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Sample records for deposition program nadp

  1. U.S. Forest Service Region 1 Lake Chemistry, NADP, and IMPROVE air quality data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Grenon; Mark Story

    2009-01-01

    This report was developed to address the need for comprehensive analysis of U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Region 1 air quality monitoring data. The monitoring data includes Phase 3 (long-term data) lakes, National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE). Annual and seasonal data for the periods of record...

  2. External quality-assurance project report for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Martin, RoseAnn; Rhodes, Mark F.; Chesney, Tanya A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operated six distinct programs to provide external quality-assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) during 2009–2010. The field-audit program assessed the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NTN samples; a system-blank program assessed the same effects for MDN. Two interlaboratory-comparison programs assessed the bias and variability of the chemical analysis data from the Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL) and Mercury (Hg) Analytical Laboratory (HAL). The blind-audit program was also implemented for the MDN to evaluate analytical bias in total Hg concentration data produced by the HAL. The co-located-sampler program was used to identify and quantify potential shifts in NADP data resulting from replacement of original network instrumentation with new electronic recording rain gages (E-gages) and precipitation collectors that use optical sensors. The results indicate that NADP data continue to be of sufficient quality for the analysis of spatial distributions and time trends of chemical constituents in wet deposition across the United States. Results also suggest that retrofit of the NADP networks with the new precipitation collectors could cause –8 to +14 percent shifts in NADP annual precipitation-weighted mean concentrations and total deposition values for ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and hydrogen ion, and larger shifts (+13 to +74 percent) for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. The prototype N-CON Systems bucket collector is more efficient in the catch of precipitation in winter than Aerochem Metrics Model 301 collector, especially for light snowfall.

  3. Lake and bulk sampling chemistry, NADP, and IMPROVE air quality data analysis on the Bridger-Teton National Forest (USFS Region 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Grenon; Terry Svalberg; Ted Porwoll; Mark Story

    2010-01-01

    Air quality monitoring data from several programs in and around the Bridger-Teton (B-T) National Forest - National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), longterm lake monitoring, long-term bulk precipitation monitoring (both snow and rain), and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) - were analyzed in this report. Trends were analyzed using...

  4. External quality-assurance results for the national atmospheric deposition program/national trends network, 2000-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Gordon, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Five external quality-assurance programs were operated by the U.S. Geological Survey for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) from 2000 through 2001 (study period): the intersite-comparison program, the blind-audit program, the field-audit program, the interlaboratory-comparison program, and the collocated-sampler program. Each program is designed to measure specific components of the total error inherent in NADP/NTN wet-deposition measurements. The intersite-comparison program assesses the variability and bias of pH and specific-conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators with respect to accuracy goals. The accuracy goals are statistically based using the median of all of the measurements obtained for each of four intersite-comparison studies. The percentage of site operators responding on time that met the pH accuracy goals ranged from 84.2 to 90.5 percent. In these same four intersite-comparison studies, 88.9 to 99.0 percent of the site operators met the accuracy goals for specific conductance. The blind-audit program evaluates the effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping on the chemistry of weekly precipitation samples. The blind-audit data for the study period indicate that sample handling introduced a small amount of sulfate contamination and slight changes to hydrogen-ion content of the precipitation samples. The magnitudes of the paired differences are not environmentally significant to NADP/NTN data users. The field-audit program (also known as the 'field-blank program') was designed to measure the effects of field exposure, handling, and processing on the chemistry of NADP/NTN precipitation samples. The results indicate potential low-level contamination of NADP/NTN samples with calcium, ammonium, chloride, and nitrate. Less sodium contamination was detected by the field-audit data than in previous years. Statistical analysis of the paired differences shows that contaminant ions

  5. Comparison of precipitation chemistry measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network and National Atmospheric Deposition Program for the period 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Shaw, Michael J.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Rothert, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    Precipitation chemistry and depth measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN) and the US National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) were compared for the 10-year period 1995–2004. Colocated sets of CAPMoN and NADP instrumentation, consisting of precipitation collectors and rain gages, were operated simultaneously per standard protocols for each network at Sutton, Ontario and Frelighsburg, Ontario, Canada and at State College, PA, USA. CAPMoN samples were collected daily, and NADP samples were collected weekly, and samples were analyzed exclusively by each network’s laboratory for pH, H + , Ca2+  , Mg2+  , Na + , K + , NH+4 , Cl − , NO−3 , and SO2−4 . Weekly and annual precipitation-weighted mean concentrations for each network were compared. This study is a follow-up to an earlier internetwork comparison for the period 1986–1993, published by Alain Sirois, Robert Vet, and Dennis Lamb in 2000. Median weekly internetwork differences for 1995–2004 data were the same to slightly lower than for data for the previous study period (1986–1993) for all analytes except NO−3 , SO2−4 , and sample depth. A 1994 NADP sampling protocol change and a 1998 change in the types of filters used to process NADP samples reversed the previously identified negative bias in NADP data for hydrogen-ion and sodium concentrations. Statistically significant biases (α = 0.10) for sodium and hydrogen-ion concentrations observed in the 1986–1993 data were not significant for 1995–2004. Weekly CAPMoN measurements generally are higher than weekly NADP measurements due to differences in sample filtration and field instrumentation, not sample evaporation, contamination, or analytical laboratory differences.

  6. A quality-assurance assessment for constituents reported by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and the National Trends Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, R.B.; Schroder, L.J.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    A continuing quality-assurance program has been operated by the U.S. Geographical Survey to evaluate any bias introduced by routine handling, shipping, and laboratory analyses of wet-deposition samples collected in the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and National Trends Network (NTN). Blind-audit samples having a variety of constituent concentrations and values were selected. Only blind-audit samples with constituent concentrations and values less than the 95th-percentile concentration for natural wet-deposition samples were included in the analysis. Of the major ions, there was a significant increase of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ SO42+ and Cl- in samples handled according to standard protocols and shipped in NADP/NTN sample-collection buckets. For 1979-1987, graphs of smoothed data showing the estimated contaminations in blind-audit samples indicate a decrease in the median concentration and ranges of Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- contamination of blind-audit samples shipped in sample-collection buckets. Part of the contamination detected in blind-audit samples can be attributed to contact with the sample-collection bucket and lid; however, additional sources also seem to contaminate the blind-audit sample. Apparent decreases in the magnitude and range of sample contamination may be caused by differences in sample-collection bucket- and lid-washing procedures by the NADP/NTN Central Analytical Laboratory. Although the degree of bias is minimal for most constituents, summaries of the NADP/NTN data base may contain overestimates of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na-, K+, SO42- and Cl- concentrations, and underestimates of H+ concentrations.

  7. NADP - dependent isocritrate dehydrogenase from human kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... properties of IDH1 purified from the mitochondria that was isolated from a ..... AMP could not activated NADP-IDH enzyme, even when some ... Influence of compartmental localization on the function of yeast NADP+-specific.

  8. Effects of equipment performance on data quality from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and the Mercury Deposition Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Rhodes, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Quality Systems operates the Precipitation Chemistry Quality Assurance project (PCQA) to provide independent, external quality-assurance for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). NADP is composed of five monitoring networks that measure the chemical composition of precipitation and ambient air. PCQA and the NADP Program Office completed five short-term studies to investigate the effects of equipment performance with respect to the National Trends Network (NTN) and Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) data quality: sample evaporation from NTN collectors; sample volume and mercury loss from MDN collectors; mercury adsorption to MDN collector glassware, grid-type precipitation sensors for precipitation collectors, and the effects of an NTN collector wind shield on sample catch efficiency. Sample-volume evaporation from an NTN Aerochem Metrics (ACM) collector ranged between 1.1–33 percent with a median of 4.7 percent. The results suggest that weekly NTN sample evaporation is small relative to sample volume. MDN sample evaporation occurs predominantly in western and southern regions of the United States (U.S.) and more frequently with modified ACM collectors than with N-CON Systems Inc. collectors due to differences in airflow through the collectors. Variations in mercury concentrations, measured to be as high as 47.5 percent per week with a median of 5 percent, are associated with MDN sample-volume loss. Small amounts of mercury are also lost from MDN samples by adsorption to collector glassware irrespective of collector type. MDN 11-grid sensors were found to open collectors sooner, keep them open longer, and cause fewer lid cycles than NTN 7-grid sensors. Wind shielding an NTN ACM collector resulted in collection of larger quantities of precipitation while also preserving sample integrity.

  9. Eucalypt NADP-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiffin, Vincent; Hodges, Michael; Gálvez, Susana; Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola; Gadal, Pierre; Martin, Francis

    1998-01-01

    NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) activity is increased in roots of Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata ex Maiden Kirkp. during colonization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius Coker and Couch. To investigate the regulation of the enzyme expression, a cDNA (EgIcdh) encoding the NADP-ICDH was isolated from a cDNA library of E. globulus-P. tinctorius ectomycorrhizae. The putative polypeptide sequence of EgIcdh showed a high amino acid similarity with plant NADP-ICDHs. Because the deduced EgICDH protein lacks an amino-terminal targeting sequence and shows highest similarity to plant cytosolic ICDHs, it probably represents a cytoplasmic isoform. RNA analysis showed that the steady-state level of EgIcdh transcripts was enhanced nearly 2-fold in ectomycorrhizal roots compared with nonmycorrhizal roots. Increased accumulation of NADP-ICDH transcripts occurred as early as 2 d after contact and likely led to the observed increased enzyme activity. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that NADP-ICDH was preferentially accumulated in the epidermis and stele parenchyma of nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal lateral roots. The putative role of cytosolic NADP-ICDH in ectomycorrhizae is discussed. PMID:9662536

  10. DepositScan, a Scanning Program to Measure Spray Deposition Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DepositScan, a scanning program was developed to quickly measure spray deposit distributions on water sensitive papers or Kromekote cards which are widely used for determinations of pesticide spray deposition quality on target areas. The program is installed in a portable computer and works with a ...

  11. Comparison of snowpack and winter wet-deposition chemistry in the Rocky Mountains, USA: implications for winter dry deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Ingersoll, George P.; Mast, M. Alisa; Turk, John T.; Campbell, Donald H.

    Depth-integrated snowpack chemistry was measured just prior to maximum snowpack depth during the winters of 1992-1999 at 12 sites co-located with National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trend Network (NADP/NTN) sites in the central and southern Rocky Mountains, USA. Winter volume-weighted mean wet-deposition concentrations were calculated for the NADP/NTN sites, and the data were compared to snowpack concentrations using the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. No statistically significant differences were indicated in concentrations of SO 42- or NO 3- ( p>0.1). Small, but statistically significant differences ( p⩽0.03) were indicated for all other solutes analyzed. Differences were largest for Ca 2+ concentrations, which on average were 2.3 μeq l -1 (43%) higher in the snowpack than in winter NADP/NTN samples. Eolian carbonate dust appeared to influence snowpack chemistry through both wet and dry deposition, and the effect increased from north to south. Dry deposition of eolian carbonates was estimated to have neutralized an average of 6.9 μeq l -1 and a maximum of 12 μeq l -1 of snowpack acidity at the southernmost sites. The good agreement between snowpack and winter NADP/NTN SO 42- and NO 3- concentrations indicates that for those solutes the two data sets can be combined to increase data density in high-elevation areas, where few NADP/NTN sites exist. This combination of data sets will allow for better estimates of atmospheric deposition of SO 42- and NO 3- across the Rocky Mountain region.

  12. Trends in bromide wet deposition concentrations in the contiguous United States, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A; Lehmann, Christopher M B; Kerschner, Brian M; Ludtke, Amy S; Green, Lee A; Rhodes, Mark F

    2018-02-01

    Bromide (Br - ) and other solute concentration data from wet deposition samples collected and analyzed by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) from 2001 to 2016, were statistically analyzed for trends both geographically and temporally by precipitation type. Analysis was limited to NADP sites in the contiguous 48 United States. The Br - concentrations for this time period had a high number of values censored at the detection limits with greater than 86 percent of sample concentrations below analytical detection. Bromide was more frequently detected at NADP sites in coastal regions. Analysis using specialized statistical techniques for censored data revealed that Br - concentrations varied by precipitation type with higher concentrations usually observed in liquid versus precipitation containing snow. Negative temporal trends in Br - wet deposition concentrations were observed at a majority of NADP sites; approximately 25 percent of these trend values were statistically significant at less than 0.05 to 0.10 significance levels. Potential causes for the negative trends were explored, including annual and seasonal changes in precipitation depth, reduced emissions of methyl bromide (CH 3 Br) from coastal wetlands, and declining industrial use of bromine compounds. The results indicate that Br - in non-coastal wet-deposition comes mainly from long-range transport, not local sources. Correlations between Br - , chloride, and nitrate concentrations also were evaluated. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Environmental monitoring program to NUCLEMON deposits in Botuxim - Itu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An Environmental monitoring program to be executed in routine as caution against a possible contamination in adjacents regions of Radioactive Materials deposits sites of Santo Amaro (USAM)/NUCLEMON is presented. (author) [pt

  14. Steam generator deposit control program assessment at Comanche Peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.; Fellers, B.; Orbon, S.

    2002-01-01

    Comanche Peak has employed a variety of methods to assess the effectiveness of the deposit control program. These include typical methods such as an extensive visual inspection program and detailed corrosion product analysis and trending. In addition, a recently pioneered technique, low frequency eddy current profile analysis (LFEC) has been utilized. LFEC provides a visual mapping of the magnetite deposit profile of the steam generator. Analysis of the LFEC results not only provides general area deposition rates, but can also provide local deposition patterns, which is indicative of steam generator performance. Other techniques utilized include trending of steam pressure, steam generator hideout-return, and flow assisted corrosion (FAC) results. The sum of this information provides a comprehensive assessment of the deposit control program effectiveness and the condition of the steam generator. It also provides important diagnostic and predictive information relative to steam generator life management and mitigative strategies, such as special cleaning procedures. This paper discusses the techniques employed by Comanche Peak Chemistry to monitor the effectiveness of the deposit control program and describes how this information is used in strategic planning. (authors)

  15. Measurements of dry-deposition parameters for the California acid-deposition monitoring program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.C.; Egami, R.T.; Bowen, J.L.; Frazier, C.A.

    1991-06-01

    The State of California monitors the concentrations of acidic gases and particles at 10 sites throughout the state. Seven sites represent urban areas (South Coast Air Basin - three sites, San Francisco Bay Area, Bakersfield, Santa Barbara, and Sacramento) and three represent forested areas (Sequoia National Park, Yosemite National Park, and Gasquet). Several sites are collocated with monitoring instruments for other air quality and forest response networks. Continuous monitors for the dry deposition network collect hourly average values for ozone, wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric stability, temperature, dew point, time of wetness, and solar radiation. A newly-designed gas/particle sampler collects daytime (6 a.m. to 6 p.m.) and nighttime (6 p.m. to 6 a.m.) samples every sixth day for sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric acid. Particles are collected on the same day/night schedule in PM(10) and PM(2.5) size ranges, and are analyzed for mass, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, and calcium ions. The sampling schedule follows the regulatory schedule adopted by the EPA and ARB for suspended particulate matter. Wet deposition data are collected at or nearby the dry deposition stations. The first year of the monitoring program included installation of the network, training of technicians, acquisition and validation of data, and transfer of the sampling and analysis technology to Air Resources Board operating divisions. Data have been validated and stored for the period May, 1988 through September, 1989

  16. Pre-steady-state kinetic studies of redox reactions catalysed by Bacillus subtilis ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase with NADP(+)/NADPH and ferredoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Daisuke; Soeta, Takahiro; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Sétif, Pierre; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase ([EC1.18.1.2], FNR) from Bacillus subtilis (BsFNR) is a homodimeric flavoprotein sharing structural homology with bacterial NADPH-thioredoxin reductase. Pre-steady-state kinetics of the reactions of BsFNR with NADP(+), NADPH, NADPD (deuterated form) and B. subtilis ferredoxin (BsFd) using stopped-flow spectrophotometry were studied. Mixing BsFNR with NADP(+) and NADPH yielded two types of charge-transfer (CT) complexes, oxidized FNR (FNR(ox))-NADPH and reduced FNR (FNR(red))-NADP(+), both having CT absorption bands centered at approximately 600n m. After mixing BsFNR(ox) with about a 10-fold molar excess of NADPH (forward reaction), BsFNR was almost completely reduced at equilibrium. When BsFNR(red) was mixed with NADP(+), the amount of BsFNR(ox) increased with increasing NADP(+) concentration, but BsFNR(red) remained as the major species at equilibrium even with about 50-fold molar excess NADP(+). In both directions, the hydride-transfer was the rate-determining step, where the forward direction rate constant (~500 s(-1)) was much higher than the reverse one (reaction. The characteristics of the BsFNR reactions with NADP(+)/NADPH were compared with those of other types of FNRs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Precipitation collector bias and its effects on temporal trends and spatial variability in National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    Precipitation samples have been collected by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's (NADP) National Trends Network (NTN) using the Aerochem Metrics Model 301 (ACM) collector since 1978. Approximately one-third of the NTN ACM collectors have been replaced with N-CON Systems, Inc. Model ADS 00-120 (NCON) collectors. Concurrent data were collected over 6 years at 12 NTN sites using colocated ACM and NCON collectors in various precipitation regimes. Linear regression models of the colocated data were used to adjust for relative bias between the collectors. Replacement of ACM collectors with NCON collectors resulted in shifts in 10-year seasonal precipitation-weighted mean concentration (PWMC) trend slopes for: cations (−0.001 to −0.007 mgL−1yr−1), anions (−0.009 to −0.028 mgL−1yr−1), and hydrogen ion (+0.689 meqL-1yr−1). Larger shifts in NO3− and SO4−2 seasonal PWMC trend slopes were observed in the Midwest and Northeast US, where concentrations are generally higher than in other regions. Geospatial analysis of interpolated concentration rasters indicated regions of accentuated variability introduced by incorporation of NCON collectors into the NTN.

  18. The regulation and catalytic mechanism of the NADP-malic enzyme from tobacco leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERONIKA DOUBNEROVÁ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The non-photosynthetic NADP-malic enzyme EC 1.1.1.40 (NADP-ME, which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate and NADP+ to produce pyruvate and NADPH, respectively, and which could be involved in plant defense responses, was isolated from Nicotiana tabacum L. leaves. The mechanism of the enzyme reaction was studied by the initial rate method and was found to be an ordered sequential one. Regulation possibilities of purified cytosolic NADP-ME by cell metabolites were tested. Intermediates of the citric acid cycle (a-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, metabolites of glycolysis (pyruvate, phosphoenolpyruvate, glucose-6-phosphate, compounds connected with lipogenesis (coenzyme A, acetyl-CoA, palmitoyl-CoA and some amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, aspartate did not significantly affect the NADP-ME activity from tobacco leaves. In contrast, macroergic compounds (GTP, ATP and ADP were strong inhibitors of NADP-ME; the type of inhibition and the inhibition constants were determined in the presence of the most effective cofactors (Mn2+ or Mg2+, required by NADP-ME. Predominantly non-competitive type of inhibitions of NADP-ME with respect to NADP+ and mixed type to L-malate were found.

  19. Mercury Deposition Network Site Operator Training for the System Blank and Blind Audit Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operates the external quality assurance project for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network. The project includes the system blank and blind audit programs for assessment of total mercury concentration data quality for wet-deposition samples. This presentation was prepared to train new site operators and to refresh experienced site operators to successfully process and submit system blank and blind audit samples for chemical analysis. Analytical results are used to estimate chemical stability and contamination levels of National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network samples and to evaluate laboratory variability and bias.

  20. Identification of an NADP/thioredoxin system in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppe, H. C.; Picaud, A.; Buchanan, B. B.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.

    1991-01-01

    The protein components of the NADP/thioredoxin system, NADP-thioredoxin reductase (NTR) and thioredoxin h, have been purified and characterized from the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The analysis of this system confirms that photoautotrophic Chlamydomonas cells resemble leaves in having both an NADP- and ferrodoxin-linked thioredoxin redox system. Chlamydomonas thioredoxin h, which is smaller on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis than thioredoxin m from the same source, cross-reacted with antisera to thioredoxin h from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and wheat germ (Triticum vulgaris L.) but not with antisera to m or f thioredoxins. In these properties, the thioredoxin h resembled a thioredoxin from Chlamydomonas, designated Ch1, whose sequence was reported recently (P. Decottignies et al., 1991, Eur. J. Biochem. 198, 505-512). The differential reactivity of thioredoxin h with antisera was used to demonstrate that thioredoxin h is enriched outside the chloroplast. The NTR was purified from Chlamydomonas using thioredoxin h from the same source. Similar to its counterpart from other organisms, Chlamydomonas NTR had a subunit size of approx. 36 kDa and was specific for NADPH. Chlamydomonas NTR effectively reduced thioredoxin h from the same source but showed little activity with the other thioredoxins tested, including spinach thioredoxin h and Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Comparison of the reduction of Chlamydomonas thioredoxins m and h by each of the endogenous thioredoxin reductases, NTR and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase, revealed a differential specificity of each enzyme for thioredoxin. Thus, NTR showed increased activity with thioredoxin h and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase with thioredoxins m and f.

  1. Spatial and temporal variation in sources of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains using nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, Leora; Campbell, Donald H.; Lehmann, Christopher M. B.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2018-03-01

    Variation in source areas and source types of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains were evaluated using spatially and temporally distributed N isotope data from atmospheric deposition networks for 1995-2016. This unique dataset links N in wet deposition and snowpack to mobile and stationary emissions sources, and enhances understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic activities and environmental policies that mitigate effects of accelerated N cycling across the Rocky Mountain region. δ15N-NO3- at 50 U.S. Geological Survey Rocky Mountain Snowpack (Snowpack) sites ranged from -3.3‰ to +6.5‰, with a mean value of +1.4‰. At 15 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network wet deposition (NADP Wetfall) sites, summer δ15N-NO3- is significantly lower ranging from -7.6‰ to -1.3‰ while winter δ15N-NO3- ranges from -2.6‰ to +5.5‰, with a mean value of +0.7‰ during the cool season. The strong seasonal difference in NADP Wetfall δ15N-NO3- is due in part to variation in the proportion of N originating from source regions at different times of the year due to seasonal changes in weather patterns. Snowpack NO3- and δ15N-NO3- are significantly related to NADP Wetfall (fall and winter) suggesting that bulk snowpack samples provide a reliable estimate at high elevations. Spatial trends show higher NO3- concentrations and δ15N-NO3- in the Southern Rocky Mountains located near larger anthropogenic N emission sources compared to the Northern Rocky Mountains. NADP Wetfall δ15N-NH4+ ranged from -10‰ to 0‰, with no observed spatial pattern. However, the lowest δ15N-NH4+(-9‰), and the highest NH4+ concentration (35 μeq/L) were observed at a Utah site dominated by local agricultural activities, whereas the higher δ15N-NH4+ observed in Colorado and Wyoming are likely due to mixed sources, including fossil fuel combustion and agricultural sources. These findings show spatial and

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in sources of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains using nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, Leora; Campbell, Donald H.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2018-01-01

    Variation in source areas and source types of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains were evaluated using spatially and temporally distributed N isotope data from atmospheric deposition networks for 1995-2016. This unique dataset links N in wet deposition and snowpack to mobile and stationary emissions sources, and enhances understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic activities and environmental policies that mitigate effects of accelerated N cycling across the Rocky Mountain region. δ15N−NO3− at 50 U.S. Geological Survey Rocky Mountain Snowpack (Snowpack) sites ranged from −3.3‰ to +6.5‰, with a mean value of +1.4‰. At 15 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network wet deposition (NADP Wetfall) sites, summer δ15N−NO3− is significantly lower ranging from −7.6‰ to −1.3‰ while winter δ15N−NO3− ranges from −2.6‰ to +5.5‰, with a mean value of +0.7‰ during the cool season. The strong seasonal difference in NADP Wetfall δ15N−NO3− is due in part to variation in the proportion of N originating from source regions at different times of the year due to seasonal changes in weather patterns. Snowpack NO3− and δ15N−NO3− are significantly related to NADP Wetfall (fall and winter) suggesting that bulk snowpack samples provide a reliable estimate at high elevations. Spatial trends show higher NO3−concentrations and δ15N−NO3− in the Southern Rocky Mountains located near larger anthropogenic N emission sources compared to the Northern Rocky Mountains. NADP Wetfall δ15N−NH4+ ranged from −10‰ to 0‰, with no observed spatial pattern. However, the lowest δ15N−NH4+(−9‰), and the highest NH4+ concentration (35 μeq/L) were observed at a Utah site dominated by local agricultural activities, whereas the higher δ15N−NH4+observed in Colorado and Wyoming are likely due to mixed sources, including fossil fuel combustion and

  3. NADP+ enhances cholera and pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.; Whitsel, C.; Arinze, I.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cholera or pertussis toxin-catalyzed [ 32 P]ADP-ribosylation is frequently used to estimate the concentration of the stimulatory (Ns) or inhibitory (Ni) guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins which modulate the activity of adenylate cyclase. With this assay, however, the degradation of the substrate, NAD + , by endogenous enzymes such as NAD + -glycohydrolase (NADase) present in the test membranes can influence the results. In this study the authors show that both cholera and pertussis toxin-catalyzed [ 32 P]ADP-ribosylation of liver membrane proteins is markedly enhanced by NADP + . The effect is concentration dependent; with 20 μM [ 32 P]NAD + as substrate maximal enhancement is obtained at 0.5-1.0 mM NADP + . The enhancement of [ 32 P]ADP-ribosylation by NADP + was much greater than that by other known effectors such as Mg 2+ , phosphate or isoniazid. The effect of NADP + on ADP-ribosylation may occur by inhibition of the degradation of NAD + probably by acting as an alternate substrate for NADase. Among inhibitors tested (NADP + , isoniazid, imidazole, nicotinamide, L-Arg-methyl-ester and HgCl 2 ) to suppress NADase activity, NADP + was the most effective and, 10 mM, inhibited activity of the enzyme by about 90%. In membranes which contain substantial activities of NADase the inclusion of NADP + in the assay is necessary to obtain maximal ADP-ribosylation

  4. Scalable control program for multiprecursor flow-type atomic layer deposition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaraj, Sathees Kannan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Takoudis, Christos G., E-mail: takoudis@uic.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 and Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the development and implementation of a scalable control program to control flow type atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor with multiple precursor delivery lines. The program logic is written and tested in LABVIEW environment to control ALD reactor with four precursor delivery lines to deposit up to four layers of different materials in cyclic manner. The programming logic is conceived such that to facilitate scale up for depositing more layers with multiple precursors and scale down for using single layer with any one precursor in the ALD reactor. The program takes precursor and oxidizer exposure and purging times as input and controls the sequential opening and closing of the valves to facilitate the complex ALD process in cyclic manner. The program could be used to deposit materials from any single line or in tandem with other lines in any combination and in any sequence.

  5. NAD(H) and NADP(H) Redox Couples and Cellular Energy Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wusheng; Wang, Rui-Sheng; Handy, Diane E; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2018-01-20

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )/reduced NAD + (NADH) and NADP + /reduced NADP + (NADPH) redox couples are essential for maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and for modulating numerous biological events, including cellular metabolism. Deficiency or imbalance of these two redox couples has been associated with many pathological disorders. Recent Advances: Newly identified biosynthetic enzymes and newly developed genetically encoded biosensors enable us to understand better how cells maintain compartmentalized NAD(H) and NADP(H) pools. The concept of redox stress (oxidative and reductive stress) reflected by changes in NAD(H)/NADP(H) has increasingly gained attention. The emerging roles of NAD + -consuming proteins in regulating cellular redox and metabolic homeostasis are active research topics. The biosynthesis and distribution of cellular NAD(H) and NADP(H) are highly compartmentalized. It is critical to understand how cells maintain the steady levels of these redox couple pools to ensure their normal functions and simultaneously avoid inducing redox stress. In addition, it is essential to understand how NAD(H)- and NADP(H)-utilizing enzymes interact with other signaling pathways, such as those regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor, to maintain cellular redox homeostasis and energy metabolism. Additional studies are needed to investigate the inter-relationships among compartmentalized NAD(H)/NADP(H) pools and how these two dinucleotide redox couples collaboratively regulate cellular redox states and cellular metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, recent studies suggest the utility of using pharmacological interventions or nutrient-based bioactive NAD + precursors as therapeutic interventions for metabolic diseases. Thus, a better understanding of the cellular functions of NAD(H) and NADP(H) may facilitate efforts to address a host of pathological disorders effectively. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 251-272.

