WorldWideScience

Sample records for depositional environments including

  1. Cooling Strategies for Vane Leading Edges in a Syngas Environment Including Effects of Deposition and Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Forrest [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Bons, Jeffrey [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The Department of Energy has goals to move land based gas turbine systems to alternate fuels including coal derived synthetic gas and hydrogen. Coal is the most abundant energy resource in the US and in the world and it is economically advantageous to develop power systems which can use coal. Integrated gasification combined cycles are (IGCC) expected to allow the clean use of coal derived fuels while improving the ability to capture and sequester carbon dioxide. These cycles will need to maintain or increase turbine entry temperatures to develop competitive efficiencies. The use of coal derived syngas introduces a range of potential contaminants into the hot section of the gas turbine including sulfur, iron, calcium, and various alkali metals. Depending on the effectiveness of the gas clean up processes, there exists significant likelihood that the remaining materials will become molten in the combustion process and potentially deposit on downstream turbine surfaces. Past evidence suggests that deposition will be a strong function of increasing temperature. Currently, even with the best gas cleanup processes a small level of particulate matter in the syngas is expected. Consequently, particulate deposition is expected to be an important consideration in the design of turbine components. The leading edge region of first stage vanes most often have higher deposition rates than other areas due to strong fluid acceleration and streamline curvature in the vicinity of the surface. This region remains one of the most difficult areas in a turbine nozzle to cool due to high inlet temperatures and only a small pressure ratio for cooling. The leading edge of a vane often has relatively high heat transfer coefficients and is often cooled using showerhead film cooling arrays. The throat of the first stage nozzle is another area where deposition potentially has a strongly adverse effect on turbine performance as this region meters the turbine inlet flow. Based on roughness

  2. Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sedimentary facies and facies associations within the lithostratigraphic column of the Middle Siwalik rocks show temporal repetition of sedimentary facies associations suggesting oscillation between proximal-, mid- and distal fan setups within a palaeo-alluvial fan depositional environment similar to the depositional ...

  3. Consequences of radioactive deposition on aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suolanen, V.

    1994-12-01

    The publication concentrates on the analyses of the main effects of radioactive deposition on Nordic aquatic environments. A modelling approach is applied for predicting the temporal behaviour of concentrations in fish of inland freshwater ecosystems. The observed values are considered in parallel with the calculations. The time-integrated consequences, the radiation doses are estimated for the relatively significant dose pathways. After a preliminary study of various lake environments in Nordic countries, three representative examples of lake systems were selected for closer consideration: small forest lake, medium-sized forest lake and mountain lake. The effects of changes in the trophic levels of lakes are also tentatively accounted for. The results of the analyses indicate that the radiological consequences of shallow forest lakes are greater than those of mountain lakes which usually have shorter turnover times compared to forest lakes. In long-term consideration, the fish ingestion pathway may in general become important and, in addition to the external exposure, has a high contribution to the expected doses. (orig.) (8 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs.)

  4. Facies and facies architecture and depositional environments of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facies and facies architecture and depositional environments of the ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Depositional environments of the Yolde Formation were studied based on the analysis of facies and facies architecture. ... Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3) ...

  5. Comparison of braided-stream depositional environment and uranium deposits at Saint Anthony underground mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, C.W.; Martin, K.W.; Lowry, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    United Nuclear's Saint Anthony mine, located in the Laguna district, produces uranium ore from the Jackpile sandstone unit of the Morrison Formation. The Jackpile sediments were deposited in a fluvial environment characterized by aridity, gentle slope, distant source area, and limited flow volume. Resultant stratigraphy consists of an intricate assemblage of trough and tabular cross-stratification grading to near massive bedding at some locations. Interbedded with the Jackpile sands are green mudstones and siltstones that commonly display irregular thicknesses of less than 2 ft and that are laterally discontinuous. Major penecontemporaneous and postdepositional alteration of originally deposited sands, silts, and clays includes: 1) infiltration and filling of interstices by kaolinitic clays; 2) mobilization and relocation of organic carbonaceous material; and 3) geochemical alteration of mineral constituents and fixation of uranium ions in organic carbonaceous material. Mineralized zones of economic volume display a spatial relationship to bedding features indicative of loosely packed sand deposited in dune and trough foresets. This relationship indicates possible permeability control by initial stratigraphy upon the flow of mineralizing solutions. Additionally, the low-energy foreset environment facilitates the accumulation of low-specific-gravity carbonaceous material necessary for interaction with mineralizing solutions. Large volumes of loosely packed foreset sands accumulate in transverse bars in braided-stream environments. These structures have a great potential for conducting large volumes of mineralizing fluids and hosting economic quantities of uranium ore

  6. Environment of deposition of the Awgu Formation (Late Cretaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The Awgu Formation is a linear NE-SW trending sedimentary deposit ... in the fine arenaceous facies, suggest a shallow marine depositional environment not exceeding 50 m water depth. ... Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3) ...

  7. Phanerozoic environments of black shale deposition and the Wilson Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Trabucho-Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal distribution of black shales is related to the development of environments in which they accumulate and to a propitious combination of environmental variables. In recent years, much has been done to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind the temporal distribution of black shales in the Phanerozoic and of the environmental variables that result in their deposition. However, the interpretation of ancient black shale depositional environments is dominated by an oversimplistic set of three depositional models that do not capture their complexity and dynamics. These three models, the restricted circulation, the (open ocean oxygen minimum and the continental shelf models, are an oversimplification of the variety of black shale depositional environments that arise and coexist throughout the course of a basin's Wilson Cycle, i.e. the dynamic sequence of events and stages that characterise the evolution of an ocean basin, from the opening continental rift to the closing orogeny. We examine the spatial distribution of black shales in the context of the Wilson Cycle using examples from the Phanerozoic. It is shown that the geographical distribution of environments of black shale deposition and the position of black shales in the basin infill sequence strongly depend on basin evolution, which controls the development of sedimentary environments where black shales may be deposited. The nature of the black shales that are deposited, i.e. lithology and type of organic matter, also depends on basin evolution and palaeogeography. We propose that in studies of black shales more attention should be given to the sedimentary processes that have led to their formation and to the interpretation of their sedimentary environments.

  8. A thermoluminescence study of vempalle dolomites and its depositional environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, A.K.; Rao, C.N.; Kaul, I.K.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt has been made to interpret the depositional environment of Vempalle dolomites (India) by thermoluminescence method. It has been demonstrated that glow curve patterns reflect the environmental condition of deposition for carbonate sediments. The glow curves were obtained for natural samples as well as samples irradiated by Co 60 and compared. A majority of the samples were concluded to be diagenetic. (A.K.)

  9. Evidence for change in depositional environment in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Sediments of late Pleistocene and Holocene periods, from a 12 m long core collected at a depth of 3627 m from the Arabian Sea, have been studied in order to understand the depositional environment. Sub-samples selected at 5 cm and occasionally at 10...

  10. Depositional environment of the Gombe Formation in the Gongola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The depositional environment of the Gombe Formation was determined using grain size parameters in which sixteen sandstone samples and ninety nine pebbles were subjected to granulometric and pebbles morphometric analysis respectively. The granulometric analysis for the sixteen (16) samples of the Gombe ...

  11. Depositional environment of the San Miguel lignite deposit in Atascosa and McMullen Counties, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowan, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the environment of deposition of the San Miguel lignite deposit was carried out in order to understand newly discovered characteristics of the deposit. The environment of deposition of the overburden and underburden was evaluated through an interpretation of three continuous cores. Four coal cores and a highwall section were carefully described to determine the depositional environmental of the coal seams and partings. These studies were supplemented by the construction of seam and parting isopachs, and the analysis of the distribution of sulfur isotopes, sulfur, forms, and total sulfur within the coal. The sedimentary package is composed of a basal prograding barrier that beach, dune, and back-barrier sands. This unit correlates with a downdip sand that was also interpreted as a prograding barrier by other authors. The barrier is overlain by a series of slit and clay deposits of lagoonal, tidal flat, and tidal channel origin. These deposits are capped by restricted lagoon sediments composed of green, calcareous clays that occasionally contain shell layers. The restricted lagoon deposits formed when the barrier closed the lagoon off from the sea. Peat forming freshwater swamps eventually became established behind the barrier and on top of the restricted lagoon sediments. The parting isopachs reveal a reticulate morphology similar to the mangrove swamps located lateral to the modern Niger River Delta. The partings represent vegetated tidal flat deposits that formed during periodic invasions by the sea that killed the swamp and inundated the peat with sulfate rich water. The lignite interval is capped by open lagoon and tidal flat sediments.

  12. Deposit Insurance and Risk Shifting in a Strong Regulatory Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Justesen, Lene Gilje

    This study provides empirical evidence on the moral hazard implications of introducing deposit insurance into a strong regulatory environment. Denmark offers a unique setting because commercial banks and savings banks have different ownership structures, but are subject to the same set...... of regulations. The ownership structure in savings banks implies that they have no incentive to increase risk after the implementation of a deposit insurance scheme whereas commercial banks have. Also, at the time of introduction, Denmark had high capital requirements and a strict closure policy. Using...... a difference-in-difference framework we show that commercial banks did not increase their risk compared to savings banks when deposit insurance was introduced. The results also hold for large commercial banks, indicating that the systemic risk did not increase either. Thus for a system with high capital...

  13. Sedimentary architecture and depositional environment of Kudat Formation, Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaheri, Samira; Suhaili, Mohd; Sapari, Nasiman; Momeni, Mohammadsadegh

    2017-12-01

    Kudat Formation originated from deep marine environment. Three lithofacies association of deep marine turbidity channel was discovered in three Members of the Kudat Formation in Kudat Peninsula, Sabah, Malaysia. Turbidite and deep marine architecture elements was described based on detailed sedimentological studies. Four architecture elements were identified based on each facies association and their lithology properties and character: inner external levee that was formed by turbidity flows spill out from their confinement of channel belt; Lobes sheet that was formed during downslope debris flows associated with levee; Channel fill which sediments deposited from high to low density currents with different value of sediment concentration; and overbank terrace which was formed by rapid suspension sedimentation. The depositional environment of Kudat Formation is shelf to deep marine fan.

  14. Including the Consumer and Environment in Occupational Therapy Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Catana; Bowen, Robin E.

    1998-01-01

    Occupational therapists (n=29) completed treatment plans based on case study data. Analysis indicated they often identified goals not addressed by the consumer/client. They significantly selected more simulated than real activities and more activities designed to change the person rather than the environment. (SK)

  15. Depositional Environment of the Sangkarewang Oil Shale, Ombilin Basin, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Anggayana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Five samples from 56 m long drill core of lacustrine Sangkarewang oil shale have been studied by means of petrography and organic geochemistry to investigate the organic matter composition and depositional environments of the shale. The organic matter consists of abundant lamalginite (30%, v/v and very limited amount of vitrinite, suggesting aquatic depositional environments with minor terrestrial influence. Organic geochemical analysis exhibits the dominance of pristane, phytane, and generally n-alkanes compounds. These compounds might originate mostly from aquatic photosynthetic organisms. The oil shale was likely deposited in anoxic lake environments, suggested by the presence of framboidal pyrite (6%, v/v and preserved organic matter with total organic carbon (TOC about 4.9%. The pristane/phytane ratio is relatively high about 3.9 and thought as source sensitive rather than redox sensitive. Hopanoid and aryl isoprenoid compounds are present in minor amounts. The latter compounds are interpreted to be derived from green sulfur bacteria dwelling in anoxic and the presence of H2S in bottom water.

  16. Oligocene Fluvio-Deltaic Depositional Environments Salin Sub-Basin, Central Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, A.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    A recent increase in accessibility for research in Myanmar has allowed rapid advancements in the understanding of the geology of the country. Evolving depositional environments can be reconstructed in largely unstudied Oligocene deposits of the Salin sub-basin, of the Central Myanmar Basin. Data has been collected through a fieldwork campaign to target well-exposed sediments along the western margin of the basin. The studied outcrops span approximately one hundred kilometres from north to south, and a series of sedimentary logs, palaeocurrent data, 2D panel diagrams, and samples for petrographical analysis have been collected and interpreted. The Oligocene formations studied include the Shwezetaw, Paduang, and Okhmintaung, each of which show a broadly southwards-trending fluvio-deltaic environment of deposition. Towards the north, the lower Rupelian Shwezetaw Formation comprises thick fluviatile sandstones which grade southwards through macrotidal-dominated fluvio-deltaic interbedded siltstones and rare sandstones, into marine sandstones. Overlying this, the upper Rupelian Paduang Formation grades rapidly from rare fluvial sandstones towards the north of the basin into deltaic and marine interbedded sandstones and siltstones to the south. This formation is more marine in nature, suggesting a minor transgression throughout the lower Oligocene. By the time of deposition of the Okhmintaung Formation in the Chattian the observed deposits solely represent a tidally-influenced deltaic depositional environment, with very little temporal variation, suggesting a stable sea level. Despite the relatively unchanging depositional environment, the formations are approximately 4000 m thick, suggesting that sedimentation kept pace with relatively rapid subsidence. This current study, which will combine depositional environment reconstruction, provenance, and sediment routing analysis, will provide important insights into both the tectonic setting and the huge sediment accumulation

  17. Gas Adsorption in Novel Environments, Including Effects of Pore Relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Milton W; Gatica, Silvina M; Kim, Hye-Young; Lueking, Angela D; Sircar, Sarmishtha

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption experiments have been interpreted frequently with simplified model geometries, such as ideally flat surfaces and slit or cylindrical pores. Recent explorations of unusual environments, such as fullerenes and metal-organic-framework materials, have led to a broadened scope of experimental, theoretical and simulation investigations. This paper reviews a number of such studies undertaken by our group. Among the topics receiving emphasis are these: universality of gas uptake in pores, relaxation of a porous absorbent due to gas uptake and the novel phases of gases on a single nanotube, all of which studies have been motivated by recent experiments.

  18. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael Lee; Hsu, John

    2016-01-01

    decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing......There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case...... and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some...

  19. An analytical model for particulate deposition on vertical heat transfer surfaces in a boiling environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, R.H.; Rider, J.L.; Waldman, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A frequent problem in heat exchange equipment is the deposition of particulates entrained in the working fluid onto heat transfer surfaces. These deposits increase the overall heat transfer resistance and can significantly degrade the performance of the heat exchanger. Accurate prediction of the deposition rate is necessary to ensure that the design and specified operating conditions of the heat exchanger adequately address the effects of this deposit layer. Although the deposition process has been studied in considerable detail, much of the work has focused on investigating individual aspects of the deposition process. This paper consolidates this previous research into a mechanistically based analytical prediction model for particulate deposition from a boiling liquid onto vertical heat transfer surfaces. Consistent with the well known Kern-Seaton approach, the model postulates net particulate accumulation to depend on the relative contributions of deposition and reentrainment processes. Mechanisms for deposition include boiling, momentum, and diffusion effects. Reentrainment is presumed to occur via an intermittent erosion process, with the energy for particle removal being supplied by turbulent flow instabilities. The contributions of these individual mechanisms are integrated to obtain a single equation for the deposit thickness versus time. The validity of the resulting model is demonstrated by comparison with data published in the open literature. Model estimates show good agreement with data obtained over a range of thermal-hydraulic conditions in both flow and pool boiling environments. The utility of the model in performing parametric studies (e.g. to determine the effect of flow velocity on net deposition) is also demonstrated. The initial success of the model suggests that it could prove useful in establishing a range of heat exchanger. operating conditions to minimize deposition

  20. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Water Chemistry and Clad Corrosion/Deposition Including Fuel Failures. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    Corrosion is a principal life limiting degradation mechanism in nuclear steam supply systems, particularly taking into account the trends in increasing fuel burnup, thermal ratings and cycle length. Further, many plants have been operating with varying water chemistry regimes for many years, and issues of crud (deposition of corrosion products on other surfaces in the primary coolant circuit) are of significant concern for operators. At the meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology (TWGFPT) in 2007, it was recommended that a technical meeting be held on the subject of water chemistry and clad corrosion and deposition, including the potential consequences for fuel failures. This proposal was supported by both the Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (TWG-LWR) and the Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Heavy Water Reactors (TWG-HWR), with a recommendation to hold the meeting at the National Nuclear Energy Generating Company ENERGOATOM, Ukraine. This technical meeting was part of the IAEA activities on water chemistry, which have included a series of coordinated research projects, the most recent of which, Optimisation of Water Chemistry to Ensure Reliable Water Reactor Fuel Performance at High Burnup and in Ageing Plant (FUWAC) (IAEATECDOC-1666), concluded in 2010. Previous technical meetings were held in Cadarache, France (1985), Portland, Oregon, USA (1989), Rez, Czech Republic (1993), and Hluboka nad Vltavou, Czech Republic (1998). This meeting focused on issues associated with the corrosion of fuel cladding and the deposition of corrosion products from the primary circuit onto the fuel assembly, which can cause overheating and cladding failure or lead to unplanned power shifts due to boron deposition in the clad deposits. Crud deposition on other surfaces increases radiation fields and operator dose and the meeting considered ways to minimize the generation of crud to avoid

  2. The relationship between mineralisation and depositional environment in Early Proterozoic metasediments of the Pine Creek Geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Recent geological mapping has indicated changes to the stratigraphy of the Pine Creek Geosyncline. The new stratigraphy and interpreted depositional environments are examined in relation to the distribution and genesis of stratabound mineral deposits. Basinward correlations are made with near-shore carbonate and psammite-rudite units in the Rum Jungle region. Most other units in the same region are condensed, indicating long-lived supratidal, intertidal or shallow conditions during most of the depositional cycle. Units containing most of the mineralisation represent the earliest near-shore developments of strongly reducing partly pelitic and evaporitic conditions and contain mainly uranium and base metals. Areas of potential mineralisation include near-shore environments in the north, and carbonate reefs along growth faults. Two suites of postorogenic felsic volcanics and related sediments deposited in shallow water within and around northwest and east-northeast rift systems, overlie the metasediments of the Pine Creek Geosyncline in the south. The suites have potential for volcanogenic deposits, mostly of uranium, gold and copper

  3. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''

  4. Landscape characteristics of Rhizophora mangle forests and propagule deposition in coastal environments of Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, R.; Middleton, B.; Yan, C.; Zuro, M.; Hartman, H.

    2005-01-01

    Field dispersal studies are seldom conducted at regional scales even though reliable information on mid-range dispersal distance is essential for models of colonization. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential distance of dispersal of Rhizophora mangle propagules by comparing deposition density with landscape characteristics of mangrove forests. Propagule density was estimated at various distances to mangrove sources (R. mangle) on beaches in southwestern Florida in both high-and low-energy environments, either facing open gulf waters vs. sheltered, respectively. Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems were used to identify source forests and to determine their landscape characteristics (forest size and distance to deposition area) for the regression analyses. Our results indicated that increasing density of propagules stranded on beaches was related negatively to the distance of the deposition sites from the nearest stands of R. mangle and that deposition was greatly diminished 2 km or more from the source. Measures of fragmentation such as the area of the R. mangle forests were related to propagule deposition but only in low-energy environments. Our results suggest that geographic models involving the colonization of coastal mangrove systems should include dispersal dynamics at mid-range scales, i.e., for our purposes here, beyond the local scale of the forest and up to 5 km distant. Studies of mangrove propagule deposition at various spatial scales are key to understanding regeneration limitations in natural gaps and restoration areas. Therefore, our study of mid-range propagule dispersal has broad application to plant ecology, restoration, and modeling. ?? Springer 2005.

  5. nTiO{sub 2} mass transfer and deposition behavior in an aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiuzhen, E-mail: xzwei@zjut.edu.cn; He, Junhui; Wang, Meng; Fang, Jinfeng; Chen, Jinyuan, E-mail: cjy1128@zjut.edu.cn; Lv, Bosheng, E-mail: zjhzlbs@zjut.edu.cn [Zhejiang University of Technology, College of Environment (China)

    2016-12-15

    Nano-TiO{sub 2} (nTiO{sub 2}) is widely used in industry, and some of it is inevitably released into natural aquatic environments. nTiO{sub 2} can be deposited on the streambed or transported along the stream and streambed, and it can also undergo exchange-transfer processes in these systems. The behavior of nTiO{sub 2} in rivers includes deposition-transfer processes in the stream and exchange-transfer processes between the stream and streambed. In this work, the deposition, mass transfer, exchange, and aggregation behavior of nTiO{sub 2} in a simulated river were studied as a function of the solution pH, stream velocity, and anionic, cationic, and neutral surfactant concentrations. In these experiments, a recirculating flume was used to simulate a natural stream. The nTiO{sub 2} deposition and aggregation phenomena in the river and streambed were characterized. Of the three surfactants studied, the anionic surfactant enhanced the nTiO{sub 2} stability in the river and limited its aggregation most effectively, resulting in slow nTiO{sub 2} deposition and nTiO{sub 2} transport over long distances. This study provides information about nanoparticle transport phenomena in simulated natural aquatic systems.

  6. nTiO_2 mass transfer and deposition behavior in an aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xiuzhen; He, Junhui; Wang, Meng; Fang, Jinfeng; Chen, Jinyuan; Lv, Bosheng

    2016-01-01

    Nano-TiO_2 (nTiO_2) is widely used in industry, and some of it is inevitably released into natural aquatic environments. nTiO_2 can be deposited on the streambed or transported along the stream and streambed, and it can also undergo exchange-transfer processes in these systems. The behavior of nTiO_2 in rivers includes deposition-transfer processes in the stream and exchange-transfer processes between the stream and streambed. In this work, the deposition, mass transfer, exchange, and aggregation behavior of nTiO_2 in a simulated river were studied as a function of the solution pH, stream velocity, and anionic, cationic, and neutral surfactant concentrations. In these experiments, a recirculating flume was used to simulate a natural stream. The nTiO_2 deposition and aggregation phenomena in the river and streambed were characterized. Of the three surfactants studied, the anionic surfactant enhanced the nTiO_2 stability in the river and limited its aggregation most effectively, resulting in slow nTiO_2 deposition and nTiO_2 transport over long distances. This study provides information about nanoparticle transport phenomena in simulated natural aquatic systems.

  7. Depositional environments and porosity distribution in regressive limestone reservoirs of the Mishrif Formation, Southern Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlDabbas, Moutaz; AlJassim Jassim; AlJumaily Saad

    2010-01-01

    Eight subsurface sections and a large number of thin sections of the Mishrif Limestone were studied to unravel the depositional facies and environments. The allochems in the Mishrif Formation are dominated by bioclasts, whereas peloids, ooids, and intraclasts are less abundant. The sedimentary microfacies of the Mishrif Formation includes mudstone, wackestone, packstone, grainstone, floatstone, and rudstone, which have been deposited in basinal, outer shelf, slop followed by shoal reef and lagoonal environments. The formation displays various extents of dolomitization and is cemented by calcite and dolomite. The formation has gradational contact with the underlying Rumaila Formation but is unconformably overlain by the Khasib Formation. The unconformity is recognized because the skeletal grains are dominated by Chaophyta (algae), which denotes the change of environment from fully marine to lacustrine environment. Thus, the vertical bioclast analysis indicates that the Mishrif Formation is characterized by two regressive cycles, which control the distribution of reservoir quality as well as the patterns of calcite and dolomite cement distribution. Mishrif Formation gradationally overlies Rumaila Formation. This was indicated by the presence of the green parts of Chaophyta (algae) as main skeletal grains at the uppermost part of well Zb-47, which refer to lacustrine or fresh water environment. Petrographical study shows that the fossils, peloids, oolitis, and intraclasts represent the main allochem. Calcite and dolomite (as diagenetic products) are the predominant mineral components of Mishrif Formation. Fossils were studied as an environmental age and facial boundaries indicators, which are located in a chart using personal computer programs depending on their distributions on the first appearance of species. Fifteen principal sedimentary microfacies have been identified in the Mishrif Formation, which includes lime mudstone, mudstone-wackestone, wackestone

  8. Subretinal Pigment Epithelial Deposition of Drusen Components Including Hydroxyapatite in a Primary Cell Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Matthew G; Lengyel, Imre; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Fearn, Sarah; Emri, Eszter; Knowles, Jonathan C; Messinger, Jeffrey D; Read, Russell W; Guidry, Clyde; Curcio, Christine A

    2017-02-01

    Extracellular deposits containing hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace metals that form between the basal lamina of the RPE and the inner collagenous layer of Bruch's membrane are hallmarks of early AMD. We examined whether cultured RPE cells could produce extracellular deposits containing all of these molecular components. Retinal pigment epithelium cells isolated from freshly enucleated porcine eyes were cultured on Transwell membranes for up to 6 months. Deposit composition and structure were characterized using light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy; synchrotron x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence; secondary ion mass spectroscopy; and immunohistochemistry. Apparently functional primary RPE cells, when cultured on 10-μm-thick inserts with 0.4-μm-diameter pores, can produce sub-RPE deposits that contain hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace elements, without outer segment supplementation, by 12 weeks. The data suggest that sub-RPE deposit formation is initiated, and probably regulated, by the RPE, as well as the loss of permeability of the Bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris complex associated with age and early AMD. This cell culture model of early AMD lesions provides a novel system for testing new therapeutic interventions against sub-RPE deposit formation, an event occurring well in advance of the onset of vision loss.

  9. Elemental tritium deposition and conversion in the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstall, T.G.; Ogram, G.L.; Spencer, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the deposition and conversion of atmospheric elemental tritium in soils and vegetation. In the field tritium deposition velocities ranged between 0.007 and 0.07 cm s -1 during the summer and autumn and were less than 0.0005 cm s -1 during the winter. Deposition velocity was found to depend significantly on soil water content, total pore space and organic content in controlled laboratory experiments. In contrast to soils, exposure of vegetation to atmospheric elemental tritium resulted in negligible uptake and conversion in foliage. These studies are of significance to the assessment of behaviour and impact of elemental tritium releases

  10. Dry deposition and resuspension of particulate matter in city environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, N.O.

    1984-06-01

    The report describes, mostly in qualitative terms, the deposition and resuspension of particles and how the mechanics depend on particle size. The effect of rough surfaces is discussed. It is concluded that knowledge on the subject, at relevant large Reynolds numbers, is indeed lacking. Various methods for measurements of deposition is mentioned and further the report gives some general ideas on how a suitable full scale experiment should be laid out in order to produce some data on the problems of dry deposition to city surfaces. (author)

  11. Lithofacies and paleo depositional environment of the rocks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IKENNA

    2013-09-20

    Sep 20, 2013 ... The intact shells of bivalves suggest deposition in a low energy protected shoreline where wave action is .... Low energy, protected shoreline where wave action is limited. 5. .... manuscript. We thank our families for giving us a.

  12. Depositional environments as a guide to uranium mineralization in the Chinle formation, San Rafael Swell, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupe, R.

    1977-01-01

    The sedimentary textures resulting from depositional processes operating in low-energy environments appear to have influenced uranium mineralization. The Chinle consists of three fining-upward, fluvial-lacustrine sequences. Uranium minerals are concentrated in the lower part of the lowest sequence in areas where sediments of low-energy environment are complexly interbedded with sediments of other environments. Areas favorable for uranium exploration exist in the subsurface to the north, west, and south of the Chinle outcrop in the Swell. This determination is based on the spatial distribution of depositional environments and the pattern of Chinle deposition through time. 8 refs

  13. Geology of uranium vein deposits (including Schwartzwalder Mine) in Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Front Range, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voto, R.H. de; Paschis, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is one of many uranium vein occurrences in the Lower Proterozoic metamorphic rocks of the Front Range, Colorado. The principal veins of significant uranium content occur marginal to the Colorado Mineral Belt; are localized by structural dilation zones, vein junctions, fault deflections or branching; and occur dominantly within or at the contact of certain preferred metamorphic-stratigraphic units, particularly the siliceous, garnetiferous gneisses, where these rock units are broken by faults and fractures associated with the north-northwest-trending throughgoing faults. Uranium at the Schwartzwalder mine occurs primarily as open-space brecciated vein filling along the steeply west-dipping Illinois vein and numerous east-dipping subsidiary veins where they cut preferred metamorphic host rocks that are tightly folded. Uraninite occurs with molybdenite, adularia, jordisite, ankerite, pyrite, base-metal sulphides, and calcite in vein-filling paragenetic sequence. Minor wall-rock alteration is mainly hematite alteration and bleaching. Vertical relief on the developed ore deposit is 900 metres and still open-ended at depth. No vertical zonation of alteration, vein mineralogy, density of the subsidiary veins, or ore grade has been detected. The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is of substantial tonnage (greater than 10,000 metric tons of U 3 O 8 ) and grade (averaging 0.57% U 3 O 8 ). Structural mapping shows that the Illinois vein-fault is a Proterozoic structure. Discordant Proterozoic (suggested) and Laramide dates have been obtained from Schwartzwalder ore. The data suggest, therefore, a Proterozoic ancestry of this heretofore presumed Laramide (Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary) hydrothermal uranium deposit. The authors suggest a polygenetic model for the origin of the Schwartzwalder uranium deposit

  14. The depositional and hydrogeologic environment of tertiary uranium deposits, South Texas uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Uranium ore bodies of the South Texas Uranium Province occur within the most transmissive sand facies of coastal-plain fluvial and shore-zone depositional systems. Host strata range in age from Eocene through Miocene. Ore bodies formed at the fringes of epigenetic oxidation tongues near intrinsic organic debris or iron-disulfide mineral reductants. Mineralized Eocene units, which include the Carrizo and Whitsett Sandstones, subcropped beneath tuffaceous Oligocene through early Miocene coastal plain sediments. Roll-front mineralization occurred because of this direct hydrologic continuity between an aquifer and a uranium source. Most ore occurs within coarse, sand-rich, arid-region, bed-load fluvial systems of the Oligocene through Miocene Catahoula, Oakville, and Goliad Formations. Host sediments were syndepositionally oxidized and leached. Reductant consists predominantly of epigenetic pyrite precipitated from deep, sulfide-rich thermobaric waters introduced into the shallow aquifers along fault zones. Mineralization fronts are commonly entombed within reduced ground. Modern ground waters are locally oxidizing and redistributing some ore but appear incapable of forming new mineralization fronts. (author)

  15. Tracking Reactive Nitrogen Sources, Chemistry and Deposition in Urban Environments Using Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, M. G.; Clark, S. C.; Chai, J.; Joyce, E.; Miller, D. J.; Schiebel, H.; Walters, W.

    2017-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) includes compounds such as nitrogen oxides (NOx, HONO), ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and organic nitrates. These compounds serve major roles in controlling the composition of our atmosphere, and have a direct impact on ecosystem health and water quality. Our research is focused on using stable isotopes of Nr to investigate variations in sources, chemistry, atmospheric transport, and deposition. Our aim is to fingerprint distinct emission sources - such as vehicles, power plants, aircraft, agriculature, wildfires, and lightning - and track their influence in the environment. We have recently characterized vehicle emission plumes, emissions from agricultural soils under different management practices, and (in the near future) wildfire plumes in the western U.S. Our approach targets characterizing the isotopic composition of NOx, HONO, and NH3 at both the emissions source and the plume scale. In contrast to large ranges found for individual tailpipe emissions of NOx, on-road plumes in the U.S. have a mean δ15N of -4.7 ± 1.7‰. The plume scale approach integrates across the typical U.S. fleet giving a representative value that can be used for tracking the impact of this emission source in the environment. NH3 also tends towards a narrow isotopic range when considered at the roadside scale compared to individual vehicles. In agricultural settings, the isotopes of NOx and HONO released from soils under different fertilizer practices is typically very negative in δ15N (-40 to -10‰) and appears to vary most with soil N properties rather than meteorology. Our work is now extending to discern sources influencing Nr deposition in an urban area at the head of New England's largest estuary. National monitoring of N deposition shows decreases in NO3- (but not NH4+) deposition over the last two decades, following better controls on NOx emissions. Wet deposition collected in an urban area exhibits N concentrations that are often 3

  16. Behaviour of major, minor and trace elements (including REEs during kaolinization processes at Zonouz deposit, northeast of Marand, East Azarbaidjan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Alipour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Zonouz kaolin deposit is located ~15 km northeast of Marand, East-Azarbaidjan province. Based on physical features in field investigations, such as color, five distinct kaolin types including (1 white, (2 lemon, (3 gray, (4 brown, and (5 yellow are distinguished in the deposit. Field evidence and petrographic studies indicate that the deposit is genetically close to trachy-andesite rocks. According to mineralogical data, the deposit contains quartz, kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite, pyrophyllite, chlorite, muscovite-illite, dolomite, hematite, and anatase minerals. Geochemical data indicate that function of alteration processes on trachy-andesite rocks during development of Zonouz ore deposit was accompanied by leaching of elements such as Al, Na, K, Rb, Ba, V, Hf, Cu, Zr, Tm, Yb, and Lu, enrichment of elements such as U, Nb, and Ta, and leaching-fixation of elements such as Si, Fe, Ca, Mg, Ti, Mn, P, Cs, Sr, Th, Co, Cr, Ni, Y, Ga, LREE, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er. Incorporation of obtained results from mineralogical and geochemical studies show that physico-chemical conditions of alteration environment, the relative stability of primary minerals, surface adsorption, preferential sorption by metallic oxides, existing of organic matters, scavenging and concentration processes, and fixation in neomorphic mineralogical phases played important role in distribution of elements in the deposit. Geochemical studies show that development of the deposit is relative to two types of processes, (1 hypogene and (2 supergene. The distribution pattern of REEs indicates that differentiation degree of LREEs from HREEs in supergene kaolins is more than hypogene kaolins. Geochemical studies indicate that minerals such as Mn-oxides, zircon, anatase, hematite, cerianite, and secondary phosphates (monazite, rhabdophane, churchite, and zenotime are the potential hosts for rare earth elements in this deposit.

  17. Determination of hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution for different depositional environments

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2013-06-06

    Over 400 unlithified sediment samples were collected from four different depositional environments in global locations and the grain-size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured using standard methods. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations (e.g., Hazen, Carman-Kozeny) commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly to the measured hydraulic conductivity values with errors ranging to over 500%. To improve the empirical estimation methodology, the samples were grouped by depositional environment and subdivided into subgroups based on lithology and mud percentage. The empirical methods were then analyzed to assess which methods best estimated the measured values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and addition of offsets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improve the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for beach, dune, offshore marine, and river sediments. Estimated hydraulic conductivity errors were reduced to 6 to 7.1m/day for the beach subgroups, 3.4 to 7.1m/day for dune subgroups, and 2.2 to 11m/day for offshore sediments subgroups. Improvements were made for river environments, but still produced high errors between 13 and 23m/day. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Determination of hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution for different depositional environments

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge; Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Missimer, Thomas M.; Coulibaly, Kapo M.; Dehwah, Abdullah; Sesler, Kathryn; Rodri­ guez, Luis R. Lujan; Mantilla, David

    2013-01-01

    Over 400 unlithified sediment samples were collected from four different depositional environments in global locations and the grain-size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured using standard methods. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations (e.g., Hazen, Carman-Kozeny) commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly to the measured hydraulic conductivity values with errors ranging to over 500%. To improve the empirical estimation methodology, the samples were grouped by depositional environment and subdivided into subgroups based on lithology and mud percentage. The empirical methods were then analyzed to assess which methods best estimated the measured values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and addition of offsets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improve the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for beach, dune, offshore marine, and river sediments. Estimated hydraulic conductivity errors were reduced to 6 to 7.1m/day for the beach subgroups, 3.4 to 7.1m/day for dune subgroups, and 2.2 to 11m/day for offshore sediments subgroups. Improvements were made for river environments, but still produced high errors between 13 and 23m/day. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Relationship between peat geochemistry and depositional environments, Cranberry Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, R.; Cameron, C.C.; Cohen, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Heath, Great Cranberry Island, Maine, offers a unique locality for studying lateral and vertical relationships between radically different peat types within 1 km2. The majority of The Heath is a Sphagnum moss-dominated raised bog. Surrounding the raised bog is a swamp/marsh complex containing grass, sedge, Sphagnum moss, alder, tamarack, and skunk cabbage. Swamp/ marsh-deposited peat occurs both around the margins of The Heath and under Sphagnum-dominated peat, which was deposited within the raised bog. A third peat type, dominated by herbaceous aquatics, is present underlying the swamp/marsh-dominated peat but is not present as a dominant botanical community of The Heath. The three peat types have major differences in petrographic characteristics, ash contents, and associated minerals. Sulfur contents range from a low of 0.19 wt.% (dry) within the raised bog to a high of 4.44 wt% (dry) near the west end of The Heath, where swamp/marsh peat occurring directly behind a storm beach berm has been influenced by marine waters. The presence of major geochemical variations within a 1-km2 peat deposit suggests the need for in-depth characterization of potential peat resources prior to use. ?? 1987.

  20. Deposit model for heavy-mineral sands in coastal environments: Chapter L in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Shah, Anjana K.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model of heavy-mineral sands, which are sedimentary deposits of dense minerals that accumulate with sand, silt, and clay in coastal environments, locally forming economic concentrations of the heavy minerals. This deposit type is the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, through recovery of the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Heavy-mineral sands are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4) and its zirconium oxide; zircon is often recovered as a coproduct. Other heavy minerals produced as coproducts from some deposits are sillimanite/kyanite, staurolite, monazite, and garnet. Monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is a source of rare earth elements as well as thorium, which is used in thorium-based nuclear power under development in India and elsewhere.

  1. depositional environment of the gombe formation in the gongola sub

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Received 16 June 2016; Revision Accepted 25 July 2016) ... The morphometric analysis indicates both fluvial and beach environment with dominance of fluvial ... Formation, the Campano-Maastrichtian Deltaic Gombe ... dominated delta by Carter el al. ... Figure 2: Stratigraphy succession of Benue Trough (Tukur et al. 2015).

  2. Effects of Hot Streak and Phantom Cooling on Heat Transfer in a Cooled Turbine Stage Including Particulate Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bons, Jeffrey [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Ameri, Ali [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-01-08

    The objective of this research effort was to develop a validated computational modeling capability for the characterization of the effects of hot streaks and particulate deposition on the heat load of modern gas turbines. This was accomplished with a multi-faceted approach including analytical, experimental, and computational components. A 1-year no cost extension request was approved for this effort, so the total duration was 4 years. The research effort succeeded in its ultimate objective by leveraging extensive experimental deposition studies complemented by computational modeling. Experiments were conducted with hot streaks, vane cooling, and combinations of hot streaks with vane cooling. These studies contributed to a significant body of corporate knowledge of deposition, in combination with particle rebound and deposition studies funded by other agencies, to provide suitable conditions for the development of a new model. The model includes the following physical phenomena: elastic deformation, plastic deformation, adhesion, and shear removal. It also incorporates material property sensitivity to temperature and tangential-normal velocity rebound cross-dependencies observed in experiments. The model is well-suited for incorporation in CFD simulations of complex gas turbine flows due to its algebraic (explicit) formulation. This report contains model predictions compared to coefficient of restitution data available in the open literature as well as deposition results from two different high temperature turbine deposition facilities. While the model comparisons with experiments are in many cases promising, several key aspects of particle deposition remain elusive. The simple phenomenological nature of the model allows for parametric dependencies to be evaluated in a straightforward manner. This effort also included the first-ever full turbine stage deposition model published in the open literature. The simulations included hot streaks and simulated vane cooling

  3. Mineral deposits of the Silica plateau – evaluation of selected geological factors of the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BalហBartolomej

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Silica plateau is a part of a greatest karst area in the Slovak republic - Protected Landscape Area Slovak karst (CHKO Slovenský kras. Karst areas belong to the most sensitive environments, from the point of view of impacts caused by anthropogenous activities. This area reacts sensitively, disturbing the environmental balance caused by mining of mineral deposits. Three mineral deposits of industrial rocks: one deposit of decorative stone - Silická Brezová and two deposits of building stone – Silická Brezová I and Lipovník, respectively, were registered on January 1-st, 2001 in the territory of the Silica plateau. Some deposits utilized in the past namely two deposits of building raw materials (Hrušov and Krásnohorská Dlhá Lúka and one Pb-Zn ore deposit (Ardovo are also mentioned and evaluated in the paper. From the point of view of economical potential of the area, mineral deposits have a character of geopotentials. However the utilization of deposits represents negative anthropogenous impact. When compared with another forms of optimal and rational utilization of the country, e.g. agriculture, forestry, water management, construction, tourism etc., mineral deposits have a character of geobarriers. This research was carried out in the frame of the VEGA Grant No. 1/6090/1999.

  4. Laser diagnostics of a diamond depositing chemical vapour deposition gas-phase environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James Anthony

    2002-07-01

    Studies have been carried out to understand the gas-phase chemistry underpinning diamond deposition in hot filament and DC-arcjet chemical vapour deposition (CVD) systems. Resonance enhanced Multiphoton lonisation (REMPI) techniques were used to measure the relative H atom and CH{sub 3} radical number densities and local gas temperatures prevalent in a hot filament reactor, operating on Ch{sub 4}/H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas mixtures. These results were compared to a 3D-computer simulation, and hence provided an insight into the nature of the gas-phase chemistry with particular reference to C{sub 2}{yields}C{sub 1} species conversion. Similar experimental and theoretical studies were also carried out to explain the chemistry involved in NH{sub 3}/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} gas mixtures. It was demonstrated that the reactive nature of the filament surface was dependent on the addition of NH{sub 3}, influencing atomic hydrogen production, and thus the H/C/N gas-phase chemistry. Studies of the DC-arcjet diamond CVD reactor consisted of optical emission spectroscopic studies of the plume during deposition from an Ar/H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} gas mixture. Spatially resolved species emission intensity maps were obtained for C{sub 2}(d{yields}a), CN(B{yields}X) and H{sub {beta}} from Abel-inverted datasets. The C{sub 2}(d{yields}a) and CN(B{yields}X) emission intensity maps both show local maxima near the substrate surface. SEM and Laser Raman analyses indicate that N{sub 2} additions lead to a reduction in film quality and growth rate. Photoluminescence and SIMS analyses of the grown films provide conclusive evidence of nitrogen incorporation (as chemically bonded CN). Absolute column densities of C{sub 2}(a) in a DC-arcjet reactor operating on an Ar/H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} gas mixture, were measured using Cavity ring down spectroscopy. Simulations of the measured C{sub 2}(v=0) transition revealed a rotational temperature of {approx

  5. Laser diagnostics of a diamond depositing chemical vapour deposition gas-phase environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, James Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Studies have been carried out to understand the gas-phase chemistry underpinning diamond deposition in hot filament and DC-arcjet chemical vapour deposition (CVD) systems. Resonance enhanced Multiphoton lonisation (REMPI) techniques were used to measure the relative H atom and CH 3 radical number densities and local gas temperatures prevalent in a hot filament reactor, operating on Ch 4 /H 2 and C 2 H 2 /H 2 gas mixtures. These results were compared to a 3D-computer simulation, and hence provided an insight into the nature of the gas-phase chemistry with particular reference to C 2 →C 1 species conversion. Similar experimental and theoretical studies were also carried out to explain the chemistry involved in NH 3 /CH 4 /H 2 and N 2 /CH 4 /H 2 gas mixtures. It was demonstrated that the reactive nature of the filament surface was dependent on the addition of NH 3 , influencing atomic hydrogen production, and thus the H/C/N gas-phase chemistry. Studies of the DC-arcjet diamond CVD reactor consisted of optical emission spectroscopic studies of the plume during deposition from an Ar/H 2 /CH 4 /N 2 gas mixture. Spatially resolved species emission intensity maps were obtained for C 2 (d→a), CN(B→X) and H β from Abel-inverted datasets. The C 2 (d→a) and CN(B→X) emission intensity maps both show local maxima near the substrate surface. SEM and Laser Raman analyses indicate that N 2 additions lead to a reduction in film quality and growth rate. Photoluminescence and SIMS analyses of the grown films provide conclusive evidence of nitrogen incorporation (as chemically bonded CN). Absolute column densities of C 2 (a) in a DC-arcjet reactor operating on an Ar/H 2 /CH 4 gas mixture, were measured using Cavity ring down spectroscopy. Simulations of the measured C 2 (v=0) transition revealed a rotational temperature of ∼3300 K. This gas temperature is similar to that deduced from optical emission spectroscopy studies of the C 2 (d→a) transition. (author)

  6. Origin and depositional environment of clastic deposits in the Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, M.H.; Clague, D.A.; Lockwood, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Volcaniclastic units cored at depths of about 87, 164, 178, 226, and 246 m below sea level and carbonate units located between depths of 27 and 53 m below sea level in the Hilo drill core were found to be deposited at or near sea level. Four of these units are hydroclastic deposits, formed when subaerially erupted Mauna Loa lava flows entered the ocean and fragmented to produce quenched, glassy fragments during hydrovolcanic explosions. Ash units 24 and 26, at 178 m depth, accumulated at sea level in a freshwater bog. They contain pyroxenes crystallized from tholeiitic magma that we infer erupted explosively at the summit of Kilauea volcano. Two carbon-rich layers from these ashes have a weighted average radiocarbon age of 38.6 ?? 0.9 ka; the ashes probably correlate with the oldest and thickest part of the Pahala ash. Ash unit 44, at the transition from Mauna Kea to Mauna Loa lava flows, was probably nearly 3.2 m thick and is inferred to be equivalent to the lower thick part of the composite Homelani ash mapped in Hilo and on the flanks of Mauna Kea. The age of this part of Homelani ash is between 128 ?? 33 and 200 ?? 10 ka; it may have erupted subglacially during the Pohakuloa glacial maxima on Mauna Kea. Beach sand units 12 and 22 were derived from nearby Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea lava flows. The middle of beach sand unit 38 was derived mainly from lava erupted near the distal end of the subaerial east rift zone of Kilauea volcano; these sands were transported about 33 km northwest to Hilo Bay by prevailing longshore currents. Combined age, depth, and sea level markers in the core allow us to determine that lava flow recurrence intervals averaged one flow every 4 kyr during the past 86 kyr and one flow every 16 kyr between 86 and 200 ka at the drill site and that major explosive eruptions that deposit thick ash in Hilo have occurred only twice in the last 400 kyr. These recurrence intervals support the moderate lava flow hazard zonation (zone 3) for coastal Hilo

  7. Uranium distribution and sandstone depositional environments: oligocene and upper Cretaceous sediments, Cheyenne basin, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nibbelink, K.A.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    Wyoming-type roll-front uranium deposits occur in the Upper Cretaceous Laramie and Fox Hills sandstones in the Cheyenne basin of northeastern Colorado. The location, geometry, and trend of specific depositional environments of the Oligocene White River and the Upper Cretaceous Laramie and Fox Hills formations are important factors that control the distribution of uranium in these sandstones. The Fox Hills Sandstone consists of up to 450 ft (140 m) of nearshore marine wave-dominated delta and barrier island-tidal channel sandstones which overlie offshore deposits of the Pierre Shale and which are overlain by delta-plain and fluvial deposits of the Laramie Formation. Uranium, which probably originated from volcanic ash in the White River Formation, was transported by groundwater through the fluvial-channel deposits of the White River into the sandstones of the Laramie and Fox Hills formations where it was precipitated. Two favorable depositional settings for uranium mineralization in the Fox Hills Sandstone are: (1) the landward side of barrier-island deposits where barrier sandstones thin and interfinger with back-barrier organic mudstones, and (2) the intersection of barrier-island and tidal channel sandstones. In both settings, sandstones were probably reduced during early burial by diagenesis of contained and adjacent organic matter. The change in permeability trends between the depositional strike-oriented barrier sandstones and the dip-oriented tidal-channel sandstones provided sites for dispersed groundwater flow and, as demonstrated in similar settings in other depositional systems, sites for uranium mineralization

  8. Integrated model of port oil piping transportation system safety including operating environment threats

    OpenAIRE

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Kuligowska, Ewa; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated general model of complex technical system, linking its multistate safety model and the model of its operation process including operating environment threats and considering variable at different operation states its safety structures and its components safety parameters. Under the assumption that the system has exponential safety function, the safety characteristics of the port oil piping transportation system are determined.

  9. The Neogene molasse deposits of the Zagros Mountains in central Dezful Embayment: facies, sedimentary environments and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hossein Jalilian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper part of Neogene sequence of the Zagros Mountains consists of a clastic succession which is identified as Aghajari and Bakhtyari formations. The sequence is an excellent example of synorogenic sedimentation or molasse deposited in northern portion of the Zagros foreland basin. Sedimentological analysis of an outcrop section representing Miocene-Pliocene sediments in central Dezful Embayment resulted in recognizing 9 lithofacies and 4 architectural elements. These lithofacies include conglometate (Gt, Gh, Gmm, sandstone (Sp, Sh, Sr, St and mudstone (Fm, Fl that were deposited in meandering stream, braided river and alluvial fan environments. Paleocurrent analysis of cross-beds, channels and asymmetric ripple marks indicate that these Neogene clastics were mainly drived from Cretaceous to Paleogene highlands in the Zagros Mountains on the north. This stratigraphic record is coarsening-upward and formed by a regressive depositional megacycle under arid climate. Facies and depositional history analysis show that sedimentation of the Zagros molasse was primarily controlled by base-level changes rather than catchment lithology or climate. The sedimentary record of this regressive megacycle reveales the base-level was constantly falling down on one hand and the provenance was uplifting on the other hand. Tectonic activities and Zagros Mountains rising in the Late Miocene resulted in deposition of fining-upward point-bar and floodplain sequences of the Aghajari Formation in low-gradient meandering streams. The Lahbari Member of the Aghajari Formation represents deposition in braided rivers that composed predominantly of flood-plain deposits in the Early Pliocene. Finally, the sedimentary cycle of the Zagros molasse deposits terminated with massive conglomerates of the Bakhtyari Formation deposited in large alluvial fans near the source area.

  10. Application of Markov chains-entropy to analysis of depositional environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men Guizhen; Shi Xiaohong; Zhao Shuzhi

    1989-01-01

    The paper systematically and comprehensively discussed application of Markov chains-entropy to analysis of depositional environments of the upper Carboniferous series Taiyuan Formation in Anjialing, Pingshuo open-cast mine, Shanxi. Definite geological meanings were given respectively to calculated values of transition probability matrix, extremity probability matrix, substitution matrix and the entropy. The lithologic successions of coarse-fine-coarse grained layers from bottom upwards in the coal-bearing series made up the general symmetric cyclic patterns. It was suggested that the coal-bearing strata deposited in the coal-forming environment in delta plain-littoral swamps. Quantitative study of cyclic visibility and variation of formation was conducted. The assemblage relation among stratigraphic sequences and the significance of predicting vertical change were emphasized. Results of study showed that overall analysis of Markov chains was an effective method for analysis of depositional environments of coal-bearing strata. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Integrated model of port oil piping transportation system safety including operating environment threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołowrocki Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an integrated general model of complex technical system, linking its multistate safety model and the model of its operation process including operating environment threats and considering variable at different operation states its safety structures and its components safety parameters. Under the assumption that the system has exponential safety function, the safety characteristics of the port oil piping transportation system are determined.

  12. “An Environment Built to Include Rather than Exclude Me”: Creating Inclusive Environments for Human Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A. Layton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary discourses which challenge the notion of health as the “absence of disease” are prompting changes in health policy and practice. People with disability have been influential in progressing our understanding of the impact of contextual factors in individual and population health, highlighting the impact of environmental factors on functioning and inclusion. The World Health Organization’s (WHO more holistic definition of health as “wellbeing” is now applied in frameworks and legislation, and has long been understood in occupational therapy theory. In practice, however, occupational therapists and other professionals often address only local and individual environmental factors to promote wellbeing, within systems and societies that limit equity in population health and restrict inclusion in communities. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the supports and accommodations identified by a cohort of individuals (n-100 living with disability. A range of environmental facilitators and barriers were identified in peoples’ experience of “inclusive community environs” and found to influence inclusion and wellbeing. The roles and responsibilities of individuals, professionals, and society to enact change in environments are discussed in light of these findings. Recommendations include a focus on the subjective experience of environments, and application of theory from human rights and inclusive economics to address the multiple dimensions and levels of environments in working towards inclusion and wellbeing.

  13. Evaluating the Contributions of Atmospheric Deposition of Carbon and Other Nutrients to Nitrification in Alpine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, K. M.; Mladenov, N.; Williams, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    The Colorado Front Range of the Rocky Mountains contains undeveloped, barren soils, yet in this environment there is strong evidence for a microbial role in increased nitrogen (N) export. Barren soils in alpine environments are severely carbon-limited, which is the main energy source for microbial activity and sustenance of life. It has been shown that atmospheric deposition can contain high amounts of organic carbon (C). Atmospheric pollutants, dust events, and biological aerosols, such as bacteria, may be important contributors to the atmospheric organic C load. In this stage of the research we evaluated seasonal trends in the chemical composition and optical spectroscopic (fluorescence and UV-vis absorbance) signatures of snow, wet deposition, and dry deposition in an alpine environment at Niwot Ridge in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado to obtain a better understanding of the sources and chemical character of atmospheric deposition. Our results reveal a positive trend between dissolved organic carbon concentrations and calcium, nitrate and sulfate concentrations in wet and dry deposition, which may be derived from such sources as dust and urban air pollution. We also observed the presence of seasonally-variable fluorescent components that may be attributed to fluorescent pigments in bacteria. These results are relevant because atmospheric inputs of carbon and other nutrients may influence nitrification in barren, alpine soils and, ultimately, the export of nitrate to alpine watersheds.

  14. New seismic instrumentation packaged for all terrestrial environments (including the quietest observatories!).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Tim; Devanney, Peter; Bainbridge, Geoff; Townsend, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    The march to make every type of seismometer, weak to strong motion, reliable and economically deployable in any terrestrial environment continues with the availability of three new sensors and seismic systems including ones with over 200dB of dynamic range. Until recently there were probably 100 pier type broadband sensors for every observatory type pier, not the types of deployments geoscientists are needing to advance science and monitoring capability. Deeper boreholes are now the recognized quieter environments for best observatory class instruments and these same instruments can now be deployed in direct burial environments which is unprecedented. The experiences of facilities in large deployments of broadband seismometers in continental scale rolling arrays proves the utility of packaging new sensors in corrosion resistant casings and designing in the robustness needed to work reliably in temporary deployments. Integrating digitizers and other sensors decreases deployment complexity, decreases acquisition and deployment costs, increases reliability and utility. We'll discuss the informed evolution of broadband pier instruments into the modern integrated field tools that enable economic densification of monitoring arrays along with supporting new ways to approach geoscience research in a field environment.

  15. The depositional environment and petrology of the White Rim Sandstone Member of the Permian Cutler Formation, Canyonlands National Park, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele-Mallory, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation of Permian age in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, was deposited in coastal eolian and associated interdune environments. This conclusion is based on stratigraphic relationships primary sedimentary structures, and petrologic features. The White Rim consists of two major genetic units. The first represents a coastal dune field and the second represents related interdune ponds. Distinctive sedimentary structures of the coastal dune unit include large- to medium-scale, unidirectional, tabular-planar cross-bedding; high-index ripples oriented parallel to dip direction of the foresets; coarse-grained lag layers; avalanche or slump marks; and raindrop impressions. Cross-bedding measurements suggest the dunes were deposited as transverse ridges by a dominantly northwest to southeast wind. Distinctive sedimentary structures of the interdune pond unit include wavy, horizontally laminated bedding, adhesion ripples, and desiccation polygons. These features may have been produced by alternate wetting and drying of sediment during water-table fluctuations. Evidence of bioturbation is also present in this unit. Petrologic characteristics of the White Rim helped to define the depositional environment as coastal. A crinoid fragment was identified at one location; both units are enriched in heavy minerals, and small amounts of well rounded, reworked glauconite were found in the White Rim throughout the study area. Earlier work indicates that the White Rim sandstone is late Wolfcampian to early Leonardian in age. During this time, the Canyonlands area was located in a depositional area alternately dominated by marine and nonmarine environments. Results of this study suggest the White Rim represents a coastal dune field that was deposited by predominantly on-shore winds during a period of marine transgression.

  16. Potential research money available from the Acid Deposition Program and Alberta Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primus, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    It is exceedingly difficult to demonstrate definitive long-term changes in animal health as a result of acid-forming emissions from sour gas wells. A summary is presented of current research in Alberta, followed by the potential for research funding by the Alberta Government/Industry Acid Deposition Program (ADRP). The Alberta Environment research budget consists of four programs in addition to the ADRP: acid deposition effects research in the Athabasca oil sands; western and northern Canada long-range transport of air pollutants; departmental monitoring; and inhalation toxicology and animal health. Animal health research, although a component of the acid deposition issue, is beyond the mandate of Alberta Environment, and the ADRP members committee does not forsee becoming involved in the long-term and complex research required to address the effects of acid-forming emissions on livestock. Funds for additional animal health research must come from other government departments and agencies whose mandate covers this area

  17. Characteristics of depositional environment and evolution of Upper Cretaceous Mishrif Formation, Halfaya Oil field, Iraq based on sedimentary microfacies analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuan; Zhou, Lu; Tan, Xiucheng; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Limin; Li, Fei; Jin, Zhimin; Chen, Yantao

    2018-04-01

    As one of the most important carbonate targets in the Middle East, Upper Cretaceous Mishrif Formation has been highlighted for a long time. Although consensus has been reached on the overall sedimentary background, disputes still exist in understanding the sedimentary environment changes among sub-regions due to relatively limited research, rare outcrop, and incomplete drilled core, which hinders the analysis on sedimentary environment and thus the horizontal and vertical correlation. In this study, taking the Halfaya Oil Field as an example, the sedimentary microfacies analysis method was introduced to comprehensively characterize the cored interval of Mishrif Formation, including Single Layers MC1-1 to MA2. A total of 11 sedimentary microfacies are identified through system identification of sedimentary microfacies and environmental analysis, with reference to the standard microfacies classification in the rimmed carbonate platform. Then three kinds of environments are identified through microfacies assemblage analysis, namely restricted platform, open platform, and platform margin. Systematic analyses indicate that the deposits are mainly developed in the open platform and platform margin. Meanwhile, rock-electricity interpretation model is established according to the electricity response to cored intervals, and is then employed to interpret the uncored intervals, which finally helps build the sedimentary evolution pattern through horizontal and vertical correlation. It is proposed that the Single Layers MC1-1 to MB2-3 were deposited in the open platform featured by low water level, including sub-environments of low-energy shoal within platform and inter-shoal sea; Single Layers MB2-2 to MB1-2B were deposited in the open platform and platform margin, including sub-environments of high-energy shoal on the platform margin, low-energy shoal within platform, inter-shoal sea, and open sea; and Single Layers MB1-2A to MA2 were again deposited in the open platform

  18. Advances in Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft Communications and Remote Sensing in Maritime Environments including the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Wackowski, S.; Walker, G.

    2011-12-01

    Small remotely piloted aircraft have recently been used for maritime remote sensing, including launch and retrieval operations from land, ships and sea ice. Such aircraft can also function to collect and communicate data from other ocean observing system platforms including moorings, tagged animals, drifters, autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs). The use of small remotely piloted aircraft (or UASs, unmanned aerial systems) with a combination of these capabilities will be required to monitor the vast areas of the open ocean, as well as in harsh high-latitude ecosystems. Indeed, these aircraft are a key component of planned high latitude maritime domain awareness environmental data collection capabilities, including use of visible, IR and hyperspectral sensors, as well as lidar, meteorological sensors, and interferometric synthetic aperture radars (ISARs). We here first describe at-sea demonstrations of improved reliability and bandwidth of communications from ocean sensors on autonomous underwater vehicles to autonomous surface vessels, and then via remotely piloted aircraft to shore, ships and manned aircraft using Delay and Disruption Tolerant (DTN) communication protocols. DTN enables data exchange in communications-challenged environments, such as remote regions of the ocean including high latitudes where low satellite angles and auroral disturbances can be problematic. DTN provides a network architecture and application interface structured around optionally-reliable asynchronous message forwarding, with limited expectations of end-to-end connectivity and node resources. This communications method enables aircraft and surface vessels to function as data mules to move data between physically disparate nodes. We provide examples of the uses of this communication protocol for environmental data collection and data distribution with a variety of different remotely piloted aircraft in a coastal ocean environment. Next, we

  19. Evaluation and study of advanced optical contamination, deposition, measurement, and removal techniques. [including computer programs and ultraviolet reflection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, R. M. F.; Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program is described to design, fabricate and install an experimental work chamber assembly (WCA) to provide a wide range of experimental capability. The WCA incorporates several techniques for studying the kinetics of contaminant films and their effect on optical surfaces. It incorporates the capability for depositing both optical and contaminant films on temperature-controlled samples, and for in-situ measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance. Ellipsometer optics are mounted on the chamber for film thickness determinations, and other features include access ports for radiation sources and instrumentation. Several supporting studies were conducted to define specific chamber requirements, to determine the sensitivity of the measurement techniques to be incorporated in the chamber, and to establish procedures for handling samples prior to their installation in the chamber. A bibliography and literature survey of contamination-related articles is included.

  20. EXPURT - a model for evaluating exposure from radioactive material deposited in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, M.J.; Brown, J.

