducted of the ecotoxicological effects of the therapeutic groups most frequently found in the SIGRE containers in this study.La protección del medio ambiente es uno de los principales retos de la sociedad actual. Con este objetivo a lo largo de los últimos años, la Unión Europea (UE ha ido aprobando normativas que establecen normas de carácter medioambiental que deben cumplir los medicamentos de uso humano y veterinario para su registro por las agencias reguladoras. Para reducir al máximo posibles impactos negativos sobre el medio ambiente, la industria farmacéutica ha constituido un sistema de gestión exclusivo para los envases de medicamentos, vacíos o con restos, que se generan en los domicilios españoles. El Sistema Integrado de Gestión y Recogida de Envases (SIGRE del sector farmacéutico, es una entidad sin ánimo de lucro creada para la recogida y gestión de los residuos de medicamentos que los ciudadanos generan.En este trabajo se ha llevado a cabo un estudio piloto sobre los envases depositados por la población en dos oficinas de farmacia situadas en la localidad de Coslada en Madrid, realizando una revisión bibliográfica de los efectos ecotoxicológicos de los grupos terapéuticos más frecuentemente encontrados en los depósitos SIGRE en este estudio.A proteção do meio ambiente é um dos principais desafios da sociedade atual. Com esse objetivo, ao longo dos últimos anos, a União Europeia (UE tem aprovado regulamentos que estabelecem normas de âmbito ambiental que devem ser respeitadas pelos medicamentos de uso humano e veterinário para que os mesmos possam ser registados pelas agências reguladoras. Para minimizar ao máximo possíveis impactos negativos sobre o meio ambiente a indústria farmacêutica desenvolveu um sistema de gestão para embalagens de medicamentos, vazias ou com restos, que são originados nos lares espanhóis. O Sistema Integrado de Gestão e Recolha de Embalagens (SIGRE do sector farmacêutico é uma organização sem fins lucrativos criada para a recolha e gestão de resíduos de medicamentos gerados pelos cidadãos.Neste trabalho desenvolveu-se um estudo piloto sobre as embalagens depositadas pela população em duas farmácias localizadas na localidade de Coslada em Madrid realizando-se uma revisão bibliográfica dos efeitos ecotoxicológicos dos grupos terapêuticos mais frequentemente encontrados nos depósitos SIGRES deste estudo.

  2. 78 FR 28701 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... (a.k.a. ARBOLEDA ARROYAVE, Pedro Nicolas), c/o DEPOSITO POPULAR DE DROGAS S.A., Cali, Colombia; c/ o DISTRIBUIDORA DE DROGAS CONDOR LTDA., Bogota, Colombia; c/o D'CACHE S.A., Cali, Colombia; c/o CREDIREBAJA S.A.... 79620931 (Colombia) (individual) [SDNT]. 3. CUECA VILLARAGA, Hernan, c/o DROGAS LA REBAJA BOGOTA S.A...

  3. Electrodeposition of Ni-Mo nanoparticles for the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction; Electrodepositacion de nanoparticulas de Ni-Mo para la electrocatalisis de la reaccion de evolucion de hidrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videa, M.; Crespo, D.; Casillas, G.; Zavala, G. [Tecnologico de Monterrey Campus Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mail: mvidea@eitesm.mx

    2009-09-15

    This work reports on the generation of nickel- molybdenum deposits from the application of direct current in an electrolytic bath composed of a basic solution of NiSO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H5O7. The working electrodes used were 1mm diameter vitreous carbon discs and carbon felt. The catalytic activity of the deposits was evaluated with cyclic voltamperometry in a 0.72M solution of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Deposits were generated on the vitreous carbon discs, which showed catalytic activity for the HER. Deposits were obtained with better properties, showing a pulse of 200 mA/cm{sup 2}. The 42 mA/cm{sup 2} pulse experiments with varying durations showed that their catalytic capacities are better than expected, in spite of the use of small quantities of charge obtained with 90 ms and 300s. Low activity was observed in the absence of MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in the electrolytic bath during the electrodeposition process, indicating the importance of the presence of Mo to the catalytic activity. The deposits were inspected using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Though the electrodeposition on carbon felt is possible, the experiments were not reproducible because control over the active area of the electrode is difficult to achieve. NiMo nanoparticles on carbon filter fibers can be obtained using pulses with sufficient intensity and duration. [Spanish] En este trabajo se reporta la generacion de depositos de niquel-molibdeno mediante la aplicacion de corriente directa en un bano electrolitico compuesto por una solucion basica de NiSO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} y Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H5O7. Se utilizaron como electrodos de trabajo discos de carbon vitreo de 1mm de diametro y fieltro de carbono. La actividad catalitica de los depositos fue evaluada mediante voltamperometria ciclica en una solucion 0.72M de H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Sobre los electrodos de carbon vitreo se generaron depositos que mostraron actividad catalitica para la REH. Depositos con mejores propiedades

  4. Influence of thermosiphonic flow with the height tank relative to a flat solar collector; Influencia del flujo termosifonico con la altura del termotanque relativo a un colector solar plano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera C, Enrique; Arias T, Jorge E; Lugo L, Raul; Cano M, Francisco J [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work the effect of the height of the storage tank, with respect to a solar collector is studied. In order to obtain an adequate operation of the thermosiphonic flow system, the storage tank must be located above the upper part of the solar collector, although the height it has not been specified. In order to study this aspect, we studied the operation of a flat solar collector, in thermosiphonic regime, heated with a source of artificial energy (solar simulator based on tungsten lamps). The temperature profiles of storage deposit (temperature stratification) were analyzed as a function of different storage tank heights, which influence the storage tank temperatures profile and the inlet and outlet water temperature of the solar collector. These experiments also affect the thermosiphonic flow and, therefore the efficiency of the solar collector. In each experiment the same solar radiation level was used, which let us make sensitive comparisons regarding just the parameters of interest. The results obtained are reported. [Spanish] En este trabajo, se estudia el efecto de la altura del deposito de almacenamiento, respecto de un colector solar. Se sabe que para que se obtenga un funcionamiento adecuado de un sistema de flujo termosifonico, el deposito debe situarse por encima del colector solar, aunque no se ha especificado, cual puede ser una mejor altura. Con el fin de estudiar esta problematica en el presente trabajo se investigo el funcionamiento de un colector solar plano, en regimen termosifonico, accionado con una fuente de energia artificial (simulador solar basado en lamparas de tungsteno); se analizan los perfiles de temperatura del deposito de almacenamiento como funcion de las diferentes alturas estudiadas, los cuales son claves en el perfil de temperatura del agua de entrada y salida del colector solar, del flujo termosifonico alcanzado y por tanto de la eficiencia del colector solar. En cada experimento realizado, se utilizo el mismo nivel de

  5. Tafonomia y evolución sedimentaria del plioceno marino en el litoral sur de España, entre Cadiz y Almeria

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Rodríguez, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Dentro del plioceno marino del sur peninsular se reconocen dos grandes conjuntos de materiales, separados por una discordancia angular, producida por un levantamiento tectónico del conjunto Bético-Rifeño y mar de Alboran.el conjunto inferior, denominado plioceno 1, pertenece al plioceno inferior y parte baja del plioceno superior. Se deposito en una plataforma continental, afectada por tormentas, que se extendió a lo largo del perímetro sur de España. Los fósiles muestran rasgos de preservaci...

  6. Effect of V addition on the hardness, adherence and friction coefficient of VC coatings produced by thermo-reactive diffusion deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Fredy Alejandro Orjuela-Guerrero; José Edgar Alfonso-Orjuela; Jhon Jairo Olaya-Flórez

    2015-01-01

    Se produjeron recubrimientos de carburo de vanadio (VC) sobre sustratos de acero AISI H13 y acero AISI D2 mediante deposito termoreactiva/ difusión (TRD) con el fin de evaluar sus propiedades mecánicas como una función del contenido de vanadio. Los recubrimientos se producen con diferentes porcentajes de concentración de ferrovanadio. La composición química de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante fluorescencia de rayos X (XRF), la estructura cristalina se analizó utilizando difracción de ...

  7. Substrate temperature study in the crystallinity of BaTiO{sub 3} thin films; Estudio de la temperatura de crecimiento sobre la cristalinidad en peliculas delgadas de BaTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Herrera, Alfredo [Coordinacion Academica Region Altiplano (COARA), Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: amarquez@mixteco.utm.mx; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Eric Noe; Zapata-Torres, Martin Guadalupe [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)]. E-mails: noehmx@hotmail.com; mzapatat@ipn.mx; Cruz-Jauregui, Maria de la Paz [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: mcruz@cnyn.unam.mx; Melendez-Lira, Miguel angel [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)]. E-mail: mlira@fis.cinvestav.mx

    2013-07-15

    Ferroelectric thin films of BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) were grown on quartz and nichrome substrates using a BaTiO{sub 3} target by RF-Sputtering technique. It was studied the effect of the substrate temperature in the crystallization of the material. These samples were compared with films deposited at room temperature and heat treated out of the growth Chamber. Their crystallinity were studied by X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the optical characterizations were carried out by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The growth of thin films with substrate temperature allows the obtaining of crystalline materials at temperatures below those reported by other authors. [Spanish] Peliculas delgadas Ferroelectricas de BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) se depositaron a partir de un blanco de BaTiO{sub 3} mediante la tecnica de RF-Sputtering (erosion catodica por radio frecuencia) sobre substratos de nicromel y cuarzo. Se estudio el efecto de la temperatura de sustrato in-situ en la cristalinidad del material durante su deposito. Estas muestras fueron comparadas con peliculas depositadas a temperatura ambiente y tratadas termicamente posterior al deposito fuera de la camara de crecimiento. El estudio de la cristalinidad fue realizado mediante la tecnica de difraccion de rayos-X. Adicionalmente, se llevaron a cabo caracterizaciones opticas mediante un espectrofotometro UV-Vis. El crecimiento de peliculas delgadas con temperatura de sustrato permite la obtencion de materiales cristalinos a temperaturas por debajo de las reportadas por otros autores.

  8. The effects of canopy cover on throughfall and soil chemistry in two forest sites in the Mexico City air basin; Los efectos de la cobertura de dosel en disminucion y la quimica del suelo en dos lugares de bosque en la cuenca de aire de la Ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Suarez, M. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICYT), San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)]. E-mail: marlin@ipicyt.edu.mx; Fenn, M.E. [United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Fire Laboratory, Riverside, California (United States); Cetina-Alcala, V.M.; Aldrete, A. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Colegio de Postgraduados, Montecillo, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Throughfall and soil chemistry were compared in two sites with differing atmospheric deposition: Desierto de los Leones National Park (high atmospheric deposition) and Zoquiapan National Park (low atmospheric deposition). Throughfall fluxes of NO{sub 3}-, SO{sub 4}{sup 2}-, Ca, Mg and K were compared under two canopy cover types: Abies religiosa Schl. (fir) and Pinus hartwegii Lindl. (pine), in comparison with sites without cover canopy, e.g. forests clearings. Throughfall fluxes decreased in the following order: fir > pine > forest clearing. Nitrogen balance under canopy of fir and pine resulted in negative values for net throughfall of NH{sub 4}+ at Desierto de los Leones and Zoquiapan, while NO{sub 3}-, only resulted in negative values under canopy cover at the low deposition site. With few exceptions, concentrations of total C, N and S, soluble SO{sub 4}{sup 2}-, and Ca{sub 2}+ were higher in soil under fir canopies than under pine or in forest clearings. In polluted sites, the densely foliated fir canopies generally resulted in higher throughfall fluxes and soil accumulation of N, S and Mg compared to pine canopies or open areas. The elevated atmospheric depositions affect the functional process of forest ecosystem, particularly the throughfall and nutrients intern cycle, and these effects depend of the cover and present tree species. [Spanish] El escurrimiento foliar y la quimica del suelo fueron comparados en dos sitios con diferente deposito atmosferico: el Parque Nacional Desierto de los Leones (alto deposito atmosferico) y el Parque Nacional Zoquiapan (bajo deposito atmosferico). Se compararon los flujos de NO{sub 3}-, SO{sub 4}{sup 2}-, Ca, Mg y K en el escurrimiento foliar bajo el dosel de dos especies de arboles: Abies religiosa Schl. (oyamel) y Pinus hartwegii Lindl. (pino), en comparacion con sitios sin cobertura, es decir en claros del bosque. Los flujos disminuyeron en el siguiente orden: oyamel >pino >claros. El consumo de N del dosel resulto en

  9. The use of multivariate analysis to link sediment contamination and toxicity data to establish sediment quality guidelines: an example in the Gulf of Cadiz (Spain); El uso del analisis multivariante en la union de datos de toxicidad y contaminacion para establecer guias de calidad de sedimento: Un ejemplo en la Bahia de Cadiz (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valls, T. Angel; Forja, Jesus M [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz, (Spain); Gomez-Parra, Abelardo [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, CSIC, Puerto Real, Cadiz, (Spain)

    1998-03-01

    which biological effects have been shown to be minimal (mg kg{sup -}1 dry sediment), are: Hg, 0.25; Ag, 0.78; Pb, 66.80; Cr, 101.2; LAS, 2.6. [Spanish] Para evaluar la calidad de los sedimentos marinos en el Golfo de Cadiz, los datos provenientes de concentraciones quimicas y respuestas de toxicidad en sedimentos fueron unidos usando el analisis ultivariante. Las muestras de sedimentos fueron recogidas sinopticamente en siete estaciones de dos ecosistemas litorales en el Golfo de Cadiz (cinco en la Bahia de Cadiz y dos en las marismas del rio Barbate) y fueron sujetas a seis tests de toxicidad de forma independiente y replicada, asi como a analisis quimicos. Los efectos toxicos en los sedimentos se chequearon utilizando tres fases operativas del sedimento: sedimento bruto, utilizando el anfipodo Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (10 d estatico: supervivencia) y la almeja de estuario Ruditapes philippinarum (48 h estatico: enterramiento); extracto de sedimento, utilizando larvas del bivalvo de estuario Crassostrea angulata (48 h estatico: supervivencia) y del pez marino Sparus aurata (48 h estatico: supervivencia); y agua intersticial, utilizando poblaciones del rotifero de estuario Brachionus plicatilis (7 d estatico: decaimiento de la poblacion) y de la bacteria marina Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox ). Para evaluar los niveles de contaminacion se determinaron las concentraciones en los sedimentos de carbono organico, 14 metales traza (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ag, Hg, As, Sn, V, Ni, Co y Cr) y el detergente alquibencenosulfonato lineal (LAS). Los resultados de los ensayos de toxicidad se compararon mediante relaciones de respuesta entre las diferentes estaciones, demostrando una concordancia general entre los valores de toxicidad determinados en todos los tests, excepto en el caso de la toxicidad en el agua intersticial (principalmente debido a mezclas de metales traza toxicas). Los datos obtenidos en los ensayos quimicos y de toxicidad se ensamblaron utilizando tecnicas

  10. Corrosion of high temperature resisting alloys exposed to heavy fuel ash; Corrosion de aleaciones resistentes a altas temperaturas expuestas a ceniza de combustoleo pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Moreno, Adriana del Carmen