  6. Role of cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in ischemia-reperfusion injury in mouse kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinu; Kim, Ki Young; Jang, Hee-Seong; Yoshida, Takumi; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku; Park, Jeen-Woo; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Park, Kwon Moo

    2008-01-01

    Cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) synthesizes reduced NADP (NADPH), which is an essential cofactor for the generation of reduced glutathione (GSH), the most abundant and important antioxidant in mammalian cells. We investigated the role of IDPc in kidney ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in mice. The activity and expression of IDPc were highest in the cortex, modest in the outer medulla, and lowest in the inner medulla. NADPH levels were greatest in the cortex. IDPc expressio...

  7. Quantifying particulate matter deposition in Niwot Ridge, Colorado: Collection of dry deposition using marble inserts and particle imaging using the FlowCAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Natasha R.; Mladenov, Natalie; Seibold, Christine M.; Chowanski, Kurt; Seitz, Leslie; Wellemeyer, T. Barret; Williams, Mark W.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric wet and dry deposition are important sources of carbon for remote alpine lakes and soils. The carbon inputs from dry deposition in alpine National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) collectors, including aeolian dust and biological material, are not well constrained due to difficulties in retaining particulate matter in the collectors. Here, we developed and tested a marble insert for dry deposition collection at the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Station (NWT LTER) Soddie site (3345 m) between 24 May and 8 November 2011. We conducted laboratory tests of the insert's effect on particulate matter (PM) mass and non-purgeable organic carbon (DOC) and found that the insert did not significantly change either measurement. Thus, the insert may enable dry deposition collection of PM and DOC at NADP sites. We then developed a method for enumerating the collected wet and dry deposition with the Flow Cytometer and Microscope (FlowCAM), a dynamic-image particle analysis tool. The FlowCAM has the potential to establish morphology, which affects particle settling and retention, through particle diameter and aspect ratio. Particle images were used to track the abundance of pollen grains over time. Qualitative image examination revealed that most particles were biological in nature, such as intact algal cells and pollen. Dry deposition loading to the Soddie site as determined by FlowCAM measurements was highly variable, ranging from 100 to >230 g ha-1 d-1 in June-August 2011 and peaking in late June. No significant difference in diameter or aspect ratio was found between wet and dry deposition, suggesting fundamental similarities between those deposition types. Although FlowCAM statistics and identification of particle types proved insightful, our total-particle enumeration method had a high variance and underestimated the total number of particles when compared to imaging of relatively large volumes (60-125 mL) from a single sample. We recommend use of

  8. Regulation of replicative senescence by NADP+ -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, In Sup; Huh, Tae Lin; Lee, Young Sup; Lee, You Mie; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2006-01-01

    The free radical hypothesis of aging postulates that senescence is due to an accumulation of cellular oxidative damage, caused largely by reactive oxygen species that are produced as by-products of normal metabolic processes. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of cytosolic and mitochondrial redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage is one of the primary functions of cytosolic (IDPc) and mitochondrial NADP+ -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPm) by supplying NADPH for antioxidant systems. In this paper, we demonstrate that modulation of IDPc or IDPm activity in IMR-90 cells regulates cellular redox status and replicative senescence. When we examined the regulatory role of IDPc and IDPm against the aging process with IMR-90 cells transfected with cDNA for IDPc or IDPm in sense and antisense orientations, a clear inverse relationship was observed between the amount of IDPc or IDPm expressed in target cells and their susceptibility to senescence, which was reflected by changes in replicative potential, cell cycle, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, expression of p21 and p53, and morphology of cells. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage, and intracellular peroxide generation were higher and cellular redox status shifted to a prooxidant condition in the cell lines expressing the lower level of IDPc or IDPm. The results suggest that IDPc and IDPm play an important regulatory role in cellular defense against oxidative stress and in the senescence of IMR-90 cells.

  9. Glutathionylation regulates cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seoung Woo; Oh, Chang Joo; Kil, In Sup; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2009-04-01

    Cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) is susceptible to inactivation by numerous thiol-modifying reagents. This study now reports that Cys269 of IDPc is a target for S-glutathionylation and that this modification is reversed by dithiothreitol as well as enzymatically by cytosolic glutaredoxin in the presence of GSH. Glutathionylated IDPc was significantly less susceptible than native protein to peptide fragmentation by reactive oxygen species and proteolytic digestion. Glutathionylation may play a protective role in the degradation of protein through the structural alterations of IDPc. HEK293 cells treated with diamide displayed decreased IDPc activity and accumulated glutathionylated enzyme. Using immunoprecipitation with an anti-IDPc IgG and immunoblotting with an anti-GSH IgG, we purified and positively identified glutathionylated IDPc from the kidneys of mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury and from the livers of ethanol-administered rats. These results suggest that IDPc activity is modulated through enzymatic glutathionylation and deglutathionylation during oxidative stress.

  10. Modulation of NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, In Sup; Lee, Young Sup; Bae, Young Seuk; Huh, Tae Lin; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2004-01-01

    NADPH is an important cofactor in many biosynthesis pathways and the regeneration of reduced glutathione, critically important in cellular defense against oxidative damage. It is mainly produced by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and NADP(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenases (ICDHs). Here, we investigated age-related changes in ICDH activity and protein expression in IMR-90 human diploid fibroblast cells and tissues from Fischer 344 rats. We found that in IMR-90 cells the activity of cytosolic ICDH (IDPc) gradually increased with age up to the 46-48 population doubling level (PDL) and then gradually decreased at later PDL. 2',7'-Dichloro-fluorescein fluorescence which reflects intracellular ROS generation was increased with aging in IMR-90 cells. In ad libitum-fed rats, we noted age-related, tissue-specific modulations of IDPc and mitochondrial ICDH (IDPm) activities and protein expression in the liver, kidney and testes. In contrast, ICDH activities and protein expression were not significantly modulated in diet-restricted rats. These data suggest that modulation of ICDH is an age-dependent and a tissue-specific phenomenon.

  11. Methodology and significance of studies of atmospheric deposition in highway runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Rice, Karen C.; Willoughby, Timothy C.

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and the processes that are involved in causing and altering atmospheric deposition in relation to highway surfaces and runoff were evaluated nationwide. Wet deposition is more easily monitored than dry deposition, and data on wet deposition are available for major elements and water properties (constituents affecting acid deposition) from the inter-agency National Atmospheric Deposition Program/ National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Many trace constituents (metals and organic compounds) of interest in highway runoff loads, however, are not included in the NADP/NTN. Dry deposition, which constitutes a large part of total atmospheric deposition for many constituents in highway runoff loads, is difficult to monitor accurately. Dry-deposition rates are not widely available.Many of the highway-runoff investigations that have addressed atmospheric-deposition sources have had flawed investigative designs or problems with methodology. Some results may be incorrect because of reliance on time-aggregated data collected during a period of changing atmospheric emissions. None of the investigations used methods that could accurately quantify the part of highway runoff load that can be attributed to ambient atmospheric deposition. Lack of information about accurate ambient deposition rates and runoff loads was part of the problem. Samples collected to compute the rates and loads were collected without clean-sampling methods or sampler protocols, and without quality-assurance procedures that could validate the data. Massbudget calculations comparing deposition and runoff did not consider loss of deposited material during on-highway processing. Loss of deposited particles from highway travel lanes could be large, as has been determined in labeled particle studies, because of resuspension caused by turbulence from passing traffic. Although a cause of resuspension of large particles, traffic turbulence may increase the rate of deposition for small particles and

  12. Atmospheric mercury deposition to forests in the eastern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risch, Martin R.; DeWild, John F.; Gay, David A.; Zhang, Leiming; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition to forests is important because half of the land cover in the eastern USA is forest. Mercury was measured in autumn litterfall and weekly precipitation samples at a total of 27 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) monitoring sites in deciduous and mixed deciduous-coniferous forests in 16 states in the eastern USA during 2007–2014. These simultaneous, uniform, repeated, annual measurements of forest Hg include the broadest area and longest time frame to date. The autumn litterfall-Hg concentrations and litterfall mass at the study sites each year were combined with annual precipitation-Hg data. Rates of litterfall-Hg deposition were higher than or equal to precipitation-Hg deposition rates in 70% of the annual data, which indicates a substantial contribution from litterfall to total atmospheric-Hg deposition. Annual litterfall-Hg deposition in this study had a median of 11.7 μg per square meter per year (μg/m 2 /yr) and ranged from 2.2 to 23.4 μg/m 2 /yr. It closely matched modeled dry-Hg deposition, based on land cover at selected NADP Hg-monitoring sites. Mean annual atmospheric-Hg deposition at forest study sites exhibited a spatial pattern partly explained by statistical differences among five forest-cover types and related to the mapped density of Hg emissions. Forest canopies apparently recorded changes in atmospheric-Hg concentrations over time because litterfall-Hg concentrations decreased year to year and litterfall-Hg concentrations were significantly higher in 2007–2009 than in 2012–2014. These findings reinforce reported decreases in Hg emissions and atmospheric elemental-Hg concentrations during this same time period. Methylmercury (MeHg) was detected in all litterfall samples at all sites, compared with MeHg detections in less than half the precipitation samples at selected sites during the study. These results indicate MeHg in litterfall is a pathway into the terrestrial food web where it can

  13. A STD-NMR Study of the Interaction of the Anabaena Ferredoxin-NADP+ Reductase with the Coenzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara V. Antonini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR catalyzes the electron transfer from ferredoxin to NADP+ via its flavin FAD cofactor. To get further insights in the architecture of the transient complexes produced during the hydride transfer event between the enzyme and the NADP+ coenzyme we have applied NMR spectroscopy using Saturation Transfer Difference (STD techniques to analyze the interaction between FNRox and the oxidized state of its NADP+ coenzyme. We have found that STD NMR, together with the use of selected mutations on FNR and of the non-FNR reacting coenzyme analogue NAD+, are appropriate tools to provide further information about the the interaction epitope.

  14. Results of the General Atomic deposition loop program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The transport behavior of fission products in flowing helium streams has been studied to determine their deposition and re-entrainment characteristics. Such information is required for the design and safety analysis of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). A small high-pressure, high-temperature loop was constructed for deposition studies at near-HTGR conditions. Five loop experiments were performed to determine the plateout distribution of iodine, strontium, and cesium. In general, the plateout activity showed an exponential decrease with distance from the source with enhanced plateout at flow disturber locations (contractions, bends, etc.) and especially in a chill section where the surface was cooled. Blowdown tests were performed on selected loop specimens to determine the amount of re-entrainment caused by abnormally high wall shear stresses. The liftoff fraction (fractional amount removed) was shown to vary approximately linearly with the shear ratio (defined as the ratio of the steady state wall shear stress under blowdown conditions to that under normal operating conditions). Blowdown results are also reported for pipe sections taken from the GAIL-IV in-pile loop. Attempts were made to correlate these plateout data with the PAD code (Plateout Activity Distribution) which was developed for prediction of plateout distribution in an HTGR primary circuit. Because of inadequate modeling of the effects of the chill section, the agreement was generally poor. Consequently, to test further the PAD code, a review of the available plateout literature was made. Plateout distributions in the Peach Bottom and Dragon HTGRs and the Battelle Memorial Institute out-of-pile loop were successfully modeled

  15. 1987 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.

    1990-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. The report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Data are from the Acid Deposition System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data which includes the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network, the Utility Acid Precipitation Study Program (UAPSP), the Canadian Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN), and the daily and 4-weekly Acidic Precipitation in Ontario Study (APIOS-D and APIOS-C). Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1987 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 39 sites over a 9-year (1979--1987) period and an expanded subset of 140 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 6-year (1982--1987) period. 68 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Urban wet deposition nitrate: a comparison to non-urban deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The concentration of nitrate in both wet and dry deposition has both increased historically and currently, and recently parallels emissions in NO x . Since NO x is produced in amounts comparable to SO 2 , it is an important contributor to acid deposition, and is produced in higher amounts in urban areas due to concentrated sources. Prior to to this study, national acid deposition monitoring networks in the United States have been and remain established in non-urban areas. This research study consisted of a comparison of precipitation sampling and analysis of wet deposition nitrate and pH for each deposition event in each of two urban sites over a 15 mo period. Also, a comparison of urban data and data generated at a nearby non-urban NADP site was made by examination of both monthly and seasonal data. This research suggests that national monitoring programs should consider inclusion of urban and non-urban monitoring sites in order to achieve a more representative regional assessment. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. What is the role of the second "structural" NADP+-binding site in human glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Tao; Chan, Ting Fai; Lam, Veronica M S; Engel, Paul C

    2008-08-01

    Human glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, purified after overexpression in E. coli, was shown to contain one molecule/subunit of acid-extractable "structural" NADP+ and no NADPH. This tightly bound NADP+ was reduced by G6P, presumably following migration to the catalytic site. Gel-filtration yielded apoenzyme, devoid of bound NADP+ but, surprisingly, still fully active. Mr of the main component of "stripped" enzyme by gel filtration was approximately 100,000, suggesting a dimeric apoenzyme (subunit Mr = 59,000). Holoenzyme also contained tetramer molecules and, at high protein concentration, a dynamic equilibrium gave an apparent intermediate Mr of 150 kDa. Fluorescence titration of the stripped enzyme gave the K d for structural NADP+ as 37 nM, 200-fold lower than for "catalytic" NADP+. Structural NADP+ quenches 91% of protein fluorescence. At 37 degrees C, stripped enzyme, much less stable than holoenzyme, inactivated irreversibly within 2 d. Inactivation at 4 degrees C was partially reversed at room temperature, especially with added NADP+. Apoenzyme was immediately active, without any visible lag, in rapid-reaction studies. Human G6PD thus forms active dimer without structural NADP+. Apparently, the true role of the second, tightly bound NADP+ is to secure long-term stability. This fits the clinical pattern, G6PD deficiency affecting the long-lived non-nucleate erythrocyte. The Kd values for two class I mutants, G488S and G488V, were 273 nM and 480 nM, respectively (seven- and 13-fold elevated), matching the structural prediction of weakened structural NADP+ binding, which would explain decreased stability and consequent disease. Preparation of native apoenzyme and measurement of Kd constant for structural NADP+ will now allow quantitative assessment of this defect in clinical G6PD mutations.

  18. UV-B induction of NADP-malic enzyme in etiolated and green maize seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drincovich, M.F.; Casati, P.; Andreo, C.S.; Donahue, R.; Edwards, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of treatment of etiolated maize seedlings with UV-B and UV-A radiation, and different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm), on the activity and quantity of NADP-malic enzyme (NADPME) and on RNA levels was determined. Under low levels of PAR (14 µmol m –2 s –1 ), exposure to UV-B radiation (9 µmol m –2 s –1 ) but not UV-A radiation (11 µmol m –2 s –1 ) for 6–24 h caused a marked increase in the activity of the enzyme similar to that observed under high PAR (300 µmol m –2 s –1 ) in the absence of UV-B. Western blot analysis indicated there was a specific increase of the photosynthetically active isoform of the enzyme. This increase was also measured at the RNA level by dot blot analysis, indicating that the induction is displayed at the level of NADP-ME transcription. UV-B treatment of green leaves after a 12 h dark period also caused an increase in the activity and level of NADP-ME. The UV-B induction of NADP-ME synthesis may reflect a mechanism for induction of photosynthetic processes in C4 photosynthesis. Alternatively, the relatively low intensity of UV-B radiation present under full sunlight might provide a signal that facilitates repair of UV-B-induced damage through the increased activity of different enzymes such as NADP-ME. It is speculated that the reducing power and pyruvate generated by activity of NADP-ME may be used for respiration in cellular repair processes and as substrates for the fatty acid synthesis required for membrane repair. (author)

  19. Primary structure of the light-dependent regulatory site of corn NADP-malate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decottignies, P.; Schmitter, J.M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Le Marechal, P.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.

    1988-08-25

    The light-activated NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) catalyzes the reduction of oxaloacetate to malate in higher plant chloroplasts. This enzyme is regulated in vivo by the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system through redox reactions. NADP-MDH has been photoactivated in vitro in a chloroplast system reconstituted from the pure protein components and thylakoid membranes. Photoactivation was accompanied by the appearance of new thiol groups (followed by (14C)iodoacetate incorporation). 14C-Carboxymethylated NADP-MDH has been purified from the incubation mixture and its amino-terminal sequence analyzed. Two (14C)carboxymethylcysteines were identified at positions 10 and 15 after light activation, while they were not detected in the dark-treated protein. In addition, the analysis of the tryptic digest of light-activated (14C)carboxymethylated NADP-MDH revealed that the radioactive label was mostly incorporated in Cys10 and Cys15, indicating that these 2 residues play a major role in the light activation mechanism. Moreover, an activation model, in which photoreduced thio-redoxin was replaced by the dithiol reductant dithio-threitol, has been developed. When NADP-MDH was activated in this way, the same sulfhydryls were found to be labeled, and alternatively, they did not incorporate any radioactivity when dithiothreitol reduction was performed after carboxymethylation in denaturating conditions. These results indicate that activation (by light or by dithiothreitol) proceeds on each subunit by reduction of a disulfide bridge located at the amino terminus of the enzyme between Cys10 and Cys15.

  20. Primary structure of the light-dependent regulatory site of corn NADP-malate dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decottignies, P.; Schmitter, J.M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Le Marechal, P.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.

    1988-01-01

    The light-activated NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) catalyzes the reduction of oxaloacetate to malate in higher plant chloroplasts. This enzyme is regulated in vivo by the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system through redox reactions. NADP-MDH has been photoactivated in vitro in a chloroplast system reconstituted from the pure protein components and thylakoid membranes. Photoactivation was accompanied by the appearance of new thiol groups (followed by [14C]iodoacetate incorporation). 14C-Carboxymethylated NADP-MDH has been purified from the incubation mixture and its amino-terminal sequence analyzed. Two [14C]carboxymethylcysteines were identified at positions 10 and 15 after light activation, while they were not detected in the dark-treated protein. In addition, the analysis of the tryptic digest of light-activated [14C]carboxymethylated NADP-MDH revealed that the radioactive label was mostly incorporated in Cys10 and Cys15, indicating that these 2 residues play a major role in the light activation mechanism. Moreover, an activation model, in which photoreduced thio-redoxin was replaced by the dithiol reductant dithio-threitol, has been developed. When NADP-MDH was activated in this way, the same sulfhydryls were found to be labeled, and alternatively, they did not incorporate any radioactivity when dithiothreitol reduction was performed after carboxymethylation in denaturating conditions. These results indicate that activation (by light or by dithiothreitol) proceeds on each subunit by reduction of a disulfide bridge located at the amino terminus of the enzyme between Cys10 and Cys15

  1. Potential research money available from the Acid Deposition Program and Alberta Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primus, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    It is exceedingly difficult to demonstrate definitive long-term changes in animal health as a result of acid-forming emissions from sour gas wells. A summary is presented of current research in Alberta, followed by the potential for research funding by the Alberta Government/Industry Acid Deposition Program (ADRP). The Alberta Environment research budget consists of four programs in addition to the ADRP: acid deposition effects research in the Athabasca oil sands; western and northern Canada long-range transport of air pollutants; departmental monitoring; and inhalation toxicology and animal health. Animal health research, although a component of the acid deposition issue, is beyond the mandate of Alberta Environment, and the ADRP members committee does not forsee becoming involved in the long-term and complex research required to address the effects of acid-forming emissions on livestock. Funds for additional animal health research must come from other government departments and agencies whose mandate covers this area

  2. 37 CFR 202.22 - Acquisition and deposit of unpublished audio and audiovisual transmission programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... broadcast stations, both network and independent. The Library will also record a selected portion of the... requested by the owner of copyright or of any exclusive right, to satisfy the deposit provision of section... transmission programs consisting of a regularly scheduled newscast or on-the-spot coverage of news events...

  3. BASIC Programming for the Integration of Money, Demand Deposits Creation, and the Hicksian-Keynesian Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, C. F. Joseph

    Money, banking, and macroeconomic textbooks traditionally present the topics of money, the creation of demand deposits by depository institutions, and the Hicksian-Keynesian Theory of Income and Interest separately, as if they were unrelated. This paper presents an integrated approach to those subjects using computer programs written in BASIC, the…

  4. The regulation and catalytic mechanism of the NADP-malic enzyme from tobacco leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubnerová, V.; Potůčková, L.; Müller, Karel; Ryšlavá, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, 8-9 (2009), s. 893-906 ISSN 0352-5139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : NADP-malic enzyme * macroergic compounds * Nicotiana tabacum L. Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.820, year: 2009

  5. The activity and isoforms of NADP-malic enzyme in Nicotiana benthamiana plants under biotic stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubnerová, V.; Jirásková, A.; Janošková, M.; Müller, Karel; Baťková, Petra; Synková, Helena; Čeřovská, Noemi; Ryšlavá, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2007), s. 281-289 ISSN 0231-5882 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : NADP * malic enzyme isoforms * Nicotiana benthamiana Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.286, year: 2007 http://www.gpb.sav.sk/2007-4.htm

  6. Atmospheric mercury deposition to forests in the eastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R; DeWild, John F; Gay, David A; Zhang, Leiming; Boyer, Elizabeth W; Krabbenhoft, David P

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition to forests is important because half of the land cover in the eastern USA is forest. Mercury was measured in autumn litterfall and weekly precipitation samples at a total of 27 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) monitoring sites in deciduous and mixed deciduous-coniferous forests in 16 states in the eastern USA during 2007-2014. These simultaneous, uniform, repeated, annual measurements of forest Hg include the broadest area and longest time frame to date. The autumn litterfall-Hg concentrations and litterfall mass at the study sites each year were combined with annual precipitation-Hg data. Rates of litterfall-Hg deposition were higher than or equal to precipitation-Hg deposition rates in 70% of the annual data, which indicates a substantial contribution from litterfall to total atmospheric-Hg deposition. Annual litterfall-Hg deposition in this study had a median of 11.7 μg per square meter per year (μg/m 2 /yr) and ranged from 2.2 to 23.4 μg/m 2 /yr. It closely matched modeled dry-Hg deposition, based on land cover at selected NADP Hg-monitoring sites. Mean annual atmospheric-Hg deposition at forest study sites exhibited a spatial pattern partly explained by statistical differences among five forest-cover types and related to the mapped density of Hg emissions. Forest canopies apparently recorded changes in atmospheric-Hg concentrations over time because litterfall-Hg concentrations decreased year to year and litterfall-Hg concentrations were significantly higher in 2007-2009 than in 2012-2014. These findings reinforce reported decreases in Hg emissions and atmospheric elemental-Hg concentrations during this same time period. Methylmercury (MeHg) was detected in all litterfall samples at all sites, compared with MeHg detections in less than half the precipitation samples at selected sites during the study. These results indicate MeHg in litterfall is a pathway into the terrestrial food web where it can

  7. Comparison of microscopic method and computational program for pesticide deposition evaluation of spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaim Aldemir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to compare two methods to estimate the deposition of pesticide applied by aerial spraying. Hundred and fifty pieces of water sensitive paper were distributed over an area of 50 m length by 75 m width for sampling droplets sprayed by an aircraft calibrated to apply a spray volume of 32 L/ha. The samples were analysed by visual microscopic method using NG 2 Porton graticule and by an image analyser computer program. The results reached by visual microscopic method were the following: volume median diameter, 398±62 mum; number median diameter, 159±22 mum; droplet density, 22.5±7.0 droplets/cm² and estimated deposited volume, 22.2±9.4 L/ha. The respective ones reached with the computer program were: 402±58 mum, 161±32 mum, 21.9±7.5 droplets/cm² and 21.9±9.2 L/ha. Graphs of the spatial distribution of droplet density and deposited spray volume on the area were produced by the computer program.

  8. Atmospheric wet deposition of mercury in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, C.W.; Prestbo, E.; Brunette, B.

    1999-07-01

    Currently, 39 states in the US and 5 Canadian provinces have issued advisories about the dangers of eating mercury-contaminated fish taken from waters within their boundaries. The problem is most severe in the Great Lakes region, the Northeast US states, the Canadian maritime provinces, and in south Florida where many lakes and streams contain fish with concentrations of 1 ppm or higher. For many rural and remote locations, atmospheric deposition is the primary source of mercury. In 1995, the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) initiated a program to monitor total mercury and methylmercury (MMHg) in wet deposition (rain and snow) in North America. In this program, the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN), individual monitoring sites are funded and operated by a variety of local, state, and federal agencies. However, sampling and analysis are coordinated through a central laboratory so that all of the samples are collected and analyzed using the same protocols. Weekly wet-only precipitation samples are collected using an all-glass sampling train and special handling techniques. Analysis is by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry using USEPA Method 1631 for total mercury. Nearly 40 MDN sites are in operation in 1999. Most of the sites are in the eastern US and Canada. During 1996 and 1997, the volume-weighted mean concentration of total mercury in precipitation collected at 22 sites ranged from 6.0 to 18.9 ng/L. Annual deposition varied between 2.1 and 25.3 {micro} g/m{sup 2}. The average weekly wet deposition of total mercury is more than three times higher in the summer (June-August) than in the winter (December-February). This increase is due to both higher amounts of precipitation and higher concentrations of mercury in precipitation during the summer. The highest values for mercury concentration in precipitation and wet deposition of mercury were measured in the southeastern US.

  9. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Nitrate (NO3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Nitrate (NO3) for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of NO3 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  10. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Total Inorganic Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Total Inorganic Nitrogen for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of Total Inorganic Nitrogen deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  11. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Ammonium (NH4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of ammonium (NH4) for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of NH4 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  12. Acidic deposition in California: findings from a program of monitoring and effects research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, B.K.; Croes, B.E.; Brown, S.M.; Motallebi, N.; Westerdahl, F.D.; Margolis, H.G.; Cahill, B.T.; Mueller, M.D.; Holmes, J.R. [California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA (United States). Research Division

    1995-12-01

    California`s 14-year, 25 million dollar acidic deposition program has studied the causes and effects of acidic air pollutants. In contrast to the eastern United States where sulfur-derived (S-derived) by-products from coal combustion dominate precipitation chemistry, nitrogen-derived (N-derived) acids predominate in wet and dry deposition in California. Adverse effects on the human lung have not been observed after short-term exposures to acidity, but extended exposures to ambient acidity may pose a chronic risk. No irreversible, adverse effects on surface waters in the Sierra Nevada mountain range or to the state`s forests have been found due to extent acidic inputs. The longer-term outlook for forests is less certain because the impacts observed elsewhere occurred after decades of S and N deposition, but at lower ambient ozone levels. Ozone is the major air pollutant stressor for forests, but atmospheric N has the potential to cause adverse changes in soil nutrient cycling. Impacts on man-made materials in southern California (e.g. galvanized steel) were found to be minor. While California does not have an ambient air quality standard for acidic air pollutants, emission of precursors have declined since the 1960s due to changes in industrial practices, improvements in technology and adoption of control measures for ozone. Lowering emission from motor vehicles will be emphasized to prevent future increases in N deposition. 67 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. An overview of a 5-year research program on acid deposition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; He, K.; Xu, X.; Zhang, P.; Bai, Y.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Duan, L.; Li, W.; Chai, F.