    1990-06-01

    This model, EXPURT (EXPosure from Urban Radionuclide Transfer), is described in detail. The model simulates the movement of activity deposited on various surfaces in the urban environment and, by taking into account the shielding properties of buildings and the habits of the population, evaluates the external doses to members of the population living in such urban environments, as a function of time after deposition. One of the other advantages of EXPURT over simpler models is that it can be used to assess the possible dose reductions that might be achieved by various decontamination techniques; for example, it can estimate the effectiveness of decontaminating roof surfaces alone in reducing exposure to individuals living in an urban environment. Sensitivity/uncertainty studies have been performed whereby those parameters contributing most to remaining uncertainty in the model's predictions of dose and dose rates were identified. Predictions of the EXPURT model were compared with those from a simpler external dose model in use at NRPB. (author)

  1. Integration of rock physical signatures with depositional environments: A case study from East Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Samit; Yadav, Ashok; Chatterjee, Rima

    2018-01-01

    Rock physical crossplots from different geological setup along eastern continental margin of India (ECMI) represent diversified signatures. To characterize the reservoirs in rock physics domain (velocity/modulus versus porosity) and then connecting the interpretation with geological model has been the objectives of the present study. Petrophysical logs (total porosity and volume of shale) from five wells located at sedimentary basins of ECMI have been analyzed to quantify the types of shale such as: laminated, dispersed and structural in reservoir. Presence of various shale types belonging to different depositional environments is coupled to define distinct rock physical crossplot trends for different geological setup. Wells from three different basins in East Coast of India have been used to capture diversity in depositional environments. Contact model theory has been applied to the crossplot to examine the change in rock velocity with change in reservoir properties like porosity and volume of shale. The depositional and diagenetic trends have been shown in the crossplot to showcase the prime controlling factor which reduces the reservoir porosity. Apart from that, the effect of geological factors like effective stress, sorting, packing, grain size uniformity on reservoir properties have also been focused. The rock physical signatures for distinct depositional environments, effect of crucial geological factors on crossplot trends coupled with established sedimentological models in drilled area are investigated to reduce the uncertainties in reservoir characterization for undrilled potentials.

  2. Uranium mobility in the natural environment - evidence from sedimentary roll-front deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, W.J.; Serne, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    Roll-front deposits consist of naturally occurring ore-grade uranium in selected sandstone aquifers throughout the world. The geochemical environment of these roll-front deposits is analogous to the environment of a radioactive waste repository containing redox-sensitive elements during its post-thermal period. The ore deposits are formed by a combination of dissolution, complexation, sorption/precipitation, and mineral formation processes. The uranium, leached from the soil by percolating rainwater, complexes with dissolved carbonate and moves in the oxidizing ground water at very low concentration (parts per billion) levels. The uranium is extracted from the leaching solution by the chemical processes, over long periods of time, at the interfaces between oxidized and reduced sediments. The Eh of the ground water associated with the reduced sediments (Eh = -100 mv to +100 mv) is higher than the Eh expected for most waste repository environments (Eh = -100 mv to -300 mv); this suggests that uranium solids will not be very soluble in the repositories. Data from in-situ leach mining and restoration of roll-front uranium deposits also provide information on the potential mobility of the waste if oxidizing ground water should enter the repository. Uranium solids probably will be initially very soluble in carbonate ground water; however, as reducing conditions are re-estblished through water/rock interactions, the uranium will reprecipitate and the amount of uranium in solution will again equilibrate with the reduced uranium minerals

  3. Pulsed 1064 nm Nd-YAG Laser Deposition of Titanium on Silicon in a Nitrogen Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Garcia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed laser deposition (PLD technique was demonstrated for the deposition of titanium nitride (TiN thin films on Si (100 substrates. A 1064 nm pulsed Nd-YAG laser is focused on a titanium (99.5% target in a nitrogen environment to generate the atomic flux needed for the film deposition. Spectroscopic analysis of the plasma emission indicates the presence of atomic titanium and nitrogen, which are the precursors of TiN. Images of the films grown at different laser pulse energies show an increase in the number and size of deposited droplets and clusters with increasing laser pulse energy. A decrease in cluster and droplet size is also observed, with an increase in substrate temperature. EDS data show an increase in the titanium peak relative to the silicon as the ambient nitrogen pressure is decreased. An increase in deposition time was found to result in large clusters and irregularly shaped structures on the substrate. Post-deposition annealing of the samples enhanced the crystallinity of the film.

  4. Assessing Reservoir Depositional Environments to Develop and Quantify Improvements in CO2 Storage Efficiency. A Reservoir Simulation Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okwen, Roland [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Frailey, Scott [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Leetaru, Hannes [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Moulton, Sandy [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The storage potential and fluid movement within formations are dependent on the unique hydraulic characteristics of their respective depositional environments. Storage efficiency (E) quantifies the potential for storage in a geologic depositional environment and is used to assess basinal or regional CO2 storage resources. Current estimates of storage resources are calculated using common E ranges by lithology and not by depositional environment. The objectives of this project are to quantify E ranges and identify E enhancement strategies for different depositional environments via reservoir simulation studies. The depositional environments considered include deltaic, shelf clastic, shelf carbonate, fluvial deltaic, strandplain, reef, fluvial and alluvial, and turbidite. Strategies considered for enhancing E include CO2 injection via vertical, horizontal, and deviated wells, selective completions, water production, and multi-well injection. Conceptual geologic and geocellular models of the depositional environments were developed based on data from Illinois Basin oil fields and gas storage sites. The geologic and geocellular models were generalized for use in other US sedimentary basins. An important aspect of this work is the development of conceptual geologic and geocellular models that reflect the uniqueness of each depositional environment. Different injection well completions methods were simulated to investigate methods of enhancing E in the presence of geologic heterogeneity specific to a depositional environment. Modeling scenarios included horizontal wells (length, orientation, and inclination), selective and dynamic completions, water production, and multiwell injection. A Geologic Storage Efficiency Calculator (GSECalc) was developed to calculate E from reservoir simulation output. Estimated E values were normalized to diminish their dependency on fluid relative permeability. Classifying depositional environments according to

  5. The Shublik Formation and adjacent strata in northeastern Alaska description, minor elements, depositional environments and diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtelot, Harry Allison; Tailleur, Irvin L.

    1971-01-01

    occurrence of silver and 300 ppm lead in gouge along a shear plane may be the result of metals introduced from an extraneous source. The deposits reflect a marine environment that deepened somewhat following deposition of the Sadlerochit Formation and then shoaled during deposition of the upper limestone-siltstone unit. This apparently resulted from a moderate transgression and regression of the sea with respect to a northwest-trending line between Barrow and the Brooks Range at the International Boundary. Nearer shore facies appear eastward. The phosphate in nodules, fossil molds and oolites, appears to have formed diagenetically within the uncompacted sediment.

  6. To the micro-climatic condition influence upon the environment pollution during exploitation of being oxidized mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedzhanov, T.K.; Al'mukhambetova, Sh.K.; Bajramov, I.M.

    1998-01-01

    Conducted researches showed dependence of environment pollution rate under exploration of being oxidized mineral deposits from number of meteorological futures of season changes. Zones of gases spreading in atmosphere from sources of pollution in dependence from micro-climatic conditions are estimated. Results can be used during preventive measures projecting for environment in deposits districts. (author)

  7. Music for All: Including young people with intellectual disability in a university environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickson, Daphne; Warren, Penny

    2017-01-01

    We investigated a continuing education course in creative music making, initiated to promote the inclusion of young people with intellectual disability in a university setting. Despite organizers' attempts to foster diversity within the student cohort, enrolments were almost exclusively from students who had intellectual disability. Being in the university environment, and in a place of higher learning, seemed to be valued by some. However, students' main focus was on group musicking in a dedicated music room rather than interacting with the wider university community. Those who did not identify as disabled believed it was important to continue to address the barriers to wider inclusion. While acknowledging the risks around mediating the social interactions of young people with intellectual disability, we argue that future courses should include activities specifically designed to bring them to classes with typical students and to the wider activities of the university.

  8. Reconstructing the Holocene depositional environments along the northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia): Mineralogical and sedimentological approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamourou, Ali; Touir, Jamel; Fagel, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    A sedimentological and mineralogical study of sedimentary cores allowed reconstructing the evolution of depositional environments along the Northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia). The aim of this research work is to identify the factors controlling the sedimentation from the Holocene to the Present time. Three 30-m sediment cores collected by drilling at 30 m water depth were analyzed for their color, magnetic susceptibility signal, grain size by laser diffraction, organic matter content by loss of ignition, carbonate content by calcimetry and mineralogy by X-ray diffraction on bulk powder and clay <2 μm. They broadly present the same sedimentological and mineralogical features. Microscopical observations of petrographic slides allowed identifying six main sedimentary facies. Bulk mineralogical assemblages comprised clay minerals, quartz, calcite, gypsum and K-feldspars were examined. Considerable change was observed in the carbonate content that mimicked the bioclaste abundance and diluted the detrital minerals (clay minerals, quartz and feldspars). The gypsum mainly occurred in the lower sedimentary columns (SC12 and SC9) and in the upper/middle of core SC6. The clay fraction was made of a mixture of kaolinite, illite, smectite and palygorskite with no clear variation through core depth. Both grain-size parameters and magnetic susceptibility profile showed a sharp transition in the upper 2-5 m of the sedimentological columns. Coarse, sandy to gravely sediments characterized by a low magnetic susceptibility signal were replaced by fine bioclastic-rich clayey sediments. The analysis of vertical succession of depositional facies revealed a fluvial depositional environment (coastal plain) basically marked by fluvial channels and inundation plains at the bottom of all cores. However, core-top sediments recorded a littoral marine environment with sand depositions rich in gastropods, lamellibranches and algæ. Depositional facies, sedimentological and mineralogical

  9. Depositional environment of the Onverwacht sedimentary rocks Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, I. A.

    The Onverwacht Group is the basal part of the ca 3.5 Ga succession forming the Barberton greenstone belt. It comprises a volcanic pile overlain by a thin layer of volcaniclastic sediments which, due to silicification, are extremely well preserved. There has been a controversy as to how and in what environment these sediments were formed, different sets of data being presented to reach opposite conclusions. The Onverwacht Group has been extensively repeated tectonically and here for the first time, sediments from different structural levels are studied together. Three separate facies have been recognised, a distal and proximal turbidite facies and a subaerial facies. Deposition of Onverwacht Group sedimentary rocks occurred in an oceanic basin characterised by the presence of emergent volcanic islands. After eruption, material was deposited both subaerially and in a shallow submarine environment on the volcanic slopes and, as a result of pyroclastic flow, in the deeper parts of the basin.

  10. Turnover of eroded soil organic carbon after deposition in terrestrial and aquatic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cammeraat, Erik; Kalbitz, Karsten

    cycling. However, the net effect on C fluxes between soils, inland waters and atmosphere remains uncertain. In this study, we determined SOC turnover in terrestrial and aquatic environments and indentified its major controls. A European gradient of agricultural sites was sampled, spanning a wide range...... soil properties (e.g. texture, aggregation, etc.), SOC quantity and quality. In a 16-week incubation experiment, SOC turnover was determined for conditions reflecting downslope soils or inland waters. Moreover, we studied the impact of labile C inputs (‘priming’) on SOC stability using 13C labeled...... cellulose. Physical and chemical soil properties and SOC molecular composition were assessed as potential controls on C turnover. SOC deposition in aquatic environments resulted in upto 3.5 times higher C turnover than deposition on downslope soils. Labile C inputs enlarged total CO2 emissions...

  11. Depositional environments of the uranium bearing Cutler Formations, Lisbon Valley, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Steele-Mallory, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Cutler Formation in Lisbon Valley, San Juan County, Utah, is composed predominantly of fluvial arkosic sandstones, siltstones, shales, and mudstones that were deposited by meandering streams that flowed across a flood plain and tidal flat close to sea level. Two types of channel deposits are recognized from their sedimentary structures: meandering and distributary. The flood plain was occasionally transgressed by a shallow sea from the west, resulting in the deposition of several thin limestones and marine sandstones. The marine sandstones were deposited as longshore bars. Wind transported sand along the shoreline of the shallow sea, forming a coastal dune field. Marine sandstones and eolian sandstones are more common in the upper Cutler in the southern part of the area, whereas in the central and northern part of the area the formation is predominantly fluvial. Crossbed orientation indicates that Cutler streams flowed S. 67 0 W. on the average, whereas marine currents moved sediment S. 36 0 E. and N. 24 0 W., and wind transported sand S. 80 0 E. The uranium in the Cutler is found in the central and northern part of the area, in the upper part of the formation, in small fluvial sandstone bodies that were deposited predominantly in a distributary environment. No uranium is known in the marine or eolian sandstones. Petrographically, the uranium-bearing sandstones are identical to other Cutler fluvial sandstones except that they contain less calcite and more clay and are slightly coarser grained. Ore formation has modified the host sandstones very little

  12. Depositional environments of the uranium-bearing Cutler Formations, Lisbon Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John A.; Steele-Mallory, Brenda A.

    1979-01-01

    The Cutler Formation in Lisbon Valley, San Juan County, Utah, is composed predominantly of fluvial arkosic sandstones, siltstones, shales, and mudstones that were deposited by meandering streams that flowed across a flood plain and tidal flat close to sea level. Two types of channel deposits are recognized from their sedimentary structures: meandering and distributary. The flood plain was occasionally transgressed by a shallow sea from the west, resulting in the deposition of several thin limestones and marine sandstones. The marine sandstones were deposited as longshore bars. Wind transported sand along the shoreline of the shallow sea, forming a coastal dune field. Marine sandstones and eolian sandstones are more common in the upper Cutler in the southern part of the area, whereas in the central and northern part of the area the formation is predominantly fluvial. Crossbed orientation indicates that Cutler streams flowed S. 67? W. on the the average, whereas marine currents moved sediment S. 36? E. and N. 24? W., and wind transported sand S. 800 E. The uranium in the Cutler is found in the central and northern part of the area, in the upper part of the formation, in small fluvial sandstone bodies that were deposited predominantly in a distributary environment. No uranium is known in the marine or eolian sandstones. Petrographically, the uranium-bearing sandstones are identical to other Cutler fluvial sandstones except that they contain less calcite and more clay and are slightly coarser grained. Ore formation has modified the host sandstones very little.

  13. To what extent can intracrater layered deposits that lack clear sedimentary textures be used to infer depositional environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadieux, Sarah B.; Kah, Linda C.

    2015-03-01

    Craters within Arabia Terra, Mars, contain hundreds of meters of layered strata showing systematic alternation between slope- and cliff-forming units, suggesting either rhythmic deposition of distinct lithologies or similar lithologies that experienced differential cementation. On Earth, rhythmically deposited strata can be examined in terms of stratal packaging, wherein the interplay of tectonics, sediment deposition, and base level (i.e., the position above which sediment accumulation is expected to be temporary) result in changes in the amount of space available for sediment accumulation. These predictable patterns of sediment deposition can be used to infer changes in basin accommodation regardless of the mechanism of deposition (e.g. fluvial, lacustrine, or aeolian). Here, we analyze sedimentary deposits from three craters (Becquerel Crater, Danielson Crater, Crater A) in Arabia Terra. Each crater contains layered deposits that are clearly observed in orbital images. Although orbital images are insufficient to specifically determine the origin of sedimentary deposits, depositional couplets can be interpreted in terms of potential accommodation space available for deposition, and changes in the distribution of couplet thickness through stratigraphy can be interpreted in terms of changing base level and the production of new accommodation space. Differences in stratal packaging in these three craters suggest varying relationships between sedimentary influx, sedimentary base level, and concomitant changes in accommodation space. Previous groundwater upwelling models hypothesize that layered sedimentary deposits were deposited under warm climate conditions of early Mars. Here, we use observed stacking patterns to propose a model for deposition under cold climate conditions, wherein episodic melting of ground ice could raise local base level, stabilize sediment deposition, and result in differential cementation of accumulated strata. Such analysis demonstrates that

  14. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  15. Sedimentary facies and depositional environments of early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup basins, eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup consists of continental sedimentary rocks and basalt flows that occupy a NE-trending belt of elongate basins exposed in eastern North America. The basins were filled over a period of 30-40 m.y. spanning the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, prior to the opening of the north Atlantic Ocean. The sedimentary rocks are here divided into four principal lithofacies. The alluvial-fan facies includes deposits dominated by: (1) debris flows; (2) shallow braided streams; (3) deeper braided streams (with trough crossbeds); or (4) intense bioturbation or hyperconcentrated flows (tabular, unstratified muddy sandstone). The fluvial facies include deposits of: (1) shallow, ephemeral braided streams; (2) deeper, flashflooding, braided streams (with poor sorting and crossbeds); (3) perennial braided rivers; (4) meandering rivers; (5) meandering streams (with high suspended loads); (6) overbank areas or local flood-plain lakes; or (7) local streams and/or colluvium. The lacustrine facies includes deposits of: (1) deep perennial lakes; (2) shallow perennial lakes; (3) shallow ephemeral lakes; (4) playa dry mudflats; (5) salt-encrusted saline mudflats; or (6) vegetated mudflats. The lake margin clastic facies includes deposits of: (1) birdfoot deltas; (2) stacked Gilbert-type deltas; (3) sheet deltas; (4) wave-reworked alluvial fans; or (5) wave-sorted sand sheets. Coal deposits are present in the lake margin clastic and the lacustrine facies of Carnian age (Late Triassic) only in basins of south-central Virginia and North and South Carolina. Eolian deposits are known only from the basins in Nova Scotia and Connecticut. Evaporites (and their pseudomorphs) occur mainly in the northern basins as deposits of saline soils and less commonly of saline lakes, and some evaporite and alkaline minerals present in the Mesozoic rocks may be a result of later diagenesis. These relationships suggest climatic variations across paleolatitudes, more humid to the

  16. Imaging Quaternary glacial deposits and basement topography using the transient electromagnetic method for modeling aquifer environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Patrick Tremblay; Chesnaux, Romain; Rouleau, Alain; Daigneault, Réal; Cousineau, Pierre A.; Roy, Denis W.; Lambert, Mélanie; Poirier, Brigitte; Poignant-Molina, Léo

    2015-08-01

    Aquifer formations along the northern shore of the Saint-Lawrence River in Quebec (Canada) mainly consist of glacial and coastal deposits of variable thickness overlying Precambrian bedrock. These deposits are important because they provide the main water supply for many communities. As part of a continuing project aimed at developing an inventory of the groundwater resources in the Charlevoix and Haute-Côte-Nord (CHCN) regions of the province of Quebec in Canada, the central loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) method was used to map the principal hydrogeological environments in these regions. One-dimensional smooth inversion models of the TEM soundings have been used to construct two-dimensional electrical resistivity sections, which provided images for hydrogeological validation. Electrical contour lines of aquifer environments were compared against available well logs and Quaternary surface maps in order to interpret TEM soundings. A calibration table was achieved to represent common deposits and basements. The calibration table was then exported throughout the CHCN region. This paper presents three case studies; one in the Forestville site, another in the Les Escoumins site and the other in the Saint-Urbain site. These sites were selected as targets for geophysical surveys because of the general lack of local direct hydrogeological data related to them.

  17. Forms of uranium associated to silica in the environment of the Nopal deposit (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, T.; Othmane, G.; Menguy, N.; Vercouter, T.; Morin, G.; Calas, G.; Fayek, M.

    2011-12-01

    The understanding of the processes that control the transfers of uranium in the environment is necessary for the safety assessement of nuclear waste repositories. In particular, several poorly ordered phases (e.g. Fe oxihydroxides) are expected to play an important role in trapping uranium from surface waters. Among them, natural systems containing amorphous silica are poorly documented. A former study from the environment of the Peny mine (France) showed the importance of silica in uranium speciation [1]. The Nopal uranium deposit is located in volcanic tuff from tertiary period. It hosted several hydrothermal alteration episodes responsible for clay minerals formation. A primary uranium mineralisation occurred in a breccia pipe, consisting in uraninite, subsequently altered in secondary uranium minerals among which several silicates. Eventually, opal was formed and coated uranyl silicates such as uranophane and weeksite [2], [3]. Opals also contain minor amounts of uranium. The Nopal deposit is still considered as a natural analogue of high level nuclear waste repository located in volcanic tuff. It may be used to reveal the low temperature conditions of trapping of uranium in systems devoid of iron oxides such as silica-containing ones. The aim of this study is then to determine the uranium speciation, and its possible complexity, associated to these opals that represent a late trapping episode. It will provide insights ranging from the micrometer scale of electron microscopies to the molecular scale provided by fluorescence spectroscopy. Three samples of green or yellow opals have been analysed by a combination of complementary tools including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on cross-sections, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on focused ion beam (FIB) films, cathodoluminescence and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Uranium speciation was found to be complex. We first evidence U-bearing microparticles of beta-uranophane Ca[(UO2)(Si

  18. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION THROUGH DETECTION OF HOT SPOTS USING THERMOGRAPHY IN COAL DEPOSITS BEFORE SELF IGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina DINCĂ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented a way to contribute to the environmental protection when it comes to coal which waits in big deposits to be burned for energy production. Because of certain parameters, in some places, the deposited coal could overheat and self ignite, thus loosing its caloric properties and even lead to fire. In this case the losses could be even higher, and the effect on the environment even worse. In order to prevent this self ignition to happen, an infrared camera can be mounted on a system, and the camera together with software which interprets the thermographic images, can alarm the personnel who is in charge with coal surveillance that the coal will ignite unless they take immediate measures. Also, there will be presented the limits we have found by now in the way of finalizing the application.

  19. Gamma exposures due to radionuclides deposited in urban environments: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meckbach, R.; Jacob, P.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    The modification of gamma exposure from deposited activity at locations inside and outside of buildings in urban environments compared with unshielded locations has been computed using the Monte Carlo method. The types of buildings considered were a house of prefabricated parts, a semi-detached house, a row of four large terrace houses and a multistorey house block. The computations were performed for source energies of 0.3 MeV, 0.662 MeV and 3.0 MeV. In this first part of the paper results for the kerma at various locations inside and outside the buildings due to a contamination with unit surface activity are presented separately for each of the various deposition areas such as walls, windows, roofs, light shafts, paved areas, lawns, and trees. (author)

  20. Evolution of the Early Triassic marine depositional environment in the Croatian Dinarides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljinović, Dunja; Smirčić, Duje; Horacek, Micha; Richoz, Sylvain; Krystyn, Leopold; Kolar-Jurkovšek, Tea; Jurkovšek, Bogdan

    2014-05-01

    Dienerian and Smithian are characterized by strong siliciclastic input and deposition of red shales, siltstones and sandstones with intercalation of oolithic and bioclastic grainstones. Hummocky-cross-strata witness the importance of storms. Presence of loadcasts and abundant casts of bivalve shells suggest quick deposition of terrigenous material and instant burying of epifauna during storms. Abundant trace fossils preserved in shales evidence intensive life activity in an overall shallow depositonal environment. During the Spathian deposition of lime mudstones and marls prevails. Two Spathian intervals bear ammonoid fauna suggest deposition in slightly deeper environment and a connection with the open sea testifying a transgression at the beginning of Spathian. Even in deeper environment storms play a significant role assuming deposition above storm wave base. The influence of storms in this deeper environment is recognized as accumulation of coarsegrained bioclastic lag at the base of storm beds, graded calcisiltites, gutter casts and hummocky-cross-stratified beds. Intense bioturbation suggest colonization by organisms between storms. Pending from nature and distribution of facies the Plavno sequence has been interpreted as epeiric ramp. An epeiric ramp is defined here as having a very low bathymetric slope (negligible in its inner regions), no grainy shoreface facies, water depths of tens of meters, a width of many hundreds of kilometers and depositional processes dominated by storms.

  1. Microsatellite polymorphisms associated with human behavioural and psychological phenotypes including a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Andrew T M; Horwood, L John; Fergusson, David M; Gemmell, Neil J; Kennedy, Martin A

    2017-02-03

    The genetic and environmental influences on human personality and behaviour are a complex matter of ongoing debate. Accumulating evidence indicates that short tandem repeats (STRs) in regulatory regions are good candidates to explain heritability not accessed by genome-wide association studies. We tested for associations between the genotypes of four selected repeats and 18 traits relating to personality, behaviour, cognitive ability and mental health in a well-studied longitudinal birth cohort (n = 458-589) using one way analysis of variance. The repeats were a highly conserved poly-AC microsatellite in the upstream promoter region of the T-box brain 1 (TBR1) gene and three previously studied STRs in the activating enhancer-binding protein 2-beta (AP2-β) and androgen receptor (AR) genes. Where significance was found we used multiple regression to assess the influence of confounding factors. Carriers of the shorter, most common, allele of the AR gene's GGN microsatellite polymorphism had fewer anxiety-related symptoms, which was consistent with previous studies, but in our study this was not significant following Bonferroni correction. No associations with two repeats in the AP2-β gene withstood this correction. A novel finding was that carriers of the minor allele of the TBR1 AC microsatellite were at higher risk of conduct problems in childhood at age 7-9 (p = 0.0007, which did pass Bonferroni correction). Including maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) in models controlling for potentially confounding influences showed that an interaction between TBR1 genotype and MSDP was a significant predictor of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence (p behaviour up to age 25 years (p ≤ 0.02). This interaction remained significant after controlling for possible confounders including maternal age at birth, socio-economic status and education, and offspring birth weight. The potential functional importance of the TBR1 gene's promoter microsatellite

  2. Organic petrology, mineralogy and depositional environment of the Kipra lignite seam, Maritza-West basin, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostova, Irena [Department of Geology and Palaeontology, Sofia University ' ' St. Kliment Ohridski' ' , 1000, Sofia (Bulgaria); Zdravkov, Alexander [Department of Economic Geology, University of Mining and Geology ' ' St. Ivan Rilski' ' , 1700, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide additional information about the properties and depositional environment of the Kipra lignite seam, which was deposited during the regressive stage of development of the Maritza-West basin. Petrographical and mineralogical data, along with ash yields and sulphur contents of 24 samples from a seam profile, have been used to study the vertical variation of the depositional settings during peat accumulation and subsequent coalification. The Kipra lignite is characterized by high ash yields and sulphur contents. It formed in a rheotrophic, low-lying mire with alkaline pH value. Vegetation with low preservation potential dominated within the palaeomire. During peat formation, frequent changes of the water level controlled the depositional environment. During the deposition of units 1 and 2, high water energy caused the transportation of high amounts of inorganic material into the mire, resulting in the formation of weakly gelified mineral-rich lignite. The organic matter from units 3 and 4 is characterized by enhanced gelification, which probably reflects the decreasing energy of the system. Good positive correlation between sulphur contents and the GI values was established in units 4, indicating that the gelification of the tissues was probably mainly controlled by the bacterial activity. In contrast, the gelification of the samples from unit 3 of the Kipra seam was probably governed by the redox conditions. The organic matter deposited under relatively wet conditions, in which the thermal and oxidative destruction of the tissues, was limited. A variety of major, minor and accessory minerals are present in Maritza-West lignite. The mineral composition is dominated mainly by pyrite, gypsum and calcite, and to a lesser extent limonite, quartz, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, chlorite and plagioclase. Jarosite, hematite, halloysite, mica, K-feldspar, aragonite, siderite, and dolomite were also determined in very low

  3. The East Africa Oligocene intertrappean beds: Regional distribution, depositional environments and Afro/Arabian mammal dispersals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Ernesto; Bruni, Piero; Ferretti, Marco Peter; Delmer, Cyrille; Laurenzi, Marinella Ada; Hagos, Miruts; Bedri, Omar; Rook, Lorenzo; Sagri, Mario; Libsekal, Yosief

    2014-11-01

    inspection of the Agere Selam (Mekele) intertrappean beds revealed the occurrence of lacustrine limestones and diatomites, which were contrastingly quite subordinate with respect to the fine clastic sediments found in the nearby Amba Alaji area. Further south, the intertrappean section in the Jema valley (100 km north of Addis Ababa and close to the Blue Nile gorge) is 120 m thick with predominant clastic sediments and a few diatomites at the top. Literature information from 35 additional sites, including northern Kenya, Yemen, Sudan and Saudi Arabia sections, confirms the fluvial and lacustrine depositional environment of the intertrappean beds, underlines the interest in their mammal fauna (Chilga, Losodok), and reports exploitable coal seams for some of them. As for the vegetal landscape in which the intertrappean beds were deposited, pollen and plant analysis results indicative of a tropical wet forest, similar to that of present-day western Africa. Another common feature of the intertrappean beds is their relatively limited thickness, averaging a few tens of meters, but reaching a few hundred meters in graben-related basins, such as Delbi Moye in southern Ethiopia. In most cases only thin, lens-shaped successions were deposited above the hummocky topography of their volcanic substratum, commonly unaffected by significant faulting. An average duration of the intertrappean beds is from one to three million years. This time interval is commonly matched by a few tens (or more rarely, hundreds) of meters of sediments left over after erosive episodes or depositional starvation. As to the lateral continuity of the intertrappean beds, the present-day outcrops show large differences: from some tens of kilometers in the Mendefera area, to a few tens of kilometres in the Jema valley, and to a few hundreds meters in the Agere Selam (Mekele) area. Even if it is difficult to quantify the original size of the sedimentation areas, it nevertheless proves that the intertrappean basins

  4. Geochemical partitioning of lead in biogenic carbonate sediments in a coral reef depositional environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horta-Puga, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    The fate of trace elements in reef depositional environments has not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the partitioning of Pb in sediments of the Veracruz Reef System, and its relation to local environmental sources. Lead was determined in four geochemical fractions: exchangeable (3.8 ± 0.4 μg g −1 ), carbonate (57.0 ± 13.6 μg g −1 ), organic matter (2.0 ± 0.9 μg g −1 ), and mineral (17.5 ± 5.4 μg g −1 ). For the mineral fraction, lead concentrations were higher in those reefs influenced by river discharge or by long-distance transport of terrigenous sediments. The bioavailable concentration of lead (range: 21.9–85.6 μg g −1 ) indicates that the Veracruz Reef System is a moderately polluted area. As expected, the carbonate fraction contained the highest proportion of Pb (70%), and because the reef framework is largely made up of by biogenic carbonate sediments, hence, it is therefore the most important repository of Pb in coral reef depositional environments. - Highlights: • Lead concentrations were determined in four geochemical fractions of reef sediments. • The carbonate fraction accounted for > 70% of the content of Pb in reef sediments. • Terrigenous sediments are the main source of Pb associated to the mineral fraction. • The Veracruz Reef System is considered a moderately polluted area. • Sediments are the main repositories of lead in coral reef depositional environments.

  5. A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, Töres; Hammarström, Anne; Aronsson, Gunnar; Träskman Bendz, Lil; Grape, Tom; Hogstedt, Christer; Marteinsdottir, Ina; Skoog, Ingmar; Hall, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    Depressive symptoms are potential outcomes of poorly functioning work environments. Such symptoms are frequent and cause considerable suffering for the employees as well as financial loss for the employers. Accordingly good prospective studies of psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms are valuable. Scientific reviews of such studies have pointed at methodological difficulties but still established a few job risk factors. Those reviews were published some years ago. There is need for an updated systematic review using the GRADE system. In addition, gender related questions have been insufficiently reviewed. Inclusion criteria for the studies published 1990 to June 2013: 1. European and English speaking countries. 2. Quantified results describing the relationship between exposure (psychosocial or physical/chemical) and outcome (standardized questionnaire assessment of depressive symptoms or interview-based clinical depression). 3. Prospective or comparable case-control design with at least 100 participants. 4. Assessments of exposure (working conditions) and outcome at baseline and outcome (depressive symptoms) once again after follow-up 1-5 years later. 5. Adjustment for age and adjustment or stratification for gender. Studies filling inclusion criteria were subjected to assessment of 1.) relevance and 2.) quality using predefined criteria. Systematic review of the evidence was made using the GRADE system. When applicable, meta-analysis of the magnitude of associations was made. Consistency of findings was examined for a number of possible confounders and publication bias was discussed. Fifty-nine articles of high or medium high scientific quality were included. Moderately strong evidence (grade three out of four) was found for job strain (high psychological demands and low decision latitude), low decision latitude and bullying having significant impact on development of depressive symptoms. Limited evidence (grade two) was shown for psychological

  6. Depositional environment of near-surface sediments, King George Basin, Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H. I.; Park, B. K.; Chang, S. K.; Han, M. W.; Oh, J. K.

    1994-03-01

    Four sediment cores were collected to determine the depositional environments of the King George Basin northeast of Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. The cored section revealed three distinct lithofacies: laminated siliceous ooze derived from an increased paleoproductivity near the receding sea-ice edges, massive muds that resulted from hemipelagic sedimentation in open water, and graded sediments that originated from nearby local seamounts by turbidity currents. Clay mineral data of the cores indicate a decreasing importance of volcanic activity through time. Active volcanism and hydrothermal activity appear to be responsible for the enrichment of smectite near the Penguin and Bridgeman Islands.

  7. Sustained Water Quality Impacts in Marine Environments Due to Mechanical Milling of Volcanic Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genareau, K. D.; Cronin, S. J.; Stewart, C.; Back, E.

    2015-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are known to be a significant geohazard, but post- or inter-eruptive processes (such as lahars, landslides, and debris avalanches) can be equally damaging to local and regional areas by remobilizing deposits. Numerous studies have found that soluble salts bound to ash grain surfaces may be quickly released into exposed waters, often lowering pH and adding trace metals with both beneficial and deleterious effects on marine flora and fauna (e.g., Fe influx initiating blooms of marine phytoplankton). Most of the cation content of pyroclastic deposits is released slowly into the environment through weathering and alteration processes. However, other pathways exist through the physical comminution of pyroclasts in fluvial and marine settings. In this case, mechanical fracturing of pyroclasts during progressive stages of disaggregation will lead to exposure of reactive particle surfaces. This study evaluates the potential, ongoing effects on water quality by experimental, mechanical milling of pyroclasts and the evaluation of released metals into exposed waters using the pyroclastic density current deposits of both the 2010 eruption of Merapi and the 2014 eruption of Kelud (Java, Indonesia), which have a bulk basaltic andesite/andesite composition (60-65 wt% SiO2). The electrical conductivity (EC) of water samples positively correlates with Ca and Sr concentrations in the case of bulk ash, whole, and crushed lapilli, but correlates with Na for the milled samples. Compared to other stages of pyroclast disaggregation, milled lapilli have the greatest effect on the concentration of alkali elements and produce a significant increase in Ca, Na, K, and Si. Mechanical milling of pyroclasts grinds down minerals and glass, resulting in an increased EC, pH, and Na concentration of exposed waters. Similar experiments are currently being conducted using basalt (50 wt% SiO2) and rhyolite (70 wt% SiO2) deposits, and these results will be presented

  8. Dynamics of waterflooding massive oil deposits in the Chechen Ingush ASSR, including fissured reservoirs in the late stages of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatashev, K.Kh.; Soboleva, G.N.; Tagunova, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    In 1956 in the Chechen Ingush ASSR a number of massive oil deposits located in fissured cavernous Upper Cretaceous limestone were developed. The deposits were developed by water-oil displacement from the edges and pericline toward the dome of the structure using the natural water pressure drive as well as artificial marginal flooding. The great oil-bearing capacity, the good hydrodynamic link with the deposit, the close magnitude of oil viscosity and water under the layer conditions and the significant difference in their density (0.4-0.5 g/cm/sup 3/) practically guarantees pistonlike oil displacement. Based on the deposit's geologic-physical characteristics, the late stage of development may be characterized by noncontinuous time and a sharp increase in well waterflooding to maintain full flooding. However, the data obtained from working the field suggest that a sharp increase in waterflooding will be substituted by a slow increase, by stabilization and possibly even a decrease in the percentage of water over the last 3-6 years. This occurred in a number of cases where measures were taken to limit the liquid flow, to periodically operate the well with isolated waterflooding and pereclinal perforation at intervals. This also occurred in a number of cases where the rate of fluid yield was naturally lowered by decreasing the number of producing wells due to waterflooding and disengagement. To more completely extract the oil from relatively low permeable areas of the deposits and to develop them in the later stages, it is useful to use a slow tempo once all wells have been brought to perclinal interval operation.

  9. The depositional environments of Schöningen 13 II-4 and their archaeological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Mareike C; Miller, Christopher E; Ligouis, Bertrand; Goldberg, Paul; Berna, Francesco; Urban, Brigitte; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    Geoarchaeological research at the Middle Pleistocene site of Schöningen 13 II-4, often referred to as the Speerhorizont, has focused on describing and evaluating the depositional contexts of the well-known wooden spears, butchered horses, and stone tools. These finds were recovered from the transitional contact between a lacustrine marl and an overlying organic mud, originally thought to be a peat that accumulated in place under variable moisture conditions. The original excavators proposed that hominin activity, including hunting and butchery, occurred on a dry lake shore and was followed by a rapid sedimentation of organic deposits that embedded and preserved the artifacts. Our geoarchaeological analysis challenges this model. Here, we present evidence that the sediments of Schöningen 13 II-4 were deposited in a constantly submerged area of a paleolake. Although we cannot exclude the possibility that the artifacts were deposited during a short, extreme drying event, there are no sedimentary features indicative of surface exposure in the sediments. Accordingly, this paper explores three main alternative models of site formation: anthropogenic disposal of materials into the lake, a geological relocation of the artifacts, and hunting or caching on lake-ice. These models have different behavioral ramifications concerning hominin knowledge and exploitation of the landscape and their subsistence strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of pressurized water reactor environment on fatigue crack propagation, including hole times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental program being conducted to investigate the effects of pressurized water reactor environment on the fatigue crack growth rate of pressure vessel steels. Tests were conducted on precracked WOL type specimens under load controlled conditions. The effects of R ratio, loading rates, and loading wave form are evaluated, and the results are compared for both forging and plate material, as well as weldments

  11. Depositional environments and oil potential of Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks within the Seychelles microcontinent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, P.S.; Joseph, P.R.; Samson, P.J. [Seychelles National Oil Co., Mahe (Seychelles)

    1998-12-31

    The Seychelles microcontinent became isolated between the Somali, Mascarene and Arabian basins of the Indian Ocean as a result of the Mesozoic fragmentation of Gondwana. Major rifting events occurred during the Triassic-Middle Jurassic and Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Santonian and Maastrichtian) during which shaly source rock facies accumulated in principally marginal marine/deltaic environments. Between these times, post-rift passive margin deposition within restricted to open marine environments produced shaly source rocks during late Middle Jurasic-Early Cretaceous, Campanian-Maastrichtian and Paleocene times. Recent geochemical analysis of cuttings from the Seagull Shoals-1 well has identified an oil-prone liptinitic (Type II) coaly shale within early Middle Jurassic abandoned deltaic deposits. This coaly source rock is regionally developed, having also been identified in the Majunja and Morondava basins of Madagascar. Oil-prone Type II organic matter has also been identified in the Owen Bank A-1 well within restricted marine shales of late Middle Jurassic age. These shales are part of a thick post-rift source rock sequence that extends into the Early Cretaceous and is in part correlative with the proven Late Jurassic Uarandab Shale of Somalia. Analysis of Campanian marine shales from Reith Bank-1 well identified significant dilution of total organic carbon content in composite, compared to picked, well cuttings samples. This finding supports a published inference that these post-rift shales have source rock potential. (author)

  12. Organic petrology and geochemistry of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl, north-central Afghanistan: Depositional environment and source rock potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Sanfilipo, John

    2016-01-01

    Organic geochemistry and petrology of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl outcrop samples from Madr village in north-central Afghanistan were characterized via an integrated analytical approach to evaluate depositional environment and source rock potential. Multiple proxies suggest the organic-rich (TOC ∼6 wt.%) bituminous marls are ‘immature’ for oil generation (e.g., vitrinite Ro  1) indicating organic input from marine algae and/or bacterial biomass, and sterane/hopane ratios are low (0.12–0.14). Monoaromatic steroids are dominated by C28clearly indicating a marine setting. High gammacerane index values (∼0.9) are consistent with anoxia stratification and may indicate intermittent saline-hypersaline conditions. Stable C isotope ratios also suggest a marine depositional scenario for the Suzak samples, consistent with the presence of marine foraminifera including abundant planktic globigerinida(?) and rare benthic discocyclina(?) and nummulites(?). Biomarker 2α-methylhopane for photosynthetic cyanobacteria implies shallow photic zone deposition of Madr marls and 3β-methylhopane indicates presence of methanotrophic archaea in the microbial consortium. The data presented herein are consistent with deposition of Suzak bituminous marls in shallow stratified waters of a restricted marine basin associated with the southeastern incipient or proto-Paratethys. Geochemical proxies from Suzak rock extracts (S content, high polar content, C isotopes, normal (αααR) C27–29 steranes, and C29/C30 and C26/C25 hopane ratios) are similar to extant data from Paleogene oils produced to the north in the Afghan-Tajik Basin. This observation may indicate laterally equivalent strata are effective source rocks as suggested by previous workers; however, further work is needed to strengthen oil-source correlations.

  13. Potential transformation of trace species including aircraft exhaust in a cloud environment. The `Chedrom model`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolin, Y.E.; Karol, I.L. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.

  14. Potential transformation of trace species including aircraft exhaust in a cloud environment. The `Chedrom model`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolin, Y E; Karol, I L [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1998-12-31

    Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.

  15. Berau coal in East Kalimantan; Its petrographics characteristics and depositional environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Suwarna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol2no4.20071To asses the characteristics of the Early to Middle Miocene Berau coal in the Berau Basin, leading to interpretation of coal depositional environments, some fresh outcrop and subcrop samples and also drill cores of the coals have been analyzed microscopically. Coal petrographic analysis was performed on twenty four coal samples from the Middle Miocene Lati Formation. Vitrinite, present in a high value, and ranging between 66.2 - 96.2%, is dominated by vitrinite B. On the other hand, inertinite and exinite, showing a similar value, exist in a low to moderate amount. Vitrinite reflectance, present in a low value, varies from 0.40 - 0.58%. Low mineral matter content is dominated by clay minerals (0.4 - 6.6% with minor pyrite. Transitions from wet and very wet forested swamps to drier conditions with lower tree density are indicated by the higher content of vitrinite B, whilst a reverse trend is indicated by the lower content of vitrinite A. Petrographic indices obtained from facies diagnostic macerals show that an accumulation of the ancient peats under prevailing relatively wet limited influx clastic marsh to very wet forest swamps or moors is considered. The composition of the coal samples supports the interpretation of a system of fluvial to meandering streams in an upper delta plain environment. The original peat-forming vegetation was composed mainly of cellulose rich, shrub-like plants, tree ferns, herbaceous plant communities, with minor amount of trees. Thereby, the organic facies concept is thus applicable in basin studies context and has potential to become an additional tool for depositional environment interpretation.  

  16. Late Cretaceous coal overlying karstic bauxite deposits in the Parnassus-Ghiona Unit, Central Greece: Coal characteristics and depositional environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaitzidis, Stavros; Siavalas, George; Christanis, Kimon [Dept. of Geology, University of Patras, 26504 Rio-Patras (Greece); Skarpelis, Nikos [Dept. of Geology and Geoenvironment, University of Athens, 15784 Zografou (Greece); Araujo, Carla Viviane [Petrobras-Cenpes GEOQ/PDEXP, Rua Horacio Macedo n 950, Cidade Universitaria - Ilha do Fundao, 21941-915 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-04-01

    The Pera-Lakkos coal located on top of bauxite deposits in the Ghiona mining district (Central Greece), is the only known Mesozoic (Late Cretaceous) coal in the country. It was derived from herbaceous plants and algae growing in mildly brackish mires that formed behind a barrier system during a regression of the sea, on a karstified limestone partly filled in with bauxitic detritus. Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical data point to the predominance of reducing conditions and intense organic matter degradation in the palaeomires. O/C vs. H/C and OI vs. HI plots, based on elemental analysis and Rock-Eval data, characterize kerogen types I/II. This reflects the relatively high liptinite content of the coal. Besides kerogen composition, O/C vs. H/C plot for the Pera-Lakkos coals is in accordance with a catagenesis stage of maturation in contrast with vitrinite reflectance and T{sub max} from Rock-Eval pyrolysis, which indicate the onset of oil window maturation stage. Suppression of vitrinite reflectance should be considered and the high liptinite content corroborates this hypothesis. Despite some favourable aspects for petroleum generation presented by the Pera-Lakkos coal, its maximum thickness (up to 50 cm) points to a restricted potential for petroleum generation. Coal oxidation took place either during the late stage of peat formation, due to wave action accompanying the subsequent marine transgression, or epigenetically after the emergence of the whole sequence due to percolation of drainage waters. Both options are also supported by the REE shale-normalized profiles, which demonstrate an upwards depletion in the coal layer. Oxidation also affected pyrite included in the coal; this led to the formation of acidic (sulfate-rich) solutions, which percolated downwards resulting in bleaching of the upper part of the underlying bauxite. (author)

  17. Atmospheric dry deposition in the vicinity of the Salton Sea, California - I: Air pollution and deposition in a desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Boarman, W.I.

    2005-01-01

    Air pollutant concentrations and atmospheric dry deposition were monitored seasonally at the Salton Sea, southern California. Measurements of ozone (O 3), nitric acid vapor (HNO3), ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) were performed using passive samplers. Deposition rates of NO 3-, NH4+, Cl-, SO 42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ to creosote bush branches and nylon filters as surrogate surfaces were determined for one-week long exposure periods. Maximum O3 values were recorded in spring with 24-h average values of 108.8 ??g m-3. Concentrations of NO and NO2 were low and within ranges of the non-urban areas in California (0.4-5.6 and 3.3-16.2 ??g m-3 ranges, respectively). Concentrations of HNO3 (2.0-6.7 ??g m-3) and NH 3 (6.4-15.7 ??g m-3) were elevated and above the levels typical for remote locations in California. Deposition rates of Cl-, SO42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ were related to the influence of sea spray or to suspended soil particles, and no strong enrichments caused by ions originated by human activities were detected. Dry deposition rates of NO3- and NH4+ were similar to values registered in areas where symptoms of nitrogen saturation and changes in species composition have been described. Deposition of nitrogenous compounds might be contributing to eutrophication processes at the Salton Sea. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Peat in the 'Niayes' of Senegal: depositional environment and Holocene evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezine, A.-M.; Chateauneuf, J.-J. (Laboratoire de Geologie du Quaternaire, Marseille (France). Faculte des Sciences de Luminy)

    1991-01-01

    The 'Niayes' peat deposits north of Dakar, in Senegal, provide an unusual opportunity to study the continental and littoral detrital environment of the Holocene in West Africa. These organic deposits, that may attain a thickness of 10 m, accumulated in Late Pleistocene interdune basins whose extent and morphology depend closely upon the palaeohydrologic evolution of and the continental model for this zone during the Holocene. The present sub-Canarian climate of this region allows the preservation of an azonal vegetation of Guinean chorological affinity that is evidence of the wider development of now more southerly vegetation during the older Holocene. The nature of the sedimentary facies of these peatfields is closely related to the altitude of the basins of accumulation and the position of the fresh/salt water interface which conditions the recharge of the shallow aquifer. Thus, fresh-water and mangrove-swamp peats exist more or less closely associated according to the site. {sup 14}C age determination gives ages for these deposits between 12000 B.P. and the present, and detailed palynological studies have shown that there were two periods of climatic optimum, one between 9000 and 7000 B.P. and one between 4000 and 2000 B.P. The highly variable rates of sedimentation (0.2-12,5 mm/y for the continental zones and 2 mm/y for the mangrove swamps) are related to the paleotopography of the water-table or to very local fluctuations of sea level. The evolution of the vegetal biomass, evaluated both qualitatively (relative representation of the various vegetation levels) and quantitatively (concentration of pollen per gram of dry sediment) during the course of the Holocene enables reconstruction of the complete climatic and hydrologic history of the region up to dawn of the Present. 38 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. High temperature oxidation and corrosion in marine environments of thermal spray deposited coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaliampalias, D.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergioudis, G.; Skolianos, S.; Chrissafis, K.

    2008-01-01

    Flame spraying is a widely used technique for depositing a great variety of materials in order to enforce the mechanical or the anticorrosion characteristics of the substrate. Its high rate application is due to the rapidity of the process, its effectiveness and its low cost. In this work, flame-sprayed Al coatings are deposited on low carbon steels in order to enhance their anticorrosion performance. The main adhesion mechanism of the coating is mechanical anchorage, which can provide the necessary protection to steel used in several industrial and constructive applications. To evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coating, the as-coated samples are subjected in a salt spray chamber and in elevated temperature environments. The examination and characterization of the corroded samples is done by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The as-formed coatings are extremely rough and have a lamellic homogeneous morphology. It is also found that Al coatings provide better protection in marine atmospheres, while at elevated temperatures a thick oxide layer is formed, which can delaminate after long oxidation periods due to its low adherence to the underlying coating, thus eliminating the substrate protection

  20. Potash: a global overview of evaporate-related potash resources, including spatial databases of deposits, occurrences, and permissive tracts: Chapter S in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, Greta J.; Cocker, Mark D.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wynn, Jeff C.; Spanski, Gregory T.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Gass, Leila; Bliss, James D.; Bolm, Karen S.; Yang, Chao; Lipin, Bruce R.; Ludington, Stephen; Miller, Robert J.; Słowakiewicz, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    Potash is mined worldwide to provide potassium, an essential nutrient for food crops. Evaporite-hosted potash deposits are the largest source of salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form, including potassium chloride, potassium-magnesium chloride, potassium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Thick sections of evaporitic salt that form laterally continuous strata in sedimentary evaporite basins are the most common host for stratabound and halokinetic potash-bearing salt deposits. Potash-bearing basins may host tens of millions to more than 100 billion metric tons of potassium oxide (K2O). Examples of these deposits include those in the Elk Point Basin in Canada, the Pripyat Basin in Belarus, the Solikamsk Basin in Russia, and the Zechstein Basin in Germany.

  1. Palaeoecology and depositional environments of the Tendaguru Beds (Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aberhan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Tendaguru Beds (Tanzania, East Africa have been well known for nearly a century for their diverse dinosaur assemblages. Here, we present sedimentological and palaeontological data collected by the German-Tanzanian Tendaguru Expedition 2000 in an attempt to reconstruct the palaeo-ecosystems of the Tendaguru Beds at their type locality. Our reconstructions are based on sedimentological data and on a palaeoecological analysis of macroinvertebrates, microvertebrates, plant fossils and microfossils (ostracods, foraminifera, charophytes, palynomorphs. In addition, we included data from previous expeditions, particularly those on the dinosaur assemblages. The environmental model of the Tendaguru Beds presented herein comprises three broad palaeoenvironmental units in a marginal marine setting: (1 Lagoon-like, shallow marine environments above fair weather wave base and with evidence of tides and storms. These formed behind barriers such as ooid bar and siliciclastic sand bar complexes and were generally subject to minor salinity fluctuations. (2 Extended tidal flats and low-relief coastal plains. These include low-energy, brackish coastal lakes and ponds as well as pools and small fluvial channels of coastal plains in which the large dinosaurs were buried. Since these environments apparently were, at best, poorly vegetated, the main feeding grounds of giant sauropods must have been elsewhere. Presumably, tidal flats and coastal plains were visited by dinosaurs primarily during periods of drought. (3 Vegetated hinterland. Vegetation of this environment can only be inferred indirectly from plant material transported into the other depositional environments. Vegetation was dominated by a diverse conifer flora, which apparently formed part of the food source of large herbivorous sauropods. Evidence from various sources suggests a subtropical to tropical palaeoclimate, characterised by seasonal rainfall alternating with

  2. Utility of sea snakes as bio-indicators for diverse marine environments including coral reefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    be a valuable tool to accomplish this goal. Recent research shows that a group of sea snakes (the sea kraits Laticauda spp.) specialised on eels as prey, bears the promise of being useful bio-indicators for surveying the Anguilliform fish (eel like fish) in coral reefs(Brischoux, Bonnet, & Legagneux, 2009...... including coral reefs. Choosing sea snakes as bio-indicators in a broader sense is not possible with the present knowledge on the group today. It is therefore most needed to get more knowledge on sea snake biology to make it possible to use them as marine indicator species to measure e.g. biodiversity...

  3. Understanding Cu release into environment from Kure massive sulfide ore deposits, Kastamonu, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Sonmez, Seref; Balci, Nurgul

    2014-05-01

    Covering a wide range on the earth's crust, oxidation of metal sulfide minerals have vital environmental impacts on the aquatic environment, causing one of the major environmental problems known as acid mine drainage (AMD). Located in the Kastamonu province of the Western Black Sea region, Kure district is one of the major copper mining sites in Turkey. Mining activities in the area heads back to ancient times, such that operation is thought to be started with the Roman Empire. Currently, only the underground mining tunnels of Bakibaba and Asikoy are being operated. Thus, mining heaps and ores of those pyritic deposits have been exposed to the oxidative conditions for so long. As a result of weathering processes of past and recent heaps of the Kure volcanic massive sulfide deposits in addition to the main ore mineral (chalcopyrite), significant amount of metals, especially Cu, are being released into the environment creating undesirable environmental conditions. In order to elucidate Cu release mechanisms from Kure pyritic ore deposits and mining wastes, field and laboratory approaches were used. Surface water and sediment samples from the streams around the mining and waste sites were collected. Groundwater samples from the active underground mining site were also collected. Physical parameters (pH, Eh, T°C, and EC) of water samples were determined in situ and in the laboratory using probes (WTW pH 3110, WTW Multi 9310 and CRISON CM 35). Metal and ion concentrations of the water samples were analysed using ICP-MS and DR 2800 spectrophotometer, respectively. High Cu, Co, Zn and Fe concentrations were determined in the water samples with pH values ranging from 2.9- 4. Cu concentrions ranges from 345 ppm to 36 ppm in the water samples. Consistent with the water samples, high Cu, Fe, Zn and Co were also determined in the sediment samples. Laboratory chalcopyrite oxidation experiments under the conditions representing the field site were set up as biological and

  4. Deposition of radionuclides and their subsequent relocation in the environment following an accidental release to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, B.Y.; Roed, J.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the project is to improve, as necessary, the models and parameterizations used in estimating the intensity and spatial distribution of deposited activity, and the total health/economic impact of such deposits in assessments of the consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity. The study comprises the influence of various weather conditions on deposition; the resuspension of deposited 137 Cs activity; the weathering of deposits in urban and rural environments; the ultimate fate and dosimetric impact of radionuclides carried by urban run-off water; the impact of the atmosphere's dispersion capabilities. Objectives and results of the four contributions to the project for the reporting period are presented. (R.P.) 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Sedimentation rates in eastern North America reveal strong links between regional climate, depositional environments, and sediment accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, S. J.; McLachlan, J. S.; Jackson, S. T.; Blaauw, M.; Christen, J.; Marlon, J.; Blois, J.; Williams, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    PalEON is a multidisciplinary project that combines paleo and modern ecological data with state-of-the-art statistical and modelling tools to examine the interactions between climate, fire and vegetation during the past two millennia in the northeastern United States. A fundamental challenge for PalEON (and paleo research more broadly) is to improve age modelling to yield more accurate sediment-core chronologies. To address this challenge, we assessed sedimentation rates and their controls for 218 lakes and mires in the northeastern U.S. Sedimentation rates (yr/cm) were calculated from age-depth models, which were obtained from the Neotoma database (www.neotomadb.org) and other contributed pollen records. The age models were recalibrated to IntCal09 and augmented in some cases using biostratigraphic markers (Picea decline, 16 kcal BP - 10.5 kcal BP; Quercus rise, 12 - 9.1 kcal BP; and Alnus decline, 11.5 - 10.6 kcal BP) as described in Blois et al. (2011). Relationships between sedimentation rates and sediment age, site longitude, and depositional environment (lacustrine or mire) are significant but weak. There are clear and significant links between variations in the NGRIP record of δ18O and sedimentation in mires across the PalEON region, but no links to lacustrine sedimentation rates. This result indicates that super-regional climatic control of primary productivity, and thus autochthonic sediment deposition, dominates in mires while deposition in lacustrine basins may be driven primarily by local and regional factors including watershed size, surficial materials,and regional vegetation. The shape of the gamma probability functions that best describe sedimentation rate distributions are calculated and presented here for use as priors in Bayesian age modelling applications such as BACON (Blaauw and Christen, in press). Future applications of this research are also discussed.

  6. Sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River Shale in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok-Hoon; Koh, Chang-Seong; Joe, Young-Jin; Woo, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    The Horn River Basin in the northeastern British Columbia, Canada, is one of the largest unconventional gas accumulations in North America. It consists mainly of Devonian shales (Horn River Formation) and is stratigraphically divided into three members, the Muskwa, Otterpark and Evie in descending order. This study focuses on sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River shale based on sedimentary facies analysis aided by well-log mineralogy (ECS) and total organic carbon (TOC) data. The shale formation consists dominantly of siliceous minerals (quartz, feldspar and mica) and subordinate clay mineral and carbonate materials, and TOC ranging from 1.0 to 7.6%. Based on sedimentary structures and micro texture, three sedimentary facies were classified: homogeneous mudstone (HM), indistinctly laminated mudstone (ILM), and planar laminated mudstone (PLM). Integrated interpretation of the sedimentary facies, lithology and TOC suggests that depositional environment of the Horn River shale was an anoxic quiescent basin plain and base-of-slope off carbonate platform or reef. In this deeper marine setting, organic-rich facies HM and ILM, dominant in the Muskwa (the upper part of the Horn River Formation) and Evie (the lower part of the Horn River Formation) members, may have been emplaced by pelagic to hemipelagic sedimentation on the anoxic sea floor with infrequent effects of low-density gravity flows (turbidity currents or nepheloid flows). In the other hand, facies PLM typifying the Otterpark Member (the middle part of the Horn River Formation) suggests more frequent inflow of bottom-hugging turbidity currents punctuating the hemipelagic settling of the background sedimentation process. The stratigraphic change of sedimentary facies and TOC content in the Horn River Formation is most appropriately interpreted to have been caused by the relative sea-level change, that is, lower TOC and frequent signal of turbidity current during the sea

  7. Fluvial depositional environment evolving into deltaic setting with marine influences in the buntsandstein of northern vosges (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Jean-Claude

    supersaturation of stagnant waters with time. The fluvial environment persists up to the lower part of the Grès à Voltzia where the progression of the sea towards the west gives rise to a close intertonguing of fluvial and marine influences in a deltaic setting. Lenticular sandstone bodies are laid down as stream mouth bars at the end of the distributary channels and as river bars in the watercourses during both normal and flood discharge. Silty-clayey sediments settle out in stagnant water in restricted ponds, pools and puddles as well as in extensive veneers of shallow water in the overbank plain between the streams. Carbonate-bearing deposits originate in the coastal littoral mud flat, marsh seam, beach belt and tidal flat. The Grès à Voltzia has the greatest palaeoenvironmental and palaeoecological significance in the Buntsandstein of the Northern Vosges due to the occurrence of a wealth of extraordinarily well-preserved plant and animal fossils (having been recovered by Louis Grauvogel during almost 50 years and since abt. 25 years by Jean-Claude Gall). The rich suite of faunal and floral elements includes aquatic invertebrates, terrestrial animals and continental plants. The aquatic invertebrate fauna lives in fresh lakes and brackish ponds in the overbank plain and in brackish lagoons in the coastal seam as well as in hypersaline and euhaline marginal marine waters. The terrestrial plants colonize both dry and wet substrates, and the continental fauna consists of mainly arthropods, amphibians and reptiles inhabiting the levee zones of standing and flowing waters and strolling across the desiccated flats. The marine euryhaline association of invertebrates is with time replaced by a stenohaline community, and the deltaic plain of the Grès à Voltzia is finally inundated by a pellicular transgression representing the first stage of the Muschelkalk sea setting an end to Buntsandstein continental deposition.

  8. Depositional Environments of Late Danian Plant Localities: Chubut Provice, Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, E.; Slingerland, R. L.; Wilf, P.