    1998-03-01

    aleaciones de diferente tipo (aceros de baja y media aleacion, aceros inoxidables ferriticos y austeniticos, aleaciones base niquel y una aleacion FeCrAl del tipo ODS) expuestas a temperaturas elevadas (580 grados Celsius - 900 grados Celsius) a 15 depositos de ceniza con diferente potencial corrosivo, los cuales fueron colectados de la zona de alta temperatura de calderas de centrales termoelectricas. Los estudios posteriores a los ensayos de corrosion consistieron en el analisis por microscopia electronica de barrido apoyada con microanalisis de las probetas corroidas, con el fin de determinar el efecto de Na, V y S sobre la corrosividad de los depositos de ceniza y el efecto de los principales elementos aleantes sobre la resistencia a la corrosion de las aleaciones. Tales efectos son ampliamente documentados y discutidos para apoyar los mecanismos propuestos de degradacion que estan operando. El analisis global de los resultados generados ha permitido proponer un modelo para explicar el mecanismo global de corrosion de aleaciones expuestas a altas temperaturas de depositos de ceniza. El modelo propuesto, complementa el elaborado por Wilson, ampliamente aceptado para vanadatos fundidos, en cuanto a que por un lado, considera el efecto de la presencia de sulfato de sodio (ademas de los compuestos de vanadio) en los depositos, y por otro, lo extiende a temperaturas mas altas que el punto de fusion de los compuestos de vanadio constituyentes de los depositos. Ambos aspectos involucran el considerar el papel que el proceso de difusion de especies tiene sobre la degradacion y la capacidad de proteccion de la aleacion. La investigacion realizada permitio confirmar lo establecido por el modelo de Wilson para depositos con alto contenido de vanadio y muy bajo contenido de azufre, a las temperaturas proximas al punto de fusion de los compuestos de vanadio que los constituyen. El desarrollo de los procesos de deterioro metalico que se incluyen en el modelo propuesto fue documentado

  11. The natural gas market in North-America. The evolution of the Mexican gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, Gerry [Canadian Energy Research Institute (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    This study by Petro Consultants of Houston suggests that Mexican gas can compete with United States gas. First, the resource base is relatively immature and prospects are good for the discovery of large pools with low per unit finding, development and production costs. Second, the resources are considered to be producible using conventional methods. There were 11 basins to consider for Mexico in this survey. [Spanish] Este estudio realizado por Petro Consultants sugiere que el gas mexicano puede competir con el gas de los Estados Unidos. Primero, la base del recurso esta relativamente inmadura y los prospectos para el descubrimiento de grandes depositos son buenos, con costos unitarios de localizacion, desarrollo y produccion bajos. Segundo, se considera que los recursos son capaces de producir usando metodos convencionales. Existian 11 cuencas por considerar en Mexico, en este estudio.

  12. Extraction, identification and quantification of heavy metals in Venice lagoon sediments using toxicity tests with microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarini, F.; Rampazzo, G.; Volpi Ghirardini, A.; Sperni, L.; Salizzato, M.; Pavoni, B. [Venice Univ., Venice (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali

    2000-02-01

    Sediments are the major sink for metal pollutants in the aquatic ecosystem but also an important source for the release of them in the water. In order to assess the contribution of heavy metals to the total sediment toxicity, a methodology that permits to integrate the chemical approach with a direct toxicological approach has been ste up. Toxicological results using Microtox test are compared with analytical results. [Italian] I sedimenti sono il principale deposito per contaminanti metalli nel''ecosistema acquatico, ma anche una fonte importnate di rilascio nell'acqua. Al fine di valutare il contributo dei metalli pesanti alla tossicita' totale del sedimento, e' stata messa a punto una metodologia che permette di integrare l'appoccio chimico con un approccio tossicologico diretto. I risultati dei test di tossicita' Microtox vengono confrontati con i risultati analitici.

  13. ANALISIS ASIMETRI INFORMASI KEUANGAN DAN NON KEUANGAN (STUDI BANK SYARIAH DI SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Yulianto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis informasi asimetri keuangan dan non-keuangan. Dalam mengukur kondisi bank, pelanggan akan mencari informasi sebanyak mungkin mengenai kinerja keuangan. Sampelnya terdiri dari 90 orang staf manajemen bank dan 300 pelanggan. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan ekspektasi antara pelanggan, tabungan pelanggan, giro pelanggan, pendanaan pelanggan dan manajemen dalam hal pengiriman informasi keuangan. Sementara itu ada perbedaan antara deposito pelanggan dan manajemen This study aims at analysing financial and non-financial asymmetry information. The sample consists of 90 people of the bank management staff and 300 bank customers. The results of the study show that there is no expectation gap between customers, customers’saving, customers’giro, customers’ funding, and management in terms of financial information delivery. Meanwhile, there is a gap between customers’ deposit and management.

  14. L'impatto potenziale dell'ECU privato sulla stabilità di cambio globale ed europea. (The private ECU’s potential impact on global and European exchange rate stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. JAGER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo esamina i potenziali vantaggi e svantaggi della creazione di mercati ben sviluppati European Currency Unit (ECU di deposito e di credito nell'ambito della CEE. I principali svantaggi potenziali sono la maggiore velocità di creazione dell'ECU e del Sistema monetario (SME movimenti intra europeo dei depositi ECU . I vantaggi potenziali dovrebbero includere una migliore efficienza nei mercati monetari , un impulso a una maggiore integrazione monetaria e coordinamento politico nello SMEThis article examines the potential advantages and disadvantages of the creation of well-developed European Currency Unit (ECU deposit and credit markets within the EEC. The major potential disadvantages are the higher speed of ECU creation and of intra-European Monetary System (EMS movements of ECU deposits. The potential advantages would include improved efficiency in the money markets, an impetus to greater monetary integration and policy co-ordination in the EMS.JEL: F15, F36, E42

  15. Sistem Informasi Koperasi Modul Simpanan Berbasis Android Terintegrasi Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Erick Pursana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sistem informasi koperasi berbasis android terintegrasi dengan aplikasi berbasis web merupakan aplikasi yang di buat untuk memudahkan kolektor dalam melakukan transaksi dengan anggota koperasi, pada aplikasi koperasi berbasis android terdapat fitur transaksi pada simpanan seperti transaksi simpanan pokok, transaksi simpanan wajib dan transaksi simpanan tabungan, dana aplikasi koperasi berbasis web memiliki fitur transaksi simpanan pokok, wajib, tabungan, deposito, bunga simpanan serta report harian dan report bulanan. Aplikasi koperasi berbasis web di buat menggunakan bahasa pemrograman HTML dan PHP serta basis data MySQL, sedangkan aplikasi koperasi berbasis android dibuat menggunakan metode Hybrid yaitu gabungan dari JAVA Native dengan metode Web View.   Kata Kunci : Koperasi, Sistem Informasi, Android, PHP, Web View

  16. EFFECT OF DRYING METHODS ON THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF BLACKBERRY PULP POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLORIA I. GIRALDO GÓMEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron cuatros clases de polvos deshidratados de mora encapsulados con maltodextrina utilizando secado por vibro-fluidizacion (VF, por aspersion (SD vacio (VD y liofilizacion (FD. Se determinaron los datos de de humedad de equilibrio de los polvos de pulpa de mora con 18% de maltodextrina a temperaturas de 20, 30, 40 y 50°C usando el metodo estatico gravimetrico para el intervalo de actividad de agua entre 0.06.0.90. Los valores experimentales del contenido de humedad de equilibrio en funcion de la actividad de agua fueron ajustados con el modelo de Guggenheim.Anderson.de Boer (GAB hallandose una buena concordancia entre los valores experimentales y los calculados. El calor isosterico de sorcion, calculado utilizando la ecuacion de Clausius.Clapeyron a partir de los datos de equilibrio, se incremento con el aumento de la temperatura y fue ajustado con una relacion exponencial. Para muestras de polvos liofilizadas, vibrofluidizadas y a vacio, el calor de sorcion fue menor (mas negativo que los calculados para muestras secas en el secador por aspersion. La teoria de la compensacion entalpia-entropia fue aplicada a las isotermas de sorcion y de las graficas de AH contra AS se obtuvieron las temperaturas isocineticas, indicando un proceso de sorcion controlado por la entalpia.

  17. Buchi neri nel mio bagno di schiuma l’enigma di Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Vishveshwara, C V

    2008-01-01

    "Le bolle stavano turbinando tutto intorno a me e massaggiavano il mio corpo ... Mentre me la godevo in questo fantastico bagno di bolle, i miei occhi si fecero pesanti e mi lasciaii trasportare in un dormiveglia sublimamente estatico". Così inizia l’incontro di Alfie con una vasca da bagno eccezionale e rivelatrice, acquistata da un vicino misterioso di nome Al. L’Enigma di Einstein, ovvero buchi neri nel mio bagno di schiuma, racconta la storia della teoria della gravitazione, dai suoi primordi fino agli ultimi sviluppi in astrofisica, focalizzandosi sulla teoria della relatività generale di Albert Einstein e sulla fisica dei buchi neri. Tramite conversazioni avvincenti e diagrammi scarabocchiati su tovaglioli di carta, si susseguono a ruota i rudimenti della relatività, dello spazio-tempo e di molti aspetti della fisica moderna. In scenette narrate con abilità pedagogica e notevole talento letterario, il lettore s’imbatterà nelle lezioni informali che un astrofisico cosmopolita tiene al suo amic...

  18. Strategi Pengembangan Portofolio Produk Investasi Bank ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampor Ali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article particularly aimed to analyze the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of the investment products. Assessing the environmental factors that affect the attractiveness of the industry and the business Strength of investment product in wealth management division in GE matrix provides recommendations of the alternative strategy for investment products in the future. The formulation of strategies product development was carried out using a portfolio analysis of Matrix General Electric (GE. The GE Matrix showed that the deposit product and retirement savings were in the first quadrant while attraction or interest in the industry was still high. Savings products were in quadrant II Planning, indicating that the company had a high business strength, but the attractiveness of the industry for these categories was in the normal position. The bancassurance products, bonds and mutual funds were in quadrant III where at this phase of the company business Strength was in the normal position, and the attractiveness of the market or industry was also in the normal position. Strategies for the development of deposits and retirement savings products included the market development and product development strategies. Savings Product Planning used penetration and product development whereas the Bancassurance products, bonds and mutual funds used market penetration strategy.Keywords: bank, wealth management, portfolio analysis, GE matrixAbstrak: Penelitian bertujuan melakukan analisa kekuatan, kelemahan, peluang serta ancaman produk investasi. Mengkaji faktor lingkungan yang memengaruhi daya tarik industri dan kekuatan bisnis produk investasi di divisi wealth management dalam bentuk matrik portofolio produk, sehingga dapat memberikan rekomendasi strategi alternatif terhadap produk investasi di masa depan. Rumusan strategi pengembangan portofolio menggunakan Matriks General Electric (GE. Hasil Matriks GE menunjukkan bahwa produk deposito dan

  19. Project of energy saving in compressed air; Proyecto de ahorro de energia en aire comprimido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Automatizacion, Productividad y Calidad S.A. de C.V. Puebla, (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this project is to reduce the operation costs by means of the energy saving through the use of the compressed air system. For this purpose the solenoid valves controlled per time and the manually acted valves of sphere must be replaced by pneumatic purges that remove from the system the condensed humidity without discharging air and which act automatically when the water reaches the level of unloading in its deposit. The pressure level is the reduction of the operation rank of pressure in the compressors, satisfying the operation requirements of the process equipment. [Spanish] El objetivo de este proyecto es reducir el costo de operacion mediante el ahorro de energia en la utilizacion del sistema de aire comprimido. Para ello se tienen que remplazar las valvulas solenoides controladas por tiempo y valvulas de esfera actuadas manualmente por purgas neumaticas que remueven del sistema la humedad condensada sin descargar aire y que actuan en forma automatica al alcanzar el agua el nivel de descarga en su deposito. El nivel de presion es la reduccion del rango de operacion de presion de los compresores, satisfaciendo los requerimientos de operacion de los equipos de proceso.

  20. Città esattamente altrove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Clemente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available L’architetto percepisce il fenomeno urbano come sconcertante, inquietante, sorprendente. Ma non va oltre. Avverte che l’immagine della città non oltrepassa l’effetto retinico. Lo stupore di un attimo. Si rende conto che la sua forma sfugge alla mente. Scomparendo senza lasciare nessuna deposito figurativo. La situazione non è nuova. Nel 1867 viene pubblicata la Teoria General de la Urbanizacion di Ildefonso Cerdà. Questo l’incipit: «l’urbe è un nodo nella viabilità universale». Un’intuizione che segna l’inizio del processo che porterà la città ad occupare territori sconfinati. E ad archiviare la strumentazione del passato come obsoleta. La situazione odierna è analoga. Ecco perché occorre tornare a riflettere sullo sforzo compiuto da Cerdà per riconquistare il futuro. Per aprire a scenari possibili. Per andare incontro a ciò che verrà. A partire da termini che possano riavvicinarsi alle cose. Da vocaboli in grado di aderire maggiormente alla realtà. Da parole nuove.

  1. BNI aperta e in cooperazione: come e perché

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bellingeri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A seguito della crisi economica che ha colpito l'Italia negli ultimi anni si è avuta una contrazione delle risorse economiche messe a disposizione delle biblioteche italiane, specialmente di quelle dipendenti dal MIBACT.  In tale contesto, la Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze e l'agenzia bibliografica nazionale che da essa dipende hanno subito un ridimensionamento del loro prodotto, la Bibliografia Nazionale Italiana, condizionata dalla grave contrazione del numero degli addetti alla sua redazione. La ricerca di soluzioni per far fronte alla difficile situazione ha portato a due importanti decisioni che fanno perno sul concetto di natura di servizio pubblico e sul principio della cooperazione. La prima ha portato alla pubblicazione della Bibliografia Nazionale Italiana in forma libera e gratuita sul sito della Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, a decorrere dallo scorso 30 maggio, consentendo alla BNI di mettersi al passo con le principali bibliografie nazionali europee. La seconda consiste nell'avvio di un progetto collaborativo che, seppur confermando il coordinamento bibliografico, la gestione informatica ed il controllo redazionale finale alla Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, si basa sull'apporto di alcune biblioteche di poli SBN dotate di precise caratteristiche di copertura da deposito legale e di specializzazione disciplinare, dando vita ad una Bibliografia Nazionale Italiana cooperativa.