    2011-12-01

    Despite concerted research and regulative control of sulfur dioxide in China, acid rain remained a serious environmental issue, due to a sharp increase in the combustion of fossil fuel in the 2000s. In 2005, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China funded a five-year comprehensive research program on acid deposition. This talk will give an overview of the activities and the key findings from this study, covering emission, atmospheric processes, and deposition, effects on soil and stream waters, and impact on typical trees/plants in China. The main results include (1) China still experiences acidic rainfalls in southern and eastern regions, although the situation has stabilized after 2006 due to stringent control of SO2 by the Chinese Government; (2) Sulfate is the dominant acidic compound, but the contribution of nitrate has increased; (3) cloud-water composition in eastern China is strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions; (4) the persistent fall of acid rain in the 30 years has lead to acidification of some streams/rivers and soils in southern China; (5) the studied plants have shown varying response to acid rain; (6) some new insights have been obtained on atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric transport, soil chemistry, and ecological impacts, some of which will be discussed in this talk. Compared to the situation in North America and Europe, China's acid deposition is still serious, and continued control of sulfur and nitrogen emission is required. There is an urgent need to establish a long-term observation network/program to monitor the impact of acid deposition on soil, streams/rivers/lakes, and forests.

  14. Concentration-dependent oligomerization of cross-linked complexes between ferredoxin and ferredoxin–NADP+ reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimata-Ariga, Yoko; Kubota-Kawai, Hisako; Lee, Young-Ho; Muraki, Norifumi; Ikegami, Takahisa; Kurisu, Genji; Hase, Toshiharu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Cross-linked complexes of ferredoxin (Fd) and Fd–NADP + reductase form oligomers. •In the crystal structures, Fd- and FNR moieties swap across the molecules. •The complexes exhibit concentration-dependent oligomerization at sub-milimolar order. -- Abstract: Ferredoxin–NADP + reductase (FNR) forms a 1:1 complex with ferredoxin (Fd), and catalyzes the electron transfer between Fd and NADP + . In our previous study, we prepared a series of site-specifically cross-linked complexes of Fd and FNR, which showed diverse electron transfer properties. Here, we show that X-ray crystal structures of the two different Fd–FNR cross-linked complexes form oligomers by swapping Fd and FNR moieties across the molecules; one complex is a dimer from, and the other is a successive multimeric form. In order to verify whether these oligomeric structures are formed only in crystal, we investigated the possibility of the oligomerization of these complexes in solution. The mean values of the particle size of these cross-linked complexes were shown to increase with the rise of protein concentration at sub-milimolar order, whereas the size of dissociable wild-type Fd:FNR complex was unchanged as analyzed by dynamic light scattering measurement. The oligomerization products were detected by SDS–PAGE after chemical cross-linking of these complexes at the sub-milimolar concentrations. The extent and concentration-dependent profile of the oligomerizaion were differentiated between the two cross-linked complexes. These results show that these Fd–FNR cross-linked complexes exhibit concentration-dependent oligomerization, possibly through swapping of Fd and FNR moieties also in solution. These findings lead to the possibility that some native multi-domain proteins may present similar phenomenon in vivo

  15. Two functionally distinct NADP+-dependent ferredoxin oxidoreductases maintain the primary redox balance of Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Diep M N; Schut, Gerrit J; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Monika; Poudel, Saroj; Lipscomb, Gina L; Adams, Leslie A; Dinsmore, Jessica T; Nixon, William J; Boyd, Eric S; Bothner, Brian; Peters, John W; Adams, Michael W W

    2017-09-01

    Electron bifurcation has recently gained acceptance as the third mechanism of energy conservation in which energy is conserved through the coupling of exergonic and endergonic reactions. A structure-based mechanism of bifurcation has been elucidated recently for the flavin-based enzyme NADH-dependent ferredoxin NADP + oxidoreductase I (NfnI) from the hyperthermophillic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. NfnI is thought to be involved in maintaining the cellular redox balance, producing NADPH for biosynthesis by recycling the two other primary redox carriers, NADH and ferredoxin. The P. furiosus genome encodes an NfnI paralog termed NfnII, and the two are differentially expressed, depending on the growth conditions. In this study, we show that deletion of the genes encoding either NfnI or NfnII affects the cellular concentrations of NAD(P)H and particularly NADPH. This results in a moderate to severe growth phenotype in deletion mutants, demonstrating a key role for each enzyme in maintaining redox homeostasis. Despite their similarity in primary sequence and cofactor content, crystallographic, kinetic, and mass spectrometry analyses reveal that there are fundamental structural differences between the two enzymes, and NfnII does not catalyze the NfnI bifurcating reaction. Instead, it exhibits non-bifurcating ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase-type activity. NfnII is therefore proposed to be a bifunctional enzyme and also to catalyze a bifurcating reaction, although its third substrate, in addition to ferredoxin and NADP(H), is as yet unknown. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Cellular defense against UVB-induced phototoxicity by cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Seung-Hee; Lee, So-Hyun; Suk Chun, Hang; Min Lee, Su; Koh, Ho-Jin; Lee, Sung-Eun; Chun, Jang-Soo; Park, Jeen-Woo; Huh, Tae-Lin

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is known as a major cause of skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Many harmful effects of UV radiation are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. Recently, we have shown that NADP + -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is involved in the supply of NADPH needed for GSH production against cellular oxidative damage. In this study we investigated the role of cytosolic form of NADP + -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) against UV radiation-induced cytotoxicity by comparing the relative degree of cellular responses in three different NIH3T3 cells with stable transfection with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, where IDPc activities were 2.3-fold higher and 39% lower, respectively, than that in the parental cells carrying the vector alone. Upon exposure to UVB (312 nm), the cells with low levels of IDPc became more sensitive to cell killing. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidative DNA damage, and intracellular peroxide generation were higher in the cell-line expressing the lower level of IDPc. However, the cells with the highly overexpressed IDPc exhibited enhanced resistance against UV radiation, compared to the control cells. The data indicate that IDPc plays an important role in cellular defense against UV radiation-induced oxidative injury

  17. Cellular defense against UVB-induced phototoxicity by cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seung-Hee; Lee, So-Hyun; Chun, Hang Suk; Lee, Su Min; Koh, Ho-Jin; Lee, Sung-Eun; Chun, Jang-Soo; Park, Jeen-Woo; Huh, Tae-Lin

    2002-03-29

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is known as a major cause of skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Many harmful effects of UV radiation are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. Recently, we have shown that NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is involved in the supply of NADPH needed for GSH production against cellular oxidative damage. In this study we investigated the role of cytosolic form of NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) against UV radiation-induced cytotoxicity by comparing the relative degree of cellular responses in three different NIH3T3 cells with stable transfection with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, where IDPc activities were 2.3-fold higher and 39% lower, respectively, than that in the parental cells carrying the vector alone. Upon exposure to UVB (312 nm), the cells with low levels of IDPc became more sensitive to cell killing. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidative DNA damage, and intracellular peroxide generation were higher in the cell-line expressing the lower level of IDPc. However, the cells with the highly overexpressed IDPc exhibited enhanced resistance against UV radiation, compared to the control cells. The data indicate that IDPc plays an important role in cellular defense against UV radiation-induced oxidative injury. (c)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  18. Cellular defense against singlet oxygen-induced oxidative damage by cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Yee; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2003-03-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is a highly reactive form of molecular oxygen that may harm living systems by oxidizing critical cellular macromolecules. Recently, we have shown that NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is involved in the supply of NADPH needed for GSH production against cellular oxidative damage. In this study, we investigated the role of cytosolic form of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) against singlet oxygen-induced cytotoxicity by comparing the relative degree of cellular responses in three different NIH3T3 cells with stable transfection with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, where IDPc activities were 2.3-fold higher and 39% lower, respectively, than that in the parental cells carrying the vector alone. Upon exposure to singlet oxygen generated from photoactivated dye, the cells with low levels of IDPc became more sensitive to cell killing. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidative DNA damage and intracellular peroxide generation were higher in the cell-line expressing the lower level of IDPc. However, the cells with the highly over-expressed IDPc exhibited enhanced resistance against singlet oxygen, compared to the control cells. The data indicate that IDPc plays an important role in cellular defense against singlet oxygen-induced oxidative injury.

  19. NADP-Dependent Aldehyde Dehydrogenase from Archaeon Pyrobaculum sp.1860: Structural and Functional Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Yu. Bezsudnova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the functional and structural characterization of the first archaeal thermostable NADP-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase AlDHPyr1147. In vitro, AlDHPyr1147 catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of short aliphatic aldehydes at 60–85°С, and the affinity of AlDHPyr1147 to the NADP+ at 60°С is comparable to that for mesophilic analogues at 25°С. We determined the structures of the apo form of AlDHPyr1147 (3.04 Å resolution, three binary complexes with the coenzyme (1.90, 2.06, and 2.19 Å, and the ternary complex with the coenzyme and isobutyraldehyde as a substrate (2.66 Å. The nicotinamide moiety of the coenzyme is disordered in two binary complexes, while it is ordered in the ternary complex, as well as in the binary complex obtained after additional soaking with the substrate. AlDHPyr1147 structures demonstrate the strengthening of the dimeric contact (as compared with the analogues and the concerted conformational flexibility of catalytic Cys287 and Glu253, as well as Leu254 and the nicotinamide moiety of the coenzyme. A comparison of the active sites of AlDHPyr1147 and dehydrogenases characterized earlier suggests that proton relay systems, which were previously proposed for dehydrogenases of this family, are blocked in AlDHPyr1147, and the proton release in the latter can occur through the substrate channel.

  20. Engineering an NADPH/NADPRedox Biosensor in Yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jie; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Pihl, Thomas Peter Boye

    2016-01-01

    Genetically encoded biosensors have emerged as powerful tools for timely and precise in vivo evaluation of cellular metabolism. In particular, biosensors that can couple intercellular cues with downstream signaling responses are currently attracting major attention within health science and biote......Genetically encoded biosensors have emerged as powerful tools for timely and precise in vivo evaluation of cellular metabolism. In particular, biosensors that can couple intercellular cues with downstream signaling responses are currently attracting major attention within health science...... in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the biosensor, we are able to monitor the cause of oxidative stress by chemical induction, and changes in NADPH/NADP+ ratios caused by genetic manipulations. Because of the regulatory potential of the biosensor, we also show that the biosensor can actuate upon...... NADPH deficiency by activation of NADPH regeneration. Finally, we couple the biosensor with an expression of dosage-sensitive genes (DSGs) and thereby create a novel tunable sensor-selector useful for synthetic selection of cells with higher NADPH/NADP+ ratios from mixed cell populations. We show...

  1. Trends in mercury wet deposition and mercury air concentrations across the U.S. and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Penzias, Peter S.; Gay, David A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Parsons, Matthew T.; Gustin, Mae S.; ter Shure, Arnout

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the spatial and temporal trends of mercury (Hg) in wet deposition and air concentrations in the United States (U.S.) and Canada between 1997 and 2013. Data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and Environment Canada monitoring networks, and other sources. Of the 19 sites with data records from 1997–2013, 53% had significant negative trends in Hg concentration in wet deposition, while no sites had significant positive trends, which is in general agreement with earlier studies that considered NADP data up until about 2010. However, for the time period 2007–2013 (71 sites), 17% and 13% of the sites had significant positive and negative trends, respectively, and for the time period 2008–2013 (81 sites) 30% and 6% of the sites had significant positive and negative trends, respectively. Non-significant positive tendencies were also widespread. Regional trend analyses revealed significant positive trends in Hg concentration in the Rocky Mountains, Plains, and Upper Midwest regions for the recent time periods in addition to significant positive trends in Hg deposition for the continent as a whole. Sulfate concentration trends in wet deposition were negative in all regions, suggesting a lower importance of local Hg sources. The trend in gaseous elemental Hg from short-term datasets merged as one continuous record was broadly consistent with trends in Hg concentration in wet deposition, with the early time period (1998–2007) producing a significantly negative trend (− 1.5 ± 0.2% year− 1) and the recent time period (2008–2013) displaying a flat slope (− 0.3 ± 0.1% year− 1, not significant). The observed shift to more positive or less negative trends in Hg wet deposition primarily seen in the Central-Western regions is consistent with the effects of rising Hg emissions from regions outside the U.S. and Canada and the influence of long-range transport in the free troposphere.

  2. DEPDOSE: An interactive, microcomputer based program to calculate doses from exposure to radionuclides deposited on the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beres, D.A.; Hull, A.P.

    1991-12-01

    DEPDOSE is an interactive, menu driven, microcomputer based program designed to rapidly calculate committed dose from radionuclides deposited on the ground. The program is designed to require little or no computer expertise on the part of the user. The program consisting of a dose calculation section and a library maintenance section. These selections are available to the user from the main menu. The dose calculation section provides the user with the ability to calculate committed doses, determine the decay time needed to reach a particular dose, cross compare deposition data from separate locations, and approximate a committed dose based on a measured exposure rate. The library maintenance section allows the user to review and update dose modifier data as well as to build and maintain libraries of radionuclide data, dose conversion factors, and default deposition data. The program is structured to provide the user easy access for reviewing data prior to running the calculation. Deposition data can either be entered by the user or imported from other databases. Results can either be displayed on the screen or sent to the printer

  3. The differences between NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes of C4 photosynthesis: more than decarboxylating enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Rao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As an adaptation to changing climatic conditions that caused high rates of photorespiration, C4 plants have evolved to display higher photosynthetic efficiency than C3 plants under elevated temperature, high light intensities and drought. The C4 plants independently evolved more than 60 times in 19 families of angiosperms to establish similar but not uniform C4 mechanisms to concentrate CO2 around the carboxylating enzyme Rubisco. C4 photosynthesis is divided into at least two basic biochemical subtypes based on the primary decarboxylating enzymes, NAD-dependent malic enzyme (NAD-ME and NADP-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME. The multiple polygenetic origins of these subtypes raise questions about the association of C4 variation between biochemical subtypes and diverse lineages. This review addresses the differences in evolutionary scenario, leaf anatomy, and especially C4 metabolic flow, C4 transporters and cell-specific function deduced from recently reported cell-specific transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic analyses of NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes. Current omic analysis has revealed the extent to which component abundances differ between the two biochemical subtypes, leading to a better understanding of C4 photosynthetic mechanisms in NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes.

  4. Joint Functions of Protein Residues and NADP(H) in Oxygen Activation by Flavin-containing Monooxygenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orru, Roberto; Torres Pazmino, Daniel; Fraaije, Marco W.; Mattevi, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The reactivity of flavoenzymes with dioxygen is at the heart of a number of biochemical reactions with far reaching implications for cell physiology and pathology. Flavin-containing monooxygenases are an attractive model system to study flavin-mediated oxygenation. In these enzymes, the NADP(H)

  5. Knockdown of cytosolic NADP(+) -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase enhances MPP(+) -induced oxidative injury in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Sun; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2011-05-01

    1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and its toxic metabolite 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridium ion (MPP(+)) have been shown to induce Parkinson's disease-like symptoms as well as neurotoxicity in humans and animal species. Recently, we reported that maintenance of redox balance and cellular defense against oxidative damage are primary functions of the novel antioxidant enzyme cytosolic NADP(+) -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc). In this study, we examined the role of IDPc in cellular defense against MPP(+) -induced oxidative injury using PC12 cells transfected with IDPc small interfering RNA (siRNA). Our results demonstrate that MPP(+) -mediated disruption of cellular redox status, oxidative damage to cells, and apoptotic cell death were significantly enhanced by knockdown of IDPc.

  6. Decrease in the cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity through porcine sperm capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yuki; Tamba, Michiko; Matsuda, Manabu; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Naomichi

    2018-02-26

    In order to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the sperm capacitation, we have identified the proteins tyrosine-phosphorylated during the capacitation especially in conjunction with the regulation of the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in sperm. In the present study, the effects of the tyrosine phosphorylation of cytosolic NADP + -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) on its catalytic activity and on the levels of ROS in sperm have been studied. The tyrosine phosphorylated IDPc showed a significantly lowered enzymatic activity. The immunocytochemical analyses using the highly specific antisera against IDPc revealed that IDPc was mainly localized to the principal piece of the porcine sperm flagellum. As IDPc is one of the major NADPH regenerating enzymes in porcine sperm, it is strongly suggested that the decrease in IDPc activity is involved in the increased levels of ROS, which results in the induction of hyperactivated flagellar movement and capacitation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation of singlet oxygen-induced apoptosis by cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Yee; Lee, Su Min; Tak, Jean Kyoung; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2007-08-01

    Singlet oxygen is a highly reactive form of molecular oxygen that may harm living systems by oxidizing critical cellular macromolecules and it also promotes deleterious processes such as cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage are the primary functions of cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) through supplying NADPH for antioxidant systems. In this report, we demonstrate that modulation of IDPc activity in HL-60 cells regulates singlet oxygen-induced apoptosis. When we examined the protective role of IDPc against singlet oxygen-induced apoptosis with HL-60 cells transfected with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, a clear inverse relationship was observed between the amount of IDPc expressed in target cells and their susceptibility to apoptosis. The results suggest that IDPc plays an important protective role in apoptosis of HL-60 cells induced by singlet oxygen.

  8. Isolation of a cotton NADP(H oxidase homologue induced by drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEPOMUCENO ALEXANDRE LIMA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and isolate genes that are differentially expressed in four selected cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. genotypes contrasting according to their tolerance to water deficit. The genotypes studied were Siokra L-23, Stoneville 506, CS 50 and T-1521. Physiological, morphological and developmental changes that confer drought tolerance in plants must have a molecular genetic basis. To identify and isolate the genes, the mRNA Differential Display (DD technique was used. Messenger RNAs differentially expressed during water deficit were identified, isolated, cloned and sequenced. The cloned transcript A12B15-5, a NADP(H oxidase homologue, was up regulated only during the water deficit stress and only in Siokra L-23, a drought tolerant genotype. Ribonuclease protection assay confirmed that transcription.

  9. Overexpression of the NADP+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (icdA) in citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger WU-2223L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi; Hattori, Takasumi; Hayashi, Rie; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2014-01-01

    In the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, NADP(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)-ICDH) catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation of isocitric acid to form α-ketoglutaric acid with NADP(+) as a cofactor. We constructed an NADP(+)-ICDH gene (icdA)-overexpressing strain (OPI-1) using Aspergillus niger WU-2223L as a host and examined the effects of increase in NADP(+)-ICDH activity on citric acid production. Under citric acid-producing conditions with glucose as the carbon source, the amounts of citric acid produced and glucose consumed by OPI-1 for the 12-d cultivation period decreased by 18.7 and 10.5%, respectively, compared with those by WU-2223L. These results indicate that the amount of citric acid produced by A. niger can be altered with the NADP(+)-ICDH activity. Therefore, NADP(+)-ICDH is an important regulator of citric acid production in the TCA cycle of A. niger. Thus, we propose that the icdA gene is a potentially valuable tool for modulating citric acid production by metabolic engineering.

  10. Cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase plays a key role in lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ho-Jin; Lee, Su-Min; Son, Byung-Gap; Lee, Soh-Hyun; Ryoo, Zae Young; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Park, Jeen-Woo; Park, Dong-Chan; Song, Byoung J; Veech, Richard L; Song, Hebok; Huh, Tae-Lin

    2004-09-17

    NADPH is an essential cofactor for many enzymatic reactions including glutathione metabolism and fat and cholesterol biosynthesis. We have reported recently an important role for mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in cellular defense against oxidative damage by providing NADPH needed for the regeneration of reduced glutathione. However, the role of cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) is still unclear. We report here for the first time that IDPc plays a critical role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis. During differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, both IDPc enzyme activity and its protein content were increased in parallel in a time-dependent manner. Increased expression of IDPc by stable transfection of IDPc cDNA positively correlated with adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, whereas decreased IDPc expression by an antisense IDPc vector retarded adipogenesis. Furthermore, transgenic mice with overexpressed IDPc exhibited fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. In the epididymal fat pads of the transgenic mice, the expressions of adipocyte-specific genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were markedly elevated. The hepatic and epididymal fat pad contents of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA in the transgenic mice were significantly lower, whereas the total triglyceride and cholesterol contents were markedly higher in the liver and serum of transgenic mice compared with those measured in wild type mice, suggesting that the consumption rate of those lipogenic precursors needed for fat biosynthesis must be increased by elevated IDPc activity. Taken together, our findings strongly indicate that IDPc would be a major NADPH producer required for fat and cholesterol synthesis.

  11. Role of cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in ischemia-reperfusion injury in mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinu; Kim, Ki Young; Jang, Hee-Seong; Yoshida, Takumi; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku; Park, Jeen-Woo; Bonventre, Joseph V; Park, Kwon Moo

    2009-03-01

    Cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) synthesizes reduced NADP (NADPH), which is an essential cofactor for the generation of reduced glutathione (GSH), the most abundant and important antioxidant in mammalian cells. We investigated the role of IDPc in kidney ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in mice. The activity and expression of IDPc were highest in the cortex, modest in the outer medulla, and lowest in the inner medulla. NADPH levels were greatest in the cortex. IDPc expression in the S1 and S2 segments of proximal tubules was higher than in the S3 segment, which is much more susceptible to I/R. IDPc protein was also highly expressed in the mitochondrion-rich intercalated cells of the collecting duct. IDPc activity was 10- to 30-fold higher than the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, another producer of cytosolic NADPH, in various kidney regions. This study identifies that IDPc may be the primary source of NADPH in the kidney. I/R significantly reduced IDPc expression and activity and NADPH production and increased the ratio of oxidized glutathione to total glutathione [GSSG/(GSH+GSSG)], resulting in kidney dysfunction, tubular cell damage, and lipid peroxidation. In LLC-PK(1) cells, upregulation of IDPc by IDPc gene transfer protected the cells against hydrogen peroxide, enhancing NADPH production, inhibiting the increase of GSSG/(GSH+GSSG), and reducing lipid peroxidation. IDPc downregulation by small interference RNA treatment presented results contrasting with the upregulation. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that IDPc is expressed differentially along tubules in patterns that may contribute to differences in susceptibility to injury, is a major enzyme in cytosolic NADPH generation in kidney, and is downregulated with I/R.

  12. Simulation of Rn-222 decay products concentration deposited on a filter. Description of radon1.pas computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.

    1996-01-01

    A computer program allowing simulation of activity distribution of 222 Rn short lived decay products deposited on a filter against time is presented, for any radiation equilibrium degree of the decay products. Deposition of the decay products is simulated by summing discrete samples every 1/10 min in the sampling time from 1 to 10 min. The concentration (activity) of the decay products is computed in one minute intervals in the range 1 - 100 min. The alpha concentration and the total activity of 218 Po + 214 Po produced are computed in the range 1 to 100 min as well. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  13. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Paul R.; Evans, Daniel; Greenwood, Jacqueline A.; Moody, Peter C. E., E-mail: pcem1@leicester.ac.uk [Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Structural Biology, Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase A has been cloned, expressed and purified. Apoprotein crystals have been grown which diffracted to 1.75 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}; holo crystals were grown in the presence of NADP, diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution and belonged to space group P3{sub 2}. The classical glycolytic pathway contains an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, with NADP-dependent forms reserved for photosynthetic organisms and archaea. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori is reported; crystals of the protein were grown both in the presence and the absence of NADP.

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Paul R.; Evans, Daniel; Greenwood, Jacqueline A.; Moody, Peter C. E.

    2008-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase A has been cloned, expressed and purified. Apoprotein crystals have been grown which diffracted to 1.75 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2 1 ; holo crystals were grown in the presence of NADP, diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution and belonged to space group P3 2 . The classical glycolytic pathway contains an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, with NADP-dependent forms reserved for photosynthetic organisms and archaea. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori is reported; crystals of the protein were grown both in the presence and the absence of NADP

  15. Effect of X-rays and u.v.-light on the levels of NAD(P), NAD(P)H and hydroxyproline in Pinus silvestris pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelles, L.

    1978-01-01

    Pollen grains of Pinus Silvestris were irradiated with stimulating and inhibiting doses of X-rays and u.v.-light and the levels of NAD(P), NAD(P)H and hydroxyproline determined during tube growth. Pollen grains irradiated with stimulating doses of X-rays and u.v.-light developed longer tubes, while grains irradiated with inhibiting doses of X-rays and u.v.-light developed shorter tubes than the unirradiated controls. After 32 hr of incubation, the levels of NAD(P), NAD(P)H and hydroxyproline were at their lowest compared with unirradiated pollen. In samples with stimulating doses of irradiation NAD(P) reached its maximum earlier than in samples with inhibiting irradiation. The ratio between the concentrations of NAD(P) and NAD(P)H in the irradiated samples was higher than in the unirradiated control. The hydroxyproline content was higher in irradiated than in unirradiated pollen. (author)

  16. Curtain color and lighting program in broiler production: II. carcass and parts yield and abdominal fat deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Nascimento Abreu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate carcass and parts' yield, abdominal fat deposition and breast and foot pad blisters of broilers reared under two lighting programs (nearly continuous or intermittent in broilers houses with yellow and blue curtains. The experiment was conducted between June, 2004 and May, 2005. Six flocks were sequentially housed in four 12 × 10 m broiler houses divided into 4 pens with 200 birds each. The litter was reused six times or until flock 6. A completely randomized design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (flocks, lighting programs, curtains with four replicates per treatment was applied. A total of 288 birds were evaluated for carcass yield. Curtain color did not affect carcass or parts' yield. The effect of lighting program and curtain color on carcass yield may depend on other factors related to flock. Intermittent lighting program promoted the highest drumstick and thigh yields. Lighting programs and curtain colors did not affect abdominal fat deposition or the presence of breast and foot pad blisters.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Gre2p, an NADP+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breicha, Klaus; Müller, Marion; Hummel, Werner; Niefind, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase Gre2p from S. cerevisiae catalyses the stereospecific reduction of a variety of different keto compounds and can therefore be applied as a valuable biocatalyst. The crystallization of the complex of Gre2p with NADP + and its preliminary X-ray analysis are described. Gre2p [Genes de respuesta a estres (stress-response gene)] from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a monomeric enzyme of 342 amino acids with a molecular weight of 38.1 kDa. The enzyme catalyses both the stereospecific reduction of keto compounds and the oxidation of various hydroxy compounds and alcohols by the simultaneous consumption of the cofactor NADPH and formation of NADP + . Crystals of a Gre2p complex with NADP + were grown using PEG 8000 as a precipitant. They belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1 . The current diffraction resolution is 3.2 Å. In spite of the monomeric nature of Gre2p in solution, packing and self-rotation calculations revealed the existence of two Gre2p protomers per asymmetric unit related by a twofold noncrystallographic axis

  18. High-Throughput Screening of Coenzyme Preference Change of Thermophilic 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase from NADP(+) to NAD(.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Chen, Hui; Zhong, Chao; Kim, Jae Eung; Zhang, Yi-Heng Percival

    2016-09-02

    Coenzyme engineering that changes NAD(P) selectivity of redox enzymes is an important tool in metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and biocatalysis. Here we developed a high throughput screening method to identify mutants of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) from a thermophilic bacterium Moorella thermoacetica with reversed coenzyme selectivity from NADP(+) to NAD(+). Colonies of a 6PGDH mutant library growing on the agar plates were treated by heat to minimize the background noise, that is, the deactivation of intracellular dehydrogenases, degradation of inherent NAD(P)H, and disruption of cell membrane. The melted agarose solution containing a redox dye tetranitroblue tetrazolium (TNBT), phenazine methosulfate (PMS), NAD(+), and 6-phosphogluconate was carefully poured on colonies, forming a second semi-solid layer. More active 6PGDH mutants were examined via an enzyme-linked TNBT-PMS colorimetric assay. Positive mutants were recovered by direct extraction of plasmid from dead cell colonies followed by plasmid transformation into E. coli TOP10. By utilizing this double-layer screening method, six positive mutants were obtained from two-round saturation mutagenesis. The best mutant 6PGDH A30D/R31I/T32I exhibited a 4,278-fold reversal of coenzyme selectivity from NADP(+) to NAD(+). This screening method could be widely used to detect numerous redox enzymes, particularly for thermophilic ones, which can generate NAD(P)H reacted with the redox dye TNBT.