    2010-12-01

    Diverse, well-preserved macroflora are observed within Cretaceous and Paleocene sediments of Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina. These macroflora are the most well preserved early Paleocene flora from Gondwana and add new insight into the diversity and environments of that epoch. Two major sites of fossil preservation, Palacio de los Loros and Parque Provincial Ormachea, sit near the top of the Late Danian (65.5-61.7 Ma) Salamanca Formation. Understanding the depositional history of the Salamanca is important in characterizing paleoenvironments in which these flora lived and relating these Patagonian macroflora to concurrent Paleocene flora within the Gondwanan supercontinent. During a two week field season, twenty stratigraphic sections were measured along the outcrop belt at Palacio de los Loros and Ormachea Park as well as two minor sites; Las Flores, and Rancho Grande. Photo mosaics, laser ranger data, and stratigraphic columns were merged with elevated geologic maps and imported into Fledermaus to generate a 3-D visualization of facies relationships. Rock samples were also collected and will be thin sectioned and analyzed for petrography and grain size. The Salamanca Fm. consists of 7 facies, listed here in stratigraphically ascending order: 1)Transgressive sands, 2)Wispy-bedded claystone, 3)Banco Verde, 4)White Cross bedded sandstone, 5)Accretion set siltstone, 6)Transitional silty claystone and 7)Banco Negro. Based on these facies, the Salamanca Fm. is interpreted as a marine-shelf to brackish, tide-dominated, estuarine deposit. The base of the Salamanca Fm. rests on an unconformity representing a marine flooding surface and lower sections of the Salamanca, facies 1 and 2, contain abundant glauconite and fossils indicative of a marine shelf environment. These facies give way upwards to bi-directional trough cross bedded sandstones interspersed with flaser bedded sandy siltstones (facies 3 and 4) indicating a less marine estuary with strong flow regimes

  9. The deposition of trace elements in the environs of a power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbeer, W.C.; Swaine, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The fate of trace elements during combustion is discussed, followed by the deposition of trace elements from the atmosphere and from coal firing. Methods of measuring deposition are described. Data from a four year long investigation of deposition around the Wallerawang power station is given. Sphagnum moss was used as a collector. 74 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Atmospheric depositions around a heavily industrialized area in a seasonally dry tropical environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2005-01-01

    Clear and throughfall bulk depositions were collected in the downwind of a highly industrialized region in Sonbhadra district of India to estimate the influence of anthropogenic activities on chemical composition of depositions. Significant spatial and temporal variations in depositions of cations and anions were observed. Depositions were higher near the thermal power stations and coalmines as compared to distantly situated site. Seasonally summer samples showed maximum cation and anion depositions followed by winter and minimum in rainy season. The mean pH of the depositions indicates that rainfall in the area is alkaline. Among the anions, maximum deposition was recorded for SO 4 2- followed by NO 3 - and minimum for Cl - . Among the cations, Ca 2+ deposition was maximum followed by NH 4 + . Na + , K + and Mg 2+ deposition rates showed more or less similar values. The depositions of cations and anions as well as pH were higher in throughfall than clearfall samples. Results of the present study suggest that atmospheric depositions are strongly modified due to thermal power stations and coal mines in the area. - Atmospheric abundance of cations have neutralized the acidity of depositions around a heavily industrialized area in India

  11. Tectonic and sedimentological environments of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits, with special reference to the Karoo Basin of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The principal tectonic and sedimentological settings for sandstone-hosted uranium deposits are described. Back-arc basins filled with post-Silurian, fluvial sediments bordering subduction zone magmatic arcs of calc-alkaline composition are considered favourable tectonic environments. The basins should be closed to prevent excessive oxidation of the sediments. Uranium deposits are concentrated near basin rims in the transition zone between uplift and basin subsidence, because of favourable sedimentary facies in those areas. Syn- and post-depositional deformation could have affected the localisation of uranium ore-bodies, while intrusive centres or uplifted arcs commonly have surrounding aprons of potential host rocks. Stratigraphic zoning is also related to source area tectonics and can be used to predict favourable sedimentary environments. Sedimentological processes had a direct influence on the permeability and carbonaceous matter content of sandstones and therefore have often controlled the localisation of ore-bodies. (author)

  12. Petrographic characteristics and depositional environment of Miocene Can coals, Canakkale-Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerdal, Guelbin; Bozcu, Mustafa [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engineering and Architecture Faculty (Turkey)

    2011-01-01

    In this study, petrographic examinations along with proximate, calorific value, ultimate, sulphur form and XRD analyses were performed in order to determine the coal characteristics and the depositional environment of the Miocene Can coals. Seventy coal samples were taken from cores and open pit mines. The investigated Can coals are humic coals and classified as lignite to sub-bituminous coal based on the random huminite reflectance (0.38-0.54% R{sub r}), volatile matter (45.50-62.25 wt.%, daf) and calorific value (3419-6479 kcal/kg, maf). The sulphur content of the Can coals changes from 0.30 up to 12.23 wt.%, and a broad range of ash contents was observed varying between 2.46 wt.% and 41.19 wt.%. Huminite is the most abundant maceral group (74-95 vol.% mmf) consisting of mostly humocollinite (gelinite) which is followed by relatively low liptinite (2-18 vol.% mmf) and inertinite content (2-13 vol.% mmf). In general, major mineral contents of coal samples are clay minerals, quartz, mica, pyrite and feldspar. The Can-Etili lignite basin consists of mainly volcano-clastics, fluviatile and lacustrine clastic sediments and contains only one lignite seam with 17 m average thickness. In order to assess the development of paleo-mires, coal facies diagrams were obtained from maceral composition. According to the Vegetation Index (VI) and Ground Water Index (GWI), the Can coal accumulated in inundated marsh, limnic and swamp environments under a rheotrophic hydrological regime. In general, the facies interpretations are in accordance with the observed sedimentalogical data. (author)

  13. Hot-wire substoichiometric tungsten oxide films deposited in hydrogen environment with n-type conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostis, I; Vasilopoulou, M; Giannakopoulos, K; Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D; Michalas, L; Papaioannou, G; Konofaos, N; Iliadis, A A; Kennou, S

    2012-01-01

    Substoichiometric tungsten oxide nanostructured films were synthesized by a hot-wire deposition technique in hydrogen-rich environment and characterized for their structural and electrical properties. A semiconducting behaviour was identified, allowing n-type conductivity even at room temperature which is an important result since it is well known that fully stoichiometric tungsten trioxide is nearly an insulator. Current-voltage characteristics for various temperatures were measured for tungsten oxide/Si heterostructures and analysed using proper modelling. As a result, the conduction mechanism inside the films was identified and found to be of a dual nature, with variable range hopping being dominant at near room temperatures. The saturation current was found to be thermally activated and the activation energy was calculated at 0.40 eV and the grain boundaries barrier at 150 meV. From Hall measurements it was also revealed that the dominant carriers are electrons and a carrier concentration of about 10 14 cm -3 was estimated.

  14. The influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on charcoal alteration in a tropical biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Meredith, Will; Large, David; Snape, Colin; Manion, Corinne

    2014-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic burning events are a key link in the global carbon cycle, substantially influencing atmospheric CO2 levels, and consuming c.8700 teragrams yr-1 of dry biomass [1,2,3]. An important result of this process is charcoal, when lignocellulosic structures in biomass (e.g. wood) are converted to aromatic domains with high chemical stability. Charcoal is therefore not readily re-oxidized to CO2, with estimates of 5-7 ky for the half-life of charcoal carbon in soils [3,4]. Charcoal's high carbon content coupled with high environmental resistance has led to the concept of biochar as a valuable means of global carbon sequestration, capable of carbon offsets comparable to annual anthropogenic fuel emissions [5,6,7]. Charcoal is not, however, an environmentally inert substance, and at least some components of charcoal are susceptible to alteration in depositional environments. Despite the importance of charcoal in global carbon cycling, the mechanisms by which charcoal is altered in the environment remain, as yet, poorly understood. This fact limits our ability to properly incorporate both natural environmental charcoal and biochar into global carbon budgets. This study aimed to improve understanding of charcoal alteration in the environment by examining the influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on the physical and chemical characteristics of charcoal at a field site in the Daintree rainforest. These factors have been identified as critical in determining the dynamics of charcoal in depositional environments [8,9] and climatic conditions at the field site (in Tropical Queensland, Australia) are likely to result in extensive alteration of charcoal. Charcoal from wood (Nothofagus spp.), algae (Enteromorpha spp.), and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) biomass was produced at temperatures over 300-500°C and exposed to conditions of varying pH and vegetation cover. The effect of these variables on charcoal chemistry

  15. Late Permian Palynology and depositional environment of Chintalapudi sub basin, Pranhita-Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Neerja; Pauline Sabina, K.; Aggarwal, Neha; Mahesh, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the palynological dating, correlation and depositional setting of the sediments from bore cores MGP-11 and MGP-4 from Gauridevipet area of Chintalapudi sub-basin of Godavari master basin, south India. On the basis of palynological studies, three palynoassemblages have been identified, one in bore core MGP-11 a Faunipollenites (=Protohaploxypinus) and Striasulcites assemblage and two in bore core MGP-4; one is characterized by the dominance of striate bisaccates and Densipollenites and the other by Striatopodocarpites and Cresentipollenites palynoassemblages. The other stratigraphically significant taxa include Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lunatisporites noviaulensis, Lunatisporites pellucidus, Densoisporites contactus, Chordasporites australiensis, Goubinispora spp., Lundbladispora microconata, Lundbladispora raniganjensis and Klausipollenites schaubergeri. The recovered taxa suggest a Late Permian, Lopingian age for these rocks. This interpretation is based on the correlation of the assemblages with similar assemblages from previous Gondwana studies chiefly Densipollenites magnicorpus Zone of Damodar Basin, India and Late Permian palynoassemblages from Africa, Antarctica, Australia and South America. On the basis of palaeobotanical affinity of the identified microflora it has been inferred that the peat forming plant community was composed mainly of gymnosperm pollen attributable to glossopterids, that includes striate and non-striate bisaccates and paucity of cordaites which includes monosaccates. Spores are subordinate and are derived from lycopsids (Lundbladispora, Densoisporites), sphenopsids (Latosporites) and filicopsids (Horriditriletes, Lophotriletes, Verrucosisporites, Osmundacidites, Leiotriletes, Callumispora, Brevitriletes and Microbaculispora) occurring in variable proportions. The dominance of subarborescent/arborescent vegetation suggests a development in a forest swamp probably in a small distant marginal part of the

  16. Stratigraphy, facies analysis and depositional environments of the Upper Unit of Abu Roash "E" member in the Abu Gharadig field, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewaidy, Abdel Galil; Elshahat, O. R.; Kamal, Samy

    2018-03-01

    Abu Roach "E" member is of an important hydrocarbon reservoir-producing horizon in the Abu Gharadig Field (north Western Desert, Egypt). This study is used to build facies analysis and depositional environments model for the Upper Unit of the Abu Roash "E" member in Abu Gharadig Field. This target has been achieved throughout the sedimentological, wire line logs, lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses of more than 528 feet cores. The high-resolution biostratigraphic analysis provides a calibration for the paleo-bathymetry and depositional environmental interpretations. Biozonation and lithostratigraphic markers are used to constrain stratigraphic correlation. Integration between the core description and petorographic microfacies analysis by microscope examination provide an excellent indication for the rock types and depositional environments. Five depositional facies types are detected including carbonate inner ramp, tidal flats, tidal channels, supra-tidal and tide dominated delta facies. This model helps in the understanding of the Upper Unit of Abu Roash "E" member reservoir distribution as well as lateral and vertical facies changes that contribute to the development strategy for the remaining hydrocarbon reserves for this important oil reservoir.

  17. Reconstructing the deposition environment and long-term fate of Chernobyl 137Cs at the floodplain scale through mobile gamma spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Bondar, Yuri; Hosseini, Ali; Zabrotski, Viachaslau; Dowdall, Mark

    2018-09-01

    Cs-137 is considered to be the most significant anthropogenic contributor to human dose and presents a particularly difficult remediation challenge after a dispersal following nuclear incident. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant meltdown in April 1986 represents the largest nuclear accident in history and released over 80 PBq of 137 Cs into the environment. As a result, much of the land in close proximity to Chernobyl, which includes the Polessie State Radioecology Reserve in Belarus, remains highly contaminated with 137 Cs to such an extent they remain uninhabitable. Whilst there is a broad scale understanding of the depositional patterns within and beyond the exclusion zone, detailed mapping of the distribution is often limited. New developments in mobile gamma spectrometry provide the opportunity to map the fallout of 137 Cs and begin to reconstruct the depositional environment and the long-term behaviour of 137 Cs in the environment. Here, full gamma spectrum analysis using algorithms based on the peak-valley ratio derived from Monte Carlo simulations are used to estimate the total 137 Cs deposition and its depth distribution in the soil. The results revealed a pattern of 137 Cs distribution consistent with the deposition occurring at a time of flooding, which is validated by review of satellite imagery acquired at similar times of the year. The results were also consistent with systematic burial of the fallout 137 Cs by annual flooding events. These results were validated by sediment cores collected along a transect across the flood plain. The true merit of the approach was confirmed by exposing new insights into the spatial distribution and long term fate of 137 Cs across the floodplain. Such systematic patterns of behaviour are likely to be fundamental to the understanding of the radioecological behaviour of 137 Cs whilst also providing a tracer for quantifying the ecological controls on sediment movement and deposition at a landscape scale. Copyright © 2018

  18. Relationships between environment and characteristics of marine Fe-Mn deposits in the Romanche trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonte, Philippe.

    1981-11-01

    The geological characteristics and Fe-Mn deposits from the North wall of the Romanche trench (Atlantic ocean) were studied in order to investigate possible relationships of these deposits with hydrothermalism. The results indicate diffuse hydrothermal activity in all of the rock samples which may explain the notable mineralogical associations observed, such as talc-dolomite-hematite-serpentine. All rock outcrops were covered with Fe-Mn deposits, but no such deposits were noted on sedimentary platforms. The variations in average chemical composition are very low among the different deposits. Hence, the phenomenon which produces these deposits is not localized. From this study, we conclude that marine Fe-Mn deposits result from the continuous supply of terrigenous iron and discontinuous supply of manganese, probably hydrothermal in origin. Detrital particles and numerous chemical elements are scavenged during the accretion process itself, whereas some trace elements, among the least soluble (Co, Ti, Th, Ce), are adsorbed on these deposits, independently of the accretion. This explains the inverse variation of the content of these elements versus deposit thickness [fr

  19. Facies distribution, depositional environment, and petrophysical features of the Sharawra Formation, Old Qusaiba Village, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Muhammad Asif; Kaminski, Michael; Umran Dogan, A.

    2016-04-01

    The Silurian Sharawra Formation has great importance as it rests over the richest source rock of the Qusaiba Formation in central Saudi Arabia. The Sharawra Formation has four members including Jarish, Khanafriyah, Nayyal, and Zubliyat. The formation mainly consists of sandstone and siltstone with subordinate shale sequences. The lack of published research on this formation requires fundamental studies that can lay the foundation for future research. Three outcrops were selected from the Old Qusaiba Village in Central Saudi Arabia for field observations, petrographical and petrophysical study. Thin section study has been aided by quantitative mineralogical characterization using scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) for both minerals, cements, and clay minerals (detrital and authigenic). The outcrops were logged in detail and nine different lithofacies have been identified. The thin section study has revealed the Sharawra Formation to be mainly subarkosic, while the mica content increases near to its contact with the Qusaiba Formation. The XRD data has also revealed a prominent change in mineralogy with inclusion of minerals like phlogopite and microcline with depths. Field observations delineated a prominent thinning of strata as lithofacies correlation clearly shows the thinning of strata in the southwestern direction. The absence of outcrop exposures further supports the idea of southwestern thinning of strata. This is mainly attributed to local erosion and the presence of thicker shale interbeds in the southeastern section, which was probably subjected to more intense erosion than the northwestern one. The Sharawra Formation rests conformably over the thick transgressive shale sequence, deposited during the post glacial depositional cycle. The lowermost massive sandstone bed of the Sharawra Formation represents the beginning of the regressive period. The shale interbeds in the lower part are evidence of

  20. Microfaunal evidence of age and depositional environments of the Cerro Prieto section (Plio-Pleistocene), Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingle, J.C. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Microfossils including benthic and planktic foraminifera, ostracodes, calcareous algae, fish skeletal material, and fragments of pelecypods were found in 14 core samples from depths of 185 to 1952 m in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, providing evidence of both the age and depositional history of sediments comprising the 3000-m-thick Pliocene and Pleistocene section in this area. Ostracodes of brackish water and marine origin constitute the most common microfossils present in this sequence occurring in 8 samples; in situ littoral and neritic species of benthic foraminifera occur in 5 samples with planktic species present in 2 samples. Distributional patterns of ostracodes and foraminifera together with previously analyzed lithofacies (Lyons and van de Kamp, 1980) indicate that the Cerro Prieto section represents an intertonguing complex of alluvial, deltaic, estuarine, and shallow marine environments deposited along the front of the Colorado River delta as it prograded across the Salton Trough during Pliocene and Pleistocene time. Foraminiferal evidence indicates that a sand and shale unit commonly present at depths between 700 and 1100 m represents a significant mid-Pleistocene marine incursion in the Cerro Prieto area. Tentative correlation of the Cerro Prieto section with the well dated Palm Springs Formation of the Imperial Valley, California area suggests that the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary occurs at a depth of approximately 2000 m in the area of well M-93. Reworked specimens of Cretaceous foraminifera and fragments of the Cretaceous pelecypod Inoceramus were found in five samples further substantiating the Colorado Plateau provenance of a significant portion of the Colorado River deltaic sediments in the Cerro Prieto area.

  1. Stratigraphy and depositional environments of the upper Pleistocene Chemehuevi Formation along the lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmon, Daniel V.; Howard, Keith A.; House, P. Kyle; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Pearthree, Philip A.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Wan, Elmira; Wahl, David B.

    2011-01-01

    The Chemehuevi Formation forms a conspicuous, widespread, and correlative set of nonmarine sediments lining the valleys of the Colorado River and several of its larger tributaries in the Basin and Range geologic province. These sediments have been examined by geologists since J. S. Newberry visited the region in 1857 and are widely cited in the geologic literature; however their origin remains unresolved and their stratigraphic context has been confused by inconsistent nomenclature and by conflicting interpretations of their origin. This is one of the most prominent stratigraphic units along the river below the Grand Canyon, and the formation records an important event or set of events in the history of the Colorado River. Here we summarize what is known about these deposits throughout their range, present new stratigraphic, sedimentologic, topographic, and tephrochronologic data, and formally define them as a lithostratigraphic unit. The Chemehuevi Formation consists primarily of a bluff-forming mud facies, consisting of gypsum-bearing, horizontally bedded sand, silt, and clay, and a slope-forming sand facies containing poorly bedded, well sorted, quartz rich sand and scattered gravel. The sedimentary characteristics and fossil assemblages of the two facies types suggest that they were deposited in flood plain and channel environments, respectively. In addition to these two primary facies, we identify three other mappable facies in the formation: a thick-bedded rhythmite facies, now drowned by Lake Mead; a valley-margin facies containing abundant locally derived sediment; and several tributary facies consisting of mixed fluvial and lacustrine deposits in the lower parts of major tributary valleys. Observations from the subsurface and at outcrops near the elevation of the modern flood plain suggest that the formation also contains a regional basal gravel member. Surveys of numerous outcrops using high-precision GPS demonstrate that although the sand facies commonly

  2. Compositions, sources and depositional environments of organic matter from the Middle Jurassic clays of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marynowski, Leszek; Zaton, Michal; Simoneit, Bernd R.T.; Otto, Angelika; Jedrysek, Mariusz O.; Grelowski, Cezary; Kurkiewicz, Slawomir

    2007-01-01

    The comprehensive biomarker characteristics from previously undescribed Middle Jurassic clays of Poland are presented. The molecular composition of the organic matter (OM) derived from clays of Aalenian to Callovian age has not changed significantly through time. High relative concentrations of many biomarkers typical for terrestrial material suggest a distinct dominance of OM derived from land plants. Increasing concentrations of C 29 -diaster-13(17)-enes towards the northern part of the basin indicate an increase in terrestrial input. This terrestrial material would have originated from the enhanced transport of organic matter from land situated at the northern bank of the basin, i.e., the Fennoscandian Shield. The organic matter was deposited in an oxic to suboxic environment, as indicated by relatively low concentrations of C 33 -C 35 homohopanes, moderate to high Pr/Ph ratio values, an absence of compounds characteristic for anoxia and water column stratification, such as isorenieratane, aryl isoprenoids and gammacerane, as well as common benthic fauna and burrows. δ 18 O measurements from calcitic rostra of belemnites suggest that the mean value of the Middle Jurassic sea-water temperature of the Polish Basin was 13.1 deg. C. It is suggested that this mirrored the temperature of the lower water column because belemnites are considered here to be necto-benthic. The organic matter from the Middle Jurassic basin of Poland is immature. This is clearly indicated by a large concentration of biomarkers with the biogenic configurations, such as ββ-hopanes, hop-13(18)-enes, hop-17(21)-enes, diasterenes and sterenes. The identification of preserved, unaltered biomolecules like ferruginol, 6,7-dehydroferruginol and sugiol in Protopodocarpoxylon wood samples from these sediments present particularly strong evidence for the presence of immature OM in the Middle Jurassic sediments. Moreover, the occurrence of these polar diterpenoids is important due to the fact that

  3. Radiological protection of the environment, including non-human species-views from the global nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.; RPWG

    2008-01-01

    This paper updates the WNA key messages on the RP of the environment. This paper shows that the chronology of views (2000-2008) leads to a recognition that the current RP system has provided adequate protection of people and of the environment. In early 2000s, doubts were raised on the adequacy of the RP system. Next (2002-2005), the international community forged the view that the current RP system has in practice provided appropriate standards of environmental protection, but also acknowledged that the system needs further development to fill a 'conceptual gap'. In 2005, the IAEA plan of activities on the RP of the environment formalized international developments and conditioned the future revision (if any) of current standards. During 2006-2008, ICRP issued new guidance on RP of non-human species which offers little on an assessment framework of practical use and on a compelling case for such assessments. This guidance, based on the new ICRP concept of Reference Animals and Plants, falls short in terms of environmental protection approach. A milestone study on the RP of non-human species is the SENES independent overview (2007) which 'confirmed that both people and nature have been adequately protected from radioactive releases from all kinds of nuclear sites, old and new'. This overview covers case studies for nuclear sites including some that had experienced major accidents. It derives that the earlier acknowledgement on the 'conceptual gap' appears no longer valid or at the very least, that the gap (if any) is extremely small. The RP of the environment is part of the on-going revision of the current IAEA Basic Safety Standards (BSS). We emphasize that the recently published BSS draft 1.0 in July 2008 covers (with adequacy) RP of the environment through general provisions (free of provisions to non-human species) on the assessment of environmental impact. (author)

  4. Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition at Two Sites in an Arid Environment of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaihui; Liu, Xuejun; Song, Wei; Chang, Yunhua; Hu, Yukun; Tian, Changyan

    2013-01-01

    Arid areas play a significant role in the global nitrogen cycle. Dry and wet deposition of inorganic nitrogen (N) species were monitored at one urban (SDS) and one suburban (TFS) site at Urumqi in a semi-arid region of central Asia. Atmospheric concentrations of NH3, NO2, HNO3, particulate ammonium and nitrate (pNH4 (+) and pNO3 (-)) concentrations and NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations in precipitation showed large monthly variations and averaged 7.1, 26.6, 2.4, 6.6, 2.7 µg N m(-3) and 1.3, 1.0 mg N L(-1) at both SDS and TFS. Nitrogen dry deposition fluxes were 40.7 and 36.0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) while wet deposition of N fluxes were 6.0 and 8.8 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) at SDS and TFS, respectively. Total N deposition averaged 45.8 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)at both sites. Our results indicate that N dry deposition has been a major part of total N deposition (83.8% on average) in an arid region of central Asia. Such high N deposition implies heavy environmental pollution and an important nutrient resource in arid regions.

  5. Preliminary studies on environment assessment around Wahkyn uranium deposit, West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya: a hydro-pedo geochemical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umamaheswar, K.; Sinha, K.K.; Murugan, M.G.; Balasubramani, S.; Pandey, Alok

    2004-01-01

    Environmental baseline study is an important step in the environmental impact assessment of the uranium deposit. It forms background for mining and milling project, on the local environment. Baseline data collection programme was initiated in the later part of 2001 after identifying sampling sites covering the Wahkyn uranium deposit. Workable size of uranium with an average grade of 0.101 % U 3 O 8 has been established in coarse to medium grained, immature, grey to dark grey feldspathic sandstone with abundant carbonaceous matter and pyrite. Systematic stream water samples in conjunction with soil and stream sediment samples were collected periodically from 20 permanent sample sites spread over 4.5 sq km, located in perennial streams draining through the Wahkyn uranium deposit area

  6. Palynostratigraphy, palynofacies and depositional environment of a lignite-bearing succession at Surkha Mine, Cambay Basin, north-western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monga Priyanka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports palynology and palynofacies studies of lignite-bearing sediments exposed in an opencast mine succession at Surkha, Bhavnagar District, in the coastal region of Gujarat, India. The study examined the relationships between the palynoflora, sedimentary organic matter and environment at the time of deposition of lignite and associated sediments. Based on dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy, the sedimentary succession is dated as early Eocene (Ypresian. Palynofacies studies helped reveal the palaeoenvironmental fluctuations. The dominance of angiosperm pollen grains, freshwater algae, microthyraceous fungi and a large share of land debris in the lower part of the succession suggests a freshwater swamp environment of deposition for the basal lignite facies. Two cenozones - Matanomadiasulcites maximus and Lakiapollis ovatus - were identified in the lower lignite facies, determined from the dominance of these pollen grains in the palynological assemblages. The presence of angiosperm pollen grains and pteridophyte spores in the carbonaceous shale horizon above the lignite facies indicates a change in the depositional regime from freshwater swamp to lagoonal. This was identified as the Arecipites wodehousei cenozone due to its numerical abundance in the assemblage. Dinoflagellate cyst abundance and diversity, and microforaminiferal test linings along with well-sorted terrestrial debris in the mudstone in the upper part of the succession suggest a more open marine estuarine type of depositional environment. The Homotryblium complex along with Cordospheridium fibrospinosum, Kenleyia sp., and Thalassiphora pelagica dinoflagellate cysts are the main representatives of this zone, determined as the Homotryblium tenuispinosum cenozone. The changing depositional settings (freshwater swamp-lagoonal-estuarine along the vertical succession indicate a marine transgression in this region. Results from palynological studies of early Palaeogene

  7. Using Moss to Detect Fine-Scaled Deposition of Heavy Metals in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovan, S.; Donovan, G.; Demetrios, G.; Monleon, V. J.; Amacher, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Mosses are commonly used as bio-indicators of heavy metal deposition to forests. Their application in urban airsheds is relatively rare. Our objective was to develop fine-scaled, city-wide maps for heavy metals in Portland, Oregon, to identify pollution "hotspots" and serve as a screening tool for more effective placement of air quality monitoring instruments. In 2013 we measured twenty-two elements in epiphytic moss sampled on a 1km x1km sampling grid (n = 346). We detected large hotspots of cadmium and arsenic in two neighborhoods associated with stained glass manufacturers. Air instruments deployed by local regulators measured cadmium concentrations 49 times and arsenic levels 155 times the state health benchmarks. Moss maps also detected a large nickel hotspot in a neighborhood near a forge where air instruments later measured concentrations 4 times the health benchmark. In response, the facilities implemented new pollution controls, air quality improved in all three affected neighborhoods, revision of regulations for stained glass furnace emissions are underway, and Oregon's governor launched an initiative to develop health-based (vs technology-based) regulations for air toxics in the state. The moss maps also indicated a couple dozen smaller hotspots of heavy metals, including lead, chromium, and cobalt, in Portland neighborhoods. Ongoing follow-up work includes: 1) use of moss sampling by local regulators to investigate source and extent of the smaller hotspots, 2) use of lead isotopes to determine origins of higher lead levels observed in moss collected from the inner city, and 3) co-location of air instruments and moss sampling to determine accuracy, timeframe represented, and seasonality of heavy metals in moss.

  8. Paleo-Environment and C-14 Dating: The Key to the Depositional Age of the Tha Chang and Related Sand Pits, Northeastern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putthapiban, P.; Zolensky, M.; Jull, T.; Demartino, M.; Salyapongse, S.

    2012-01-01

    Tha Chang sand pits, Nakhon Ratchasima Province and many other sand pits in the area adjacent to the Mun River are characterized by their fluviatile environment in association with mass wasting deposits, along the paleo-river channel and the flood plain of the Mun River. Sediments of these deposits are characterized by clasts of various rock types especially the resistant ones with frequent big tree trunks, logs and wood fragments in different sizes and various stages of transformation from moldering stage to lignification and petrification. Widespread pyritization of the lower horizon suggests strongly reducing environment during burial. The Tha Chang deposits have been received much attention from geoscientists especially paleontologist communities, as they contain fragments of some distinct vertebrate species such as Stegadon sp., hominoid primate, rhinoceros Aceratherium and others. Based on the associated mammal fauna and hominoid fossils, the late Miocene ( 9 - 6 Ma) was given for the time of deposition of this sand and gravel unit. Some other reports believed that sediments and materials of these sand and gravel quarries (pits) were deposited by high-energy flood pulses contemporaneous with the tektites forming event during mid-Pleistocene at c. 0.8 Ma. Interpretation from Palynostratigraphical study suggested that the lower horizon of Tha Chang sand pit was deposited during Pliocene/Pleistocene period and the upper horizons are Pleistoncene/Holocene. It is crystal clear that all the fluviatile sediments including tektites and almost all fossil fragments being deposited in these sand pits were, likely a multiple times reworked materials. Only some old bamboo trees, some old crowling trees and fossils grasses observed on the old river bank are considered in situ. C-14 dating of 5 old wood specimens from Tha Chang Sand Pits, 15 old wood specimens from Chumpuang Sand Pits and one sample of old pottery from a Chumpuang Sand Pit were carried out in the NSF

  9. Lithostratigraphy, depositional environments and sedimentology of the Permian Vryheid Formation (Karoo Supergroup), Arnot North, Witbank Coalfield, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    M.Sc. This work documents the lithostratigraphy and interpreted depositional environments of the Permian Vryheid Formation in the most northern proximal setting yet studied in the Witbank Coalfield. Data from 924 boreholes from two mining companies (Anglo Operations Ltd. and Xstrata Coal Ltd.) drilled over 50 years, covering an area of 910km2 revealed a 35m sequence of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks containing two coal seams. These seams are numbered No. 1 at the base and No. 2 at t...

  10. Sediment Sources, Depositional Environment, and Diagenetic Alteration of the Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin, USA: Nd, Sr, Li and U Isotopic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, T. T.; Capo, R. C.; Gardiner, J. B.; Stewart, B. W.

    2017-12-01

    The organic-rich Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in the Appalachian Basin, eastern USA, is a major target of natural gas exploration. Constraints on local and regional sediment sources, depositional environments, and post-depositional processes are essential for understanding the evolution of the basin. In this study, multiple proxies, including trace metals, rare earth elements (REE), the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systems, and U and Li isotopes were applied to bulk rocks and authigenic fractions of the Marcellus Shale and adjacent limestone/sandstone units from two locations separated by 400 km. The range of ɛNd values (-7.8 to -6.4 at 390 Ma) is consistent with a clastic sedimentary component derived from a well-mixed source of fluvial and eolian material of the Grenville orogenic belt. The Sm-Nd isotope system and bulk REE distributions appear to have been minimally affected by post-depositional processes, while the Rb-Sr isotope system shows evidence of limited post-depositional redistribution. While REE are primarily associated with silicate minerals (80-95%), REE patterns of sequentially extracted fractions reflect post-depositional alteration at the intergranular scale. Although the chemical index of alteration (CIA = 54 to 60) suggests the sediment source was not heavily weathered, Li isotope data are consistent with progressively increasing weathering of the source region during Marcellus Shale deposition. δ238U values in bulk shale and reduced phases (oxidizable fraction) are higher than those of modern seawater and upper crust. The isotopically heavy U accumulated in these authigenic phases can be explained by the precipitation of insoluble U in anoxic/euxinic bottom water. Unlike carbonate cement within the shale, the similarity between δ238U values and REE patterns of the limestone units and those of modern seawater indicates that the limestone formed under open ocean (oxic) conditions.

  11. Effect of Ground Surface Roughness on Atmospheric Dispersion and Dry Deposition of Cs-137 in the UAE Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungyeop; Beeley, Philip A. [Khalifa Univ. of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kim, Sungyeop; Chang, Soonheung; Lee, Kunjai [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The site of nuclear power plant (NPP) in the UAE has several unique characteristics as a NPP on the desert environment near coastal region. Those characteristics are represented like below: · Arid ground surface · Low ground surface roughness length · Relatively simple (flat) terrain · Extremely low precipitation · Intense solar radiation and high temperature in day time · Sea breeze · Relatively high humidity of atmosphere · Etc. From the review of this desert environment in the UAE, low ground surface roughness is regarded as one of definitively different characteristics from that of other NPP sites. In this context, surface roughness is selected as independent variables for the sensitivity analyses in this research. Another important reason of this selection is that this parameters is less dependent on the day and night change than other parameters. With ground level concentration, dry deposition rate has been chosen as a dependent variable to be considered rather than wet deposition because UAE shows almost zero rainfall especially in summer. Lower ground level concentration of Cs-137 near the site and extremely lower dry deposition of Cs-137 are predicted in the UAE environment because of the lower ground surface roughness of the desert.

  12. Depositional environments and cyclicity of the Early Ordovician carbonate ramp in the western Tarim Basin (NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuan; Chen, Daizhao; Song, Yafang; Zhou, Xiqiang; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Gongjing

    2018-06-01

    During the Early Ordovician, the Tarim Basin (NW China) was mainly occupied by an extensive shallow-water carbonate platform, on which a carbonate ramp system was developed in the Bachu-Keping area of the western part of the basin. Three well-exposed typical outcrop sections of the Lower Ordovician Penglaiba Formation were investigated in order to identify the depositional facies and to clarify origins of meter-scale cycles and depositional sequences, thereby the platform evolution. Thirteen lithofacies are identified and further grouped into three depositional facies (associations): peritidal, restricted and open-marine subtidal facies. These lithofacies are vertically stacked into meter-scale, shallowing-upward peritidal and subtidal cycles. The peritidal cycles are mainly distributed in the lower and uppermost parts of the Penglaiba Formation deposited in the inner-middle ramp, and commonly start with shallow subtidal to intertidal facies followed by inter- to supratidal facies. In contrast, the subtidal cycles occur throughout the formation mostly in the middle-outer ramp and are dominated by shallow to relatively deep (i.e., intermediate) subtidal facies. The dominance of asymmetrical and incomplete cycles suggests a dominant control of Earth's orbital forcing on the cyclic deposition on the platform. On the basis of vertical facies and cycle stacking patterns, and accommodation changes illustrated by the Fischer plots from all studied sections, five third-order depositional sequences are recognized in the Penglaiba Formation. Individual sequences comprise a lower transgressive part and an upper regressive one. In shallow-water depositional environments, the transgressive packages are dominated by thicker-than-average subtidal cycles, indicating an increase in accommodation space, whereas regressive parts are mainly represented by thinner-than-average peritidal and subtidal cycles, denoting a decrease in accommodation space. In contrast, in intermediate to

  13. Depositional environment, sand provenance, and diagenesis of the Basal Salina Formation (lower Eocene), northwestern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K. M.; Carozzi, A. V.

    The Basal Salina Formation is a lower Eocene transgressive sequence consisting of interbedded shales, siltstones, and conglomeratic sandstones. This formation occurs in the Talara basin of northwestern Peru and is one of a series of complexly faulted hydrocarbon-producing formations within this extensional forearc basin. These sediments were probably deposited in a fan-delta complex that developed along the ancestral Amotape Mountains during the early Eocene. Most of the sediment was derived from the low-grade metamorphic and plutonic rocks that comprise the Amotape Mountains, and their sedimentary cover. Detrital modes of these sandstones reflect the complex tectonic history of the area, rather than the overall forearc setting. Unlike most forearc sediments, these are highly quartzose, with only minor percentages of volcanic detritus. This sand is variably indurated and cemented by chlorite, quartz, calcite, and kaolinite. Clay-mineral matrix assemblages show gradational changes with depth, from primarily detrital kaolinite to diagenetic chlorite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Basal Salina sandstones exhibit a paragenetic sequence that may be tied to early meteoric influx or late-stage influx of thermally driven brines associated with hydrocarbon migration. Much of the porosity is secondary, resulting from a first-stage dissolution of silicic constituents (volcanic lithic fragments, feldspar, and fibrous quartz) and a later dissolution of surrounding carbonate cement. Types of pores include skeletal grains, grain molds, elongate pores, and fracture porosity. Measured porosity values range up to 24% and coarser samples tend to be more porous. Permeability is enhanced by fractures and deterred by clay-mineral cements and alteration residues.

  14. The Lower Cambrian of Scandinavia: Depositional environment, sequence stratigraphy and palaeogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Schovsbo, Niels Hemmingsen

    2011-08-01

    Lower Cambrian successions described from Scandinavia are reviewed and subjected to sequence stratigraphical analysis; comparisons are also made with successions described from northeast Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The treated stratigraphic interval is bounded upwards by a regional unconformity ascribed to the Hawke Bay Event. The East European regional stage classification, comprising the Rovnian, Lontovan, Dominopolian, Ljubomlian, Vergalian, Rausvian and Kibartian, is adopted for the Lower Cambrian of Scandinavia. These units are approximately equivalent to the Terreneuvian and Cambrian provisional series 2. The Rovnian and Lontovan stages are pre-trilobitic. The Dominopolian and 'Ljubomlian' stages encompass the ' Rusophycus' and Schmidtiellus mickwitzi zones; whether the former zone is of pre-trilobitic age is uncertain but possible. The 'Ljubomlian' is treated informally because the definition adopted in this paper does not correspond to the original concept of the stage. The Vergalian and Rausvian are for the time being classified as one combined stage. The lower main part of the Vergalian-Rausvian corresponds to the new informal Holmia kjerulfi- 'Ornamentaspis' linnarssoni zone, whereas the upper part is separated as the new informal Comluella?-Ellipsocephalus lunatus zone. This zone also includes the Kibartian Stage. Volborthella and poorly known olenellid trilobites range into the Kibartian and the stage is considered of Early Cambrian age. The Holmia inusitata Zone is abandoned; it is contemporaneous with the traditional ' O.' linnarssoni Zone. The autochthonous strata underlying the Hawke Bay unconformity in the Laisvall sector, Swedish Lapland, are assigned to the Laisberg and Grammajukku formations and it is proposed to abandon the Laisvall and Såvvare formations. The Laisberg Fm can locally be divided into the Ackerselet, Saivatj, Maiva, Kautsky Ore, Tjalek, Nadok Ore and Assjatj members. The Vakkejokk Breccia near Luopakte is likely

  15. Three baseline studies in the environment of the uranium deposit at Yeelirrie, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownscombe, A.J.; Davy, D.R.; Giles, M.S.; Williams, A.R.

    1978-05-01

    The distribution of Cu, Pb, Mo, V, Sb, As, Se, U, 226 Ra and 210 Pb in soils, plants and animals associated with the Yeelirrie uranium deposit was examined. The data were summarised to provide estimates of the background metal distributions in the area before commencement of the mining operation. Also, water samples from 26 windmill-pumped stockwatering points, 25 geological exploration boreholes and 2 deep water bores drilled for higher quality water were collected in and around the Yeelirrie deposit, and analysed for cations, anions, pH, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, hardness, alkalinity, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and U. Results on the concentration of radon daughters (in working level units) in the atmosphere near the uranium deposit during late spring are also reported

  16. Age, sedimentary environments, and other aspects of sandstone and related host rocks for uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Project II of the Uranium Geology Working Group was assigned to the study of sedimentary basins and sandstone - type uranium deposits. About 40% of the worlds's uranium resources are contained in sandstone-type deposits, which has led to extensive research. The research was carried out mainly by correspondence, and the results reported by 21 geologists from 10 nations are summarized in this report. It investigated five topics dealing with important aspects of the geology of uranium ores in sandstone host formations: age of host rock; partitioning of uranium between continental and marine sediments; latitude limitation on formation of sandstone deposits; effect of rock formation dip on sandstone ores; usefulness of stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies. The results of studies on these subjects form part of a wider programme of the Working Group, whose final results will be presented at the 27th International Geological Congress in Moscow in 1984

  17. A genome wide association study for backfat thickness in Italian Large White pigs highlights new regions affecting fat deposition including neuronal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontanesi Luca

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcass fatness is an important trait in most pig breeding programs. Following market requests, breeding plans for fresh pork consumption are usually designed to reduce carcass fat content and increase lean meat deposition. However, the Italian pig industry is mainly devoted to the production of Protected Designation of Origin dry cured hams: pigs are slaughtered at around 160 kg of live weight and the breeding goal aims at maintaining fat coverage, measured as backfat thickness to avoid excessive desiccation of the hams. This objective has shaped the genetic pool of Italian heavy pig breeds for a few decades. In this study we applied a selective genotyping approach within a population of ~ 12,000 performance tested Italian Large White pigs. Within this population, we selectively genotyped 304 pigs with extreme and divergent backfat thickness estimated breeding value by the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and performed a genome wide association study to identify loci associated to this trait. Results We identified 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms with P≤5.0E-07 and additional 119 ones with 5.0E-07 Conclusions Further investigations are needed to evaluate the effects of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with backfat thickness on other traits as a pre-requisite for practical applications in breeding programs. Reported results could improve our understanding of the biology of fat metabolism and deposition that could also be relevant for other mammalian species including humans, confirming the role of neuronal genes on obesity.

  18. Microfacies characteristics, sedimentary environments and sequence stratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous deposits in northwest of Nehbandan (Basiran section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad nabi Gorgij

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   The Basiran stratigraphic section is located about 160 km northwest of Nehbandan.The section was measured in detail at 59 06 30 N and 31 52 50 E. Nehbandan area with respect to fourfold geological subdivision of Iran is part of Central Iran that is located in the eastern flank of Lut Block which first time are studied by Stocklin et al.in 1972. Gorgij (2001 stratigraphically and paleontologically investigate Upper Cretaceous deposits in Mighan and Basiran sections. Upper Cretaceous deposits in in this area consists of 275m conglomerate,alternation of conglomerate-sandstone, sandy limestone -marl and limy marl, marl with intercalation of limestone-sandy limestone thin beds and medium-bedded to massive limestone. Microfacies analysis led to the recognition of 9 microfacies that are related to 5 belts; Coast, tidal flat, lagoon, shoal, shallow open marine and deep open marine environments. Main part of the section are deposited in the open marine environment that consist of marl,marly limestone and limestone. The doals of this study are : (1 describing and determining main carbonate and siliciclastic microfacies of late Cretaceous deposits (2 interpreting and providing depositional model for reconstruction of its paleoenvironmental setting based on microfacies characteristics (3 dividing the section based on lithostratigraphic principles and (4 recognizing a sequence stratigraphic model of this successions based on the vertical variation of facies,stratal key beds and stratal packing pattern.       Material and Method   The Basiran section as a complete stratigraphic section was measured and described. Up to 68 samples (indicated by KB1 to KB68 were collected and 170 thin sections are prepared. Based on field observations, sedimentological characteristics, parasequence stacking patterns, sequence boundary types and other key stratigraphical surfaces are identified and were obtained. Scheme of Dunham (1962 and Embry and Klovan

  19. Microfacies characteristics, sedimentary environments and sequence stratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous deposits in northwest of Nehbandan (Basiran section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Bordbar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction   The Basiran stratigraphic section is located about 160 km northwest of Nehbandan.The section was measured in detail at 59 06 30 N and 31 52 50 E. Nehbandan area with respect to fourfold geological subdivision of Iran is part of Central Iran that is located in the eastern flank of Lut Block which first time are studied by Stocklin et al.in 1972. Gorgij (2001 stratigraphically and paleontologically investigate Upper Cretaceous deposits in Mighan and Basiran sections. Upper Cretaceous deposits in in this area consists of 275m conglomerate,alternation of conglomerate-sandstone, sandy limestone -marl and limy marl, marl with intercalation of limestone-sandy limestone thin beds and medium-bedded to massive limestone. Microfacies analysis led to the recognition of 9 microfacies that are related to 5 belts Coast, tidal flat, lagoon, shoal, shallow open marine and deep open marine environments. Main part of the section are deposited in the open marine environment that consist of marl,marly limestone and limestone. The doals of this study are : (1 describing and determining main carbonate and siliciclastic microfacies of late Cretaceous deposits (2 interpreting and providing depositional model for reconstruction of its paleoenvironmental setting based on microfacies characteristics (3 dividing the section based on lithostratigraphic principles and (4 recognizing a sequence stratigraphic model of this successions based on the vertical variation of facies,stratal key beds and stratal packing pattern.       Material and Method   The Basiran section as a complete stratigraphic section was measured and described. Up to 68 samples (indicated by KB1 to KB68 were collected and 170 thin sections are prepared. Based on field observations, sedimentological characteristics, parasequence stacking patterns, sequence boundary types and other key stratigraphical surfaces are identified and were obtained. Scheme of Dunham (1962 and Embry

  20. Response of cotton, alfalfa, and cantaloupe to foliar-deposited salt in an arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.C.; Karpiscak, M.M.; Bartels, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The cooling towers at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS), located 80 km west of Phoenix, AZ, will release as estimated 2.1 Mg/d of particulates (primarily salts) into the atmosphere when the station is in full operation. The saline drift will disperse and settle onto agricultural fields surrounding the station. Field studies were conducted in 1983 to investigate the influence of foliar-applied saline aerosol on crop growth, foliar injury, and tissue elemental concentration on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), alfalfa (medicago sativa L.), and cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) in an arid environment. The treatment aerosol solutions simulated treated wastewater effluent and included all essential plant nutrients and other elements, including trace concentrations of heavy metals. The treatments included unsprayed plots, and plots sprayed with salt solutions at 0 (distilled water), 8, 83, and 415 kg/(ha yr). The alfalfa received an additional 829 kg/(ha yr) treatment. The species were evaluated in separate experiments on Mohave clay loam and Sonoita sandy loam soils (Typic Haplargid) near Marana, AZ. Cotton treated with 415 kg/(ha yr) had significantly less chlorosis and tended to be slightly taller than the cotton in the unsprayed plots. The alfalfa treated at a rate of 829 kg/(ha yr) showed significantly more leaf margin necrosis than did the unsprayed alfalfa. In the cantaloupe, there were no visually apparent differences among salt treatments. Hand-harvested cotton plots had a significant reduction is seed cotton yield at the 415 kg/(ha yr) treatment. A similar though nonsignificant, trend towards reduced yield with increased salt treatment was observed in machine-harvested cotton plots

  1. Depositional environment of a fan delta in a Vistulian proglacial lake (Skaliska Basin, north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woronko Barbara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study reconstructed the environment of a fan delta filling the vast end depression of the Skaliska Basin, and its overlying aeolian deposits. The formation of the large fan delta is associated with the presence of an ice-dammed lake functioning during the retreat of the Vistulian Glaciation (MIS 2. The examined material was collected from five boreholes. Sediments were analysed for their granulometric composition and subjected to analyses of frosting and rounding of quartz grains. Grain size analysis showed that the fan delta deposits are built of sand sediments of very low lateral and vertical variability. The fan delta was supplied with fluvioglacial sediments. Accumulation of sediments occurred in shallow water with a very low-gradient slope. The exposed fan delta became a site conducive to aeolian processes after the lake waters fell and the Skaliska Basin depression dried. Dune deposits overlying the fan were affected by short-distance transport so they did not acquire features typical for aeolian deposits.

  2. Quartz OSL Dating of the loess deposit in the eastern Tibetan Plateau and its environment implications since the Last Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Cheng, T.; Liu, W.; Fang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Loess deposit is widespread in the Chuanxi Plateau, the eastern Tibetan Plateau, which is a critical archive for understanding the aeolian process, the evolution of the westerly and the environment changes on the Plateau. Previous studies have shown its aeolian origin, and mainly transported by wind from the western part of the Tibetan Plateau. However, the aeolian processes of the loess and its environment implications are not well understood mainly due to lack of detailed age controls. We carry out a combined quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS 14-C) for the loess deposits in Garzê and Jinchuan. The results indicate that the quartz OSL dating can provide reliable age controls for the loess-paleosol sequences from the Chuanxi Plateau, showing the potential of OSL to date loess in the high altitude region. The results indicate that the OSL ages are in agreement with the observed stratigraphy in the field. The constructed OSL and AMS 14-C chronology of the Garzê loess reveals that the widespread loess in Ganzi Region deposited since the Last Glacial. The dust accumulation is rapid during marine isotope stage (MIS) 3 and 2, and a relative low accumulation rate in the Holocene, which may related with the desertification processes of the inner Tibetan Plateau.

  3. Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic weld deposits in a salt spray environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, J.B. [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); Yu, C.; Shiue, R.K. [Department of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tsay, L.W., E-mail: b0186@mail.ntou.edu.tw [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-15

    ER 308L and 309LMo were utilized as the filler metals for the groove and overlay welds of a 304L stainless steel substrate, which was prepared via a gas tungsten arc-welding process in multiple passes. U-bend and weight-loss tests were conducted by testing the welds in a salt spray containing 10 wt% NaCl at 120 °C. The dissolution of the skeletal structure in the fusion zone (FZ) caused the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the weld. The FZ in the cold-rolled condition showed the longest single crack length in the U-bend tests. Moreover, sensitization treatment at 650 °C for 10 h promoted the formation of numerous fine cracks, which resulted in a high SCC susceptibility. The weight loss of the deposits was consistent with the SCC susceptibility of the welds in a salt spray. The 309LMo deposit was superior to the 308L deposit in the salt spray. - Highlights: • ER 308L and 309LMo were utilized as fillers for the groove and overlay welds of a 304L SS. • U-bend and weight-loss tests in a salt spray containing 10 wt% NaCl at 120 °C were performed. • The dissolution of solidified structure caused the SCC of the welds in a salt spray. • Sensitization treatment increased the weight loss and SCC susceptibility of the deposits. • The weight loss of the weld deposits was related to their SCC susceptibility in a salt spray.

  4. Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic weld deposits in a salt spray environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, J.B.; Yu, C.; Shiue, R.K.; Tsay, L.W.

    2015-01-01

    ER 308L and 309LMo were utilized as the filler metals for the groove and overlay welds of a 304L stainless steel substrate, which was prepared via a gas tungsten arc-welding process in multiple passes. U-bend and weight-loss tests were conducted by testing the welds in a salt spray containing 10 wt% NaCl at 120 °C. The dissolution of the skeletal structure in the fusion zone (FZ) caused the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the weld. The FZ in the cold-rolled condition showed the longest single crack length in the U-bend tests. Moreover, sensitization treatment at 650 °C for 10 h promoted the formation of numerous fine cracks, which resulted in a high SCC susceptibility. The weight loss of the deposits was consistent with the SCC susceptibility of the welds in a salt spray. The 309LMo deposit was superior to the 308L deposit in the salt spray. - Highlights: • ER 308L and 309LMo were utilized as fillers for the groove and overlay welds of a 304L SS. • U-bend and weight-loss tests in a salt spray containing 10 wt% NaCl at 120 °C were performed. • The dissolution of solidified structure caused the SCC of the welds in a salt spray. • Sensitization treatment increased the weight loss and SCC susceptibility of the deposits. • The weight loss of the weld deposits was related to their SCC susceptibility in a salt spray.

  5. Estimation of site specific deposition velocities and mass interception factor using 7Be as a tracer in Kudankulam environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, B.S.; Vijayakumar, B.; Ravi, P.M.

    2018-01-01

    Beryllium-7 ( 7 Be) is a cosmogenic radionuclide formed in the atmosphere when cosmic ray produced neutrons and protons disintegrate the atomic nucleus of nitrogen and oxygen in to lighter fragments. ' 7 Be is found naturally in air, rainwater, vegetation, soils and sediments as well as lake and ocean waters. Due to its continuous production in the atmosphere, its relatively short half-life (53.3 days), and its ease of measurement by gamma spectrometry, 7 Be has proven to be a useful tool for tracing and quantifying environmental processes such as atmospheric deposition, atmospheric transport and soil erosion etc. A systematic study is carried out to estimate the site specific deposition velocities and the mass interception factor around the Kudankulam environment

  6. Interlayer utilization (including metal borides) for subsequent deposition of NSD films via microwave plasma CVD on 316 and 440C stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Jared

    Diamond thin films have promising applications in numerous fields due to the extreme properties of diamonds in conjunction with the surface enhancement of thin films. Biomedical applications are numerous including temporary implants and various dental and surgical instruments. The unique combination of properties offered by nanostructured diamond films that make it such an attractive surface coating include extreme hardness, low obtainable surface roughness, excellent thermal conductivity, and chemical inertness. Regrettably, numerous problems exist when attempting to coat stainless steel with diamond generating a readily delaminated film: outward diffusion of iron to the surface, inward diffusion of carbon limiting necessary surface carbon precursor, and the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion yielding substantial residual stress. While some exotic methods have been attempted to overcome these hindrances, the most common approach is the use of an intermediate layer between the stainless steel substrate and the diamond thin film. In this research, both 316 stainless steel disks and 440C stainless steel ball bearings were tested with interlayers including discrete coatings and graded, diffusion-based surface enhancements. Titanium nitride and thermochemical diffusion boride interlayers were both examined for their effectiveness at allowing for the growth of continuous and adherent diamond films. Titanium nitride interlayers were deposited by cathodic arc vacuum deposition on 440C bearings. Lower temperature diamond processing resulted in improved surface coverage after cooling, but ultimately, both continuity and adhesion of the nanostructured diamond films were unacceptable. The ability to grow quality diamond films on TiN interlayers is in agreement with previous work on iron and low alloy steel substrates, and the similarly seen inadequate adhesion strength is partially a consequence of the lacking establishment of an interfacial carbide phase

  7. Characterization of space radiation environment in terms of the energy deposition in functionally important volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L.A.; Metting, N.F.; Wilson, W.E.; Ratcliffe, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Since the damage which initiates detrimental effects occurs in a small site (semiconductor junctions, or biological cell nuclei), these differences in spatial distribution of ionization maybe the relevant factor controlling the effectiveness of different radiations. Again, when the appropriate cross section data are available Monte Carlo methods can be used to simulate the positions of all ionizations and excitations produced by a typical charged particle. This calculated track structure must interact with the biological or electronic entity in which it occurs to produce the effect. However, we do not know the mechanisms of this interaction and thus cannot specify which characteristics of the charged particle track are responsible for the relevant damage. From track structure we can obtain the spectrum of energy deposition in small volumes which may be relevant to the processes of concern. This has lead to a new approach to dosimetry, one which emphasizes the stochastic nature of energy deposition in small sites, known as microdosimetry. 6 refs., 4 figs

  8. Nuclear-heat deposition for a fusion-like neutron environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, L.L.; Hegberg, D.E.; Wilcox, A.D.

    1981-10-01

    Calculated nuclear heat deposition profiles within the thermal shield of the FMIT facility are sensitive to the cross-section data base - particularly an energy balance consistency between gamma production cross-sections and neutron KERMA factors. Infinite medium calculations were made with the Monte Carlo code to provide integral validations of energy balances relevant to this aspect of the data base. Inconsistencies were found and corrected. There was also concern about the adequacy of the high energy cross sections (10 MeV < E < 30 MeV) for the moderation and transport of the (d,Li) source neutrons. A preliminary analysis of a measurement with a (d,Li) source in the center of an iron block has improved our confidence in the high energy cross section - data base for this application. Monte Carlo calculations have been utilized to calculate three-dimensional profiles of nuclear heat deposition. Representative profiles were displayed for two walls of the FMIT test cell

  9. Microorganisms and heavy metals associated with atmospheric deposition in a congested urban environment of a developing country: Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasundara, Lakshika; Amarasekara, R W K; Magana-Arachchi, D N; Ziyath, Abdul M; Karunaratne, D G G P; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Vithanage, Meththika

    2017-04-15

    The presence of bacteria and heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were investigated in Kandy, Sri Lanka, which is a typical city in the developing world with significant traffic congestion. Atmospheric deposition samples were analyzed for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb which are heavy metals common to urban environments. Al and Fe were found in high concentrations due to the presence of natural sources, but may also be re-suspended by vehicular traffic. Relatively high concentrations of toxic metals such as Cr and Pb in dissolved form were also found. High Zn loads can be attributed to vehicular emissions and the wide use of Zn coated roofing materials. The metal loads in wet deposition showed higher concentrations compared to dry deposition. The metal concentrations among the different sampling sites significantly differ from each other depending on the traffic conditions. Industrial activities are not significant in Kandy City. Consequently, the traffic exerts high influence on heavy metal loadings. As part of the bacterial investigations, nine species of culturable bacteria, namely; Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas monteilii, Klebsiella pneumonia, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Exiguobacterium sp., Bacillus pumilus and Kocuria kristinae, which are opportunistic pathogens, were identified. This is the first time Pseudomonas monteilii and Ochrobactrum intermedium has been reported from a country in Asia. The culturable fraction constituted ~0.01 to 10%. Pigmented bacteria and endospore forming bacteria were copious in the atmospheric depositions due to their capability to withstand harsh environmental conditions. The presence of pathogenic bacteria and heavy metals creates potential human and ecosystem health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Wire-mesh capped deposition sensors: Novel passive tool for coarse fraction flux estimation of radon thoron progeny in indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayya, Y.S.; Mishra, Rosaline; Prajith, Rama; Sapra, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Deposition-based 222 Rn and 220 Rn progeny sensors act as unique, passive tools for determining the long time-averaged progeny deposition fluxes in the environment. The use of these deposition sensors as progeny concentration monitors was demonstrated in typical indoor environments as conceptually superior alternatives to gas-based indirect monitoring methods. In the present work, the dependency of these deposition monitors on various environmental parameters is minimized by capping the deposition sensor with a suitable wire mesh. These wire-mesh capped deposition sensors measure the coarse fraction deposition flux, which is less dependent on the change in environmental parameters like ventilation rate and turbulence. The calibration of these wire-mesh capped coarse fraction progeny sensors was carried out by laboratory controlled experiments. These sensors were deployed both in indoor and in occupational environments having widely different ventilation rates. The obtained coarse fraction deposition velocities were fairly constant in these environments, which further confirmed that the signal on the wire-mesh capped sensors show the least dependency on the change in environmental parameters. This technique has the potential to serve as a passive particle sizer in the general context of nanoparticles using progeny species as surrogates. On the whole, there exists a strong case for developing a passive system that responds only to coarse fraction for providing alternative tools for dosimetry and environmental fine particle research. - Research highlights: → Wire-mesh capped deposition sensor measures the coarse fraction deposition flux → Coarse fraction deposition flux less dependent on environmental conditions → Wire-mesh capped deposition sensor as passive particle sizer

  11. Depositional environments of Late Triassic lake, east-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, P.M. (Bureau of Land Management, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The Redonda Member of the Chinle Formation represents deposition in a large, polymictic lake during the Late Triassic (Norian) in east-central New Mexico. This study documents and defines an extensive lacustrine system situated in western Pangaea which was influenced by both tectonic and climatic events. Areal extent of the lake may have been as much as 5,000 km{sup 2}.

  12. Phosphatic Permian rocks of the Adobe Range, Nevada, and their environment of deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketner, Keith Brindley

    1979-01-01

    Permian sedimentary rocks in the Adobe range, northern Nevada, are phosphatic, and although the particles of phosphate are relatively more disseminated, they closely resemble the rocks of the Phosphoria Formation. In the northern Adobe Range, where the entire Permian sequence is approximately correlative with the Phosphoria Formation, it is 200 m thick and averages 1.7 percent P2O5 . In the southern Adobe Range, the Permian sequence is more than 1,700 m thick, and the upper half which is roughly correlative with the Phosphoria Formation averages more than 2 percent P2O5. Some thin beds in rocks of Permian age contain more than 20 percent P2O5. Phosphatic rocks of the Adobe Range were deposited in shallow water among islands in the western part of the epicontinental Phosphoria sea. The continental margin and the open ocean lay far to the west. At the same time, the Phosphoria Formation was being deposited in the eastern and central parts of the Phosphoria sea. Theories based on the work of Kasakov done in 1937 relating phosphate deposition directly to sites of upwelling oceanic waters are questioned. Nondeposition of diluent materials such as detritus and carbonate is probably of more importance in producing phosphate in economic concentrations than is geographic position with respect to upwelling waters.

  13. Depositional environment of the Fort Member of the Jurasic Jaisalmer Formation (western Rajasthan, India), as revealed from lithofacies and grain-size analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Quasim, M.; Ghaznavi, A.; Khan, Z.; Ahmad, A.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Lithofacies and granulometric analysis were carried out to decipher the depositional environment of the Fort Member of the Jurassic Jaisalmer Formation. Based on field data nine lithofacies have been identified including trough cross-bedded sandstones, planar cross-bedded sandstones, matrix supported conglomerates, thinly bedded siltstone and sandstones, herringbone cross-bedded sandstones, wave rippled sandstones, laminated sandstones, hummocky cross-bedded sandstones, limestones and shales. Granulometric analysis of the sandstones samples has been carried out for their statistical and textural parameters. Bivariant plots of textural parameters such as graphic skewness versus graphic standard deviation and kewness versus standard deviation confirm the high energy (beach) origin of sandstones. These results suggest a wide spectrum of marine environments ranging from inner shelf to upper shoreface for the Fort Member sandstones.

  14. Depositional environment, organic matter characterization and hydrocarbon potential of Middle Miocene sediments from northeastern Bulgaria (Varna-Balchik Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravkov Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The depositional environments and hydrocarbon potential of the siliciclastic, clayey and carbonate sediments from the Middle Miocene succession in the Varna-Balchik Depression, located in the south-eastern parts of the Moesian Platform, were studied using core and outcrop samples. Based on the lithology and resistivity log the succession is subdivided from base to top into five units. Siliciclastic sedimentation prevailed in the lower parts of units I and II, whereas their upper parts are dominated by carbonate rocks. Unit III is represented by laminated clays and biodetritic limestone. Units IV and V are represented by aragonitic sediments and biomicritic limestones, correlated with the Upper Miocene Topola and Karvuna Formations, respectively. Biogenic silica in the form of diatom frustules and sponge spicules correlates subunit IIa and unit III to the lower and upper parts of the Middle Miocene Euxinograd Formation. Both (subunits contain organic carbon contents in the order of 1 to 2 wt. % (median: 0.8 for subunit IIa; 1.3 for unit III, locally up to 4 wt. %. Based on Hydrogen Index values (HI and alkane distribution pattern, the kerogen is mainly type II in subunit IIa (average HI= 324 mg HC/g TOC and type III in unit III (average HI ~200 mg HC/g TOC. TOC and Rock Eval data show that subunit IIa holds a fair (to good hydrocarbon generative potential for oil, whereas the upper 5 m of unit III holds a good (to fair potential with the possibility to generate gas and minor oil. The rocks of both units are immature in the study area. Generally low sulphur contents are probably due to deposition in environments with reduced salinity. Normal marine conditions are suggested for unit III. Biomarker composition is typical for mixed marine and terrestrial organic matter and suggests deposition in dysoxic to anoxic environments.