  2. Mineralogy and geochemistry of sulfide-bearing tailings from silver mines in the Taxco, Mexico area to evaluate their potential environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talavera Mendoza, Oscar [Escuela Regional de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Autonoma de Guerrero, Taxco, Guerrero (Mexico); Yta, Miriam [Universidad Tecnologica de Tulancingo, Tulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Moreno Tovar, Raul [Instituto de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenierias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Dotor Almazan, Azucena; Flores Mundo, Nestor [Escuela Regional de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Autonoma de Guerrero, Taxco, Guerrero (Mexico); Duarte Gutierrez, Carlos [Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2005-01-15

    Six sulfide-bearing, flotation tailings dams and one waste-rock dump from epithermal Pb-Zn-Ag-Cu deposits in Taxco, Guerrero have been mineralogically and geochemically characterized to evaluate their potential environmental impact. Primary phases are dominated by quartz and rock fragments with scarce feldspar, barite and ferromagnesian. Calcite is found in the less oxidized tailings. Primary sulfides are pyrite and sphalerite with some pyrrothite, galena, chalcopyrite, Ag-sulfosalts and arsenopyrite. In oxidized zones, sulfides are low or absent. Secondary phases are widespread and include gypsum, chalcocite, keoheite, nimite, hetaerolite, jarosite, smithsonite, bernalite, epsonite, rozenite, pickeringite, hexahydrite, bassanite, boyleite, hematite, scorodite, cryptocrystalline and amorphous precipitates and poorly crystallized Fe-oxyhydroxides. EDS analysis suggests that adsorption is important in the retention of metals. All Taxco tailings and waste-rock dumps show high concentrations of total Ag (9.5 74.2 mg/kg), Cd (1.0-780 mg/kg), Cu (71.8-1320 mg/kg), Fe (2.49-25.1%), Mn (18.6-13 800 mg/kg), Pb (780-43 700 mg/kg), V (2.0-127 mg/kg), Zn (380->10 000 mg/kg) and As (19.0-11 800 mg/kg) exceeding the regional background concentrations in crop soils. Contents of water-soluble metals are heterogeneous but contain significant amounts of toxic metals (e.g. Cd = <0.005-19.2 mg/L; Cu <0.025-63 mg/L; Fe = >0.025-1105 mg/L; Pb = <0.025-0.655 mg/L; As <0.010-1.79 mg/L), particularly from highly oxidized zones. The release is primarily controlled by pH. Sulfide oxidation and generation of AMD are coupled by dissolution, neutralization via calcite, reprecipitation and adsorption. [Spanish] Seis depositos de jales y un terrero resultantes de la explotacion de los depositos epitermales de Pb-Zn-Ag-Cu de la region de Taxco, Guerrero han sido caracterizados mineralogicamente (microscopia optica, MEB y XRD) y geoquimicamente (EDS, metales totales y solubles en agua) para estimar

  3. MANAJEMEN PENGELOLAAN BAITUL MALL; DOKTRIN, SEJARAH DAN IMPLEMENTASINYA DALAM UPAYA MENGEMBANGKAN PEREKONOMIAN RAKYAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Hidayatullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Baitul malll merupakan bidang sosial, yang bergerak dalam penggalangan dana zakat, infak, sedekah dan dana-dana sosial lain untuk kepentingan sosial secara terpola dan ber-kesinambungan. Sesuatu yang revolusioner yang dilakukan oleh Rosulullah SAW adalah pembentukan lembaga penyimpanan yang disebut Baitul Mall. Apa yang dilaksanakan Rasul itu merupakan proses penerimaan pendapatan (revenue collection dan pembelanjaan (expenditure yang transparan. Sedangkan baitul tamwil, merupakan bidang bisnis yang menjadi penyangga operasional BMT. Bidang tamwil ini bergerak dalam penggalangan dana masyarakat dalam bentuk ; simpanan (tabungan dan deposito serta menyalurkan dalam bentuk pembiayaan usaha mikro dengan sistem ; jual beli, bagi hasil maupun jasa. baitul mall merupakan lembaga ekonomi yang berorientasi social keagamaan yang kegiatan utamanya menampung harta masyarakat dari berbagai sumber termasuk zakat, dan menyalurkannya untuk tujuan mewujudkan kemaslahatan umat dan bangsa dalam arti seluas-luasnya. Praktik pada zaman sekarang berupa baitul mall wattamwil, juga berjuang membantu perekonomian rakyat menengah kebawah. Dengan praktek pinjaman yang sama-sama berorientasi mendapatkan keuntungan dan kerugian bersama. Masyarakat bisa lebih mempraktekkan perekonomianya yang sesuai dengan praktiknya pada zaman nabi dulu yakni berekonomi yang sesuai dengan syariat Islam. Berekonomi yang seimbang antara dunia dan akhirat.

  4. Espadas y puñales del bronce final: el depósito de armas de Puertollano (Ciudad Real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero Ruiz, Ignacio

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the technological study of a new Late Bronce Age hoard found in Puertollano (Ciudad Real. This hoard is a singular found in the context of Iberian Peninsula due to the number of items (14 swords and daggers and 1 fragment of ferrule and all of them are weapons. Elemental analysis by PIXE shows a Copper-Tin alloy with very low impurity pattern. A general comment about the real use of this weapons is included.

    Se presenta el estudio tecnológico de un nuevo depósito del Bronce Final aparecido en Puertollano (Ciudad Real. Compuesto exclusivamente por armas (14 espadas y puñales y un fragmento de regatón constituye un deposito singular entre los conocidos en la Península ibérica. Se incluyen los análisis de composición mediante técnica PIXE que indican que todas las piezas son bronces binarios Cu-Sn con bajo nivel de impurezas. Se discute sobre la funcionalidad y uso práctico de estas producciones armamentísticas.

  5. Thickness calculation software of the thermal insulation in facilities using thermal solar energy; Software para el calculo de espesores del aislante termico en instalaciones de aprovechamiento de energia solar termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portillo Jimenez, Canek [Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico)]. E-mail: cnk@uas.uasnet.mx

    2010-11-15

    It is presented a software application for calculating the thickness of the thermal insulation used in various facilities where there are thermal systems using solar energy. The software facilitates the calculation of the thermal cover thickness over components such as pipes (flat or round), storage and other devices that require thermal protection, installed in outdoors or indoors. The software was programmed in Visual Basic by following the technical specifications of the current regulations in the field. Application examples are performed, obtaining certain results that are discussed briefly. [Spanish] Se presenta un software de aplicacion para el calculo de los espesores de los aislantes termicos, utilizados en diferentes instalaciones donde existen sistemas de aprovechamiento termico de energia solar. El software facilita el calculo del grosor del recubrimiento termico en componentes tales como: tuberias (planas o circulares), depositos acumuladores y otros aparatos que necesiten proteccion termica, instalados en exteriores o en interiores. El software fue programado en Visual Basic siguiendo las especificaciones tecnicas de la normatividad vigente en la materia. Se realizan ejemplos de aplicacion, donde se obtienen ciertos resultados de los cuales se hace una breve discusion.

  6. Multi-Focusing Procedure based on the Inexact-Newton Method for Electromagnetic Subsurface Prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salucci, Marco; Oliveri, Giacomo; Massa, Andrea; Randazzo, Andrea; Pastorino, Matteo

    2014-05-01

    "bare" approach. This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar". [1] S. Caorsi, M. Donelli, D. Franceschini, and A. Massa, "A New Methodology Based on an Iterative Multiscaling for Microwave Imaging," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1162-1173, Apr. 2003. [2] C. Estatico, M. Pastorino, and A. Randazzo, "An Inexact-Newton Method for Short-Range Microwave Imaging Within the Second-Order Born Approximation," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 2593-2605, Nov. 2005.

  7. Stress analysis in the last stage blade of a geothermal turbine under different excitation conditions; Analisis de esfuerzos en el alabe de la ultima etapa de turbina geotermica bajo diferentes condiciones de excitacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Alcazar, Rony Ediberto

    2009-11-15

    The blades of the steam turbines operate below severe conditions of pressure, temperature and steam flow, and at high rotary speeds too. These excitements generate states of stress, which depending on its magnitude and time of application; they can threaten the structural reliability of these mechanical components. In this work a stress analysis is realized in a blade L-0 of a geothermal turbine of low pressure, by means of the finite element method, by the aim to determine the states of static stress caused by the combined action of the centrifugal force and pressure of system flow, and dynamic stresses caused by the harmonic fluctuation in the steam flow. The analysis is realized under two superficial conditions in the blade: without presence of superficial damage and with presence of erosion in the bottom part of the trailing edge. The combined action of these conditions of stress is evaluated by means of an analysis of fatigue. This allows knowing the influence of the stress calculated, on the useful life of the blade. [Spanish] Los alabes de turbinas de vapor operan bajo condiciones severas de presion, temperatura y flujo de vapor, asi como a altas velocidades rotativas. Estas excitaciones generan estados de esfuerzos, que dependiendo de su magnitud y tiempo de aplicacion, pueden amenazar la confiabilidad estructural de estos componentes mecanicos. En este trabajo se realiza un analisis de esfuerzos en un alabe L-0 de una turbina geotermica de baja presion, mediante el metodo de elemento finito, con el objetivo de determinar los estados de esfuerzos estaticos causados por la accion combinada de la carga por fuerza centrifuga y presion de flujo de vapor, y esfuerzos dinamicos causados por la fluctuacion armonica en el flujo de vapor. El analisis se realiza bajo dos condiciones superficiales en el alabe: sin presencia de dano superficial y con presencia de erosion en la parte inferior del borde de salida. La accion combinada de estos estados de esfuerzos se

  8. Characterization of the voltage control systems and speed of a synchronous machine of high power for short circuit testing; Caracterizacion de los sistemas de control de voltaje y velocidad de una maquina sincrona de alta potencia para pruebas de corto circuito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura Ozuna, Victor Octavio; Hernandez Rodriguez, Isaura Victoria; Alcaide Godinez, Indira Xochiquetzal; Garduno Ramirez, Raul; Montero Cervantes, Julio Cesar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ruiz Rodriguez, Genaro; Martinez Torres; Ricardo [CFE-LAPEM, Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    electricos, segun lo requiere la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en Mexico. La GCC opera alternativamente como motor y generador; al operar como motor, el control de velocidad durante el arranque, la aceleracion, la reaceleracion y el frenado se llevan a cabo mediante un convertidor de frecuencia estatico (CFES). De modo complementario, el controlador de voltaje maneja la potencia de excitacion para controlar el voltaje de terminal cuando la GCC opera como generador y regula la corriente de excitacion cuando la GCC opera como motor. En comparacion con los sistemas de regulacion de voltaje.

  9. Quantitative physic behavior of fine soils: collapsible aeolian and expansive residual; Comportamiento fisico cuantitativo de los suelos finos: eolicos colapsibles y residuales expansivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert-Wiechers, L. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-06-01

    apoyan sobre ellos. De ahi la necesidad de conocer los parametros cuantitativos que rigen el comportamiento estatico y dinamico de este tipo de suelos en relacion con los cambios ambientales de humedad. La investigacion basica es importante y necesaria en mecanica de suelos e ingenieria de cimentaciones, y debera efectuarse en los diferentes tipos de suelos que se encuentran en la naturaleza. Se muestran las curvas de compresibilidad de sedimentos eolicos finos, asi como curva de colapsos por hidratacion de suelo tipo loessial. Se presenta una figura de la relacion de colapsos, de esfuerzos y finalmente se da una tabla de los elementos.

  10. Theorical and experimental study of the induced forces by the mixed, divergent, convergent and straight labyrinth of seal systems on the steam turbines, gas turbines and compressor rotors; Estudio teorico-experimental de las fuerzas inducidas por los sistemas de sellos de laberinto rectos, convergentes, divergentes y mixtos sobre los rotores de turbinas de vapor, turbinas de gas y compresores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar San Andres, Octavio Ramon

    1991-12-31

    demuestran que el modelo es capaz de dar una vision cualitativa y cuantitativa de las fuerzas y los coeficientes de rigidez y amortiguamiento de los sellos de laberinto con las geometrias antes mencionadas, tanto para el rotor estatico como en operacion. Por otra parte se recomienda llevar a cabo mas experimentacion con equipo instalado en plantas termoelectricas y en especial en turbinas de vapor con capacidades iguales o superiores a los 300 MW, donde las altas presiones y los sellos localizados en la parte superior de los alabes, vuelven mas susceptibles a las maquinas para autoinducir vibraciones subsincronas.

  11. STRUKTUR MODAL DAN MODAL KERJA PT XYZ SERTA PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP KINERJA PERUSAHAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung Setiono

    2017-01-01

    (Automatic Teller Machine dan EDC (Electronic Data Capture. Di tahun 2012 perusahaan membeli software tandem dari vendor luar negeri dimana menghabiskan dana USD 3,4 juta, dengan pembelian ini maka dari itu penting untuk di teliti: 1 kebijakan struktur modal perusahaan, 2 kebijakan modal kerja  perusahaan dan 3 hubungan kinerja keuangan perusahaan berdasarkan dua kebijakan tersebut. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisis regresi linier berganda, mengukur hubungan variabel struktur modal dan modal kerja perusahaan. Pada penelitian telah menemukan: 1 kebijakan struktur modal perusahaan sejalan dengan teori Pecking Order, dimana perusahaan lebih menggunakan dana modal sendiri sebelum menggunakan hutang jangka panjang pada pihak lain, 2 kebijakan modal kerja perusahaan kurang efisien, dikarenakan sebagian besar asset lancar adalah dalam bentuk deposito berjangka bulanan dan bahkan melebihi hutang lancer itu sendiri, dan 3 hubungan antara hutang jangka pendek dan rasio likuiditas adalah negative, sedangkan total hutang (jangka pendek dan jangka panjang berkorelasi positif dengan rasio solvabilitas/leverage perusahaan. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan manajemen untuk lebih mengurangi asset lancer mereka dan lebih menggunakan asset tersebut untuk investasi jangka panjang, bukan hanya untuk deposito berjangka.Kata kunci: ATM, EDC, regresi, struktur modal, kinerja keuangan

  12. The humic matter as natural inhibitor of CaCO{sub 3} in cooling water system; Las sustancias humicas como inhibidores naturales del CaCO{sub 3}, en sistemas de enfriamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celada Murillo, Ana Teresa [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Important problems are presented in cooling water systems by the formation of mineral deposits on the heat transference equipment. Calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) is one of the minerals that more deposits produces. The CaCO{sub 3} scale is controlled by the addition of sulfuric acid and chemical inhibitors with phosphates (among the most utilized). These chemicals bring an environmental impact because they are associate with eutrophication of water bodies. In order to contribute to the decrease of the use of these chemical additives, this investigation proposes the utilization of humic matter as natural inhibitor of CaCO{sub 3}, precipitation. Humic matter is a complex organic molecule present in water-and soils by the degradation of plants and animals dead. Humic matter participates in ionic interchange complex and adsorption reactions with metallic ions. Inhibition of CaCO{sub 3} precipitation was observed in synthetic and naturals water solutions (well water, river water and treated wastewater). These solutions contained typical concentrations of calcium and alkalinity of makeup and circulation water of cooling systems in electrical power plants in Mexico. The CaCO{sub 3} precipitation in these solutions was induced by the addition of NaOH 0.1 N in continuos form (pH critical method), in absence and presence of humic matter. Time and NaOH volume were registered. Increase of CaCO{sub 3} nucleation time was evident in presence of humic matter. In the synthetic solutions, the nucleation time was increased 30-40%; while in the natural watery solutions (well water) the humic inhibited the CaCO{sub 3} precipitation during 120 minutes of experimentation. [Spanish] En la instalacion de sistemas solares para enfriamiento que emplean agua se presentan problemas importantes por la formacion de depositos minerales sobre equipos de transferencia de calor. El carbonato de calcio (CaCO{sub 3}) es uno de los minerales que mas depositos produce. Con el fin de disminuir su