  19. Expression of protein engineered NADP{sup +}-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase increases ethanol production from xylose in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushika, Akinori; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Katsuji; Takimura, Osamu; Sawayama, Shigeki [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Hiroshima (Japan). Biomass Technology Research Center; Watanabe, Seiya; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Makino, Keisuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy

    2008-11-15

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain transformed with xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes from Pichia stipitis has the ability to convert xylose to ethanol together with the unfavorable excretion of xylitol, which may be due to cofactor imbalance between NADPH-preferring XR and NAD{sup +}-dependent XDH. To reduce xylitol formation, we have already generated several XDH mutants with a reversal of coenzyme specificity toward NADP{sup +}. In this study, we constructed a set of recombinant S. cerevisiae strains with xylose-fermenting ability, including protein-engineered NADP{sup +}-dependent XDH-expressing strains. The most positive effect on xylose-to-ethanol fermentation was found by using a strain named MA-N5, constructed by chromosomal integration of the gene for NADP{sup +}-dependent XDH along with XR and endogenous xylulokinase genes. The MA-N5 strain had an increase in ethanol production and decrease in xylitol excretion compared with the reference strain expressing wild-type XDH when fermenting not only xylose but also mixed sugars containing glucose and xylose. Furthermore, the MA-N5 strain produced ethanol with a high yield of 0.49 g of ethanol/g of total consumed sugars in the nonsulfuric acid hydrolysate of wood chips. The results demonstrate that glucose and xylose present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate can be efficiently fermented by this redox-engineered strain. (orig.)

  20. A General Tool for Engineering the NAD/NADP Cofactor Preference of Oxidoreductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Jackson K B; Werlang, Caroline A; Baumschlager, Armin; Brinkmann-Chen, Sabine; Mayo, Stephen L; Arnold, Frances H

    2017-02-17

    The ability to control enzymatic nicotinamide cofactor utilization is critical for engineering efficient metabolic pathways. However, the complex interactions that determine cofactor-binding preference render this engineering particularly challenging. Physics-based models have been insufficiently accurate and blind directed evolution methods too inefficient to be widely adopted. Building on a comprehensive survey of previous studies and our own prior engineering successes, we present a structure-guided, semirational strategy for reversing enzymatic nicotinamide cofactor specificity. This heuristic-based approach leverages the diversity and sensitivity of catalytically productive cofactor binding geometries to limit the problem to an experimentally tractable scale. We demonstrate the efficacy of this strategy by inverting the cofactor specificity of four structurally diverse NADP-dependent enzymes: glyoxylate reductase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, xylose reductase, and iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase. The analytical components of this approach have been fully automated and are available in the form of an easy-to-use web tool: Cofactor Specificity Reversal-Structural Analysis and Library Design (CSR-SALAD).

  1. Upregulation of cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase by hyperglycemia protects renal cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soh-Hyun; Ha, Sun-Ok; Koh, Ho-Jin; Kim, KilSoo; Jeon, Seon-Min; Choi, Myung-Sook; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Huh, Tae-Lin

    2010-02-28

    Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is widely recognized as a key mediator in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, a complication of diabetes. We found that both expression and enzymatic activity of cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) were upregulated in the renal cortexes of diabetic rats and mice. Similarly, IDPc was induced in murine renal proximal tubular OK cells by high hyperglycemia, while it was abrogated by co-treatment with the antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC). In OK cells, increased expression of IDPc by stable transfection prevented hyperglycemia-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, subsequent cellular oxidative stress and extracellular matrix accumulation, whereas these processes were all stimulated by decreased IDPc expression. In addition, production of NADPH and GSH in the cytosol was positively correlated with the expression level of IDPc in OK cells. These results together indicate that upregulation of IDPc in response to hyperglycemia might play an essential role in preventing the progression of diabetic nephropathy, which is accompanied by ROS-induced cellular damage and fibrosis, by providing NADPH, the reducing equivalent needed for recycling reduced glutathione and low molecular weight antioxidant thiol proteins.

  2. Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase regulates cadmium-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seoung Woo; Kil, In Sup; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2010-04-01

    Cadmium ions have a high affinity for thiol groups. Therefore, they may disturb many cellular functions. We recently reported that cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) functions as an antioxidant enzyme to supply NADPH, a major source of reducing equivalents to the cytosol. Cadmium decreased the activity of IDPc both as a purified enzyme and in cultured cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that the knockdown of IDPc expression in HEK293 cells greatly enhances apoptosis induced by cadmium. Transfection of HEK293 cells with an IDPc small interfering RNA significantly decreased the activity of IDPc and enhanced cellular susceptibility to cadmium-induced apoptosis as indicated by the morphological evidence of apoptosis, DNA fragmentation and condensation, cellular redox status, mitochondria redox status and function, and the modulation of apoptotic marker proteins. Taken together, our results suggest that suppressing the expression of IDPc enhances cadmium-induced apoptosis of HEK293 cells by increasing disruption of the cellular redox status. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP reductase from photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic tissues of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L. S.; Yee, B. C.; Buchanan, B. B.; Kamide, K.; Sanada, Y.; Wada, K.

    1991-01-01

    Ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR) were purified from leaves, roots, and red and green pericarp of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, cv VFNT and cv Momotaro). Four different ferredoxins were identified on the basis of N-terminal amino acid sequence and charge. Ferredoxins I and II were the most prevalent forms in leaves and green pericarp, and ferredoxin III was the most prevalent in roots. Red pericarp of the VFNT cv yielded variable amounts of ferredoxins II and III plus a unique form, ferredoxin IV. Red pericarp of the Momotaro cv contained ferredoxins I, II, and IV. This represents the first demonstration of ferredoxin in a chromoplast-containing tissue. There were no major differences among the tomato ferredoxins in absorption spectrum or cytochrome c reduction activity. Two forms of FNR were present in tomato as judged by anion exchange chromatography and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. FNR II had a lower apparent relative molecular weight, a slightly altered absorption spectrum, and a lower specific activity for cytochrome c reduction than FNR I. FNR II could be a partially degraded form of FNR I. The FNRs from the different tissues of tomato plants all showed diaphorase activity, with FNR II being more active than FNR I. The presence of ferredoxin and FNR in heterotrophic tissues of tomato is consistent with the existence of a nonphotosynthetic ferredoxin/FNR redox pathway to support the function of ferredoxin-dependent enzymes.

  4. An Interbacterial NAD(P)+ Glycohydrolase Toxin Requires Elongation Factor Tu for Delivery to Target Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, John C.; Quentin, Dennis; Sawai, Shin; LeRoux, Michele; Harding, Brittany N.; Ledvina, Hannah E.; Tran, Bao Q.; Robinson, Howard; Goo, Young Ah; Goodlett, David R.; Raunser, Stefan; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2015-10-08

    Type VI secretion (T6S) influences the composition of microbial communities by catalyzing the delivery of toxins between adjacent bacterial cells. Here, we demonstrate that a T6S integral membrane toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Tse6, acts on target cells by degrading the universally essential dinucleotides NAD+ and NADP+. Structural analyses of Tse6 show that it resembles mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase proteins, such as diphtheria toxin, with the exception of a unique loop that both excludes proteinaceous ADP-ribose acceptors and contributes to hydrolysis. We find that entry of Tse6 into target cells requires its binding to an essential housekeeping protein, translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). These proteins participate in a larger assembly that additionally directs toxin export and provides chaperone activity. Visualization of this complex by electron microscopy defines the architecture of a toxin-loaded T6S apparatus and provides mechanistic insight into intercellular membrane protein delivery between bacteria.

  5. Purification, kinetic behavior, and regulation of NAD(P)+ malic enzyme of tumor mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreadith, R W; Lehninger, A L

    1984-05-25

    The purification and kinetic characterization of an NAD(P)+-malic enzyme from 22aH mouse hepatoma mitochondria are described. The enzyme was purified 328-fold with a final yield of 51% and specific activity of 38.1 units/mg of protein by employing DEAE-cellulose chromatography and an ATP affinity column. Sephadex G-200 chromatography yielded a native Mr = 240,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a major subunit with Mr = 61,000, suggesting a tetrameric structure, and also showed that the preparation contained less than 10% polypeptide impurities. Use of the ATP affinity column required the presence of MnCl2 and fumarate (an allosteric activator) in the elution buffers. In the absence of fumarate, the Michaelis constants for malate, NAD+, and NADP+ were 3.6 mM, 55 microM, and 72 microM, respectively; in the presence of fumarate (2 mM), the constants were 0.34 mM, 9 microM, and 13 microM, respectively. ATP was shown to be an allosteric inhibitor, competitive with malate. However, the inhibition by ATP displayed hyperbolic competitive kinetics with a KI (ATP) of 80 microM (minus fumarate) and 0.5 mM (plus 2 mM fumarate). The allosteric properties of the enzyme are integrated into a rationale for its specific role in the pathways of malate and glutamate oxidation in tumor mitochondria.

  6. Silencing of mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene enhances glioma radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Youl; Yoo, Young Hyun; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Silencing of the IDPm gene enhances IR-induced autophagy in glioma cells. •Autophagy inhibition augmented apoptosis of irradiated glioma cells. •Results offer a redox-active therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are elevated in organisms that have been exposed to ionizing radiation and are protagonists in the induction of cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of mitochondrial redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage are primary functions of mitochondrial NADP + -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPm) via the supply of NADPH for antioxidant systems. In the present study, we report an autophagic response to ionizing radiation in A172 glioma cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the IDPm gene. Autophagy in A172 transfectant cells was associated with enhanced autophagolysosome formation and GFP–LC3 punctuation/aggregation. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine augmented apoptotic cell death of irradiated A172 cells transfected with IDPm siRNA. Taken together, our data suggest that autophagy functions as a survival mechanism in A172 cells against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis and the sensitizing effect of IDPm siRNA and autophagy inhibitor on the ionizing radiation-induced apoptotic cell death of glioma cells offers a novel redox-active therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer

  7. Binding Thermodynamics of Ferredoxin:NADP+ Reductase: Two Different Protein Substrates and One Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Medina, Milagros; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The thermodynamics of the formation of binary and ternary complexes between Anabaena PCC 7119 FNR and its substrates, NADP+ and Fd, or Fld, has been studied by ITC. Despite structural dissimilarities, the main difference between Fd and Fld binding to FNR relates to hydrophobicity, reflected in different binding heat capacity and number of water molecules released from the interface. At pH 8, the formation of the binary complexes is both enthalpically and entropically driven, accompanied by the protonation of at least one ionizable group. His299 FNR has been identified as the main responsible for the proton exchange observed. However, at pH 10, where no protonation occurs and intrinsic binding parameters can be obtained, the formation of the binary complexes is entropically driven, with negligible enthalpic contribution. Absence of the FMN cofactor in Fld does not alter significantly the strength of the interaction, but considerably modifies the enthalpic and entropic contributions, suggesting a different binding mode. Ternary complexes show negative cooperativity (6-fold and 11-fold reduction in binding affinity, respectively), and an increase in the enthalpic contribution (more favorable) and a decrease in the entropic contribution (less favorable), with regard to the binary complexes energetics. PMID:19527656

  8. Computer program for prediction of the deposition of material released from fixed and rotary wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    This is a user manual for the computer code ""AGDISP'' (AGricultural DISPersal) which has been developed to predict the deposition of material released from fixed and rotary wing aircraft in a single-pass, computationally efficient manner. The formulation of the code is novel in that the mean particle trajectory and the variance about the mean resulting from turbulent fluid fluctuations are simultaneously predicted. The code presently includes the capability of assessing the influence of neutral atmospheric conditions, inviscid wake vortices, particle evaporation, plant canopy and terrain on the deposition pattern.

  9. Economic valuation of acidic deposition damages: Preliminary results from the 1985 NAPAP [National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program] damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, J.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper identifies methods used to evaluate the economic damages of acid deposition in the 1985 Damage Assessment being coordinated by the National Acid Precipitation Program. It also presents the preliminary estimates of economic damages for the Assessment. Economic damages are estimated for four effect areas: commercial agriculture and forests, recreational fishing and selected types of materials. In all but the last area, methods are used which incorporate the behavioral responses of individuals and firms or simulated physical damages to resources at risk. The preliminary nature of the estimated damages in each area is emphasized. Over all, the damage estimates should be interpreted with caution. 44 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  10. BUCKL: a program for rapid calculation of x-ray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, R.K. Jr.

    1970-07-01

    A computer program is described which has the fast execution time of exponential codes but also evaluates the effects of fluorescence and scattering. The program makes use of diffusion calculations with a buckling correction included to approximate the effects of finite transverse geometry. Theory and derivations necessary for the BUCKL code are presented, and the code results are compared with those of earlier codes for a variety of problems. Inputs and outputs of the program are described, and a FORTRAN listing is provided. Shortcomings of the program are discussed and suggestions are provided for possible future improvement. (U.S.)

  11. Expression of cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in melanocytes and its role as an antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Shin, Jae Yong; Kim, Miri; Hann, Seung-Kyung; Oh, Sang Ho

    2012-02-01

    Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent ICDH (IDPc) has an antioxidant effect as a supplier of NADPH to the cytosol, which is needed for the production of glutathione. To evaluate the expression of IDPc in melanocytes and to elucidate its role as an antioxidant. The knock-down of IDPc expression in immortalized mouse melanocyte cell lines (melan-a) was performed using the short interfering RNA (siRNA)-targeted gene silencing method. After confirming the silencing of IDPc expression with mRNA and protein levels, viability, apoptosis and necrosis, as well as ROS production in IDPc-silenced melanocytes were monitored under conditions of oxidative stress and non-stress. Also, the ratio of oxidized glutathione to total glutathione was examined, and whether the addition of glutathione recovered cell viability, decreased by oxidant stress, was checked. The expression of IDPc in both primary human melanocytes and melan-a cells was confirmed by Western blot and RT-PCR. The silencing of IDPc expression by transfecting IDPc siRNA in melan-a cells was observed by Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. IDPc knock-down cells showed significantly decreased cell viability and an increased number of cells under apoptosis and necrosis. IDPc siRNA-treated melanocytes demonstrated a higher intensity of DCFDA after the addition of H(2)O(2) compared with scrambled siRNA-treated melanocytes, and a lower ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione were observed in IDPc siRNA transfected melanocytes. In addition, the addition of glutathione recovered cell viability, which was previously decreased after incubation with H(2)O(2). This study suggests that decreased IDPc expression renders melanocytes more vulnerable to oxidative stress, and IDPc plays an important antioxidant function in melanocytes. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase status modulates oxidative damage to cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Min; Koh, Ho-Jin; Park, Dong-Chan; Song, Byoung J; Huh, Tae-Lin; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2002-06-01

    NADPH is an important cofactor in many biosynthesis pathways and the regeneration of reduced glutathione, critically important in cellular defense against oxidative damage. It is mainly produced by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme, and the cytosolic form of NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc). Little information is available about the role of IDPc in antioxidant defense. In this study we investigated the role of IDPc against cytotoxicity induced by oxidative stress by comparing the relative degree of cellular responses in three different NIH3T3 cells with stable transfection with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, where IDPc activities were 3-4-fold higher and 35% lower, respectively, than that in the parental cells carrying the vector alone. Although the activities of other antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and G6PD, were comparable in all transformed cells, the ratio of GSSG to total glutathione was significantly higher in the cells expressing the lower level of IDPc. This finding indicates that IDPc is essential for the efficient glutathione recycling. Upon transient exposure to increasing concentrations of H(2)O(2) or menadione, an intracellular source of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, the cells with low levels of IDPc became more sensitive to oxidative damage by H(2)O(2) or menadione. Lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage, and intracellular peroxide generation were higher in the cell-line expressing the lower level of IDPc. However, the cells with the highly over-expressed IDPc exhibited enhanced resistance against oxidative stress, compared to the control cells. This study provides direct evidence correlating the activities of IDPc and the maintenance of the cellular redox state, suggesting that IDPc plays an important role in cellular defense against oxidative stress.

  13. Expression analysis of the fpr (ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase) gene in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yunho; Pena-Llopis, Samuel; Kang, Yoon-Suk; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Demple, Bruce; Madsen, Eugene L.; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun

    2006-01-01

    The ferredoxin-NADP + reductase (fpr) participates in cellular defense against oxidative damage. The fpr expression in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is induced by oxidative and osmotic stresses. FinR, a LysR-type transcriptional factor near the fpr gene in the P. putida KT2440 genome, is required for induction of the fpr under both conditions. We have shown that the fpr and finR gene products can counteract the effects of oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, FinR-independent expression occurs either during a long period of incubation with paraquat or with high concentrations of oxidative stress agent. This result indicates that there may be additional regulators present in the P. putida KT2440 genome. In contrast to in vivo expression kinetics of fpr from the plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, the fpr gene from P. putida KT2440 exhibited unusually prolonged expression after oxidative stress. Transcriptional fusion and Northern blot analysis studies indicated that the FinR is negatively autoregulated. Expression of the fpr promoter was higher in minimal media than in rich media during exponential phase growth. Consistent with this result, the fpr and finR mutants had a long lag phase in minimal media in contrast to wild-type growth characteristics. Antioxidants such as ascorbate could increase the growth rate of all tested strains in minimal media. This result confirmed that P. putida KT2440 experienced more oxidative stress during exponential growth in minimal media than in rich media. Endogenous promoter activity of the fpr gene is much higher during exponential growth than during stationary growth. These findings demonstrate new relationships between fpr, finR, and the physiology of oxidative stress in P. putida KT2440

  14. Depletion of NADP(H) due to CD38 activation triggers endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Levy A; Boslett, James; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; De Pascali, Francesco; Hemann, Craig; Druhan, Lawrence J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; El-Mahdy, Mohamed; Zweier, Jay L

    2015-09-15

    In the postischemic heart, coronary vasodilation is impaired due to loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function. Although the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is depleted, its repletion only partially restores eNOS-mediated coronary vasodilation, indicating that other critical factors trigger endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, studies were performed to characterize the unidentified factor(s) that trigger endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart. We observed that depletion of the eNOS substrate NADPH occurs in the postischemic heart with near total depletion from the endothelium, triggering impaired eNOS function and limiting BH4 rescue through NADPH-dependent salvage pathways. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), depletion of the NADP(H) pool occurred and was most marked in the endothelium, with >85% depletion. Repletion of NADPH after I/R increased NOS-dependent coronary flow well above that with BH4 alone. With combined NADPH and BH4 repletion, full restoration of NOS-dependent coronary flow occurred. Profound endothelial NADPH depletion was identified to be due to marked activation of the NAD(P)ase-activity of CD38 and could be prevented by inhibition or specific knockdown of this protein. Depletion of the NADPH precursor, NADP(+), coincided with formation of 2'-phospho-ADP ribose, a CD38-derived signaling molecule. Inhibition of CD38 prevented NADP(H) depletion and preserved endothelium-dependent relaxation and NO generation with increased recovery of contractile function and decreased infarction in the postischemic heart. Thus, CD38 activation is an important cause of postischemic endothelial dysfunction and presents a novel therapeutic target for prevention of this dysfunction in unstable coronary syndromes.

  15. The ALDH21 gene found in lower plants and some vascular plants codes for a NADP+ -dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopečná, Martina; Vigouroux, Armelle; Vilím, Jan; Končitíková, Radka; Briozzo, Pierre; Hájková, Eva; Jašková, Lenka; von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Šebela, Marek; Moréra, Solange; Kopečný, David

    2017-10-01

    Lower plant species including some green algae, non-vascular plants (bryophytes) as well as the oldest vascular plants (lycopods) and ferns (monilophytes) possess a unique aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene named ALDH21, which is upregulated during dehydration. However, the gene is absent in flowering plants. Here, we show that ALDH21 from the moss Physcomitrella patens codes for a tetrameric NADP + -dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSALDH), which converts succinic semialdehyde, an intermediate of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt pathway, into succinate in the cytosol. NAD + is a very poor coenzyme for ALDH21 unlike for mitochondrial SSALDHs (ALDH5), which are the closest related ALDH members. Structural comparison between the apoform and the coenzyme complex reveal that NADP + binding induces a conformational change of the loop carrying Arg-228, which seals the NADP + in the coenzyme cavity via its 2'-phosphate and α-phosphate groups. The crystal structure with the bound product succinate shows that its carboxylate group establishes salt bridges with both Arg-121 and Arg-457, and a hydrogen bond with Tyr-296. While both arginine residues are pre-formed for substrate/product binding, Tyr-296 moves by more than 1 Å. Both R121A and R457A variants are almost inactive, demonstrating a key role of each arginine in catalysis. Our study implies that bryophytes but presumably also some green algae, lycopods and ferns, which carry both ALDH21 and ALDH5 genes, can oxidize SSAL to succinate in both cytosol and mitochondria, indicating a more diverse GABA shunt pathway compared with higher plants carrying only the mitochondrial ALDH5. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Isotope effect studies of chicken liver NADP malic enzyme: role of the metal ion and viscosity dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, C.B.; Cleland, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the metal ion in the oxidative decarboxylation of malate by chicken liver NADP malic enzyme and details of the reaction mechanism have been investigated by 13 C isotope effects. With saturating NADP and the indicated metal ion at a total concentration 10-fold higher than its K/sub m/, the following primary 13 C kinetic isotope effects at C 4 of malate [ 13 (VK/sub mal/)] were observed at pH 8.0: Mg 2+ , 1.0336; Mn 2+ , 1.0365; Cd 2+ , 1.0366; Zn 2+ , 1.0337; Co 2+ , 1.0283; Ni 2+ , 1.025. Knowing the partitioning of the intermediate oxalacetate between decarboxylation to pyuvate and reduction to malate allows calculation of the intrinsic carbon isotope effect for decarboxylation to pyuvate and reduction to malate allows calculation of the intrinsic carbon isotope effect for decarboxylation. For Mg 2+ as activator, this was 1.049 with NADP and 1.046 with 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide phosphate, although the intrinsic primary deuterium isotope effects on dehydrogenation were 5.6 and 4.2, and the partition ratios of the oxalacetate intermediate for decarboxylation as opposed to hydride transfer were 0.11 and 3.96. It was not possible to calculate reasonable intrinsic carbon isotope effects with the other metal ions by use of the partitioning ratio of oxalacetate because of decarboxylation by another mechanism. The variation of 13 (VK/sub mal/) with pH was used to dissect the total forward and external components. When the authors attempted to use the variation of 13 (VK/sub mal/) with solution viscosity to determine the internal and external commitments, incorrect values were obtained because of a specific effect of the viscosogen in decreasing the K/sub m/ for malate, so that VK/sub mal/ actually increased with viscosity instead of decreasing, as theory predicts

  17. The purification and steady-state kinetic behaviour of rabbit heart mitochondrial NAD(P)+ malic enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Davisson, V J; Schulz, A R

    1985-01-01

    The mitochondrial NAD(P)+ malic enzyme [EC 1.1.1.39, L-malate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)] was purified from rabbit heart to a specific activity of 7 units (mumol/min)/mg at 23 degrees C. A study of the reductive carboxylation reaction indicates that this enzymic reaction is reversible. The rate of the reductive carboxylation reaction appears to be completely inhibited at an NADH concentration of 0.92 mM. A substrate saturation curve of this reaction with NADH as the varied substrat...

  18. Ser95, Asn97, and Thr78 are important for the catalytic function of porcine NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae-Kang; Colman, Roberta F.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian mitochondrial NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is a citric acid cycle enzyme and an important contributor to cellular defense against oxidative stress. The Mn2+-isocitrate complex of the porcine enzyme was recently crystallized; its structure indicates that Ser95, Asn97, and Thr78 are within hydrogen-bonding distance of the γ-carboxylate of enzyme-bound isocitrate. We used site-directed mutagenesis to replace each of these residues by Ala and Asp. The wild-type and mutant...

  19. Determination by radioimmunoassay of the sum of oxidized and reduced forms of NAD and NADP in picomole quantities from the same acid extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredehorst, R.; Lengyel, H.; Hilz, H.

    1979-01-01

    The sum of the amounts of NAD + NADH was determined from the same acid tissue extract with the aid of a highly specific radioimmunoassay for 5'-AMP. NAD was converted to 5'-AMP via ADP-ribose by alkaline treatment while NADH was converted first to ADP-ribose by incubation of the acid extract at 25 0 C followed by alkaline conversion to 5'-AMP. Removal of phosphate groups in NADP and NADPH by treatment of the extracts with alkaline phosphates extended the procedure to the quantification of NADP(H). When combined with enzymic analyses of the oxidized coenzyme forms, NAD/NADH and NADP/NADPH ratios could also be obtained from the same extracts. The sensitivity of the test allows quantification of pyridine nucleotides in the range of 0.1-10 pmol. (orig.)

  20. Purification and characterization of a novel cytosolic NADP(H)-dependent retinol oxidoreductase from rabbit liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D Y; Ichikawa, Y

    1997-03-07

    Rabbit liver cytosol exhibits very high retinol dehydrogenase activity. At least two retinol dehydrogenases were demonstrated to exist in rabbit liver cytosol, and the major one, a cytosolic NADP(H)-dependent retinol dehydrogenase (systematic name: retinol oxidoreductase) was purified about 1795-fold to electrophoretic and column chromatographic homogeneity by a procedure involving column chromatography on AF-Red Toyopearl twice and then hydroxyapatite. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 34 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and 144 kDa by HPLC gel filtration, suggesting that it is a homo-tetramer. The enzyme uses free retinol and retinal, and their complexes with CRBP as substrates in vitro. The optimum pH values for retinol oxidation of free retinol and CRBP-retinol were 8.8-9.2 and 8.0-9.0, respectively, and those for retinal reduction of free retinal and retinal-CRBP were the same, 7.0-7.6. Km for free retinol and Vmax for retinal formation were 2.8 microM and 2893 nmol/min per mg protein at 37 degrees C (pH 9.0) and the corresponding values with retinol-CRBP as a substrate were 2.5 microM and 2428 nmol/min per mg protein at 37 degrees C (pH 8.6); Km for free retinal and Vmax for retinol formation were 6.5 microM and 4108 nmol/min per mg protein, and the corresponding values with retinal-CRBP as a substrate were 5.1 microM and 3067 nmol/min per mg protein at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4. NAD(H) was not effective as a cofactor. 4-Methylpyrazole was a weak inhibitor (IC50 = 28 mM) of the enzyme, and ethanol was neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of the enzyme. This enzyme exhibits relatively broad aldehyde reductase activity and some ketone reductase activity, the activity for aromatic substitutive aldehydes being especially high and effective. Whereas, except in the case of retinol, oxidative activity toward the corresponding alcohols was not detected. This novel cytosolic enzyme may play an important role in vivo in maintaining the homeostasis of retinal, the substrate of retinoic

  1. Isolation and Characterization of NADP+ -Linked Isocitrate Dehydrogenase in Germinating Urd Bean Seeds (Phaseolus mungo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Srivastava

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42 has been purified to homogeneity from germinating urd bean seeds. The enzyme NADP+ -linked isocitrate dehydrogenase is a tetrameric protein (molecular weight 130,000; gel filtration made up of four identical monomers (sub unit molecular weight about 32,000-33,000; PAGE in presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Thermal inactivation of purified enzyme at 40 °C, 45 °C and 50 °C shows single exponential loss of enzyme activity suggesting that the inactivation of this enzyme follows simple first order kinetics (rate constants for purified enzyme 0.020, 0.043 and 0.077 min–1 at 40 °C, 45 °C and 50 °C respectively. Thermal inactivation in presence of glutathione and dithiothretol at 45 °C and 50 °C also follows simple first order kinetics, but the presence of these compounds protects the loss of enzyme activity. The enzyme shows optimum activity at pH 7.3-8.0. The variation of Vmax and Km at different pH values (6.5-8.0 suggests that proton behaves as an "Uncompetitive Inhibitor". A basic group is present at the active site of enzyme which is accessible for protonation in this pH range in the presence of substrate only, with a pKa equal to 6.8. Successive dialysis against EDTA and phosphate buffer, pH 7.5 at 0-4 °C gives an enzymatically inactive protein. Thermal inactivation of this protein at 45 °C and 50 °C shows an exponential loss of enzyme activity as in the case of untreated (native enzyme. Full activity is restored on adding Mn2+ (3.75mM to a solution of this protein. Addition of Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ brings about partial recovery. Alkali metal ions bring about 75% inhibition at 4mM concentration. The inhibition is stronger at high concentration of Na+ and K+ . Other metal ions are not effective.