  15. Depositional environment and source rock potential of Cenomanian and Turonian sedimentary rocks of the Tarfaya Basin, Southwest Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassal, B.I.; Littke, R.; Sachse, V.; Sindern, S.; Schwarzbauer, J.

    2016-07-01

    Detailed organic and inorganic geochemical analyses were used to assess the depositional environment and source rock potential of the Cenomanian and Turonian oil shale deposits in the Tarfaya Basin. This study is based on core samples from the Tarfaya Sondage-4 well that penetrated over 300m of Mid Cretaceous organic matter-rich deposits. A total of 242 samples were analyzed for total organic and inorganic carbon and selected samples for total sulfur and major elements as well as for organic petrology, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Curie-Point-pyrolysis-gaschromatography-Mass-Spectrometry and molecular geochemistry of solvent extracts. Based on major elements the lower Cenomanian differs from the other intervals by higher silicate and lower carbonate contents. Moreover, the molecular geochemistry suggests anoxic bottom marine water conditions during the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary Event (CTBE; Oceanic Anoxic Event 2: OAE2). As a proxy for the Sorg/Corg ratio, the ratio total thiophenes/total benzenes compounds was calculated from pyrolysate compositions. The results suggest that Sorg/ Corg is low in the lower Cenomanian, moderate in the upper Cenomanian, very high in the CTBE (CenomanianTuronian Boundary Event) and high in the Turonian samples. Rock-Eval data reveal that the lower Cenomanian is a moderately organic carbon-rich source rock with good potential to generate oil and gas upon thermal maturation. On the other hand, the samples from the upper Cenomanian to Turonian exhibit higher organic carbon content and can be classified as oil-prone source rocks. Based on Tmax data, all rocks are thermally immature. The microscopic investigations suggest dominance of submicroscopic organic matter in all samples and different contents of bituminite and alginite. The lower Cenomanian samples have little visible organic matter and no bituminite. The upper Cenomanian and CTBE samples are poor in bituminite and have rare visible organic matter, whereas the Turonian samples change

  16. Sediment depositional environment in some bays in Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamanickam, G.V.; Gujar, A.R.

    negatively and Ratnagiri Bay positively skewed. Kalbadevi sediments show high kurtosis values while those of Mirya Bay show medium and Ratnagiri Bay low values. Bivariant plots between various textural parameters predict mixed environments, viz. for Kalbadevi...

  17. Initial studies of Bremsstrahlung energy deposition in small-bore superconducting undulator structures in linac environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    One of the more promising technologies for developing minimal-length insertion devices for linac-driven, single-pass Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the x-ray range is based on the use of superconducting (SC) materials. In recent FEL simulations, for example, a bifilar helical SC device with a 2 cm period and 1.8 T field was found to require a 30 m saturation length for operation at 1.5{Angstrom} on a 15 GeV linac, more than 40% shorter than an alternative hybrid/permanent magnet (hybrid/PM) undulator. AT the same time, however, SC technology is known to present characteristic difficulties for insertion device design, both in engineering detail and in operation. Perhaps the most critical problem, as observed, e.g., by Madey and co-workers in their initial FEL experiments, was the frequent quenching induced by scattered electrons upstream of their (bifilar) device. Postulating that this quenching was precipitated by directly-scattered or bremsstrahlung-induced particle energy deposited into the SC material or into material contiguous with it, the importance of numerical and experimental characterizations of this phenomenon for linac-based, user-facility SC undulator design becomes evident. In this paper we discuss selected prior experimental results and report on initial EGS4 code studies of scattered and bremsstrahlung induced particle energy deposition into SC structures with geometries comparable to a small-bore bifilar helical undulator.

  18. Experimental Studies of Spray Deposition on a Flat Surface in a Vacuum Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golliher, Eric L.; Yao, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Cooling of spacecraft components in the space environment is an on-going research effort. The electronics used in modern spacecraft are always changing and the heat flux is increasing. New, one-of-a-kind missions require new approaches to thermal control. In this research, under vacuum conditions, a pulsed water spray impinged on a small disc, while a high speed data acquisition system recorded the temperature histories of this copper disc. The water droplets froze quickly and accumulated on the disc as the spray continued. After the spray stopped, the frozen water that remained on the disc then sublimated into the vacuum environment and cooled the disc. This paper examines two important aspects of this process: 1) the difference in spray start up and shutdown in a vacuum environment versus in a standard atmospheric pressure environment, and 2) the water utilization efficiency in a vacuum environment due to the effects of drop trajectories and drop bouncing on the surface. Both phenomena play a role during spray cooling in a vacuum. This knowledge should help spacecraft designers plan for spray cooling as an option to cool spacecraft electronics, human metabolic generated heat, and heat from other sources.

  19. Ore-forming environment and ore-forming system of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Fucheng; Zhang Zilong; Li Zhixing; He Zhongbo; Wang Wenquan

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed that there are four types of ore-forming systems about carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit in China based on systematic study on structural environment and distribution regularity of uraniferous construction of marine carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock in China: continental margin rift valley ore-forming systems, continental margin rifting deep fracture zone ore-forming systems, landmass boundary borderland basin ore-forming systems and epicontinental mobile belt downfaulted aulacogen ore-forming systems. It is propounded definitely that it is controlled by margin rift valley ore-forming systems and continental margin rifting deep fracture zone ore-forming systems for large-scale uranium mineralization of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit in China, which is also controlled by uraniferous marine carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock construction made up of silicalite, siliceous phosphorite and carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock, which settled down accompany with submarine backwash and sub marine volcanic eruption in margin rift valley and continental margin rifting mineralizing environment. Continental mar gin rift valley and continental margin rifting thermal sedimentation or exhalation sedimentation is the mechanism of forming large-scale uraniferous marine carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock construction Early Palaeozoic Era in China or large-scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization. (authors)

  20. Stability of radioactive minerals in an oxidizing hydrogeological environment: new results from an alluvial placer deposit, Naegi district, central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, Eiji; Komuro, Kosei; Nakata, Masataka

    2009-01-01

    Study of the stability of radioactive minerals in a placer deposit in the Naegi District, southeastern Gifu Prefecture, Central Japan contributes to understanding the modes of nuclide migration under various hydrogeological environments in the tectonically active Japanese Island Arc system. The placer deposit is embedded in basal conglomerates of the lower-most alluvial sequences, exposed to a near-surface, oxidizing hydrogeological environment. The mineral samples, ranging in mesh size from 120 to 250, were identified after sieving and magnetic separation to be mainly cassiterite, thorite, monazite, and topaz, with subordinate amounts of zircon, fergusonite-(Y), xenotime and wolframite. Observations using optical and scanning microscopy indicated that many grains of zircon have well-preserved crystal faces. Most monazite and fergusonite-(Y) grains are partly abraded and corroded whereas thorite grains are highly abraded and corroded. This indicates that under an oxidizing hydrogeological environment, the mechanical durability and geological stability decrease from zircon to monazite/fergusonite-(Y) to thorite, which correlates well with the Mohs's hardness scale. Cut and polished thorite grains display a high degree of alteration. The altered portions have higher Th, Fe and Y contents, and lower U and Si contents in comparison with the unaltered portions, indicating leaching of U and Si. In the fergusonite-(Y) grains, the altered portions have higher Th, Nb and Ta contents, and lower U and Y contents in comparison with the unaltered portions, indicate leaching of U and Y. Thus it is determined that uranium is strongly leached in an oxidizing hydrogeological environment. The leaching behaviour is dependent on mineralogy and is consistent with thermodynamic estimates. The alteration rate of fergusonite-(Y) was calculated to range from 0.05 to 0.000025 μm/year based on the thickness of the external alteration film and the duration of exposure to the oxidizing

  1. Quantification of Gaseous Elemental Mercury Dry Deposition to Environmental Surfaces using Mercury Stable Isotopes in a Controlled Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, A. P.; Schauer, J. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Olson, M.; Robinson, M.; Vanderveer, P.; Creswell, J. E.; Parman, A.; Mallek, J.; Gorski, P.

    2009-12-01

    Andrew P. Rutter (1) * *, James J, Schauer (1,2) *, Martin M. Shafer(1,2), Michael R. Olson (1), Michael Robinson (1), Peter Vanderveer (3), Joel Creswell (1), Justin L. Mallek (1), Andrew M. Parman (1) (1) Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 660 N. Park St, Madison, WI 53705. (2) Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 2601 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53718. (3) Biotron, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2115 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 * Correspond author(jjschauer@wisc.edu) * *Presenting author (aprutter@wisc.edu) Abstract Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is the predominant component of atmospheric mercury outside of arctic depletion events, and locations where anthropogenic point sources are not influencing atmospheric concentrations. GEM constitutes greater than 99% of the mercury mass in most rural and remote locations. While dry and wet deposition of atmospheric mercury is thought to be dominated by oxidized mercury (a.k.a. reactive mercury), only small GEM uptake to environmental surfaces could impact the input of mercury to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Dry deposition and subsequent re-emission of gaseous elemental mercury is a pathway from the atmosphere that remains only partially understood from a mechanistic perspective. In order to properly model GEM dry deposition and re-emission an understanding of its dependence on irradiance, temperature, and relative humidity must be measured and parameterized for a broad spectrum of environmental surfaces colocated with surrogate deposition surfaces used to make field based dry deposition measurements. Measurements of isotopically enriched GEM dry deposition were made with a variety of environmental surfaces in a controlled environment room at the University of Wisconsin Biotron. The experimental set up allowed dry deposition components which are not easily separated in the field to be decoupled. We were able to isolate surface transfer processes from variabilities caused by

  2. Use of geochemical signatures, including rare earth elements, in mosses and lichens to assess spatial integration and the influence of forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandois, L.; Agnan, Y.; Leblond, S.; Séjalon-Delmas, N.; Le Roux, G.; Probst, A.

    2014-10-01

    In order to assess the influence of local environment and spatial integration of Trace Metals (TM) by biomonitors, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V and Zn and some rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been measured in lichens and mosses collected in three French forest sites located in three distinct mountainous areas, as well as in the local soil and bedrock, and in both bulk deposition (BD) and throughfall (TF). Similar enrichment factors (EF) were calculated using lichens and mosses and local bedrock for most elements, except for Cs, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Cu which were significantly (KW, p leaching (Mn), direct uptake (Ni), or dry deposition dissolution (Pb, Cu, Cs).

  3. Stratigraphy and environments of deposition of the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (reconnaissance) and the Paleocene Ludlow Formation (detailed), southwestern North Dakota. Report of investigations No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Cretaceous Hell Creek and Paleocene Ludlow Formations of southwestern North Dakota, with the exception of the included lignite beds and minor amounts of concretions and nodules, are almost exclusively clastic sediments and sedimentary rocks. Massive clays, clays alternating with silts and sands, sandstones filling channels and other depressions, sheet sandstones, and lignites are the dominant sediment and rock types present. These sediments and sedimentary rocks were mostly deposited in a continental environment and were largely alluvial, lacustrine or paludal in origin; though marginal marine deposition, in part, is indicated by the occurrence of brackish water faunas in portions of the upper Ludlow Formation. With the possible exception of a persistent lignite near the base, persistent lignites are not present in the Hell Creek Formation. The Ludlow can be subdivided into several informal units, typically coal-bounded, which can be traced laterally over large areas. This informal subdivision permits isolation of stratigraphic units for the study of local environments of deposition. Channel and depression fill sandstones of the Ludlow Formation have a relatively low permeability and a high organic content at the surface and, for this reason, are considered poor prospective uranium host rocks. The lighter colored yellow winnowed sheet sandstones of the Ludlow are more permeable and relatively free of organic matter. They are considered as possible host rocks for uranium occurring in association with an oxidation/reduction interface at shallow depths. The uranium potential is enhanced where the latter sandstones occur along paleodivides which have been overlain by the Oligocene White River Formation, or in local areas where the latter formation is still preserved. Light yellow winnowed sheet sandstones are rare in the Hell Creek Formation, and the chances for uranium prospects in this interval seem correspondingly reduced

  4. Poultry litter and the environment: Physiochemical properties of litter and soil during successive flock rotations and after remote site deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Tawni L; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Byrd, J Allen; Esquivel, Jesus F; Beier, Ross C; Yeater, Kathleen

    2016-05-15

    The U.S. broiler meat market has grown over the past 16 years and destinations for U.S. broiler meat exports expanded to over 150 countries. This market opportunity has spurred a corresponding increase in industrialized poultry production, which due to the confined space in which high numbers of animals are housed, risks accumulating nutrients and pollutants. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of pollutants within poultry litter and the underlying soil within a production facility; and to explore the impact of spent litter deposition into the environment. The study follows a production facility for the first 2.5 years of production. It monitors the effects of successive flocks and management practices on 15 physiochemical parameters: Ca, Cu, electrical conductivity, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, moisture, Na, NO3(-)/N, organic matter, P, pH, S, and Zn. Litter samples were collected in-house, after clean-outs and during stockpiling. The soil before house placement, after the clean-outs and following litter stockpiling was monitored. Management practices markedly altered the physiochemical profiles of the litter in-house. A canonical discriminant analysis was used to describe the relationship between the parameters and sampling times. The litter profiles grouped into five clusters corresponding to time and management practices. The soil in-house exhibited mean increases in all physiochemical parameters (2-297 fold) except Fe, Mg, %M, and pH. The spent litter was followed after deposition onto a field for use as fertilizer. After 20 weeks, the soil beneath the litter exhibited increases in EC, Cu, K, Na, NO3(-)/N, %OM, P, S and Zn; while %M decreased. Understanding the impacts of industrialized poultry farms on the environment is vital as the cumulative ecological impact of this land usage could be substantial if not properly managed to reduce the risk of potential pollutant infiltration into the environment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Overview of gamma-ray energy deposition and spectra in fast reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.

    1977-01-01

    Efforts to define gamma-ray heating in Breeder Reactor (BR) environments are reviewed. This critique is restricted to programmatic activities in the United States, as best exemplified by current practice for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). Future needs are also addressed in terms of requirements for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Experimental efforts and theoretical analyses are surveyed for both high and low power environments. Special emphasis is placed on experimental techniques for calorimetry, temperature measurement, dosimetry and spectrometry. The relation between neutron and gamma-ray calculations is stressed with particular attention given to contrasting analytical techniques and basic nuclear data requirements. Wherever possible comparisons between theory and experiment are cited

  6. The performance of electroless nickel deposits in oil-field environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, R.; Bayes, M.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted on an electroless nickel plated (represented by Enplate NI-422) C-90 steel, uncoated C-90 steel, AISI 420, 174 PH, SAF 2205, and HASTELLOY /sup R/ G-3 to determine their corrosion-performance in twelve simulated downhole oil or gas production environments during 28 day exposures. These environments were aqueous brines containing various concentrations of Cl - , H 2 S and/or CO 2 , and over a range of temperatures. The results from this study and oilfield data for electroless nickel plated low alloy steels are presented and discussed. The study demonstrates the feasibility of electroless nickel coated low alloy steels as an economical substitute for some highly alloyed materials in certain oilfield applications; the field data support this

  7. GEOLOGY AND DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF CAMPANO-MAASTRICHTIAN SEDIMENTS IN THE ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA: EVIDENCE FROM FIELD RELATIONSHIP AND SEDIMENTOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E Salufu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study area lies within the Anambra Basin and it is made up of Enugu Shale, Mamu Formation, Ajali Sandstone, and Nsukka Formation. This study aimed at determining the geology and depositional environmental of these formations through field relationship and grain size distribution morphologic studies.The field data shows Enugu Shale as fissile, light grey with extraformational clast which graded into Mamu Formation whichis made up of shale, coal and sandy shale. It passes upward into Ajali Sandstone which is characterized by cross beds, Herringbonestructures and Ophiomorpha burrows. The youngest formation within the basin is Nsukka Formation.The granulometric study of Mamu Formation shows fine to medium grains, coarse, medium to fine grain for Mamu and Ajali Formation respectively. The standard deviation indicates poorly sorted. The kurtosis shows leptokurtic, platykurtic to very leptokurtic for both while the skewness values indicate positive and symmetrical in all except for Ajali Sandstone that is negatively skewed.The bivariate and the multivariate results reveal shallow marine and fluvial deposits for both Mamu Formation and Ajali Sandstone respectively. The paleocurrent direction of Ajali Sandstone indicates southwest while the provenance is northeast.The fissility of Enugu Shale suggests that it was deposited in low energy environment, distal to proximal lagoon environment.The presence of extraformatonal clast within Enugu Shale indicates fluvial incursion. However, the textural analysis of Mamu Formation suggests a sediment deposited in a low energy environment which favoured deposition of fine to medium size sediments that is, estuary environment. Textural result of Ajali Sandstone in the study area coupled with the field data such as Herring-bone structures, and Ophiomorpha burrows, revealed that Ajali Sandstone was deposited in a tidal environment probably littoral environment. While the light grey colour observed in the

  8. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, S.R.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Three overall factors are necessary for formation of uranium deposits in sandstone: a source of uranium, host rocks capable of transmitting uranium-bearing solutions, and a precipitant. Possible sources of uranium in sandstone-type deposits include groundwaters emanating from granitic highlands, arkosic sediments, tuffaceous material within or overlying the host rocks, connate fluids, and overlying black shales. The first three sources are considered the most likely. Host rocks are generally immature sandstones deposited in alluvial-fan, intermontane-basin or marginal-marine environments, but uranium deposits do occur in well-winnowed barrier-bar or eolian sands. Host rocks for uranium deposits generally show coefficients of permeability on the order of 1 to 100 gal/day/ft 2 . Precipitants are normally agents capable of reducing uranium from the uranyl to the uranous state. The association of uranium with organic matter is unequivocal; H 2 S, a powerful reductant, may have been present at the time of formation of some deposits but may go unnoticed today. Vanadium can serve to preserve the tabular characteristics of some deposits in the near-surface environment, but is considered an unlikely primary precipitant for uranium. Uranium deposits in sandstone are divided into two overall types: peneconcordant deposits, which occur in locally reducing environments in otherwise oxidized sandstones; and roll-type deposits, which occur at the margin of an area where an oxidized groundwater has permeated an otherwise reduced sandstone. Uranium deposits are further broken down into four subclasses; these are described

  9. Environment of deposition and stratigraphy of the uranium-bearing strata around Beaufort West, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, A.

    1976-04-01

    Palynological analyses of some 50 samples collected from uranium-bearing strata - as well as the layers immediately above and below them - around Beaufort West, South Africa, indicate that these sediments were laid down in a wide, rather shallow delta in Late Permian times. Most of the sediments are fluvio-deltaic, and most of the plant remains were transported from the north, the hinterland in those times. A considerable percentage of the microfossils, e.g. Veryhachium and hystrichospheres, are clearly from a marine environment. The occurrence of marine microfossils in the spectrum, as compared with those of terrestrial provenance, increases considerably southwards [af

  10. Analysis of Eocene depositional environments - Preliminary TM and TIMS results, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Redline, Andrew D.; Lang, Harold R.

    1987-01-01

    Both Landsat TM and aircraft Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data have been used to map the lithofacies of the Wind River Basin's Eocene physical and biological environments. Preliminary analyses of these data have furnished maps of a fault contact boundary and a complex network of fluvial ribbon channel sandstones. The synoptic view thereby emerging for Eocene fluvial facies clarifies the relationships of ribbon channel sandstones to fossil-bearing overbank/floodplain facies and certain peleosols. The utility of TM and TIMS data is thereby demonstrated.

  11. Current and historic mercury deposition to New Haven Harbor (CT, USA): Implications for industrial coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Heather F.; Benoit, Gaboury

    2009-01-01

    This study quantifies historic and current mercury contamination in New Haven Harbor (New Haven, Connecticut, USA) through the analysis of sediment cores. The mercury concentration measured in surface sediment ranged from 320 to 1640 μg kg -1 with an average of 530 μg kg -1 . The harbor is relatively small in area (6.6 km 2 ) but displays a large range in concentrations, illustrating the important methodological issue that a large number of samples may be necessary to capture the variability in even a small area. Depth profiles of mercury reflect sedimentation over a range of 20 to 200 years and indicate a complex history of contamination. Mercury depth profiles were compared with lead, copper, cadmium, and silver concentrations and the metals generally covary. This trend indicates that the sources of mercury and heavy metals are linked and that regionally specific sources dominate the historic input of metals rather than large-scale atmospheric deposition patterns. Results also show there are large differences in absolute concentrations of metals among sites in the harbor. Differences in the abundance of Fe-rich, fine-grained sediment likely control the level of metals in various parts of the harbor. Proximity to current sources and the long, diverse industrial history of the harbor also influence the distribution pattern. All of the cores can be modeled as mixing between pre-industrial sediments and either one or two pollution endmembers. This study demonstrates the importance of riverine sources in the mass balance of mercury delivered to coastal areas and of watershed management to preserve coastal ecosystems.

  12. A nomogram for interpreting slope stability of fine-grained deposits in modern and ancient-marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J.S.; Sangrey, D.A.; Fugate, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    This nomogram was designed to aid in interpreting the causes of mass movement in modern and ancient settings, to provide a basis for evaluating and predicting slope stability under given conditions and to further the understanding of the relationships among the several key factors that control slope stability. Design of the nomogram is based on effective stress and combines consolidation theory as applicable to depositional environments with the infinite-slope model of slope-stability analysis. If infinite-slope conditions are assumed to exist, the effective overburden stress can be used to derive a factor of safety against static slope failure by using the angle of internal friction and the slope angle. -from Authors

  13. Paleocene calcareous nannofossils biostratigraphy from the Sergipe Sub-basin, northeastern Brazil: Implications for this depositional environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Oliveira, Geize Carolinne Correia; de Oliveira, Rick Souza; Monte Guerra, Rodrigo; de Lima Filho, Mario Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    This study reports on the biostratigraphy of Paleocene calcareous nannofossils and paleoenvironmental inferences based on five wells drilled on the offshore portion of the Sergipe Sub-basin. Five biostratigraphic zones were defined for the Paleocene in zones of Brazilian continental margin basins N-305, N-307, N-330, N-340 and N-350, and four hiatuses were identified based on the absence of marker species. These hiatuses were interpreted as excavations originated by turbulent to hyperpycnal flows, revealing an important application of biostratigraphy to better understand depositional environments that are often limited by little variation in lithology or low variation in the well log patterns. In Paleoecological terms, the Sergipe Sub-basin, in the Paleocene, experienced geological and environmental events similar to those of other sedimentary basins on the eastern passive continental margin of Brazil, but has a more complete biostratigraphic record of calcareous nannofossils.

  14. SEDIMENTATION AND DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT BASED ON SEISMIC AND DRILLING CORE ANALYSES IN CIMANUK DELTA INDRAMAYU, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Astawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Core drilling had been carried out in three locations such as in Brondong Village (BH-01, Pasekan Village (BH-02, and Karangsong Village (BH-03. Those three cores are similar in lithology consist of clay. They are correlated based on fragment content, such as fine sand lenses, mollusk shells, rock and carbonate materials which discovered from different depths. Single side band of shallow seismic reflection recorded paleochannels in E sequence at the north and the west of investigated area. It’s predicted the north paleo channels were part of Lawas River or Tegar River, while the west paleo channels were part of Rambatan Lama River. Microfauna content of all those three cores indicated that from the depth of 0.00 meter down to 25,00 meters are Holocene/Recent, from 25,00 meters to the bottom are Pleistocene which were deposited in the bay to middle neritic environment.

  15. Natural abundance N stable isotopes in plants and soils as an indicator of N deposition hotspots in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammell, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    The natural abundance of stable isotopes in plants and soils has been utilized to understand ecological phenomenon. Foliar δ15N is an integrator of soil δ15N, atmospheric N sources, and fractionation processes that occur during plant N uptake, plant N assimilation, and mycorrhizal associations. The amount of reactive N in the environment has greatly increased due to human activities, and urban ecosystems experience excess N deposition that can have cascading effects on plants and soils. Foliar δ15N has been shown to increase with increasing N deposition and nitrification rates suggesting increased foliar δ15N occurs with greater N inputs as a result of accelerated soil N cycling. Thus, foliar δ15N can be an indication of soil N availability for plant uptake and soil N cycling rates, since high N availability results in increased soil N cycling and subsequent loss of 14N. Limited research has utilized foliar and soil δ15N in urban forests to assess the importance of plant uptake of atmospheric N deposition and to gain insight about ecosystem processes. Previous investigations found foliar δ15N of mature trees in urban forests is not only related to elevated pollutant-derived N deposition, but also to soil N availability and soil N cycling rates. Similarly, enriched foliar δ15N of urban saplings was attributed to soil characteristics that indicated higher nitrification, thus, greater nitrate leaching and low N retention in the urban soils. These studies demonstrate the need for measuring the δ15N of various plant and soil N sources while simultaneously measuring soil N processes (e.g., net nitrification rates) in order to use natural abundance δ15N of plants and soils to assess N sources and cycling in urban forests. A conceptual framework that illustrates biogenic and anthropogenic controls on nitrogen isotope composition in urban plants and soils will be presented along with foliar and soil δ15N from urban forests across several cities as a proof of

  16. Depositional environments, provenance and paleoclimatic implications of Ordovician siliciclastic rocks of the Thango Formation, Spiti Valley, Tethys Himalaya, northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Shaik A.; Ganai, Javid A.

    2018-05-01

    Recently published findings indicate that the Ordovician period has been much more dynamic than previously anticipated thus making this period significant in geological time. The Ordovician of India can best be studied in the Spiti region because the Spiti basin records the complete uninterrupted history of excellent marine sedimentary rocks starting from Cambrian to Paleogene which were deposited along the northern margin of India. Due to these reasons the geochemical data on the Ordovician rocks from the Spiti region is uncommon. The present geochemical study on the Ordovician Thango Formation (Sanugba Group) is mainly aimed to understand the provenance and the paleoclimatic conditions. The sandstones are the dominant lithology of the Thango Formation with intercalations of minor amount of shales. Detailed petrographic and sedimentological analysis of these rocks suggest that three major depositional environments, viz., fluvial, transitional and marine prevailed in the basin representing transgressive and regressive phases. The major and trace element ratios such as SiO2/Al2O3, K2O/Na2O and La-Th- Sc discrimination diagram suggest that these rocks were deposited in passive margin tectonic settings. Various geochemical discriminants and elemental ratios such as K2O/Na2O, Al2O3/TiO2, La/Sc, Th/Sc, Cr/Th, Zr/Sc, (Gd/Yb)N and pronounced negative Eu anomalies indicate the rocks to be the product of weathering of post-Archean granites. The striking similarities of the multi-elemental spider diagrams of the studied sediments and the Himalayan granitoids indicate that sediments are sourced from the Proterozoic orogenic belts of the Himalayan region. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) values of the studied sediments (55-72) suggest that the source rocks underwent low to moderate degree of chemical weathering. The span of the CIA values (55-72) recorded in the sediments from the Spiti region may have resulted from varying degrees of weathering conditions in the source area

  17. Late Holocene swampy forest of Loango Bay (Congo). Sedimentary environments and organic matter deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malounguila-Nganga, Dieudonné; Giresse, Pierre; Boussafir, Mohammed; Miyouna, Timothée

    2017-10-01

    This region, comprised between the Kouilou estuary and Pointe-Noire, is characterised by a very specific morphological setting. On the continental side, the coastal sector is dominated by cliffs of sand over 100 m high, referred to as the Série des Cirques, whereas, on the ocean side, very active erosion is presently taking place which has resulted in a retreat of the shoreline of more than 100 m over the last hundred years. New 14C datings and different analyses of organic matter and clay minerals (X-Ray data) were performed in order to reconstruct the geological and ecological evolution of the area during the Late Holocene and replace it in the palaeoclimatic scheme deduced from previous regional studies. From 7 to 6000 yr cal BP, the accumulation of important beach barriers by the oceanic drift allowed the definition of a narrow swamp depression several tens of kilometres long. A dense ombrophile and hydromorphic forest, in spite of being very close to the oceanic coast, remained sheltered from any brackish influence and fed accumulations of peat and organic muds. The emersive trend of 3000-2000 yr BP, i.e. the passage from a vast forest swamp with a water body several metres deep to a wet zone with some emersions, is expressed by a large colluvial accumulation. High primary production is not clearly attested in this wet area. High HI values would indicate rather long-lasting conservation in a swampy environment, the lowest values indicating alternating episodes of emersion and immersion. In such peatlands, OM preservation is favoured by an anoxic environment and rapid burial. The δ 13C values of older peats dated ca. 7000 yr cal BP are -28 to -26‰, typical of a C3 origin. Thus, the ca. -16‰ value indicates the greatest opening of the cover, suggesting a forest-savanna mosaic ca. 2500 yr cal BP. At Kivesso, several proxies suggest a wetter trend towards 500 yr cal BP. An ultimate drier trend is observed during the last two centuries, which has been

  18. Mobilisation and Bioavailability of Arsenic Around Mesothermal Gold Deposits in a Semiarid Environment, Otago, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Craw

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenopyrite (FeAsS is the principal arsenic (As mineral in mineralised mesothermal veins (typically 5,000 mg/kg As in southeastern New Zealand. Groundwater in contact with arsenopyrite-bearing rocks has elevated As concentrations (up to 0.1 mg/l. The arsenopyrite decomposes slowly on oxidation in soils and historic mine workings in a cool semiarid climate. Dissolved As is predominantly As(III in association with arsenopyrite, but this is rapidly oxidised over days to weeks to As(V in the vadose zone. Oxidation is facilitated by particulate Fe and/or Mn oxyhydroxides, and by bacteria in surface waters. Evaporative concentration of dissolved As(V in the vadose zone causes precipitation of scorodite (Fe(IIIAs(VO4.2H2O. Adsorption of As(V to Fe oxyhydroxides in soils and groundwater pathways lowers dissolved As concentrations. Soils over mineralised veins typically have <200 mg/kg As, as most As is removed in solution on geological time scales. Most plants on the mineralised rocks and soils do not take up As, although some inedible species can fix up to 18 mg/kg As. Hence, bioavailability of As(V is low in this environment, despite the substantial As flux.

  19. Fluvial sedimentary styles and associated depositional environments in the buntsandstein west of river rhine in saar area and pfalz (F.R. Germany) and vosges (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachroth, Wolfgang

    The Buntsandstein west of river Rhine in Saar area, Pfalz and Vosges consists of three fluvial magnacycles which are characterized by different associated non-alluvial environments. The stratigraphic sequence is divided by several unconformities reflecting tectonic movements which were connected with periods of extension of the depositional area. Two major phases and two minor events are recognized by the evaluation of the Pfalz unconformity and the Lothringen unconformity, and the Leuter unconformity and the Saar unconformity, respectively. The Lower Buntsandstein (including Zechstein) compries the first magnacycle and is built up of alluvial-fan deposits, fluvial braidplain sediments and marine to lagoonal deposits. Some aeolian sands as well as several palaeosols are also present. The palaeolandscape consists of alluvial fans seaming the margin of the basin and fluvial braidplains reaching from the toes of the fan belt to the centre of the depositional area which is occupied by a lagoonal sea that partially evolves into a playa-lake with progressive refreshment. The Middle Buntsandstein comprises the second magnacycle and is composed of an alternation of aeolian Dünnschichten and fluvial Felsbänke. The third facies are alluvial-fan deposits of palaeogeographically restricted distribution along the margins of the basin. The aeolian Dünnschichten originate in the marginal parts of chott-type depressions (in comparison with the recent Chott Djerid in Tunesia) where rising ground water moistens the dry sediments that are laid down on the playa floor and thus allows their enhanced preservation. In dry periods, wind-blown sand is spread out as plane sheets or as migrating wind ripple trains, or accumulates to barchanoid-type dunes that advance across the flat. Depending on supply of sand, all stages of transition between dune fields with only narrow interdune corridors between the ridges and interdune playas with isolated widely-spaced dunes are developed. The

  20. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide loaded sodium alginate micro-particles prepared via electrospraying in controlled deposition environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhi-Cheng; Jin, Li-Jie; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Huang, Jie; Chang, Ming-Wei; Li, Jing-Song

    2017-05-30

    Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP) is a functional food source deployed in preventative medicine. However, applications utilizing GLP are limited due to oxidative and acidic environmental damage. Advances in preserving GLP structure (and therefore function), in situ, will diversify their applications within biomedical fields (drug and antibacterial active delivery via the enteral route). In this study, GLP loaded sodium alginate (NaAlg) micro-particles (size range 225-355μm) were generated using the electrospray (ES) process. The loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of GLP for composite particles (collected at different temperatures) were ∼23% and 71%, respectively. The collection substrate (CaCl 2 , 1-20w/v%) concentration was explored and preliminary findings indicated a 10w/v% solution to be optimal. The process was further modified by manipulating the collection environment temperature (∼25 to 50°C). Based on this, NaAlg/GLP micro-particles were engineered with variable surface morphologies (porous and crinkled), without effecting the chemical composition of either material (GLP and NaAlg). In-vitro release studies demonstrated pH responsive release rates. Modest release of GLP from micro-particles in simulated gastric fluid (pH ∼1.7) was observed, while rapid release was exhibited under simulated intestinal conditions (pH ∼7.4). Release of GLP from NaAlg beads was the greatest from samples prepared at elevated environmental temperatures. These findings demonstrate a facile route to fabricate GLP-NaAlg loaded micro-particles with various shapes, surface topographies and release characteristics via a one-step ES process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Facies and depositional environments for the coquinas of the Morro do Chaves Formation, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, defined by taphonomic and compositional criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Tavares

    Full Text Available Lacustrine carbonate rocks form important hydrocarbon accumulations along the Brazilian continental margin, some of which are contained in oil fields in which coquinas are one of the main reservoirs (viz. Campos Basin. The complexity and heterogeneity of these deposits make them a challenge in terms of reservoir description. For the necessary classification and paleoenvironmental interpretation of the coquinas, it is essential to evaluate many aspects including biological (such as carbonate productivity, sedimentological (energy regime in the depositional environment, transport of bioclasts, terrigenous supply, taphonomic (fragmentation of shells, abrasion and diagenetic processes. The facies analysis applied in this study is considered a more appropriate classification approach to understand these coquinas, since it is more flexible and comprehensive than the existing classifications for carbonate rocks. The material investigated here consists of rock samples of the coquinas from the Atol Quarry of the Morro do Chaves Formation (Barremian/Aptian, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin. These rocks that crop out in the Atol quarry complex can be considered as a case study for similar coquinas reservoirs found in the Brazilian continental margin basins. Six sedimentary facies were described, using the main taphonomic (fragmentation of shells and compositional (presence of micrite and siliciclastic matrix features as a diagnostic criteria. Two carbonate facies, two mixed carbonate-siliciclastic facies and two siliciclastic facies (mudstones were identified. From the facies succession, combined with a review of the literature on the subject, the following depositional paleoenvironments were defined: high-energy lake platform, lacustrine delta in a high-energy lake platform and lake-centre. In this paper, a new facies model for the studied coquinas succession is proposed.

  2. The environment protection at the 21. century: radiological protection of the biosphere including man. Declaration of International union of radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Polikarpov, G.; Oughton, D.H.; Hunter, G.; Alexakhin, R.; Zhu, Y.G.; Hilton, J.; Strand, P.

    2003-01-01

    The International union of radioecology has been created in 1970 as an international scientific organisation to develop, inform and advise on every aspect in relation with radioactivity in environment. It advises to fill the gaps of knowledge in order to develop strong scientific bases on which found the environmental protection. Seven points of knowledge are to improve: the understanding of transfer, bio accumulating and metabolism of radionuclides in ecosystems (specially the non human food chains), understanding of low dose radiation effects on fauna, flora in chronic exposure on several generations, identification of criteria and targets of effects to allow comparisons in term of impact, effects coming from several pollutions, radioactive or non radioactive ones, extrapolation between the biological organisation levels, analysis of simultaneous effects for man and other living organisms, harmonization of a radiation protection system and a protection system against chemical toxicity, development of quantities and units allowing to qualify the noxious effects of radiations and chemical pollutants on living beings. (N.C.)

  3. Lithofacies Associations and Depositional Environments of the Neogene Molasse succession, Pishin Belt, northwestern Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal K.; Kassi, Akhtar M.; Friis, Henrik

    The Pishin Belt is a NE-SW trending mixed flysch and molasse basin, situated at the northwestern part of Pakistan, bordered by Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate in the west and Indian Plate in the east. Western boundary of the belt is marked by the well-known Chaman Transform Fault, whereas...... molasse successions of the Pishin Belt include the Dasht Murgha group, Malthanai formation and Bostan Formation; these are mostly composed of sandstone, claystone and conglomerate lithologies. Sandstones have been classified as lithic arenites and their QFL values suggest quartzolithic composition. Twelve...... southwestern extension of the Neo-Tethys) in the Early Miocene. Uplifted orogens of the Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite and marine successions of the Nisai and Khojak formations served as the major source terrains for the Miocene through Holocene molasse succession in the south and southeast verging successive...

  4. Boring of full scale deposition holes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Operational experiences including boring performance and a work time analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Aasa [SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Thirteen experimental deposition holes similar to those in the present KBS-3 design have been bored at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective with the boring program was to test and demonstrate the current technique for boring of large vertical holes in granitic rock. Conclusions and results from this project is used in the planning process for the deposition holes that will be bored in the real repository for spent nuclear fuel. The boreholes are also important for three major projects. The Prototype Repository, the Canister Retrieval Test and the Demonstration project will all need full-scale deposition holes for their commissioning. The holes are bored in full scale and have a radius of 1.75 m and a depth of 8.5 m. To bore the holes an existing TBM design was modified to produce a novel type Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) suitable for boring 1.75 m diameter holes from a relatively small tunnel. The cutter head was equipped with two types of roller cutters: two row carbide button cutters and disc cutters. Removal of the cuttings was made with a vacuum suction system. The boring was monitored and boring parameters recorded by a computerised system for the evaluation of the boring performance. During boring of four of the holes temperature, stress and strain measurements were performed. Acoustic emission measurements were also performed during boring of these four holes. The results of these activities will not be discussed in this report since they are reported separately. Criteria regarding nominal borehole diameter, deviation of start and end centre point, surface roughness and performance of the machine were set up according to the KBS-3 design and were fulfilled with a fair margin. The average total time for boring one deposition hole during this project was 105 hours.

  5. Boring of full scale deposition holes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Operational experiences including boring performance and a work time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Christer; Johansson, Aasa

    2002-12-01

    Thirteen experimental deposition holes similar to those in the present KBS-3 design have been bored at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective with the boring program was to test and demonstrate the current technique for boring of large vertical holes in granitic rock. Conclusions and results from this project is used in the planning process for the deposition holes that will be bored in the real repository for spent nuclear fuel. The boreholes are also important for three major projects. The Prototype Repository, the Canister Retrieval Test and the Demonstration project will all need full-scale deposition holes for their commissioning. The holes are bored in full scale and have a radius of 1.75 m and a depth of 8.5 m. To bore the holes an existing TBM design was modified to produce a novel type Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) suitable for boring 1.75 m diameter holes from a relatively small tunnel. The cutter head was equipped with two types of roller cutters: two row carbide button cutters and disc cutters. Removal of the cuttings was made with a vacuum suction system. The boring was monitored and boring parameters recorded by a computerised system for the evaluation of the boring performance. During boring of four of the holes temperature, stress and strain measurements were performed. Acoustic emission measurements were also performed during boring of these four holes. The results of these activities will not be discussed in this report since they are reported separately. Criteria regarding nominal borehole diameter, deviation of start and end centre point, surface roughness and performance of the machine were set up according to the KBS-3 design and were fulfilled with a fair margin. The average total time for boring one deposition hole during this project was 105 hours

  6. Impact of Sulphur Content on Coal Quality at Delta Plain Depositional Environment: Case study in Geramat District, Lahat Regency, South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Linda Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in Geramat District of Lahat Regency, South Sumatra. An evaluation of the geological condition of the research area shown that the coal deposits were found in Muara Enim Formation as a coal-bearing formation. The method used was literature study, field observation and the laboratory work includes proximate and petrography analysis. The aim of this research is to determine the environmental condition of coal based on the change of total sulphur content and to know the relation between ash content to calorific value.  As the result of proximate analysis conducted on five samples of coal, the research area obtained total sulphur (0,21-1,54% adb, ash content (3,16 - 71,11% adb and gross calorific value (953 - 5676 cal/g. adb. Based on the result of maceral analysis showed the maceral percentage of coal in research area composed by vitrinite (77,8-87,4 %, liptinite (0,6 %, inertinite (8,0 – 17,6 % and mineral matter concentration in the form of pyrite (1,6-4,6 %. The average reflectance value of vitrinite (Rv of coal in the research area (0.54%. the results analysis shows that the coal in Muara Enim Formation on the research area is in the transitional lower delta plain depositional environment phase. Any changes in the sedimentary environment affected by sea water will be followed by changes in total sulphur and the higher ash content, on the contrary, the lower calorific value of the coal.

  7. Favourable environments for the deposition of uranium in the Subandean Belt and the Amazon Plain of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canepa, L.; Rosado, F.

    1981-01-01

    The area described is located between the east flank of the eastern Cordillera on the territorial limits with Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil and Bolivia. It covers the morphological areas called sub-Andean zone and Amazon plain. The physiographic characteristics change from west to east. In the eastern Cordillera the morphology is rough, with altitudes of 5000 m. Descending to sub-Andean, it presents a moderate topography with low hills between 1000 and 2500 m. Further east the Amazon plain forms an extensive peneplain with altitudes of 400 m. The stratigraphy of the area includes rocks with ages from the Precambrian (eastern Cordillera) to recent. Outcrops of the Palaeozoic formations are found to the east of the eastern Cordillera. Rocks that belong to the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are extensively distributed in the area, as deposits of continental or deltaic facies. The geological evolution of the area is favourable for the formation of stratiform deposits of uranium. The intensity of the orogenic deformation decreases progressively from west to east. The tendency to low dips favours the conditions of migration and precipitation of uranium. The majority of the geological formations of continental and deltaic origin, as well as igneous bodies of upper Palaeozoic and Tertiary age, have been selected as rocks of good geological uranium favourability, taking into consideration criteria found in other parts of the world. These have been modified to suit local conditions. This area presents similar geological conditions to the eastern side of the Andean Cordillera in Argentina where a number of uranium deposits have been located. (author)

  8. Investigations on the genesis of syngenetic gold-uranium deposits in conglomerates of the Precambrian Pongola Supergroup and Moodies Group including a contribution on the genesis of the epigenetic gold deposits of Klipwal, Kaapvaal Kraton, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupp, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    The terrain diagnostics and the results of mineralogical and geochemical investigations are presented and discussed. The gold and uranium deposits in the Pongola rocks are described extensively. The orogeneses are characterized and their enrichment processes interpreted. The obtained results imply application possibilities for the exploration of gold-uranium placers and hydrothermal gold orogenesis. (DG) [de

  9. Dissolved oxygen sensing using organometallic dyes deposited within a microfluidic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. L.; Ho, H. P.; Jin, L.; Chu, B. W.-K.; Li, M. J.; Yam, V. W.-W.

    2008-02-01

    This work primarily aims to integrate dissolved oxygen sensing capability with a microfluidic platform containing arrays of micro bio-reactors or bio-activity indicators. The measurement of oxygen concentration is of significance for a variety of bio-related applications such as cell culture and gene expression. Optical oxygen sensors based on luminescence quenching are gaining much interest in light of their low power consumption, quick response and high analyte sensitivity in comparison to similar oxygen sensing devices. In our microfluidic oxygen sensor device, a thin layer of oxygen-sensitive luminescent organometallic dye is covalently bonded to a glass slide. Micro flow channels are formed on the glass slide using patterned PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane). Dissolved oxygen sensing is then performed by directing an optical excitation probe beam to the area of interest within the microfluidic channel. The covalent bonding approach for sensor layer formation offers many distinct advantages over the physical entrapment method including minimizing dye leaching, ensuring good stability and fabrication simplicity. Experimental results confirm the feasibility of the device.

  10. Depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy of the middle Jurassic deposits: case study of Navia section in the west Bojnurd, west of Kopet-Dagh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Sarbaz

    2016-12-01

    Kashafrud Formation in this section is composed of two depositional sequence (DS1 and DS2. The lower boundary of the first sequence (DS1, based on angular unconformity (above Triassic limestone of Elika Formation and fluvial conglomerate deposits, is type I (SB1. The upper boundary of DS1 is SB2 and is located in proximal delta front deposits with no subaerial exposure evidences. The thickness of the first sequence is about 400 m and consists of LST, TST and HST. The LST is composed of continental sediments (137 m that is covered by transgressive surface. This surface reveals by massive shale (50 m of distal delta fronts and maximum flooding surface is located in the upper part of these deposits. HST (215 m is composed of 12 shallowing and coarsening parasequences. DS2 with thickness of about 349 m is separated from DS1with sequence boundary type 2. This depositional sequence is only composed of TST with Fm and Fl lithofacies that transitionally changes to deeper water black shale that follows by marl and fine grain carbonate sediments of the Chaman-Bid Formation. Therefore, the maximum flooding surface is probably located within the Chaman-Bid Formation. Interpreted sea level fluctuation curve of the study area can be related to regional geological history and sometimes can be relatively correlated with global sea level curve (Haq et al, 1987

  11. Efficient Time-Domain Ray-Tracing Technique for the Analysis of Ultra-Wideband Indoor Environments including Lossy Materials and Multiple Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saez de Adana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient application of the Time-Domain Uniform Theory of Diffraction (TD-UTD for the analysis of Ultra-Wideband (UWB mobile communications for indoor environments. The classical TD-UTD formulation is modified to include the contribution of lossy materials and multiple-ray interactions with the environment. The electromagnetic analysis is combined with a ray-tracing acceleration technique to treat realistic and complex environments. The validity of this method is tested with measurements performed inside the Polytechnic building of the University of Alcala and shows good performance of the model for the analysis of UWB propagation.

  12. Investigation of Facies Types and Associations of Kuhlan Red Bed Formation in NW Yemen: A New Hypothesis for Origin and Depositional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Wosabi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of thirteen facies types were recognized in the Kuhlan Formation represented by red bed siliciclastic sequences of argillaceous sediments. Examination of the Kuhlan stratigraphic column included sequence relationships, lithology, sedimentary characters, structures and petrography of the dominant rock types. These facies types are grouped in three distinct associations of facies. The lower unit A comprises association of facies (Distal turbidites represented by alternates of turbidity sequences including sandstone, siltstone and thick shale beds. These facies types confirm a regressive depositional environment in deep marine shelf conditions. There are three facies types which are identified as massive sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone and pebbly sandstone facies. The middle unit B association of facies (Proximal turbedites represents glaciomarine sequences displaying high lateral and vertical facies changes of glacioturbidite sediment alternates with diamictites and tillite beds. The sequences are affected by eustatic and eustatism of the glacial advance and retreat. This unit B includes eight types of facies. These are identified as; tillite, massive diamictites, stratified diamictites, laminated siltstone/shale, deformed siltstone/mudstone, graded rhythmic siltstone, massive conglomerate and cross-stratified sandy conglomerate facies. The upper unit C association of facies is represented by shallow marine shelf sequences displaying very thick massive and locally cross-bedded sand bar sandstone overlying the laminated siltstone/shale interbeds. The upward gradual changes in mineralogical composition and color confirms the start of marine transgression and later deposited platform Amran Group. Mineralogical composition of Kuhlan sandstone displays impure dirty rocks consisting of more than 30% of argillaceous matrix, 50% of cristobalite and quartz grains, more than 10% of ferruginous cement and 10% of detrital iron oxide grains, potash

  13. Hydrologic environment of the Silurian salt deposits in parts of Michigan, Ohio, and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Stanley E.

    1978-01-01

    suitable for additional investigation of salt beds for purposes radioactive waste disposal. One of the Michigan areas is in the northern part of the southern peninsula, in Presque Isle and Alpena Counties; the other is in the southern part of the southern peninsula, in Oakland, Macomb, and St. Clair Counties (fig. 3). In northeast Ohio the area that appears to be suitable for investigation includes most of the eastern half of Lake County and extends eastward into Ashtabula County and southward into Geauga County. In western New York conditions may warrant additional investigation in Schuyler, Tompkins, and western Cortland Counties.

  14. Application of individual foraminifera Mg/Ca and δ18O analyses for paleoceanographic reconstructions in the Bay of Bengal and other active depositional environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz-Endres, T.; Dekens, P.; Fehrenbacher, J. S.; Spero, H. J.; Stine, A.

    2017-12-01

    Paleoceanographic research traditionally focuses on regions where sediment deposition is minimally affected by transport. However, sediment fans near tectonically active regions provide an opportunity to link oceanographic climate to terrestrial processes. Sediment cores recovered during IODP Expedition 354 in the Bay of Bengal include hemipelagic sections that record the history of tectonic uplift and the development of the Indian Monsoon through the last 10 Ma. Although these cores provide a unique opportunity to link marine and terrestrial climate, the complex depositional environment requires that the source of foraminifera is carefully considered before using these proxies to reconstruct oceanographic conditions. Foraminifera in Bengal Fan sediments may have been transported via turbidity currents from the northern Bay of Bengal, where the seasonal variability of SST and SSS is larger compared to the southern Bay of Bengal. We measured single Globigerinoides sacculifer Mg/Ca and δ18O from mudline samples of IODP Site U1454 (8.4°N, 85.5°E, 3721 m water depth) near the modern active channel and Site U1449 (8.4°N, 88.7°E, 3653 m water depth) far from channel activity. We compare these sites to single G. sacculifer from the core-top sample of Site 342KL (20.6°N, 90.1°E, 1256 m water depth) located on the continental shelf. Each foraminifera lives 2-4 weeks and the distribution of 60 to 80 data points reflects the seasonal range of SST and SSS at the location where the foraminifera calcified. Measurements in foraminifera from Site U1449 (away from active channel) are statistically different from the site in the northern Bay of Bengal and more consistent with local conditions. Conversely, foraminifera from the site near the active channel reflect a combined signal of local conditions recorded from the site far from channel activity and those recorded from the continental shelf. This suggests a portion of foraminifera from the active channel site have been

  15. Subglacial hydrothermal alteration minerals in Jökulhlaup deposits of Southern Iceland, with implications for detecting past or present habitable environments on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Nicholas H; Farmer, Jack D

    2010-06-01

    Jökulhlaups are terrestrial catastrophic outfloods, often triggered by subglacial volcanic eruptions. Similar volcano-ice interactions were likely important on Mars where magma/lava may have interacted with the planet's cryosphere to produce catastrophic floods. As a potential analogue to sediments deposited during martian floods, the Holocene sandurs of Iceland are dominated by basaltic clasts derived from the subglacial environment and deposited during jökulhlaups. Palagonite tuffs and breccias, present within the deposits, represent the primary alteration lithology. The surface abundance of palagonite on the sandurs is 1-20%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of palagonite breccias confirms a mineral assemblage of zeolites, smectites, low-quartz, and kaolinite. Oriented powder X-ray diffractograms (habitable environments for microbial life may be found.

  16. A remote coal deposit revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen-Kofoed, Jørgen A.; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Petersen, Henrik I.

    2012-01-01

    discovery. The outcrops found in 2009 amount to approximately 8 m of sediment including a coal seam of 2 m thickness. More outcrops and additional coal deposits most certainly are to be found, pending further fieldwork. The deposits are Middle Jurassic, Callovian, in age and were deposited in a floodplain...... environment related to meandering river channels. Spores and pollen in the lower fluvial deposits reflect abundant vegetation of ferns along the river banks. In contrast, a sparse spore and pollen flora in the coals show a mixed vegetation of ferns and gymnosperms. Based on proximate and petrographic analyses...

  17. Aerosol Emissions from Fuse-Deposition Modeling 3D Printers in a Chamber and in Real Indoor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Marina E; Pegues, Valerie; Van Montfrans, Schuyler; Leng, Weinan; Marr, Linsey C

    2017-09-05

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers are known to emit aerosols, but questions remain about their composition and the fundamental processes driving emissions. The objective of this work was to characterize the aerosol emissions from the operation of a fuse-deposition modeling 3D printer. We modeled the time- and size-resolved emissions of submicrometer aerosols from the printer in a chamber study, gained insight into the chemical composition of emitted aerosols using Raman spectroscopy, and measured the potential for exposure to the aerosols generated by 3D printers under real-use conditions in a variety of indoor environments. The average aerosol emission rates ranged from ∼10 8 to ∼10 11 particles min -1 , and the rates varied over the course of a print job. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) filaments generated the largest number of aerosols, and wood-infused polylactic acid (PLA) filaments generated the smallest amount. The emission factors ranged from 6 × 10 8 to 6 × 10 11 per gram of printed part, depending on the type of filament used. For ABS, the Raman spectra of the filament and the printed part were indistinguishable, while the aerosol spectra lacked important peaks corresponding to styrene and acrylonitrile, which are both present in ABS. This observation suggests that aerosols are not a result of volatilization and subsequent nucleation of ABS or direct release of ABS aerosols.

  18. Parametric optimization in virtual prototyping environment of the control device for a robotic system used in thin layers deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enescu (Balaş, M. L.; Alexandru, C.

    2016-08-01

    The paper deals with the optimal design of the control system for a 6-DOF robot used in thin layers deposition. The optimization is based on parametric technique, by modelling the design objective as a numerical function, and then establishing the optimal values of the design variables so that to minimize the objective function. The robotic system is a mechatronic product, which integrates the mechanical device and the controlled operating device.The mechanical device of the robot was designed in the CAD (Computer Aided Design) software CATIA, the 3D-model being then transferred to the MBS (Multi-Body Systems) environment ADAMS/View. The control system was developed in the concurrent engineering concept, through the integration with the MBS mechanical model, by using the DFC (Design for Control) software solution EASY5. The necessary angular motions in the six joints of the robot, in order to obtain the imposed trajectory of the end-effector, have been established by performing the inverse kinematic analysis. The positioning error in each joint of the robot is used as design objective, the optimization goal being to minimize the root mean square during simulation, which is a measure of the magnitude of the positioning error varying quantity.

  19. Corrosion of aluminium in copper-aluminium couples under a marine environment: Influence of polyaniline deposited onto copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, Rosa; Verdugo, Patricia; Orellana, Marco; Munoz, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The presence of Polyaniline in the Al-Cu system produces a decrease in the oxygen reduction reaction. → In the marine enviroment, aluminium in Al-Cu couples, suffers pitting and exfoliation. → The aluminium deterioration increases with chloride and enviromental sulphur dioxide presence, mainly when it is united to bare copper. - Abstract: In this study, we examined how aluminium corrosion in Al-Cu/PANI galvanic couples in a marine environment is influenced by deposition of polyaniline (PANI) on copper. Polarization curves and immersion assays in 0.1 M NaCl were performed. The morphologies of etched Al and corrosion products were observed by SEM, and the Al ions in solution were quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. A reduction in aluminium damage due to galvanic corrosion was observed as a result of decreased effective area for the oxygen reduction reaction on Cu/PANI electrode. Furthermore, an electrochemical reduction of PANI from leucoemeraldine to emeraldine base is proposed.

  20. DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS OF SUPRACRUSTAL METASEDIMENTARY SEQUENCE AND POSSIBLE MODEL FOR ZINC MINERALIZATION OF RIO CLARO AREA, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE (BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Mello Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks related to Andrelandia megasequence, which are superimposed on the basis represented by neoarchean granulites and palaeoproterozoic ortogneiss, in order to define palaeoenvironments of deposition of metasedimentary rocks and typological model of zinc mineralization of Rio Claro, Rio de Janeiro State, SE of Brazil. Three stratigraphic units in the area were considered for the studies: Valadão, São Roque and Lidice. Valadão unit was divided into three subunits: psamitic, psamitic / pelitic and pelitic. On the whole, it represents a turbiditic sequence influenced by underwater hydrothermal exhalations that led to the formation of quartzite with magnetite, considered as banded iron formations. São Roque Unit is composed of four subunits (São Roque I, II, III and IV and presents a typical pattern of deposition of low energy environments, in marine deep basins. Gondite, coticules levels and (Mn-almandine present in the local gneiss mark the manganese exalative contribution in that unit. Lídice unit has different sedimentation palaeoenvironments and is subdivided into Lídice I, II and III. Lídice subunits I and II exhibit quartzite interleaved with pelitic rocks and graphite gneiss, suggesting deposition in deeper environments of the basin, probably related to turbidity currents. In Lídice III subunit, more carbonated and with more quartz, limestone quartzite stand out, which enclose mineralized zones, reflecting depositional environment in shallow platform, possibly involving evaporitic environment, sabkha type. Sulfite mineralization of Rio Claro, associated with platformal rocks intensely metamorphosed and deformed, as well as its local geological context, features similarities with sedimentary exhalative deposits (SEDEX Zn-Pb-Ag model, Shuswap and Monashee type, present in Monashee and Shuswap Complexes of British Columbia in Canada.

  1. Structural, nanomechanical and variable range hopping conduction behavior of nanocrystalline carbon thin films deposited by the ambient environment assisted filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, O.S., E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Rawal, Ishpal; Tripathi, R.K. [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Electron and Ion Microscopy, Sophisticated and Analytical Instruments, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Kumar, Mahesh [Ultrafast Opto-Electronics and Tetrahertz Photonics Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline carbon thin films are grown by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc process. • Effect of gaseous environment on the properties of carbon films has been studied. • The structural and nanomechanical properties of carbon thin films have been studied. • The VRH conduction behavior in nanocrystalline carbon thin films has been studied. - Abstract: This paper reports the deposition and characterization of nanocrystalline carbon thin films by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique assisted with three different gaseous environments of helium, nitrogen and hydrogen. All the films are nanocrystalline in nature as observed from the high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) measurements, which suggests that the nanocrystallites of size ∼10–50 nm are embedded though out the amorphous matrix. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies suggest that the film deposited under the nitrogen gaseous environment has the highest sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio accompanied with the highest hardness of ∼18.34 GPa observed from the nanoindentation technique. The film deposited under the helium gaseous environment has the highest ratio of the area under the Raman D peak to G peak (A{sub D}/A{sub G}) and the highest conductivity (∼2.23 S/cm) at room temperature, whereas, the film deposited under the hydrogen environment has the lowest conductivity value (2.27 × 10{sup −7} S/cm). The temperature dependent dc conduction behavior of all the nanocrystalline carbon thin films has been analyzed in the light of Mott’s variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism and observed that all the films obey three dimension VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport.

  2. The structure environment, rock-magma system, mineral-forming series and pattern of volcanic mineral-forming of uranium deposit in southeast of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    1992-01-01

    The Volcanic uranium deposit of rock-magma belt-the Mid-Cz Volcano in the Southeast of China mainly formed around 120 ∼ 130 Ma and 90 ∼ 100 Ma Which is in harmony with the two rock magma activities of k within the region. The rock-magma system of this period formed around the turning period from pressure to tension in the continent margin of southeast China, which is mainly characterized by the appearance of A-type granite and alkaline, sub-alkaline rocks (trachyte, trachyandensite, trachybasalt, basic rock alkaline basalt). The uranium deposit is controlled by the base rift of dissection to the mantle, the volcanic basin is of the double characteristics of transversal rift valley basin (early period) ad tension rift valley basin (laster period). The leading role of the deep source is stressed in terms of internal-forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of internal-forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of mineral-forming patterns, the multi-pattern led by the deep-source is stressed, including the mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit of continental thermos, repeated periphery mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit and the mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit of rising pole-like thermos. Ten suggestions are put forward to the next mineral-search according to the above thoughts

  3. The role and origin of dilatant structural environments in the spatial control of geo-economic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosello, E.

    2010-01-01

    A major controlling the geometry, size and spatial location of the mineralization is the tectonic structure. This control is indeed essential in epigenetic deposits, where the structure is the main factor to determine the circulation, precipitation, and in many cases the generation of hydrothermal solutions associated with mineral deposits and / or alterations. Therefore, learning the type of structural control that a particular deposit is charged on a particular aspect and of fundamental importance not only in yacimientología to contribute to the genetic knowledge but also in economic terms to provide ideas and guidance in tasks prospecting, exploration and mineral exploitation

  4. The influence of included minerals on the intrinsic reactivity of chars prepared under N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Huan; Chen, Jiabao; Zhao, Bo; Hu, Guangzhou [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Oxy-fuel technology could be successfully used to retrofit existing coal-fired power plants or alternatively be used to design and build new coal-fired power plants with almost zero emissions. Char reactivity under oxy-fuel conditions will have a significant impact on the coal burnout. In this paper, two fractions, representing organic-rich particles and organic particles with included minerals, were separated from each of three Chinese coals of different rank. They were then devolatilized at 1,450 C in a drop tube furnace (DTF) under N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} environment, respectively. The chars were subjected to nitrogen adsorption study, thermogravimetric analysis and XRD analysis. It was found that char reactivity of all three pairs of chars were increased under CO{sub 2} environment as compared with that under N{sub 2} environment, but with differing trend. For the organic-rich samples the reactivity difference is increased with decreasing rank. On the contrary, for the samples of organic particles with included minerals, the reactivity difference is decreased with decreasing rank. Mechanism analysis showed that they are resulted not from gasification, but from a combination of changes in surface area and in the orderness of carbon structure in the chars, both of which, in turn, are resulted from the higher heat capacity of CO{sub 2} and the interaction between metastable liquid phase and the included minerals.