  13. ANALISIS KINERJA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PENDEKATAN RASIO CAMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murdiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis tingkat kesehatan bank dilihat dari kategori CAMEL. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi kasus di PD BPR BKK Banjarharjo.Dalam menguji hipotesis digunakan alat analisis CAMEL. Hasil penelitian ini yaitu modal pada 2008 sampai 2010 termasuk dalam kriteria sehat. ROA meningkat 2008 sampai 2010 dengan kriteria sehat bagi biaya operasional yang dikeluarkan oleh pendapatan operasional yang seimbang. Rasio Kas tahun 2008 sampai 2010 termasuk dalam kriteria sehat berarti bank memiliki kemampuan untuk mengelola asset yang digunakan untuk membayar kewajiban. LDR mengalami tren yang signifikan selama tahun 2008 sampai 2010 sehingga dana yang diterima bank untuk meningkatkan baik tabungan, deposito berjangka, modal inti, yang berarti kemampuan bank untuk meningkatkan penyaluran kredit, IRR menunjukan nilai positif dalam menghadapi resiko pasar.Pengembangan tingkat kesehatan pada tahun 2008 sampai 2010 untuk komponen Capital, Assets, Laba dan Likuiditas meningkat. The goal of this research is to analyze the healtiness of banks seen from CAMEL category. The research applied a case study in PD BPR BKK Banjarharjo. The hypotheses tested using CAMEL analysis tools. The result of the study is that the modal used 2008 until 2010 is consideredin a healthy criteria. The increasing ROA in 2008 until 2010 is considered healthy criteria for operational expenses incurred by the operating income. Such condition meant that the banks are able to manage the assets which are used to pay the obligations. The significant increasing of LDR over the years 2008 until 2010 makes the received funds by the bank to increase the savings deposits, time deposits and the core capital. As the recunts, the banks are able to increase credit disstribution. More over, the IRR showed a positive values in the face of market risks and the development of healthy levels in 2008 until 2010 for the components of Capital, Assets, Earnings and

  14. Determinacion de periodos fundamentales del suelo mediante vibraciones ambientales en el municipio de Humacao, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintron Aponte, Rommel

    La tecnica de Nakamura ha sido utilizada a nivel mundial para determinar periodos fundamentales del suelo. La tecnica consiste en calcular y graficar cocientes espectrales H/V de vibraciones ambientales registradas sobre el suelo. Mediciones de vibraciones ambientales fueron tomadas en 151 lugares dentro del municipio de Humacao, localizado al este de Puerto Rico. Los datos se procesaron utilizando espectros de Fourier y espectros de potencia. La tecnica fue validada al compararla con los resultados de cocientes espectrales H/V de registros de sismos debiles y tambien con una modelacion numerica realizada con datos de un ensayo "downhole". Las graficas de los cocientes espectrales H/V fueron divididas en casos y grupos, los cuales dependen de la facilidad para identificar el periodo fundamental pico y amplitudes en frecuencias menores de 1 Hz, respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos con ambos espectros fueron comparados y se concluye que los mismos se complementan para proveer resultados mas confiables. Se crearon mapas de periodos fundamentales, factores de amplitud, isoperiodos y clasificacion sismica de sitio. Los mapas de isoperiodos fueron realizados en las zonas mas pobladas sobre depositos de suelo. El mapa de periodos fundamentales del suelo mostro buena correlacion con la geologia local. El mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de periodos de sitio fue comparado con el mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de barrenos geotecnicos. El mapa de clasificacion obtenido de periodos puede sobreestimar un poco algunas clasificaciones del suelo. Sin embargo, este mapa puede proveer un estimado aproximado de la velocidad de onda de corte promedio del suelo hasta una profundidad de 100 pies (30 metros).

  15. A new dinosaur (Theropoda, Spinosauridae from the Cretaceous (Cenomanian Alcântara Formation, Cajual Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander WA. Kellner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new spinosaurid taxon, Oxalaia quilombensis gen. et sp. nov., is described based on the anterior part of a snout and a fragment of a maxilla. These specimens were collected at the Laje do Coringa site, Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian of the São Luis Basin. Unlike Cristatusaurus and Suchomimus, Oxalaia quilombensis lacks serrations on the teeth. The new species differs from Angaturama limai by having the anterior part of the premaxillae more expanded and by lacking a sagittal premaxillary crest. It further differs from Spinosaurus cf. S. aegyptiacus and the Algerian spinosaurid by the rounder shape of the terminal expansion. Furthermore, xalaia quilobensis has one functional tooth followed by two replacement teeth, a feature not previously observed in theropods. Oxalaia quilombensis appears to be more closely related to the spinosaurids found in North Africa than to the Brazilian members of this clade and thus further increases the diversity of these enigmatic predatory dinosaurs in this country.Um novo espinossaurideo, Oxalaia quilombensis gen. et sp. nov., e descrito com base na parte anterior de um rostro e de um fragmento da maxila. Os especimes sao procedentes do deposito Laje do Coringa, formado durante o Cretacéo Superior (Cenomaniano da Bacia de São Luis. Ao contrario de Cristatusaurus e Suchoius, xalaia quilobensis nao possui dentes serrilhados. A nova especie difere de Angaturama limai pela ausencia de crista sagital e por possuir a região do rostro mais expandida. Tambem difere de Spinosaurus cf. S. aegyptiacus e do espinossaurideo da Argelia pelo rostro mais arredondado. Além disso, Oxalaia quilombensis possui dois dentes de substituição no terceiro par de dentes pre-maxilares, uma feição até então desconhecida em teropodes. Oxalaia quilombensis esta aparentemente mais proximamente relacionado aos espinossaurideos da regiao norte da frica do que as formas brasileiras e aumenta a diversidade deste grupo enigmatico de

  16. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  17. Palinology and stratigraphic sequences of the well ELS-1, Laguna Salada, B.C., Mexico; Palinologia y secuencias estratigraficas del pozo ELS-1, Laguna Salada, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helenes Escamilla, Javier [CICESE, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    1999-04-01

    Palinological analysis of 16 samples from the well ELS-1 in Laguna Salada, allows recognition of environmental changes in the drilled section. No age assignments are made because of the low diversity of the palinological assemblages recovered. These assemblages include species with ages from Campanian to Pleistocene. The cretaceous forms indicate reworking from a cretaceous unit within the Colorado river drainage basin. Integration of the palinological, lithological and well log data permit the recognition of three main cycles. The lower one is regressive and contains mostly fluvial to deltaic shallow marine sediments. The intermediate cycle is transgressive-regressive, contains the maximum flooding surface of the section studied and represents an interval of strong tectonic movements with well developed marine transgressions. The upper cycle is also transgressive-regressive, with lagoon and distal alluvial fan deposits. [Spanish] El analisis palinologico de 16 muestras del pozo: ELS-1 del proyecto geotermico de Laguna Salada permite reconocer cambios ambientales en la seccion perforada. La baja diversidad de los conjuntos palinologicos recuperados impide determinar edades. Se observan especies indicadoras de edades desde Campaniese hasta Pleistoceno. Las formas cretacicas indican retrabajo de alguna unidad cretacica dentro de la cuenca del rio Colorado. La integracion de datos palinologicos, litologicos y de registros geofisicos, permite reconocer tres ciclos principales. El ciclo inferior es regresivo y contiene principalmente sedimentos fluviales a deltaicos de niveles bajos del mar. El ciclo intermedio, es transgresivo-regresivo, contiene la superficie de inundacion maxima de toda la seccion estudiada y representa una etapa de movimientos tectonicos fuertes con transgresiones marinas bien desarrolladas. El ciclo superior tambien es transgresivo-regresivo, con depositos lagunares y de abanicos aluviales distales.

  18. Effect of the blades and seals system wear on steam turbine efficiency and power; Efecto del desgaste del sistema de alabes y sellos sobre la eficiencia y potencia de las turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Amezcua, Alfonso; Kubiak Szyszka, Janusz [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The implementation of a method for steam turbine evaluation through the measured geometry in the flow channel and its operating conditions, is presented. This method, previously developed, allows the identification and quantification of the power and efficiency loss due to the wear of its elements (worn or bent blades, worn seals, deposits, etc.); the benefit that is obtained is a more precise knowledge on the turbine behavior and a basis is acquired to give priority to the maintenance work, from the stand point of energy utilization. In this paper, the power and efficiency loss of a 300 MW steam turbine is located and evaluated, a sensibility analysis is presented for the typical elements that cause the deterioration of the efficiency in this type of turbines. [Espanol] Se presenta la implementacion de un metodo de evaluacion de turbinas de vapor a partir de la geometria medida del canal de flujo y sus condiciones de operacion. Este metodo, previamente desarrollado, permite identificar y cuantificar las perdidas de potencia y eficiencia debido al desgaste de sus elementos (alabes desgastados o doblados, sellos desgastados, depositos, etcetera); el beneficio que se obtiene es un conocimiento mas preciso del comportamiento de la turbina y que se tiene una base para dar prioridad a los trabajos de mantenimiento desde el punto de vista de aprovechamiento de la energia. En este articulo se localizan y evaluan las perdidas de potencia y eficiencia de una turbina de vapor de 300 MW, ademas, se presenta un analisis de sensibilidad para los elementos tipicos que originan el deterioro de la eficiencia en este tipo de turbinas.

  19. Effect of V addition on the hardness, adherence and friction coefficient of VC coatings produced by thermo-reactive diffusion deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Alejandro Orjuela-Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se produjeron recubrimientos de carburo de vanadio (VC sobre sustratos de acero AISI H13 y acero AISI D2 mediante deposito termoreactiva/ difusión (TRD con el fin de evaluar sus propiedades mecánicas como una función del contenido de vanadio. Los recubrimientos se producen con diferentes porcentajes de concentración de ferrovanadio. La composición química de los recubrimientos se determinó mediante fluorescencia de rayos X (XRF, la estructura cristalina se analizó utilizando difracción de rayos X (XRD, la morfología se caracterizó usando microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM, la dureza se midió a través de nanoindentaciòn, y las propiedades tribológicas mediante la prueba de bola sobre disco. El análisis XRF indicó que los recubrimientos crecidos en acero D2 disminuyó el porcentaje atómico de vanadio cuando el recubrimiento se produce con 20% de ferrovanadio. El análisis XRD estableció que los recubrimientos eran policristalinos, con una estructura cúbica. Las imágenes de SEM revelaron que los recubrimientos crecidos en acero D2 eran más compactos que los crecidos en el acero H13. Finalmente, las pruebas de desgaste establecieron que el coeficiente de fricción disminuyó con un aumento de vanadio en el recubrimiento.

  20. ESTUDO PROSPECTIVO DA UTILIZAÇÃO DE ALIMENTOS EXTRUSADOS ENRIQUECIDOS COM MICROALGAS: UMA CONTRIBUIÇÃO SOBRE A POTENCIALIDADE DESTA TECNOLOGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ícaro Agostino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A tendência mundial de ênfase na saúde e nos benefícios que os ingredientes alimentícios nutritivos podem trazer para a qualidade de vida aconselha o uso de farinhas mistas para promover a formulação de alimentos mais saudáveis, rico em fibras e outros componentes que o caracterizam como alimento funcional. O presente estudo prospectivo teve como objetivo coletar informações a respeito de técnicas de extrusão para obtenção de “snacks” enriquecidos, relacionando com os documentos de patentes depositados, bem como estabelecer quais os países detentores desta tecnologia. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir da associação de códigos da Classificação Internacional de Patentes com palavras-chave sobre o tema, no banco de dados Espacenet, resultando em 70 patentes. As informações encontradas foram compiladas em gráficos e discutidas. O uso desta tecnologia foi evidenciado principalmente na China, uma vez que o Brasil não tem tradição no consumo de “snacks” e ainda busca recursos no concernente a inovação. O Brasil não possui patentes associadas a produção de “snacks”. A matéria prima mais utilizada foi a farinha de trigo, seguindo o polvilho. O deposito das patentes começaram a partir dos anos 80 e vem crescendo. Diante do cenário analisado, pode-se observar a crescente tendência mundial desta tecnologia e sua promissora associação ao enriquecimento de alimentos utilizando o processo de extrusão e as microalgas.

  1. Optimum geometry for boiler soot blowers nozzles; Geometria optima de toberas para deshollinadores de caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza Garza, Jesus; Garcia Tinoco, Guillermo J.; Martinez Flores, Jose Oscar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    For boiler soot blowing converging-diverging nozzles are employed, whose function is to convert thermal energy of a gas into kinetic energy to remove the deposits that adhere to the heat exchanger surfaces. In this paper are described the experimental equipment and the methods for flow, dynamic pressure, discharge velocity and air expansion factor calculation in each nozzle, as a function of its design geometry, utilizing air from a five stage centrifugal compressor. The graphic analysis of the results, concludes that the most efficient nozzles are not the ones than develop the greatest velocity, but the ones of highest dynamic pressure at the outlet. The nozzle geometry that allows obtaining the maximum dynamic air pressure at the discharge is A{sub 2}/A{sub g}=1.3676 [Espanol] Para el deshollinado de calderas se utilizan las toberas convergentes-divergentes, cuya funcion es convertir la energia termica de un gas en energia cinetica para remover los depositos que se adhieren a las superficies de intercambio de calor. En este trabajo se describen el equipo experimental y los metodos de calculo para flujo, presion dinamica, velocidad a la descarga y factor de expansion del aire en cada tobera, como funcion de su geometria de diseno. Durante la experimentacion se evaluaron siete disenos diferentes de toberas, empleando aire de un compresor centrifugo de cinco etapas. Del analisis grafico de los resultados, se concluye que las toberas mas eficientes no son las que desarrollan mayor velocidad sino las de mayor presion dinamica de la salida. La geometria de tobera que permite obtener la maxima presion dinamica del aire a la descarga es A{sub 2}/A{sub g} = 1.3676.

  2. EFISIENSI PERBANKAN SYARIAH DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif Amirillah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out the factors that can cause the efficiency value difference of Islamic Banking in In-donesia. The data at this research is monetary data of Islamic Banking. It was obtained from Bank of Indonesia. Then, it was divided into input and output variables. The determination of input output variables at this research uses Value Added Approach. Its input output variables consist of Demand Deposits, Saving Deposits, Time Depo-sits, Paid -In Capital, Placement at Bank ofIndonesia, Inter Bank Assets, Mudharabah, Musyara kah, Murabahah, Istishna, Ijarahand Qardh. This research used Data Envelopment Analysis method. This method has a strength that is having the capability to measure inefficiency input output variables, so that, the variable can have the efficiency. This research has resulted Islamic Banking efficiency in Indonesia, but it does not include BPRS. The mean efficiency of Islamic banking in Indonesia is 99,94%. Penelitian ini bertujuan mencari faktor –faktor penyebab perbedaan nilai efisiensiperbankan syariah di Indo-nesia yang dibandingkan secara relatif untuk setiap periode. Data yang digunakan pada penelitian ini menggu-nakan data keuangan perbankan syariah yang diperoleh dari Bank Indonesia kemudian dibagi menjadi variabel input dan output. Penentuan variabel input dan output pada penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan Value Added Approach. Variabel input outputnyaterdiri dari : Giro iB, Tabungan iB, Deposito iB, Modal disetor, Pen-empatan padaBank Indonesia, Penempatan pada bank lain, Mudharabah, Musyarakah, Murabahah,Istishna, Ijarah dan Qardh. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan metode Data Envelopment Analysis yang mempunyai kel-ebihan dalam menghitung efisiensi untuk setiap variabel input outputyang mengalami inefisiensi. Penelitian ini menghasilkan nilai efisiensi perbankan syariah di Indoenesia (tidak termasuk BPRS. Efisiensi perbankan syariah di Indonesia mengalami efisiensi rata-rata sebesar 99,94%.