  2. Evaluation and study of advanced optical contamination, deposition, measurement, and removal techniques. [including computer programs and ultraviolet reflection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, R. M. F.; Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program is described to design, fabricate and install an experimental work chamber assembly (WCA) to provide a wide range of experimental capability. The WCA incorporates several techniques for studying the kinetics of contaminant films and their effect on optical surfaces. It incorporates the capability for depositing both optical and contaminant films on temperature-controlled samples, and for in-situ measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance. Ellipsometer optics are mounted on the chamber for film thickness determinations, and other features include access ports for radiation sources and instrumentation. Several supporting studies were conducted to define specific chamber requirements, to determine the sensitivity of the measurement techniques to be incorporated in the chamber, and to establish procedures for handling samples prior to their installation in the chamber. A bibliography and literature survey of contamination-related articles is included.

  3. Molecular and functional characterization of ferredoxin NADP(H oxidoreductase from Gracilaria chilensis and its complex with ferredoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Vorphal

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud Ferredoxin NADP(H oxidoreductases (EC 1.18.1.2 (FNR are flavoenzymes present in photosynthetic organisms; they are relevant for the production of reduced donors to redox reactions, i.e. in photosynthesis, the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH using the electrons provided by Ferredoxin (Fd, a small FeS soluble protein acceptor of electrons from PSI in chloroplasts. In rhodophyta no information about this system has been reported, this work is a contribution to the molecular and functional characterization of FNR from Gracilaria chilensis, also providing a structural analysis of the complex FNR/Fd. Methods The biochemical and kinetic characterization of FNR was performed from the enzyme purified from phycobilisomes enriched fractions. The sequence of the gene that codifies for the enzyme, was obtained using primers designed by comparison with sequences of Synechocystis and EST from Gracilaria. 5′RACE was used to confirm the absence of a CpcD domain in FNRPBS of Gracilaria chilensis. A three dimensional model for FNR and Fd, was built by comparative modeling and a model for the complex FNR: Fd by docking. Results The kinetic analysis shows KMNADPH of 12.5 M and a kcat of 86 s−1, data consistent with the parameters determined for the enzyme purified from a soluble extract. The sequence for FNR was obtained and translated to a protein of 33646 Da. A FAD and a NADP+ binding domain were clearly identified by sequence analysis as well as a chloroplast signal sequence. Phycobilisome binding domain, present in some cyanobacteria was absent. Transcriptome analysis of Gch revealed the presence of two Fd; FdL and FdS, sharing the motif CX5CX2CX29X. The analysis indicated that the most probable partner for FNR is FdS. Conclusion The interaction model produced, was consistent with functional properties reported for FNR in plants leaves, and opens the possibilities for research in other rhodophyta of commercial interest.

  4. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, NADP-malic enzyme, and pyruvate, phosphate dikinase are involved in the acclimation of Nicotiana tabacum L. to drought stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubnerová-Hýsková, V.; Miedzińska, L.; Dobrá, Jana; Vaňková, Radomíra; Ryšlavá, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 5 (2014), s. 19-25 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Drought * NADP-malic enzyme * Nicotiana tabacum L. Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2014

  5. ESCLOUD: A computer program to calculate the air concentration, deposition rate and external dose rate from a continuous discharge of radioactive material to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.A.

    1980-03-01

    Radioactive material may be discharged to atmosphere in small quantities during the normal operation of a nuclear installation as part of a considered waste management practice. Estimates of the individual and collective dose equivalent rates resulting from such a discharge are required in a number of contexts: for example, in assessing compliance with dose limits, in estimating the radiological impact of the discharge and as an input into optimisation studies. The suite of programs which has been developed to undertake such calculations is made up of a number of independent modules one of which, ESCLOUD, is described in this report. The ESCLOUD program evaluates, as a function of distance and direction from the release point, the air concentration, deposition rate and external β and γ doses from airborne and deposited activity. The air concentration and deposition rate can be used as input to other modules for calculating inhalation and ingestion doses. (author)

  6. Regulation of the expression of NADP-malic enzyme by UV-B, red and far-red light in maize seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Casati

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The induction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-malic enzyme (NADP-ME in etiolated maize (Zea mays seedlings by UV-B and UV-A radiation, and different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm was investigated by measuring changes in activity, protein quantity and RNA levels as a function of intensity and duration of exposure to the different radiations. Under low levels of PAR, exposure to UV-B radiation but not UV-A radiation for 6 to 24 h caused a marked increase in the enzyme levels similar to that observed under high PAR in the absence of UV-B. UV-B treatment of green leaves following a 12-h dark period also caused an increase in NADP-ME expression. Exposure to UV-B radiation for only 5 min resulted in a rapid increase of the enzyme, followed by a more gradual rise with longer exposure up to 6 h. Low levels of red light for 5 min or 6 h were also effective in inducing NADP-ME activity equivalent to that obtained with UV-B radiation. A 5-min exposure to far-red light following UV-B or red light treatment reversed the induction of NADP-ME, and this effect could be eliminated by further treatment with UV-B or red light. These results indicate that physiological levels of UV-B radiation can have a positive effect on the induction of this photosynthetic enzyme. The reducing power and pyruvate generated by the activity of NADP-ME may be used for respiration, in cellular repair processes and as substrates for fatty acid synthesis required for membrane repair.

  7. Silencing of cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene enhances ethanol-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Sun; Lee, Su-Min; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2010-07-01

    It has been shown that acute and chronic alcohol administrations increase the production of reactive oxygen species, lower cellular antioxidant levels and enhance oxidative stress in many tissues. We recently reported that cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) functions as an antioxidant enzyme by supplying NADPH to the cytosol. Upon exposure to ethanol, IDPc was susceptible to the loss of its enzyme activity in HepG2 cells. Transfection of HepG2 cells with an IDPc small interfering RNA noticeably downregulated IDPc and enhanced the cells' vulnerability to ethanol-induced cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that suppressing the expression of IDPc enhances ethanol-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells by further disruption of the cellular redox status.

  8. Oxalomalate, a competitive inhibitor of NADP+ -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, regulates lipid peroxidation-mediated apoptosis in U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Sun; Yang, Joon-Hyuck; Park, Ji Eun; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2005-01-01

    Membrane lipid peroxidation processes yield products that may react with DNA and proteins to cause oxidative modifications. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of cytosolic redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage is one of the primary functions of cytosolic NADP+ -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) through to supply NADPH for antioxidant systems. The protective role of IDPc against lipid peroxidation-mediated apoptosis in U937 cells was investigated in control and cells pre-treated with oxlalomalate, a competitive inhibitor of IDPc. Upon exposure to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) to U937 cells, which induces lipid peroxidation in membranes, the susceptibility to apoptosis was higher in oxalomalate-treated cells as compared to control cells. The results suggest that IDPc plays an important protective role in apoptosis of U937 cells induced by lipid peroxidation-mediated oxidative stress.

  9. TIMED: a computer program for calculating cumulated activity of a radionuclide in the organs of the human body at a given time, t, after deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.B.; Snyder, W.S.; Ford, M.R.

    1976-12-01

    TIMED is a computer program designed to calculate cumulated radioactivity in the various source organs at various times after radionuclide deposition. TIMED embodies a system of differential equations which describes activity transfer in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs of the body. This system accounts for delay of transfer of activity between compartments of the body and radioactive daughters

  10. NADP+ binding to the regulatory subunit of methionine adenosyltransferase II increases intersubunit binding affinity in the hetero-trimer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz González

    Full Text Available Mammalian methionine adenosyltransferase II (MAT II is the only hetero-oligomer in this family of enzymes that synthesize S-adenosylmethionine using methionine and ATP as substrates. Binding of regulatory β subunits and catalytic α2 dimers is known to increase the affinity for methionine, although scarce additional information about this interaction is available. This work reports the use of recombinant α2 and β subunits to produce oligomers showing kinetic parameters comparable to MAT II purified from several tissues. According to isothermal titration calorimetry data and densitometric scanning of the stained hetero-oligomer bands on denatured gels, the composition of these oligomers is that of a hetero-trimer with α2 dimers associated to single β subunits. Additionally, the regulatory subunit is able to bind NADP(+ with a 1:1 stoichiometry, the cofactor enhancing β to α2-dimer binding affinity. Mutants lacking residues involved in NADP(+ binding and N-terminal truncations of the β subunit were able to oligomerize with α2-dimers, although the kinetic properties appeared altered. These data together suggest a role for both parts of the sequence in the regulatory role exerted by the β subunit on catalysis. Moreover, preparation of a structural model for the hetero-oligomer, using the available crystal data, allowed prediction of the regions involved in β to α2-dimer interaction. Finally, the implications that the presence of different N-terminals in the β subunit could have on MAT II behavior are discussed in light of the recent identification of several splicing forms of this subunit in hepatoma cells.

  11. Purification of a NAD(P) reductase-like protein from the thermogenic appendix of the Sauromatum guttatum inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubatz, Hanna; Howald, William N

    2013-03-01

    A NAD(P) reductase-like protein with a molecular mass of 34.146 ± 34 Da was purified to homogeneity from the appendix of the inflorescence of the Sauromatum guttatum. On-line liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry was used to isolate and quantify the protein. For the identification of the protein, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic digests of the protein was carried out. The acquired mass spectra were used for database searching, which led to the identification of a single tryptic peptide. The 12 amino acid tryptic peptide (FLPSEFGNDVDR) was found to be identical to amino acid residues at the positions 108-120 of isoflavone reductase in the Arabidopsis genome. A BLAST search identified this sequence region as unique and specific to a class of NAD(P)-dependent reductases involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Edman degradation revealed that the protein was N-terminally blocked. The amount of the protein (termed RL, NAD(P) reductase-like protein) increased 60-fold from D-4 (4 days before inflorescence-opening, designated as D-day) to D-Day, and declined the following day, when heat-production ceased. When salicylic acid, the endogenous trigger of heat-production in the Sauromatum appendix, was applied to premature appendices, a fivefold decrease in the amount of RL was detected in the treated section relative to the non-treated section. About 40 % of RL was found in the cytoplasm. Another 30 % was detected in Percoll-purified mitochondria and the rest, about 30 % was associated with a low speed centrifugation pellet due to nuclei and amyloplast localization. RL was also found in other thermogenic plants and detected in Arabidopsis leaves. The function of RL in thermogenic and non-thermogenic plants requires further investigation.

  12. Crystal structure studies of NADP{sup +} dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus exhibiting a novel terminal domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Pampa, K.J. [Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Manjula, M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Abdoh, M.M.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine (Country Unknown); Kunishima, Naoki [Advanced Protein Crystallography Research Group, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Lokanath, N.K., E-mail: lokanath@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India)

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • We determined the structure of isocitrate dehydrogenase with citrate and cofactor. • The structure reveals a unique novel terminal domain involved in dimerization. • Clasp domain shows significant difference, and catalytic residues are conserved. • Oligomerization of the enzyme is quantized with subunit-subunit interactions. • Novel domain of this enzyme is classified as subfamily of the type IV. - Abstract: NADP{sup +} dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an enzyme catalyzing oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate into oxalosuccinate (intermediate) and finally the product α-ketoglutarate. The crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus isocitrate dehydrogenase (TtIDH) ternary complex with citrate and cofactor NADP{sup +} was determined using X-ray diffraction method to a resolution of 1.80 Å. The overall fold of this protein was resolved into large domain, small domain and a clasp domain. The monomeric structure reveals a novel terminal domain involved in dimerization, very unique and novel domain when compared to other IDH’s. And, small domain and clasp domain showing significant differences when compared to other IDH’s of the same sub-family. The structure of TtIDH reveals the absence of helix at the clasp domain, which is mainly involved in oligomerization in other IDH’s. Also, helices/beta sheets are absent in the small domain, when compared to other IDH’s of the same sub family. The overall TtIDH structure exhibits closed conformation with catalytic triad residues, Tyr144-Asp248-Lys191 are conserved. Oligomerization of the protein is quantized using interface area and subunit–subunit interactions between protomers. Overall, the TtIDH structure with novel terminal domain may be categorized as a first structure of subfamily of type IV.

  13. The End of the Line: Can Ferredoxin and Ferredoxin NADP(H) Oxidoreductase Determine the Fate of Photosynthetic Electrons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Tatjana; Hanke, Guy

    2014-01-01

    At the end of the linear photosynthetic electron transfer (PET) chain, the small soluble protein ferredoxin (Fd) transfers electrons to Fd:NADP(H) oxidoreductase (FNR), which can then reduce NADP+ to support C assimilation. In addition to this linear electron flow (LEF), Fd is also thought to mediate electron flow back to the membrane complexes by different cyclic electron flow (CEF) pathways: either antimycin A sensitive, NAD(P)H complex dependent, or through FNR located at the cytochrome b6f complex. Both Fd and FNR are present in higher plant genomes as multiple gene copies, and it is now known that specific Fd iso-proteins can promote CEF. In addition, FNR iso-proteins vary in their ability to dynamically interact with thylakoid membrane complexes, and it has been suggested that this may also play a role in CEF. We will highlight work on the different Fd-isoproteins and FNR-membrane association found in the bundle sheath (BSC) and mesophyll (MC) cell chloroplasts of the C4 plant maize. These two cell types perform predominantly CEF and LEF, and the properties and activities of Fd and FNR in the BSC and MC are therefore specialized for CEF and LEF respectively. A diversity of Fd isoproteins and dynamic FNR location has also been recorded in C3 plants, algae and cyanobacteria. This indicates that the principles learned from the extreme electron transport situations in the BSC and MC of maize might be usefully applied to understanding the dynamic transition between these states in other systems. PMID:24678667

  14. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: グルタミン酸デヒドロゲナーゼ(NADP+) [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term グルタミン酸デヒドロゲナーゼ(NADP+) 名詞 一般 * * * * グルタミン酸デヒドロゲナーゼ(NAD...P+) ... MeSH D018086 200906075423936874 C LS38 UNKNOWN_2 グルタミン酸 デヒドロゲナーゼ ( NADP + )

  15. Metabolismo intermedio e patogenicità microbica: studio della regolazione e dell’espressione differenziale del gene gdhA, codificante la L-glutammato deidrogenasi NADP-specifica, in isolati clinici di Neisseria meningitidis

    OpenAIRE

    Colicchio, Roberta

    2006-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (meningococco) è un batterio a ristretto spettro d’ospite e presenta “stili di vita” alternativi: commensale-patogeno, intracellulare-extracellulare. Un fattore cruciale per tale comportamento risiede nella capacità di sintetizzare ed utilizzare nutrienti essenziali per la propria sopravvivenza nei diversi microambienti dell’ospite durante un naturale ciclo infettivo. Dati di letteratura indicano che gdhA, codificante la L-glutammato deidrogenasi NADP-specifica (NADP...

  16. Enhancement of UVB radiation-mediated apoptosis by knockdown of cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in HaCaT cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Su Jeong; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that promote apoptotic cell death. We showed that cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) plays an essential role in the control of cellular redox balance and defense against oxidative damage, by supplying NADPH for antioxidant systems. In this study, we demonstrated that knockdown of IDPc expression by RNA interference enhances UVB-induced apoptosis of immortalized human HaCaT keratinocyte...

  17. Treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. Program for encapsulation, deep geologic deposition and research, development and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Programs for RD and D concerning disposal of radioactive waste are presented. Main topics include: Design, testing and manufacture of canisters for the spent fuels; Design of equipment for deposition of waste canisters; Material and process for backfilling rock caverns; Evaluation of accuracy and validation of methods for safety analyses; Development of methods for defining scenarios for the safety analyses. 471 refs, 67 figs, 21 tabs

  18. Different rates of synthesis and degradation of two chloroplastic ammonium-inducible NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes during induction and deinduction in Chlorella sorokiniana cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascomb, N.F.; Prunkard, D.E.; Schmidt, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of accumulation (per milliliter of culture) of the α- and β-subunits, associated with chloroplast-localized ammonium inducible nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) isoenzymes, were measured during a 3 hour induction of synchronized daughter cells of Chlorella sorokiniana in 29 millimolar ammonium medium under photoautotrophic conditions. The β-subunit holoenzyme(s) accumulated in a linear manner for 3 hours without an apparent induction lag. A 40 minute induction lag preceded the accumulation of the α-subunit holoenzyme(s). After 120 minutes, the α-subunit ceased accumulating and thereafter remained at a constant level. From pulse-chase experiments, using 35 SO 4 and immunochemical procedures, the rate of synthesis of the α-subunit was shown to be greater than the β-subunit during the first 80 minutes of induction. The α- and β-subunits had different rates of degradation during the induction period (t/sub 1/2/ = 50 versus 150 minutes, respectively) and during the deinduction period (t/sub 1/2/ = 5 versus 13.5 minutes) after removal of ammonium from the culture. During deinduction, total NADP-GDH activity decreased with a half-time of 9 minutes. Cycloheximide completely inhibited the synthesis and degradation of both subunits. A model for regulation of expression of the NADP-GDH gene was proposed

  19. Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase protects macrophages from LPS-induced nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Oky; Kim, Yong Chan; Shin, Han-Jae; Lee, Jie-Oh; Huh, Tae-Lin; Kang, Kwang-il; Kim, Young Sang; Paik, Sang-Gi; Lee, Hayyoung

    2004-04-30

    Macrophages activated by microbial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) produce bursts of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Redox protection systems are essential for the survival of the macrophages since the nitric oxide and ROS can be toxic to them as well as to pathogens. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) we found that cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) is strongly upregulated by nitric oxide in macrophages. The levels of IDPc mRNA and of the corresponding enzymatic activity were markedly increased by treatment of RAW264.7 cells or peritoneal macrophages with LPS or SNAP (a nitric oxide donor). Over-expression of IDPc reduced intracellular peroxide levels and enhanced the survival of H2O2- and SNAP-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. IDPc is known to generate NADPH, a cellular reducing agent, via oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate. The expression of enzymes implicated in redox protection, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, was relatively unaffected by LPS and SNAP. We propose that the induction of IDPc is one of the main self-protection mechanisms of macrophages against LPS-induced oxidative stress.

  20. RNA interference targeting cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase exerts anti-obesity effect in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Woo Suk; Park, Kwon Moo; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2012-08-01

    A metabolic abnormality in lipid biosynthesis is frequently associated with obesity and hyperlipidemia. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH) is an essential reducing equivalent for numerous enzymes required in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis. Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) has been proposed as a key enzyme for supplying cytosolic NADPH. We report here that knockdown of IDPc expression by Ribonucleic acid (RNA) interference (RNAi) inhibited adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mice. Attenuated IDPc expression by IDPc small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in a reduction of differentiation and triglyceride level and adipogenic protein expression as well as suppression of glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes. In addition, the attenuation of Nox activity and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation accompanied with knockdown of IDPc was associated with inhibition of adipogenesis and lipogenesis. The loss of body weight and the reduction of triglyceride level were also observed in diet-induced obese mice transduced with IDPc short-hairpin (shRNA). Taken together, the inhibiting effect of RNAi targeting IDPc on adipogenesis and lipid biosynthesis is considered to be of therapeutic value in the treatment and prevention of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the goals of NAPAP-sponsored research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone has been to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried Indiana limestone and Vermont marble have been exposed to ambient environmental conditions in a long-term exposure program. Physical measurements of the recession of test stones exposed to ambient conditions at an angle of 30?? to horizontal at the five NAPAP materials exposure sites range from ~15 to ~30?? ??m yr-1 for marble, and from ~25 to ~45 ??m yr -1 for limestone, and are approximately double the recession estimates based on the observed calcium content of run-off solutions from test slabs. The difference between the physical and chemical recession measurements is attributed to the loss of mineral grains from the stone surfaces that are not measured in the run-off experiments. The erosion due to grain loss does not appear to be influenced by rainfall acidity, however, preliminary evidence suggests that grain loss may be influenced by dry deposition of sulfur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions and associated rainfall blanks suggest that ~30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining ~70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in rain that is in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide ('clean rain'). These results are for marble and limestone slabs exposed at an angle of 30?? from horizontal. The relative contribution of sulfur dioxide to chemical erosion is significantly enhanced for stone slabs having an inclination of 60?? or 85??. The dry deposition of alkaline particulate material has a mitigating effect at the two urban field exposure sites at Washington, DC

  2. Loch Vale Watershed Long-Term Ecological Research and Monitoring Program: Quality Assurance Report, 2003-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Eric E.; Baron, Jill S.

    2011-01-01

    The Loch Vale watershed project is a long-term research and monitoring program located in Rocky Mountain National Park that addresses watershed-scale ecosystem processes, particularly as they respond to atmospheric deposition and climate variability. Measurements of precipitation depth, precipitation chemistry, discharge, and surface-water quality are made within the watershed and elsewhere in Rocky Mountain National Park. As data collected for the program are used by resource managers, scientists, policy makers, and students, it is important that all data collected in Loch Vale watershed meet high standards of quality. In this report, data quality was evaluated for precipitation, discharge, and surface-water chemistry measurements collected during 2003-09. Equipment upgrades were made at the Loch Vale National Atmospheric Deposition Program monitoring site to improve precipitation measurements and evaluate variability in precipitation depth and chemistry. Additional solar panels and batteries have been installed to improve the power supply, and data completeness, at the NADP site. As a result of equipment malfunction, discharge data for the Loch Outlet were estimated from October 18, 2005, to August 17, 2006. Quality-assurance results indicate that more than 98 percent of all surface-water chemistry measurements were accurate and precise. Records that did not meet quality criteria were removed from the database. Measurements of precipitation depth, precipitation chemistry, discharge, and surface-water quality were all sufficiently complete and consistent to support project data needs.

  3. Treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. Program for encapsulation, deep geologic deposition and research, development and demonstration; Kaernkraftavfallets behandling och slutfoervaring. Program foer inkapsling, geologisk djupfoervaring samt forskning, utveckling och demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Programs for RD and D concerning disposal of radioactive waste are presented. Main topics include: Design, testing and manufacture of canisters for the spent fuels; Design of equipment for deposition of waste canisters; Material and process for backfilling rock caverns; Evaluation of accuracy and validation of methods for safety analyses; Development of methods for defining scenarios for the safety analyses. 471 refs, 67 figs, 21 tabs.

  4. Arabidopsis Root-Type Ferredoxin:NADP(H) Oxidoreductase 2 is Involved in Detoxification of Nitrite in Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Takushi; Ueda, Nanae; Kitagawa, Munenori; Hanke, Guy; Suzuki, Akira; Hase, Toshiharu; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2016-11-01

    Ferredoxin:NADP(H) oxidoreductase (FNR) plays a key role in redox metabolism in plastids. Whereas leaf FNR (LFNR) is required for photosynthesis, root FNR (RFNR) is believed to provide electrons to ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent enzymes, including nitrite reductase (NiR) and Fd-glutamine-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (Fd-GOGAT) in non-photosynthetic conditions. In some herbal species, however, most nitrate reductase activity is located in photosynthetic organs, and ammonium in roots is assimilated mainly by Fd-independent NADH-GOGAT. Therefore, RFNR might have a limited impact on N assimilation in roots grown with nitrate or ammonium nitrogen sources. AtRFNR genes are rapidly induced by application of toxic nitrite. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that RFNR could contribute to nitrite reduction in roots by comparing Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings of the wild type with loss-of-function mutants of RFNR2 When these seedlings were grown under nitrate, nitrite or ammonium, only nitrite nutrition caused impaired growth and nitrite accumulation in roots of rfnr2 Supplementation of nitrite with nitrate or ammonium as N sources did not restore the root growth in rfnr2 Also, a scavenger for nitric oxide (NO) could not effectively rescue the growth impairment. Thus, nitrite toxicity, rather than N depletion or nitrite-dependent NO production, probably causes the rfnr2 root growth defect. Our results strongly suggest that RFNR2 has a major role in reduction of toxic nitrite in roots. A specific set of genes related to nitrite reduction and the supply of reducing power responded to nitrite concomitantly, suggesting that the products of these genes act co-operatively with RFNR2 to reduce nitrite in roots. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Role of Ser-257 in the sliding mechanism of NADP(H) in the reaction catalyzed by the Aspergillus fumigatus flavin-dependent ornithine N5-monooxygenase SidA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Carolyn; Badieyan, Somayesadat; Sobrado, Pablo

    2013-11-08

    SidA (siderophore A) is a flavin-dependent N-hydroxylating monooxygenase that is essential for virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus. SidA catalyzes the NADPH- and oxygen-dependent formation of N(5)-hydroxyornithine. In this reaction, NADPH reduces the flavin, and the resulting NADP(+) is the last product to be released. The presence of NADP(+) is essential for activity, as it is required for stabilization of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin, which is the hydroxylating species. As part of our efforts to determine the molecular details of the role of NADP(H) in catalysis, we targeted Ser-257 for site-directed mutagenesis and performed extensive characterization of the S257A enzyme. Using a combination of steady-state and stopped-flow kinetic experiments, substrate analogs, and primary kinetic isotope effects, we show that the interaction between Ser-257 and NADP(H) is essential for stabilization of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin. Molecular dynamics simulation results suggest that Ser-257 functions as a pivot point, allowing the nicotinamide of NADP(+) to slide into position for stabilization of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin.

  6. Crystal structure of the NADP+ and tartrate-bound complex of L-serine 3-dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum calidifontis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Kazunari; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Araki, Tomohiro; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2018-05-01

    A gene encoding L-serine dehydrogenase (L-SerDH) that exhibits extremely low sequence identity to the Agrobacterium tumefaciens L-SerDH was identified in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum calidifontis. The predicted amino acid sequence showed 36% identity with that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa L-SerDH, suggesting that P. calidifontis L-SerDH is a novel type of L-SerDH, like Ps. aeruginosa L-SerDH. The overexpressed enzyme appears to be the most thermostable L-SerDH described to date, and no loss of activity was observed by incubation for 30 min at temperatures up to 100 °C. The enzyme showed substantial reactivity towards D-serine, in addition to L-serine. Two different crystal structures of P. calidifontis L-SerDH were determined using the Se-MAD and MR method: the structure in complex with NADP + /sulfate ion at 1.18 Å and the structure in complex with NADP + /L-tartrate (substrate analog) at 1.57 Å. The fold of the catalytic domain showed similarity with that of Ps. aeruginosa L-SerDH. However, the active site structure significantly differed between the two enzymes. Based on the structure of the tartrate, L- and D-serine and 3-hydroxypropionate molecules were modeled into the active site and the substrate binding modes were estimated. A structural comparison suggests that the wide cavity at the substrate binding site is likely responsible for the high reactivity of the enzyme toward both L- and D-serine enantiomers. This is the first description of the structure of the novel type of L-SerDH with bound NADP + and substrate analog, and it provides new insight into the substrate binding mechanism of L-SerDH. The results obtained here may be very informative for the creation of L- or D-serine-specific SerDH by protein engineering.