  5. Direct sampling during multiple sediment density flows reveals dynamic sediment transport and depositional environment in Monterey submarine canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Paull, C. K.; Gwiazda, R.; Rosenberger, K. J.; McGann, M.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Barry, J.; Simmons, S.; Clare, M. A.; Carvajal, C.; Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Sumner, E.; Cartigny, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment density flows were directly sampled with a coupled sediment trap-ADCP-instrument mooring array to evaluate the character and frequency of turbidity current events through Monterey Canyon, offshore California. This novel experiment aimed to provide links between globally significant sediment density flow processes and their resulting deposits. Eight to ten Anderson sediment traps were repeatedly deployed at 10 to 300 meters above the seafloor on six moorings anchored at 290 to 1850 meters water depth in the Monterey Canyon axial channel during 6-month deployments (October 2015 - April 2017). Anderson sediment traps include a funnel and intervalometer (discs released at set time intervals) above a meter-long tube, which preserves fine-scale stratigraphy and chronology. Photographs, multi-sensor logs, CT scans, and grain size analyses reveal layers from multiple sediment density flow events that carried sediment ranging from fine sand to granules. More sediment accumulation from sediment density flows, and from between flows, occurred in the upper canyon ( 300 - 800 m water depth) compared to the lower canyon ( 1300 - 1850 m water depth). Sediment accumulated in the traps during sediment density flows is sandy and becomes finer down-canyon. In the lower canyon where sediment directly sampled from density flows are clearly distinguished within the trap tubes, sands have sharp basal contacts, normal grading, and muddy tops that exhibit late-stage pulses. In at least two of the sediment density flows, the simultaneous low velocity and high backscatter measured by the ADCPs suggest that the trap only captured the collapsing end of a sediment density flow event. In the upper canyon, accumulation between sediment density flow events is twice as fast compared to the lower canyon; it is characterized by sub-cm-scale layers in muddy sediment that appear to have accumulated with daily to sub-daily frequency, likely related to known internal tidal dynamics also measured

  6. Depositional environments of the Hart coal zone (Paleocene), Willow Bunch Coalfield, southern Saskatchewan, Canada from petrographic, palynological, paleobotanical, mineral and trace element studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; Beaton, A.P.; McDougall, W.J.; Nambudiri, E.M.V.; Vigrass, L.W. (University of Regina, SK (Canada). Energy Research Unit)

    1991-12-01

    Coal petrology, palynology, paleobotany and mineralogy of the Hart coal indicate deposition under wet, warm-temperate to subtropical climatic conditions in low-lying backswamps with fluvial channels and locally ponded areas. The coal is dominated by mixed xylitic/attrital lithotypes and by huminite macerals with secondary inertinite macerals and minor liptinite macerals. Good correlation exists between lithotypes and maceral composition. Local and vertical variations in proportions of huminites and inertinites reflect frequent fluctuations in water levels, periodic flooding, desiccation and burning of the peat. Swamps were dominated by {ital Glyptostrobus-Taxodium} forest with {ital Betula-Myrica-Alnus} communities and, locally {ital Laevigatosporites}, which are the dominant contributors to the xylite-rich lithotypes. Attrital lithotypes with abundant {ital Pandanus}, {ital Typha} and {ital Azolla} are consistent with wetter areas of a fluvial environment, including ponds and channels. Trace elements Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Si, Ti, U, Se, V, W, K and Th, typically associated with syngenetic minerals kaolinite, calcite and quartz, may have a volcanic source. High concentrations of Na, Ba and Ca found in organic complexes are of secondary origin and probably originate in deep source brines rather than marine surface waters. 55 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Characteristics of chlorites from Huangnihu uranium deposit and their implications in uranium metallogenic environment in the southern part of Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zhihua; Lin Jinrong; Pang Yaqing; Gao Fei; Rong Jiashu; Guo Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Chlorite is genetically related to uranium mineralization in Huangnihu uranium deposit. By means of microscopic and electronic microprobe analysis, the authors investigated chemical composition and texture of the chlorite and found that chlorite in Huangnihu deposit has the following characteristics: 1. they are mainly Fe-rich chlorite composed of chamosite and brunsvigite, of which chemical composition is mainly affected by mud and mafic rock; 2. the Fe-Mg and Al"I"V-Si substitution dominates the octahedral substitution supplemented by Al"V"I-Fe substitution; the oolitic chlorite and biotite feinted chlorite closely associated with uranium were formed at temperatures of 216.23 ∼ 256.73℃ (average 228.6℃). The chemical composition and forming environment of the oolitic chlorite and biotite illusion chlorite suggests that Huangnihu uranium deposit is a low-moderate temperature hydrothermal uranium deposit formed in a reducing environment and iron-rich formation, the ore-forming fluid mainly originated from shale rock, partly from ultramafic or mafic liquid. (authors)

  8. Wet Deposition of Trace Metals at a Typical Urban Site in Southwestern China: Fluxes, Sources and Contributions to Aquatic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyi Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we quantified the atmospheric wet deposition (AWD of 13 trace metals (TMs and estimated their potential effects on the surface water of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China. Precipitation was collected in Wanzhou in southwestern China from March 2015 to February 2016. The concentrations and fluxes of the 13 TMs were in the ranges of 0.16–9.44 µg L−1 and 0.18–10.22 mg m−2 yr−1, respectively, in the order Al > Zn > Fe > Ba > Pb > Mn > Ti > Cd > Cu > As > V > Ni ≈ Cr. Using principal component analysis, it was found that Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were mainly derived from a mixture of soil and road dust, As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ti primarily originated from the local industries, and Ni and V were related to diesel and gasoline combustion, including both vehicle exhaust emissions and ship emissions from the nearby Yangtze River. The estimated TM inputs to the Three Gorges Reservoir were 11.1, 11.0, 5.7, 5.3, 4.5, 2.7, 2.5, 1.5, 1.0, 0.7, 0.5, 0.2, and 0.2 t yr−1 for Al, Zn, Fe, Ba, Pb, Mn, Ti, Cd, Cu, As, V, Ni and Cr, respectively. The AWD TM fluxes in Wanzhou were lower than those in metropolises and their inputs were limited for surface water of the Three Gorges Reservoir. However, Cd was strongly enriched in precipitation and rainstorms greatly increased the surface water concentrations of Cd and Pb. Therefore, the behavior of Cd and Pb in southwestern mountain areas of China, including emission, transport, transformation, and their ecological effects, should be given more attention in future studies.

  9. Exploration for in situ leach amenable sandstone uranium deposits and their impact on the environment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weixing

    2002-01-01

    Taking the No. 512 uranium deposit in YiLi Basin, Xinjiang as an example, this paper describes the ore-forming geological settings of inter-layer oxidizing zone roll-front type of ISL amenable uranium deposits. It also summarizes the different exploration methods used during various stages of exploration. The paper also introduces the Dabu uranium deposit in Taoshan, Jiangxi, which is amenable to the in-place-leach mining method. It probes into the possibilities for transforming non-economic and sub-economic uranium deposits into economical and minable ones. In addition, the paper emphasizes that ISL uranium mining, when compared with conventional mining, plays an active role in reducing environmental contamination and restoring ecological balance. (author)

  10. The analyzing stratum formation and sediment environment using TEM for finding sandstone type uranium deposits in Mahuangquan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xigang; He Jianguo; Zhao Cuiping; Lou Hansheng

    2010-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic method (TEM) is used to detect deep geological information for insidious sandstone type uranium deposits in Mahuangquan area. TEM surveying data is processed to build the relation between resistance rate and different petrology, to ensure three large electronic strata, and to explain the space position of sediment center and alluvial fan. Combining with ore control factors of sandstone type uranium deposit, it can conclude that the slope area and the alluvial fan are the key areas for further exploration work. (authors)

  11. Origin and depositional environment of fine-grained sediments since the last glacial maximum in the southeastern Yellow Sea: evidence from rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, In Kwon; Choi, Man Sik; Lee, Gwang Soo; Chang, Tae Soo

    2015-12-01

    Despite the well-reconstructed seismic stratigraphy of the Holocene mud deposit in the southeastern Yellow Sea, known as the Heuksan mud belt (HMB), the provenances of these sediments and their depositional environments are unclear, especially for the fine-grained sediments. According to seismic data (extracted from another article in this special issue), the HMB comprises several sedimentary units deposited since the last glacial maximum. Based on analytical results on rare earth elements, fine-grained sediments in all sedimentary units can be interpreted as mixtures of sediments discharged from Chinese and Korean rivers. The proportions of fine-grained sediments from Chinese rivers (74.5 to 80.0%) were constant and higher than those from Korean rivers in all units. This fact demonstrates that all units have the same fine-grained sediment provenance: units III-b and III-a, located in the middle and northern parts of the HMB and directly deposited from Chinese rivers during the sea-level lowstand, could be the sediment source for units II-b and II-a. Unit I, while ambiguous, is of mixed origin combining reworked sediments from nearby mud deposits and Changjiang River-borne material with those of the Keum River. The results of this study indicate that at least 18.6% of bulk sediments in the HMB clearly originate from Chinese rivers, despite its location close to the southwestern coast of Korea.

  12. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  13. Depositional environments and sequence stratigraphy of the Bahram Formation (middle–late Devonian in north of Kerman, south-central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Hashmie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on sedimentary environments, facies distribution, and sequence stratigraphy. The facies and sequence stratigraphic analyses of the Bahram Formation (middle–late Devonian in south-central Iran are based on two measured stratigraphic sections in the southern Tabas block. The Bahram Formation overlies red sandstones Padeha Formation in sections Hutk and Sardar and is overlain by Carboniferous carbonate deposits of Hutk Formation paraconformably, with a thickness of 354 and 386 m respectively. Mixed siliciclastic and carbonate sediments are present in this succession. The field observations and laboratory studies were used to identify 14 micro/petrofacies, which can be grouped into 5 depositional environments: shore, tidal flat, lagoon, shoal and shallow open marine. A mixed carbonate-detrital shallow shelf is suggested for the depositional environment of the Bahram Formation which deepens to the east (Sardar section and thins in southern locations (Hutk section. Three 3rd-order cyclic siliciclastic and carbonate sequences in the Bahram Formation and one sequence shared with the overlying joint with Hutk Formation are identified, on the basis of shallowing upward patterns in the micro/pertofacies.

  14. Evaluation of the vibration attenuation properties of an air-inflated cushion with two different heavy machinery seats in multi-axis vibration environments including jolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoxu; Eger, Tammy R; Dickey, James P

    2017-03-01

    Seats and cushions can attenuate whole-body vibration (WBV) exposures and minimize health risks for heavy machine operators. We successfully developed neural network (NN) algorithms to identify the vibration attenuation properties for four different seating conditions (seat/cushion combinations), and implemented each of the NN models to predict the equivalent daily exposure A(8) values for various vehicles in the forestry and mining environments. We also evaluated the performance of the new prototype No-Jolt™ air-inflated cushion and the original cushion of each seat with jolt exposures. We observed that the air cushion significantly improved the vibration attenuation properties of the seat that initially had good performance, but not for the seat that had relatively poor vibration attenuation properties. In addition, operator's anthropometrics and sex influenced the performance of the air-inflated cushion when the vibration environment included jolt exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units using matrix properties and depositional history in a complex volcanic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Buesch, David C.; Flint, Alan L.

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of the physical and unsaturated hydrologic properties of subsurface materials is necessary to calculate flow and transport for land use practices and to evaluate subsurface processes such as perched water or lateral diversion of water, which are influenced by features such as faults, fractures, and abrupt changes in lithology. Input for numerical flow models typically includes parameters that describe hydrologic properties and the initial and boundary conditions for all materials in the unsaturated zone, such as bulk density, porosity, and particle density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture-retention characteristics, and field water content. We describe an approach for systematically evaluating the site features that contribute to water flow, using physical and hydraulic data collected at the laboratory scale, to provide a representative set of physical and hydraulic parameters for numerically calculating flow of water through the materials at a site. An example case study from analyses done for the heterogeneous, layered, volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain is presented, but the general approach for parameterization could be applied at any site where depositional processes follow deterministic patterns. Hydrogeologic units at this site were defined using (i) a database developed from 5320 rock samples collected from the coring of 23 shallow (deep (500–1000 m) boreholes, (ii) lithostratigraphic boundaries and corresponding relations to porosity, (iii) transition zones with pronounced changes in properties over short vertical distances, (iv) characterization of the influence of mineral alteration on hydrologic properties such as permeability and moisture-retention characteristics, and (v) a statistical analysis to evaluate where boundaries should be adjusted to minimize the variance within layers. Model parameters developed in this study, and the relation of flow properties to porosity, can be used to produce detailed and accurate

  16. Distinct effects of Cr bulk doping and surface deposition on the chemical environment and electronic structure of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Turgut, E-mail: yilmaz@phys.uconn.edu [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Hines, William [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Sun, Fu-Chang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Pletikosić, Ivo [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Budnick, Joseph [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Valla, Tonica [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Sinkovic, Boris [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Cr doping into the bulk of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} opens an energy gap at the Dirac point which is observable in the non-magnetic state. • Cr surface deposition does not lead to open an energy gap at the Dirac point of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. • Formation of two distinct Bi and Cr core level peaks was observed upon the deposition of Cr on the surface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. - Abstract: In this report, it is shown that Cr doped into the bulk and Cr deposited on the surface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films produced by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have strikingly different effects on both the electronic structure and chemical environment. Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) shows that Cr doped into the bulk opens a surface state energy gap which can be seen at room temperature; much higher than the measured ferromagnetic transition temperature of ≈10 K. On the other hand, similar ARPES measurements show that the surface states remain gapless down to 15 K for films with Cr surface deposition. In addition, core-level photoemission spectroscopy of the Bi 5d, Se 3d, and Cr 3p core levels show distinct differences in the chemical environment for the two methods of Cr introduction. Surface deposition of Cr results in the formation of shoulders on the lower binding energy side for the Bi 5d peaks and two distinct Cr 3p peaks indicative of two Cr sites. These striking differences suggests an interesting possibility that better control of doping at only near surface region may offer a path to quantum anomalous Hall states at higher temperatures than reported in the literature.

  17. The analysis of structural and electronic environments of silicon network in HWCVD deposited a-SiC:H films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Bibhu P.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbon alloys (a-SiC:H) films were deposited by hot wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD) using SiH 4 and C 2 H 2 as precursor gases. a-SiC:H films were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Solid-state plasmon of Si network shifts from 19.2 to 20.5 eV by varying C 2 H 2 flow rate from 2 to 10 sccm. Incorporation of carbon content changes the valence band structure and s orbital is more dominant than sp and p orbital with carbon incorporation

  18. Spatio-temporal variability of the deposited radioactive materials in forest environments after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, H.; Onda, Y.; Komatsu, Y.; Yoda, H.

    2012-12-01

    Soil, vegetation and other ecological compartments are expected to be highly contaminated by the deposited radionuclides after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident triggered by a magnitude 9.1 earthquake and the resulting tsunami on Marchi 11, 2011. Study site have been established in Yamakiya district, Kawamata Town, Fukushima prefecture, located about 35 km from Fukushima power plant, and designated as the evacuated zone. The total deposition of radioactive materials at the study site ranged from 0.02to >10 M Bq/m2 for Cs-137. The mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf stands were selected as experimental site for the monitoring of spatio-temporal variability of the deposited radionuclides after the accidental release of radioactive materials. In order to measure the vertical distribution of radioactivity in forest, a tower with the same height of tree have been established at each experimental site. The measurement of radioactivity by using a portable Ge gamma-ray detector (Detective-DX-100, Ortec) and radionuclide analysis of leaf samples at different height revealed that a large proportion of radionuclides which deposited on forest were trapped by canopies of the cedar forests. In contrast, in the broad-leaf forest highest radioactivity was found at the forest floor. Furthermore, spatio-temporal variability of radioactivity at the forest floor indicated that huge amount of caesium still remains on the canopy of coniferous forest, and subsequently transfers to forest floor in association with throughfall, stemflow, and litter fall.

  19. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  20. Deciphering the depositional environment of the laminated Crato fossil beds (Early Cretaceous, Araripe Basin, North-eastern Brazil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimhofer, Ulrich; Ariztegui, Daniel; Lenniger, Marc

    2010-01-01

    isotope geochemistry. Integration of lithological and petrographic evidence indicates that the bulk of the Nova Olinda limestone formed via authigenic precipitation of calcite from within the upper water column, most probably induced and/or mediated by phytoplankton and picoplankton activity...... equilibration with atmospheric CO2, probably in concert with stagnant conditions and low input of soil-derived carbon. Integration of lithological and isotopic evidence indicates a shift from closed to semi-closed conditions towards a more open lake system during the onset of laminite deposition in the Crato....... A significant contribution from a benthonic, carbonate-secreting microbial mat community is not supported by these results. Deposition took place under anoxic and, at least during certain episodes, hypersaline bottom water conditions, as evidenced by the virtually undisturbed lamination pattern, the absence...

  1. Geochemical and diatom records of recent changes in depositional environment of a tropical wetland, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pande, A.; Nayak, G.N.; Prasad, V.; PrakashBabu, C

    size, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbon/nitrogen ratio (TOC/TN), selected metals and pH) and diatom records The sub-channel (S-61) represents river environment which opens into main channel (S-60) which represents marine environment being...

  2. Facies analysis, depositional environments and paleoclimate of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - Basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettima, B.; Abubakar, M. B.; Kuku, A.; Haruna, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Facies analysis of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub -basin of the Northern Benue Trough northeastern Nigeria indicated that the Lower Bima Member is composed of alluvial fan and braided river facies associations. The alluvial fan depositional environment dominantly consists of debris flow facies that commonly occur as matrix supported conglomerate. This facies is locally associated with grain supported conglomerate and mudstone facies, representing sieve channel and mud flow deposits respectively, and these deposits may account for the proximal alluvial fan region of the Lower Bima Member. The distal fan facies were represented by gravel-bed braided river system of probably Scot - type model. This grade into sandy braided river systems with well developed floodplains facies, forming probably at the lowermost portion of the alluvial fan depositional gradient, where it inter-fingers with basinal facies. In the Middle Bima Member, the facies architecture is dominantly suggestive of deep perennial sand-bed braided river system with thickly developed amalgamated trough crossbedded sandstone facies fining to mudstone. Couplets of shallow channels are also locally common, attesting to the varying topography of the basin. The Upper Bima Member is characterized by shallow perennial sand-bed braided river system composed of successive succession of planar and trough crossbedded sandstone facies associations, and shallower channels of the flashy ephemeral sheetflood sand - bed river systems defined by interbedded succession of small scale trough crossbedded sandstone facies and parallel laminated sandstone facies. The overall stacking pattern of the facies succession of the Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - basin is generally thinning and fining upwards cycles, indicating scarp retreat and deposition in a relatively passive margin setting. Dominance of kaolinite in the clay mineral fraction of the Bima Formation points to predominance of humid sub - tropical

  3. Effect of depositional environment and sources of pollution on uranium concentration in sediment, coral, algae and seagrass species from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Hilal, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium concentrations were determined in sediment samples, four hard and two soft corals, one seagrass and four species of algae collected from phosphate-polluted sites in the northern reef area of the Gulf of Aqaba. High uranium concentrations were found in all samples examined from a phosphate-polluted site near a phosphate loading berth compared to the unpolluted ones. Uranium levels, U/Ca ratios, concentration and discrimination factors were also high compared to those reported from other regions of the world. The effects of the exported raw phosphate powder as the main source of pollution and depositional environment on the concentration of uranium in the examined species are discussed. (Author)

  4. Depositional environments inferred from variations of calcium carbonate, organic carbon, and sulfide sulfur: a core from southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Iyer, S.D.; Chauhan, O.S.; PrakashBabu, C.

    Pleistocene has been inferred. The higher contents of organic carbon and sulfide sulfur and their negative relationship clearly establish the existence of a reducing environment below 65 cm subbottom depth. The occurrence of pyrite framboids and crystals...

  5. Microfacies, Depositional environment and Sequence Stratigraphy of Upper Carboniferous- Lower Permian rocks from Ozbak-Kuh region (Zaladou Section, East Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zaladou section is located in Ozbak-Kuh mountains in the nourthen part of Tabas block and consist of shale, limy sandstone, limestone and dolomite. Continous relationship of Upper Carboniferous and Lower Permian deposits, is quite evident in Zaladou section. The lower boundry of this section is located on the Absheni formation of Sardar Group with disconformity surface, and upper boundry’s is covered by disconformity surface and bauxite horizon of Bagh-e-Vang formation. According to the lithological Characters and microscopic studies, tidal flat, lagoon, bar, tidal inlet and open marine sub-environment are identified for Zaladou section. Results of this study show that Zaladou section was deposited in silisiclastic-carbonate mix homoclinal ramp in late Carboniferous and in carbonate homoclinal ramp in early Permian. Field study, microfacies and analysis through the sequence led to recognition of main sequence surface, such as: sequence boundry, maximum flooding surface, marine flooding surface, system tracts and two depositional sequences.

  6. The application of Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 measurements to investigate floodplain deposition in a semi-arid, low-fallout environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, K. J.; Croke, J. C.; Timmers, H.; Owens, P. N.

    2009-04-01

    Floodplains comprise geomorphologically important sources and sinks for sediments and associated pollutants, yet the sedimentology of large dryland floodplains is not well understood. Processes occurring on such floodplains are often difficult to observe, and techniques used to investigate smaller perennial floodplains are often not practical in these environments. This study assesses the utility of Cs-137 inventory and depth-profile techniques for determining relative amounts of floodplain sedimentation in the Fitzroy River, north-eastern Australia; a 143 000 km2 semi-arid river system. Caesium-137 inventories were calculated for floodplain and reference location bulk soil cores collected from four sites. Depth profiles of Cs-137 concentration from each floodplain site and a reference location were recorded. The areal density of Cs-137 at reference locations ranged from 13-978 Bq m-2 (0-1367 Bq m-2 at the 95% confidence interval), and the mean value ± 2(standard error of the mean) was 436±264 Bq m-2, similar to published data from other southern hemisphere locations. Floodplain inventories ranged from 68-1142 Bq m-2 (0-1692 Bq m-2 at the 95% confidence interval), essentially falling within the range of reference inventory values, thus preventing calculation of erosion or deposition. Depth-profiles of Cs-137 concentration indicate erosion at one site and over 66 cm of deposition at another since 1954. Analysis of 239+240Pu concentrations in a depositional core substantiated the interpretation made from Cs-137 data, and depict a more tightly constrained peak in concentration. Average annual deposition rates range from 0-15 mm. The similarity between floodplain and reference bulk inventories does not necessarily indicate a lack of erosion or deposition, due to low Cs-137 fallout in the region and associated high measurement uncertainties, and a likely influence of gully and bank eroded sediments with no or limited adsorbed Cs-137. In this low-fallout environment

  7. A survey of xerophilic Aspergillus from indoor environment, including descriptions of two new section Aspergillus species producing eurotium-like sexual states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, Cobus M.; Yilmaz, Neriman; Renaud, Justin B.

    2017-01-01

    of 1039 strains; 296 strains belong to Aspergillus and represented 37 species. Reference sequences were generated for all species and deposited in GenBank. Aspergillus sect. Aspergillus (formerly called Eurotium) was one of the most predominant groups from house dust with nine species identified...

  8. DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LOWER EOCENE BITUMINOUS ROCKS, IN THE KÜRNÜÇ/GÖYNÜK-BOLU AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali SARI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, dark gray and dark brown colored, organic-carbon rich bituminous rocks (bituminous marl and bituminous shale exposing around the Kürnüç area (Göynük, Bolu are investigated by means of or- ganic geochemical characteristics. In this respect, rock lithologies, depositional environments, rock source potential, kerogen and organic maturity types and hydrocarbon generation potentials of bituminous rocks were determined. For this reason, pyrolysis (Rock Eval–VI analysis, gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS analyses were carried out. In addition, spore color index (SCI was determined with organic petrographic method and stable carbon analysis (δ13C of the samples were also conducted. Lithology of the studied samples is of clastic source and the depositional environ- ment is a lagoon with a partial connection to the sea. In bituminous rocks with excellent source rock potential TOC values are in the range of 2.52-8.38 wt % (average 6.08 wt %. With the exception of two samples (Type II kerogen type of all samples is Type I. According to pyrolysis, GC and GC-MS organic maturity results, all the samples are in immature stage. Organic geochemical data indicate that bituminous rocks have an excellent oil generation potential and there is no organic contamination.

  9. Micas at magmatic and hydrothermal stages in the environment of the Cerro Verde Santa Rosa porphyry copper type deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bel, L

    1979-01-01

    The chemical composition of biotites and sericites from the Cerro Verde porphyry copper type deposit have been investigated in detail, using an electron microprobe. The main results of the study are: Al/sup vi/ and Ti contents of biotites of magmatic as well as hydrothermal origin may be related to the temperature of crystallization estimed by independent methods. On the other hand the Mg/Fe and Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratios are almost constant. This fact is interpreted in terms of fO/sub 2/; sericites have a phengitic composition in which the solubilities of the two end-members celadonite and paragonite are controlled by a fluid phase under P, T conditions that could be estimated.

  10. Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Ying; Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Aohan; Shen, Jianlin; Cui, Zhenling; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Vitousek, Peter [Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Erisman, Jan Willem [VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goulding, Keith [The Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Fangmeier, Andreas [Institute of Landscape and Plant Ecology, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-02-28

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude and environmental impact of N deposition in China is limited. Here we use nationwide data sets on bulk N deposition, plant foliar N and crop N uptake (from long-term unfertilized soils) to evaluate N deposition dynamics and their effect on ecosystems across China between 1980 and 2010. We find that the average annual bulk deposition of N increased by approximately 8 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare (P < 0.001) between the 1980s (13.2 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare) and the 2000s (21.1 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare). Nitrogen deposition rates in the industrialized and agriculturally intensified regions of China are as high as the peak levels of deposition in northwestern Europe in the 1980s, before the introduction of mitigation measures. Nitrogen from ammonium (NH4+) is the dominant form of N in bulk deposition, but the rate of increase is largest for deposition of N from nitrate (NO3-), in agreement with decreased ratios of NH3 to NOx emissions since 1980. We also find that the impact of N deposition on Chinese ecosystems includes significantly increased plant foliar N concentrations in natural and semi-natural (that is, non-agricultural) ecosystems and increased crop N uptake from long-term-unfertilized croplands. China and other economies are facing a continuing challenge to reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen, N deposition and their negative effects on human health and the environment.

  11. Pollutant deposition in forest ecosystems and characteristics of chemical properties of soils in the environs of the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochman, V.; Bucek, J.; Biba, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes the results of investigations of the chemistry of precipitation water and soil water in 1991-1992 on research plots in the nearer and farther environs of the building site of the Temelin nuclear power plant (about 25 km north of Ceske Budejovice). Research plots lie in spruce and beech stands. When the installations on research plots were built (1990 and 1991), soil samples were taken to determine the supply of biogenic elements in humus and soil. The objective of the program was to determine the current level of element deposition in forest ecosystems, dynamics of soil elements and chemistry; the program is a part of more extensive research into forest environment and stand condition. The research of investigation provide data for a forecast of the effect of the projected operation of the nuclear power plant on forest environment, basic factor of growth and stabilization and for fulfilment of their functions. They can be a basis for evaluation of the rate of changes in forest ecosystems after the nuclear power plant has been launched into operation. The results of research are currently applied to supply data to the network of plots with monitoring of pollutant loads in the forest ecosystem in Southern Bohemia. Two research plots in spruce stand (Hnevkovice and Strouha) and a plot in beech stand (Vsetec) were laid out at a distance of several kilometers from the built-up premises of the Temelin nuclear power plant. The soils on these plots are medium deep brown forest soils (Cambisol) with a large amount of mother rock skeleton (biotitic paragneiss). Moder is a soil humus form in the spruce and beech stands. To monitor pollutant deposition in the forest ecosystems and their effect of the soil properties Vojirov plots were laid out which lie in spruce stand and in a mixed stand of beech and spruce in the Jindrichuv Hradec forest district, near the frontier with Austria. Humus podzols with moder and mor forms were developed on eolian sand between

  12. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2007-10-01

    Paralic carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous shelf sediments have seldom been investigated. During the early Eocene, calcareous and siliciclastic sediments were deposited on a wide shelf in front of low-reliefed hinterland in the Al Khawd region in NE Oman. The siliciclastic-calcareous sediments originated from strongly reworked debris of the Arabic Shield. The underlying Semail Ophiolite did not act as a direct source of debris but provided some heat to increase the maturity of carbonaceous rocks and modify the isotope signal of the calcareous minerals in the Rusayl Formation. A multidisciplinary approach involving sedimentology, mineralogy, chemistry, coal petrography and paleontology resulted in the establishment of nine stratigraphic lithofacies units and provides the reader with a full picture from deposition of the mixed carbonaceous-calcareous-siliciclastic rocks to the most recent stages of post-depositional alteration of the Paleogene formations. The calcareous Jafnayn Formation (lithofacies unit I) developed in a subtidal to intertidal regime, influenced episodically by storms. Deepening of the calcareous shelf towards younger series was ground to a halt by paleosols developing on a disconformity (lithofacies unit II) and heralding the onset of the Rusayl Formation. The stratigraphic lithofacies units III and IV reflect mangrove swamps which from time to time were flooded through washover fans from the open sea. The presence of Spinozonocolpites and the taxon Avicennia, which today belong to a coastal marsh vegetational community, furnish palynological evidence to the idea of extensive mangrove swamps in the Rusayl Formation [El Beialy, S.Y., 1998. Stratigraphic and palaeonenvironmental significance of Eocene palynomorphs from the Rusayl Shale Formation, Al Khawd, northern Oman. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 102, 249-258]. During the upper Rusayl Formation (lithofacies units V through VII) algal mats episodically flooded by marine

  13. Trace Fossils as Indicators of Depositional Sequence Boundaries in Lower Carboniferous Deep-Sea Fan Environment Moravice Formation, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehotský, T.; Bábek, O.; Mikuláš, Radek; Zapletal, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2002), s. 59-60 ISSN 1210-9606. [Áelazno 2002. Meeting of the Czech Tectonic Studies Group /7./. Áelazno, 09.05.2002-12.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/00/0118 Keywords : trace fossils * Carboniferous * Deep- Sea Environment Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://geolines.gli.cas.cz/fileadmin/volumes/volume14/G14-059.pdf

  14. Iron oxi-hydroxides characterization and associated elements (S, Se, As, Mo, V, Zr) in the redox environments favorable for uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a multi-scale and a multi-technical study for the characterization of iron oxi-hydroxides in three uranium-type deposits and host rock. The choice of sites has focused on a roll front deposit: Zoovch Ovoo in a Cretaceous basin of East Gobi (Mongolia); a tectonic-lithological type: Akola/Ebba in Tim Mersoi basin (Niger) and a Proterozoic unconformity type: Kiggavik in Thelon basin (Canada). A new approach has been implemented to characterize the iron oxi-hydroxides on macroscopic samples: field infrared spectroscopy using the ASD TerraSpec spectrometer. From the original indexes calculated on the spectra, it was possible both to characterize the iron oxi-hydroxides; only hematite and goethite were identified in the different parts of oxidized uranium fronts, and visualize the alteration zonation along the redox front. In addition, the visible part of spectrum was used to quantify the color of samples through the IHS system parameters (Intensity - Hue - Saturation) and the Munsell system. The color setting of the study identified a specific hue for mineralized samples studied: a mixture of yellow and red (2.5 to 10 Yr in Munsell notation). At the crystals scale, the iron-hydroxides were characterized by μ-Raman spectroscopy. The study highlighted a difference in crystallinity of hematite crystals in different fields. From a morphological point of view, the crystals of goethite in the Zoovch Ovoo deposit, is only authigenic iron oxi-hydroxides described in this uranium front, are twinned in the form of six-pointed star, reflecting a low crystallization temperature, compared to Niger and Kiggavik deposits. This crystallization is mainly controlled by the availability of Fe(III) ions in the fluid, released by pyrite dissolution in an oxidizing environment and pH. From a chemical point of view, iron oxi-hydroxides record the fluid passage owing their uranium content. Secondly, the composition in trace elements marks the type of deposit, for example

  15. Identification of quantitative trait loci underlying seed protein content of soybean including main, epistatic, and QTL × environment effects in different regions of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Weili; Li, Wen; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Depeng; Zhao, Xue; Li, Haiyan; Han, Yingpeng; Li, Wenbin

    2017-08-01

    The objective here was to identify QTL underlying soybean protein content (PC), and to evaluate the additive and epistatic effects of the QTLs. A mapping population, consisting of 129 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), was created by crossing 'Dongnong 46' and 'L-100'. Phenotypic data of the parents and RILs were collected for 4 years in three locations of Heilongjiang Province of China. A total of 213 SSR markers were used to construct a genetic linkage map. Eight QTLs, located on seven chromosomes (Chr), were identified to be associated with PC among the 10 tested environments. Of the seven QTLs, five QTLs, qPR-2 (Satt710, on Chr9), qPR-3 (Sat_122, on Chr12), qPR-5 (Satt543, on Chr17), qPR-7 (Satt163, on Chr18), and qPR-8 (Satt614, on Chr20), were detected in six, seven, seven, six, and seven environments, respectively, implying relatively stable QTLs. qPR-3 could explain 3.33%-11.26% of the phenotypic variation across eight tested environments. qPR-5 and qPR-8 explained 3.64%-10.1% and 11.86%-18.40% of the phenotypic variation, respectively, across seven tested environments. Eight QTLs associated with PC exhibited additive and (or) additive × environment interaction effects. The results showed that environment-independent QTLs often had higher additive effects. Moreover, five epistatic pairwise QTLs were identified in the 10 environments.

  16. Optically transparent and durable Al2O3 coatings for harsh environments by ultra short pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Hannu; Syväluoto, Aki; Leskinen, Jari T. T.; Lappalainen, Reijo

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, an environmental protection is needed for a number of optical applications in conditions quickly impairing the clarity of optical surfaces. Abrasion resistant optical coatings applied onto plastics are usually based on alumina or polysiloxane technology. In many applications transparent glasses and ceramics need a combination of abrasive and chemically resistant shielding or other protective solutions like coatings. In this study, we intended to test our hypothesis that clear and pore free alumina coating can be uniformly distributed on glass prisms by ultra short pulsed laser deposition (USPLD) technique to protect the sensitive surfaces against abrasives. Abrasive wear tests were carried out by the use of SiC emery paper using specified standard procedures. After the wear tests the measured transparencies of coated prisms turned out to be close those of the prisms before coating. The coating on sensitive surfaces consistently displayed enhanced wear resistance exhibiting still high quality, even after severe wear testing. Furthermore, the coating modified the surface properties towards hydrophobic nature in contrast to untreated prisms, which became very hydrophilic especially due to wear.

  17. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments — A developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Eggen, Trine; Möder, Monika

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, there are needs for scientific basis to sensitize communities on the problems arising from improper solid waste deposition and the acute and long-term consequences for areas receiving immobilized pollutants. In Nigeria, as in many other African countries, solid waste disposal by way of open dumping has been the only management option for such wastes. Herein, we have highlighted the challenges of solid waste deposit and management in developing countries, focusing on contaminants of emerging concern and leaching into the environment. We have analyzed sediments and run-off water samples from a solid waste dumping site in Owerri, Nigeria for organic load and compared these with data from representative world cities. Learning from previous incidents, we intend to introduce some perspective for awareness of contaminants of emerging concerns such as those with potential endocrine disrupting activities in wildlife and humans. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis (GC–MS) provide an overview on lipophilic and semi-polar substances released from solid waste, accumulated in sediments and transported via leachates. The chromatograms of the full scan analyses of the sediment extracts clearly point to contamination related to heavy oil. The homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging between C16 and C30, as well as detected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds such as anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene support the assumption that diesel fuel or high boiling fractions of oil are deposited on the site. Targeted quantitative analysis for selected compounds showed high concentration of substances typically released from man-made products such as plastics, textiles, household and consumer products. Phthalate, an integral component of plastic products, was the dominant compound group in all sediment samples and run-off water samples. Technical nonylphenols (mixture

  18. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments - A developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Eggen, Trine [Bioforsk, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Postveien 213, N-4353 Klepp St. (Norway); Moeder, Monika [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In developing countries, there are needs for scientific basis to sensitize communities on the problems arising from improper solid waste deposition and the acute and long-term consequences for areas receiving immobilized pollutants. In Nigeria, as in many other African countries, solid waste disposal by way of open dumping has been the only management option for such wastes. Herein, we have highlighted the challenges of solid waste deposit and management in developing countries, focusing on contaminants of emerging concern and leaching into the environment. We have analyzed sediments and run-off water samples from a solid waste dumping site in Owerri, Nigeria for organic load and compared these with data from representative world cities. Learning from previous incidents, we intend to introduce some perspective for awareness of contaminants of emerging concerns such as those with potential endocrine disrupting activities in wildlife and humans. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS) provide an overview on lipophilic and semi-polar substances released from solid waste, accumulated in sediments and transported via leachates. The chromatograms of the full scan analyses of the sediment extracts clearly point to contamination related to heavy oil. The homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging between C16 and C30, as well as detected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds such as anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene support the assumption that diesel fuel or high boiling fractions of oil are deposited on the site. Targeted quantitative analysis for selected compounds showed high concentration of substances typically released from man-made products such as plastics, textiles, household and consumer products. Phthalate, an integral component of plastic products, was the dominant compound group in all sediment samples and run-off water samples. Technical nonylphenols (mixture of

  19. Depositional environment and sedimentary of the basinal sediments in the Eibiswalder Bucht (Radl Formation and Lower Eibiswald Beds), Miocene Western Styrian Basin, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, K.

    1994-12-01

    The Eibiswald Bucht is a small subbasin of the Western Styrian Basin exposing sediments of Lower Miocene age. In the past the entire sequence exposed in the Eibiswalder Bucht has been interpreted as being of fluvial/lacustrine origin; here, results are presented of detailed sedimentological investigations that lead to a revision of this concept. The lowermost siliciclastic sedimentary unit of the Eibiswalder Bucht sequence is the Radl Formation. It is overlain by the Eibiswald Beds, which are subdivided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Eibiswald Beds. The Radl Formation and the Lower Eibiswald Beds are interpreted as a fan delta complex deposited along NNW-SSE striking faults. Based on the sedimentary facies this fan delta can be subdivided into a subaerial alluvial fan facies group, a proximal delta facies group and a distal delta/prodelta facies group. The Radl Formation comprises the alluvial fan and proximal delta facies groups, the Lower Eibiswald Beds the distal delta/prodelta facies group. The alluvial fan and the proximal delta consist of diverse deposits of gravelly flows. The distal delta/prodelta consists of wave-reworked, bioturbated, low density turbidites intercalated with minor gravelly mass flows. The prodelta can be regarded as as the basin facies of the small and shallow Eibiswalder Bucht, where marine conditions prevailed. The basin was probably in part connected with the Eastern Styrian Basin, the contemporary depositional environment of the Styrian Schlier (mainly turbiditic marine offshore sediments in the Eastern Styrian Basin). Analysis of the clast composition, in conjunction with the paleotransport direction of the coarse delta mass flows of the Radl Formation, shows that the source rocks were exclusively crystalline rocks ranging from greenschists to eclogites.

  20. Sedimentary environments and stratigraphy of the carbonate-silicilastic deposits of the Shirgesht Formation: implications for eustasy and local tectonism in the Kalmard Block, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aram bayetgoll

    2015-10-01

    Formations along the basement Kalmard Fault. In the present study, three stratigraphic sections (NW-SE transects were measured, described and sampled in the Kalmard area. In these sections, detailed considerations have been given on the lithofacies variations; bed geometry and contacts, faunal content, the potential of trace fossils as tools for reconstructing depositional conditions, sedimentary textures and structures, bounding surfaces, vertical trends and stacking patterns and lateral/vertical variations in facies and thicknesses. The observed siliciclastic facies can readily be interpreted using existing shelf sedimentation and shoreline succession models (e.g. Walker and Plint 1992 . Interpretation carbonate facies have been done on the basis the microfacies analysis (200 thin-sections, sedimentary textures and structures and faunal content (Wilson et al. 1975; Flügel 2010 . In final, internal architecture, characteristics of sedimentary facies, the overall stacking pattern and nature of sequence-bounding unconformities have been investigated to evaluate the influence of regional uplift, local tectonics and eustasy on both along-strike variations in sequence architecture and genetic complexity of sequence boundaries.     Discussion, Results and Conclusion   The Lower Ordovician Shirgesht Formation in central Iran is composed of siliciclastic and carbonate rocks deposited in diverse coastal and marine shelf environments (tidal flat, lagoon, shoreface, and offshore-shelf and carbonate ramp. Relying on the facies characteristics and stratal geometries, the siliciclastic succession are divided into five facies associations, FA1 (tidal flat, FA2 (lagoon/washoverfan, FA3 (upper shoreface-foreshore, FA4 (lower to middle shoreface, and FA5 (offshore-shelf.Carbonate succession of this formation based on lithology, sedimentary characteristics and textures divided into four facies belts, FA (tidal flat, FB (lagoon,FC (shoal/barrier island, and FD (open marine. These facies

  1. Study of deposited crud composition on fuel surfaces in the environment of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) of a Boiling Water Reactor at Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Tsuey-Lin; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Su, Te-Yen; Wen, Tung-Jen; Men, Lee-Chung

    2012-09-01

    This paper aimed at the characterization of metallic composition and surface analysis on the crud of fuel rods for unit-1 of BWR-4 at Nuclear Power Plant. The inductively coupled plasma- atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) and the gamma spectrometry were carried out to analyze the corrosion product distributions and to determine the elemental compositions along the fuel rod under conditions of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) switched from normal water chemistry (NWC) of reactor coolant in this study. Most of the crud consisted of the flakes and irregular shapes via SEM morphology. The loosely adherent oxide layer was mostly composed of hematite (α- Fe 2 O 3 ) with amorphous iron oxides by XRD results. The average deposited amounts of crud was the order of 0.5 mg/cm 2 , indicating that the fuel surface of this plant under HWC environment appeared to be one with the lower crud deposition in terms of low iron level of feedwater. It also showed no significant difference in comparison with NWC condition. (authors)

  2. Geochemical Indicators of the Carbonate Sedimentation Depositional Environments and Geodynamic Conditions in the East of the Middle Urals in the Kizelovian Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Dub

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical characteristics of the limestones of Kizelovskian substage of the Eastern Urals zone (Rezh River, Middle Urals, such as carbon and oxygen isotopic composition, concentration of minor and trace elements, and redox value indicators, were studied in details. Based on the results of data interpretation and analysis of lithological features, it was assumed that carbonate deposits formed in shallow oxygen-rich environment with high bioproductivity warm water ecosystem, and within the isolated carbonate platform with a steady sinking territory. Some signs indicate that sedimentation during the Kizelovian time occurred in the inner lagoon of a large atoll. The Maldivian archipelago could be a contemporary analogue of the Rezhevskaya carbonate platform.

  3. Corrosion and runoff rates of Cu and three Cu-alloys in marine environments with increasing chloride deposition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Zhang, Xian; Goidanich, Sara; Le Bozec, Nathalie; Herting, Gunilla; Leygraf, Christofer

    2014-02-15

    Bare copper sheet and three commercial Cu-based alloys, Cu15Zn, Cu4Sn and Cu5Al5Zn, have been exposed to four test sites in Brest, France, with strongly varying chloride deposition rates. The corrosion rates of all four materials decrease continuously with distance from the coast, i.e. with decreasing chloride load, and in the following order: Cu4Sn>Cu sheet>Cu15Zn>Cu5Al5Zn. The patina on all materials was composed of two main layers, Cu2O as the inner layer and Cu2(OH)3Cl as the outer layer, and with a discontinuous presence of CuCl in between. Additional minor patina constituents are SnO2 (Cu4Sn), Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2 (Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn) and Zn6Al2(OH)16CO3·4H2O/Zn2Al(OH)6Cl·2H2O/Zn5Cl2(OH)8·H2O and Al2O3 (Cu5Al5Zn). The observed Zn- and Zn/Al-containing corrosion products might be important factors for the lower sensitivity of Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn against chloride-induced atmospheric corrosion compared with Cu sheet and Cu4Sn. Decreasing corrosion rates with exposure time were observed for all materials and chloride loads and attributed to an improved adherence with time of the outer patina to the underlying inner oxide. Flaking of the outer patina layer was mainly observed on Cu4Sn and Cu sheet and associated with the gradual transformation of CuCl to Cu2(OH)3Cl of larger volume. After three years only Cu5Al5Zn remains lustrous because of a patina compared with the other materials that appeared brownish-reddish. Significantly lower release rates of metals compared with corresponding corrosion rates were observed for all materials. Very similar release rates of copper from all four materials were observed during the fifth year of marine exposure due to an outer surface patina that with time revealed similar constituents and solubility properties. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Landscapes, depositional environments and human occupation at Middle Paleolithic open-air sites in the southern Levant, with new insights from Nesher Ramla, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidner, Yossi; Frumkin, Amos; Friesem, David; Tsatskin, Alexander; Shahack-Gross, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Middle Paleolithic human occupation in the Levant (250-50 ka ago) has been recorded in roofed (cave and rockshelter) and open-air sites. Research at these different types of sites yielded different perspectives on the Middle Paleolithic human behavior and evolution. Until recently, open-air Middle Paleolithic sites in the Levant were found in three major sedimentary environments: fluvial, lake-margin and spring. Here we describe a unique depositional environment and formation processes at the recently discovered open-air site of Nesher Ramla (Israel) and discuss their contribution to understanding site formation processes in open-air sites in the Levant. The site is 8-m-thick Middle Paleolithic sequence (OSL dated to 170-80 ka) that is located in a karst sinkhole formed by gravitational deformation and sagging into underground voids. The sedimentary sequence was shaped by gravitational collapse, cyclic colluviation of soil and gravel into the depression, waterlogging, in situ pedogenesis and human occupation. Original bedding and combustion features are well-preserved in the Lower archaeological sequence, a rare occurrence in comparison to other open-air archaeological sites. This phenomenon coincides with episodes of fast sedimentation/burial, which also allowed better preservation of microscopic remains such as ash. The Upper archaeological sequence does not exhibit bedding or preservation of ash, despite presence of heat-affected lithic artifacts, which makes it similar to other open-air sites in the Levant. We suggest that rate of burial is the major factor that caused the difference between the Upper and Lower sequences. The differences in the burial rate may be connected to environmental and vegetation changes at the end of MIS 6. We also identified an interplay between sediment in-wash and density of human activity remains, i.e. during episodes of low natural sediment input the density of artifacts is higher relative to episodes with high rate of sediment in

  5. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments - a developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Eggen, Trine; Möder, Monika

    2012-11-01

    In developing countries, there are needs for scientific basis to sensitize communities on the problems arising from improper solid waste deposition and the acute and long-term consequences for areas receiving immobilized pollutants. In Nigeria, as in many other African countries, solid waste disposal by way of open dumping has been the only management option for such wastes. Herein, we have highlighted the challenges of solid waste deposit and management in developing countries, focusing on contaminants of emerging concern and leaching into the environment. We have analyzed sediments and run-off water samples from a solid waste dumping site in Owerri, Nigeria for organic load and compared these with data from representative world cities. Learning from previous incidents, we intend to introduce some perspective for awareness of contaminants of emerging concerns such as those with potential endocrine disrupting activities in wildlife and humans. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS) provide an overview on lipophilic and semi-polar substances released from solid waste, accumulated in sediments and transported via leachates. The chromatograms of the full scan analyses of the sediment extracts clearly point to contamination related to heavy oil. The homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging between C16 and C30, as well as detected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds such as anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene support the assumption that diesel fuel or high boiling fractions of oil are deposited on the site. Targeted quantitative analysis for selected compounds showed high concentration of substances typically released from man-made products such as plastics, textiles, household and consumer products. Phthalate, an integral component of plastic products, was the dominant compound group in all sediment samples and run-off water samples. Technical nonylphenols (mixture of

  6. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  7. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition in a congested city environment in a developing country: Kandy City, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasundara, Lakshika; Magana-Arachchi, D N; Ziyath, Abdul M; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Vithanage, Meththika

    2018-08-15

    This research study which was undertaken in a congested city environment in a developing country provides a robust approach for the assessment and management of human health risk associated with atmospheric heavy metals. The case study area was Kandy City, which is the second largest city in Sri Lanka and bears the characteristics of a typical city in the developing world such as the urban footprint, high population density and traffic congestion. Atmospheric deposition samples were collected on a weekly basis and analyzed for nine heavy metals common to urban environments, namely, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Health risk was assessed using hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI), while the cancer risk was evaluated based on life time daily cancer risk. Al and Fe were found to be in relatively high concentrations due to the influence of both, natural and anthropogenic sources. High Zn loads were attributed to vehicular emissions and the wide use of Zn coated building materials. Contamination factor and geo-accumulation index showed that currently, Al and Fe are at uncontaminated levels and other metals are in the range of uncontaminated to contaminated levels, but with the potential to exacerbate in the long-term. The health risk assessment showed that the influence of the three exposure pathways were in the order of ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. The HQ and HI values for children for the nine heavy metals were higher than that for adults, indicating that children may be subjected to potentially higher health risk than adults. The study methodology and outcomes provide fundamental knowledge to regulatory authorities to determine appropriate mitigation measures in relation to HM pollution in city environments in the developing world, where to-date only very limited research has been undertaken. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sedimentary environments and stratigraphy of the carbonate-silicilastic deposits of the Shirgesht Formation: implications for eustasy and local tectonism in the Kalmard Block, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza Mousavi-Harami

    2015-09-01

    Rahdar (Devonian Formations along the basement Kalmard Fault. In the present study, three stratigraphic sections (NW-SE transects were measured, described and sampled in the Kalmard area. In these sections, detailed considerations have been given on the lithofacies variations bed geometry and contacts, faunal content, the potential of trace fossils as tools for reconstructing depositional conditions, sedimentary textures and structures, bounding surfaces, vertical trends and stacking patterns and lateral/vertical variations in facies and thicknesses. The observed siliciclastic facies can readily be interpreted using existing shelf sedimentation and shoreline succession models (e.g. Walker and Plint 1992 . Interpretation carbonate facies have been done on the basis the microfacies analysis (200 thin-sections, sedimentary textures and structures and faunal content (Wilson et al. 1975 Flügel 2010 . In final, internal architecture, characteristics of sedimentary facies, the overall stacking pattern and nature of sequence-bounding unconformities have been investigated to evaluate the influence of regional uplift, local tectonics and eustasy on both along-strike variations in sequence architecture and genetic complexity of sequence boundaries.     Discussion, Results and Conclusion   The Lower Ordovician Shirgesht Formation in central Iran is composed of siliciclastic and carbonate rocks deposited in diverse coastal and marine shelf environments (tidal flat, lagoon, shoreface, and offshore-shelf and carbonate ramp. Relying on the facies characteristics and stratal geometries, the siliciclastic succession are divided into five facies associations, FA1 (tidal flat, FA2 (lagoon/washoverfan, FA3 (upper shoreface-foreshore, FA4 (lower to middle shoreface, and FA5 (offshore-shelf.Carbonate succession of this formation based on lithology, sedimentary characteristics and textures divided into four facies belts, FA (tidal flat, FB (lagoon,FC (shoal/barrier island, and FD

  9. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    IGT's efforts in environmental protection are primarily concerned with reducing the level of undesirable emissions from combustion, treating solid and liquid waste materials, and producing cleaner fuels. Projects being funded include: an ultra-low-emission gas-fired cyclonic burner for firetube boiler retrofit; a combination of IGT's de-NOX technology for municipal solid waste combustors with the injection of sorbents to reduce pollutants; second-generation NOx reduction techniques for regenerative glass melting furnaces; investigation of the applicability of electric DC field flame stabilization; development of a slagging cyclonic combustor for a class of industrial solid wastes; remediation research of various biological, chemical, and thermal technologies for cleaning and/or immobilizing contaminants in soils and sludges; and fuel cell research on molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells

  10. Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, C. Doc; Hinman, Nancy W.; Scott, Jill R.

    2013-10-01

    Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

  11. Modern sedimentary facies, depositional environments, and major controlling processes on an arid siliciclastic coast, Al qahmah, SE Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhan, Abdullah I.; Yang, Wan

    2018-04-01

    The facies and environments along the arid siliciclastic coast of Red Sea in Al Qahmah, Saudi Arabia are studied to establish a depositional model for interpretation of ancient rocks deposited in rift settings. Field and petrographic studies of 151 sediment samples in an area of 20 km2 define seven main facies types: beach, washover fan, tidal channel, dune, sabkha, delta, and wadi (seasonal stream). The wadi and delta facies are composed of poorly to moderately well-sorted, gravelly, medium-to-fine sands. Delta-front sands are redistributed by southward longshore currents to form a beach. Beach facies is composed of well-to-moderately sorted fine sands with minor gravels, which contain high concentrations of magnetite, ilmenite, garnet, pyroxene, amphibole, epidote, titanite, and apatite grains, indicating strong winnowing. Crabs and other burrowers destroy primary sedimentary structures and mix sediments in foreshore and backshore of the beaches. Wind and storm surge rework foreshore and backshore sediments to form washover fans. Sabkha facies occurs extensively in supratidal depressions behind beach, are flooded by rainstorms and spring tide, and capped by a 5-cm-thick crust composed of interlaminated halite, quartz, albite, minor gypsum and biotite, and rarely calcium carbonate. Halite occurs as thin sheets and gypsum as nodules with a chicken-wire structure. Clastic fraction in sabkha sediments ranges from coarse silt to coarse sand with moderate sorting, and is transported by currents and wind. Tidal inlets and tidal creeks assume abandoned wadis and are filled by muddy sand. Sand dunes and sand sheets are 1-7 m high and widely distributed due to variable wind directions. Fine-grained dune sands are moderately well sorted, whereas sheet sands are coarser and poorly sorted due to vegetation baffling. Most eolian sands are sourced from beach deposits. This suite of complex riverine, wave, tidal, wind, chemical, and biological processes form the facies mosaic

  12. Outcrop analogue study of Permocarboniferous geothermal sandstone reservoir formations (northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany): impact of mineral content, depositional environment and diagenesis on petrophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Achim; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.; Sass, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    The Permocarboniferous siliciclastic formations represent the largest hydrothermal reservoir in the northern Upper Rhine Graben in SW Germany and have so far been investigated in large-scale studies only. The Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous Saar-Nahe Basin, a Variscan intramontane molasse basin. Due to the subsidence in this graben structure, the top of the up to 2-km-thick Permocarboniferous is located at a depth of 600-2900 m and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. At this depth, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150 °C, which are sufficient for geothermal electricity generation with binary power plants. To further assess the potential of this geothermal reservoir, detailed information on thermophysical and hydraulic properties of the different lithostratigraphical units and their depositional environment is essential. Here, we present an integrated study of outcrop analogues and drill core material. In total, 850 outcrop samples were analyzed, measuring porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Furthermore, 62 plugs were taken from drillings that encountered or intersected the Permocarboniferous at depths between 1800 and 2900 m. Petrographic analysis of 155 thin sections of outcrop samples and samples taken from reservoir depth was conducted to quantify the mineral composition, sorting and rounding of grains and the kind of cementation. Its influence on porosity, permeability, the degree of compaction and illitization was quantified. Three parameters influencing the reservoir properties of the Permocarboniferous were detected. The strongest and most destructive influence on reservoir quality is related to late diagenetic processes. An illitic and kaolinitic cementation and impregnation of bitumina document CO2- and CH4-rich acidic pore water conditions, which are interpreted as fluids that migrated along a hydraulic contact from an underlying Carboniferous hydrocarbon source rock. Migrating

  13. Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments in the Waterberg-Erongo area, central Namibia, and correlation with the main Karoo Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzförster, Frank; Stollhofen, Harald; Stanistreet, Ian G.

    1999-07-01

    The dissected landscape of the Waterberg-Erongo area, central Namibia, exposes Karoo-equivalent strata deposited in basins that occur throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Although many are of economic interest, including coal-bearing strata, their depositional history is not well understood. This study of the Waterberg-Erongo area provides detailed lithostratigraphical data, which suggest sedimentation from the late Early Triassic to the Early Jurassic in a fault-bounded depository. Subsidence and sediment supply were controlled predominantly by the northeast-southwest trending Waterberg-Omaruru Fault Zone, which defines the northwestern margin of the depository. Facies development and thickness distribution of the Karoo strata in the Waterberg-Erongo area, perhaps the most continuous of any of the Karoo basins, indicate a northeastwardly-migrating depocentre alongside that fault, in response to major extensional movements in the early pre-South Atlantic rift zone. Periodic fault movements repeatedly caused basinward progradation of the alluvial facies, which are reflected by stacked fining-upward cycles in the lithological record. On a broader scale, the results of this study suggest that the northward propagation of the rift zone between Southern Africa and South America, was partially accommodated by transfer lineaments. Local depocentres developed along these lineaments, such as those in the Waterberg-Erongo area, with localised enhanced subsidence greater than that revealed in other Namibian onshore exposures, dominated by the rifting itself.

  14. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY, CONODONT BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE MIDDLE DEVONIAN (GIVETIAN TO EARLY CARBONIFEROUS (TOURNAISIAN LIPAK FORMATION IN THE PIN VALLEY OF SPITI (NW INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERICH DRAGANITS

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Bed-by-bed lithostratigraphic sections combined with sequence stratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy provide new information on the depositional environment and age of the Lipak Formation in the Pin Valley (Spiti. The formation comprises mixed siliciclastic and calcareous sediments at lower levels, richly fossiliferous limestones with two distinct sandstone incursions at higher levels, and dark mudstones followed by a thin siltstone interval. The upper limit of the Lipak Formation is defined by the angular unconformity below the sandstones of the Permian Gechang Formation. Lithologic correlation with sections in upper Lahaul indicates that, in the Pin Valley, the formation has been truncated just below its characteristic gypsum horizon. The lower boundary of the Lipak Formation is gradational from coastal arenites of the Muth Formation; the mappable boundary is drawn at the first appearance of dark carbonaceous, argillaceous siltstone and shale.Sedimentary structures, microfacies and conodont faunas indicate a general shallow marine depositional environment of the Lipak Formation in the Pin Valley; five sequence stratigraphic units have been distinguished. Conodont data demonstrate that the lowest 33 m of the Lipak Formation of the Pin Valley is mid to late Early varcus Subzone with characteristic species of Icriodus and Bipennatus. A previously unrecognised hiatus at c. 33 m above the base, at the boundary of sequence stratigraphic units S1 and S2, represents the interval Middle varcus Subzone to at least the end of the late Famennian Early expansa Zone. Because this hiatus does not correspond to a mappable boundary, no division of the Lipak Formation into named stratigraphic units is suggested, but we refer informally to the sediments represented by cycle S1 as Lipak A, and the sediments represented by cycles S2-S5 as Lipak B. Determination of S1 as Early varcus Subzone provides a maximum age for the gradationally underlying Muth Formation

  15. Plutonium in uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Aguilar, R.; Attrep, M. Jr.; Roensch, F.

    1992-01-01

    Plutonium-239 (t 1/2 , 24,100 yr) is one of the most persistent radioactive constituents of high-level wastes from nuclear fission power reactors. Effective containment of such a long-lived constituent will rely heavily upon its containment by the geologic environment of a repository. Uranium ore deposits offer a means to evaluate the geochemical properties of plutonium under natural conditions. In this paper, analyses of natural plutonium in several ores are compared to calculated plutonium production rates in order to evaluate the degree of retention of plutonium by the ore. The authors find that current methods for estimating production rates are neither sufficiently accurate nor precise to provide unambiguous measures of plutonium retention. However, alternative methods for evaluating plutonium mobility are being investigated, including its measurement in natural ground waters. Preliminary results are reported and establish the foundation for a comprehensive characterization of plutonium geochemistry in other natural environments

  16. A genetic model based on evapoconcentration for sediment-hosted exotic-Cu mineralization in arid environments: the case of the El Tesoro Central copper deposit, Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mort, A.; Riquelme, R.; Alonso-Zarza, A. M.; Campos, E.; Bissig, T.; Mpodozis, C.; Carretier, S.; Herrera, C.; Tapia, M.; Pizarro, H.; Muñoz, S.