  3. Evaluation of nickel-rich alloys for the electrolytic generation of hydrogen in an alkaline medium; Evaluacion de aleaciones ricas en niquel para la generacion electrolitica de hidrogeno en medio alcalino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Verdin, A.A.; Ortega Borges, R.; Trejo Cordova, G.; Meas Vong, Y. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S.C., Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: aortiz@cideteq.mx

    2009-09-15

    The simultaneous electrodeposition of Ni with metals such as Zn to form alloys enables obtaining surfaces with high electrocatalytic activity or particular characteristics that resist wear and abrasion. This work presents the results of the study of the electrochemical characterization of different types of nickel electrodeposition and compositions, used as cathodes, and measurements of the electrocatalytic activity in the release of hydrogen in an alkaline medium. Curves I through IV were generated, which were potentiostatically obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere in a NaOH alkaline solution. The morphology of the deposits was evaluated with sweep electron micrscopy(SEM). The results enabled evaluating its potential application as electrode materials for the generation of electrolytic hydrogen in alkaline medium, given the good electrocatalytic activity of nickel-rich materials. [Spanish] El electrodeposito simultaneo del Ni, con metales como el Zn para formar aleaciones, permite obtener superficies con elevada actividad electrocatalitica o con caracteristicas particulares de resistencia al desgaste y abrasion. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del estudio de la caracterizacion electroquimica de los electrodepositos a base de niquel de diferente naturaleza y composicion utilizandolos como catodos midiendo la actividad electrocatalitica con respecto a la reaccion de desprendimiento de hidrogeno (RDH) en medio alcalino. Se realizaron curvas I vs V obtenidas potenciostaticamente bajo atmosfera de nitrogeno en una solucion alcalina de NaOH. La morfologia de los depositos se evaluo mediante SEM (microscopio electronico de barrido). Los resultados permiten evaluar su potencial aplicacion como materiales de electrodo para la generacion electrolitica de hidrogeno en medio alcalino, dada la buena actividad electrocatalitica de los materiales ricos en niquel.

  4. Windows with selective covering to the solar radiation based in copper for saving energy; Ventanas con recubrimiento selectivo a la radiacion solar basado en cobre que permiten el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Genaro; Almanza, Rafael [Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    savings and the necessary strategies for such aim, based on the geographic region. [Spanish] Se presentan los resultados de un esfuerzo por contribuir al desarrollo de nuevos elementos constructivos acordes a las necesidades bioclimaticas de las edificaciones en Mexico que propicien el ahorro de energia. Se desarrollaron ventanas con dos tipos de recubrimientos, uno exclusivamente de oxido cuproso (Cu{sub 2}O), y otro resultado del deposito sucesivo de una pelicula de sulfuro cuprico (CuS) sobre otra de oxido cuproso. El segundo tipo de ventanas presento un adecuado control al paso de la radiacion infrarroja, lo que permite reducir aun mas la cantidad de radiacion calorifica que pasa a traves de la ventana. Durante las condiciones de calentamiento, estas ventanas dejan pasar en el peor de los casos, la mitad del calor, reduciendo la carga termica al interior de la habitacion o del edificio. Durante condiciones de enfriamiento, la ventana permite la salida del calor a la mitad de la velocidad, manteniendo durante mas tiempo la temperatura de confort del interior. Los recubrimientos de los mencionados compuestos de cobre fueron fabricados en los laboratorios de los Institutos de Ingenieria y Fisica de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Se utilizo la tecnica de erosion ionica o sputtering de un blanco de cobre 99.999% con ayuda de un plasma compuesto de argon (70%) y oxigeno (30%), que posibilita la oxidacion del cobre y el deposito del Cu{sub 2}O. Se utilizo un sustrato de vidrio flotado comercial de 600x400 mm., este tamano del vidrio estuvo determinado por las limitaciones de espacio de nuestra camara de deposito. La ventana asi obtenida presenta una agradable coloracion amarillenta y gran luminosidad, sin embargo, en el infrarrojo cercano, unicamente bloquea el 50%. Para las propiedades deseadas de control termico era necesario reducir aun mas el paso del calor. Para ello se incorporo una pelicula de sulfuro cuprico con la cual fue posible alcanzar

  5. Absorbing materials of thin film for photovoltaic structures prepared by the process of pyrolytic spraying; Materiales absorbedores en pelicula delgada para estructuras fotovoltaicas preparados por el proceso de rocio pirolitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calixto Rodriguez, Manuela

    2006-11-15

    InS{sub 2}, SnS{sub 2} y SnS por la tecnica de rocio pirolitico. Se analizaron las propuestas estructurales, opticas y electricas de estas peliculas para determinar el conjunto de parametros de deposito con los cuales se obtienen las mejores propiedades fisicas para la aplicacion de las mismas en estructuras fotovoltaicas. Se encontro que la relacion molar en solucion de los compuestos de partida y la temperatura de deposito son los parametros dominantes en el proceso de crecimiento de las peliculas. Para el deposito de peliculas delgadas se sulfuro de indio se usaron acetato de indio y N, N-dimetil tiourea como compuestos precursores de In y S, respectivamente. Se obtuvieron peliculas policristalinas del compuesto In{sub 2}S{sub 3} empleando temperaturas de substrato, Ts, entre 400 y 450 grados centigrados, y soluciones de acetato de indio y N, N-dimetil tiourea con relaciones molares (In:S) de 1:8 y 1:1. La brecha de energia, Eg, de estas peliculas varia de 2.04 a 2.67 eV, y el valor de la conductividad en obscuridad, D, varia de 10-7 a 1 (cm)-1 en funcion de la relacion molar en solucion. Se encontro que las peliculas depositadas empleando una relacion molar de In:S 1:8 son de naturaleza intrinseca independientemente de Ts, mientras que las depositadas empleando una relacion molar de In:S =1:1 y Ts 400 grados Celsius poseen conductividad tipo-n. Empleando una relacion molar de In:S = 1:1 y Ts = 500 grados centigrados se obtiene el compuesto In{sub 2}O{sub 3} policristalino cuyas propiedades opticas y electricas son: Eg 3 eV y D=11 (cm)-1, con conductividad electrica tipo-n. Las peliculas depositadas empleando una relacion molar de In:S = 1:1 y Ts 450 grados centigrados son las que tienen las caracteristicas apropiadas para su uso como material tipo-n en estructuras fotovoltaicas (Eg=2 eV y D=1-1 com-1).

  6. Analysis and evaluation of the main factors that influence the growing of the electrical power consumption in the national electrical sector, period 2000-2005; Analisis y evaluacion de los principales factores que influyen en el crecimiento del consumo de energia electrica en el sector electrico nacional, periodo 2000-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Luna, Luis Miguel

    2008-06-15

    With the purpose of avoiding the installation of new transmission lines, some researches have proposed the installation of SIFLETCA devices. Therefore in this thesis, different models in steady state of diverse SIFLETCA devices are described, such as: compensator variable series (VSC), static compensator of VArs (SCV), transformer phase shifter (TPS), transformer with changer under load (TWCL) and the universal controller of power flows (UCPF). In addition, it is developed in this thesis the equations used in the Jacobean of the method Newton-Raphson, to solve power flows including SIFLETCA devices. The different applications that are obtained when installing a device, such as prevention of flows in ring, electronic barrier, increment in the transmission capacity and specification of the power flow in transmission lines. On the other hand in the thesis, an analysis of sensitivities of a power system in steady state is developed. Also the control parameters are proposed in the thesis for which the sensitivities are calculated. Also, a performance index is used to measure the degree of congestion of an electrical system. In calculating the sensitivities the obtained results of the power flows are utilized. Four electrical networks are used to find where each SIFLETCA device must be located to reduce the congestion in the system. Also, the method developed in the thesis is compared with a method of sensitivities that uses DC flows, for validation and to show the advantages of using the Newton method in power flows. [Spanish] Con el fin de evitar instalar nuevas lineas de transmision, algunos investigadores han propuesto la instalacion de los dispositivos SIFLETCA. Por lo tanto en esta tesis, se describe diferentes modelos en estado estacionario de diversos dispositivos SIFLETCA, siendo: compensador serie variable (CSV), compensador estatico de VArs (CEV), transformador desfasador (TD), transformador con cambiador bajo carga (TTC) y el controlador universal de flujos

  7. Calculation of sensitivities in electrical systems with SIFLETCA devices; Calculo de sensibilidades en sistemas electricos con dispositivos SIFLETCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio Marroquin, Gabriel Omar

    2004-03-15

    With the purpose of avoiding the installation of new transmission lines, some researches have proposed the installation of SIFLETCA devices. Therefore in this thesis, different models in steady state of diverse SIFLETCA devices are described, such as: compensator variable series (VSC), static compensator of VArs (SCV), transformer phase shifter (TPS), transformer with changer under load (TWCL) and the universal controller of power flows (UCPF). In addition, it is developed in this thesis the equations used in the Jacobean of the method Newton-Raphson, to solve power flows including SIFLETCA devices. The different applications that are obtained when installing a device, such as prevention of flows in ring, electronic barrier, increment in the transmission capacity and specification of the power flow in transmission lines. On the other hand in the thesis, an analysis of sensitivities of a power system in steady state is developed. Also the control parameters are proposed in the thesis for which the sensitivities are calculated. Also, a performance index is used to measure the degree of congestion of an electrical system. In calculating the sensitivities the obtained results of the power flows are utilized. Four electrical networks are used to find where each SIFLETCA device must be located to reduce the congestion in the system. Also, the method developed in the thesis is compared with a method of sensitivities that uses DC flows, for validation and to show the advantages of using the Newton method in power flows. [Spanish] Con el fin de evitar instalar nuevas lineas de transmision, algunos investigadores han propuesto la instalacion de los dispositivos SIFLETCA. Por lo tanto en esta tesis, se describe diferentes modelos en estado estacionario de diversos dispositivos SIFLETCA, siendo: compensador serie variable (CSV), compensador estatico de VArs (CEV), transformador desfasador (TD), transformador con cambiador bajo carga (TTC) y el controlador universal de flujos

  8. Dalla stratigrafia all’archeologia dell’architettura. Alcune recenti esperienze del laboratorio senese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parenti, Roberto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents three lines of investigation, developed in the University of Siena by the study of some hundreds of historical buildings. The study of depositional processes and products allows us to interpret the dynamics of depositional environments and to establish a chronological framework.This time framework is provided by different aspects of stratigraphy and allows us to interpret building activities in terms of dynamic evolving environments. The record of buildings activities and climatic-pollution processes through historical time is held in these walls along with evidence of the different lime mortars. Our aim is to calibrate the “tools” that could be used to connect the analysis of lime mortar to building activities. Lime mortars could be considered as a perfect dating material for the historical building activities, because it must be freshly prepared every time you need it (it couldn’t be reused, even for the smallest intervention. With the help of a computer we will obtain a rectified photography as simulation where a virtual model works as a mathematics formula. So that we would say that, with the virtual reality,we can either “rebuild” an outline of a building in a precise moment of its history, or we can examine and study all the theories related with the analysis of the material structure, and, eventually,we might understand either the theories will be right or not.L’autore presenta tre delle linee di ricerca sviluppate dal Laboratorio senese, risultato della prassi operativa su alcune centinaia di edifici. La prima è una riflessione sulla complessità del processo di formazione del deposito stratificato, sulle strategie da seguire nell’esecuzione dell’indagine e sulla necessità di un ‘progetto conoscitivo’ preliminare all’indagine stessa. La seconda linea di ricerca affronta lo studio delle malte. L’obiettivo è quello di calibrare gli strumenti che possono essere impiegati per ricorrere all

  9. Antisipasi Pelarian Dana Asing ke Luar Negeri Melalui Perlindungan Kontraktual Pembukaan Rahasia Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsisius Murwaji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN akan dimulai akhir tahun 2015 ini. Pada pelaksanaan MEA, kompetisi perbankan Indonesia dengan negara-negara lain dalam merebut investor tidak dapat dihindari lagi. Di kalangan MEA, ternyata hanya Indonesia yang memasukkan pengaturan rahasia bank ke ranah hukum pidana, sedangkan negara lainnya memasukkannya ke ranah hukum perdata, yaitu hukum perjanjian (contract law. Dengan perbedaan pengaturan tersebut, para investor tentunya akan lebih tertarik untuk menyimpan dananya pada bank-bank negara-negara tetangga, bahkan nasabah kreditur bank-bank Indonesia berpotensi untuk memindahkan dana yang sudah disimpan ke bank-bank negara-negara tetangga. Akibat pengaturan Indonesia ini, besar potensi terjadi pelarian dana yang sudah ditempatkan dalam produk-produk bank di Indonesia baik dalam bentuk tabungan, deposito, atau obligasi bank ke negara ASEAN lainnya. Pemilik dana besar yang merasa tidak dilindungi akan memilih Bank Penampung Dana Proyek (Escrow Account Bank di luar Indonesia, sedangkan posisi Bank Indonesia hanya sekedar bank pelaksana/pembayar proyek. Dengan demikian, Departemen Hukum dan Perundang-undangan, Bank Indonesia, dan Otoritas Jasa Keuangan harus mengambil langkah cepat mengharmonisasikan pengaturan pembukaan rahasia bank dalam rangka MEA. Harmonisasi yang dimaksud tidak harus merubah pengaturan rahasia bank dari hukum pidana menjadi perdata, melainkan melalui perlindungan kontraktual yang diatur dalam Peraturan Bank Indonesia, yang mengatur ulang mekanisme pembukaan rahasia bank. Abstract The realization of the Asean Economic Community (AEC at the end of 2015 will mark the beginning of banking sector competition for investors among ASEAN countries. In this regard, Indonesia is the only country that classifies the matters of bank secrecy regulation under criminal law, whereas other countries classify it under civil law, commonly known as contract law. This difference makes insvestors more inclined to

  10. TANGGAPAN PARA PROFESIONAL SURABAYA TERHADAP PERUBAHAN EKONOMI DAN KEBIJAKAN PEMERINTAH DI BIDANG PERBANKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Astuti

    1999-01-01

    ekonomi justru memperberat jatuhnya nilai mata uang rupiah karena mereka menahan sejumlah tunai rupiah dan uang tunai dolar Amerika. Untuk menanggulangi hal ini pemerintah Indonesia memberikan jaminan keamanan bagi nasabah bank agar mereka bersedia melepas uang tunai di rumah dan mendepositokannya di bank. Dengan demikian roda perekonomian diharapkan dapat berputar kembali dengan lebih baik. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk melihat perbedaan-perbedaan perilaku pelaku ekonomi terhadap asset finansialnya karena adanya perbedaan jenis profesi dan perbedaan keadaan ekonomi yang terjadi serta sejauh mana antisipasi mereka terhadap kebijakan yang diberikan pemerintah di bidang perbankan Januari 1998. Kata kunci : kebijakan pemerintah dibidang perbankan, deposito.