  7. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone — experimental results from the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, Philip A.; Reddy, Michael M.; Reimann, Karl J.; Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    One of the goals of NAPAP-sponsored research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone has been to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried Indiana limestone and Vermont marble have been exposed to ambient environmental conditions in a long-term exposure program. Physical measurements of the recession of test stones exposed to ambient conditions at an angle of 30° to horizontal at the five NAPAP materials exposure sites range from ˜ 15 to ˜ 30 μm yr -1 for marble, and from ˜ 25 to ˜ 45 μm yr -1 for limestone, and are approximately double the recession estimates based on the observed calcium content of run-off solutions from test slabs. The difference between the physical and chemical recession measurements is attributed to the loss of mineral grains from the stone surfaces that are not measured in the run-off experiments. The erosion due to grain loss does not appear to be influenced by rainfall acidity, however, preliminary evidence suggests that grain loss may be influenced by dry deposition of sulfur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions and associated rainfall blanks suggest that ˜ 30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining ˜ 70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in rain that is in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide ("clean rain"). These results are for marble and limestone slabs exposed at an angle of 30° from horizontal. The relative contribution of sulfur dioxide to chemical erosion is significantly enhanced for stone slabs having an inclination of 60° or 85°. The dry deposition of alkaline particulate material has a mitigating effect at the two urban field exposure sites at

  8. Effects of UV-B radiation on growth, photosynthesis, UV-B-absorbing compounds and NADP-malic enzyme in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown under different nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M E; Casati, P; Hsu, T P; Ku, M S; Edwards, G E

    1999-02-01

    The effects of UV-B radiation on growth, photosynthesis, UV-B-absorbing compounds and NADP-malic enzyme have been examined in different cultivars of Phaseolous vulgaris L. grown under 1 and 12 mM nitrogen. Low nitrogen nutrition reduces chlorophyll and soluble protein contents in the leaves and thus the photosynthesis rate and dry-matter accumulation. Chlorophyll, soluble protein and Rubisco contents and photosynthesis rate are not significantly altered by ambient levels of UV-B radiation (17 microW m-2, 290-320 nm, 4 h/day for one week). Comparative studies show that under high nitrogen, UV-B radiation slightly enhances leaf expansion and dry-matter accumulation in cultivar Pinto, but inhibits these parameters in Vilmorin. These results suggest that the UV-B effect on growth is mediated through leaf expansion, which is particularly sensitive to UV-B, and that Pinto is more tolerant than Vilmorin. The effect of UV-B radiation on UV-B-absorbing compounds and on NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) activity is also examined. Both UV-B radiation and low-nitrogen nutrition enhance the content of UV-B-absorbing compounds, and among the three cultivars used, Pinto exhibits the highest increases and Arroz the lowest. The same trend is observed for the specific activity and content of NADP-ME. On a leaf-area basis, the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds is highly correlated with the enzyme activity (r2 = 0.83), suggesting that NADP-ME plays a key role in biosynthesis of these compounds. Furthermore, the higher sensitivity of Vilmorin than Pinto to UV-B radiation appears to be related to the activity of NADP-ME and the capacity of the plants to accumulate UV-B-absorbing compounds.

  9. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: ジヒドロウラシルデヒドロゲナーゼ(NADP) [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term ジヒドロウラシルデヒドロゲナーゼ(NADP) 名詞 一般 * * * * ジヒドロウラシルデヒドロゲナーゼ(NAD...P) ... MeSH D042943 200906021340471184 C LS38 UNKNOWN_2 ジヒドロウラシルデヒドロゲナーゼ ( NADP )

  10. Acid deposition: State of science and technology. Summary report of the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, P.M.; Smith, E.

    1991-09-01

    The twenty-seven State-of-Science and State-of-Technology (SOS/T) Reports, published in 1990 as the definitive scientific and technical synthesis of information obtained during the first decade of the U.S. national Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), are summarized in the document. In most cases, these summaries were the final chapter of the complete SOS/T Report

  11. Tsunami deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  12. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  13. Silencing of cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase by small interfering RNA enhances the sensitivity of HeLa cells toward staurosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Min; Park, Sin Young; Shin, Seoung Woo; Kil, In Sup; Yang, Eun Sun; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2009-02-01

    Staurosporine induces the production of reactive oxygen species, which play an important causative role in apoptotic cell death. Recently, it was demonstrated that the control of cellular redox balance and the defense against oxidative damage is one of the primary functions of cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) by supplying NADPH for antioxidant systems. The present report shows that silencing of IDPc expression in HeLa cells greatly enhances apoptosis induced by staurosporine. Transfection of HeLa cells with an IDPc small interfering RNA (siRNA) markedly decreased activity of IDPc, enhancing the susceptibility of staurosporine-induced apoptosis reflected by DNA fragmentation, cellular redox status and the modulation of apoptotic marker proteins. These results indicate that IDPc may play an important role in regulating the apoptosis induced by staurosporine and the sensitizing effect of IDPc siRNA on the apoptotic cell death of HeLa cells offers the possibility of developing a modifier of cancer chemotherapy.

  14. Enhancement of UVB radiation-mediated apoptosis by knockdown of cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jeong; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2014-04-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that promote apoptotic cell death. We showed that cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) plays an essential role in the control of cellular redox balance and defense against oxidative damage, by supplying NADPH for antioxidant systems. In this study, we demonstrated that knockdown of IDPc expression by RNA interference enhances UVB-induced apoptosis of immortalized human HaCaT keratinocytes. This effect manifested as DNA fragmentation, changes in cellular redox status, mitochondrial dysfunction, and modulation of apoptotic marker expression. Based on our findings, we suggest that attenuation of IDPc expression may protect skin from UVB-mediated damage, by inducing the apoptosis of UV-damaged cells.

  15. Exogenous deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous deposits forming as a result of complex exogenous processes, passed under the influence of outside forces on the Earth surface. To them relate physical and chemical weathering, decomposition and decay of mineral masses, redistribution and transportation of material, forming and deposit of new minerals and ores steady on the earth surface conditions

  16. 42 CFR 422.388 - Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to CMS. (2) The deposit must at all times have a fair market value of an amount that is 120 percent... is made; (2) The fair market value exceeds the amount of the required deposit; or (3) The required... PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Provider-Sponsored Organizations § 422.388 Deposits. (a) Insolvency...

  17. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: National Atmospheric Deposition Program National Trends Network - Nitrogen Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents deposition estimates of nutrients within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the National...

  18. A multi-resolution assessment of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model v4.7 wet deposition estimates for 2002–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Appel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the operational performance of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model simulations for 2002–2006 using both 36-km and 12-km horizontal grid spacing, with a primary focus on the performance of the CMAQ model in predicting wet deposition of sulfate (SO4=, ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3. Performance of the wet deposition estimates from the model is determined by comparing CMAQ predicted concentrations to concentrations measured by the National Acid Deposition Program (NADP, specifically the National Trends Network (NTN. For SO4= wet deposition, the CMAQ model estimates were generally comparable between the 36-km and 12-km simulations for the eastern US, with the 12-km simulation giving slightly higher estimates of SO4= wet deposition than the 36-km simulation on average. The result is a slightly larger normalized mean bias (NMB for the 12-km simulation; however both simulations had annual biases that were less than ±15 % for each of the five years. The model estimated SO4= wet deposition values improved when they were adjusted to account for biases in the model estimated precipitation. The CMAQ model underestimates NH4+ wet deposition over the eastern US, with a slightly larger underestimation in the 36-km simulation. The largest underestimations occur in the winter and spring periods, while the summer and fall have slightly smaller underestimations of NH4+ wet deposition. The underestimation in NH4+ wet deposition is likely due in part to the poor temporal and spatial representation of ammonia (NH3 emissions, particularly those emissions associated with fertilizer applications and NH3 bi-directional exchange. The model performance for estimates of NO3 wet deposition are

  19. Community-specific biogeochemical responses to atmospheric nitrogen deposition in subalpine meadow ecosystems of the Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinsatte, J. P.; Rochefort, R.; Evans, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions result in higher rates of atmospheric N deposition (Ndep) that can saturate sensitive ecosystems. Consequences of increased Ndep include higher emissions of greenhouse gases, eutrophication of watersheds, and deterioration of vegetation communities. Most of the annual N deposition at higher elevations in the Cascades is stored in snowpack until spring snowmelt when it is released as a pulse that can be assimilated by plant and microbial communities, or lost as gaseous emissions or leachate. The relative magnitude of these fluxes is unknown, particularly with accelerated rates of snowpack loss due to climate change. We quantified storage of Ndep in winter snowpack and determined impacts of Ndep on biogeochemical processes in a lush-herbaceous community characterized by Valeriana sitchensis and Lupinus latifolius, a heath-shrub community characterized by Phyllodoce empetriformis and Cassiope mertensiana, and a wet-sedge community dominated by Carex nigricans. These communities were selected to represent early, mid, and late snowmelt vegetation regimes prevalent throughout the Cascades. Ammonium (NH4+) was the dominant form of Ndep in winter snowpack and Ndep rates were higher than anticipated based on nearby National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements. Vegetation N uptake was the dominant N sink in the ecosystem, with the highest growing season uptake occurring in the lush-herbaceous community, while soil N leaching was the dominant N loss, with the lush-herbaceous also having the highest rates. Microbial biomass N fluctuated substantially across the growing season, with high biomass N immediately after snowmelt and again 30 days following snow release. Soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions peaked 30 days following snowmelt for all three communities and were greatest in the wet sedge community. These results indicate that subalpine communities have unique responses to Ndep that vary throughout the growing

  20. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U. S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A. (US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

    1992-06-01

    Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried limestone and marble have been exposed to the environment to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Erosion due to grain loss did not seem to be influenced by rainfall acidity, but may be influenced by dry deposition of sulphur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions suggest that around 30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulphur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining 70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in 'clean' rain. 17 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Ammonium (NH4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average normalized atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms, of Ammonium (NH4) for the year 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. Estimates of NH4 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus

  2. Effects of lindane on the photosynthetic apparatus of the cyanobacterium Anabaena: fluorescence induction studies and immunolocalization of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Marta; Fillat, Maria F; Strasser, Reto J; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Ronald; Marina, Nerea; Smienk, Henry; Gómez-Moreno, Carlos; Barja, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have the natural ability to degrade moderate amounts of organic pollutants. However, when pollutant concentration exceeds the level of tolerance, bleaching of the cells and death occur within 24 hours. Under stress conditions, cyanobacterial response includes the short-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to light quality, named state transitions. Moreover, prolonged stresses produce changes in the functional organization of phycobilisomes and in the core-complexes of both photosystems, which can result in large changes in the PS II fluorescence yield. The localization of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) at the ends of some peripheral rods of the cyanobacterial phycobilisomes, makes this protein a useful marker to check phycobilisome integrity. The goal of this work is to improve the knowledge of the mechanism of action of a very potent pesticide, lindane (gamma-hexaclorociclohexane), in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp., which can be considered a potential candidate for bioremediation of pesticides. We have studied the effect of lindane on the photosynthetic apparatus of Anabaena using fluorescence induction studies. As ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase plays a key role in the response to oxidative stress in several systems, changes in synthesis, degradation and activity of FNR were analyzed. Immunolocalization of this enzyme was used as a marker of phycobilisome integrity. The knowledge of the changes caused by lindane in the photosynthetic apparatus is essential for rational further design of genetically-modified cyanobacteria with improved biorremediation abilities. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence rise measurements (OJIP) have been used to evaluate the vitality and stress adaptation of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119 in the presence of increasing concentrations of lindane. Effects of the pesticide on the ultrastructure have been investigated by electron microscopy, and FNR has been used as a marker of phycobilisome

  3. Replacing Escherichia coli NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) with a NADP-dependent enzyme from Clostridium acetobutylicum facilitates NADPH dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Irene; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Lin, Henry; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2008-11-01

    Reactions requiring reducing equivalents, NAD(P)H, are of enormous importance for the synthesis of industrially valuable compounds such as carotenoids, polymers, antibiotics and chiral alcohols among others. The use of whole-cell biocatalysis can reduce process cost by acting as catalyst and cofactor regenerator at the same time; however, product yields might be limited by cofactor availability within the cell. Thus, our study focussed on the genetic manipulation of a whole-cell system by modifying metabolic pathways and enzymes to improve the overall production process. In the present work, we genetically engineered an Escherichia coli strain to increase NADPH availability to improve the productivity of products that require NADPH in its biosynthesis. The approach involved an alteration of the glycolysis step where glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) is oxidized to 1,3 bisphophoglycerate (1,3-BPG). This reaction is catalyzed by NAD-dependent endogenous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) encoded by the gapA gene. We constructed a recombinant E. coli strain by replacing the native NAD-dependent gapA gene with a NADP-dependent GAPDH from Clostridium acetobutylicum, encoded by the gene gapC. The beauty of this approach is that the recombinant E. coli strain produces 2 mol of NADPH, instead of NADH, per mole of glucose consumed. Metabolic flux analysis showed that the flux through the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway, one of the main pathways that produce NADPH, was reduced significantly in the recombinant strain when compared to that of the parent strain. The effectiveness of the NADPH enhancing system was tested using the production of lycopene and epsilon-caprolactone as model systems using two different background strains. The recombinant strains, with increased NADPH availability, consistently showed significant higher productivity than the parent strains.

  4. Two global conformation states of a novel NAD(P) reductase like protein of the thermogenic appendix of the Sauromatum guttatum inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubatz, Hanna; Howald, William N

    2013-06-01

    A novel NAD(P) reductase like protein (RL) belonging to a class of reductases involved in phenylpropanoid synthesis was previously purified to homogeneity from the Sauromatum guttatum appendix. The Sauromatum appendix raises its temperature above ambient temperature to ~30 °C on the day of inflorescence opening (D-day). Changes in the charge state distribution of the protein in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry spectra were observed during the development of the appendix. RL adopted two conformations, state A (an extended state) that appeared before heat-production (D - 4 to D - 2), and state B (a compact state) that began appearing on D - 1 and reached a maximum on D-day. RL in healthy leaves of Arabidopsis is present in state A, whereas in thermogenic sporophylls of male cones of Encephalartos ferox is present in state B. These conformational changes strongly suggest an involvement of RL in heat-production. The biophysical properties of this protein are remarkable. It is self-assembled in aqueous solutions into micrometer sizes of organized morphologies. The assembly produces a broad range of cyclic and linear morphologies that resemble micelles, rods, lamellar micelles, as well as vesicles. The assemblies could also form network structures. RL molecules entangle with each other and formed branched, interconnected networks. These unusual assemblies suggest that RL is an oligomer, and its oligomerization can provide additional information needed for thermoregulation. We hypothesize that state A controls the plant basal temperature and state B allows a shift in the temperature set point to above ambient temperature.

  5. Compounds from the Fruits of the Popular European Medicinal Plant Vitex agnus-castus in Chemoprevention via NADP(H):Quinone Oxidoreductase Type 1 Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghong; Qiu, Shengxiang; Yao, Ping; Sun, Handong; Fong, Harry H S; Zhang, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    As part of our continuing efforts in the search for potential biologically active compounds from medicinal plants, we have isolated 18 compounds including two novel nitrogen containing diterpenes from extracts of the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus. These isolates, along with our previously obtained novel compound vitexlactam A (1), were evaluated for potential biological effects, including cancer chemoprevention. Chemically, the nitrogenous isolates were found to be two labdane diterpene alkaloids, each containing an α , β -unsaturated γ -lactam moiety. Structurally, they were elucidated to be 9 α -hydroxy-13(14)-labden-16,15-amide (2) and 6 β -acetoxy-9 α -hydroxy-13(14)-labden-15,16-amide (3), which were named vitexlactams B and C, respectively. The 15 known isolates were identified as vitexilactone (4), rotundifuran (5), 8-epi-manoyl oxide (6), vitetrifolin D (7), spathulenol (8), cis-dihydro-dehydro-diconiferylalcohol-9-O- β -D-glucoside (9), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (10), 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (11), casticin (12), artemetin (13), aucubin (14), agnuside (15), β -sitosterol (16), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (17), and p-hydroxybenzoic acid glucose ester (18). All compound structures were determined/identified on the basis of 1D and/or 2D NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. Compounds 6, 8, 9, and 18 were reported from a Vitex spieces for the first time. The cancer chemopreventive potentials of these isolates were evaluated for NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase type 1 (QR1) induction activity. Compound 7 demonstrated promising QR1 induction effect, while the new compound vitexlactam (3) was only slightly active.

  6. Compounds from the Fruits of the Popular European Medicinal Plant Vitex agnus-castus in Chemoprevention via NADP(H:Quinone Oxidoreductase Type 1 Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of our continuing efforts in the search for potential biologically active compounds from medicinal plants, we have isolated 18 compounds including two novel nitrogen containing diterpenes from extracts of the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus. These isolates, along with our previously obtained novel compound vitexlactam A (1, were evaluated for potential biological effects, including cancer chemoprevention. Chemically, the nitrogenous isolates were found to be two labdane diterpene alkaloids, each containing an α, β-unsaturated γ-lactam moiety. Structurally, they were elucidated to be 9α-hydroxy-13(14-labden-16,15-amide (2 and 6β-acetoxy-9α-hydroxy-13(14-labden-15,16-amide (3, which were named vitexlactams B and C, respectively. The 15 known isolates were identified as vitexilactone (4, rotundifuran (5, 8-epi-manoyl oxide (6, vitetrifolin D (7, spathulenol (8, cis-dihydro-dehydro-diconiferylalcohol-9-O-β-D-glucoside (9, luteolin-7-O-glucoside (10, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (11, casticin (12, artemetin (13, aucubin (14, agnuside (15, β-sitosterol (16, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (17, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid glucose ester (18. All compound structures were determined/identified on the basis of 1D and/or 2D NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. Compounds 6, 8, 9, and 18 were reported from a Vitex spieces for the first time. The cancer chemopreventive potentials of these isolates were evaluated for NADP(H:quinone oxidoreductase type 1 (QR1 induction activity. Compound 7 demonstrated promising QR1 induction effect, while the new compound vitexlactam (3 was only slightly active.

  7. Data for rapid ethanol production at elevated temperatures by engineered thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus via the NADP(H-preferring xylose reductase–xylitol dehydrogenase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A thermo-tolerant NADP(H-preferring xylose pathway was constructed in Kluyveromyces marxianus for ethanol production with xylose at elevated temperatures (Zhang et al., 2015 [25]. Ethanol production yield and efficiency was enhanced by pathway engineering in the engineered strains. The constructed strain, YZJ088, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose for ethanol and xylitol production, which is a critical step toward enabling economic biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. This study contains the fermentation results of strains using the metabolic pathway engineering procedure. The ethanol-producing abilities of various yeast strains under various conditions were compared, and strain YZJ088 showed the highest production and fastest productivity at elevated temperatures. The YZJ088 xylose fermentation results indicate that it fermented well with xylose at either low or high inoculum size. When fermented with an initial cell concentration of OD600=15 at 37 °C, YZJ088 consumed 200 g/L xylose and produced 60.07 g/L ethanol; when the initial cell concentration was OD600=1 at 37 °C, YZJ088 consumed 98.96 g/L xylose and produced 33.55 g/L ethanol with a productivity of 0.47 g/L/h. When fermented with 100 g/L xylose at 42 °C, YZJ088 produced 30.99 g/L ethanol with a productivity of 0.65 g/L/h, which was higher than that produced at 37 °C.

  8. Purification and characteristics of an inducible by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons NADP(+)-dependent naphthalenediol dehydrogenase (NDD) in Mucor circinelloides YR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Morales, Reyna Lucero; Zazueta-Novoa, Vanesa; Casillas, Juana Lizbeth González; Ballesteros, Elizabeth Aranda; Bote, Juan Antonio Ocampo; Zazueta-Sandoval, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    We detected NADP(+)-dependent dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD) activity in a cell-free extract from Mucor circinelloides YR-1, after high-speed centrifugation. We analyzed the enzymatic activity in the cytosolic fraction by zymograms, as described previously, and eight different DD activity bands were revealed. Five constitutive DD activities (DD1-5) were present when glucose was used as carbon source and three inducible activities (NDD, PDD1 and PDD2) when aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were used. NDD activity was induced all of the aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. The highest DD activity inducer was naphthalene and the lowest was pyrene. One of the enzymes showed higher activity with cis-naphthalene-diol rather than with trans-nahthalenediol as a substrate. We purified this particular enzyme to homogeneity and found that it had an isoelectric point of 4.6. The molecular weight for the native protein was 197.4kDa and 49.03±0.5kDa for the monomer that conforms it, suggesting a homotetrameric structure for the complete enzyme. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against it and obtained. NDD activity was almost totally inhibited when antibodies were used at low concentrations, and in native immunoblots only one band, which corresponds to the activity band detected in the zymograms, could be detected. In denaturing PAGE immunoblots only one band was detected. This band corresponds to the purified protein band of 49kDa detected in SDS-PAGE gels. The other two inducible enzymes PDD1 and PDD2 were present only when phenanthrene was used as sole carbon source in the culture media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. NURE uranium deposit model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program has sponsored uranium deposit model studies by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and numerous subcontractors. This paper deals only with models from the following six reports prepared by Samuel S. Adams and Associates: GJBX-1(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Roll-Type Uranium Deposits in Continental Sandstones; GJBX-2(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uraniferous Humate Deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico; GJBX-3(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uranium Deposits of the Quartz-Pebble Conglomerate Type; GJBX-4(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits in Mixed Fluvial-Shallow Marine Sedimentary Sequences, South Texas; GJBX-5(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Veinlike Uranium Deposits of the Lower to Middle Proterozoic Unconformity and Strata-Related Types; GJBX-6(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits of the Salt Wash Type, Colorado Plateau Province. A unique feature of these models is the development of recognition criteria in a systematic fashion, with a method for quantifying the various items. The recognition-criteria networks are used in this paper to illustrate the various types of deposits

  10. Infraordinary Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The exhibition Infraordinary Deposits presents three works in progress by PhD Fellow Espen Lunde Nielsen from the on-going PhD project Architectural Probes of the Infraordinary: Social Coexistence through Everyday Spaces. The infraordinary is understood as the opposite of the extraordinary...... and as that which is ‘worn half-invisible’ by use. Nevertheless, these unregarded spaces play a vital role to the social dimension of the city. The selected projects (‘urban biopsies’) on display explore how people coexist through these spaces and within the city itself, either through events in real......, daily 8.45 – 15.00 Where: Aarhus School of Architecture, The Canteen, Nørreport 18, 8000 Aarhus C...

  11. Laboratory Deposition Apparatus to Study the Effects of Wax Deposition on Pipe Magnetic Field Leakage Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mohd Fauzi Abd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate technique for wax deposition detection and severity measurement on cold pipe wall is important for pipeline cleaning program. Usually these techniques are validated by conventional techniques on laboratory scale wax deposition flow loop. However conventional techniques inherent limitations and it is difficult to reproduce a predetermine wax deposit profile and hardness at designated location in flow loop. An alternative wax deposition system which integrates modified pour casting method and cold finger method is presented. This system is suitable to reproduce high volume of medium hard wax deposit in pipe with better control of wax deposit profile and hardness.

  12. User manual of Soil and Cesium Transport (SACT), a program to predict long-term Cs distribution using USLE for soil erosion, transportation and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Masaaki; Kitamura, Akihiro

    2016-12-01

    This manual provides useful and necessary information to users of 'SACT' (Soil and Cesium Transport), which Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed to predict a long-term distribution of Cs deposited on the land surface of Fukushima due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident on March 11, 2011. SACT calculates soil movement (erosion, transportation and deposition) and resulting Cs migration, and predicts its future distribution, with the assumption that Cs is adhered to soil initially. SACT uses USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) for potential soil loss and simple hydraulic equations for soil transportation and deposition in which soil is divided into course-grained sand and fine-grained silt/clay. The amount of Cs moved with soil is predicted by the amount of above-mentioned soil movement and concentration ratio of Cs for each grain-size. SACT utilizes the 'ArcGIS' software and the GIS (Geographical Information System). SACT is characterized by its simplicity which enables fast calculation for wide area for long-term duration, using existing simple equations including USLE. Data for used parameters are widely available, and site-specific calculations are possible by using data obtained from the targeted area. (author)

  13. Atmospheric deposition 2000. NOVA 2003; Atmosfaerisk deposition 2000. NOVA 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Hertel, O.; Hovmand, M.F.; Kemp, K.; Skjoeth, C.A.

    2001-11-01

    This report presents measurements and calculations from the atmospheric part of NOVA 2003 and covers results for 2000. It summarises the main results concerning concentrations and depositions of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur compounds related to eutrophication and acidification. Depositions of atmospheric compounds to Danish marine waters as well as land surface are presented. Measurements: In 2000 the monitoring program consisted of eight stations where wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, phosphate (semi quantitatively) and sulphate were measured using bulk precipitation samplers. Six of the stations had in addition measurements of atmospheric content of A, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur compounds in gas and particulate phase carried out by use of filter pack samplers. Filters were analysed at the National Environmental Research Institute. Furthermore nitrogen dioxide were measured using nitrogen dioxide filter samplers and monitors. Model calculations: The measurements in the monitoring program were supplemented with model calculations of concentrations and depositions of nitrogen and sulphur compounds to Danish land surface, marine waters, fjords and bays using the ACDEP model (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition). The model is a so-called trajectory model and simulates the physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere using meteorological and emission data as input. The advantage of combining measurements with model calculations is that the strengths of both methods is obtained. Conclusions concerning: 1) actual concentration levels at the monitoring stations, 2) deposition at the monitoring stations, 3) seasonal variations and 4) long term trends in concentrations and depositions are mainly based on the direct measurements. These are furthermore used to validate the results of the model calculations. Calculations and conclusions concerning: 1) depositions to land surface and to the individual marine water, 2) contributions from different emission

  14. Toxicological effects of thiomersal and ethylmercury: Inhibition of the thioredoxin system and NADP+-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Juan; Branco, Vasco; Lu, Jun; Holmgren, Arne; Carvalho, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a strong toxicant affecting mainly the central nervous, renal, cardiovascular and immune systems. Thiomersal (TM) is still in use in medical practice as a topical antiseptic and as a preservative in multiple dose vaccines, routinely given to young children in some developing countries, while other forms of mercury such as methylmercury represent an environmental and food hazard. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of thiomersal (TM) and its breakdown product ethylmercury (EtHg) on the thioredoxin system and NADP + -dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway. Results show that TM and EtHg inhibited the thioredoxin system enzymes in purified suspensions, being EtHg comparable to methylmercury (MeHg). Also, treatment of neuroblastoma and liver cells with TM or EtHg decreased cell viability (GI 50 : 1.5 to 20 μM) and caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the overall activities of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in cell lysates. Compared to control, the activities of Trx and TrxR in neuroblastoma cells after EtHg incubation were reduced up to 60% and 80% respectively, whereas in hepatoma cells the reduction was almost 100%. In addition, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were also significantly inhibited by all mercurials, with inhibition intensity of Hg 2+ > MeHg ≈ EtHg > TM (p < 0.05). Cell incubation with sodium selenite alleviated the inhibitory effects on TrxR and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Thus, the molecular mechanism of toxicity of TM and especially of its metabolite EtHg encompasses the blockage of the electrons from NADPH via the thioredoxin system. - Highlights: • TM and EtHg inhibit Trx and TrxR both in purified suspensions and cell lysates. • TM and EtHg also inhibit the activities of G6PDH and 6PGDH in cell lysates, • Co-exposure to selenite alleviates the

  15. Toxicological effects of thiomersal and ethylmercury: Inhibition of the thioredoxin system and NADP{sup +}-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Juan, E-mail: juanricardorodrigues@gmail.com [Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Central University of Venezuela (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Branco, Vasco [Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Lu, Jun; Holmgren, Arne [Division of Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Carvalho, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.carvalho@ff.ulisboa.pt [Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a strong toxicant affecting mainly the central nervous, renal, cardiovascular and immune systems. Thiomersal (TM) is still in use in medical practice as a topical antiseptic and as a preservative in multiple dose vaccines, routinely given to young children in some developing countries, while other forms of mercury such as methylmercury represent an environmental and food hazard. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of thiomersal (TM) and its breakdown product ethylmercury (EtHg) on the thioredoxin system and NADP{sup +}-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway. Results show that TM and EtHg inhibited the thioredoxin system enzymes in purified suspensions, being EtHg comparable to methylmercury (MeHg). Also, treatment of neuroblastoma and liver cells with TM or EtHg decreased cell viability (GI{sub 50}: 1.5 to 20 μM) and caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the overall activities of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in cell lysates. Compared to control, the activities of Trx and TrxR in neuroblastoma cells after EtHg incubation were reduced up to 60% and 80% respectively, whereas in hepatoma cells the reduction was almost 100%. In addition, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were also significantly inhibited by all mercurials, with inhibition intensity of Hg{sup 2+} > MeHg ≈ EtHg > TM (p < 0.05). Cell incubation with sodium selenite alleviated the inhibitory effects on TrxR and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Thus, the molecular mechanism of toxicity of TM and especially of its metabolite EtHg encompasses the blockage of the electrons from NADPH via the thioredoxin system. - Highlights: • TM and EtHg inhibit Trx and TrxR both in purified suspensions and cell lysates. • TM and EtHg also inhibit the activities of G6PDH and 6PGDH in cell lysates, • Co-exposure to selenite alleviates

  16. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  17. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  18. Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...