    2017-12-01

    Although the formation of exotic-Cu deposits is controlled by multiple factors, the role of the sedimentary environment has not been well defined. We present a case study of the El Tesoro Central exotic-Cu deposit located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. This deposit consists of two mineralized bodies hosted within Late Cenozoic gravels deposited in an arid continental environment dominated by alluvial fans with sub-surficial ponded water bodies formed at the foot of these fans or within the interfan areas. Both exotic-Cu orebodies mostly consist of chrysocolla, copper wad, atacamite, paratacamite, quartz, opal, and calcite. The most commonly observed paragenesis comprises chrysocolla, silica minerals, and calcite and records a progressive increase in pH, which is notably influenced by evaporation. The results of stable isotope analyses (δ13C and δ18O) and hydrogeochemical simulations confirm that evapoconcentration is the main controlling factor in the exotic-Cu mineralization at El Tesoro Central. This conclusion complements the traditional genetic model based on the gradual neutralization of highly oversaturated Cu-bearing solutions that progressively cement the gravels and underlying bedrock regardless of the depositional environment. This study concludes that in exotic-Cu deposits formed relatively far from the source, a favorable sedimentary environment and particular hydrologic and climatic conditions are essential to trap, accumulate, evapoconcentrate, neutralize and saturate Cu-bearing solutions to trigger mineralization. Thus, detailed sedimentological studies should be incorporated when devising exploration strategies in order to discover new exotic-Cu resources, particularly if they are expected to have formed relatively far from the metal sources.

  17. Depositional environments and cyclo- and chronostratigraphy of uppermost Carboniferous-Lower Triassic -lacustrine deposits, southern Bogda Mountains, NW China - A terrestrfluvialial paleoclimatic record of mid-latitude NE Pangea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Feng, Q.; Liu, Yajing; Tabor, N.; Miggins, D.; Crowley, J.L.; Lin, J.; Thomas, S.

    2010-01-01

    Two uppermost Carboniferous–Lower Triassic fluvial–lacustrine sections in the Tarlong–Taodonggou half-graben, southern Bogda Mountains, NW China, comprise a 1834 m-thick, relatively complete sedimentary and paleoclimatic record of the east coast of mid-latitude NE Pangea. Depositional environmental interpretations identified three orders (high, intermediate, and low) of sedimentary cycles. High-order cycles (HCs) have five basic types, including fluvial cycles recording repetitive changes of erosion and deposition and lacustrine cycles recording repetitive environmental changes associated with lake expansion and contraction. HCs are grouped into intermediate-order cycles (ICs) on the basis of systematic changes of thickness, type, and component lithofacies of HCs. Nine low-order cycles (LCs) are demarcated by graben-wide surfaces across which significant long-term environmental changes occurred. A preliminary cyclostratigraphic framework provides a foundation for future studies of terrestrial climate, tectonics, and paleontology in mid-latitude NE Pangea.Climate variabilities at the intra-HC, HC, IC, and LC scales were interpreted from sedimentary and paleosol evidence. Four prominent climatic shifts are present: 1) from the humid–subhumid to highly-variable subhumid–semiarid conditions at the beginning of Sakamarian; 2) from highly-variable subhumid–semiarid to humid–subhumid conditions across the Artinskian-Capitanian unconformity; 3) from humid–subhumid to highly-variable subhumid–semiarid conditions at early Induan; and 4) from the highly-variable subhumid–semiarid to humid–subhumid conditions across the Olenekian-Anisian unconformity. The stable humid–subhumid condition from Lopingian to early Induan implies that paleoclimate change may not have been the cause of the end-Permian terrestrial mass extinction. A close documentation of the pace and timing of the extinction and exploration of other causes are needed. In addition, the

  18. Texture, mineralogy and geochemistry of the continental slope sediments in front of Los Tuxtlas, Gulf of Mexico, Mexico: implications on weathering, origin and depositional environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marca-Castillo, M. E.; Armstrong-Altrin, J.

    2017-12-01

    The textural analysis, mineralogy and geochemistry of two sediment cores recovered from the deep water zone of the southwestern part of the Gulf of Mexico ( 1666 and 1672 m water depth) were studied to infer the provenance and depositional behavior. The textural analysis revealed that both cores are dominated by silt, which occupy more than 50% in both samples and the clay occupy 40%. The petrographic analysis revealed remains of biogenic origin sediments and lithic fragments with an angular shape and low sphericity, indicating a low energy environment and therefore a low level of weathering in the sediment, which suggests that the sediments were not affected by transport and derived from a nearby source rock. In both cores quartz fragments were identified; also volcanic lithic and pyroxenes fragments, which are rocks of intermediate composition and are generally associated with the volcanic activity of the continental margins. SEM-EDS studies showed that the analysed samples have concentrations of minerals such as barite, gibbsite, kaolinite, grossular, magnetite, plagioclase and chlorite, which are probably derived from the mainland to the deep sea zone. In the trace element analysis it was observed a low Sc content, while Co, Ni, V and Cu are slightly enriched with respect to the upper continental crust; this enrichment is related to sediments from intermediate sources. The sediments are classified as shale in the log (SiO2 / Al2O3) - log (Fe2O / K2O) diagram. The fine particles of the shale indicate that a deposit occurred as a result of the gradual sedimentation due to relatively non-turbulent currents, which is consistent with the petrographic analysis. The geochemical features of major and trace elements suggest sediments were derived largely from the natural andesite erosion of coastal regions along the Gulf of Mexico. High values of Fe2O3 and MnO are observed in the upper intervals, reflecting the influence of volcanic sediments. The major element

  19. Environment of ore deposition in the creede mining district, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: Part V. Epithermal mineralization from fluid mixing in the OH vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayba, D.O.

    1997-01-01

    Detailed fluid inclusion studies on coarse-grained sphalerite from the OH vein, Creede, Colorado, have shown that the abrupt color changes between growth zones correspond to abrupt changes in the nature of the ore fluids. Within each growth zone, however, the composition of the fluids remained constant. The base of a distinctive orange-brown growth zone marks a sharp increase in both temperature and salinity relative to the preceding yellow-white zone. The orange-brown growth zone can be correlated along much of the vein and is believed to represent a time-stratigraphic interval. Along the vein, temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions within this interval show a systematic decrease from about 285??C and 11.5 wt percent NaCl equiv near the base of the vein to about 250??C and 8 wt percent NaCl equiv, respectively, near the top of the vein. The iron concentration of this sphalerite growth zone shows a similar pattern, decreasing from about 2.8 to 1.2 mole percent FeS. When plotted on an enthalpy-salinity diagram, the fluid inclusion data define a spatial trend indicating the progressive mixing of deeply circulating hydrothermal brines with overlying, dilute ground waters. The hydrothermal brines entered the OH vein from below at a temperature, salinity, and density of approximately 285??C, 11.5 wt percent NaCl equiv, and 860 kg/m3, respectively, whereas the overlying ground waters appear to have been preheated to roughly 150??C and had an assumed salinity of 0 wt percent and a density of 920 kg/m3. The greater density of the heated ground water promoted mixing with the hydrothermal brine within the open fractures, causing sphalerite deposition. Although there were also episodes of boiling during vein mineralization, boiling appears unimportant for this sphalerite. Isotopic evidence and geochemical modeling studies also indicate that mixing was the depositional mechanism for sphalerite. An important aspect of the mixing hydrology of the Creede system involves

  20. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  1. Electro-spark deposition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Electro-Spark Deposition (ESD) is a micro-welding process that uses short duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit or alloy a consumable electrode material onto a metallic substrate. The ESD process was developed to produce coatings for use in severe environments where most other coatings fail. Because of the exceptional damage resistance of these coatings, and the versatility of the process to apply a wide variety of alloys, intermetallics, and cermets to metal surfaces, the ESD process has been designated critical to the life and economy of the advanced fossil energy systems as the higher temperatures and corrosive environments exceed the limits of known structural materials to accommodate the service conditions. Developments include producing iron aluminide-based coatings with triple the corrosion resistance of the best previous Fe{sub 3}Al coatings, coatings with refractory metal diffusion barriers and multi layer coatings for achieving functionally gradient properties between the substrate and the surface. A new development is the demonstration of advanced aluminide-based ESD coatings for erosion and wear applications. One of the most significant breakthroughs to occur in the last dozen years is the discovery of a process regime that yields an order of magnitude increase in deposition rates and achievable coating thicknesses. Achieving this regime has required the development of advanced ESD electronic capabilities. Development is now focused on further improvements in deposition rates, system reliability when operating at process extremes, and economic competitiveness.

  2. Synthesis of MoS{sub 2} ribbons and their branched structures by chemical vapor deposition in sulfur-enriched environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D., E-mail: rmahyavanshi@gmail.com [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Sharma, Kamal P. [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kondo, Masuharu; Dewa, Takeshita [Department of Life Science and Applied Chemistry, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kawahara, Toshio [Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • We demonstrate synthesis of monolayer MoS{sub 2} ribbons and their branched structures. • Unidirectional, bi and tri-directional growth of ribbons from the nucleation point are obtained. • Unidirectional and other branched structures can be synthesized controlling the composition of MoO{sub 3} and sulfur vapor. • The ribbons possess uneven edge structures with angles of 60° and 120°, indicating molybdenum and sulfur terminations. - Abstract: Here, we demonstrate the synthesis of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) ribbons and their branched structures by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in sulfur-enriched environment. The growth of the MoS{sub 2} ribbons, triangular and other crystals significantly depends on the exposure of sulfur and concentration of molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) vapor on the substrate surface. The width and length of the synthesized ribbons is around 5–10 and 50–100 μm, respectively, where the width reduces from the nucleation point toward the end of the ribbon. Unidirectional, bi and tri-directional growth of ribbons from the nucleation point with an angle of 60° and 120° were obtained attributing to crystallographic growth orientation of MoS{sub 2} crystals. The directional growth of dichalcogenides ribbons is a significant challenge, our process shows that such unidirectional and other branched structures can be achieved by controlling the stoichiometric composition of MoO{sub 3} and sulfur exposure on the substrate surface. Interestingly, all the individual and branched ribbons possess uneven abundant edge structures, where the edges are formed with angles of 60° and 120°, indicating variation in molybdenum and sulfur edge terminations. The directional growth of MoS{sub 2} ribbons with defined edge structures in particular CVD condition can open up new possibilities for electronic and electrochemical applications.

  3. Deposition of Boron in Possible Evaporite Deposits in Gale Crate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasda, P. J.; Peets, E.; Lamm, S. N.; Rapin, W.; Lanza, N.; Frydenvang, J.; Clark, B. C.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Bridges, J.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Haldeman, E. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Clegg, S. M.; Delapp, D.; Sanford, V.; Bodine, M. R.; McInroy, R.

    2017-12-01

    Boron has been previously detected in Gale crater using the ChemCam instrument on board the NASA Curiosity rover within calcium sulfate fracture fill hosted by lacustrine mudstone and eolian sandstone units. Recent results show that up to 300 ppm B is present in the upper sections of the lacustrine unit. Boron has been detected in both the groundwater-emplaced calcium sulfate fracture fill materials and bedding-parallel calcium sulfate layers. The widespread bedding-parallel calcium sulfate layers within the upper strata of the lacustrine bedrock that Curiosity has encountered recently could be interpreted as primary evaporite deposits. We have two hypotheses for the history of boron in Gale crater. In both hypotheses, borates were first deposited as lake water evaporated, depositing primary evaporates that were later re-dissolved by groundwater, which redistributed the boron into secondary evaporitic calcium sulfate fracture fill deposits. In the first scenario, Gale crater may have undergone a period of perennial lake formation during a drier period of martian history, depositing layers of evaporitic minerals (including borates) among lacustrine mudstone layers. In the second scenario, lake margins could have become periodically exposed during cyclic drops in lake level and subsequently desiccated. Evaporites were deposited and desiccation features were formed in lowstand deposits. Either hypothetical scenario of evaporite deposition would promote prebiotic chemical reactions via wet-dry cycles. Boron may be an important prebiotic element, and as such, its presence in ancient martian surface and groundwater provides evidence that important prebiotic chemical reactions could occur on Mars if organics were present. The presence of boron in ancient Gale crater groundwater also provides additional evidence that a habitable environment existed in the martian subsurface well after the expected disappearance of liquid water on the surface of Mars. We will report on the

  4. Carbon deposition on nickel ferrites and nickel-magnetite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Jutson, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    Carbon deposition on Commercial Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (CAGR) fuel cladding and heat exchanger surfaces lowers heat transfer efficiency and increases fuel pin temperatures. Several types of deposit have been identified including both thin dense layers and also low density columnar deposits with filamentary or convoluted laminar structure. The low-density types are often associated with particles containing iron, nickel or manganese. To identify the role of nickel in the deposition process surfaces composed of nickel-iron spinels or metallic nickel/magnetite mixtures have been exposed to γ radiation in a gas environment simulating that in the reactor. Examination of these surfaces by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) have shown that while metallic nickel (Ni(O)) catalyses the formation of filamentary low density carbon deposits, the presence of divalent nickel (Ni(II)) sites in spinel type oxides is associated only with dense deposits. (author)

  5. Characteristics and source appointment of atmospheric particulate mercury over East China Sea: Implication on the deposition of atmospheric particulate mercury in marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Cheng, Na; Xiu, Guangli; Wang, Fujiang; Chen, Ying

    2017-05-01

    Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) samples were collected at Huaniao Island in northern East China Sea (ECS) from March 2012 to January 2013. Chemical analysis were conducted to measure the concentration of total particulate mercury (TPM) and speciated particulate mercury including HCl-soluble particulate mercury (HPM), elemental particulate mercury (EPM) and residual particulate mercury (RPM). The bromine (Br) and iodine (I) on particles were also detected. The mean concentration of TPM during the study period was 0.23 ± 0.15 ng m -3 , while the obviously seasonal variation was found that the concentrations of TPM in spring, summer, fall and winter were 0.34 ± 0.20 ng m -3 , 0.15 ± 0.03 ng m -3 , 0.15 ± 0.05 ng m -3 and 0.27 ± 0.26 ng m -3 , respectively. The statistically strong correlation of bromine and iodine to HPM was only found in spring with r = 0.81 and 0.77 (p mercury due to the deposition of mercury over the sea. The cluster of air mass across the sea had low concentration of HPM in winter, which suggested that the oxidation of mercury in winter might be related to other oxidants. During the whole sampling period, the air mass from the north of China contributed to the higher concentration of TPM in Huaniao Island. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  7. Lithogenic and biogenic particle deposition in an Antarctic coastal environment (Marian Cove, King George Island): Seasonal patterns from a sediment trap study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, B. K.; Shim, J.; Yoon, H. I.; Kang, Y. C.; Jang, Y. H.

    2007-06-01

    Particulate suspended material was recovered over a 23-month period using two sediment traps deployed in shallow water (˜30 m deep) off the King Sejong Station located in Marian Cove of King George Island, West Antarctica. Variability in seasonal flux and geochemical characteristics of the sediment particles highlights seasonal patterns of sedimentation of both lithogenic (terrigenous) and biogenic particles in the coastal glaciomarine environment. All components including total mass flux, lithogenic particle flux and biogenic particle flux show distinct seasonal variation, with high recovery rates during the summer and low rates under winter fast ice. The major contributor to total mass flux is the lithogenic component, comprising from 88% during the summer months (about 21 g m -2 d -1) up to 97% during the winter season (about 2 g m -2 d -1). The lithogenic particle flux depends mainly on the amount of snow-melt (snow accumulation) delivered into the coastal region as well as on the resuspension of sedimentary materials. These fine-grained lithogenic particles are silt-to-clay sized, composed mostly of clay minerals weathered on King George Island. Biogenic particle flux is also seasonal. Winter flux is ˜0.2 g m -2 d -1, whereas the summer contribution increases more than tenfold, up to 2.6 g m -2 d -1. Different biogenic flux between the two summers indicates inter-annual variability to the spring-summer phytoplankton bloom. The maximum of lithogenic particle flux occurs over a short period of time, and follows the peak of biogenic particle flux, which lasts longer. The seasonal warming and sea-ice retreat result in change in seawater nutrient status and subsequent ice-edge phytoplankton production. Meanwhile, the meltwater input to Marian Cove from the coastal drainage in January to February plays a major role in transporting lithogenic particles into the shallow water environment, although the tidal currents may be the main agents of resuspension in this

  8. Sandy aeolian deposits and environments and their relation to climate during the Last Glacial Maximum and Lateglacial in northwest and central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasse, C.

    2002-01-01

    Periglacial aeolian sand sheets and dunes of the last glacial cover extensive areas of northwest and central Europe. Four sedimentary facies have been described that could be related to fluvio-aeolian and cryogenic processes, moisture content of the depositional surface and surface morphology.

  9. Textural characteristics and sedimentary environment of sediment at eroded and deposited regions in the severely eroded coastline of Batu Pahat, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini; Nawang, Siti Aminah Bassa; Abdul Maulud, Khairul Nizam; Benson, Yannie Anak; Azhary, Wan Ahmad Hafiz Wan Mohamed

    2017-11-15

    This study investigates the textural characteristics of sediments collected at eroded and deposited areas of highly severed eroded coastline of Batu Pahat, Malaysia. Samples were taken from systematically selected 23 locations along the 67km stretch of coastline and are extended to the fluvial sediments of the main river of Batu Pahat. Grain size distribution analysis was conducted to identify its textural characteristics and associated sedimentary transport behaviours. Sediments obtained along the coastline were fine-grained material with averaged mean size of 7.25 ϕ, poorly sorted, positively skewed and has wide distributions. Samples from eroded and deposition regions displayed no distinctive characteristics and exhibited similar profiles. The high energy condition transported the sediments as suspension, mostly as pelagic and the sediments were deposited as shallow marine and agitated deposits. The fluvial sediments of up to 3km into the river have particularly similar profile of textural characteristics with the neighbouring marine sediments from the river mouth. Profiles were similar with marine sediments about 3km opposite the main current and can go up to 10km along the current of Malacca Straits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tsunami deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  11. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  12. Mineralogical controls on the weathering characteristics of arid continental deposits of the Colorado Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Tunheim, Ragnhild Johanne

    2015-01-01

    The Permian to Jurassic stratigraphy of the Colorado Plateau includes a number of units that were deposited under arid depositional conditions. These units each show distinctive weathering characteristics which cannot solely be attributed to variation in depositional environment or burial history. The stratigraphic units are the Permian Cutler Formation, the Triassic Chinle Formation, the Jurassic Wingate Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, the Navajo Sandstone, the Slickrock Member and the Moa...

  13. Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in air and soil of subtropical terrestrial environment in the pearl river delta, South China: distribution, composition, atmospheric deposition fluxes, and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Cheng, Zhineng; Li, Qilu; Pan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruijie; Liu, Di; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Xiang; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Zhang, Gan

    2013-03-19

    Research on the environmental fate of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in highly industrialized subtropical areas is still scarce. Air, soil, and atmospheric deposition process in the Pearl River Delta of South China were investigated, and the average SCCP and MCCP concentrations were 5.2 μg/sampler (17.69 ng/m(3)) and 4.1 μg/sampler for passive air samples, 18.3 and 59.3 ng/g for soil samples, and 5.0 and 5.3 μg/(m(2)d) for deposition samples, respectively. Influenced by primary sources and the properties of chlorinated paraffins (CPs), a gradient trend of concentrations and a fractionation of composition from more to less industrialized areas were discovered. Intense seasonal variations with high levels in summer air and winter deposition samples indicated that the air and deposition CP levels were controlled mainly by the vapor and particle phase, respectively. Complex environmental processes like volatilization and fractionation resulted in different CP profiles in different environment matrixes and sampling locations, with C(10-11) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-7), C(10-12) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-8), and C(11-12) C(l6-8) and C(14) C(l7-8) dominating in air, soil, and atmospheric deposition, respectively. Shorter-chain and less chlorinated congeners were enriched in air in the less industrialized areas, while longer-chain and higher chlorinated congeners were concentrated in soil in the more industrialized areas. This is suggesting that the gaseous transport of CPs is the dominant mechanism responsible for the higher concentrations of lighter and likely more mobile CPs in the rural areas.

  14. Deposition and interception of radionuclides. Current knowledge and future requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Following an accidental or routine release of radionuclides into the environment, a good knowledge of deposition processes is necessary in order to accurately predict the radiation dose to members of the public. In order to understand the environmental impact of released radionuclides and their transfer through the environment, including the food chain to man, there have been numerous studies on deposition of radionuclides to a range of surfaces such as bare soil, crops, forests, water bodies and urban surfaces. The RADREM committee provides a forum for liaison on UK research and monitoring in the areas of radioactive substances and radioactive waste management. RADREM has set up four sub-committees to cover issues related to radioactivity in the atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as those related radioactive waste management. One of the sub-committee tasks is to organise seminars and workshops on specific topics of interest. The first of these was the workshop on 'Deposition and Interception of Radionuclides: Current knowledge and future requirements' organised last year by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), acting as secretariat for the Terrestrial Environment Sub-Committee (TESC) of RADREM. The intent of this workshop was to provide an opportunity to exchange information on deposition-related aspects between representatives from various interested parties including government, regulatory bodies, industry and research organisations. Through presentations and discussions, this workshop addressed current developments in the areas of deposition and interception of radionuclides by various surfaces and served to identify areas which need further research. Papers were presented on various aspects of deposition and interception of radionuclides including deposition into grass, fruits and other crops as well as deposition into urban areas and forests

  15. Sedimentary environments and stratigraphy of the carbonate-silicilastic deposits of the Shirgesht Formation: implications for eustasy and local tectonism in the Kalmard Block, Central Iran

    OpenAIRE

    reza Mousavi-Harami; aram bayetgoll; asadolah Mahboubi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction   Sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic analysis providing insight into the main relationships between sequence architecture and stacking pattern, syn/post-depositional tectonics, and eustatic sea-level fluctuations (Gawthorpe and Leeder 2000; Zecchin et al. 2003, 2004; Carpentier et al. 2007). Relative variations in sea level are due to tectonic activity and eustasy. The Shirgesht Formation in the Kalmard Block of Central Iran provides a useful case study for to determine ...

  16. Facies associations, depositional environments and stratigraphic framework of the Early Miocene-Pleistocene successions of the Mukah-Balingian Area, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Muhammad; Rahman, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Sum, Chow Weng; Konjing, Zainey

    2018-02-01

    Thirty-five stratigraphic section exposed along the Mukah-Selangau road in the Mukah-Balingian area have been studied. Sedimentological and palynological data have been integrated to gain a better insight into the depositional architecture of the area. Broadly, the Mukah-Balingian area is dominated by fluvial, floodplain and estuarine related coal-bearing deposits. The Balingian, Begrih and Liang formations have been described and interpreted in terms of seven facies association. These are: FA1 - Fluvial-dominated channel facies association; FA2 - Tide-influenced channel facies association; FA3 - Tide-dominated channel facies association; FA4 - Floodplain facies association; FA5 - Estuarine central basin-mud flats facies association; FA6 - Tidal flat facies association and FA7 - Coastal swamps and marshes facies association. The Balingian Formation is characterised by the transgressive phase in the base, followed by a regressive phase in the upper part. On the basis of the occurrence of Florscheutzia trilobata with Florscheutzia levipoli, the Early to Middle Miocene age has been assigned to the Balingian Formation. The distinct facies pattern and foraminifera species found from the samples taken from the Begrih outcrop imply deposition in the intertidal flats having pronounced fluvio-tidal interactions along the paleo-margin. Foraminiferal data combined with the pronounced occurrence of Stenochlaena laurifolia suggest at least the Late Miocene age for the Begrih Formation. The internal stratigraphic architecture of the Liang Formation is a function of a combination of sea level, stable tectonic and autogenic control. Based on stratigraphic position, the Middle Pliocene to Pleistocene age for the Liang Formation is probable. The Balingian, Begrih and Liang formations display deposits of multiple regressive-transgressive cycles while the sediments were derived from the uplifted Penian high and Rajang group.

  17. Effect of nitrogen environment on NdFeB thin films grown by radio frequency plasma beam assisted pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, C.; Patroi, E.; Codescu, M.; Dinescu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► NdFeB thin films grown by PLD, in vacuum and in nitrogen, are presented. ► Nitrogen inclusion in thin film structures is related to improved coercitivity. ► Magnetical, optical and morphological properties of the thin films are discussed. - Abstract: NdFeB is a very attractive material for applications in electrical engineering and in electronics, for high-tech devices where high coercive field and high remanence are needed. In this paper we demonstrate that the deposition of nitrogen doped NdFeB thin films by pulsed laser deposition, in the presence of a nitrogen radiofrequency plasma beam, exhibit improved magnetic properties and surface morphology, when compared to vacuum deposited NdFeB layers. A Nd:YAG pulsed laser (3ω and 4ω) was focused on a NdFeB target, in vacuum, or in the presence of a nitrogen plasma beam. Substrate temperature (RT-850 °C), nitrogen gas pressure, and radiofrequency power (75–150 W), were particularly varied. The thin films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopic-ellipsometry, and vibrating sample magnetometry.

  18. Effect of nitrogen environment on NdFeB thin films grown by radio frequency plasma beam assisted pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, C., E-mail: catalin.constantinescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor bd., Magurele, RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Patroi, E.; Codescu, M. [National Institute for Research and Development in Electrical Engineering - Advanced Research, 313 Spl. Unirii, Sector 3, RO-030138, Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor bd., Magurele, RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NdFeB thin films grown by PLD, in vacuum and in nitrogen, are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen inclusion in thin film structures is related to improved coercitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetical, optical and morphological properties of the thin films are discussed. - Abstract: NdFeB is a very attractive material for applications in electrical engineering and in electronics, for high-tech devices where high coercive field and high remanence are needed. In this paper we demonstrate that the deposition of nitrogen doped NdFeB thin films by pulsed laser deposition, in the presence of a nitrogen radiofrequency plasma beam, exhibit improved magnetic properties and surface morphology, when compared to vacuum deposited NdFeB layers. A Nd:YAG pulsed laser (3{omega} and 4{omega}) was focused on a NdFeB target, in vacuum, or in the presence of a nitrogen plasma beam. Substrate temperature (RT-850 Degree-Sign C), nitrogen gas pressure, and radiofrequency power (75-150 W), were particularly varied. The thin films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopic-ellipsometry, and vibrating sample magnetometry.

  19. Sedimentological characteristics and depositional environment of Upper Gondwana rocks in the Chintalapudi sub-basin of the Godavari valley, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamohanarao, T.; Sairam, K.; Venkateswararao, Y.; Nagamalleswararao, B.; Viswanath, K.

    2003-03-01

    The Kota (Early to Middle Jurassic) and Gangapur (Early Cretaceous) rocks of the Chintalapudi sub-basin of Gondwana are poorly to very poorly sorted, positively to very positively skewed, and leptokurtic to very leptokurtic. The Kota rocks show a single prominent truncation line at the inflection of saltation/suspension at 2.0 φ of the river mode of transportation. The Gangapur rocks show two truncation lines of saltation/suspension, one at 0.5-1.7 φ and the other at 2.4-4.0 φ. These are inferred to be due to a high turbulent phase of the river. On the multigroup multivariant discriminant functions V1- V2 diagram, the bulk of the samples from Kota and Gangapur fall in the field of turbidite deposition. This study supports the view that the discrimination of river from turbidite deposits on this diagram is poor since both deposits are identical in terms of settling velocity distribution. On the C- M diagram, the Kota and Gangapur rocks show segments of rolling, bottom suspension, and graded suspension during river transport of sediment. The Q-R segments of graded suspension for these rocks have a C/ M ratio of 2.5, which is close to the ratio of the turbidites. The Kota and Gangapur rocks have nearly the same assemblage of heavy minerals. The provenance is inferred to consist of basic igneous rocks, acid igneous rocks, high-grade metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks.

  20. Radiocarbon Ages and Environments of Deposition of the Wono and Trego Hot Springs Tephra Layers in the Pyramid Lake Subbasin, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.V.; Smoot, J.P.; Kashgarian, Michaele; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Burdett, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Uncalibrated radiocarbon data from core PLC92B taken from Wizards Cove in the Pyramid Lake subbasin indicate that the Trego Hot Springs and Wono tephra layers were deposited 23,200 ?? 300 and 27,300 ??300 14C yr B.P. (uncorrected for reservoir effect). Sedimentological data from sites in the Pyramid Lake and Smoke Creek-Black Rock Desert subbasins indicate that the Trego Hot Springs tephra layer was deposited during a relatively dry period when Pyramid Lake was at or below its spill point (1177 m) to the Winnemucca Lake subbasin. The Wono tephra layer was deposited when lake depth was controlled by spill across Emerson Pass sill (1207 m) to the Smoke Creek-Black Rock Desert subbasin. 18O data from core PLC92B also support the concept that the Trego Hot Springs tephra fell into a relatively shallow Pyramid Lake and that the Wono tephra fell into a deeper spilling lake. ?? 1997 University of Washington.

  1. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  2. Depositional environment and organic matter accumulation of Upper Ordovician–Lower Silurian marine shale in the Upper Yangtze Platform, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangfang; Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Shao, Deyong

    2017-01-01

    The main controlling factors of organic matter accumulation in the Upper Ordovician Wufeng–Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formations are complex and remain highly controversial. This study investigates the vertical variation of total organic carbon (TOC) content as well as major and trace element concentrations of four Ordovician–Silurian transition sections from the Upper Yangtze Platform of South China to reconstruct the paleoenvironment of these deposits and to improve our understanding of those factors that have influenced organic matter accumulation in these deposits.The residual TOC content of the Wufeng Formation averages 3.2% and ranges from 0.12 to 6.0%. The overlying lower Longmaxi Formation displays higher TOC content (avg. 4.4%), followed upsection by consistent and lower values that average 1.6% in the upper Longmaxi Formation. The concentration and covariation of redox-sensitive trace elements (Mo, U and V) suggest that organic-rich intervals of the Wufeng Formation accumulated under predominantly anoxic conditions. Organic-rich horizons of the lower Longmaxi Formation were deposited under strongly anoxic to euxinic conditions, whereas organic-poor intervals of the upper Longmaxi Formation accumulated under suboxic conditions. Positive correlations between redox proxies and TOC contents suggest that organic matter accumulation was predominantly controlled by preservation. Barium excess (Baxs) values indicate high paleoproductivity throughout the entire depositional sequence, with an increase in the lower Longmaxi Formation. Increased productivity may have been induced by enhanced P recycling, as evidenced by elevated Corg/Ptot ratios. Mo–U covariation and Mo/TOC values reveal that the Wufeng Formation was deposited under extremely restricted conditions, whereas the Longmaxi Formation accumulated under moderately restricted conditions. During the Late Ordovician, the extremely restricted nature of ocean circulation on the Upper Yangtze Platform in

  3. Global deposition of airborne dioxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Shawn; Hui, Joe; Alojado, Zoraida; Lam, Vicky; Cheung, William; Zeller, Dirk; Steyn, Douw; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot spots' of deposition are likely to be in northern Europe, eastern North America, and in parts of Asia with the highest marine dioxin depositions being the northeast and northwest Atlantic, western Pacific, northern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. It also reveals that approximately 40% of airborne dioxin emissions are deposited to marine environments and that many countries in Africa receive more dioxin than they produce, which results in these countries being disproportionately impacted. Since human exposure to dioxin is largely through diet, this work highlights food producing areas that receive higher atmospheric deposits of dioxin than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exogenous deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous deposits forming as a result of complex exogenous processes, passed under the influence of outside forces on the Earth surface. To them relate physical and chemical weathering, decomposition and decay of mineral masses, redistribution and transportation of material, forming and deposit of new minerals and ores steady on the earth surface conditions

  5. Changes in depositional environment for the past 35 years in the Thane Creek, central west coast of India: Inferences from REEs, metals and magnetic properties

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.L.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Parthiban, G.; Rao, V.P.

    The role of diagenetic processes in influencing the behaviour of metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn), rare earth elements (REEs) and environmental magnetic parameters in two sediment cores from a polluted creek environment (the Thane Creek, Mumbai...

  6. Long-term behaviour of plutonium in air and deposition and the role of resuspension in a semi-rural environment in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    1997-03-05

    Despite a long while since the last surface nuclear weapons test (China, 1980), and since the Chernobyl accident (1986), very small concentrations of plutonium in air and deposition are still observable. The present paper reports and discusses results from our sampling site at Munich-Neuherberg from 1970 to the end of 1991, emphasizing the period since 1985. The methods of sample collection, preparation and radiochemical plutonium analysis are indicated in brief. To obtain Pu values above the detection limit, after 1985 our regular monthly samples were combined to yearly ones, except during the Chernobyl period. The annual mean values of {sup 239+240}Pu air concentration (e.g. 6-2 nBq m{sup -3} between 1987 and 1991) and annual sums of total deposition (e.g. 9-2 mBq m{sup -2} between 1987 and 1991) are reported as well as the Pu specific activities in the top soil layers (0-1, 1-2, 2-5 cm) in 1987 and 1993. The temporal variation of these quantities and the role of resuspension in interpreting the presently observed Pu concentrations are discussed. A practically constant resuspension factor K, 1.20{+-}0.05{center_dot}10{sup -9} m{sup -1}, is obtained for {sup 239+240}Pu from 1989 through 1991, provided the decrease of Pu in the top 0-1 cm soil layer is taken into account.

  7. Long-term behaviour of plutonium in air and deposition and the role of resuspension in a semi-rural environment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1997-01-01

    Despite a long while since the last surface nuclear weapons test (China, 1980), and since the Chernobyl accident (1986), very small concentrations of plutonium in air and deposition are still observable. The present paper reports and discusses results from our sampling site at Munich-Neuherberg from 1970 to the end of 1991, emphasizing the period since 1985. The methods of sample collection, preparation and radiochemical plutonium analysis are indicated in brief. To obtain Pu values above the detection limit, after 1985 our regular monthly samples were combined to yearly ones, except during the Chernobyl period. The annual mean values of 239+240 Pu air concentration (e.g. 6-2 nBq m -3 between 1987 and 1991) and annual sums of total deposition (e.g. 9-2 mBq m -2 between 1987 and 1991) are reported as well as the Pu specific activities in the top soil layers (0-1, 1-2, 2-5 cm) in 1987 and 1993. The temporal variation of these quantities and the role of resuspension in interpreting the presently observed Pu concentrations are discussed. A practically constant resuspension factor K, 1.20±0.05·10 -9 m -1 , is obtained for 239+240 Pu from 1989 through 1991, provided the decrease of Pu in the top 0-1 cm soil layer is taken into account

  8. Clear as Mud: Changes in Paleoshelf Environments and Deposition Rates at Medford, New Jersey during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrecca, L.; Miller, K. G.; Wright, J. D.; Browning, J. V.; Emge, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene boundary marks a time of swift global climatic change. Constraining the timeframe of this event is a first order question necessary for ascertaining the origin of the event and the potential for its use as an analog for modern climate change. The New Jersey shelf sediments of the Marlboro Formation records this time period with exceptionally thick (5-15m) records of the period of global low carbon isotopic values ("the core") which requires minimum sedimentation rates of 10's cm/kyr. Rhythmic layers have been previously reported from Wilson Lake & Millville, NJ (IODP Leg 174AX). These structures coined "laminae couplets" consist of semi-periodic 1-2mm thick raised laminations separated by matrix of varying width (averaging 1.8cm). These have been dismissed as artifacts of drilling "biscuits". We report here on a series of shallow auger cores drilled on a transect at Medford, NJ, without using drilling fluid. These cores also show a similar set of structures on the 2cm scale verifying that they are primary depositional features. The mm width laminae in the auger core show remarkable swelling within minutes of splitting. XRD, XRF, bulk carbonate geochemistry, and grain size analysis have been determined at regular depth intervals throughout the core. We have analyzed differences in these parameters between the laminae and interbedded matrix material, as well as across the transect as a whole. In general, the Marlboro formation at this updip location consists of micaceous, lignitic, very clayey silt (mean size 6 micrometers) with occasional organic debris indicating proximal deposition from a fluvial system. Paleodepth of 40m and normal marine salinities are estimated using a paleoslope model and the presence of common though not abundant planktonic foraminifera. We discuss a model of deposition for the Marlboro Formation as fluid mud (nearbed suspension flows) associated with the "Appalachian Amazon" alluding toward the finer grained inter

  9. Uranium Potential and Socio-Political Environment for Uranium Mining in the Eastern United States Of America with Emphasis on the Coles Hill Uranium Deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, N.W., E-mail: MMastilovic@vaunic.com [Virginia Uranium, Inc., Chatham, VA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Virginia Uranium, Inc. (“VUI”) is an exploration and development company that holds exclusive rights to the world class Coles Hill uranium project in Pittsylvania County, Virginia. This project has the potential to supply significant uranium to the market. Since the 1980s over US$60 million has been expended to advance the project. The Coles Hill uranium deposit is located in south central Virginia and is probably the largest undeveloped uranium deposit in the United States. It has a measured and indicated resource of 119 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}{sup (A)} {sup (B)} at a cut-off grade of 0.025% U{sub 3}O{sub 8} based on a National Instrument 43-101 technical report prepared for Santoy Resources Ltd. and Virginia Uranium, Inc. by Behre Dolbear and Company, Ltd., Marshall Miller and Associates, Inc., and PAC Geological Consulting Inc. dated February 2, 2009 and revised April, 2009. The whole rock analyses of the deposit indicate a relatively monomineralic ore that does not contain quantities of heavy metals that are typical of uranium ores of the southwestern United States. The Colorado School of Mines Research Institute conducted mill mineral processing tests in the 1980s. Project pre-feasibility studies and other plans completed in the 1980s will be updated over the next 12 months.Mining and support personnel can reasonably be recruited from the local area, as the skill sets needed for miners exist already among people and companies who are comfortable with farming and heavy equipment. Virginia currently requires that uranium mining regulations and permitting be adopted by law prior to approving a mining operation at Coles Hill. Virginia has regulated and permitted many similar mining industries. In fact, lead has been mined in the state from 1750–1981 and heavy metal sands have been mined since 1991 in Dinwiddie County that is over 90 miles/144 kilometers east of Coles Hill. A process to evaluate uranium mining through the Virginia Coal and Energy

  10. Performance of HIPIMS deposited CrN/NbN nanostructured coatings exposed to 650 °C in pure steam environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovsepian, P. Eh., E-mail: P.Hovsepian@shu.ac.uk [UK National HIPIMS Technology Centre, Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Howard Street, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Ehiasarian, A.P.; Purandare, Y.P.; Biswas, B. [UK National HIPIMS Technology Centre, Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Howard Street, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Pérez, F.J.; Lasanta, M.I.; Miguel, M.T. de; Illana, A. [Grupo de Ingeniería de Superficies y Materiales Nanoestructurados, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Juez-Lorenzo, M. [Fraunhofer Institut für Chemische Technologie ICT, Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Straße 7, 76327, Pfinztal (Germany); Muelas, R. [Ingeniería de Sistemas para la Defensa de España SA, Beatriz de Bobadilla No. 3, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Agüero, A. [Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Ctra. Ajalvir Km. 4, 28850, Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    In the current work, 4 μm thick CrN/NbN coating utilising nanoscale multilayer structure with bi-layer thickness of Δ = 2.9 nm has been used to protect 9 wt% Cr steels such as P92 widely used in steam power plants. The uniquely layered coatings have a combination of nitrides of chromium and niobium which are not only resistant to aqueous corrosion and corrosion-erosion and have excellent tribological properties, but also have oxidation resistance in dry air up to a temperature of 850 °C. The novel High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) deposition technology has been used to deposit CrN/NbN with enhanced adhesion (critical load of scratch adhesion L{sub C2} = 80 N) and a very dense microstructure as demonstrated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging. These superior coating properties are achieved due to the unique high metal ion content (up to 90%) in the HIPIMS plasma, which allows particle acceleration and trajectory control by external electrical and magnetic fields thus delivering highly energetic material flux on the condensing surface. P92 bare and coated samples were oxidised at 650 °C in 100% steam atmosphere up to 2000 h, in order to simulate the future operation conditions of steam turbines employed in power plants. The oxidation kinetics was evaluated by mass gain measurements. Under these conditions CrN/NbN provided reliable protection of the P92 steel. The paper also discusses the effect of growth defects and high temperature crack formation analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques (SEM and FIB-SEM, respectively) on the high temperature corrosion resistance in pure steam atmosphere thus revealing the coatings potential failure mechanisms. - Highlights: • Benefit of highly ionised metal plasma flux for coating deposition demonstrated. • CrN/NbN coating-superior corrosion resistance against high temperature steam shown. • CrN/NbN film-steel substrate

  11. Deposit growth and property development in coal-fired furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) to provide a self-consistent database of simultaneously measured, time-resolved ash deposit properties in well-controlled and well-defined environments and (2) to provide analytical expressions that relate deposit composition and structure to deposit properties of immediate relevance to PETC`s Combustion 2000 program. This project is distinguished from related work being done elsewhere by: (1) the development and deployment of in-situ diagnostics to monitor deposit properties, including heat transfer coefficients, porosity, emissivity, tenacity, strength, density, and viscosity; (2) the time resolution of such properties during deposit growth; (3) simultaneous measurement of structural and composition properties; (4) development of algorithms from a self-consistent, simultaneously measured database that includes the interdependence of properties; and (5) application of the results to technologically relevant environments such as those being planned under Combustion 2000 program. Work completed during FY94 emphasized diagnostic development. During FY95, this development work will be completed and we will emphasize application of the diagnostics to meet the other project objectives. Included in this work are the development and application of two in-situ, real-time diagnostic systems for monitoring the properties of inorganic materials on Heat transfer surfaces and in the gas-phase during controlled combustion of selected coal samples in Sandia`s Multifuel Combustor (MFC). Also, several diagnostics are being incorporated into the MFC that will eventually be used to characterize ash deposit properties.

  12. Novel geochemical techniques integrated in exploration for uranium deposits at depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, K.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral deposits are in fact geochemical anomalies, and as such their detection and assessment of their impact on the environment should be facilitated using geochemical techniques. Although geochemistry has been used directly in the discovery of uranium deposits and more indirectly in shaping deposit models, the novel applications of geochemistry and integration with other data can be more effective in formulating exploration and remediation strategies. Recent research on the use of geochemistry in detecting uranium deposits at depth include: (1) more effective integration of geochemical with geophysical data to refine targets, (2) revealing element distributions in and around deposits to adequately assess the total chemical environment associated with the deposit, (3) the use of element tracing using elemental concentrations and isotopic compositions in the near surface environment to detect specific components that have migrated to the surface from uranium deposits at depth, (4) understand the effects of both macro- and micro-environments on element mobility across the geosphere-biosphere interface to enhance exploration using select media for uranium at depth. Geophysical data used in exploration can identify areas of conductors where redox contrasts may host mineralization, structures that act to focus fluids during formation of the deposits and act as conduits for element migration to the surface, and contrasts in geology that are required for the deposits. However, precision of these data is greatly diminished with depth, but geochemical data from drill core or surface media can enhance target identification when integrated with geophysical data. Geochemical orientation surveys over known unconformity-related deposits at depth clearly identify mineralization 900m deep. Drill core near the deposit, clay-size fractions separated from soil horizons and vegetation over and far from the deposit record element migration from the deposit as radiogenic He, Rn and Pb

  13. Petrology, palynology and organic geochemistry of Eocene lignite of Matanomadh, Kutch Basin, western India: Implications to depositional environment and hydrocarbon source potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mathews, Runcie P.; Saraswati, Pratul K.; Banerjee, Santanu [Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Singh, Bhagwan D.; Tripathi, Suryakant M.; Singh, Alpana [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India); Mann, Ulrich [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Institut fuer chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere

    2011-01-01

    Petrological, palynological and organic-geochemical investigations were undertaken to determine the source vegetation, depositional conditions and hydrocarbon source potential of Eocene Matanomadh lignites from Kutch Basin, western India. The maceral study reveals that studied lignites are rich in huminite (av. 63%) with sub-ordinate amount of liptinite (av. 19%) and low inertinite (av. 3%), along with low to moderately high associated mineral matters (av. 15%). The overall petrographic composition points to a lagoonal condition for the formation of these lignites. The mean huminite reflectance values (R{sub r}: 0.28-0.34%, av. 0.31%) as well as low Rock-Eval T{sub max} (av. 417 C) values for the seams, suggest brown coal or lignitic stage/rank for the studied lignites. The palynological assemblages, dominated by tropical angiospermic pollen, suggest prevalence of warm humid tropical climate during the deposition of these lignites. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of lignites ranges between 26 and 58 wt.%, whereas the TOC content of the associated carbonaceous shales is around 4 wt.%. The Hydrogen Index (HI) ranging from 23 to 452 mg HC/g TOC indicates that the lignite sequence has the potential to produce mixed oil and gaseous hydrocarbons on maturation. The major pyrolysis products of lignites, derived from Curie point pyrolysis-GC-MS, are straight chain aliphatics, phenols and cadalene-based C{sub 15} bicyclic sesquiterpenoids. The exclusive occurrence of C{sub 15} bicyclic sesquiterpenoids suggests that these compounds are derived from dammar resin of angiosperm plants, belonging to family Dipterocarpaceae. (author)

  14. Quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits: Chapter P in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2018-05-17

    Quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits represent the largest repository of gold on Earth, largely due to the deposits of the Witwatersrand Basin, which account for nearly 40 percent of the total gold produced throughout Earth’s history. This deposit type has had a controversial history in regards to genetic models. However, most researchers conclude that they are paleoplacer deposits that have been modified by metamorphism and hydrothermal fluid flow subsequent to initial sedimentation.The deposits are found exclusively within fault-bounded depositional basins. The periphery of these basins commonly consists of granite-greenstone terranes, classic hosts for lode gold that source the detrital material infilling the basin. The gold reefs are typically located along unconformities or, less commonly, at the top of sedimentary beds. Large quartz pebbles and heavy-mineral concentrates are found associated with the gold. Deposits that formed prior to the Great Oxidation Event (circa 2.4 giga-annum [Ga]) contain pyrite, whereas younger deposits contain iron oxides. Uranium minerals and hydrocarbons are also notable features of some deposits.Much of the gold in these types of deposits forms crystalline features that are the product of local remobilization. However, some gold grains preserve textures that are undoubtedly of detrital origin. Other heavy minerals, such as pyrite, contain growth banding that is truncated along broken margins, which indicates that they were transported into place as opposed to forming by in situ growth in a hydrothermal setting.The ore tailings associated with these deposits commonly contain uranium-rich minerals and sulfides. Oxidation of the sulfides releases sulfuric acid and mobilizes various metals into the environment. The neutralizing potential of the tailings is minimal, since carbonate minerals are rare. The continuity of the tabular ore bodies, such as those of the Witwatersrand Basin, has allowed these mines to be the deepest in

  15. Geochemical constraints on the provenance and depositional environment of the Messinian sediments, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt: Implications for the late Miocene paleogeography of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leila, Mahmoud; Moscariello, Andrea; Šegvić, Branimir

    2018-07-01

    The Messinian sequence rocks in the Nile Delta present prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs and are, therefore, of great importance from the aspect of petroleum exploration and development strategies. Yet, little is known about their tectonic provenance and depositional setting. This study focuses on the geochemical signatures archived in the Messinian siliciclastic sediments to employ them as a powerful tool to elucidate the basin evolution during the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC). The pre-MSC Qawasim sediments are texturally and compositionally immature. They are enriched in lithic fragments, foraminiferal bioclasts, and rounded heavy minerals suggesting a significant contribution from the pre-existing Cretaceous-Eocene mixed carbonate-siliciclastic rocks bordering the Nile Delta. In contrast, the textural and mineralogical compositions as well as a range of geochemical proxies (e.g., chemical index of alteration and weathering CIA, CIW as well as index of chemical variability ICV and Zr/Sc ratio) are in favor of prolonged weathering and at least second-cycle origin of the MSC Abu Madi sediments. The mutually correspondent elemental ratios (e.g., Al2O3/TiO2, K2O/Na2O, Zr/Hf, Rb/Sr, Cr/Zr, and Cr/Th) and uniform weathering trends are indicatives for a similar provenance of the pre-MSC Qawasim and MSC Abu Madi sediments. Rare earth element (REE) distribution reveals a significant enrichment in LREE, depletion in HREE, relatively high (La/Yb)N (mean > 9), low (Gd/Yb)N (mean sediments to have been eroded and recycled from the older pre-MSC Qawasim sediments by gravity-flow processes and fluvial channels prior to redeposition as incised-valley-fills during the late stage of the MSC. The geochemical paleoenvironmental indicators such as C-value, Sr/Cu and Sr/Ba confirm arid-dry climatic conditions during the onset of the MSC consistent with the Mediterranean desiccation. These indicators also depict a transition from freshwater to relatively normal salinity conditions

  16. Jökulhlaup deposits in proglacial areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizels, Judith

    This paper discusses the main causes and characteristics of jökulhlaup ('glacier burst') floods, and explores the extent to which they generate depositional landform and sediment assemblages that are distinct from those of 'normal', braided river outwash ('Type I' outwash). Two main jökulhlaup outwash environments are identified: Type II outwash, produced by sudden drainage of ice-dammed lakes; and Type III, associated with drainage during subglacial geothermal activity, and distinguished by deposits resulting from high sediment concentrations and hyperconcentrated flows. In fluid flows, especially ones yielding Type II outwash, the most common deposits are large-scale expansion bars (and locally, eddy and pendant bars), and 'mega-ripples' or dunes, both forms normally composed of large-scale gravel-cobble cross-bedding, often capped by an imbricated boulder lag (a 'Type B2' lithofacies sequence). The armour is absent only where runoff decreased too rapidly to allow surface winnowing. Other jökulhlaup facies include extensive boulder beds (Type C), inverse-normally graded cobble beds (Type DS), ice-proximal debris flow deposits and deformed bedding containing diamicton clasts (Types G and H), and slack-water sediments (Type A). Type III outwash is dominated by massive, homogeneous, flood surge granules, underlain by pre-surge gravels, and capped by post-surge fluid bedforms, reflecting deposition during both the rising and falling limbs of the flood hydrograph (Type E4). The paper demonstrates that jökulhlaups do generate distinctive assemblages of depositional landforms and sediments, and concludes with a model of the dominant lithofacies sequences and associated landforms in proglacial environments subject to jökulhlaup drainage.

  17. Components of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    This report of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic deals with the components of the environment. The results of monitoring of air (emission situation), ambient air quality, atmospheric precipitation, tropospheric ozone, water (surface water, groundwater resources, waste water and drinking water), geological factors (geothermal energy, fuel deposits, ore deposits, non-metallic ore deposits), soil (area statistics, soil contamination. soil reaction and active extractable aluminium, soil erosion), flora and fauna (national strategy of biodiversity protection) are presented

  18. On some aspects of the stratigraphy, depositional environment and its bearing on uranium mineralisation in parts of the Singhbhum shear zone, Bihar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virnave, S.N.; Mukhopadhyay, T.K.; Krishnabadri, N.S.R.

    1994-01-01

    A review of the geology and controls of uranium mineralisation in the Singhbhum Shear Zone between Narwapahar (Lat. 22deg44'N; Long. 86deg15'E) in the west, to Ghatsila (Lat. 22deg25'N; Long. 86deg20'E) in the southeast and up to Dalmas in the north is presented in the light of new data based on facies analysis and palaeo-current studies on the conglomerate and associated meta-sediments in the area. Synthesis and integration of geologic data have led to the following conclusions: a) The facies variation and its distribution pattern in the area demonstrate fluviatile conditions of deposition with upward fining and thinning sequences b) The sedimentary sequence shows progressive younging towards north without any obvious break or juxta-position of the older over the younger. c) The nature of Jaduguda sedimentary facies assemblage is indicative of a fluvial fan with conglomerate gray-wacke-arenite assemblage representing proximal fan facies. On the basis of facies model, the area north of Subarnarekha river represents a meandering fluvial pattern. d) Uranium mineralisation is distinctly stratabound with characteristic facies association. (author). 13 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Estimation of the dose deposited by electron beams in radiotherapy in voxelised phantoms using the Monte Carlo simulation platform GATE based on GEANT4 in a grid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrot, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy treatment planning requires accurate determination of absorbed dose in the patient. Monte Carlo simulation is the most accurate method for solving the transport problem of particles in matter. This thesis is the first study dealing with the validation of the Monte Carlo simulation platform GATE (GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission), based on GEANT4 (Geometry And Tracking) libraries, for the computation of absorbed dose deposited by electron beams. This thesis aims at demonstrating that GATE/GEANT4 calculations are able to reach treatment planning requirements in situations where analytical algorithms are not satisfactory. The goal is to prove that GATE/GEANT4 is useful for treatment planning using electrons and competes with well validated Monte Carlo codes. This is demonstrated by the simulations with GATE/GEANT4 of realistic electron beams and electron sources used for external radiation therapy or targeted radiation therapy. The computed absorbed dose distributions are in agreement with experimental measurements and/or calculations from other Monte Carlo codes. Furthermore, guidelines are proposed to fix the physics parameters of the GATE/GEANT4 simulations in order to ensure the accuracy of absorbed dose calculations according to radiation therapy requirements. (author)

  20. Deposition of acidifying compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.; Cape, J.N.; Sutton, M.A.; Mourne, R.; Hargreaves, K.J.; Duyzer, J.H.; Gallagher, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Inputs of acidifying compounds to terrestrial ecosystems include deposition of the gases NO 2 , NO, HNO 2 , HNO 3 , NH 3 and SO 2 and the ions NO 3- , NH 4+ , SO 4 2- and H + in precipitation, cloud droplets and particles. Recent research has identified particular ecosystems and regions in which terrestrial effects are closely linked with specific deposition processes. This review paper identifies areas in which important developments have occurred during the last five years and attempts to show which aspects of the subject are most important for policy makers. Amongst the conclusions drawn, the authors advise that current uncertainties in estimates of S and N inputs by dry deposition should be incorporated in critical load calculations, and that, in regions dominated by wet deposition, spatial resolution of total inputs should be improved to match the current scales of information on landscape sensitivity to acidic inputs. 44 refs., 9 figs

  1. Electrophoretic Deposition of Gallium with High Deposition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanfei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, electrophoretic deposition (EPD is reported to form gallium thin film with high deposition rate and low cost while avoiding the highly toxic chemicals typically used in electroplating. A maximum deposition rate of ~0.6 μm/min, almost one order of magnitude higher than the typical value reported for electroplating, is obtained when employing a set of proper deposition parameters. The thickness of the film is shown to increase with deposition time when sequential deposition is employed. The concentration of Mg(NO32, the charging salt, is also found to be a critical factor to control the deposition rate. Various gallium micropatterns are obtained by masking the substrate during the process, demonstrating process compatibility with microfabrication. The reported novel approach can potentially be employed in a broad range of applications with Ga as a raw material, including microelectronics, photovoltaic cells, and flexible liquid metal microelectrodes.

  2. Modelling the deposition of airborne radionuclides into the urban environment. First report of the VAMP Urban Working Group. Part of the IAEA/CEC co-ordinated research programme on the validation of environmental model predictions (VAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    A co-ordinated research programme was begun at the IAEA in 1988 with the short title of Validation of Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP). The VAMP Urban Working Group aims to examine, by means of expert review combined with formal validation exercises, modelling for the assessment of the radiation exposure of urban populations through the external irradiation and inhalation pathways. An aim of the studies is to evaluate the lessons learned and to document the improvements in modelling capability as a result of experience gained following the Chernobyl accident. This Technical Document, the first report of the Group, addresses the subject of the deposition of airborne radionuclides into the urban environment. It summarizes not only the present status of modelling in this field, but also the results of a limited validation exercise that was performed under the auspices of VAMP. 42 refs, figs and tabs

  3. Detailed north-south cross section showing environments of deposition, organic richness, and thermal maturities of lower Tertiary rocks in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    The Uinta Basin of northeast Utah has produced large amounts of hydrocarbons from lower Tertiary strata since the 1960s. Recent advances in drilling technologies, in particular the development of efficient methods to drill and hydraulically fracture horizontal wells, has spurred renewed interest in producing hydrocarbons from unconventional low-permeability dolomite and shale reservoirs in the lacustrine, Eocene Green River Formation. The Eocene Green River Formation was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that occupied the Uinta Basin, the Piceance Basin to the east, and the intervening Douglas Creek arch. The focus of recent drilling activity has been the informal Uteland Butte member of the Green River Formation and to a much lesser extent the overlying R-0 oil shale zone of the Green River Formation. Initial production rates ranging from 500 to 1,500 barrels of oil equivalent per day have been reported from the Uteland Butte member from horizontal well logs that are as long as 4,000 feet (ft);. The cross section presented here extends northward from outcrop on the southern margin of the basin into the basin’s deep trough, located just south of the Uinta Mountains, and transects the area where this unconventional oil play is developing. The Monument Butte field, which is one of the fields located along this line of section, has produced hydrocarbons from conventional sandstone reservoirs in the lower part of the Green River Formation and underlying Wasatch Formation since 1981. A major fluvial-deltaic system entered Lake Uinta from the south, and this new line of section is ideal for studying the effect of the sediments delivered by this drainage on hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Green River Formation. The cross section also transects the Greater Altamont-Bluebell field in the deepest part of the basin, where hydrocarbons have been produced from fractured, highly overpressured marginal lacustrine and fluvial reservoirs in the Green River, Wasatch

  4. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc., jasper (picture, landscape, red etc., common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc., silica masses (undivided, and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.. Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine, garnet (almandine and pyrope, tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  5. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinović, Zoran; Simić, Vladimir; Jelenković, Rade; Ilić, Miloje

    2016-06-01

    Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc.), jasper (picture, landscape, red etc.), common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc.), silica masses (undivided), and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.). Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine), garnet (almandine and pyrope), tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  6. Neural Networks Technique, Lithofacies Classifications and Analysis and Depositional Environment Interpretation for 3-D Reservoir Geological Modeling and Exploration Studies (X Example)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iloghalu, E.; Chin, A.; Ebong, U.

    2003-01-01

    The value of borehole geology in Petroleum Exploration and Production cannot be over-emphasized. Reservoir characterization in mature fields and indeed mature basins requires high-resolution and high precision tools to determine the Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the areas of interest. The aim of reservoir studies is usually to determine the heterogeneity and the internal architecture of the reservoirs and the resulting model is simulated to derive the reservoir engineering properties, which impacts on quality decisions for optimal exploitation of the hydrocarbon in place. The point issues or challenges usually encountered in reservoir studies and management are baffles, barriers to flow, thief zones and other uncertainties that come about due to inadequate understanding of the sedimentology of the reservoirs in question. (Issues like preferential flow direction which significantly impact on secondary recovery and affect the costs). Recent advancements in borehole geology image and dips data helps to effectively itemize these uncertainties, and significantly reduce them to the barrest minimum. This work shows processed and interpreted image and dips data from a field, integrated with other petrophysical data and then incorporated into a field-wide study in the X-field. This was done using the most recent technological advancements in logging tools and in interpretation processes. The achievements include cost saving, higher precision results and reduced time or interpretation

  7. Surficial uranium deposits: summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otton, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium occurs in a variety of surficial environments in calcretes, gypcretes, silcretes, dolocretes and in organic sediments. Groundwater moving on low gradients generates these formations and, under favourable circumstances, uranium deposits. A variety of geomorphic settings can be involved. Most surficial deposits are formed in desert, temperate wetland, tropical, or transitional environments. The largest deposits known are in sedimentary environments in arid lands. The deposits form largely by the interaction of ground or surface waters on the geomorphic surface in favourable geologic terrains and climates. The deposits are commonly in the condition of being formed or reconstituted, or being destroyed. Carnotite is common in desert deposits while in wetland deposits no uranium minerals may be seen. Radioactive disequilibrium is common, particularly in wetland deposits. Granites and related rocks are major source rocks and most large deposits are in regions with enriched uranium contents, i.e. significantly greater than 5 ppm uranium. Uranium dissolution and transport is usually under oxidizing conditions. Transport in desert conditions is usually as a bicarbonate. A variety of fixation mechanisms operate to extract the uranium and form the deposits. Physical barriers to groundwater flow may initiate ore deposition. Mining costs are likely to be low because of the near surface occurrence, but there may be processing difficulties as clay may be present and the saline or carbonate content may be high. (author)

  8. Microbial processes in banded iron formation deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole; Konhauser, Kurt; Kappler, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    , remains unresolved. Evidence of an anoxic Earth with only localized oxic areas until the Great Oxidation Event ca 2·45 to 2·32 Ga makes the investigation of O2-independent mechanisms for banded iron formation deposition relevant. Recent studies have explored the long-standing proposition that Archean......Banded iron formations have been studied for decades, particularly regarding their potential as archives of the Precambrian environment. In spite of this effort, the mechanism of their deposition and, specifically, the role that microbes played in the precipitation of banded iron formation minerals...... banded iron formations may have been formed, and diagenetically modified, by anaerobic microbial metabolisms. These efforts encompass a wide array of approaches including isotope, ecophysiological and phylogeny studies, molecular and mineral marker analysis, and sedimentological reconstructions. Herein...

  9. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2017-05-09

    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  10. Weathering and decontamination of radioactivity deposited on asphalt surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warming, L.