  11. L’apertura della ricerca scientifica: il caso LUISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Nisticò

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available IT Il Movimento OA, nato all’interno del mondo accademico, facilita la condivisione e la crescita della conoscenza scientifica mediante il libero accesso ai risultati della ricerca. Tra le due strategie principali volte a garantire pubblicazioni ad accesso aperto, la Green road è pienamente rappresentata dagli Institutional Repositories. In Italia la storia degli archivi istituzionali è fortemente caratterizzata e guidata dall’attività dalla CRUI, in particolare dal Gruppo di lavoro per l’OA nato con lo scopo di dare attuazione ai principi della Dichiarazione di Berlino, punto cardine del movimento Open Access. In questo contesto, la LUISS partecipa al progetto di sperimentazione di harvesting automatico delle tesi di dottorato da parte delle Biblioteche Nazionali Centrali di Firenze e di Roma – Magazzini Digitali - ed attua una precisa politica di archiviazione per garantire il rispetto della normativa vigente in tema di Deposito legale. I suoi archivi istituzionali, LUISSearch e LUISSThesis, riguardano la descrizione e la documentazione rispettivamente della ricerca scientifica d’ateneo ad accesso aperto - con particolare riguardo per la collezione delle tesi di dottorato - e degli elaborati discussi nelle sedute di laurea dell’Università, offrendo l’accesso al testo integrale qualora consentito dai candidati.EN The purpose of OA movement, born within the academic world, is to facilitate the sharing and the growth of scientific knowledge through open access to research results. Between the two main strategies meant to ensure open access publishing, the Green road is fully represented by the Institutional Repositories. In Italy the history of institutional repositories is strongly characterized and driven by the activity of CRUI, in particular by the Working Group for OA formed with the purpose of giving effect to the principles of the Declaration of Berlin, cornerstone of the Open Access movement. In this context, LUISS

  12. Production and characterization of nickel nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes by electroless and its application to hydrogen storage; Produccion y caracterizacion de nanoparticulas de niquel sobre nanotubos de carbono por electroless y su aplicacion en el almacenamiento de hidrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa-Torres, Mayra Zyzlila; Dominguez-Rios, Carlos [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)]. E-mail: m_zyzlila@yahoo.com.mx; Cabanas-Moreno, Jose Gerardo; Suarez-Alcantara, Karina [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, ESFM-IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Elguezabal, Alfredo [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)]. E-mail: alfredo.aguilar@cimav.edu.mx

    2009-09-15

    The search for an appropriate storage system for the transportation industry to enable implementing the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier has become a strategic research concern. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are potentially interesting materials for the storage of hydrogen. This work investigates the deposition condition for dispersing nickel nanoparticles in one single step using the electroless technique on the surface of carbon nanotubes. It also studied the influence on the ability to store hydrogen. The materials were characterized using sweep electron and transmission microscopy. The surface areas of the materials were determined with nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The hydrogen storage capacity was studied at a temperature of 77 K and atmospheric pressure, as well as at 303 K and pressures of de 0.1-5 MPa. The results show that highly dispersed spherical nickel nanoparticles were obtained on carbon nanotubes with an average size of 3-9 nm. The addition of nickel on carbon nanotubes significantly improves the hydrogen storage capacity, finding that at 303 K and 5 MPa the increment factor was as much as twice that of nanotubes without nickel. [Spanish] La busqueda de un sistema de almacenamiento apropiado para la industria del transporte se ha convertido en un tema estrategico de investigacion para poder implementar el uso del hidrogeno como portador de energia. Los nanotubos de carbono (NTC) son materiales potencialmente interesantes en el almacenamiento de hidrogeno. En este trabajo se investigaron las condiciones de deposito para dispersar en un solo paso nanoparticulas de niquel por la tecnica de electroless sobre la superficie de los nanotubos de carbono y se estudio su influencia en la capacidad de almacenamiento de hidrogeno. Los materiales se caracterizaron por microscopia electronica de barrido y transmision. Mediante isotermas de adsorcion de nitrogeno se determino el area superficial de los materiales. La capacidad de almacenamiento de hidrogeno se

  13. Production of hydrogen with methane decomposition using Ni-Mn/Ce-ZrO{sub 2} catalysts; Produccion de hidrogeno via descomposicion de metano mediante catalizadores de Ni-Mn/Ce-ZrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, C.; Hernandez-Pichardo, M.L.; Valenzuela, M. A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional-ESIQIE, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: mhernandezp@ipn.mx; Del Angel, P.; Montoya de la Fuente, J.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The catalytic decomposition of methane makes it possible to obtain CO and CO{sub 2} free hydrogen, which is a desirable characteristic for fuel cell applications. In addition, this method simultaneously obtains diverse carbon nanostructures with a large variety of applications. This work prepared catalysts with different Ni contents supported by Ce-Zr mixed oxides and doped with manganese to promote activity. The supports were synthesized with surfactant-assisted coprecipitation. The Ni and Mn deposits were performed using conventional impregnation for evaluation in the methane decomposition catalyst at 500 degrees Celsius. It was observed that with the incorporation of 1% of Mn into the Ni0 active phase, the conversion of methane into hydrogen and carbon nanostructures increased. The results of reduction at the programmed temperature indicate that the addition of Mn enables the formation of different NiO{sub x} species, increasing dispersion and the degree of reduction to Ni0. Analyses with electron and transmission microscopy show the formation of distinct species of carbon, including nanotubes, nanofibers and concentric onion-like structures, as well as a significant formation of encapsulated Ni0 particles. [Spanish] La descomposicion catalitica de metano permite la obtencion de hidrogeno libre de CO y CO{sub 2}, lo cual es una caracteristica deseable para su aplicacion en celdas de combustible. Ademas, por esta ruta, simultaneamente se obtienen diversas nanoestructuras de carbono con una gran variedad de aplicaciones. En este trabajo se prepararon catalizadores con diferentes contenidos de Ni soportados en oxidos mixtos Ce-Zr y se doparon con manganeso como promotor de actividad. Los soportes se sintetizaron por coprecipitacion asistida por surfactante y el deposito del Ni y del Mn se efectuo por impregnacion convencional para su evaluacion en la descomposicion catalitica de metano a 500 grados centigrados. Se observo que mediante la incorporacion de 1% de Mn a

  14. Chemical modeling of formation water of the active Luna, Tabasco; Modelacion quimica de aguas de formacion del activo Luna, Tabasco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa M; Portugal M, Enrique; Arellano G, Victor M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Martinez A, Ana E; Ascencio C, Fernando [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    From the data of chemical composition of the water, the chemical equilibrium at a given temperature can be modeled for, later, obtain the saturation indexes of characteristic minerals with the intention of knowing or predict which phases can form the deposits. The Gerencia de Productividad de Pozos (GPP) of the Subdivision of Technology and Professional Development (STDP) of PEMEX, has among its objectives to promote studies tending to solve problematic that affect the wells productivity, reason why it showed interest in making a study of chemical modeling of formation waters of the Active Luna, in order to know the saturation state of the main mineral phases. This way a joint project was executed in 1997 among the GPP, the Active of Production Luna of PEMEX and the Gerencia de Geotermia of the IIE. The objectives of the project were: (a) sampling and physicochemical characterization of waters pertaining to oil wells of the Actives of Production Luna, and (b) modeling of the chemical equilibrium at well head and deposit conditions to obtain saturation indexes of characteristic minerals of hydrothermal systems, in order to predict the mineral phases that can be found in superficial and deep incrustations. [Spanish] A partir de los datos de composicion quimica del agua, pude modelarse el equilibrio quimico a una temperatura dada para, posteriormente, obtener los indices de saturacion de los minerales caracteristicos con el objeto de conocer o predecir cuales fases pueden formar los depositos. La Gerencia de Productividad de Pozos (GPP) de la Subdireccion de Tecnologia y Desarrollo Profesional (STDP) de Pemex, tiene entre sus objetivos promover estudios tendientes a resolver problematicas que impactan la productividad de los pozos, por lo que mostro interes en realizar un estudio de modelacion quimica de las aguas de formacion del Activo Luna, con el proposito de conocer el estado de saturacion de las principales fases minerales. De esta forma se realizo un proyecto

  15. Campania: territorio e città di fronte alla sfida della logistica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available All’interno del sistema territoriale meridionale la Regione Campania si presenta come un polo importante nel settore del trasporto e dello smistamento delle merci. Questo ruolo si è venuto rinforzando in seguito alla realizzazione di infrastrutture dedicate alla logistica, connesse ad infrastrutture di supporto. Il sistema campano presenta punte di eccellenza di livello nazionale che possono incentivare il ruolo della Regione in questo settore, ma presenta anche fattori negativi che possono rallentare il decollo del settore. Si fa riferimento alle strozzature infrastrutturali e gestionali che ne inceppano l’efficienza, ma anche alla debolezza del sistema produttivo regionale che non garantisce una massa critica locale alla logistica campana. Un terzo aspetto è la mancanza di un chiaro disegno di programmazione degli investimenti e una maggiore chiarezza dei ruoli da assegnare alle diverse iniziative, nate soprattutto sulla base di spinte localistiche non coordinate. Il paper analizza la situazione della logistica territoriale in Campania e delle sue interrelazioni territoriali individuando punti di forza e di debolezza e potenziali fattori evolutivi. Gli aspetti della logistica che vengono affrontati sono di tipo territoriale e si differenziano da quelli della logistica urbana per la quantità di merci movimentate e per la concentrazione in pochi poli strategici, in quanto queste piattaforme logistiche richiedono attrezzature specializzate e ampi spazi per la movimentazione e il deposito. L’analisi del rapporto tra territorio e logistica individua quelli che sono i principali elementi di interconnessione e, spesso, di crisi, nell’uso dello spazio fisico, in ragione degli obiettivi a volte divergenti tra il governo del territorio ed i soggetti economici. Si passa successivamente ad analizzare lo stato del movimento merci in relazione alla portualità mediterranea e lo stato del sistema logistico campano (non ancora definito in tutte le

  16. Analyzing ground ozone formation regimes using a principal axis factoring method: A case study of Kladno (Czech Republic) industrial area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malec, L.; Skacel, F. [Department of Gas, Coke and Air Protection, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: Lukas.Malec@vscht.cz; Fousek, T. [Institute of Public Health, District of Central Czech Republic, Kladno (Czech Republic); Tekac, V. [Department of Gas, Coke and Air Protection, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, (Czech Republic); Kral, P. [Institute of Public Health, District of Central Czech Republic, Kladno (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-15

    ). Segundo, interpretamos un conjunto de datos mediante el analisis factorial (FA) para examinar las diferencias entre los procesos de generacion de ozono entre las epocas de verano e invierno. Para evitar la dependencia de la temperatura de las variables, asi como para describir los procesos troposfericos de lavado de las sustancias contaminantes, utilizamos el contenido de vapor de agua en vez del parametro de humedad relativa, empleado muy a menudo. De esta manera fuimos capaces de definir con exito los diferentes procesos de generacion de ozono y posteriormente estimarlos junto con la descomposicion espacial de sus precursores. La temperatura elevada del aire, la radiacion y el bajo contenido de agua estan relacionados con los episodios de contaminacion en verano, mientras que la radiacion y la velocidad del viento resultan ser los parametros mas importantes durante el invierno. Resulto en mayores flujos de escurrimiento foliar y acumulacion en el suelo de N, S, y Mg comparado con doseles de pino o areas abiertas. El elevado deposito atmosferico altera los procesos funcionales del ecosistema, particularmente el escurrimiento foliar y el ciclo interno de nutrientes, y este efecto depende de la cobertura y especie arborea.

  17. The Beginnings and Development of the Collection of Historic Musical Instruments of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Darmstaedter

    2016-12-01

    Arciduca Francesco Ferdinando d’Asburgo-Este (1863-1914 è stato portato, dopo la sua uccisione, al museo imperiale a Vienna. Dal 1916/17 in poi il famoso storico dell’arte Julius von Schlosser (1866-1938 e il suo successore Hermann Julius Hermann (1869-1953 hanno organizzato una delle più importanti collezioni e esibizioni dedicata esclusivamente a strumenti musicali antichi. Hanno assemblato strumenti preziosi del XVI secolo che facevano parte della stanza delle curiosità dell´Arciduca Ferdinando II (1529- 1595, oggetti raccolti da membri della dinastia Obizzi nel castello di Catajo e oggetti recentemente acquisiti legati alla tradizione Viennese di costruzione di strumenti musicali. Nel 1920 Schlosser ha scritto un catalogo completo della nuova collezione che è considerato la prima pubblicazione sistematica e scientifi ca di strumenti musicali antichi in Austria. Negli anni successivi Schlosser ha cercato di allargare l’inventario di oggetti e la collezione, che si è inoltre arricchita di preziosi esemplari originariamente situati nel Deposito imperiale di mobili di corte (Hofmobiliendepot e di strumenti musicali abbandonati nelle residenze imperiali come il castello di Laxenburg. Il contributo esamina fonti inedite che documentano la prima storia della collezione, affronta il tema dell’esposizione ampliata del 1920, discute l´orientamento tematico della collezione e i principi di didattica museale che ne risultarono. Inoltre, il contributo esamina la posizione della collezione e la sua strategia nel contesto di altri musei con la stessa tematica.

  18. Seasonal variation of atmospheric lead levels in three sites in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, Irma; Belmont, Raul; Jauregui, Ernesto [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1995-10-01

    gradiente del plomo atmosferico de Norte a Sur, con valores mas altos y variables en la zona norte, en donde se localiza la zona industrial. Las concentraciones de plomo y su correspondiente variabilidad decrecieron gradualmente (de 1.2 a 0.5 {mu}g m-3) hacia la zona sur. Adeas, estos valores son significativamente mas altos durante la epoca de secas que la de lluvias, debido al efecto marcado de lavado atmosferico. Sin mebargo, los promedios trimestrales registrados durante el periodo de muestreo no sobrepasaron el estandar internacional de 1.5 {mu}g m-3. Las concentraciones de plomo y los correspondientes valores de PM{sub 1}0 mostraron una correlacion significativa. Esto indica que el plomo esta asociado a la fraccion fina de las aeroparticulas, lo que determina una alta probabilidad de deposito en el tracto respiratorio. Los resultados obtenidos en el presente estudio al ser comparados con los de 1990, muestran una reduccion sustancial. Esto puede ser explicado por la introduccion de una gasolina de mejor calidad. A pesar de esto, mas del 30% de la poblacion evaluada presento niveles de plomo, mayores de 10 {mu}g dL-1, en sangre.

  19. Sedimentological study in San Ignacio y Navachiste bays in Sinaloa, Mexico; Estudio sedimentologico de las bahias de San Ignacio y Navachiste en Sinaloa, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara-Mendez, S.; Ortiz-Gallarza, S.M.; Garcia-Leal, M.L. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    sedimentos, asi como el conteo de particulas bajo el microscopio estereoscopico por el metodo de bandas en algunas de ellas. Los rasgos fisograficos identificados en el area son antiguos cordones de playa, tombolos y flechas remanentes de formaciones costeras. Los sedimentos laguneras se clasificaron en cuatro grupos textuales, los cuales varian desde arenas gruesas, hasta limos muy finos. El grupo predominante es el de las arenas finas a muy finas, las cuales comprenden el 78% de las muestras analizadas, distribuidas ampliamente en el substrato de las bahias y la plataforma continental. El contenido porcentual de carbonatos totales varia de 2 a 94%, los valores modales fluctuaron entre 4 y 20%, los mayores porcentajes se obtuvieron dentro de 2 a 7% corresponden en general a los sedimentos arenosos de la plataforma. Los sedimentos de las bahias San Ignacio y Navachiste, asi como los de la plataforma, son de origen continental y han sido transportados hacia la cuenca de deposito principalmente por los rios Fuerte y Sinaloa.