  19. Acid-deposition research program. Volume 2. Effects of acid-forming emissions on soil microorganisms and microbially-mediated processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, S.; Danielson, R.M.; Parr, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    The interactions of soil physical, chemical, and biological processes are ultimately expressed in a soil's fertility and its capacity for plant production. Consequently, much of the research conducted to date regarding the impact of acid-forming pollutants on soil properties has been geared towards possible effects on plant productivity. This trend continues in this paper where the effects of acidic deposition on microbial communities are reviewed in relation to potential impact on plant growth. The objectives of the review are to discuss: (1) The effects of acid-forming emissions (primarily S-containing pollutants) on microbial community structure with emphasis on qualitative and quantitative aspects; (2) The effects of acidic deposition on microbially mediated processes (i.e., community functions); (3) Acidification effects of pollutants on symbiotic and disease-causing microorganisms. The symbionts discussed include ectomycorrhizal fungi, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria, particularly Rhizobium, while the disease-causing microorganisms will include those responsible for foliage, stem, and root diseases.

  20. 12 CFR 337.6 - Brokered deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... government sponsored minority or women-owned depository institution deposit program. (iii) Notwithstanding... any brokered deposit without restriction by this section. (2)(i) An adequately capitalized insured... restriction on the payment of interest contained in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of the section. After such 90-day...

  1. Worldwide deposition of 90Sr through 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.J.; Juzdan, Z.R.

    1986-10-01

    The deposition of 90 Sr in the Northern Hemisphere during 1984 was 0.3 PBq (0.008 MCi), while that of the Southern Hemisphere was 0.1 PBq (0.003 MCi). This resulted in a total deposition on the surface of the earth during 1984 of 0.4 PBq (0.011 MCi). This is the lowest total yearly deposit since the initiation of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's global fallout program in the mid-1950's. The worldwide cumulative deposit decreased to 357 PBq (9.6 MCi)

  2. Economical Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Richard; Davis, Robert; Linford, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition is a self limiting deposition process that can produce films at a user specified height. At BYU we have designed a low cost and automated atomic layer deposition system. We have used the system to deposit silicon dioxide at room temperature using silicon tetrachloride and tetramethyl orthosilicate. Basics of atomic layer deposition, the system set up, automation techniques and our system's characterization are discussed.

  3. The Contribution of On-Road Emissions of Ammonia to Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, M. E.; Schilling, S.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Bell, M. D.; Sickman, J. O.; Hanks, K.; Geiser, L.

    2017-12-01

    Emissions control technologies for NOx result in increased production of NH3. Emissions inventories and simulated deposition of NHx frequently underestimate reduced forms of N. Herein we provide updated spatial distribution and inventory data for on-road NH3 emissions for the continental U.S. On-road NH3 emissions were determined from on-road CO2 emissions data and published empirical NH3:CO2 vehicle emissions ratios. Emissions of NH3 in urbanized regions are typically 0.1 - 1.3 t/km2/yr. By comparison, NH3 emissions in agricultural regions generally range from 0.4 - 5.5 t/km2/yr, with a few hotspots as high as 5.5 - 11.2 t/km2/yr. We identified 500 counties that receive at least 30% of the NH3 emissions from on-road sources. Counties with higher vehicle NH3 emissions than from agriculture include 41% of the U.S. population. Within CONUS the percent of wet inorganic N deposition from the NADP/NTN as NH4+ ranged from 37 to 83% with a mean of 59.5%. Only 13% of the NADP sites across the U.S. had less than 45% of the N deposition as NH4+ based on data from 2014-2016, illustrating the near-universal occurrence of NH4+ deposition across the U.S., regardless of the primary sources of NH3 emissions. The relative importance of urban and on-road NH3 emissions versus emissions from agriculture varies regionally. In some areas both are important and should be considered when evaluating the principal sources of N deposition to affected ecosystems.Case studies of on-road NH3 emissions in relation to N deposition include four urban sites in Oregon and Washington where the NH4-N:NO3-N ratio in throughfall was 1.0 compared to an average ratio of 2.3 in bulk deposition. At urban sites in the Los Angeles Basin bulk deposition of NH4-N and NO3-N were equivalent, while NH4-N:NO3-N in throughfall under shrubs in the greater LA Basin ranged from 0.7 to 1.5. The NH4-N:NO3-N ratio at ten sites in the Lake Tahoe Basin averaged 1.4 and 1.6 in bulk deposition and throughfall. Throughfall and

  4. Description of the blowdown test facility COG program on in-reactor fission product release, transport, and deposition under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbach, P.J.; Wood, J.C.

    1987-06-01

    Loss-of-coolant accidents with additional impairment of emergency cooling would probably result in high fuel temperatures leading to severe fuel damage (SFD) and significant fission product activity would then be transported along the PHTS to the break where a fraction of it would be released and transport under such conditions, there are many interacting and sometimes competing phenomena to consider. Laboratory simulations are being used to provide data on these individual phenomena, such as UO 2 oxidation and Zr-UO 2 interaction, from which mathematical models can be constructed. These are then combined into computer codes to include the interaction effects and assess the overall releases. In addition, in-reactor tests are the only source of data on release and transport of short-lived fission product nuclides, which are important in the consequence analysis of CANDU reactor accidents. Post-test decontamination of an in-reactor test facility also provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate techniques and obtain decontamination data relevant to post-accident rehabilitation of CANDU power reactors. Specialized facilities are required for in-reactor testing because of the extensive release of radioactive fission products and the high temperatures involved (up to 2500 degrees Celsius). To meet this need for the Canadian program, the Blowdown Test Facility (BTF) has been built in the NRU reactor at Chalk River. Between completion of construction in mid-1987 and the first Zircaloy-sheathed fuel test in fiscal year 1987/88, several commissioning tests are being performed. Similarly, extensive development work has been completed to permit application of instrumentation to irradiated fuel elements, and in support of post-test fuel assembly examination. A program of decontamination studies has also been developed to generate information relevant to post-accident decontamination of power reactors. The BTF shared cost test program funded by the COG High Temperature

  5. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cem Sarica; Michael Volk

    2004-06-01

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multi-phase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines, because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines.

  6. 24 CFR 291.535 - Earnest money deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnest money deposit. 291.535... Next Door Sales Program § 291.535 Earnest money deposit. (a) General. The earnest money deposit is the sum of money that must be paid by the law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency...

  7. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  8. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  9. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  10. Dry deposition models for radionuclides dispersed in air: a new approach for deposition velocity evaluation schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, M.; Buffa, P.; Cervone, A.; De Rosa, F.; Lombardo, C.; Casamirra, M.

    2017-11-01

    In the framework of a National Research Program funded by the Italian Minister of Economic Development, the Department of Energy, Information Engineering and Mathematical Models (DEIM) of Palermo University and ENEA Research Centre of Bologna, Italy are performing several research activities to study physical models and mathematical approaches aimed at investigating dry deposition mechanisms of radioactive pollutants. On the basis of such studies, a new approach to evaluate the dry deposition velocity for particles is proposed. Comparisons with some literature experimental data show that the proposed dry deposition scheme can capture the main phenomena involved in the dry deposition process successfully.

  11. Atmospheric deposition of nutrients to north Florida rivers: A multivariate statistical analysis. Final report. Master's thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, J.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric nutrient input to the Apalachicola Bay estuary was studied because it has been demonstrated that atmospheric deposition can be a major source of nutrients to eastern U.S. estuaries. Besides the Apalachicola River, the Sopchoppy and the Ochlockonee were also selected for a comparative analysis. Receptor model, absolute principal of component analysis (APCA), and mass balance methods were applied in the study. The results of the study show that nitrogen is probably not a limiting nutrient in the three rivers because their N:P mole ratios are nearly 3 times higher than the Redfield ratio for photosynthesis. The total atmospheric nitrogen depositions in the three river watershed are at least as great as their river fluxes. In the Apalachicola River, the atmospheric source of nitrogen is found to be several times higher than the largest possible input of urban sewage. Atmospheric deposition, therefore, might be the dominant nitrogen source entering the estuary. The results of APCA show that Apalachicola River water is mainly a mixture of components that correspond in their compositions to aged rain, ground water, and fresh rain. Atmospheric nitrate deposition is the result of the air pollution, i.e., acid rain. The studies also show that the annual average deposition of nitrate has a narrow range, mainly from 5.8 to 11.5 kg/ha/yr in most of the NADP sites in the 8 southeastern states. Since all the software and data sets employed in the study are accessible nationwide, the methods could be applied in other watersheds

  12. Oxide cathodes produced by plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheitrum, G.; Caryotakis, G.; Pi, T.; Umstattd, R.; Brown, I.; Montiero, O.

    1997-01-01

    These are two distinct applications for high-current-density, long-life thermionic cathodes. The first application is as a substitute for explosive emission cathodes used in high-power microwave (HPM) devices being developed for Air Force programs. The second application is in SLAC's X-band klystrons for the Next Linear Collider (NLC). SLAC, UCD, and LBL are developing a plasma deposition process that eliminates the problems with binders, carbonate reduction, peeling, and porosity. The emission layer is deposited using plasma deposition of metallic barium in vacuum with an oxygen background gas. An applied bias voltage drives the oxide plasma into the nickel surface. Since the oxide is deposited directly, it does not have problems with poisoning from a hydrocarbon binder. The density of the oxide layer is increased from the 40--50% for standard oxide cathodes to nearly 100% for plasma deposition

  13. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  14. Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H. W.; Hogan, J. T.; Wampler, W. R.

    2004-11-01

    Two quartz microbalances have been used to record deposition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The experimental configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. An RS232 link was used to acquire the quartz crystal frequency and the deposited thickness was recorded continuously with 0.01 nm resolution. Nuclear Reaction Analysis of the deposit was consistent with the measurement of the total deposited mass from the change in crystal frequency. We will present measurements of the variation of deposition with plasma conditions. The transport of carbon impurities in NSTX has been modelled with the BBQ code. Preliminary calculations indicated a negligible fraction of carbon generated at the divertor plates in quiescent discharges directly reaches the outer wall, and that transient events are responsible for the deposition.

  15. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  16. Uraniferous surficial deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1980-10-01

    As a result of the discovery of uranium in surficial deposits of Tertiary to Recent age, in Australia and Southern Africa, increasing attention is being paid to the location and understanding of the genesis of these deposits. The paper discusses the definitions and terminology currently in use and a classification of these deposits is presented. It is concluded that in order to obtain a measure of clarity, the terms calcrete, gypcrete and dolocrete should not be used to describe the uraniferous valley-fill deposits of Southern Africa and Australia [af

  17. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Arima, V.; Catalano, M.; Cesaria, M.; Cozzoli, P.D.; Martino, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.; Scarfiello, R.; Tunno, T.; Zacheo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  18. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P., E-mail: annapaola.caricato@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Arima, V.; Catalano, M. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesaria, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cozzoli, P.D. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Scarfiello, R. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tunno, T. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Zacheo, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  19. Urban acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, D.E.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E.

    1991-07-01

    In this document results from the Greater Manchester Acid Deposition Survey (GMADS), an urban precipitation chemistry network, for 1990 are presented. Full analytical methods are described along with the precision and accuracy of the methods used. The spatial variability of precipitation chemistry and deposition over this urban region was investigated using a network of twenty collectors. Concentrations of non marine sulphate, ammonium, calcium and hydrogen, and nitrogen dioxide gas concentrations all show significant spatial variability. The spatial variability of the deposition rates of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, hydrogen and calcium were significant. (Author).

  20. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.

    2017-10-31

    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  1. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  2. 75 FR 20041 - Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... transmission to (202) 906- 6518; or send an e-mail to [email protected] . OTS will post... DD implements the Truth in Savings Act, part of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement...

  3. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  4. Uranium deposit research, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.; LeCheminant, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Research on uranium deposits in Canada, conducted as a prerequisite for assessment of the Estimated Additional Resources of uranium, revealed that (a) the uranium-gold association in rudites of the Huronian Supergroup preferably occurs in the carbon layers; (b) chloritized ore at the Panel mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario, occurs locally in tectonically disturbed areas in the vicinity of diabase dykes; (c) mineralization in the Black Sturgeon Lake area, Ontario, formed from solutions in structural and lithological traps; (d) the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, has two phases of mineralization: monomineralic and polymetallic; (e) mineralization of the JEB (Canoxy Ltd.) deposit is similar to that at McClean Lake; (f) the uranium-carbon assemblage was identified in the Claude deposit, Carswell Structure; and (g) the Otish Mountains area, Quebec, should be considered as a significant uranium-polymetallic metallogenic province

  5. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  6. Deposition of acidifying compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.; Cape, J.N.; Sutton, M.A.; Mourne, R.; Hargreaves, K.J.; Duyzer, J.H.; Gallagher, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Inputs of acidifying compounds to terrestrial ecosystems include deposition of the gases NO 2 , NO, HNO 2 , HNO 3 , NH 3 and SO 2 and the ions NO 3- , NH 4+ , SO 4 2- and H + in precipitation, cloud droplets and particles. Recent research has identified particular ecosystems and regions in which terrestrial effects are closely linked with specific deposition processes. This review paper identifies areas in which important developments have occurred during the last five years and attempts to show which aspects of the subject are most important for policy makers. Amongst the conclusions drawn, the authors advise that current uncertainties in estimates of S and N inputs by dry deposition should be incorporated in critical load calculations, and that, in regions dominated by wet deposition, spatial resolution of total inputs should be improved to match the current scales of information on landscape sensitivity to acidic inputs. 44 refs., 9 figs

  7. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  8. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc., jasper (picture, landscape, red etc., common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc., silica masses (undivided, and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.. Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine, garnet (almandine and pyrope, tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  9. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpolt, R.H.; Simov, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  10. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinović, Zoran; Simić, Vladimir; Jelenković, Rade; Ilić, Miloje

    2016-06-01

    Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc.), jasper (picture, landscape, red etc.), common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc.), silica masses (undivided), and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.). Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine), garnet (almandine and pyrope), tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  11. 24 CFR 891.145 - Owner deposit (Minimum Capital Investment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... General Program Requirements § 891.145 Owner deposit (Minimum Capital Investment). As a Minimum Capital... Investment shall be one-half of one percent (0.5%) of the HUD-approved capital advance, not to exceed $25,000. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Owner deposit (Minimum Capital...

  12. Cloning, Expression and Characterization of NAD Kinase from Staphylococcus aureus Involved in the Formation of NADP (H: A Key Molecule in the Maintaining of Redox Status and Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Venkateswara Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Staphylococcus aureus has the ability to form biofilms on any niches, a key pathogenic factor of this organism and this phenomenon is directly related to the concentration of NADPH. The formation of NADP is catalyzed by NAD kinase (NADK and this gene of S. aureus ATCC 12600 was cloned, sequenced, expressed and characterized. Materials and Methods: The NADK gene was polymerase chain reaction amplified from the chromosomal DNA of S. aureus ATCC 12600 and cloned in pQE 30 vector, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α. The pure protein was obtained by passing through nickel metal chelate agarose column. The enzyme kinetics of the enzyme and biofilm assay of the S. aureus was carried out in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The kinetics was further confirmed by the ability of the substrates to dock to the NADK structure. Results: The recombinant NADK exhibited single band with a molecular weight of 31kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the gene sequence (GenBank: JN645814 revealed presence of only one kind of NADK in all S. aureus strains. The enzyme exhibited very high affinity for NAD compared to adenosine triphosphate concurring with the docking results. A root-mean-square deviation value 14.039Š observed when NADK structure was superimposed with its human counterpart suggesting very low homology. In anaerobic conditions, higher biofilm units were found with decreased NADK activity. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest increased NADPH concentration in S. aureus plays a vital role in the biofilm formation and survival of this pathogen in any environmental conditions.

  13. Gasification of carbon deposits on catalysts and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, J L

    1986-10-01

    'Coke' deposited on catalysts and reactor surfaces includes a variety of carbons of different structures and origins, their reactivities being conveniently assessed by Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR). The gasification of carbon deposits obtained in the laboratory under well controlled conditions, and the regeneration of coked catalysts from petroleum refining processes are reviewed and discussed. Filamentary carbon deposits, containing dispersed metal particles, behave as supported metal catalysts during gasification, and show high reactivities. Pyrolytic and acid catalysis carbons are less reactive on their own, as the gasification is not catalysed; however, metal components of the catalyst or metal impurities deposited on the surface may enhance gasification. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Vein type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Veins are tabular- or sheet-like masses of minerals occupying or following a fracture or a set of fractures in the enclosing rock. They have been formed later than the country rock and fractures, either by filling of the open spaces or by partial or complete replacement of the adjoining rock or most commonly by both of these processes combined. This volume begins with the occurrences and deposits known from old shield areas and the sedimentary belts surrounding them. They are followed by papers describing the European deposits mostly of Variscan age, and by similar deposits known from China being of Jurassic age. The volume is completed by two papers which do not fit exactly in the given scheme. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 papers in this report

  15. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  16. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  17. Deposition potential of polonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heal, H. G.

    1948-11-23

    The cathodic deposition potential for polonium in concentrations of 10{sup -13} normal and 8 x 10{sup -13} normal, the former being 100-fold smaller than the smallest concentrations previously studied, has been determined. The value is 0.64 volt on the hydrogen scale. Considering the various ways in which the graphs can reasonably be drawn, we consider the maximum possible error to be of the order of +- 0.03 volt. There is apparently no shift of deposition potential between concentrations of 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -13} normal, indicating that the Nernst equation is not applicable in these circumstances.

  18. Verification and validation of DEPOSITION 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eadie, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to verify and validate the usage of the computer program, DEPOSITION 2.0 for use in assessing line loss in CAM and fixed head lines throughout certain Hanford Site facilities. The scope of use is limited to this function. DEPOSITION 2.0 is the second version of this code to be used on the Hanford Site, the program now incorporates additional user-friendly features beyond those which were available in an earlier version, DEPOSITION 1.03

  19. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  20. Silver deposition on chemically treated carbon monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Zoran M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monolith was treated with HNO3, KOH and H2O2. Effects of these treatments on the surface functional groups and on the amount of silver deposited on the CM surface were studied by temperature programmed desorption (TPD and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. As a result of chemical treatment there was an increase in the amount of surface oxygen complexes. The increase in the amount of silver deposit is proportional to the amount of surface groups that produce CO under decomposition. However, the high amount of CO groups, decomposing above 600°C, induces the smaller Ag crystallite size. Therefore, the high temperature CO evolving oxides are, most likely, the initial centers for Ag deposition.

  1. Pulsed laser deposition of bimetallic gold–platinum nanoparticles on cerium oxide and their characterisation by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption of isotopically labelled carbon monoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plšek, Jan; Bastl, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 109, MAR 2013 (2013), s. 109-118 ISSN 0021-9517 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/08/1501 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : pulsed laser deposition * cerium oxide * Au-Pt nanostructures Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.073, year: 2013

  2. UFOMOD - atmospheric dispersion and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, H.J.; Matzerath, C.; Paesler-Sauer, J.

    1989-10-01

    The report gives an introduction into the modelling of atmospheric dispersion and deposition which has been implemented in the new program system UFOMOD for assessing the consequences after nuclear accidents. According to the new structure of UFOMOD, different trajectory models with ranges of validity near to the site and at far distances are applied. Emphasis is laid on the description of the segmented plume model MUSEMET and its affilated submodels, being the removal of activity from the cloud by dry and wet deposition, and special effects like plume rise and the behaviour of plumes released into building wakes. In addition, the evaluation of γ-dose correction factors to take account of the finite extent of the radioactive plume in the near range (up to about 20 km) are described. Only brief introductions are given into the principles of the other models available: the puff model RIMPUFF, the long-range puff model MESOS, and the special straight-line Gaussian model ISOLA which are used if low-level long-duration releases are considered. To define starting times of weather sequences and the probabilities of occurrence of these sequences, it is convenient to perform stratified sampling. Therefore, the preprocessing program package METSAM has been developed to perform for generic ACAs a random sampling of weather sequences out off a population of classified weather conditions. The sampling procedure and a detailed input/output (I/O) description is presented and an additional appendix, respectively. A general overview on the I/O structure of MUSEMET as well as a brief user guide to run the KfK version of the MESOS code are also given in the appendix. (orig.) [de

  3. Ion Deposited Carbon Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    PAGE ("’hen Dita t,,I,, efl TABLE OF CONTENTS Section No. Title Page No. 1.0 OBJECTIVE 1 2.0 SCOPE 2 3.0 BACKGROUND 3 4.0 COATINGS DEPOSITION 4 4.1...scientific, ards of measure. The Committee, and Confer- technical, practical, and teaching purposes.ence voting members, are leading professional On the

  4. Plasma deposition of refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of deposition, testing and application of plasma coating of refractory metals and oxides are considered. The process fundamentals, various manufacturing procedures and equipment for their realization are described in detail. Coating materials are given (Al, Mg, Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , MgAlO 4 ) which are used in reactor engineering and their designated purposes are shown [ru

  5. 75 FR 34533 - Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... collection request (ICR) described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for..., Attention: Desk Officer for OTS, U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 725 17th Street, NW., Room 10235... statement the institution sends to the consumer. Regulation DD contains rules for advertisements of deposit...

  6. Lichen-based critical loads for atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Western Oregon and Washington forests, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda H. Geiser; Sarah E. Jovan; Doug A. Glavich; Matthew K. Porter

    2010-01-01

    Critical loads (CLs) define maximum atmospheric deposition levels apparently preventative of ecosystem harm. We present first nitrogen CLs for northwestern North America's maritime forests. Using multiple linear regression, we related epiphytic-macrolichen community composition to: 1) wet deposition from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, 2) wet, dry,...

  7. 78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... as a potential global deposit insurer, preserve confidence in the FDIC deposit insurance system, and... the United States.\\2\\ The FDIC generally pays out deposit insurance on the next business day after a... since 2001 and total approximately $1 trillion today. In many cases, these branches do not engage in...

  8. Uranium deposits of Zaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitmut, D.; Malu wa Kalenga

    1979-01-01

    Since April 1960, following the closing of the Shinkolobwe mine, the Republic of Zaire has ceased to be a producer of uranium. Nevertheless, Gecamines (Generale des carrieres et mines du Zaire), a wholly state-owned company, is continuing its research on uranium occurrences which have been discovered in its concession in the course of aerial radiometric prospecting. The most recent campaign was the one carried out in 1969 and 1972 by Hunting Company. On-the-ground verification of these shows has not yet resulted in the discovery of a workable deposit. There are other sectors cutting across Zaire which might well contain uranium deposits: this is true of the sedimentary phosphates of the region of Lower Zaire as well as of the frontier region between Zaire and the Central African Empire. However, no detailed exploration work has yet been carried out. (author)

  9. 20 CFR 703.306 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Act in the amount fixed by the Office under the regulations in this part shall deposit any... deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. 703.306 Section 703.306 Employees' Benefits... negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. A self-insurer or...

  10. Thorium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Victorio.

    1984-01-01

    The main occurences of the thorium minerals of the Argentine Republic which have not been exploited, due to their reduced volume, are described. The thoriferous deposits have three genetic types: pegmatitic, hydrothermal and detritic, being the most common minerals: monazite, thorite and thorogummite. The most important thorium accumulations are located in Salta, being of less importance those of Cordoba, Jujuy and San Juan. (M.E.L.) [es

  11. Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

  12. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  13. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.

    A new experimental set-up to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airBorne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust related problems in rooms......, there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension....

  14. A Micrometeorological Perspective on Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the dry deposition velocity is given in terms of constant flux layer scaling. Numerical values of upper bounds on the deposition velocity is given for a typical situation. Some remarks are then offered on the relative merits of various ways in which the combined diffusion-deposition...

  15. Market Discipline and Deposit Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Peresetsky, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines Russian banks’ household deposit interest rates for the transition period of setting up the deposit insurance system. Monthly observations of Russian banks’ interest rates and balance sheets are used in a fixed effects panel data model. It is shown market discipline has been significantly diminished after switching to the deposit insurance.

  16. Electrophoretic Deposition of Gallium with High Deposition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanfei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, electrophoretic deposition (EPD is reported to form gallium thin film with high deposition rate and low cost while avoiding the highly toxic chemicals typically used in electroplating. A maximum deposition rate of ~0.6 μm/min, almost one order of magnitude higher than the typical value reported for electroplating, is obtained when employing a set of proper deposition parameters. The thickness of the film is shown to increase with deposition time when sequential deposition is employed. The concentration of Mg(NO32, the charging salt, is also found to be a critical factor to control the deposition rate. Various gallium micropatterns are obtained by masking the substrate during the process, demonstrating process compatibility with microfabrication. The reported novel approach can potentially be employed in a broad range of applications with Ga as a raw material, including microelectronics, photovoltaic cells, and flexible liquid metal microelectrodes.

  17. Dry deposition on urban surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to facilitate developing a model for deposition in urban areas, beryllium-7, created by cosmic radiation and fall-out cesium-137, have been used as tracers in measurements designed to find the dry deposition velocity on building surfaces. A literature review has revealed that very little work has been done on deposition in urban areas; therefore, a major effort on meausring the deposition parameter is needed to construct reliable models in this field. Deposition velocities in the range from 0.001-0.04 cm/s have been found. (author)

  18. Thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal plasmas, with temperatures up to and even exceeding 10 4 K, are capable of producing high density vapor phase precursors for the deposition of relatively thick films. Although this technology is still in its infancy, it will fill the void between the relatively slow deposition processes such as physical vapor deposition and the high rate thermal spray deposition processes. In this chapter, the present state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed with emphasis on the various types of reactors proposed for this emerging technology. Only applications which attracted particular attention, namely diamond and high T c superconducting film deposition, are discussed in greater detail. (orig.)