    1982-12-01

    Longlived fission products might be deposited in the environment after a serious reactor accident. At Risoe we have studied how danish weather conditions and fire hosing influence the decontamination of Rubidium 86 (representing Cesium 134 and 137) Barium-Lanthanum 140 and Ruthenium 103 deposited on asphalt surfaces. Measurements have been done at different types of roads and during all seasons including winter with snow and ice cover of the roads. The results from the first five experiments were used for calculating doses to the population in the land contamination (RISO-R-462). (author)

  11. Basal Resources in Backwaters of the Colorado River Below Glen Canyon Dam-Effects of Discharge Regimes and Comparison with Mainstem Depositional Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, Katherine E.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Eight species of fish were native to the Colorado River before the closure of Glen Canyon Dam, but only four of these native species are currently present. A variety of factors are responsible for the loss of native fish species and the limited distribution and abundance of those that remain. These factors include cold and constant water temperatures, predation and competition with nonnative fish species, and food limitation. Backwaters are areas of stagnant flow in a return-current channel and are thought to be critical rearing habitat for juvenile native fish. Backwaters can be warmer than the main channel and may support higher rates of food production. Glen Canyon Dam is a peaking hydropower facility and, as a result, has subdaily variation in discharge because of changes in demand for power. Stable daily discharges may improve the quality of nearshore rearing habitats such as backwaters by increasing warming, stabilizing the substrate, and increasing food production. To evaluate whether backwaters have greater available food resources than main-channel habitats, and how resource availability in backwaters is affected by stable flow regimes, we quantified water-column and benthic food resources in backwaters seasonally for 1 year using both standing (organic matter concentration/density; chlorophyll a concentration/density; zooplankton concentration; benthic invertebrate density and biomass) and process measurements (chamber estimates of ecosystem metabolism). We compared backwater resource measurements with comparable data from main-channel habitats, and compared backwater data collected during stable discharge with data collected when there was subdaily variation in discharge. Rates of primary production in backwaters (mean gross primary production of 1.7 g O2/m2/d) and the main channel (mean gross primary production of 2.0 g O2/m2/d) were similar. Benthic organic matter standing stock (presented as ash-free dry mass-AFDM) was seven times higher in backwaters

  12. Understanding the spectrum of diesel injector deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, Robert; Barbour, Robert [Lubrizol Limited, Derby (United Kingdom); Arters, David; Bush, Jim [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the origin of diesel fuel injector deposits used to be relatively simple; for the most part they were caused by the decomposition of fuel during the combustion process, were generally organic in nature and typically only affected the nozzle orifices. However, modem fuel injector designs appear to be both more severe in terms of generating conditions conducive to creating new and different types of deposits and more likely to have their operation affected by those deposits. Changes to fuel composition and type have in some cases increased the potential pool of reactive species or provided new potential deposit precursors. As a result, the universe of diesel injector deposits now range from the traditional organic to partially or fully inorganic in nature and from nozzle coking deposits to deposits which can seize the internal components of the injector; so called internal diesel injector deposits. Frequently, combinations of inorganic and organic deposits are found. While power loss is one well known issue associated with nozzle deposits, other field problems resulting from these new deposits include severe issues with drivability, emissions, fuel consumption and even engine failure. Conventional deposit control additive chemistries were developed to be effective against organic nozzle coking deposits. These conventional additives in many cases may prove ineffective against this wide range of deposit types. This paper discusses the range of deposits that have been found to adversely impact modem diesel fuel injectors and compares the performance of conventional and new, advanced deposit control additives against these various challenges to proper fuel injector functioning. (orig.)

  13. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Insured Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Summary of Deposits (SOD) is the annual survey of branch office deposits for all FDIC-insured institutions including insured U.S. branches of foreign banks. Data...

  14. Towards a genetic classification of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.

    2009-01-01

    As the IAEA's uranium deposit classification is based on the deposit nature and morphology, some deposits which have been formed by very different genetic processes and located in very different geological environments, are grouped according to this classification. In order to build up a reliable genetic classification based on the mechanism at the origin of the formation of the deposit, the author presents the five main categories according to which uranium deposits can be classified: magmatic, hydrothermal, evapotranspiration, syn-sedimentary, and infiltration of meteoric water

  15. Infraordinary Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The exhibition Infraordinary Deposits presents three works in progress by PhD Fellow Espen Lunde Nielsen from the on-going PhD project Architectural Probes of the Infraordinary: Social Coexistence through Everyday Spaces. The infraordinary is understood as the opposite of the extraordinary...... and as that which is ‘worn half-invisible’ by use. Nevertheless, these unregarded spaces play a vital role to the social dimension of the city. The selected projects (‘urban biopsies’) on display explore how people coexist through these spaces and within the city itself, either through events in real......, daily 8.45 – 15.00 Where: Aarhus School of Architecture, The Canteen, Nørreport 18, 8000 Aarhus C...

  16. Seasonal Patterns of Dry Deposition at a High-Elevation Site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Kaley M.; Mladenov, Natalie; Williams, Mark W.; Campbell, Cari M.; Lipson, David A.

    2017-10-01

    In the Colorado Rocky Mountains, high-elevation barren soils are deficient in carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) and enriched in nitrogen (N). The seasonal variability of dry deposition and its contributions to alpine elemental budgets is critical to understanding how dry deposition influences biogeochemical cycling in high-elevation environments. In this 2 year study, we evaluated dry and wet deposition inputs to the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research (NWT LTER) site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The total organic C flux in wet + dry (including soluble and particulate C) deposition was >30 kg C ha-1 yr-1 and represents a substantial input for this C-limited environment. Our side-by-side comparison of dry deposition collectors with and without marble insert indicated that the insert improved retention of dry deposition by 28%. Annual average dry deposition fluxes of water-soluble organic carbon (4.25 kg C ha-1 yr-1) and other water-soluble constituents, including ammonium (0.16 kg NH4+ha-1 yr-1), nitrate (1.99 kg NO3- ha-1 yr-1), phosphate (0.08 kg PO43- ha-1 yr-1), and sulfate (1.20 kg SO42- ha-1 yr-1), were comparable to those in wet deposition, with highest values measured in the summer. Backward trajectory analyses implicate air masses passing through the arid west and Four Corners, USA, as dominant source areas for dry deposition, especially in spring months. Synchronous temporal patterns of deposition observed at the NWT LTER site and a distant Rocky Mountain National Park Clean Air Status and Trends Network site indicate that seasonal dry deposition patterns are regional phenomena with important implications for the larger Rocky Mountain region.

  17. petrography and depositional environments of the sandstones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Received 8 January 2016; Revision Accepted 5 April 2016). ABSTRACT. The study ... stratigraphy of the Benue Trough, which the study area is part of, has been ... limit is the northern boundary of the Niger Delta, while the Northern limit is the ...

  18. sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentation in the Delbi-Moye Basin took place in tectonically controlled grabens and half-grabens formed by extensional fault systems and accompanied by passive subsidence. The sedimentation history of the basin is related to the tectonic events that affected ...

  19. sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentation in the Delbi-Moye Basin ... accompanied by passive subsidence. ... margins, whereas the concentration of fine-grained clastic sediments and ..... concentrated at the marginal areas of the basin. .... faults favoured the accumulation of alluvial fan.

  20. reservoir characteristics and palaeo-depositional environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samsung

    2015-07-25

    Jul 25, 2015 ... Therefore the hydrocarbon accumulation of this field is commercially viable and promising. This study revealed that ... Guinea continental margin in equatorial West Africa between ... onshore Niger Delta and belongs to Addax Petroleum .... GRmin = Gamma Ray value in a nearby clean sand zone. GRmax= ...

  1. Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... The frontal part of the active, wedge-shaped Indo-Eurasian collision boundary is defined by the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt whose foreland basin accumulated sediments that eventually became part of the thrust belt and is presently exposed as the sedimentary rocks of the Siwalik Group. The rocks of the ...

  2. Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The collision of the Indian and Tibetan plates, initiated ~55 .... b rok en rectangle). (d). Pa rt o f. Tista. R iv er section showing the im b ricate thrust ... occur throughout the sequence. They are .... A detailed description of facies units is presented.

  3. Sedimentology and depositional environments of the Upper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. SOLA OJO

    This article covers the traverse south of the Niger ... constitute the stratigraphic framework in this study. Bida Basin ... rounded to angular quartz, feldspars, and fragments of quartzite ... 6). A variant of this is graded bedded and stratified conglomeratic sandstone with ..... a reviewer and useful suggestions enriched the quality.

  4. Palynostratigraphy and depositional environment of Vastan Lignite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Alangium became abundant, swamp forest ..... lagoons. 5.3.2 Operculodinium centrocarpum Cenozone. Type section: .... swamp and water edge, mangrove and coastal ele- ..... cysts in bottom sediments from the north Atlantic ocean.

  5. A radon progeny deposition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rielage, Keith; Elliott, Steven R.; Hime, Andrew; Guiseppe, Vincent E.; Westerdale, S.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222 Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210 Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  6. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K.; Westerdale, S.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222 Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210 Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  7. Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits of the World - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Dan L.; Berger, Vladimir I.; Singer, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Grade and tonnage models are useful in quantitative mineral-resource assessments. The models and database presented in this report are an update of earlier publications about volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. These VMS deposits include what were formerly classified as kuroko, Cyprus, and Besshi deposits. The update was necessary because of new information about some deposits, changes in information in some deposits, such as grades, tonnages, or ages, revised locations of some deposits, and reclassification of subtypes. In this report we have added new VMS deposits and removed a few incorrectly classified deposits. This global compilation of VMS deposits contains 1,090 deposits; however, it was not our intent to include every known deposit in the world. The data was recently used for mineral-deposit density models (Mosier and others, 2007; Singer, 2008). In this paper, 867 deposits were used to construct revised grade and tonnage models. Our new models are based on a reclassification of deposits based on host lithologies: Felsic, Bimodal-Mafic, and Mafic volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. Mineral-deposit models are important in exploration planning and quantitative resource assessments for two reasons: (1) grades and tonnages among deposit types vary significantly, and (2) deposits of different types occur in distinct geologic settings that can be identified from geologic maps. Mineral-deposit models combine the diverse geoscience information on geology, mineral occurrences, geophysics, and geochemistry used in resource assessments and mineral exploration. Globally based deposit models allow recognition of important features and demonstrate how common different features are. Well-designed deposit models allow geologists to deduce possible mineral-deposit types in a given geologic environment and economists to determine the possible economic viability of these resources. Thus, mineral-deposit models play a central role in presenting geoscience

  8. Uranium and environment in Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, G.; Bayadilov, E.; Zhelnov, V.; Akhmetov, M.; Abakumov, A.

    1997-01-01

    Kazakstan's data on uranium as a state report has been included for the first time in the Red Book. Therefore the report contains two large themes presented in Suggested Topics for Papers: Country report, based on the 1995 NEA/IAEA Red Book Questionnaire and environmental impact regulations. Kazakstan is considered as one of the world leaders on uranium supply. In Kazakstan there are many well known types of deposits but the main one is the sandstone-rollfront type. That type is represented by the group of deposits of the Syr-Darya uranium ore province. Deposits of that type include that main part of uranium ore of the Republic of Kazakstan and supply almost all of its uranium mining. At the large three enterprises the uranium is extracted by underground leaching. The mining method of uranium extraction is stopped. Because of the poor development of nuclear energy, Kazakstan's need for uranium is not very high. Presence of a large amount of cheap and technological uranium ores allow the Republic to export uranium. There are plans to increase uranium mining and perhaps to establish new mining facilities including joint-ventures. More than 50 uranium deposits are known in Kazakstan. During prospecting and exploitation of these deposits a large amount of rad wastes in the form of ore dumps and tailings were generated. They have a substantial influence on the environment. Moreover, near the sandstone-rollfront type uranium deposits the large amount of underground water has been contaminated by radionuclides. Special investigation of this phenomenon is necessary. In Kazakstan there are the rad waste disposal conception and contaminated earth recultivation regulations. At present ''The Rad Wastes Management Law'' is submitted for approval. (author). 2 figs

  9. Uranium deposits in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimori, R.K.; Ragland, P.C.; Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a review of published data bearing on the geology and origin of uranium deposits in granitic, pegmatitic and migmatitic rocks with the aim of assisting in the development of predictive criteria for the search for similar deposits in the U.S. Efforts were concentrated on the so-called ''porphyry'' uranium deposits. Two types of uranium deposits are primarily considered: deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in gneiss terrains, and disseminations of uranium in high-level granites. In Chapter 1 of this report, the general data on the distribution of uranium in igneous and metamorphic rocks are reviewed. Chapter 2 contains some comments on the classification of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks and a summary of the main features of the geology of uranium deposits in granites. General concepts of the behavior of uranium in granites during crustal evolution are reviewed in Chapter 3. Also included is a discussion of the relationship of uranium mineralization in granites to the general evolution of mobile belts, plus the influence of magmatic and post-magmatic processes on the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks and related ore deposits. Chapter 4 relates the results of experimental studies on the crystallization of granites to some of the geologic features of uranium deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in high-grade metamorphic terrains. Potential or favorable areas for igneous uranium deposits in the U.S.A. are delineated in Chapter 5. Data on the geology of specific uranium deposits in granitic rocks are contained in Appendix 1. A compilation of igneous rock formations containing greater than 10 ppM uranium is included in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 is a report on the results of a visit to the Roessing area. Appendix 4 is a report on a field excursion to eastern Canada

  10. Report of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Protection of Nature and Reactor Safety, on the reactor accident of Chernobyl, its repercussions, and precautions taken or to be taken - including addenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroll, M.

    1986-01-01

    Apart from the report of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, the publication contains the following chapters: 1) Monitoring of environmental radioactivity; 2) analysis of propagation processes; 3) control and measuring points of the Federal Laender to monitor environmental radioactivity; 4) determination of the local dose rate; 5) concentration of radioactivity in air and soil (graphs); 6) up-to-date knowledge of events, measures; 7) nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany (review of technical safety); 8) interim report of the Committee on Reactor Safety - Reaktorsicherheitskommission - for preliminary evaluation; 9) interim report of the Committee on Radiation Protection - Strahlenschutzkommission - for assessment and evaluation of the effects. (HP) [de

  11. Stable-isotope geochemistry of the Pierina high-sulfidation Au-Ag deposit, Peru: Influence of hydrodynamics on SO42--H2S sulfur isotopic exchange in magmatic-steam and steam-heated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifarek, R.H.; Rye, R.O.

    2005-01-01

    environment was unusually slow, which provided sufficient time for the uptake of groundwater and partial to complete SO42--H2S isotopic exchange. The slow steam velocities were likely related to the dispersal of the steam column as it entered the tuffs and possibly to intermediate exsolution rates from magmatic brine. The low ??D values may also partly reflect continuous degassing of the mineralizing magma. Similarly, data for steam-heated alunite (??34S=12.3??? to 27.2???; ??18OSO4=11.7??? to 13.0???; ??18OOH=6.6??? to 9.4???; ??D=-59??? to -42???) are unusual and indicate a strong magmatic influence, relatively high temperatures (140 to 180 ??C, based on ??18 OSO4-OH fractionations), and partial to complete sulfur isotopic exchange between steam-heated sulfate and H2S. Restricted lithologically controlled fluid flow in the host tuffs allowed magmatic condensate to supplant meteoric groundwater at the water table and create the high-temperature low-pH conditions that permitted unusually rapid SO42--H2S isotopic equilibration (50-300 days) and (or) long sulfate residence times for this environment. Late void-filling barite (??34S=7.4??? to 29.7???; ??18OSO4=-0.4??? to 15.1???) and later void-filling goethite (??18O=-11.8??? to 0.2???) document a transition from magmatic condensate to dominantly meteoric water in steam-heated fluids during cooling and collapse of the hydrothermal system. These steam-heated fluids oxidized the top ???300 m of the deposit by leaching sulfides, redistributing metals, and precipitating barite??acanthite??gold and goethite-hematite ??gold. Steam-heated oxidation, rather than weathering, was critical to forming the orebody in that it not only released encapsulated gold but likely enriched the deposit to ore-grade Au concentrations. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Some concepts of favorability for world-class-type uranium deposits in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, H.H.

    1981-03-01

    An account is given of concepts of favorability of geologic environments in the eastern United States for uranium deposits of several major types existing elsewhere in the world. The purpose is to convey some initial ideas about the interrelationships of the geology of the eastern United States and the geologic settings of certain of these world-class deposits. The study and report include consideration of uranium deposits other than those generally manifesting the geologic, geochemical and genetic characteristics associated with the conventional sandstone-type ores of the western United States.

  13. Some concepts of favorability for world-class-type uranium deposits in the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, H.H.

    1981-03-01

    An account is given of concepts of favorability of geologic environments in the eastern United States for uranium deposits of several major types existing elsewhere in the world. The purpose is to convey some initial ideas about the interrelationships of the geology of the eastern United States and the geologic settings of certain of these world-class deposits. The study and report include consideration of uranium deposits other than those generally manifesting the geologic, geochemical and genetic characteristics associated with the conventional sandstone-type ores of the western United States

  14. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.

    To investigate the physical process of deposition and resuspension of particles in the indoor environment, scale experiments are used and a sampling method is established. The influences of surface orientation and turbulence and velocity of the air on the dust load on a surface are analysed....

  15. Laser deposition of HTSC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol', Eh.N.; Bagratashvili, V.N.; Zherikhin, A.N.; Sviridov, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) films fabrication by the laser deposition are reviewed. Physical and chemical processes taking place during laser deposition are considered, such as the target evaporation, the material transport from the target to the substrate, the film growth on the substrate, thermochemical reactions and mass transfer within the HTSC films and their stability. The experimental results on the laser deposition of different HTSC ceramics and their properties investigations are given. The major technological issues are discussed including the deposition schemes, the oxygen supply, the target compositions and structure, the substrates and interface layers selection, the deposition regimes and their impact on the HTSC films properties. 169 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Acidic deposition and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, N.P.; Ecsedy, C.; Olem, H.; Nikolaidis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    A literature is presented which examines the research published on understanding ecosystem acidification and the effects of acidic deposition on freshwaters. Topics of discussion include the following: acidic deposition; regional assessments; atmospheric deposition and transport; aquatic effects; mathematical modeling; liming acidic waters; global climate change; atmospheric changes; climate feedbacks; and aquatic effects

  17. 47 CFR 32.4040 - Customers' deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customers' deposits. 32.4040 Section 32.4040... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4040 Customers' deposits. (a) This account shall include the amount of cash deposited with the company by customers as security...

  18. Relative influence of deposition and diagenesis on carbonate reservoir layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, Emmanuelle [Total E and P, Courbevoie (France); Javaux, Catherine [Total E and P, Pointe Noire (Congo)

    2008-07-01

    The architecture heterogeneities and petrophysical properties of carbonate reservoirs result from a combination of platform morphology, related depositional environments, relative sea level changes and diagenetic events. The reservoir layering built for static and dynamic modelling purposes should reflect the key heterogeneities (depositional or diagenetic) which govern the fluid flow patterns. The layering needs to be adapted to the goal of the modelling, ranging from full field computations of hydrocarbon volumes, to sector-based fine-scale simulations to test the recovery improvement. This paper illustrates various reservoir layering types, including schemes dominated by depositional architecture, and those more driven by the diagenetic overprint. The examples include carbonate platform reservoirs from different stratigraphic settings (Tertiary, Cretaceous, Jurassic and Permian) and different regions (Europe, Africa and Middle East areas). This review shows how significant stratigraphic surfaces (such as sequence boundaries or maximum flooding) with their associated facies shifts, can be often considered as key markers to constrain the reservoir layering. Conversely, how diagenesis (dolomitization and karst development), resulting in units with particular poroperm characteristics, may significantly overprint the primary reservoir architecture by generating flow units which cross-cut depositional sequences. To demonstrate how diagenetic processes can create reservoir bodies with geometries that cross-cut the depositional fabric, different types of dolomitization and karst development are illustrated. (author)

  19. Surface deposition from radioactive plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Accidents involving nuclear plants may release radioactive particles and gases to the atmosphere. Dry deposition of particles has been investigated mainly in the laboratory and a general understanding of the transfer mechanisms has been established. However there is apparently a substantial discrepancy between the few field observations of dry deposition of particles and laboratory measurements, particularly for 0.1 - 1 μm particles for which laboratory work shows very small deposition rates. In addition there are few estimates of deposition rates for forest and some other kinds of terrain. The most important gas in the context of a nuclear accident is I-131 and the behaviour of this gas at grass surfaces has received much attention. However smaller quantities of other gases and vapours may be released and the surface absorption of these species may require further investigation. In addition there is little knowledge of the behaviour of gases over many types of surface. The rate of deposition of particles and gases is influenced by many parameters including wind speed and the temperature stratification of the lower atmosphere. Conditions which give poor atmospheric dispersion usually give lower deposition velocities. Transfer to man depends on the availability of deposited materials on crops and grass. A wide range of isotopes including iodine and several metallic fission products are lost with a half life for residence on grass ranging from a few days to a few tens days, depending on climatic conditions

  20. Development of a sophisticated information system including a metadatabase and regional radioecological cadastres for assessment of the radiation impact on the environment and population of the Northwest Russia and Krasnoyarsk Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskra, A.A.; Burykin, A.A. [All-Russia Research Institute of Chemical Technology (Russian Federation); Lebedev, O.G.; Popov, V.K.; Churaev, R.S. [Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    The goal of the 'Radinfo' project is creation of a meta-database (MDB) and radioecological cadastres, geo-referenced information systems being a basic component of those ones, and conducting (using those systems) evaluation study of possible pathways of radionuclides from the radiation-hazardous objects, radioactive waste, and contaminated areas, followed by the ranking of threats, for two priority regions of Russia selected on the basis of expert interrogation: the North-West of Russia and Krasnoyarsk region. In order to achieve the goal the following investigation tools are being created and/or applied for evaluation study on the two regions: - information data files (local databases, publications etc.) on radiation sources, radioactive waste, and contaminated areas, as well as on the environment characteristics in the studied regions; - radionuclide transfer pathways models; - sets of local geo-information systems (comprising a basic component of GIS cadastres), embracing (scanning) the areas of two regions of interest and allowing to assess the dynamics of real and probable migration of radionuclides. The RadInfo MDB development is based on use of multi-level architecture of the Web-technologies. The multi-level architecture, unlike that of conventional 'Client-Server' type, provides more versatility and scalability. In this particular case a three-level version is realized. A SQL-server (MySQL) is used as a database server. The well-known Apache Web-server is used as an application server. For its part it provides execution of scripts in the PHP language (the scripts are program extension of the server part)With such kind of configuration there is no need in using special software on the client side. Any browser (for instance, Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator) can be used as a workplace. The configuration is very simple as far as as its installation, adjustment and use are concerned. The meta-database and the models of

  1. Development of a sophisticated information system including a metadatabase and regional radioecological cadastres for assessment of the radiation impact on the environment and population of the Northwest Russia and Krasnoyarsk Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskra, A.A.; Burykin, A.A.; Lebedev, O.G.; Popov, V.K.; Churaev, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the 'Radinfo' project is creation of a meta-database (MDB) and radioecological cadastres, geo-referenced information systems being a basic component of those ones, and conducting (using those systems) evaluation study of possible pathways of radionuclides from the radiation-hazardous objects, radioactive waste, and contaminated areas, followed by the ranking of threats, for two priority regions of Russia selected on the basis of expert interrogation: the North-West of Russia and Krasnoyarsk region. In order to achieve the goal the following investigation tools are being created and/or applied for evaluation study on the two regions: - information data files (local databases, publications etc.) on radiation sources, radioactive waste, and contaminated areas, as well as on the environment characteristics in the studied regions; - radionuclide transfer pathways models; - sets of local geo-information systems (comprising a basic component of GIS cadastres), embracing (scanning) the areas of two regions of interest and allowing to assess the dynamics of real and probable migration of radionuclides. The RadInfo MDB development is based on use of multi-level architecture of the Web-technologies. The multi-level architecture, unlike that of conventional 'Client-Server' type, provides more versatility and scalability. In this particular case a three-level version is realized. A SQL-server (MySQL) is used as a database server. The well-known Apache Web-server is used as an application server. For its part it provides execution of scripts in the PHP language (the scripts are program extension of the server part)With such kind of configuration there is no need in using special software on the client side. Any browser (for instance, Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator) can be used as a workplace. The configuration is very simple as far as as its installation, adjustment and use are concerned. The meta-database and the models of radionuclide transfer

  2. Legal Deposit of Electronic Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Umut Zan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.

  3. Measures for waste water management from recovery processing of Zhushanxia uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yaochi; Xu Lechang

    2000-01-01

    Measures for waste water management from recovery processing of Zhushanxia uranium deposit of Wengyuan Mine is analyzed, which include improving process flow, recycling process water used in uranium mill as much as possible and choosing a suitable disposing system. All these can decrease the amount of waste water, and also reduce costs of disposing waste water and harm to environment

  4. Unravelling the depositional origins and diagenetic alteration of carbonate breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Robert H. C.; Wilson, Moyra E. J.; Mihaljević, Morana; Pandolfi, John M.; Welsh, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Carbonate breccias dissociated from their platform top counterparts are little studied despite their potential to reveal the nature of past shallow-water carbonate systems and the sequential alteration of such systems. A petrographic and stable isotopic study allowed evaluation of the sedimentological and diagenetic variability of the Cenozoic Batu Gading Limestone breccia of Borneo. Sixteen lithofacies representing six facies groups have been identified mainly from the breccia clasts on the basis of shared textural and compositional features. Clasts of the breccia are representative of shallow carbonate platform top and associated flank to basinal deposits. Dominant inputs are from rocky (karstic) shorelines or localised seagrass environments, coral patch reef and larger foraminiferal-rich deposits. Early, pre-brecciation alteration (including micritisation, rare dissolution of bioclasts, minor syntaxial overgrowth cementation, pervasive neomorphism and calcitisation of bioclasts and matrix) was mainly associated with marine fluids in a near surface to shallow burial environment. The final stages of pre-brecciation diagenesis include mechanical compaction and cementation of open porosity in a shallow to moderate depth burial environment. Post-brecciation diagenesis took place at increasingly moderate to deep burial depths under the influence of dominantly marine burial fluids. Extensive compaction, circum-clast dissolution seams and stylolites have resulted in a tightly fitted breccia fabric, with some development of fractures and calcite cements. A degree of facies-specific controls are evident for the pre-brecciation diagenesis. Pervasive mineralogical stabilisation and cementation have, however, led to a broad similarity of diagenetic features in the breccia clasts thereby effectively preserving depositional features of near-original platform top and margin environments. There is little intra-clast alteration overprint associated with subsequent clast reworking

  5. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  6. Palaeontology of the upper Turonian paralic deposits of the Sainte-Mondane Formation, Aquitaine Basin, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neraudenau, D.; Saint Martin, S.; Battern, D.J.; Colin, J.P.; Daviero-Gomez, V.; Girard, V.; Gomez, B.; Nohra, Y.A.; Polette, F.; Platel, J.P.; Saint Martin, J.P.; Vullo, R.

    2016-07-01

    The upper Turonian lignite deposits of Sainte-Mondane, Dordogne (Aquitaine Basin, SW France), consist of clays bearing translucent, orange to red, amber micrograins. The amber exhibits different types of microbial inclusions. The clays contain several conifers including the genera Brachyphyllum, Frenelopsis and Glenrosa, and a few leaf fragments of eudicot angiosperms. Among the plant meso-fossils the occurrence of Costatheca, Spermatites and abundant, diverse, megaspores, including species of Ariadnaesporites, Bacutriletes, Echitriletes, Erlansonisporites, Maexisporites, Minerisporites and Verrutriletes, is noteworthy. Pollen grains of the Normapolles group are important components of the palynomorph assemblage. The clays were deposited in a calm, estuarine or lagoonal, muddy environment. The overlying lignitic sands contain large fossil wood pieces of the conifer Agathoxylon, small solitary corals, fragmentary oysters and pectinids, echinoid spines, a few teeth of marine selachians and bony fishes, but no amber is present. These sands were deposited in a high-energy coastal marine environment. (Author)

  7. Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

  8. The smog-fog-smog cycle and acid deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Spyros N.; Seinfeld, John H.; Pilinis, Christodoulos

    1990-10-01

    A model including descriptions of aerosol and droplet microphysics, gas and aqueous-phase chemistry, and deposition is used to study the transformation of aerosol to fog droplets and back to aerosol in an urban environment. Fogs in polluted environments have the potential to increase aerosol sulfate concentrations but at the same time to cause reductions in the aerosol concentration of nitrate, chloride, ammonium and sodium and well as in the total aerosol mass concentration. The sulfate produced during fog episodes favors the aerosol particles that have access to most of the fog liquid water which are usually the large particles. Aerosol scavenging efficiencies of around 80 percent are calculated for urban fogs. Sampling and subsequent mixing of fog droplets of different sizes may result in measured concentrations that are not fully representative of the fogwater chemical composition and can introduce errors in the reported values of the ionic species deposition velocities. Differences in the major ionic species deposition velocities can be explained by their distribution over the droplet size spectrum and can be correlated with the species average diameter. Two different expressions are derived for use in fog models for the calculation of the liquid water deposition velocity during fog growth and dissipation stages.

  9. Classification of Uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlkamp, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    A listing of the recognized types of uranium mineralization shows nineteen determinable types out of which only six can be classified as of economic significance at present: Oligomiitic quartz pebble conglomerates, sandstone types, calcretes, intra-intrusive types, hydrothermal veins, veinlike types. The different types can be genetically related to prevalent geological environments, i.e. 1. the primary uranium occurrences formed by endogenic processes, 2. the secondary derived from the primary by subsequent exogenic processes, 3. the tertiary occurrences are assumed to be formed by endogenic metamorphic processes, although little is known about the behaviour of the uranium during the metamorphosis and therefore the metallogenesis of this tertiary uranium generation is still vague. A metallotectonic-geochronologic correlation of the uranium deposits shows a distinct affinity of the uranium to certain geological epochs: The Upper Archean, Lower Proterozoic, the Hercynian and, in a less established stage, the Upper Proterozoic. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  10. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  11. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  12. Hideout in steam generator tube deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Franklin, K.J.; Turner, C.W.

    1998-05-01

    Hideout in deposits on steam generator tubes was studied using tubes coated with magnetite. Hideout from sodium chloride solutions at 279 degrees C was followed using an on-line high-temperature conductivity probe, as well as by chemical analysis of solution samples from the autoclave in which the studies were done. Significant hideout was observed only at a heat flux greater than 200 kW/m 2 , corresponding to a temperature drop greater than 2 degrees C across the deposits. The concentration factor resulting from the hideout increased highly non-linearly with the heat flux (varying as high as the fourth power of the heat flux). The decrease in the apparent concentration factor with increasing deposit thickness suggested that the pores in the deposit were occupied by a mixture of steam and water, which is consistent with the conclusion from the thermal conductivity measurements on deposits in a separate study. Analyses of the deposits after the hideout tests showed no evidence of any hidden-out solute species, probably due to the concentrations being very near the detection limits and to their escape from the deposit as the tests were being ended. This study showed that hideout in deposits may concentrate solutes in the steam generator bulk water by a factor as high as 2 x 10 3 . Corrosion was evident under the deposit in some tests, with some chromium enrichment on the surface of the tube. Chromium enrichment usually indicates an acidic environment, but the mobility required of chromium to become incorporated into the thick magnetite deposit may indicate corrosion under an alkaline environment. An alkaline environment could result from preferential accumulation of sodium in the solution in the deposit during the hideout process. (author)

  13. Characteristics of Wet Deposition in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, A.; Arakaki, T.

    2017-12-01

    Acid deposition survey in Japan has started since 1991 by Japan Environmental Laboratories Association (JELA). The JELA has about 60 monitoring sites for wet deposition including remote, rural and urban area. The measured constituents of wet deposition are; precipitation, pH, electric conductivity, major Anions, and major Cations. From those data, we analyze spatial and temporal variations of wet deposition components in Japan. Among the 60 monitoring sites, 39 sampling sites were selected in this study, which have kept sampling continuously between 2003JFY and 2014JFY. All samples were collected by wet-only samplers. To analyze area characteristics, all the areas were divided into 6 regions; Northern part of Japan (NJ), Facing the Japan Sea (JS), Eastern part of Japan (EJ), Central part of Japan (CJ), Western part of Japan (WJ) and Southern West Islands (SW). NO3- and non-sea-salt-SO42- (nss-SO42-) are major components of rain acidification. Especially, between December and February (winter) the air mass from west affected the temporal variations of those acid components and the concentrations were higher in JS and WJ regions than those in other regions. Japanese ministry of the Environment reported that mixing ratio of NO2 in Japan has been less than 0.04ppm since 1976, and that of SO2 has been less than 0.02ppm since 1978. Their concentrations in Japan have remained flat or slowly decreased recently. However the temporal variations of NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio in winter in JS region were significantly increased on average at 2.2% y-1 from 2003JFY to 2014JFY. The results suggest that long-range transboundary air pollutants increased NO3- concentrations and NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio.

  14. Magma ascent, fragmentation and depositional characteristics of "dry" maar volcanoes: Similarities with vent-facies kimberlite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuijs, Jaap F.; Mattsson, Hannes B.

    2013-02-01

    Several maar craters within the Lake Natron-Engaruka monogenetic volcanic field (LNE-MVF) of northern Tanzania show compelling evidence for magmatic fragmentation and dry deposition. This is in contradiction of the common belief that most maars are formed through the explosive interaction between ascending magma and ground- or surface water. We here present a detailed study on the eruptive and depositional characteristics of the Loolmurwak and Eledoi maar volcanoes, two of the largest craters in the LNE-MVF, focusing on high-resolution stratigraphy, sedimentology, grain size distribution, pyroclast textures and morphologies, bulk geochemistry and mineral chemistry. At both maars, ejected material has been emplaced by a combination of pyroclastic surges and fallout. Indicators of phreatomagmatic fragmentation and wet deposition, such as impact sags, accretionary lapilli, vesiculated tuffs and plastering against obstacles, are absent in the deposits. Juvenile material predominantly occurs as fluidal-shaped vesicular melt droplets and contains no glass shards produced by the breakage of bubble walls. The Eledoi deposits comprise a large amount of inversely graded beds and lenses, which result from grain flow in a dry depositional environment. Preferential deposition of fine material toward the northern side of its crater can be related to effective wind winnowing in a dry eruption plume. This large variety of observations testifies to the dominance of magmatic fragmentation as well as dry deposition at the Loolmurwak and Eledoi maars, which is in line with what has been found for other structures in the LNE-MVF but contrasts with current ideas on maar formation. We infer that a volatile-rich, olivine melilitic magma was formed by small amounts of partial melting at upper mantle depths. With minimum average ascent rates of 5.3 m s- 1 for Loolmurwak and 26.2 m s- 1 for Eledoi, this magma rapidly moved toward the surface and exsolved a substantial amount of volatiles

  15. Uranium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Victorio.

    1984-01-01

    The main uranium deposits and occurrences in the Argentine Republic are described, considering, in principle, their geologic setting, the kind of 'model' of the mineralization and its possible origin, and describing the ore species present in each case. The main uraniferous accumulations of the country include the models of 'sandstong type', veintype and impregnation type. There are also other kinds of accumulations, as in calcrete, etc. The main uranium production has been registered in the provinces of Mendoza, Salta, La Rioja, Chubut, Cordoba and San Luis. In each case, the minerals present are mentioned, having been recognized 37 different species all over the country (M.E.L.) [es

  16. Economical Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Richard; Davis, Robert; Linford, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition is a self limiting deposition process that can produce films at a user specified height. At BYU we have designed a low cost and automated atomic layer deposition system. We have used the system to deposit silicon dioxide at room temperature using silicon tetrachloride and tetramethyl orthosilicate. Basics of atomic layer deposition, the system set up, automation techniques and our system's characterization are discussed.

  17. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  18. Atmospheric deposition 2000. NOVA 2003; Atmosfaerisk deposition 2000. NOVA 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Hertel, O.; Hovmand, M.F.; Kemp, K.; Skjoeth, C.A.

    2001-11-01

    This report presents measurements and calculations from the atmospheric part of NOVA 2003 and covers results for 2000. It summarises the main results concerning concentrations and depositions of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur compounds related to eutrophication and acidification. Depositions of atmospheric compounds to Danish marine waters as well as land surface are presented. Measurements: In 2000 the monitoring program consisted of eight stations where wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, phosphate (semi quantitatively) and sulphate were measured using bulk precipitation samplers. Six of the stations had in addition measurements of atmospheric content of A, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur compounds in gas and particulate phase carried out by use of filter pack samplers. Filters were analysed at the National Environmental Research Institute. Furthermore nitrogen dioxide were measured using nitrogen dioxide filter samplers and monitors. Model calculations: The measurements in the monitoring program were supplemented with model calculations of concentrations and depositions of nitrogen and sulphur compounds to Danish land surface, marine waters, fjords and bays using the ACDEP model (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition). The model is a so-called trajectory model and simulates the physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere using meteorological and emission data as input. The advantage of combining measurements with model calculations is that the strengths of both methods is obtained. Conclusions concerning: 1) actual concentration levels at the monitoring stations, 2) deposition at the monitoring stations, 3) seasonal variations and 4) long term trends in concentrations and depositions are mainly based on the direct measurements. These are furthermore used to validate the results of the model calculations. Calculations and conclusions concerning: 1) depositions to land surface and to the individual marine water, 2) contributions from different emission

  19. Anthropogenic activities including pollution and contamination of coastal marine environment.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    stream_size 8 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Ecophysiol_Occup_Health_14_71.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Ecophysiol_Occup_Health_14_71.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. Origin of ores of endogeneous uranium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasanskij, V.I.; Laverov, N.P.; Tugarinov, A.I.

    1976-01-01

    The consideration mainly includes those endogenous uranium ore deposits of which more exact data are available, such as precambrian ones in areas of proto-activated old platforms, deposits of palaeozoic fold areas, and mesozoic deposits in areas of tectonic-magnetic activation. Their genesis and typical characters are mentioned and conclusions on the general distribution of the deposits are drawn. (author)

  1. Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Michel; de Donder, Erwin; Messios, Neophytos; Hetey, Laszlo; Calders, Stijn; Evans, Hugh; Daly, Eamonn

    SPENVIS is an ESA operational software developed and maintained at BIRA-IASB since 1996. It provides standardized access to most of the recent models of the hazardous space environment, through a user-friendly Web interface (http://www.spenvis.oma.be/). The system allows spacecraft engineers to perform a rapid analysis of environmental problems related to natural radiation belts, solar energetic particles, cosmic rays, plasmas, gases, magnetic fields and micro-particles. Various reporting and graphical utilities and extensive help facilities are included to allow engineers with relatively little familiarity to produce reliable results. SPENVIS also contains an active, integrated version of the ECSS Space Environment Standard and access to in-flight data on the space environment. Although SPENVIS in the first place is designed to help spacecraft designers, it is also used by technical universities in their educational programs. In the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme, SPENVIS will be part of the initial set of precursor services of the Space Weather segment. SPENVIS includes several engineering models to assess to effects of the space environment on spacecrafts such as surface and internal charging, energy deposition, solar cell damage and SEU rates. The presentation will review how such models could be connected to in situ measurements or forecasting models of the space environment in order to produce post event analysis or in orbit effects alert. The last developments and models implemented in SPENVIS will also be presented.

  2. Uraniferous surficial deposits in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Levin, M.; Wagener, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits are located in the north-western Cape Province of South Africa, in the Namib Desert east of Walvis Bay in South West Africa/Namibia and in the Serule Block of Botswana. They have been classified into the valley-fill, lacustrine, and pedogenic types. Carnotite is the main uranium-bearing mineral in the larger surficial deposits, with other minerals such as soddyite and phosphuranylite occurring locally. Uraninite or urano-organic complexes occur in the reducing environments of the diatomaceous earth, peat-rich deposits. Economically, the valley-fill type is the most important, with the largest deposits occurring in South West Africa/Namibia. In South West Africa/Namibia the valley-fill surficial uranium deposits occur in the Tumas and Langer Heinrich formations of the Teriary to Recent Namib Group. The Tubas, Langer Heinrich, and Welwitchia deposits are discussed: in them, carnotite occurs in calcareous and gypsiferous fluvial gravels. The pedogenic deposit at Mile 72 occurs in weathered granite and overlying gypcrete and has little economic potential. The economic potential of the surficial deposits in the north-western Cape Province is very limited in comparison with their South West African/Namibian counterparts, but the most important deposits are the lacustrine type, in particular those containing peat and diatomaceous earth. The mechanisms for the precipitation and preservation of the uranium are discussed

  3. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cem Sarica; Michael Volk

    2004-06-01

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multi-phase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines, because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines.

  4. A seasonal nitrogen deposition budget for Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, K B; Carrico, C M; Kreidenweis, S M; Schichtel, B; Malm, W C; Collett, J L

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen deposition is a concern in many protected ecosystems around the world, yet few studies have quantified a complete reactive nitrogen deposition budget including all dry and wet, inorganic and organic compounds. Critical loads that identify the level at which nitrogen deposition negatively affects an ecosystem are often defined using incomplete reactive nitrogen budgets. Frequently only wet deposition of ammonium and nitrate are considered, despite the importance of other nitrogen deposition pathways. Recently, dry deposition pathways including particulate ammonium and nitrate and gas phase nitric acid have been added to nitrogen deposition budgets. However, other nitrogen deposition pathways, including dry deposition of ammonia and wet deposition of organic nitrogen, still are rarely included. In this study, a more complete seasonal nitrogen deposition budget was constructed based on observations during a year-long study period from November 2008 to November 2009 at a location on the east side of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA. Measurements included wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen, PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm, nitrate, and ammonium) concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen, and atmospheric gas phase concentrations of ammonia, nitric acid, and NO2. Dry deposition fluxes were determined from measured ambient concentrations and modeled deposition velocities. Total reactive nitrogen deposition by all included pathways was found to be 3.65 kg N x ha(-1) yr(-1). Monthly deposition fluxes ranged from 0.06 to 0.54 kg N x ha(-1)yr(-1), with peak deposition in the month of July and the least deposition in December. Wet deposition of ammonium and nitrate were the two largest deposition pathways, together contributing 1.97 kg N x ha(-1)yr(-1) or 54% of the total nitrogen deposition budget for this region. The next two largest deposition pathways were wet

  5. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  6. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  7. Information problems and deposit constraints at banks

    OpenAIRE

    Jith Jayaratne; Donald Morgan

    1997-01-01

    Following the investment-cash flow literature, we test whether bank lending is constrained by the availability of insured deposits--a necessary condition for the existence of bank lending channel of monetary policy. We treat insured deposits as a type of "internal fund," similar to cash flows. We use a simple model to sort out the possible identification issues in interpreting a lending-deposit correlation, including reverse causality and omitted variable bias. To minimize the latter, we spli...

  8. Handbook on surficial uranium deposits. Chapter 3. World distribution relative to climate and physical setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, D.

    This chapter discusses regional controls which affect the world distribution of surficial chemogenic uranium deposits. The most important of these are (1) climate, (2) geomorphology, including physiographic and climatic stability, and (3) provenance, i.e., the weathering terrain from which uranium and associated substances are derived. The three economically important environments are the calcrete environment, simple evaporative environments and paludal environments. Of these three categories, the calcrete uranium environment is probably the most uniquely constrained in terms of regional climate, geomorphic setting, provenance (vanadium as well as uranium) and especially the need for long term stability of both climate and physiography. Purely evaporative deposits, though subject to some of the same kinds of constraints, can also reflect local circumstances and a wider range of climates, physiographic settings, and source terrains. The third category encompassing bogs, marshes and organic-rich playas can form under an even wider range of climates and settings provided only that organic materials accumulate in abundance and are contacted by uranium-bearing waters. For all of these reasons and also because of the great economic importance of the calcrete environment as well as its relative novelty and complexity the discussion in this chapter is focused on calcrete, dolocrete and gypcrete uranium deposits. Objective data are reviewed first follwed by inferences and suggestions. 13 figures

  9. Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2012-01-01

    Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the

  10. Arsenic deposition in tissues of the European hare (Lepus europaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Bukovjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with arsenic deposition in individual biological matrices of the European hare (Lepus europaeus Pall.. The aim of this work was to evaluate the arsenic deposition in biological matrices of adult hares distributed by sex, and to highlight the need for monitoring this element in the natural environment. Determination of arsenic concentration was carried out on 11 biomarkers in 105 adult hares from variously loaded areas of the Czech Republic. Individual matrices include the liver, kidneys, brain, adipose tissue, reproductive organs, bone, fur, faeces, lungs, skeletal muscle and the heart. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed as a method to detect arsenic concentrations in the tissues. Arsenic deposition in the monitored biological matrices of adult animals showed no significant differences between sexes. The ratio of arsenic concentration in the skeletal muscle as compared with concentration in other tissues was 1:2.96 in the liver, followed by 1:4.35 in kidneys, 1:1.07 in the heart, 1:2.73 in lungs, 1:3.12 in ovaries, 1:3.30 in testicles, 1:5.90 in bones, 1:114.68 in fur, and 1:60.05 in faeces. Deposition of this element in matrices has a similar character and only differs in concentrations.

  11. Deposition and removal of radioactive substances in an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation doses received by the population of a contaminated urban area have been estimated. Possible dose reduction measures and their cost-effectiveness are investigated. Potentially important parameters influencing the doses have also been studied. They include distribution of contamination following both wet and dry deposition, run-off, weathering, shielding, resuspension, indoor deposition, the relative airborne concentrations indoors and outdors, and forced decontamination. It is shown that contamination of the green areas in an urban complex is generally a major contributor to dose. A study of the cost-effectiveness of different clean-up procedures indicates that decontamination of green areas and streets are relatively cost-effective and would rank highly in a list of priorities. Following a contamination due to a reactor accident, the dose rate to an individual will generally be less in an urban area than in a rural environment. (author) 89 refs

  12. Deposition, accumulation, and alteration of Cl−, NO3−, ClO4− and ClO3− salts in a hyper-arid polar environment: Mass balance and isotopic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrett, Maeghan; Lacelle, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; Pollard, Wayne; Zacny, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl−, NO3−, ClO4− and ClO3− in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl− and NO3−isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4−/NO3− ratios and NO3− isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3−/ClO4− in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3−, possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from ∼10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70–200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively young age

  13. Deposition, Accumulation, and Alteration of Cl(-), NO3(-), ClO4(-) and ClO3(-) Salts in a Hyper-Arid Polar Environment: Mass Balance and Isotopic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Boehlke, J. K.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrette, Megan; Lacell, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; hide

    2016-01-01

    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl(-), NO3(-, ClO4(-)and ClO3(-)in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl(-) and NO3(-) isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4(-)/NO3(-) ratios and NO3(-) isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3(-)/ClO4(-) in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3(-), possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from approximately 10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70-200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively

  14. Uranium deposits of Australia to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spannari, S.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography provides a retrospective account of Australian uranium deposits, particularly the unpublished materials in the Australian Capital Territory. Some abstracts are included. Occurrences, mineralogy, ore genesis, structural controls and the eonomic geology of uranium deposits are covered but the mining of uranium, exploration reports, surveys, environmental aspects and controversial materials are not

  15. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  16. Early Cambrian wave-formed shoreline deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Glad, Aslaug Clemmensen; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup

    2017-01-01

    -preserved subaqueous dunes and wave ripples indicates deposition in a wave-dominated upper shoreface (littoral zone) environment, and the presence of interference ripples indicates that the littoral zone environment experienced water level fluctuations due to tides and/or changing meteorological conditions. Discoidal....... During this period, wave-formed shoreline sediments (the Vik Member, Hardeberga Formation) were deposited on Bornholm and are presently exposed at Strøby quarry. The sediments consist of fine- and medium-grained quartz-cemented arenites in association with a few silt-rich mudstones. The presence of well...

  17. Nitrogen mineralization across an atmospheric nitrogen deposition gradient in Southern California deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.E. Rao; D.R. Parker; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; E.B. Allen

    2009-01-01

    Dry nitrogen deposition is common in arid ecosystems near urban and agricultural centers, yet its impacts on natural environments are relatively understudied. We examined the effects of N deposition on soil N mineralization across a depositional gradient at Joshua Tree National Park. We hypothesized that N deposition affects N mineralization by promoting...

  18. Sandstone-type uranium deposits. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.

    1985-01-01

    The similarity of most of the deposits described in this report is striking even though they occur in sandstone host rocks ranging in age from Carboniferous to Tertiary and on every continent outside the polar regions. Geologic environments of the uranium deposits consist of distinctive sets of tectonic and sedimentary-depositional systems, all of which have some common threads of favorable geologic processes. In this summary paper it is hoped that this report has sharpened an understanding of the deposit's ''home environment'' that will aid future exploration for these resource-important sandstone-type uranium ores

  19. Advanced deposition model for thermal activated chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dang

    Thermal Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition (TACVD) is defined as the formation of a stable solid product on a heated substrate surface from chemical reactions and/or dissociation of gaseous reactants in an activated environment. It has become an essential process for producing solid film, bulk material, coating, fibers, powders and monolithic components. Global market of CVD products has reached multi billions dollars for each year. In the recent years CVD process has been extensively used to manufacture semiconductors and other electronic components such as polysilicon, AlN and GaN. Extensive research effort has been directed to improve deposition quality and throughput. To obtain fast and high quality deposition, operational conditions such as temperature, pressure, fluid velocity and species concentration and geometry conditions such as source-substrate distance need to be well controlled in a CVD system. This thesis will focus on design of CVD processes through understanding the transport and reaction phenomena in the growth reactor. Since the in situ monitor is almost impossible for CVD reactor, many industrial resources have been expended to determine the optimum design by semi-empirical methods and trial-and-error procedures. This approach has allowed the achievement of improvements in the deposition sequence, but begins to show its limitations, as this method cannot always fulfill the more and more stringent specifications of the industry. To resolve this problem, numerical simulation is widely used in studying the growth techniques. The difficulty of numerical simulation of TACVD crystal growth process lies in the simulation of gas phase and surface reactions, especially the latter one, due to the fact that very limited kinetic information is available in the open literature. In this thesis, an advanced deposition model was developed to study the multi-component fluid flow, homogeneous gas phase reactions inside the reactor chamber, heterogeneous surface

  20. Near-room temperature deposition of W and WO3 thin films by hydrogen atom assisted chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.; Reeves, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    A novel near-room temperatures CVD process has been developed using H-atoms reaction with WF 6 to produced tungsten and tungsten oxide films. The chemical, physical and electrical properties of these films were studied. Good adhesion and low resistivity of W films were measured. Conformal WO 3 films were obtained on columnar tungsten using a small amount of molecular oxygen in the gas stream. A reaction mechanism was evaluated on the basis of experimental results. The advantages of the method include deposition of adherent films in a plasma-free environment, near-room temperature, with a low level of impurity

  1. Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H. W.; Hogan, J. T.; Wampler, W. R.

    2004-11-01

    Two quartz microbalances have been used to record deposition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The experimental configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. An RS232 link was used to acquire the quartz crystal frequency and the deposited thickness was recorded continuously with 0.01 nm resolution. Nuclear Reaction Analysis of the deposit was consistent with the measurement of the total deposited mass from the change in crystal frequency. We will present measurements of the variation of deposition with plasma conditions. The transport of carbon impurities in NSTX has been modelled with the BBQ code. Preliminary calculations indicated a negligible fraction of carbon generated at the divertor plates in quiescent discharges directly reaches the outer wall, and that transient events are responsible for the deposition.

  2. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  3. Principle plug design for deposition tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaramo, M.; Lehtonen, A.

    2009-06-01

    This report examines the plug structures to be built in the deposition tunnels of the repository. The deposition tunnels located below the depth of 400 metres have been used as input data. Each plug consists of a massive concrete structure. The planned maximum pressure acting on the plug is 7.5 MPa. It consists of 4.5 MPa of groundwater pressure and 3 MPa of swelling pressure of the backfill. Five different plug types have been examined. Two of them (butt and irregular plug) turned out to be difficult from the point of view of other works in the central and deposition tunnels. One type (straight plug) requires a lot of construction material. Wedge-shaped and dome plugs have been examined more carefully. The wedge shaped plug has advantageous properties in comparison with the dome plug, such as a three dimensional state of stress, the wedging effect which increases strength as pressure increases and larger tolerances for the excavation of the slot. Leakage water has a longer path through the wedge shaped plug than through the dome plug. Pressure load affects the wedge shaped plug, creating normal stresses, which are compressive along each coordinate axis. The long-term rise in temperature in the deposition tunnels can produce high extra stresses in all the plug alternatives. These stresses make it necessary to increase the strength of the concrete or the distance between the plug and the nearest deposition hole. The stability effects of different plug distances and deposition tunnel orientations have been examined. The plug does not significantly affect stresses in the surrounding bedrock or the stability of the bedrock. Stresses caused by excavation and temperature rise are decisive factors. A groundwater chloride content of 0-3% in the environment of the repository is used as input data. It affects the tightness of the concrete and the quality of the cement. Cement has to be sulphate resistant with a low pH value. Low pH results in the weakening of the corrosion

  4. Uranium ore deposits: geology and processing implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyk, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    There are fifteen accepted types of uranium ore deposits and at least forty subtypes readily identified around the world. Each deposit type has a unique set of geological characteristics which may also result in unique processing implications. Primary uranium production in the past decade has predominantly come from only a few of these deposit types including: unconformity, sandstone, calcrete, intrusive, breccia complex and volcanic ones. Processing implications can vary widely between and within the different geological models. Some key characteristics of uranium deposits that may have processing implications include: ore grade, uranium and gangue mineralogy, ore hardness, porosity, uranium mineral morphology and carbon content. Processing difficulties may occur as a result of one or more of these characteristics. In order to meet future uranium demand, it is imperative that innovative processing approaches and new technological advances be developed in order that many of the marginally economic traditional and uneconomic non-traditional uranium ore deposits can be exploited. (author)

  5. Fabrication of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles using electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qingling; Wang, Zuobin, E-mail: wangz@cust.edu.cn; Chai, Xiangyu; Weng, Zhankun; Ding, Ran; Dong, Litong

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cathodic electrochemical deposition proposed to fabricate hematite nanoparticles. • Hematite nanoparticles were fabricated on indium-tin-oxide coated glass substrates. • The size and shape of nanoparticles were determined by deposition conditions. • The nanoparticles were well decentralized for different potential applications. • Electrochemical deposition is a useful approach in fabricating nanoparticles. - Abstract: In this work, cathodic electrochemical deposition was proposed to fabricate reproducible and homogeneous hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films. The α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, which were quasi-hexagonally shaped, were deposited in an aqueous mixture of FeCl{sub 2} and FeCl{sub 3} at the temperatures 16.5 °C, 40 °C and 60 °C. The electrochemically deposited α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles showed excellent stability and good crystallinity. The α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were characterized by Raman spectroscope and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to measure the size and shape of the nanoparticles. The experiment results have shown that the size and shape of nanoparticles were determined by electrochemical deposition conditions including the deposition time, current density, reaction temperature and solution concentration. The proposed electrochemical deposition method has been proven to be a cost-effective, environment friendly and highly efficient approach in fabricating well decentralized α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles for different potential applications.

  6. Deposition velocities to Sorbus aria, Acer campestre, Populus deltoides x trichocarpa 'Beaupre', Pinus nigra and x Cupressocyparis leylandii for coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freer-Smith, P.H.; Beckett, K.P.; Taylor, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Trees are effective in the capture of particles from urban air to the extent that they can significantly improve urban air quality. As a result of their aerodynamic properties conifers, with their smaller leaves and more complex shoot structures, have been shown to capture larger amounts of particle matter than broadleaved trees. This study focuses on the effects of particle size on the deposition velocity of particles (Vg) to five urban tree species (coniferous and broadleaved) measured at two field sites, one urban and polluted and a second more rural. The larger uptake to conifers is confirmed, and for broadleaves and conifers Vg values are shown to be greater for ultra-fine particles (Dp<1.0 μm) than for fine and coarse particles. This is important since finer particles are more likely to be deposited deep in the alveoli of the human lung causing adverse health effects. The finer particle fraction is also shown to be transported further from the emission source; in this study a busy urban road. In further sets of data the aqueous soluble and insoluble fractions of the ultra-fines were separated, indicating that aqueous insoluble particles made up only a small proportion of the ultra-fines. Much of the ultra-fine fraction is present as aerosol. Chemical analysis of the aqueous soluble fractions of coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles showed the importance of nitrates, chloride and phosphates in all three size categories at the polluted and more rural location

  7. Development of a pencil-type single shield graphite quasi-adiabatic calorimeter and comparison of its performance with a double-shield graphite calorimeter for the measurement of nuclear heat deposition rate in a fusion environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joneja, O.P.; Rosselet, M.; Ligou, J.; Gardel, P.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, heat deposition rate measurements were reported that used a quasi-adiabatic double-shield graphite calorimeter. It was found that for a better understanding of nuclear heating due to incident radiation, having a calorimeter that could be conveniently moved axially and radially inside large material blocks would be advisable. Here, a simpler design, based on three elements, i.e., core, jacket, and shield is conceived. The fabrication and testing details are presented, and the performance of the current calorimeter is compared with a double-shield calorimeter under similar conditions. Such a system is found to be extremely sensitive and can be employed successfully at the LOTUS facility for future nuclear heat deposition rate measurements in large blocks of materials. The current design paves the way for the convenient testing of a large amount of kerma factor data required for constructing future fusion machines. The same configuration with minor changes can be extended to most of the fusion materials of interest. The core of the new calorimeter measures 11 mm in diameter and height and has overall dimensions of 24 mm in diameter and 180 mm in height. The response of the calorimeter is measured by placing it in front of the Haefely neutron generator. 12 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Study of nozzle deposit formation mechanism for direct injection gasoline engines; Chokufun gasoline engine yo nozzle no deposit seisei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, M; Saito, A [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Matsushita, S [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Shibata, H [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Niwa, Y [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nozzles in fuel injectors for direct injection gasoline engines are exposed to high temperature combustion gases and soot. In such a rigorous environment, it is a fear that fuel flow rate changes in injectors by deposit formation on nozzles. Fundamental factors of nozzle deposit formation were investigated through injector bench tests and engine dynamometer tests. Deposit formation processes were observed by SEM through engine dynamometer tests. The investigation results reveal nozzle deposit formation mechanism and how to suppress the deposit. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Uraniferous surficial deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1980-10-01

    As a result of the discovery of uranium in surficial deposits of Tertiary to Recent age, in Australia and Southern Africa, increasing attention is being paid to the location and understanding of the genesis of these deposits. The paper discusses the definitions and terminology currently in use and a classification of these deposits is presented. It is concluded that in order to obtain a measure of clarity, the terms calcrete, gypcrete and dolocrete should not be used to describe the uraniferous valley-fill deposits of Southern Africa and Australia [af

  10. Windblown Dust Deposition Forecasting and Spread of Contamination around Mine Tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovern, Michael; Guzmán, Héctor; Rine, Kyle P; Felix, Omar; King, Matthew; Ela, Wendell P; Betterton, Eric A; Sáez, Avelino Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Wind erosion, transport and deposition of windblown dust from anthropogenic sources, such as mine tailings impoundments, can have significant effects on the surrounding environment. The lack of vegetation and the vertical protrusion of the mine tailings above the neighboring terrain make the tailings susceptible to wind erosion. Modeling the erosion, transport and deposition of particulate matter from mine tailings is a challenge for many reasons, including heterogeneity of the soil surface, vegetative canopy coverage, dynamic meteorological conditions and topographic influences. In this work, a previously developed Deposition Forecasting Model (DFM) that is specifically designed to model the transport of particulate matter from mine tailings impoundments is verified using dust collection and topsoil measurements. The DFM is initialized using data from an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The forecast deposition patterns are compared to dust collected by inverted-disc samplers and determined through gravimetric, chemical composition and lead isotopic analysis. The DFM is capable of predicting dust deposition patterns from the tailings impoundment to the surrounding area. The methodology and approach employed in this work can be generalized to other contaminated sites from which dust transport to the local environment can be assessed as a potential route for human exposure.

  11. Environmental Characteristics of Carbonatite and Alkaline Intrusion-related Rare Earth Element (REE) Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, R. R., II; Piatak, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonatites and alkaline intrusions are important sources of REEs. Environmental risks related to these deposit types have been assessed through literature review and evaluation of the geochemical properties of representative samples of mill tailings and their leachates. The main ore mineral in carbonatite deposits is bastnasite [(Ce,La)(CO3)F], which is found with dolomite and calcite ( 65 %), barite (20 - 25 %), plus a number of minor accessory minerals including sulfides such as galena and pyrite. Generally, alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits either occur in layered complexes or with dikes and veins cutting alkaline intrusions. Such intrusions have a more diverse group of REE ore minerals that include fluorcarbonates, oxides, silicates, and phosphates. Ore also can include minor calcite and iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) sulfides. The acid-generating potential of both deposit types is low because of a predominance of carbonate minerals in the carbonatite deposits, the presence of feldspars and minor calcite in alkaline intrusion-related deposits, and to only minor to trace occurrence of potentially acid-generating sulfide minerals. Both deposit types, however, are produced by igneous and hydrothermal processes that enrich high-field strength, incompatible elements, which typically are excluded from common rock-forming minerals. Elements such as yttrium (Y), niobium Nb), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), scandium (Sc), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) can be characteristic of these deposits and may be of environmental concern. Most of these elements, including the REEs, but with the exception of U, have low solubilities in water at the near-neutral pH values expected around these deposits. Mill tailings from carbonatite deposits can exceed residential soil and sediment criteria for Pb, and leachates from mill tailings can exceed drinking water guidelines for Pb. The greatest environmental challenges, however, are

  12. Wet nitrogen deposition across the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect of a small urban area in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ouping; Zhang, Shirong; Deng, Liangji; Zhang, Chunlong; Fei, Jianbo

    2018-03-01

    Understanding of the spatial and temporal variation of the flux of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is essential for assessment of its impact on ecosystems. However, little attention has been paid to the variability of N deposition across urban-intensive agricultural-rural transects. A continuous 2-year observational study (from January 2015 to December 2016) was conducted to determine wet N deposition across the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect of a small urban area in southwest China. Significantly spatial and temporal variations were found in the research area. Along the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect, the TN and NH 4 + -N deposition first increased and then decreased, and the NO 3 - -N and dissolved organic N (DON) deposition decreased continuously. Wet N deposition was mainly affected by the districts of agro-facilities, roads and build up lands. Wet NH 4 + -N deposition had non-seasonal emission sources including industrial emissions and urban excretory wastes in urban districts and seasonal emission sources such as fertilizer and manure volatilization in the other districts. However, wet NO 3 - -N deposition had seasonal emission sources such as industrial emissions and fireworks in urban district and non-seasonal emission sources such as transportation in the other districts. Deposition of DON was likely to have had similar sources to NO 3 - -N deposition in rural district, and high-temperature-dependent sources in urban and intensive agricultural districts. Considering the annual wet TN deposition in the intensive agricultural district was about 11.1% of the annual N fertilizer input, N fertilizer rates of crops should be reduced in this region to avoid the excessive application, and the risk of N emissions to the environment.