  20. Developments in the technology for the combustion of water emulsions in Mexican fuel oil; Desarrollos en la tecnologia para la combustion de emulsiones agua en combustoleo mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego, Antonio Marin; Martinez Flores, Marco A.; Tamayo Flores, Gustavo; Alarcon Quiroz, Ernesto; Melendez Cervantes, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    sulfurico que, al emitirse, tambien afecta la visibilidad de la pluma y puede condensarse, originado corrosion e incrementar la acumulacion de depositos de las calderas. La investigacion experimental se realizo en una base comparativa, entre pruebas de combustion de combustoleo , con emulsiones en donde se vario la concentracion de agua y el tamano de la gota de esta. Se muestra un diagrama de alimentacion de combustible y de preparacion de emulsiones en horno piloto. Y se da una grafica del efecto de la concentracion de agua de las emulsiones en la emision de particulas.El articulo contiene figuras de las cenosferas producidas por la combustion de combustoleo (500x) y las producidas por la combustion con 5% de agua (500x). Tambien muestra graficas del efecto del tamano de gota de agua de emulsiones en la emision de particulas, de la reduccion del trioxido de azufre con productos de magnesio soluble en el agua de emulsiones, y de la acidez libre de particulas con neutralizadores de magnesio soluble en el agua de emulsiones.

  1. Procesos de dolomitización-dedolomitización de la formación Láncara (Cámbrico inferior-medio en la región de pliegues y mantos de la zona Cantábrica, NW de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Rodríguez, L. A.

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available The Láncara Formation is a carbonate sequence within the Cantabrian zone with two members, the lower of primary dolomite nature, and the upper mainly composed of limestone beds. This formation has two basic features worth mentioning: 1 Represents the sliding and fracturing surface of most nappes and thrust-sheets of the Cantabrian zone; 2 Hosts several ore deposits, mainly Pb, Zn, Ba and Hg. A representative section of this Formation has been defined at Caranga de Arriba, Asturias (Spain. The samples obtained from this section have been characterized using several analytic techniques (transmission microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe and chemical analysis. A certain dedolomitization afecting the singenetic dolomites has been observed in the lower member, whereas the upper member shows a complete dolomitization. On the other hand, in the surroundings of the site described, and hosted by the refered Formation, the stratabound Pb-Zn ore deposito named Grupo Cantabria, is found. These facts seem to indicate that the Lancara Formation has undergone a great circulation of connate fluids, from the bottom to the top of the Formation, resulting in an intense cation leaching (such as magnesium, very abundant in the lower member towards the upper member. This is probably due to the fact that the Lancara Formation represents the sliding surface of most nappes of the Cantabrian zone.La Formación Láncara, dentro de la Zona Cantábrica, es una secuencia carbonatada constituida por dos miembros, uno inferior de naturaleza dolomítica primaria y otro superior de naturaleza calcárea. Esta Formación presenta dos características básicas dignas de mención: una de ellas es que constituye la superficie de fractura y deslizamiento de la mayoría de los cabalgamientos y escamas que existen dentro de la Zona Cantábrica y la segunda es que en sus estratos se hallan distintos yacimientos e indicios minerales, sobre todo de Pb, Zn, Ba y Hg. En la

  2. PENGARUH AKTIVASI MEREK, HAMBATAN BERPINDAH DAN KEPUASAN NASABAH TERHADAP LOYALITAS NASABAH BANK “X”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Fauziah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The policy by the Bank of Indonesia to decrease interest rate of  Bank Indonesia’s certificate, from 11,82% in 2008 to 4,20% in 2012 causes the declination of the interest rate for  the bank products such as savings, deposit, and giro.  In 2008–2013, Bank “X” which is government owned, and has the second largest asset in Indonesia unfortunately has the customer loyalty level lower than of Bank “Y”.  Bank “Y” is chosen as the Best of Indonesian Bank Loyalty Championship for conventional bank savings product category, which was organized by Indonesian Bank Loyalty Award (IBLA.   To maintain the continuance of the company as well as the banking activities, customer loyalty is one the main keys.   In this regard, the objective of the research is to analyze the factors that influence the customer loyalty.  The data is analyzed using descriptive statistic and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The result of the research shows that the customer satisfaction variable, switching barriers, and brand activation are significantly affected by customer’s loyalty.  Reliability attribute, responsiveness, empathy and tangible are capable to influence the customer’s satisfaction.  The interpersonal relationship indicators, alternative attractiveness and switching cost influence the switching barriers.       Keywords: brand activation, switching barriers, customers’ satisfaction and loyaltyAbstrakKebijakan Bank Indonesia menurunkan tingkat suku bunga Sertifikat Bank Indonesia (SBI pada tahun 2008 sebesar 11,82% menjadi 4,20% pada tahun 2012, membuat suku bunga produk perbankan seperti tabungan, deposito dan giro cenderung menurun. Bank “X” merupakan bank milik negara yang memiliki asset terbesar kedua di Indonesia sejak 2008 hingga tahun 2013, namun tingkat loyalitas nasabah Bank “X”selalu menjadi runner up masih kalah dengan loyalitas nasabah Bank “Y” yang terpilih sebagai The Best of Indonesian Bank Loyalty

  3. Evolution evidence of a basic fluid to an acid based in the analysis of hydrothermal alteration of the geothermic field of the Azufres, Michoacan; Evidencias de evolucion de un fluido basico a acido a partir del analisis de la alteracion hidrotermal del campo geotermico de los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Partida, Eduardo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    zoneamiento evolutivo para los calcosilicatos predominando las zeolitas hacia la cima y la epidota-clinozoicita en los niveles mas profundos. Le sobreyace una zona de argilitizacion que domina las manifestaciones hidrotermales superficiales. En algunas zonas, se tiene la asociacion caolinita-alunita-azufre nativo-cuarzo (zona argilica avanzada) formada por la interaccion vapor-acuifero someros. En el sistema geotermico de Los Azufres el protofluido esta ligado a una salmuera clorurado-sodica de caracter neutro que propicia una alteracion hidrotermal propilitica profunda (zona productoras) y se caracteriza por tener una permeabilidad secundaria debido al fracturamiento. A profundiad el yacimiento es a liquido dominante presurizado para evolucionar a vapor en su parte mas somera. El cambio gradual de la fase liquida a vapor se da por ebullicion a profundidades del orden de 1,200 a 1,500 m, y esta acompanado por cambios igualmente presentes en la mineralogia de alteracion hidrotermal. Ella pasa de propilitica a argilica por un proceso de oxidacion-acidificacion, en donde la participacion de gases, principalmente de CO{sub 2}, es importante. De acuerdo a las caracteristicas fisicoquimicas de la salmuera y la evolucion en las fases parageneticas, el yacimiento de Los Azufres pudiera ser un modelo de comportamiento hidrotermal en el deposito de las menas que se dan por ebullicion y oxidacion de los fluidos hidrotermales fosiles de baja sulfidacion.

  4. Chemical signature of two Permian volcanic ash deposits within a bentonite bed from Melo, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane M. Calarge

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Permian bentonite deposit at Melo, Uruguay is composed of a calcite-cemented sandstone containing clay pseudomorphs of glass shards (0-0.50 m overlying a pink massive clay deposit (0.50-2.10m. The massive bed is composed of two layers containing quartz and smectite or pure smectite respectively. The smectite is remarkably homogeneous throughout the profile: it is a complex mixed layer composed of three layer types whose expandability with ethylene glycol (2EG 1EG or 0EG sheets in the interlayer zone which correspond to low-, medium- and high-charge layers respectively varies with the cation saturating the interlayer zone. The smectite homogeneity through the profile is the signature of an early alteration process in a lagoonal water which was over saturated with respect to calcite. Compaction during burial has made the bentonite bed a K-depleted closed system in which diagenetic illitization was inhibited. Variations in major, REE and minor element abundances throughout the massive clay deposit suggest that it originated from two successive ash falls. The incompatible element abundances are consistent with that of a volcanic glass fractionated from a rhyolite magma formed in a subduction/collision geological context.Um depósito Permiano de bentonita em Melo, Uruguai,é composto por um arenito com cimento calcítico contendo pseudomorfos de argila sobre detritos vítreos(0-0.50 m superpostos a um deposito maciço de argila rosado (0.50-2.10 m. A camada maciça é composta por dois níveis contendo quartzo e esmectita ou esmectita pura, respectivamente. A homogeneidade de esmectita ao longo do perfil é notável: trata-se de um interestratificado composto de três tipos de camadas, cuja expansibilidade com etileno-glicol (folhas 2EG, 1EG ou 0EG na zona interfoliar correspondentes a camadas com baixa, média e alta carga, respectivamente variam com o tipo de cátion que satura a zona interfoliar. A homogeneidade da esmectita ao longo do perfil

  5. Electrochemical study of oxygen reduction reaction in Pt/C catalysts synthesized by photo-deposition; Estudio electroquimico de la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno en catalizadores de Pt/C sintetizados por fotodeposito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Galindo, J. A.; Ruiz-Camacho, B.; Valenzuela-Zapata, M. A.; Gonzalez-Huerta, R. G. [IPN, ESIQIE, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: rosgonzalez_h@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-09-15

    interaccion entre estos dos componentes ha recibido mucha atencion en los ultimos anos. Esta interaccion es considerada como la responsable en los efectos de crecimiento de la estructura y la disminucion de la dispersion de las particulas del metal sobre el soporte, provocando un bajo desempeno global y un menor tiempo de vida util de la pila. Las propiedades del soporte se ven acentuadas en los catalizadores catodicos, donde se lleva a cabo la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno por las condiciones de operacion que se tienen, actualmente se estan investigando sintesis que mejoren la interaccion metal-soporte y asi aumentar el tiempo de vida de la pila de combustible. En este trabajo se presenta el estudio electroquimico de catalizadores de tamano nanometrico de platino soportado en carbon (Pt/C) sintetizados por el metodo de Foto-deposito Quimico para determinar su efecto catalitico y estabilidad en la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno en medio acido. Se utilizo como precursor de platino el C{sub 10}H{sub 14}O{sub 4}Pt (Pt(acac)2). El estudio electroquimico se realizo con las tecnicas de voltamperometria ciclica y electrodo de disco rotatorio observando que los catalizadores sintetizados presentan un comportamiento similar al Pt ETek. El estudio cinetico mostro un potencial a circuito abierto de 0.96 V, con una pendiente de Tafel de 73 mV dec-1 y a una corriente de 0.1 mA cm-2 se tiene un potencial de 0.91 V. Los autores agradecen el apoyo al ICYTDF (proyecto PICS08-37) y al IPN (Proyecto SIP-20090433).

  6. Reduction of the harmonic propagation in three-phase systems using active compensation; Reduccion de la propagacion armonica en sistemas trifasicos empleando compensacion activa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Ordaz, Marco Antonio

    2007-08-15

    filter in the ring network in order to get the best reduction with the smallest power capacity. The research includes topic related with the detection of characteristic and non-characteristic harmonics, the use of shunt active filters connected directly to the network, and harmonic reduction in electric systems. [Spanish] Con el desarrollo de dispositivos semiconductores y la proliferacion de cargas no lineales basadas en convertidores de potencia estaticos, la calidad de la energia electrica en sistemas de transmision, distribucion y consumo se ha visto afectada. Los armonicos de tension presentes en un sistema de distribucion son principalmente el resultado de las corrientes armonicas generadas por las cargas no lineales y su efecto sobre la impedancia del sistema de distribucion. Existen varios problemas generados por la presencia de armonicos de corriente y tension en sistemas de distribucion de potencia; uno de estos problemas es el fenomeno de la propagacion armonica que ha tomado relevancia en los sistemas de distribucion y consumo. Este fenomeno se ha manifestado por la amplificacion de armonicos de tension en lineas de distribucion, generando niveles de distorsion que afectan a la instalaciones electricas, y afectando la vida util de algunos equipos (motores de CA, transformadores, bancos de capacitores, etc.). Ademas hay una reduccion en la capacidad de transmision de potencia en las lineas de distribucion. La propagacion armonica es causada principalmente por la resonancia serie/paralelo entre la impedancia de la linea, los transformadores y los bancos de correccion de factores de potencia instalados a lo largo de la linea de distribucion y los equipos de los consumidores. Los filtros pasivos no han sido una solucion suficiente porque la propagacion armonica puede ocurrir cuando no existe carga en la red electrica, y las frecuencias de resonancia pueden no corresponder a armonicos caracteristicos. Este problema ha sido resuelto por medio del uso de filtros

  7. Microstructure of water emulsions in heavy fuel oil and its effect in the combustion; Microestructura de emulsiones agua en combustoleo pesado y su efecto en la combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Aranda, Angel Alberto

    2000-11-01

    largest (around 60{mu}m) and they had the major unburned carbon (67.7% by weight); the smx-1 emulsion produced the smallest cenospheres with 29.2% of carbon. The total incident heat flux of the base line test was 406 kw m{sup -2}, but it was increased 4% with the smx-1 emulsion, 5% with both smx-2 and 3 emulsions, and 6% with the smx-4 emulsion. The increase of both wall temperature and heat flux in the combustion chamber and the decrease of the unburned carbon of emulsions cenospheres, are believed to be due a physical effect (secondary atomisation) of water in the HFO. The results in this research showed that the most notable benefits of the distribution and size of water drops took place in the size range from 2 to 5{mu}m. As the volume of water distributed in drops of this range was increased, both the PST emission level and its particle size were further reduced. [Spanish] En este trabajo se investigo el efecto de la distribucion de tamano de gota de agua (DTGA) de emulsiones agua en combustoleo, en la reduccion de la emision y distribucion de tamano de Particulas Suspendidas Totales (PST). Para ello se prepararon cuatro emulsiones en linea con diferentes mezcladores estaticos (smx- 1, 2, 3 y 4) y 6.8{+-}0.5% de agua. Estas se quemaron en un horno experimental con un flujo de combustoleo de 32 kg h{sup -1} y un exceso de oxigeno en los gases de combustion de 0.37%. La emision de PST se midio siguiendo el metodo 5 de la Agencia de Proteccion del Ambiente de EUA (EPA por sus siglas en ingles), y la distribucion de tamano de particulas (DTP) se establecio mediante un impacto de cascada adaptando el procedimiento establecido en el metodo 17 de la misma agencia. Las emulsiones se examinaron con un microscopio optico de luz transmitida y un sistema de analisis de imagen para determinar la DTGA de acuerdo a la norma Britanica BS-3604. El contenido de carbono no quemado de las particulas se determino con un analizador elemental LECO CHN-600 empleando el metodo ASTM-D 5373

  8. Fussy control for the operation of an electric energy generation system based in type PEM fuel cells; Control difuso para la operacion de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Roman, Miguel

    2004-10-15

    senales de control conservando la via directa del lazo de control del esquema de control original. Se realizaron pruebas en todo el rango de operacion, para el analisis del desempeno del controlador PID convencional y el controlador PID difuso, introduciendo senales en forma de escalon en la demanda de potencia. Se valido el desempeno del sistema de generacion en funcion de la minimizacion de un indice de error y de la forma suave de la senal de control hacia los actuadores. Se analizo el grado de acoplamiento dinamico entre los lazos de control y se disenaron compensadores de interaccion estaticos con los metodos mas comunes encontrados en la bibliografia: ideal, simplificado e inverso. Se realizaron pruebas para el analisis del compensador ante cambios en la referencia para la presion del anodo, presion del catodo y temperatura de la celda, se diseno tambien un compensador difuso para llevar a cabo el analisis en todo el rango de operacion.

  9. Application of the optimum reactive power dispatch to the cost establishment for the support voltage in a power electrical system for generalized dispatch; Aplicacion del despacho optimo de potencia reactiva al establecimiento del costo por el soporte de voltaje en un sistema electrico de potencia con despacho centralizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Gomez, Sergio Baruch

    2004-05-15

    for voltage support of each generator is formed by a fixed and a variable cost. The fixed cost is calculated from the annual recovery factor of the capital invested in the generator. The variable cost depends on the operation conditions and on the cost for loss of opportunity of the generator. To determine the total cost for the voltage support of generators, it is considered that the market of active power has already been solved previously through an economic dispatch of active power. The systems used for the evaluation of the developed program are: a 5 nodes system and the IEEE 30 nodes system. [Spanish] Los cambios en las estructuras de los sistemas electricos de esquemas verticales a esquemas horizontales ha provocado que los sistemas esten formados por cuatro segmentos: generacion, transmision, distribucion y comercializacion. Bajo este esquema el operador del sistema es el encargado de administrar y operar de manera economica y segura al sistema. Una de las tareas principales de esta organizacion junto con la red de transmision es la de realizar el movimiento de potencia desde los centros de generacion hasta los puntos de consumo, no obstante para poder llevar a cabo esta actividad se necesita un conjunto de servicios auxiliares. En un esquema horizontal, el soporte de voltaje por parte de los generadores es considerado como un servicio auxiliar, el cual es necesario para la operacion del sistema. Si bien la compensacion de potencia reactiva en un sistema electrico se debe realizar de manera local a traves de compensacion en derivacion, compensadores estaticos, condensadores sincronos y transformadores con cambiador en derivacion bajo carga, debido a que el transmitir flujos de potencia reactiva desde los generadores provoca un incremento en las perdidas del sistema de transmision; sin embargo aunque la funcion principal de los generadores sincronos es la produccion de potencia activa, de manera implicita estos generan potencia reactiva bajo ciertas condiciones

  10. Assessing the potential toxicity of marine sediments found in petroleum industry areas: A new approach based on responses of postlarval shrimp; Evaluacion del potencial de toxicidad de sedimentos marinos en areas de la industria petrolera: Un nuevo metodo basado en respuestas de postlarvas de camarones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista, A.J.A.; Nascimento, I.A.; Pereira, S.A.; Lopes, M.B.N.L.; Martins, L.K.P. [Laboratorio de Bio Marinha e Biomonitoramento IBIO-UFBA, Campus Universitario de Ondina, Salvador (Brazil); Fillmann, G [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, West Hoe, PL (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-15

    impacted and relatively unperturbed environments, but also to separate the different degrees of impact among areas subjected to petroleum industry activities in the coastal environment. [Spanish] Se evaluo la toxicidad de sedimentos del area del noreste de la Bahia de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil, para evaluar el impacto ambiental inducido por 50 anos de actividad industrial petrolera (Petrobras). Se recolectaron muestras de sedimento durante un ano, con intervalos de tres meses, en cuatro sitios relacionados con areas de extraccion (Ilha das Fontes, estacion 4), transporte (Ilhas de Madre de Deus y Pati, estaciones 2 y 3) y refinacion del petroleo (RELAM, estacion 1). Dos estaciones de referencia (5 y 6) se localizaron fuera del area de influencia del petroleo, al sur de la bahia. Se llevaron a cabo bioensayos estaticos por 96 h, usando postlarvas (PL) de Lytopenaeus vannamei con 7 a 8 dias de desarrollo. El ensayo fue realizado en contenedores con 200 g de sedimento superficial (1 cm de profundidad) y 2 L de agua (agua de mar filtrada, 28 ppm de salinidad, 27 {+-} C y DO bajo saturacion). Se alimentaron 15 PL en los contenedores diariamente con 60 nauplios de Artemia salina. Se monitorearon parametros quimicos. La mortalidad y la ganancia en peso seco fueron tomadas como parametros de validacion (end point). Los datos de mortalidad obtenidos de los sedimentos de las estaciones de Petrobras no mostraron diferencias significativas, en comparacion con las estaciones de referencia; sin embargo, la ganancia en peso seco mostro diferencias significativas entre estaciones. El valor maximo se alcanzo en la estacion 1 (refineria RELAM). Las estaciones 2 y 3 de las areas de transporte de petroleo no mostraron diferencias significativas. Para evaluar la sensibilidad de la prueba del sedimento para detectar contaminacion por la industria petrolera, los datos de toxicidad fueron considerados en terminos de niveles de hidrocarburos analizados en dichos sedimentos en las areas de

  11. Simulation of an active filter for compensation of reactive power and suppression of harmonic currents in the phases and in the neuter of an unbalanced three-phase system of 4 wires; Simulacion de un filtro activo para compensacion de potencia reactiva y supresion de corrientes armonicas en las fases y en el neutro de un sistema trifasico de 4 kilos desbalanceado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mino Aguilar, Gerardo

    1999-05-01

    conocimiento en filtros activos de potencia usados en los puntos de acoplamiento comun entre las fuentes de C.A. y las cargas no lineales formadas por convertidores estaticos de CA/CD, para la supresion de corrientes armonicas y compensacion instantanea de la potencia reactiva. Partiendo de los filtros activos que solo afectan las tres corrientes balanceadas de los sistemas trifasicos de 3 hilos, se llega al tema de esta tesis, cuyo objetivo es resolver el problema de la compensacion reactiva y supresion de corrientes armonicas tanto en las tres fases como tambien en el neutro de los sistemas trifasicos de 4 hilos. La contribucion principal de esta tesis es el diseno, analisis y simulacion de un filtro activo que ademas de suprimir corrientes armonicas y compensacion del factor de potencia en las tres fases de un sistema trifasico desbalanceado, tambien tiene la capacidad para remover la corriente que circula en el neutro, debido al desbalance de las corrientes de fase. Este diseno se basa en la extension de la teoria de la potencia reactiva instantanea que incluye la existencia de los componentes de secuencia cero en las corrientes de fase. Se propone en la tesis un novedoso filtro basado en un inversor trifasico de 4 ramas, 3 ramas de fase y una rama de neutro, que hasta el mejor conocimiento del autor no ha sido reportado en la literatura. Se hace uso de un numero extenso de resultados de simulacion para probar la validez de este filtro, cuyo comportamiento es superior a los filtros para supresion de corrientes en el neutro existentes en la literatura, de los cuales tambien se presenta un estudio comparativo. La tesis tambien incluye un analisis matematico y grafico de los componentes simetricos en sistemas balanceados y desbalanceados a efecto de conocer la naturaleza de las corrientes armonicas de secuencia cero. Se incluye un apartado sobre causas y efectos del problema de la contaminacion armonica.

  12. Study of multilevel inverters with extended functions; Estudio de inversores multinivel con funciones ampliadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda Vidales, Homero

    2007-06-15

    strategies to implement the modulation and programming technique. [Spanish] Desde 1980 los convertidores multinivel han sido parte fundamental en equipos de electronica de potencia tales como variadores de velocidad para motores de induccion. En las ultimas decadas las aplicaciones de estos convertidores se extendieron a otras funciones tales como vehiculos electricos, sistemas de transmision de energia y equipos acondicionadores de red. En la actualidad los convertidores multinivel han ganado un espacio muy importante en aplicaciones de media y alta tension gracias a sus caracteristicas que presentan. Especialmente en acondicionadores de red los cuales son equipos de electronica de potencia que se basan en convertidores estaticos. Entre las principales aplicaciones de los acondicionadores de red son la compensacion de armonicas en corriente y/o tension, la generacion de potencia reactiva y la compensacion de desviaciones en la magnitud de tension. La contaminacion armonica en la red electrica es uno de los problemas mas severos y cabe mencionar que en la mayoria de los paises industrializados no existe cargo alguno que penalice la generacion y propagacion armonica. Sin embargo, es necesario hacer un estudio y proponer soluciones que ayuden a reducir los efectos ocasionados por la generacion de armonicas en corriente y/o tension. Una solucion a este problema son los filtros activos, que se encuentran dentro de los acondicionadores de red, los cuales ayudan a reducir la cantidad de armonicos que circulan en la red electrica. Sin embargo en sistemas de media y alta tension se complica la utilizacion de estos equipos ya que los dispositivos de potencia que componen a los convertidores convencionales (dos niveles) no soportan altos niveles de tension y corriente simultaneamente. Como una solucion a estos problemas surgen los inversores multinivel. Los inversores multinivel son equipos que operan con bajos niveles de tension en las fuentes de CD y los dispositivos semiconductores

  13. Fire vegetative ash and erosion in the Mediterranean areas. State of the art and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    -84-370-7887-8. Deposito Legal: V-3541-2010. Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. (2013a) Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period, Land Degradation and Development, (In Press), DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2195 Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J., Jordan, A. Burguet, M. (2013b) Effects of fire on ash thickness in a Lithuanian grassland and short-term spatio-temporal changes, Solid Earth Discussions,4, 1545-1584. Pereira, P., Úbeda, X. (2010) Spatial variation of heavy metals released from ashes after a wildfire, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 18(1), 13-22. Pereira, P., Úbeda, X., Martin, D. (2012) Fire severity effects on ash chemical composition and water-extractable elements, Geoderma, 191, 105-114.

  14. Geoquímica de los procesos de alteración hidrotermal en la mineralización de Sb de Mari Rosa (zona Centro Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillo, J.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central Iberian Zone of the Hesperian Massif hosts a series of late Hercynian veintype Sb deposits. One of them is the Mari Rosa mineralization, hosted by metagreywackes and slates belonging to the so-called Schist-Greywacke Complex (Upper Precambrian. The mineralization is characterized by a complex paragenesis comprising arsenopyrite-(pyrite, stibnite-gold and pyrite-pyrrhotite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-tetrahedrite-boulangeritestibnite. Of these only the second episode was of importance and gave rise to the main mineralized bodies of the deposito Two types of veins can be defined in Mari Rosa: Vp, showing pinch and swell structures parallel to the main foliation planes (S2, and Vo, massive lensoid-shaped bodies of gold bearing stibnite postdating the Vp veins and cross-cutting S2. Hydrothermal alteration consists oí a mild sericitization, chloritization and carbonatization oí the metasedimentary rocks around the veins. Due to the mineralogy oí the hostrocks (muscovite, chlorite, quartz, these alteration facies are not easily recognizable. However, the study of chemical changes around the veins allow a clear characterization of the hydrotermal processes. !hus, a remarkable increase in the ratio K2O/Na2O (from 1.2 in the regional rocks to 5.1 lfi the Vp contact rocks and a decrease in the ratio SiO2/volatiles (írom 27.4 in the regional rocks to 13.5 in the Vp contact rocks can be used as clear-cut indicators of the extension and magnitude of the hydrothermal alteration. Other changes included increases lfi. Sb (between 5,000 and 10,000 times the regional background, Mo (up to 60 times the regional background and Au (values oí up to 32 ppm around the veins. Besides, a high positive correlation between Sb and Mo is observed (R = 1 in the veins and R = 0.9 in the host rocks. The isotopic signature of stibnite and pyrite (average δ34S of 0.3‰ and -3.9‰, respectively is close to the typical values of magmatic sulphur. This

  15. The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 2. Current and future research challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    cenizas y el ecosistema suelo, In: Cerdà, A. Jordan, A. (eds) Actualización en métodos y técnicas para el estudio de los suelos afectados por incendios forestales, 345-398. Càtedra de Divulgació de la Ciència. Universitat de Valencia. ISBN: 978-84-370-7887-8. Deposito Legal: V-3541-2010. Pereira, P., Úbeda, X. 2010. Spatial variation of heavy metals released from ashes after a wildfire, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 18(1), 13-22. Pereira, P., Ubeda, X., Martin, D. 2012. Fire severity effects on ash chemical composition and water-extractable elements, Geoderma, 191, 105-114. Pereira, P., Úbeda, X., Martin, D., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C. 2011. Effects of a low prescribed fire in ash water soluble elements in a Cork Oak (Quercus suber) forest located in Northeast of Iberian Peninsula, Environmental Research, 111(2), 237-247. Stoff, C.R., Wesseling, J.G., Ritsema, C.J. 2011. Effects of ash on soil water retention, Geoderma, 159(3-4), 276-285. Woods, S.W., Balfour, V.N. 2010. The effects of soil texture and ash thickness on the post-fire hydrological response from ash-covered soils, Journal of Hydrology, 393, 274-286.

  16. The influences of the parameters in the welding process to the refinement of the zone by affected the temperature in the Cr-Mo-V steels; Influencia de los parametros del proceso de soldadura a la refinacion de la zona afectada por la temperatura en los aceros al Cr-Mo-V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur Czerwiec, Zdzislaw

    2001-07-01

    confiables y justifican el uso del modelo para simular la microestructura de la ZAT en las soldaduras de cordones multiples con el proposito de obtener la refinacion de los granos de la bainita gruesa de la ZAT y mejorar el comportamiento de la union de soldadura durante la operacion. En la segunda etapa del trabajo se desarrollo una metodologia de prediccion de la microestructura de la zona afectada por la temperatura (ZAT) en los depositos de cordones multiples de dos capas, aplicado al acero de baja aleacion 1.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V por el proceso de soldadura con arco electrico protegido (SMAW). Se desarrollo un programa por computadora para calcular la extension de las regiones de interes en la ZAT de cordones multiples de dos capas y para predecir el porcentaje de refinacion de los granos gruesos de la ZAT para determinados parametros de soldadura, temperatura de precalentamiento y traslape de los cordones. Se llevo a cabo la validacion del modelo experimentalmente depositando varios cordones de soldadura en dos capas, obteniendo una razonable concordancia entre la prediccion del modelo y la distribucion estructural de la ZAT medida durante el experimento. Se confirmo que la microestructura y su distribucion espacial en la ZAT de cordones multiples en las secciones gruesas puede ser predecida con base en el conocimiento de las dimensiones del cordon de soldadura, variables del proceso de soldadura y metalurgia basica. Se encontro que el control de la relacion de induccion del calor de la segunda y primera capa de cordones de soldadura es esencial para obtener el exito de la refinacion de los granos gruesos de la ZAT. Practicamente, esto puede ser logrado por una seleccion del tamano de electrodos, seleccion de amperaje y velocidad de deposicion.