  13. Earth Surface Processes, Landforms and Sediment Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, John; Demicco, Robert

    Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits are intimately related - involving erosion of rocks, generation of sediment, and transport and deposition of sediment through various Earth surface environments. These processes, and the landforms and deposits that they generate, have a fundamental bearing on engineering, environmental and public safety issues; on recovery of economic resources; and on our understanding of Earth history. This unique textbook brings together the traditional disciplines of sedimentology and geomorphology to explain Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits in a comprehensive and integrated way. It is the ideal resource for a two-semester course in sedimentology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and Earth surface processes from the intermediate undergraduate to beginning graduate level. The book is also accompanied by a website hosting illustrations and material on field and laboratory methods for measuring, describing and analyzing Earth surface processes, landforms and sediments.

  14. Constructing deposition chronologies for peat deposits using radiocarbon dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Piotrowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon dating is one of the main methods used to establish peat chronologies. This article reviews the basis of the method and its application to dating of peat deposits. Important steps in the radiocarbon dating procedure are described, including selection and extraction of material (and fractions for dating, chemical and physical preparation of media suitable for measurements, measurements of 14C activity or concentration, calculations, calibration of results and age-depth modelling.

  15. Structurally controlled deposition of silicon onto nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijie; Liu, Zuqin; Han, Song; Bornstein, Jonathan; Stefan, Constantin Ionel

    2018-03-20

    Provided herein are nanostructures for lithium ion battery electrodes and methods of fabrication. In some embodiments, a nanostructure template coated with a silicon coating is provided. The silicon coating may include a non-conformal, more porous layer and a conformal, denser layer on the non-conformal, more porous layer. In some embodiments, two different deposition processes, e.g., a PECVD layer to deposit the non-conformal layer and a thermal CVD process to deposit the conformal layer, are used. Anodes including the nanostructures have longer cycle lifetimes than anodes made using either a PECVD or thermal CVD method alone.

  16. Depositional History of the Western Amundsen Basin, Arctic Ocean, and Implications for Neogene Climate and Oceanographic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, J. R.; Castro, C. F.; Knutz, P. C.; Funck, T.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic reflection data collected in the western Amundsen Basin as part of the Law of the Sea program for the Kingdom of Denmark show a uniform and continuous cover of sediments over oceanic basement. An interpretation of seismic facies units shows that the depositional history of the basin reflects changing tectonic, climatic, and oceanographic conditions throughout the Cenozoic. In this contribution, the Miocene to present history is summarized. Two distinct changes in the depositional environment are proposed, first in response to the development of a deep water connection between the Arctic and North Atlantic, and the second in response to the onset of perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic. In the early to mid-Miocene, a buildup of contourite deposits indicates a distinct change in sedimentation that is particularly well developed near the flank of the Lomonosov Ridge. It is suggested that this is a response to the opening of the Fram Strait and the establishment of geostrophic bottom currents that flowed from the Laptev Sea towards Greenland. These deposits are overlain by a seismic facies unit characterized by buried channels and erosional features. These include prominent basinward levee systems that suggest a channel morphology maintained by overbank deposition of muddy sediments carried by suspension currents periodically spilling over the channel pathway. These deposits indicate a change to a much higher energy environment that is proposed to be a response to brine formation associated with the onset of perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. This interpretation implies that the development of extensive sea ice cover results in a significant change in the energy environment of the ocean that is reflected in the depositional and erosional patterns observed. The lack of similar high energy erosional features and the presence of contourite deposits throughout most of the Miocene may indicate the Arctic Ocean was relatively ice-free until the very latest

  17. Multiple origins of large hummock deposits in Alai Valley, Northern Pamir: Implications for palaeoclimate reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznichenko, N. V.; Andrews, G. R.; Geater, R. E.; Strom, A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper interprets the origin of several of the largest hummocky landform assemblages in the Alai Valley, Northern Pamir - a formerly glaciated intermontane depression. The vast hummocky deposits in the Koman-Suu and Achik-Tash river catchments are found to be of two contrasting modes of formation: glacial hummocks deposited during Koman and Lenin Glaciers withdraw and avalanche hummocks produced during catastrophic Koman and Lenin rock avalanches. The origins of the deposits we assessed through remote and field-based geomorphological mapping, as well as sedimentological investigations, which included clast analysis and the identification of micro-scale agglomerates indicative of rock avalanche emplacement. Both the Koman and Lenin rock avalanches were large, catastrophic events (with run-outs of 34 and 24 km, respectively, and a volume over 1 × 109 m3 each) that occurred subsequent to glacier withdrawal from the area. The complex conditions on the moment of the rock avalanche emplacement promoted unusual deposits geomorphology and extensive run-outs. The landslide landforms formed over the pre-existing glacial hummocks and fluvial deposits, and are geomorphologically and sedimentologically distinct from the larger glacial hummocks. The reconstruction of this sequence of events has implications for how hummock dating should be interpreted. This research illustrates large scale catastrophic landsliding in the glacial environment, and adds to the ongoing debate about the misidentification of rock avalanche deposits as of glacial origin, and their relevance to palaeoclimatological and palaeoseismological reconstructions.

  18. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Arima, V.; Catalano, M.; Cesaria, M.; Cozzoli, P.D.; Martino, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.; Scarfiello, R.; Tunno, T.; Zacheo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  19. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P., E-mail: annapaola.caricato@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Arima, V.; Catalano, M. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesaria, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cozzoli, P.D. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Scarfiello, R. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tunno, T. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Zacheo, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  20. The physical hydrogeology of ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Appold, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal ore deposits represent a convergence of fluid flow, thermal energy, and solute flux that is hydrogeologically unusual. From the hydrogeologic perspective, hydrothermal ore deposition represents a complex coupled-flow problem—sufficiently complex that physically rigorous description of the coupled thermal (T), hydraulic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes (THMC modeling) continues to challenge our computational ability. Though research into these coupled behaviors has found only a limited subset to be quantitatively tractable, it has yielded valuable insights into the workings of hydrothermal systems in a wide range of geologic environments including sedimentary, metamorphic, and magmatic. Examples of these insights include the quantification of likely driving mechanisms, rates and paths of fluid flow, ore-mineral precipitation mechanisms, longevity of hydrothermal systems, mechanisms by which hydrothermal fluids acquire their temperature and composition, and the controlling influence of permeability and other rock properties on hydrothermal fluid behavior. In this communication we review some of the fundamental theory needed to characterize the physical hydrogeology of hydrothermal systems and discuss how this theory has been applied in studies of Mississippi Valley-type, tabular uranium, porphyry, epithermal, and mid-ocean ridge ore-forming systems. A key limitation in the computational state-of-the-art is the inability to describe fluid flow and transport fully in the many ore systems that show evidence of repeated shear or tensional failure with associated dynamic variations in permeability. However, we discuss global-scale compilations that suggest some numerical constraints on both mean and dynamically enhanced crustal permeability. Principles of physical hydrogeology can be powerful tools for investigating hydrothermal ore formation and are becoming increasingly accessible with ongoing advances in modeling software.

  1. The uranium deposits of Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The principal types of uranium deposits in Ontario are carbonatites and fenites, alkalic volcanic rocks, pegiatites, calc-silicate rocks, pyritic quartz-pebble conglomerates, polymictic conglomerates and some pelitic rocks, and various 'pitchblende' deposits including late Precambrian unconformities, possibly late Precambrian diabase dikes, and other unconformities: carbonates, sandstones, lignites, and semi-pelitic rocks of middle and upper Precambrian age. Only red unzoned pegmatite and the pyritic quartz-pebble conglomerate have supported production. Ontario reasonably assured and estimated resources in the economic and subeconomic categories in 1977 amounted to 553 000 tonnes U, and 1977 production was 4000 tonnes U. Measured, indicated, and inferred resources in the Elliot Lake - Agnew Lake area are at least 400 000 tonnes U. The latter deposits are also a significant thorium resource. Geological features reflecting major changes in physics and chemistry are prime controls on distribution of uranium deposits. Geological province and subprovince boundaries, major faults, higher metamorphic grades, domain boundaries related to quartz monzonite batholiths, alkalic complexes, and the distribution of carbonate rocks are examples of such geological features

  2. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management

    OpenAIRE

    Cecep Hidayat

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intak...

  3. Characterisation of atmospheric deposited particles during a dust storm in urban areas of Eastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawardena, Janaka, E-mail: j.gunawardena@qut.edu.au; Ziyath, Abdul M., E-mail: mohamed.ziyath@qut.edu.au; Bostrom, Thor E., E-mail: t.bostrom@qut.edu.au; Bekessy, Lambert K., E-mail: l.bekessy@qut.edu.au; Ayoko, Godwin A., E-mail: g.ayoko@qut.edu.au; Egodawatta, Prasanna, E-mail: p.egodawatta@qut.edu.au; Goonetilleke, Ashantha, E-mail: a.goonetilleke@qut.edu.au

    2013-09-01

    The characteristics of dust particles deposited during the 2009 dust storm in the Gold Coast and Brisbane regions of Australia are discussed in this paper. The study outcomes provide important knowledge in relation to the potential impacts of dust storm related pollution on ecosystem health in the context that the frequency of dust storms is predicted to increase due to anthropogenic desert surface modifications and climate change impacts. The investigated dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to the environment with an increased amount of total suspended solids, compared to dry deposition under ambient conditions. Although the dust storm passed over forested areas, the organic carbon content in the dust was relatively low. The primary metals present in the dust storm deposition were aluminium, iron and manganese, which are common soil minerals in Australia. The dust storm deposition did not contain significant loads of nickel, cadmium, copper and lead, which are commonly present in the urban environment. Furthermore, the comparison between the ambient and dust storm chromium and zinc loads suggested that these metals were contributed to the dust storm by local anthropogenic sources. The potential ecosystem health impacts of the 2009 dust storm include, increased fine solids deposition on ground surfaces resulting in an enhanced capacity to adsorb toxic pollutants as well as increased aluminium, iron and manganese loads. In contrast, the ecosystem health impacts related to organic carbon and other metals from dust storm atmospheric deposition are not considered to be significant. - Highlights: • The dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to pollutant build-up. • The dust storm increased TSS, Al, Fe and Mn loads in build-up on ground surfaces. • Dust storm did not significantly increase TOC, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd loads in build-up. • Cr and Zn in dust storm deposition were contributed by local anthropogenic sources.

  4. Characterisation of atmospheric deposited particles during a dust storm in urban areas of Eastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawardena, Janaka; Ziyath, Abdul M.; Bostrom, Thor E.; Bekessy, Lambert K.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of dust particles deposited during the 2009 dust storm in the Gold Coast and Brisbane regions of Australia are discussed in this paper. The study outcomes provide important knowledge in relation to the potential impacts of dust storm related pollution on ecosystem health in the context that the frequency of dust storms is predicted to increase due to anthropogenic desert surface modifications and climate change impacts. The investigated dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to the environment with an increased amount of total suspended solids, compared to dry deposition under ambient conditions. Although the dust storm passed over forested areas, the organic carbon content in the dust was relatively low. The primary metals present in the dust storm deposition were aluminium, iron and manganese, which are common soil minerals in Australia. The dust storm deposition did not contain significant loads of nickel, cadmium, copper and lead, which are commonly present in the urban environment. Furthermore, the comparison between the ambient and dust storm chromium and zinc loads suggested that these metals were contributed to the dust storm by local anthropogenic sources. The potential ecosystem health impacts of the 2009 dust storm include, increased fine solids deposition on ground surfaces resulting in an enhanced capacity to adsorb toxic pollutants as well as increased aluminium, iron and manganese loads. In contrast, the ecosystem health impacts related to organic carbon and other metals from dust storm atmospheric deposition are not considered to be significant. - Highlights: • The dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to pollutant build-up. • The dust storm increased TSS, Al, Fe and Mn loads in build-up on ground surfaces. • Dust storm did not significantly increase TOC, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd loads in build-up. • Cr and Zn in dust storm deposition were contributed by local anthropogenic sources

  5. Laser-induced chemical vapor deposition reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teslenko, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of investigation of chemical reactions of deposition of different substances from the gas phase when using the energy of pulse quasicontinuous and continuous radiation of lasers in the wave length interval from 0.193 to 10.6 μm are generalized. Main attetion is paid to deposition of inorganic substances including nonmetals (C, Si, Ge and others), metals (Cu, Au, Zn, Cd, Al, Cr, Mo, W, Ni) and some simple compounds. Experimental data on the effect of laser radiation parameters and reagent nature (hydrides, halogenides, carbonyls, alkyl organometallic compounds and others) on the deposition rate and deposit composition are described in detail. Specific features of laser-chemical reactions of deposition and prospects of their application are considered

  6. Metallogenetic condition and mineralization characteristics of uranium deposit No.114

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Lin; Ma Fei; Yang Wanjin

    1988-01-01

    Deposit No 114 is one of the typical carbonate-type uranium deposits, that are widely distributed in South China. In this paper formational environment of host rock, wall-rock alteration, sulfur, oxygen, carbon isotopes, mineralization temperatures, ore compsitions were studied. Based on the U-Pb isotopic research three mineralization stages in deposit No 114 were established, namely 104 Ma, 61 Ma and 11 Ma. It is suggested, that the deposit No 114 is a polygenetic deposit formed primarily by supergene leaching and hydrothermal reworked. The uranium deposit has multi-sources, the main uranium source of which is from the granite body situated nearby. According to metallogenetic characteristics the authors suggest the favourable geological exploration guides for this kind of ore deposits

  7. Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...

  8. Depositional framework and stratigraphy of the Konshisha area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focuses on the stratigraphic succession and depositional environment in areas around Konshisha, southern Benue Trough. The area is underlain by the Ezeaku Formation and Konshisha River Group. Integrated outcrop, textural and petrographic analysis aided inference of the depositional framework of ...

  9. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ...

  10. Sediment-hosted gold deposits of the world: database and grade and tonnage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vladimir I.; Mosier, Dan L.; Bliss, James D.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    All sediment-hosted gold deposits (as a single population) share one characteristic—they all have disseminated micron-sized invisible gold in sedimentary rocks. Sediment-hosted gold deposits are recognized in the Great Basin province of the western United States and in China along with a few recognized deposits in Indonesia, Iran, and Malaysia. Three new grade and tonnage models for sediment-hosted gold deposits are presented in this paper: (1) a general sediment-hosted gold type model, (2) a Carlin subtype model, and (3) a Chinese subtype model. These models are based on grade and tonnage data from a database compilation of 118 sediment-hosted gold deposits including a total of 123 global deposits. The new general grade and tonnage model for sediment-hosted gold deposits (n=118) has a median tonnage of 5.7 million metric tonnes (Mt) and a gold grade of 2.9 grams per tonne (g/t). This new grade and tonnage model is remarkable in that the estimated parameters of the resulting grade and tonnage distributions are comparable to the previous model of Mosier and others (1992). A notable change is in the reporting of silver in more than 10 percent of deposits; moreover, the previous model had not considered deposits in China. From this general grade and tonnage model, two significantly different subtypes of sediment-hosted gold deposits are differentiated: Carlin and Chinese. The Carlin subtype includes 88 deposits in the western United States, Indonesia, Iran, and Malaysia, with median tonnage and grade of 7.1 Mt and 2.0 g/t Au, respectively. The silver grade is 0.78 g/t Ag for the 10th percentile of deposits. The Chinese subtype represents 30 deposits in China, with a median tonnage of 3.9 Mt and medium grade of 4.6 g/t Au. Important differences are recognized in the mineralogy and alteration of the two sediment-hosted gold subtypes such as: increased sulfide minerals in the Chinese subtype and decalcification alteration dominant in the Carlin type. We therefore

  11. MIDDLE MIOCENE DEPOSITIONAL MODEL IN THE DRAVA DEPRESSION DESCRIBED BY GEOSTATISTICAL POROSITY AND THICKNESS MAPS (CASE STUDY: STARI GRADAC-BARCS NYUGAT FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Malvić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neogene depositional environments in the Drava depression can be classified in two groups. One group is of local alluvial fans, which were active during the period of Middle Miocene (Badenian extension through the entire Pannonian Basin. The second group is represented by continuous Pannonian and Pontian sedimentation starting with lacustrine environment of partly deep water and partly prodelta (turbidity fans and terminating at the delta plain sedimentation. The coarse-grained sediments of alluvial fans have the great hydrocarbon potential, because they often comprise reservoir rocks. Reservoir deposits are mostly overlain (as result of fan migration by pelitic seal deposits and sometimes including organic rich source facies. That Badenian sequences are often characterised by complete petroleum systems, what is confirmed by large number of oil and gas discoveries in such sediments in the Drava and other Croatian depressions. Alluvial environments are characterised by frequent changes of petrophysical properties, due to local character of depositional mechanism and material sources. In the presented paper, Stari Gradac-Barcs Nyugat field is selected as a case study for demonstrating the above mentioned heterogenic features of the Badenian sequences. Structural solutions are compared by maps of parameters related to depositional environment, i.e. porosity and thickness maps. Geostatistics were used for spatial extension of input dataset. The spatial variability of porosity values, i.e. reservoir quality, is interpreted by transition among different sub-environments (facies in the alluvial fan system.

  12. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  13. Late Quaternary fine silt deposits of Jammu, NW Himalaya: Genesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of Jammu suggest fluvial environment of the deposits wherein the water budget fluctuated. ... the probable source for desert 'loess' of Pakistan. (Rendell et al 1989). ...... the velocity of water is diminished due to loss of flow competence and.

  14. Improved Formulations for Air-Surface Exchanges Related to National Security Needs: Dry Deposition Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droppo, James G.

    2006-07-01

    The Department of Homeland Security and others rely on results from atmospheric dispersion models for threat evaluation, event management, and post-event analyses. The ability to simulate dry deposition rates is a crucial part of our emergency preparedness capabilities. Deposited materials pose potential hazards from radioactive shine, inhalation, and ingestion pathways. A reliable characterization of these potential exposures is critical for management and mitigation of these hazards. A review of the current status of dry deposition formulations used in these atmospheric dispersion models was conducted. The formulations for dry deposition of particulate materials from am event such as a radiological attack involving a Radiological Detonation Device (RDD) is considered. The results of this effort are applicable to current emergency preparedness capabilities such as are deployed in the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC), other similar national/regional emergency response systems, and standalone emergency response models. The review concludes that dry deposition formulations need to consider the full range of particle sizes including: 1) the accumulation mode range (0.1 to 1 micron diameter) and its minimum in deposition velocity, 2) smaller particles (less than .01 micron diameter) deposited mainly by molecular diffusion, 3) 10 to 50 micron diameter particles deposited mainly by impaction and gravitational settling, and 4) larger particles (greater than 100 micron diameter) deposited mainly by gravitational settling. The effects of the local turbulence intensity, particle characteristics, and surface element properties must also be addressed in the formulations. Specific areas for improvements in the dry deposition formulations are 1) capability of simulating near-field dry deposition patterns, 2) capability of addressing the full range of potential particle properties, 3) incorporation of particle surface retention/rebound processes, and

  15. Management of polluted deposit in lake and river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Eun Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    In this study, the perception and problem of polluted deposit in Korea, which does not have a clear concept of it, were analyzed and the need of a comprehensive polluted deposit management, including the present condition of pollution, assessment, pollution prevention, and disposal of polluted deposit, was presented. Based on the analysis on foreign management system, the framework of polluted deposit management in Korea was provided. 84 refs., 11 figs., 40 tabs.

  16. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullendore, A.W.

    1988-03-18

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

  17. Urban acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, D.E.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E.

    1991-07-01

    In this document results from the Greater Manchester Acid Deposition Survey (GMADS), an urban precipitation chemistry network, for 1990 are presented. Full analytical methods are described along with the precision and accuracy of the methods used. The spatial variability of precipitation chemistry and deposition over this urban region was investigated using a network of twenty collectors. Concentrations of non marine sulphate, ammonium, calcium and hydrogen, and nitrogen dioxide gas concentrations all show significant spatial variability. The spatial variability of the deposition rates of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, hydrogen and calcium were significant. (Author).

  18. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.

    2017-10-31

    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  19. Chapter D: With or Without Salt-a Comparison of Marine and Continental-Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Phillip R.; Dolley, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Diatoms in sedimentary deposits of marine and continental, especially lacustrine, origin have similar nutrient (for example, phosphate, nitrate, and silica) and light requirements; however, their geologic ranges and physiographic environments vary. Marine diatoms range in age from Early Cretaceous to Holocene, and continental diatoms range in age from Eocene to Holocene; however, most commercial diatomites, both marine and lacustrine, were deposited during the Miocene. Marine deposits of commercial value generally accumulated along continental margins with submerged coastal basins and shelves where wind-driven boundary currents provided the nutrient-rich upwelling conditions capable of supporting a productive diatom habitat. Commercial freshwater diatomite deposits occur in volcanic terrains associated with events that formed sediment-starved drainage basins, such as the Basin and Range Province, particularly in Nevada. Marine habitats generally are characterized by stable conditions of temperature, salinity, pH, nutrients, and water currents, in contrast to lacustrine habitats, which are characterized by wide variations in these conditions. Marine deposits generally are of higher quality and contain larger resources, owing to their greater areal extent and thickness, whereas most of the world's known diatomites are of lacustrine origin. Both types of deposit are commonly mined by open-pit methods and subjected to processing designed to remove organic matter, CO2, pore water, and inorganic contaminants in order to produce purified products. The highest quality diatomites, predominantly from marine sources, are used in filtration, although both types of deposit produce filter grades, and additional end uses include fillers, additives, absorbents, and abrasives.

  20. 75 FR 20041 - Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... transmission to (202) 906- 6518; or send an e-mail to [email protected] . OTS will post... DD implements the Truth in Savings Act, part of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement...

  1. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  2. Uranium deposit research, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.; LeCheminant, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Research on uranium deposits in Canada, conducted as a prerequisite for assessment of the Estimated Additional Resources of uranium, revealed that (a) the uranium-gold association in rudites of the Huronian Supergroup preferably occurs in the carbon layers; (b) chloritized ore at the Panel mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario, occurs locally in tectonically disturbed areas in the vicinity of diabase dykes; (c) mineralization in the Black Sturgeon Lake area, Ontario, formed from solutions in structural and lithological traps; (d) the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, has two phases of mineralization: monomineralic and polymetallic; (e) mineralization of the JEB (Canoxy Ltd.) deposit is similar to that at McClean Lake; (f) the uranium-carbon assemblage was identified in the Claude deposit, Carswell Structure; and (g) the Otish Mountains area, Quebec, should be considered as a significant uranium-polymetallic metallogenic province

  3. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  4. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  5. Cobalt—Styles of deposits and the search for primary deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzman, Murray W.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Slack, John F.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2017-11-30

    Cobalt (Co) is a potentially critical mineral. The vast majority of cobalt is a byproduct of copper and (or) nickel production. Cobalt is increasingly used in magnets and rechargeable batteries. More than 50 percent of primary cobalt production is from the Central African Copperbelt. The Central African Copperbelt is the only sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform copper district that contains significant cobalt. Its presence may indicate significant mafic-ultramafic rocks in the local basement. The balance of primary cobalt production is from magmatic nickel-copper and nickel laterite deposits. Cobalt is present in several carbonate-hosted lead-zinc and copper districts. It is also variably present in Besshi-type volcanogenic massive sulfide and siliciclastic sedimentary rock-hosted deposits in back arc and rift environments associated with mafic-ultramafic rocks. Metasedimentary cobalt-copper-gold deposits (such as Blackbird, Idaho), iron oxide-copper-gold deposits, and the five-element vein deposits (such as Cobalt, Ontario) contain different amounts of cobalt. None of these deposit types show direct links to mafic-ultramafic rocks; the deposits may result from crustal-scale hydrothermal systems capable of leaching and transporting cobalt from great depths. Hydrothermal deposits associated with ultramafic rocks, typified by the Bou Azzer district of Morocco, represent another type of primary cobalt deposit.In the United States, exploration for cobalt deposits may focus on magmatic nickel-copper deposits in the Archean and Proterozoic rocks of the Midwest and the east coast (Pennsylvania) and younger mafic rocks in southeastern and southern Alaska; also, possibly basement rocks in southeastern Missouri. Other potential exploration targets include—The Belt-Purcell basin of British Columbia (Canada), Idaho, Montana, and Washington for different styles of sedimentary rock-hosted cobalt deposits;Besshi-type VMS deposits, such as the Greens Creek (Alaska) deposit and

  6. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpolt, R.H.; Simov, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  7. Volcanogenic Uranium Deposits: Geology, Geochemical Processes, and Criteria for Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Felsic volcanic rocks have long been considered a primary source of uranium for many kinds of uranium deposits, but volcanogenic uranium deposits themselves have generally not been important resources. Until the past few years, resource summaries for the United States or the world generally include volcanogenic in the broad category of 'other deposits' because they comprised less than 0.5 percent of past production or estimated resources. Exploration in the United States from the 1940s through 1982 discovered hundreds of prospects in volcanic rocks, of which fewer than 20 had some recorded production. Intensive exploration in the late 1970s found some large deposits, but low grades (less than about 0.10 percent U3O8) discouraged economic development. A few deposits in the world, drilled in the 1980s and 1990s, are now known to contain large resources (>20,000 tonnes U3O8). However, research on ore-forming processes and exploration for volcanogenic deposits has lagged behind other kinds of uranium deposits and has not utilized advances in understanding of geology, geochemistry, and paleohydrology of ore deposits in general and epithermal deposits in particular. This review outlines new ways to explore and assess for volcanogenic deposits, using new concepts of convection, fluid mixing, and high heat flow to mobilize uranium from volcanic source rocks and form deposits that are postulated to be large. Much can also be learned from studies of epithermal metal deposits, such as the important roles of extensional tectonics, bimodal volcanism, and fracture-flow systems related to resurgent calderas. Regional resource assessment is helped by genetic concepts, but hampered by limited information on frontier areas and undiscovered districts. Diagnostic data used to define ore deposit genesis, such as stable isotopic data, are rarely available for frontier areas. A volcanic environment classification, with three classes (proximal, distal, and pre-volcanic structures

  8. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intake. Daily nutrient intake can be limited, especially through restricted feeding. It is concluded that an appropriate feeding management can reduce abdominal fat deposition in broiler.

  9. Particle deposition in low-speed, high-turbulence flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Mads; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Ullum, U.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental and numerical study considers the concentration of airborne particulate contaminants, such as spores of spoilage fungi, and their deposition on a surface, in a petri dish, and on a warm box-shaped product placed in a food-processing environment. Field measurements by standard...... field measurements. Particle deposition is shown to be associated with near-wall coherent structures. Flow reversal, simulated by impulsive start, is shown to give higher deposition rates than steady mean flows. Key word index: Spoilage fungi; spores; food processing plant; deposition flux; large eddy...

  10. Effect of biofuel on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalam, M.A; Masjuki, H.H.; Maleque, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Biofuels are alcohols, esters, and other chemical made from cellulosic biomass such as herbaceous and woody plants, agricultural and forestry residues, and a large portion of municipal solid and industrial waste. Biofuels are renewable and mostly suitable for diesel engines due to their similar physiochemical properties as traditional diesel oil. Demand of biofuel is increasing and some European countries have started using biofuel in diesel engine. This interest has been grown in many countries mainly due to fluctuating oil prices because of diminishing availability of conventional sources and polluted environment. However, the use of biofuel for diesel engine would be more beneficial to oil importing countries by saving foreign exchange, because biofuel is domestic renewable fuels. This paper presents the evaluation results of a multi-cylinder diesel engine operated on blends of ten, twenty, thirty, forty and fifty percent of ordinary coconut oil (COCO) with ordinary diesel (OD). The test results from all the COCO blends were compared with OD. The fuels were compared based on the emissions results including, exhaust temperature, NO x , smoke, CO, HC, benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Carbon deposit on injector nozzles was also monitored. Exhaust emissions results showed that increasing coconut oil in blend decreases all the exhaust emissions. Carbon deposited on injector nozzles was observed where no hard carbon was found on injector tip when the engine was running on COCO blends. (Author)

  11. Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities of trace metals in the Tokyo metropolitan area measured with a water surface sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Masahiro; Marumoto, Kohji

    2004-04-01

    Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities (=deposition flux/atmospheric concentration) for trace metals including Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the Tokyo metropolitan area were measured using an improved water surface sampler. Mercury is deposited on the water surface in both gaseous (reactive gaseous mercury, RGM) and particulate (particulate mercury, Hg(p)) forms. The results based on 1 yr observations found that dry deposition plays a significant if not dominant role in trace metal deposition in this urban area, contributing fluxes ranging from 0.46 (Cd) to 3.0 (Zn) times those of concurrent wet deposition fluxes. The deposition velocities were found to be dependent on the deposition of coarse particles larger than approximately 5 microm in diameter on the basis of model calculations. Our analysis suggests that the 84.13% diameter is a more appropriate index for each deposited metal than the 50% diameter in the assumed undersize log-normal distribution, because larger particles are responsible for the flux. The deposition velocities for trace metals other than mercury increased exponentially with an increase in their 84.13% diameters. Using this regression equation, the deposition velocities for Hg(p) were estimated from its 84.13% diameter. The deposition fluxes for Hg(p) calculated from the estimated velocities tended to be close to the mercury fluxes measured with the water surface sampler during the study periods except during summer.

  12. Virtual Environments for Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stiles, R

    1998-01-01

    .... Progress on productization of the VET Training Studio software includes increased robustness for Vista virtual environment display and interaction services, a new capability to use the STEVE visual...

  13. Deposition of strontium and calcium in snail shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Jr, G M; Nelson, D J; Gardiner, D A

    1965-07-03

    The relative effects of strontium and calcium concentrations in the environment on their uptake and incorporation into snail shell were investigated. /sup 45/Ca and /sup 85/Sr were used as tracers and specific activities were used to determine deposition. Data are presented in tables and graphs. Deposition of both calcium and strontium in the snail shell depended primarily on the respective concentrations of these elements in the immediate environment. A slight effect of strontium on calcium deposition was observed. There was found to be a minimum strontium deposition for various combinations of strontium and calcium in the environment. It was concluded that strontium uptake is more closely associated with environmental strontium concentrations than with calcium concentrations.

  14. Vein-type and similar uranium deposits of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipanicic, P.

    1982-01-01

    Some vein-type and similar uranium deposits and occurrences are briefly described to show different models identified in Argentina. Practically all of them were formerly thought to be related to hydrothermal-magmatic processes, but at present few are considered to be so; some are classified as typically exogenous and opinions differ about the genesis of the remaining ones, especially because of a lack of sufficient research on the matter since this group of accumulations only contributes less than 10% to the entire uranium resources of Argentina. The typical vein-type ore bodies are small (including less than 200t U) with grades varying from 0.1 to near 1%U. Other deposits, resolved as stockworks, could be from small to medium size (more than 200t U to 2000t U) with a uranium content from 0.7 to 0.03%, respectively. The mineralogical associations are variable, from complex ones in veins considered as magmatic-endogenous (with U, Ni, Co, Pb, Cu, Zn, etc.) to very simple ones in the exogenetic accumulations, which only comprise uranium minerals. The paragenetic studies available are not complete enough to define the possible relation of uranium with the other metals in the complex ores. The age of the mineralization has been defined in some cases, but not in others. There are examples of mineralizing processes occurring from Palaeozoic to very recent times. Some of the uranium deposits mentioned here have been exploited in the past; one of them will be re-opened very shortly; and a new one will be put into operation in 1981. The geological composition of Argentina is not favourable for uranium deposits related to the Proterozoic unconformity, and the best possibilities for finding interesting accumulations of vein and similar type are in the large Hercynian granitic environments which have outcrops that cover more than 150,000km 2 (Pampean Hills and North Patagonian Massif). (author)

  15. Uranium mineralization and unconformities: how do they correlate? - A look beyond the classic unconformity-type deposit model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Vanessa; Porwal, Alok; Campbell McCuaig, T.; Kreuzer, Oliver P.

    2010-05-01

    Uranium deposits are usually classified based on the characteristics of their host rocks and geological environments (Dahlkamp, 1993; OECD/NEA Red Book and IAEA, 2000; Cuney, 2009). The traditional unconformity-related deposit types are the most economical deposits in the world, with the highest grades amongst all uranium deposit types. In order to predict undiscovered uranium deposits, there is a need to understand the spatial association of uranium mineralization with structures and unconformities. Hydrothermal uranium deposits develop by uranium enriched fluids from source rocks, transported along permeable pathways to their depositional environment. Unconformities are not only separating competent from incompetent sequences, but provide the physico-chemical gradient in the depositional environment. They acted as important fluid flow pathways for uranium to migrate not only for surface-derived oxygenated fluids, but also for high oxidized metamorphic and magmatic fluids, dominated by their geological environment in which the unconformities occur. We have carried out comprehensive empirical spatial analyses of various types of uranium deposits in Australia, and first results indicate that there is a strong spatial correlation between unconformities and uranium deposits, not only for traditional unconformity-related deposits but also for other styles. As a start we analysed uranium deposits in Queensland and in particular Proterozoic metasomatic-related deposits in the Mount Isa Inlier and Late Carboniferous to Early Permian volcanic-hosted uranium occurrences in Georgetown and Charters Towers Regions show strong spatial associations with contemporary and older unconformities. The Georgetown Inlier in northern Queensland consists of a diverse range of rocks, including Proterozoic and early Palaeozoic metamorphic rocks and granites and late Palaeozoic volcanic rocks and related granites. Uranium-molybdenum (+/- fluorine) mineralization in the Georgetown inlier

  16. Role of Snow Deposition of Perfluoroalkylated Substances at Coastal Livingston Island (Maritime Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Paulo; Zhang, Yifeng; Martin, Jonathan W; Pizarro, Mariana; Jiménez, Begoña; Dachs, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous in the environment, including remote polar regions. To evaluate the role of snow deposition as an input of PFAS to Maritime Antarctica, fresh snow deposition, surface snow, streams from melted snow, coastal seawater, and plankton samples were collected over a three-month period (December 2014-February 2015) at Livingston Island. Local sources of PFASs were significant for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and C7-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in snow but limited to the transited areas of the research station. The concentrations of 14 ionizable PFAS (∑PFAS) in freshly deposited snow (760-3600 pg L -1 ) were 1 order of magnitude higher than those in background surface snow (82-430 pg L -1 ). ∑PFAS ranged from 94 to 420 pg L -1 in seawater and from 3.1 to 16 ng g dw -1 in plankton. Ratios of individual PFAS concentrations in freshly deposited snow relative to surface snow (C SD /C Snow ), snowmelt (C SD /C SM ), and seawater (C SD /C SW ) were close to 1 (from 0.44 to 1.4) for all perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) isomers, suggesting that snowfall does not contribute significantly to PFOS in seawater. Conversely, these ratios for PFCAs ranged from 1 to 33 and were positively correlated with the number of carbons in the PFCA alkylated chain. These trends suggest that snow deposition, scavenging sea-salt aerosol bound PFAS, plays a role as a significant input of PFCAs to the Maritime Antarctica.

  17. Vein type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Veins are tabular- or sheet-like masses of minerals occupying or following a fracture or a set of fractures in the enclosing rock. They have been formed later than the country rock and fractures, either by filling of the open spaces or by partial or complete replacement of the adjoining rock or most commonly by both of these processes combined. This volume begins with the occurrences and deposits known from old shield areas and the sedimentary belts surrounding them. They are followed by papers describing the European deposits mostly of Variscan age, and by similar deposits known from China being of Jurassic age. The volume is completed by two papers which do not fit exactly in the given scheme. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 papers in this report

  18. Results of potential exposure assessments during the maintenance and cleanout of deposition equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, E., E-mail: eric.zimmermann@cea.fr; Derrough, S.; Locatelli, D.; Durand, C.; Fromaget, J. L.; Lefranc, E.; Ravanel, X.; Garrione, J. [Nanosafety Platform, CEA, DRT (France)

    2012-10-15

    This study is a compilation of results obtained during the cleanout of deposition equipment such as chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition The measurement campaigns aimed to evaluate the potential exposure to nanoaerosols in the occupational environment and were conducted in the workspace. The characterization of aerosols includes measurements of the concentration using condensation particle counters and measurements of the size distribution using fast mobility particle sizer, scanning mobility particle sizer, and electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). Particles were sampled using collection membranes placed on the ELPIs stages. The samples were analyzed with an SEM-EDS to provide information including size, shape, agglomeration state, and the chemical composition of the particles. The majority of the time, no emission of nanoparticles (NPs) was measured during the use of the molecular deposition equipment or when opening the chambers, mainly due to the enclosed processes. On the other hand, the maintenance of the equipment, and especially the cleanout step, could induce high concentrations of NPs in the workplace following certain processes. Values of around 1 million particles/cm{sup 3} were detected with a size distribution including a high concentration of particles around 10 nm.

  19. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  20. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  1. Deposition potential of polonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heal, H. G.

    1948-11-23

    The cathodic deposition potential for polonium in concentrations of 10{sup -13} normal and 8 x 10{sup -13} normal, the former being 100-fold smaller than the smallest concentrations previously studied, has been determined. The value is 0.64 volt on the hydrogen scale. Considering the various ways in which the graphs can reasonably be drawn, we consider the maximum possible error to be of the order of +- 0.03 volt. There is apparently no shift of deposition potential between concentrations of 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -13} normal, indicating that the Nernst equation is not applicable in these circumstances.

  2. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  3. A Metallurgical Investigation of the Direct Energy Deposition Surface Repair of Ferrous Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Hascoet, Jean-Yves; Marya, Surendar

    2018-02-01

    Among additive manufacturing (AM) processes, the direct energy deposition (DED) by laser is explored to establish its applicability for the repair of ferrous alloys such as UNS G41400 low-alloy steel, UNS S41000 martensitic stainless steel, UNS S17400 precipitation-strengthened martensitic stainless steel, and UNS S32750 super-duplex stainless steel. Unlike plating, thermal spray, and conventional cladding weld, DED laser powder deposition offers potential advantages, e.g., thin deposits, limited dilutions, narrow heat-affected zones (HAZ), potentially improved surface properties. In this investigation, all AM deposits were completed with an IREPA CLAD™ system using a powder feed of UNS N06625, an alloy largely selected for its outstanding corrosion resistance. This investigation first addresses topological aspects of AM deposits (including visual imperfections) before focusing on changes in microstructure, microhardness, chemical composition across AM deposits and base materials. It has been established that dense, uniform, hard ( 300 HVN), crack-free UNS N06625-compliant AM deposits of fine dendritic microstructures are reliably produced. However, except for the UNS S32750 steel, a significant martensitic hardening was observed in the HAZs of UNS G41400 ( 650 HVN), UNS S41000 ( 500 HVN), and UNS S17400 ( 370 HVN). In summary, this investigation demonstrates that the DED laser repair of ferrous parts with UNS N06625 may restore damaged surfaces, but it also calls for cautions and complementary investigations for alloys experiencing a high HAZ hardening, for which industry standard recommendations are exceeded and lead to an increased risk of delayed cracking in corrosive environments.

  4. Preservation of Urban Archaeological Deposits: monitoring and characterisation of archaeological deposits at Marks & Spencer, 44-45 Parliament Street, York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davis

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The City of York Council has been pursuing a strict policy of in situ preservation of archaeological deposits since April 1990. Planning consent is normally granted in the historic core of York for a new development so long as less than 5% of the archaeological deposits that are preserved on a site are destroyed. During archaeological evaluation work carried out as part of the redevelopment and expansion proposals for Marks & Spencer plc on Parliament Street, deposit monitoring devices were installed to investigate and monitor both the character of the archaeological deposits present and also the burial environment surrounding them (of particular importance because the burial environment, in terms both of its characteristics and stability, is thought to play a vital role in the preservation in situ of a site's archaeological deposits. The monitoring programme was undertaken between June 1995 and April 1998. As a result the data from a total of 30 site visits have been collected and are presented in this report. This article discusses results of the deposit monitoring project and presents evidence of changes that appear to be taking place in the archaeological deposits. Although the lower deposits at Parliament Street are stable, the upper deposits show considerable seasonal variations. The concept of preservation of archaeological deposits in situ is now deeply embedded both in Codes of Professional Conduct (IFA Code of Conduct and in national policy guidance (PPG 16. However, this emphasis on preservation in situ has been criticised. Does conservation archaeology in general and the City of York policy in particular achieve the preservation of the remaining 95% of the archaeology? Or are these deposits condemned to unseen, unrecorded destruction, sealed below new buildings; indeed if this is the case, shouldn't these deposits be excavated now while they are still viable?

  5. Palynoflora and radiocarbon dates of Holocene deposits of Dhamapur, Sindhudurg district, Maharashtra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaran, K.P.N.; Limaye, Ruta B.; Rajshekhar, C.; Rajagopalan, G.

    2001-01-01

    Radiocarbon dates of carbonized wood (2110 ± 80 yr BP) and oyster shells (7620 ± 110 yr BP) obtained from the sub-surface sediments of Dhamapur well fall within the Holocene period and the environments in which the above got deposited, might have been subjected to the sea-level oscillations of the past. The big oyster shells with barnacle growth, reminiscent of rocky intertidal environment, have shown to be related to Saccostrea sp. of Indo-West Pacific affinity. Presence of salt glands, presumably of mangrove plants, dinoflagellate cysts and organic-walled foraminiferal linings in the palynoflora assemblage infers that these elements must have been recruited from a shallow marine intertidal environment through creek channels. However, the carbonized wood materials and the palynoflora are essentially that of a lowland vegetation deposited in a freshwater facies. Further, larger proportion of pteridophytic spores, reflects a swampy and marshy habitat. The abundance of particulate organic matter (palynodebris), including various fungal elements suggests that the area had been under dense forest cover, receiving heavy precipitation with greater atmospheric moisture at the time of deposition. (author)

  6. The need for verification of the Polish lignite deposits owing to development and nature conservation protection on land at the surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naworyta Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland is a country rich in lignite. The area where the lignite occurs occupies approx. 22% of the total surface area of the country. Geological resources of Polish lignite deposits are estimated at 23.5 billion Mg, but in the majority (69% the accuracy of their identification is poor. Nevertheless the amount of coal in Polish deposits allows - at least in theory - for mining and energy production at the current level for hundreds of years to come. It is an important raw material for the energy security of the country both currently and in the future. Because the vast majority of Polish and foreign mines use an open pit method for lignite extraction the actual amount of mineral available for the extraction depends not only on the properties of the deposit but to a large extent on the method of development of the surface land above the deposit, as well as on the sensitivity of the environment in the vicinity of any future mines. After careful analysis it can be stated that only a few of the lignite deposits may be subject to cost-effective mining operations. These deposits should be subjected to special protection as a future resource base which will ensure the energy security of the country. Some examples of domestic deposits have been presented where due to the conflict resulting from the development of the area should be deleted from the Balance Sheet of Mineral Deposits because their exploitation is irrational and uneconomic. Keeping such deposits in the Balance Sheet, and the use of large numbers in the context of their resource base leads to an unwarranted sense of wealth which consequently does not encourage the protection of these deposits which may actually be subject to rational exploitation in the near future. In summary there is a need to find a compromise in order to adequately protect all natural resources including mineral deposits.

  7. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Ion Deposited Carbon Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    PAGE ("’hen Dita t,,I,, efl TABLE OF CONTENTS Section No. Title Page No. 1.0 OBJECTIVE 1 2.0 SCOPE 2 3.0 BACKGROUND 3 4.0 COATINGS DEPOSITION 4 4.1...scientific, ards of measure. The Committee, and Confer- technical, practical, and teaching purposes.ence voting members, are leading professional On the

  9. Plasma deposition of refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of deposition, testing and application of plasma coating of refractory metals and oxides are considered. The process fundamentals, various manufacturing procedures and equipment for their realization are described in detail. Coating materials are given (Al, Mg, Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , MgAlO 4 ) which are used in reactor engineering and their designated purposes are shown [ru

  10. 75 FR 34533 - Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... collection request (ICR) described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for..., Attention: Desk Officer for OTS, U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 725 17th Street, NW., Room 10235... statement the institution sends to the consumer. Regulation DD contains rules for advertisements of deposit...

  11. The genesis of surficial uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits can form in such diverse environments as calcareous-dolomitic-gypsiferous fluvial and aeolian valley sediments in hot arid and semi-arid regions, oxidizing and reducing alkaline and saline playas, highly organic and/or clay-rich wetland areas, calcareous regoliths in arid terranes, laterites, lake sediments, and highly fractured zones in igneous and metamorphic basement complexes. Formation of ore is governed by the interrelationships between source of ore-forming elements, mechanisms of migration, environment of deposition, climate, preservation, tectonic history and structural framework. The principal factors controlling mobilization of ore-forming elements from source to site of deposition are the availability of elements in source rocks, presence of complexing agents, climate, nature of source rock regolith and structure of source rock terrane. The major processes governing precipitation of uranium in the surficial environment are reduction mechanisms, sorption processes, dissociation of uranyl complexes, change in redox states of ore-forming constituents, evaporation of surface and groundwaters, change in partial pressure of dissolved carbon dioxide, changes in pH, colloidal precipitation, and mixing of two or more surface and groundwaters. One or a number of these processes may be actively involved in ore formation. (author)

  12. Origin and chemical composition of evaporite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, George William

    1960-01-01

    A comparative study of marine evaporite deposits forming at the present time along the pacific coast of central Mexico and evaporite formations of Permian age in West Texas Basin was made in order to determine if the modern sediments provide a basis for understanding environmental conditions that existed during deposition of the older deposits. The field work was supplemented by investigations of artificial evaporite minerals precipitated in the laboratory and by study of the chemical composition of halite rock of different geologic ages. The environment of deposition of contemporaneous marine salt deposits in Mexico is acidic, is strongly reducing a few centimeters below the surface, and teems with microscopic life. Deposition of salt, unlike that of many other sediments, is not wholly a constructional phenomenon. Permanent deposits result only if a favorable balance exists between deposition in the dry season and dissolution in the wet season. Evaporite formations chosen for special study in the West Texas Basin are, in ascending order, the Castile, Salado, and Rustler formations, which have a combined thickness of 1200 meters. The Castile formation is largely composed of gypsum rock, the Salado, halite rock, and the Rustler, quartz and carbonate sandstone. The lower part of the Castile formation is bituminous and contains limestone laminae. The Castile and Rustler formations thicken to the south at the expense of salt of the intervening Salado formation. The clastic rocks of the Rustler formation are interpreted as the deposits of a series of barrier islands north of which halite rock of the Salado was deposited. The salt is believed to have formed in shallow water of uniform density that was mixed by the wind. Where water depth exceeded the depth of the wind mixing, density stratification developed, and gypsum was deposited. Dense water of high salinity below the density discontinuity was overlain by less dense, more normally saline water which was derived from

  13. Synthetic pulse radar including a microprocessor based controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.C.; Rubin, L.A.; Still, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to pulse radar detection of targets in extended media, including natural phenomena such as oil, coal and ore deposits within the earth. In particular, this invention relates to a pulse radar system employing a synthetic pulse formed from a fourier spectrum of frequencies generated and detected by a digitally controlled transmitter and receiver circuits

  14. Laser deposition of coatings for aeronautical and industrials turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teleginski, V. [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil); Silva, S.A.; Riva, R.; Vasconcelos, G. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva Pita, G.R. [Universidade Braz Cubas, Mogi das Cruzes, SP (Brazil); Yamin, L.S. [Escola Tecnica Everardo Passos (ETEP), Sao Jose dos Campos, DP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Zirconium-based ceramic materials are widely employed as Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC), due to its excellent wear and corrosion resistance at high temperatures. The application of TBC includes aeronautical and industrials turbine blades. The working conditions include oxidizing environments and temperatures above 1000°C. The zirconium-based ceramics are developed in such a way that the microstructural control is possible through the control of chemical composition, fabrication route and, thermal treatment. The present paper proposes a laser route to deposit the TBC coating, where the microstructural control is a function of power density and interaction time between the laser beam and the material. The main objective of this work is to study the influence of the CO2 laser beam (Synrad Evolution 125) parameters: power density and interaction time, on the deposition process of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders on NiCrAlY/AISI 316L substrates. The resulting coating surface and interface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that is possible to match laser parameters of scanning speed and intensity to produce homogenous coatings. The X-Ray analyses show that the obtained ceramic coating has reduced number of phases, with prevalence of tetragonal phase.(author)

  15. Evaluation of the salt deposition on the canister surface of concrete cask. Part 2. Measurement test of the salt concentration in air and salt deposition in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataru, Masumi

    2012-01-01

    Concerning the storage facility of spent nuclear fuel using the concrete cask, there is an issue of stress corrosion cracking(SCC). The cooling air goes up along the canister surface in the concrete cask. To evaluate the initiation of SCC or rusting, it is important to verify the estimation method of the sea salt deposition on the metal canister surface transported by cooling air including sea salt particles. To measure the deposition rate, field tests were performed in Choushi test center. In the field test, it was found that the amount of sea salt deposition was very low because the density of the atmospheric sea salt concentration was very low compared with the laboratory test. Using relation between laboratory data and filed data, it is possible to evaluate the salt deposition rate on the canister surface. We also measured atmospheric sea salt concentration in Choushi test center to make the environment condition clear and compared the measurement data with the calculation data to verify the evaluation model. We are developing the automatic measuring device for atmospheric sea salt concentration. To check its performance, we are measuring atmospheric sea salt concentration in Yokosuka Area of CRIEPI and it was confirmed that the device works for one month automatically and fulfills its specifications. (author)

  16. Multi-orifice deposition nozzle for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Randall F.; Post, Brian K.; Cini, Colin L.

    2017-11-21

    An additive manufacturing extrusion head includes a nozzle for accepting and depositing a heated material onto a work surface and/or part. The nozzle includes a valve body and an internal poppet body moveable between positions to permit deposition of at least two bead sizes of heated material onto a work surface and/or part.

  17. Large-scale deposition of weathered oil in the Gulf of Mexico following a deep-water oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel C; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Diercks, Arne-R; Schwing, Patrick; Muller-Karger, Frank; Murawski, Steven; Hollander, David J

    2017-09-01

    The blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig in 2010 released an unprecedented amount of oil at depth (1,500 m) into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Sedimentary geochemical data from an extensive area (∼194,000 km 2 ) was used to characterize the amount, chemical signature, distribution, and extent of the DWH oil deposited on the seafloor in 2010-2011 from coastal to deep-sea areas in the GoM. The analysis of numerous hydrocarbon compounds (N = 158) and sediment cores (N = 2,613) suggests that, 1.9 ± 0.9 × 10 4 metric tons of hydrocarbons (>C9 saturated and aromatic fractions) were deposited in 56% of the studied area, containing 21± 10% (up to 47%) of the total amount of oil discharged and not recovered from the DWH spill. Examination of the spatial trends and chemical diagnostic ratios indicate large deposition of weathered DWH oil in coastal and deep-sea areas and negligible deposition on the continental shelf (behaving as a transition zone in the northern GoM). The large-scale analysis of deposited hydrocarbons following the DWH spill helps understanding the possible long-term fate of the released oil in 2010, including sedimentary transformation processes, redistribution of deposited hydrocarbons, and persistence in the environment as recycled petrocarbon. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition in the Western United States: Sources, Sinks and Changes over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah Marie

    Anthropogenic activities have greatly modified the way nitrogen moves through the atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic environments. Excess reactive nitrogen generated through fossil fuel combustion, industrial fixation, and intensification of agriculture is not confined to anthropogenic systems but leaks into natural ecosystems with consequences including acidification, eutrophication, and biodiversity loss. A better understanding of where excess nitrogen originates and how that changes over time is crucial to identifying when, where, and to what degree environmental impacts occur. A major route into ecosystems for excess nitrogen is through atmospheric deposition. Excess nitrogen is emitted to the atmosphere where it can be transported great distances before being deposited back to the Earth's surface. Analyzing the composition of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and biological indicators that reflect deposition can provide insight into the emission sources as well as processes and atmospheric chemistry that occur during transport and what drives variation in these sources and processes. Chapter 1 provides a review and proof of concept of lichens to act as biological indicators and how their elemental and stable isotope composition can elucidate variation in amounts and emission sources of nitrogen over space and time. Information on amounts and emission sources of nitrogen deposition helps inform natural resources and land management decisions by helping to identify potentially impacted areas and causes of those impacts. Chapter 2 demonstrates that herbaria lichen specimens and field lichen samples reflect historical changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition from urban and agricultural sources across the western United States. Nitrogen deposition increases throughout most of the 20 th century because of multiple types of emission sources until the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 eventually decrease nitrogen deposition around the turn of

  19. Geochemistry and genesis of apatite bearing Fe oxide Dizdaj deposit, SE Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Nabatian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorkheh-Dizaj apatite-iron oxide deposit is located 32 km southeast of Zanjan. The area is situated within the Tarom subzone of Western Alborz-Azarbaijan structural zone. The oldest units at the Sorkheh-Dizaj area are Eocene trachyte, trachyandesite, olivine basalt and volcanoclastic brecciate tuff and lapilli tuff which intruded by a quartz-monzonite, monzonite and granite subvolcanic pluton of Upper Eocene- Early Oligocene age. Subvolcanic plutonic rocks in the area show characteristics of the I-type granites. Magmatism of the area is of synorogenic to postorogenic related to magmatic arc environments. Mineralization at the area is divided into three main zones (A, B and C that all of which are located in the host subvolcanic pluton. These three zones are similar in terms of host rock, mineralogy, alteration, structure, texture and metal content. Mineralization in the volcanic rocks occurs as veins similar to those in three main zones, but less abundant. Geometry of the ore bodies is of vein type and their textures are stockwork, massive, banded, brecciate and vein-veinlet. The most important minerals at Sorkheh-Dizaj deposit are magnetite (low Ti and apatite that associated with them minor sulfide minerals such as chalcopyrite, bornite and pyrite. Minerals such as ilmenite, spinel (titanium magnetite, galena and sphalerite occur in low contents. The supergene minerals like chalcocite, malachite, azurite, covellite, hematite and goethite have been formed due to weathering and supergene processes. The main alterations at the deposit are K-feldspar metasomatism, actinolitization, argillic, sericitization, silicification, tourmalinization, and chlorite-epidotic. Rare earth elements (REE studies demonstrate that the deposit is more enriched in LREE than in HREE. The REE patterns in the apatite, magnetite and host rocks are similar suggesting a magmatic relationship. The REE contents of the apatites are higher than those of the host rocks and

  20. Fetal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinare, Arun

    2008-01-01

    The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid

  1. Joint-patterns, mechanical properties and weathering characteristics of selected, arid, continental deposits of the Colorado Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Heienberg, Linn Therese

    2015-01-01

    The Colorado Plateau contains a stratigraphic sequence spanning from Precambrian to Tertiary in age, including a thick succession of Permian and Mesozoic strata that are well displayed in outcrops throughout southeastern Utah, USA. The appearances of these units, which are controlled by their weathering history, are all unique and pose the question: Why should units with similar depositional environment and burial history look so different?" The most pronounced ...

  2. Optimization of spray deposition and Tetranychus urticae control with air assisted and electrostatic sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tourino Rezende de Cerqueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Improved spray deposition can be attained by electrostatically charging spray droplets, which increases the attraction of droplets to plants and decreases operator exposure to pesticide and losses to the environment. However, this technique alone is not sufficient to achieve desirable penetration of the spray solution into the crop canopy; thus, air assistance can be added to the electrostatic spraying to further improve spray deposition. This study was conducted to compare different spraying technologies on spray deposition and two-spotted spider mite control in cut chrysanthemum. Treatments included in the study were: conventional TJ 8003 double flat fan nozzles, conventional TXVK-3 hollow cone nozzles, semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with electrostatic spray system (ESS and air assistance (AA, and semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with AA only (no ESS. To evaluate the effect of these spraying technologies on the control of two-spotted spider mite, a control treatment was included that did not receive an acaricide application. The AA spraying technology, with or without ESS, optimized spray deposition and provided satisfactory two-spotted spider mite control up to 4 days after application.

  3. Atmospheric Deposition of Phosphorus to the Everglades: Concepts, Constraints, and Published Deposition Rates for Ecosystem Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth W. Redfield

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes concepts underlying the atmospheric input of phosphorus (P to ecosystems, published rates of P deposition, measurement methods, and approaches to future monitoring and research. P conveyed through the atmosphere can be a significant nutrient source for some freshwater and marine ecosystems. Particle sources and sinks at the land-air interface produce variation in P deposition from the atmosphere across temporal and spatial scales. Natural plant canopies can affect deposition rates by changing the physical environment and surface area for particle deposition. Land-use patterns can alter P deposition rates by changing particle concentrations in the atmosphere. The vast majority of P in dry atmospheric deposition is conveyed by coarse (2.5 to 10 μm and giant (10 to 100 μm particles, and yet these size fractions represent a challenge for long-term atmospheric monitoring in the absence of accepted methods for routine sampling. Most information on P deposition is from bulk precipitation collectors and wet/dry bucket sampling, both with questionable precision and accuracy. Most published annual rates of P deposition are gross estimates derived from bulk precipitation sampling in locations around the globe and range from about 5 to well over 100 mg P m–2 year–1, although most inland ecosystems receive between 20 and 80 mg P m–2 year–1. Rates below 30 mg P m–2 year–1 are found in remote areas and near coastlines. Intermediate rates of 30 to 50 mg P m–2 year–1 are associated with forests or mixed land use, and rates of 50 to 100 mg P m–2 year–1 or more are often recorded from urban or agricultural settings. Comparison with other methods suggests that these bulk precipitation estimates provide crude boundaries around actual P deposition rates for various land uses. However, data screening cannot remove all positive bias caused by contamination of bucket or bulk collectors. As a consequence, continued sampling

  4. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  5. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  6. Radon in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of R and D on radon in the indoor environment at SCK-CEN is to (1) to investigate the deposition of radon progeny in the human respiratory tract by means of direct measurements as a function of aerosol conditions; to assess the radon concentrations in buildings retrospectively with volume traps. Progress and main achievements in 1997 are reported on

  7. 78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... as a potential global deposit insurer, preserve confidence in the FDIC deposit insurance system, and... the United States.\\2\\ The FDIC generally pays out deposit insurance on the next business day after a... since 2001 and total approximately $1 trillion today. In many cases, these branches do not engage in...

  8. Uranium deposits of Zaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitmut, D.; Malu wa Kalenga

    1979-01-01

    Since April 1960, following the closing of the Shinkolobwe mine, the Republic of Zaire has ceased to be a producer of uranium. Nevertheless, Gecamines (Generale des carrieres et mines du Zaire), a wholly state-owned company, is continuing its research on uranium occurrences which have been discovered in its concession in the course of aerial radiometric prospecting. The most recent campaign was the one carried out in 1969 and 1972 by Hunting Company. On-the-ground verification of these shows has not yet resulted in the discovery of a workable deposit. There are other sectors cutting across Zaire which might well contain uranium deposits: this is true of the sedimentary phosphates of the region of Lower Zaire as well as of the frontier region between Zaire and the Central African Empire. However, no detailed exploration work has yet been carried out. (author)

  9. Uranium and thorium deposits of Northern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.; Gould, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    This, the second edition of the uranium-thorium deposit inventory, describes briefly the deposits of uranium and/or thorium in northern Ontario, which for the purposes of this circular is defined as that part of Ontario lying north and west of the Grenville Front. The most significant of the deposits described are fossil placers lying at or near the base of the Middle Precambrian Huronian Supergroup. These include the producing and past-producing mines of the Elliot Lake - Agnew Lake area. Also included are the pitchblende veins spatially associated with Late Precambrian (Keweenawan) diabase dikes of the Theano Point - Montreal River area. Miscellaneous Early Precambrian pegmatite, pitchblende-coffinite-sulphide occurrences near the Middle-Early Precambrian unconformity fringing the Lake Superior basin, and disseminations in diabase, granitic rocks, alkalic complexes and breccias scattered throughout northern Ontario make up the rest of the occurrences

  10. 20 CFR 703.306 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Act in the amount fixed by the Office under the regulations in this part shall deposit any... deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. 703.306 Section 703.306 Employees' Benefits... negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. A self-insurer or...

  11. Atmospheric deposition of long-lived Beta radionuclides over the territory of Bulgaria during the last decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veleva, B. [National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-07-01

    The sources of atmospheric radioactivity are discussed and compared. Radon isotopes and their daughters' dominate the natural background of beta activity in the surface air. The man-made radionuclides, much of them beta emitters, started to contaminate regionally and globally the environment after 1940's due to t