  19. Uranium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Victorio.

    1984-01-01

    The main uranium deposits and occurrences in the Argentine Republic are described, considering, in principle, their geologic setting, the kind of 'model' of the mineralization and its possible origin, and describing the ore species present in each case. The main uraniferous accumulations of the country include the models of 'sandstong type', veintype and impregnation type. There are also other kinds of accumulations, as in calcrete, etc. The main uranium production has been registered in the provinces of Mendoza, Salta, La Rioja, Chubut, Cordoba and San Luis. In each case, the minerals present are mentioned, having been recognized 37 different species all over the country (M.E.L.) [es

  20. Deposition of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In Norway, there is currently a debate about whether or not to build gas power stations. To meet the possibility of reduced emission quotas for carbon dioxide in the future, current interest focuses on the incorporation of large-scale separation and deposition of carbon dioxide when such plants are planned. A group of experts concludes that this technology will become self-financing by means of environmental taxes. From the environmental point of view, taxes upon production are to be preferred over taxes on consumption

  1. Stratigraphic implications of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, F.F.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most consistent characteristics of economic uranium deposits is their restricted stratigraphic distribution. Uraninite deposited with direct igneous affiliation contains thorium, whereas chemical precipitates in sedimentary rocks are characterized by thorium-free primary uranium minerals with vanadium and selenium. In marine sediments, these minerals form low-grade disseminations; but in terrestrial sediments, chiefly fluvial sandstones, the concentration of uranium varies widely, with the high-grade portions constituting ore. Pitchblende vein deposits not only exhibit the same chemical characteristics as the Colorado-type sandstone deposits, but they have a stratigraphically consistent position at unconformities covered by fluvial sandstones. If deposits in such diverse situations have critical features in common, they are likely to have had many features of their origin in common. Thus, vein deposits in Saskatchewan and Australia may have analogues in areas that contain Colorado-type sandstone deposits. In New Mexico, the presence of continental sandstones with peneconformable uranium deposits should also indicate good prospecting ground for unconformity-type vein deposits. All unconformities within the periods of continental deposition ranging from Permian to Cretaceous should have uranium potential. Some situations, such as the onlap of the Abo Formation onto Precambrian basement in the Zuni Mountains, may be directly comparable to Saskatchewan deposition. However, uranium occurrences in the upper part of the Entrada Sandstone suggest that unconformities underlain by sedimentary rocks may also be exploration targets

  2. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, S.R.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Three overall factors are necessary for formation of uranium deposits in sandstone: a source of uranium, host rocks capable of transmitting uranium-bearing solutions, and a precipitant. Possible sources of uranium in sandstone-type deposits include groundwaters emanating from granitic highlands, arkosic sediments, tuffaceous material within or overlying the host rocks, connate fluids, and overlying black shales. The first three sources are considered the most likely. Host rocks are generally immature sandstones deposited in alluvial-fan, intermontane-basin or marginal-marine environments, but uranium deposits do occur in well-winnowed barrier-bar or eolian sands. Host rocks for uranium deposits generally show coefficients of permeability on the order of 1 to 100 gal/day/ft 2 . Precipitants are normally agents capable of reducing uranium from the uranyl to the uranous state. The association of uranium with organic matter is unequivocal; H 2 S, a powerful reductant, may have been present at the time of formation of some deposits but may go unnoticed today. Vanadium can serve to preserve the tabular characteristics of some deposits in the near-surface environment, but is considered an unlikely primary precipitant for uranium. Uranium deposits in sandstone are divided into two overall types: peneconcordant deposits, which occur in locally reducing environments in otherwise oxidized sandstones; and roll-type deposits, which occur at the margin of an area where an oxidized groundwater has permeated an otherwise reduced sandstone. Uranium deposits are further broken down into four subclasses; these are described

  3. Geological factors of deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grushevoj, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Geologic factors of hydrogenic uranium deposit formation are considered. Structural, formation and lithological-facies factors of deposit formation, connected with zones of stratal oxidation, are characterized. Peculiarities of deposit localization, connected with orogenic structures of Mesozoic and lenozoic age, are described. It is noted that deposits of anagenous group are widely spread in Paleozoic formations, infiltration uranium deposits are localized mainly in Cenozoic sediments, while uranium mineralization both anagenous and infiltration groups are widely developed in Mesozoic sediments. Anagenous deposits were formed in non-oxygen situation, their age varies from 200 to 55 mln years. Infiltration deposit formation is determined by asymmetric oxidation zonation, their age varies from 10 - 40 mln years to dozens of thousand years [ru

  4. Panel 1 - comparative evaluation of deposition technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R.; Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Benson, D.K.; Pitts, R.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bhat, D.G. [GTE Valenite Corp., Troy, MI (United States); Yulin Chen [Allison Gas Turbine Division, GM, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Gat, R.; Sunkara, M.K. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Kelly, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Lawler, J.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Nagle, D.C. [Martin Marietta Labs., Baltimore, MD (United States); Outka, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Revankar, G.S. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Subramaniam, V.V. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Wilbur, P.J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States); Mingshow Wong [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Woolam, W.E. [Southwest Research Inst., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This working group attempted to evaluate/compare the different types of deposition techniques currently under investigation for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. A table lists the broad types of techniques that were considered for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. After some discussion, it was agreed that any evaluation of the various techniques would be dependent on the end application. Thus the next action was to list the different areas where diamond and DLC films could find applications in transportation. These application areas are listed in a table. The table intentionally does not go into great detail on applications because that subject is dealt with specifically by Panel No. 4 - Applications To Transportation. The next action concentrated on identifying critical issues or limitations that need to be considered in evaluating the different processes. An attempt was then made to rank different broad categories of deposition techniques currently available or under development based on the four application areas and the limitations. These rankings/evaluations are given for diamond and DLC techniques. Finally, the working group tried to identify critical development and research issues that need to be incorporated into developing a long-term program that focuses on diamond/DLC coatings for transportation needs. 5 tabs.

  5. FDIC Summary of Deposits (SOD) Download File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation — The FDIC's Summary of Deposits (SOD) download file contains deposit data for branches and offices of all FDIC-insured institutions. The Federal Deposit Insurance...

  6. Plutonium in uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Aguilar, R.; Attrep, M. Jr.; Roensch, F.

    1992-01-01

    Plutonium-239 (t 1/2 , 24,100 yr) is one of the most persistent radioactive constituents of high-level wastes from nuclear fission power reactors. Effective containment of such a long-lived constituent will rely heavily upon its containment by the geologic environment of a repository. Uranium ore deposits offer a means to evaluate the geochemical properties of plutonium under natural conditions. In this paper, analyses of natural plutonium in several ores are compared to calculated plutonium production rates in order to evaluate the degree of retention of plutonium by the ore. The authors find that current methods for estimating production rates are neither sufficiently accurate nor precise to provide unambiguous measures of plutonium retention. However, alternative methods for evaluating plutonium mobility are being investigated, including its measurement in natural ground waters. Preliminary results are reported and establish the foundation for a comprehensive characterization of plutonium geochemistry in other natural environments

  7. Classification of Uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlkamp, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    A listing of the recognized types of uranium mineralization shows nineteen determinable types out of which only six can be classified as of economic significance at present: Oligomiitic quartz pebble conglomerates, sandstone types, calcretes, intra-intrusive types, hydrothermal veins, veinlike types. The different types can be genetically related to prevalent geological environments, i.e. 1. the primary uranium occurrences formed by endogenic processes, 2. the secondary derived from the primary by subsequent exogenic processes, 3. the tertiary occurrences are assumed to be formed by endogenic metamorphic processes, although little is known about the behaviour of the uranium during the metamorphosis and therefore the metallogenesis of this tertiary uranium generation is still vague. A metallotectonic-geochronologic correlation of the uranium deposits shows a distinct affinity of the uranium to certain geological epochs: The Upper Archean, Lower Proterozoic, the Hercynian and, in a less established stage, the Upper Proterozoic. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  8. Locating underground uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Underground uranium deposits are located by placing wires of dosimeters each about 5 to 18 mg/cm 2 thick underground in a grid pattern. Each dosimeter contains a phosphor which is capable of storing the energy of alpha particles. In each pair one dosimeter is shielded from alpha particles with more than 18 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material but not gamma and beta rays and the other dosimeter is shielded with less than 1 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material to exclude dust. After a period underground the dosimeters are heated which releases the stored energy as light. The amount of light produced from the heavily shielded dosimeter is subtracted from the amount of light produced from the thinly shielded dosimeter to give an indication of the location and quantity of uranium underground

  9. Global deposition of airborne dioxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Shawn; Hui, Joe; Alojado, Zoraida; Lam, Vicky; Cheung, William; Zeller, Dirk; Steyn, Douw; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot spots' of deposition are likely to be in northern Europe, eastern North America, and in parts of Asia with the highest marine dioxin depositions being the northeast and northwest Atlantic, western Pacific, northern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. It also reveals that approximately 40% of airborne dioxin emissions are deposited to marine environments and that many countries in Africa receive more dioxin than they produce, which results in these countries being disproportionately impacted. Since human exposure to dioxin is largely through diet, this work highlights food producing areas that receive higher atmospheric deposits of dioxin than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A remote coal deposit revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen-Kofoed, Jørgen A.; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Petersen, Henrik I.

    2012-01-01

    discovery. The outcrops found in 2009 amount to approximately 8 m of sediment including a coal seam of 2 m thickness. More outcrops and additional coal deposits most certainly are to be found, pending further fieldwork. The deposits are Middle Jurassic, Callovian, in age and were deposited in a floodplain...... environment related to meandering river channels. Spores and pollen in the lower fluvial deposits reflect abundant vegetation of ferns along the river banks. In contrast, a sparse spore and pollen flora in the coals show a mixed vegetation of ferns and gymnosperms. Based on proximate and petrographic analyses...

  11. Experiment on thermal insulation and sodium deposition of shield plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, K.; Honda, M.; Shiratori, H.; Ozaki, O.; Suzuki, M.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments on temperature distribution and thermal insulation characteristics was conducted using a reduced scale model of LMFBR shield plug. Observation and measurement of sodium deposition were also conducted on the model after the experiment. The effect of annulus natural convection was clarified for temperature and the thermal insulation characteristics from evaluating the result. Temperature distribution analysis was conducted successfully by combining the general purpose structural analysis program NASTRAN and vertical annulus natural convection analysis program VANAC. Moreover, significant effect was substantiated for the annulus convection barrier to increase the thermal insulation performance, narrow horizontal gap structure to prevent sodium deposition and thermal insulation plates. (author)

  12. 76 FR 41392 - Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... banks' funding costs and also allow them to plan business growth more dependably and rigorously... of business deposits by offering continually higher rates of interest. Three of the four contended... deposits. They reasoned that large banks will offer high rates of interest and lure away business...

  13. Handbook of methods for acid-deposition studies. Laboratory analyses for soil chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, L.J.; Schumacher, P.W.; Schaffer, K.A.; Cappo, K.A.; Papp, M.L.

    1990-09-01

    The handbook describes methods used to process and analyze soil samples. It is intended as a guidance document for groups involved in acid deposition monitoring activities similar to those implemented by the Aquatic Effects Research Program of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. These methods were developed for use in the Direct/Delayed Response Project, a component project of the Aquatic Effects Research Program within the Office of Ecological Processes and Effects Research. The program addresses the following issues relating to the effects of acid deposition on aquatic ecosystems: The extent and magnitude of past change; The change to be expected in the future under various deposition scenarios; The maximum rates of deposition below which further change is not expected; and The rate of change or recovery of aquatic ecosystems if deposition rates are decreased. Chemical and physical parameters were measured during the Direct/Delayed Response Project and are described in the document

  14. Uranium deposits in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimori, R.K.; Ragland, P.C.; Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a review of published data bearing on the geology and origin of uranium deposits in granitic, pegmatitic and migmatitic rocks with the aim of assisting in the development of predictive criteria for the search for similar deposits in the U.S. Efforts were concentrated on the so-called ''porphyry'' uranium deposits. Two types of uranium deposits are primarily considered: deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in gneiss terrains, and disseminations of uranium in high-level granites. In Chapter 1 of this report, the general data on the distribution of uranium in igneous and metamorphic rocks are reviewed. Chapter 2 contains some comments on the classification of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks and a summary of the main features of the geology of uranium deposits in granites. General concepts of the behavior of uranium in granites during crustal evolution are reviewed in Chapter 3. Also included is a discussion of the relationship of uranium mineralization in granites to the general evolution of mobile belts, plus the influence of magmatic and post-magmatic processes on the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks and related ore deposits. Chapter 4 relates the results of experimental studies on the crystallization of granites to some of the geologic features of uranium deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in high-grade metamorphic terrains. Potential or favorable areas for igneous uranium deposits in the U.S.A. are delineated in Chapter 5. Data on the geology of specific uranium deposits in granitic rocks are contained in Appendix 1. A compilation of igneous rock formations containing greater than 10 ppM uranium is included in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 is a report on the results of a visit to the Roessing area. Appendix 4 is a report on a field excursion to eastern Canada

  15. Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Ying; Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Aohan; Shen, Jianlin; Cui, Zhenling; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Vitousek, Peter [Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Erisman, Jan Willem [VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goulding, Keith [The Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Fangmeier, Andreas [Institute of Landscape and Plant Ecology, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-02-28

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude and environmental impact of N deposition in China is limited. Here we use nationwide data sets on bulk N deposition, plant foliar N and crop N uptake (from long-term unfertilized soils) to evaluate N deposition dynamics and their effect on ecosystems across China between 1980 and 2010. We find that the average annual bulk deposition of N increased by approximately 8 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare (P < 0.001) between the 1980s (13.2 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare) and the 2000s (21.1 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare). Nitrogen deposition rates in the industrialized and agriculturally intensified regions of China are as high as the peak levels of deposition in northwestern Europe in the 1980s, before the introduction of mitigation measures. Nitrogen from ammonium (NH4+) is the dominant form of N in bulk deposition, but the rate of increase is largest for deposition of N from nitrate (NO3-), in agreement with decreased ratios of NH3 to NOx emissions since 1980. We also find that the impact of N deposition on Chinese ecosystems includes significantly increased plant foliar N concentrations in natural and semi-natural (that is, non-agricultural) ecosystems and increased crop N uptake from long-term-unfertilized croplands. China and other economies are facing a continuing challenge to reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen, N deposition and their negative effects on human health and the environment.

  16. Deposit growth and property development in coal-fired furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) to provide a self-consistent database of simultaneously measured, time-resolved ash deposit properties in well-controlled and well-defined environments and (2) to provide analytical expressions that relate deposit composition and structure to deposit properties of immediate relevance to PETC`s Combustion 2000 program. This project is distinguished from related work being done elsewhere by: (1) the development and deployment of in-situ diagnostics to monitor deposit properties, including heat transfer coefficients, porosity, emissivity, tenacity, strength, density, and viscosity; (2) the time resolution of such properties during deposit growth; (3) simultaneous measurement of structural and composition properties; (4) development of algorithms from a self-consistent, simultaneously measured database that includes the interdependence of properties; and (5) application of the results to technologically relevant environments such as those being planned under Combustion 2000 program. Work completed during FY94 emphasized diagnostic development. During FY95, this development work will be completed and we will emphasize application of the diagnostics to meet the other project objectives. Included in this work are the development and application of two in-situ, real-time diagnostic systems for monitoring the properties of inorganic materials on Heat transfer surfaces and in the gas-phase during controlled combustion of selected coal samples in Sandia`s Multifuel Combustor (MFC). Also, several diagnostics are being incorporated into the MFC that will eventually be used to characterize ash deposit properties.

  17. Liquefier Dynamics in Fused Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Guceri, Selcuk; Bertoldi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Layered manufacturing (LM) is an evolution of rapid prototyping (RP) technology whereby a part is built in layers. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a particular LM technique in which each section is fabricated through vector style deposition of building blocks, called roads, which...

  18. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Davis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    World-class sandstone-type uranium deposits are defined as epigenetic concentrations of uranium minerals occurring as uneven impregnations and minor massive replacements primarily in fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic sandstone formations. The main purpose of this introductory paper is to define, classify, and introduce to the general geologic setting for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  19. Laser deposition of HTSC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol', Eh.N.; Bagratashvili, V.N.; Zherikhin, A.N.; Sviridov, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) films fabrication by the laser deposition are reviewed. Physical and chemical processes taking place during laser deposition are considered, such as the target evaporation, the material transport from the target to the substrate, the film growth on the substrate, thermochemical reactions and mass transfer within the HTSC films and their stability. The experimental results on the laser deposition of different HTSC ceramics and their properties investigations are given. The major technological issues are discussed including the deposition schemes, the oxygen supply, the target compositions and structure, the substrates and interface layers selection, the deposition regimes and their impact on the HTSC films properties. 169 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. Polymer deposition morphology by electrospray deposition - Modifications through distance variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, K.; Schulze, R.-D.; Friedrich, J.

    2014-01-01

    Electrospray deposition (ESD) of highly diluted polymers was examined with regard to the deposited surface structure. Only the flight distance (flight time) onto the resulting deposited surface was varied from 20 to 200 mm. An apparatus without any additional heating or gas flows was used. Polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyallylamine (PAAm) in methanol were deposited on Si wafers. The polymer layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, derivatization reactions and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a grazing incidence unit. SEM images illustrated the changing structures of PAA and PAAm. For PAA the deposited structure changed from a smooth film (20 mm) to a film with individual droplets on the coated surface (100 mm and 200 mm), while for PAAm individual droplets can be seen at all distances. The ESD process with cascades of splitting droplets slows down for PAA after distances greater than 40 mm. In contrast, the ESD process for PAAm is nearly stopped within the first flight distance of 20 mm. Residual solvent analysis showed that most of the solvent evaporated within the first 20 mm capillary-sample distance. - Highlights: • We deposited polyacrylic acid and polyallylamine by electrospray ionization (ESI). • The morphology in dependence of flight distance (20 mm to 200 mm) was analyzed. • The amount of residual solvent after deposition was determined. • ESI-process slows down for polyacrylic acid after 40 mm flight distance. • ESI-Process is complete for polyallylamine within the first 20 mm

  1. 20 CFR 703.207 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount fixed by the Office under the regulations in this part shall deposit any negotiable securities... deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. 703.207 Section 703.207 Employees' Benefits... AND RELATED STATUTES INSURANCE REGULATIONS Insurance Carrier Security Deposit Requirements § 703.207...

  2. Impact Response of Thermally Sprayed Metal Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. L.; Hall, A. C.; Moore, N. W.; Pautz, S. D.; Franke, B. C.; Scherzinger, W. M.; Brown, D. W.

    2017-06-01

    Gas-gun experiments have probed the impact response of tantalum specimens that were additively manufactured using a controlled thermal spray deposition process. Velocity interferometer (VISAR) diagnostics provided time-resolved measurements of sample response under one-dimensional (i . e . , uniaxial strain) shock compression to peak stresses ranging between 1 and 4 GPa. The acquired wave-profile data have been analyzed to determine the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL), Hugoniot equation of state, and high-pressure yield strength of the thermally deposited samples for comparison to published baseline results for conventionally wrought tantalum. The effects of composition, porosity, and microstructure (e . g . , grain/splat size and morphology) are assessed to explain differences in the dynamic mechanical behavior of spray-deposited versus conventional material. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Monitoring programmed cell death of living plant tissues in microfluidics using electrochemical and optical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    such as redox activity, O2 and H2O2 concentration, pH, cell viability and release of target enzymes such as α-amylase. We have optimised an intracellular, whole-cell redox activity assay[3] that detects changes in redox activity in barley aleurone layer during PCD. The assay uses a double mediator......This project focuses on developing and applying a tissue culture system with electrochemical and optical detection techniques for tissue culture of barley aleurone layer to increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. The major advantage......-system to electrochemically measure redox activity via changes in the NADP:NADPH ratio. Experiments show that redox activity changes depend on phytohormone activation or inactivation of aleurone layer metabolism and subsequent PCD. We have also successfully detected PCD induced by phytohormones in barley aleurone layer using...

  4. Wet deposition flux of trace elements to the Adirondack region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.; Keskin, S.S.; Gullu, G.; Olmez, I.

    2001-01-01

    Wet deposition samples from two locations in the Adirondack region of New York were analyzed for trace elemental composition by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Annual fluxes of the measured species were determined by precipitation-weighted and linear-regression methods. Despite several episodes of high deposition fluxes, the cumulative areal wet deposition of trace elements increased fairly linearly (r 2 > 0.9) over the two year sampling period at both sites. This implies that short duration sampling programs may be used to estimate long-term fluxes and cumulative wet deposition impacts. Based on the magnitude of their fluxes, the measured species have been divided into four groups: acidic anions, electroneutral balancing cations, and minor and trace elements of anthropogenic origin. (author)

  5. Surface deposition from radioactive plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Accidents involving nuclear plants may release radioactive particles and gases to the atmosphere. Dry deposition of particles has been investigated mainly in the laboratory and a general understanding of the transfer mechanisms has been established. However there is apparently a substantial discrepancy between the few field observations of dry deposition of particles and laboratory measurements, particularly for 0.1 - 1 μm particles for which laboratory work shows very small deposition rates. In addition there are few estimates of deposition rates for forest and some other kinds of terrain. The most important gas in the context of a nuclear accident is I-131 and the behaviour of this gas at grass surfaces has received much attention. However smaller quantities of other gases and vapours may be released and the surface absorption of these species may require further investigation. In addition there is little knowledge of the behaviour of gases over many types of surface. The rate of deposition of particles and gases is influenced by many parameters including wind speed and the temperature stratification of the lower atmosphere. Conditions which give poor atmospheric dispersion usually give lower deposition velocities. Transfer to man depends on the availability of deposited materials on crops and grass. A wide range of isotopes including iodine and several metallic fission products are lost with a half life for residence on grass ranging from a few days to a few tens days, depending on climatic conditions

  6. ITO thin films deposited by advanced pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viespe, Cristian; Nicolae, Ionut; Sima, Cornelia; Grigoriu, Constantin; Medianu, Rares

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide thin films were deposited by computer assisted advanced PLD method in order to obtain transparent, conductive and homogeneous films on a large area. The films were deposited on glass substrates. We studied the influence of the temperature (room temperature (RT)-180 deg. C), pressure (1-6 x 10 -2 Torr), laser fluence (1-4 J/cm 2 ) and wavelength (266-355 nm) on the film properties. The deposition rate, roughness, film structure, optical transmission, electrical conductivity measurements were done. We deposited uniform ITO thin films (thickness 100-600 nm, roughness 5-10 nm) between RT and 180 deg. C on a large area (5 x 5 cm 2 ). The films have electrical resistivity of 8 x 10 -4 Ω cm at RT, 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 180 deg. C and an optical transmission in the visible range, around 89%

  7. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the

  8. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km 2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  9. The anthracite of Nazar-Aylok Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachadzhanov, D.N.; Valiev, Yu.Ya.

    2013-01-01

    Present article is devoted to anthracite of Nazar-Aylok Deposit. The ash content, composition of coals of Nazar-Aylok Deposit and thickness of deposit were considered. The coal samples were studied by means of neutron activation analysis.

  10. Deposition of Boron in Possible Evaporite Deposits in Gale Crate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasda, P. J.; Peets, E.; Lamm, S. N.; Rapin, W.; Lanza, N.; Frydenvang, J.; Clark, B. C.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Bridges, J.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Haldeman, E. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Clegg, S. M.; Delapp, D.; Sanford, V.; Bodine, M. R.; McInroy, R.

    2017-12-01

    Boron has been previously detected in Gale crater using the ChemCam instrument on board the NASA Curiosity rover within calcium sulfate fracture fill hosted by lacustrine mudstone and eolian sandstone units. Recent results show that up to 300 ppm B is present in the upper sections of the lacustrine unit. Boron has been detected in both the groundwater-emplaced calcium sulfate fracture fill materials and bedding-parallel calcium sulfate layers. The widespread bedding-parallel calcium sulfate layers within the upper strata of the lacustrine bedrock that Curiosity has encountered recently could be interpreted as primary evaporite deposits. We have two hypotheses for the history of boron in Gale crater. In both hypotheses, borates were first deposited as lake water evaporated, depositing primary evaporates that were later re-dissolved by groundwater, which redistributed the boron into secondary evaporitic calcium sulfate fracture fill deposits. In the first scenario, Gale crater may have undergone a period of perennial lake formation during a drier period of martian history, depositing layers of evaporitic minerals (including borates) among lacustrine mudstone layers. In the second scenario, lake margins could have become periodically exposed during cyclic drops in lake level and subsequently desiccated. Evaporites were deposited and desiccation features were formed in lowstand deposits. Either hypothetical scenario of evaporite deposition would promote prebiotic chemical reactions via wet-dry cycles. Boron may be an important prebiotic element, and as such, its presence in ancient martian surface and groundwater provides evidence that important prebiotic chemical reactions could occur on Mars if organics were present. The presence of boron in ancient Gale crater groundwater also provides additional evidence that a habitable environment existed in the martian subsurface well after the expected disappearance of liquid water on the surface of Mars. We will report on the

  11. Atomic layer deposition for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume discusses atomic layer deposition (ALD) for all modern semiconductor devices, moving from the basic chemistry of ALD and modeling of ALD processes to sections on ALD for memories, logic devices, and machines.

  12. Gasoline from Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, A.N.; Zhizhin, N.I.; Musaeva, Z.G.

    1997-01-01

    Samples of gasoline from petroleum of Kumkol deposit are investigated by chromatographic analysis. It is found, that gasoline is characterizing by increased content of iso-paraffin hydrocarbons. (author)

  13. Electrospark deposition for die repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tušek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrospark deposition is a process for surfacing of hard metal alloys, e.g. carbides and stellites, on the surfaces of new or old machine elements. In this process, a high current is conducted through an oscillating electrode and a substrate for a very short period of time. In the paper, the process is described and the thickness of deposited layer, chemical composition, dilution rate and the layer roughness are determined.

  14. A radon progeny deposition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rielage, Keith; Elliott, Steven R.; Hime, Andrew; Guiseppe, Vincent E.; Westerdale, S.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222 Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210 Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  15. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K.; Westerdale, S.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222 Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210 Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  16. Legal Deposit of Electronic Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Umut Zan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.

  17. 6 CFR 13.45 - Deposit in Treasury of United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deposit in Treasury of United States. 13.45 Section 13.45 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.45 Deposit in Treasury of United States. All amounts collected pursuant to this part...

  18. Changing regional emissions of airborne pollutants reflected in the chemistry of snowpacks and wetfall in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, 1993–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, George P.; Miller, Debra C.; Morris, Kristi H.; McMurray, Jill A.; Port, Garrett M.; Caruso, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Wintertime precipitation sample data from 55 Snowpack sites and 17 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network Wetfall sites in the Rocky Mountain region were examined to identify long-term trends in chemical concentration, deposition, and precipitation using Regional and Seasonal Kendall tests. The Natural Resources Conservation Service snow-telemetry (SNOTEL) network provided snow-water-equivalent data from 33 sites located near Snowpack- and NADP Wetfall-sampling sites for further comparisons. Concentration and deposition of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, and sulfate were tested for trends for the period 1993–2012. Precipitation trends were compared between the three monitoring networks for the winter seasons and downward trends were observed for both Snowpack and SNOTEL networks, but not for the NADP Wetfall network. The dry-deposition fraction of total atmospheric deposition, relative to wet deposition, was shown to be considerable in the region. Potential sources of regional airborne pollutant emissions were identified from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2011 National Emissions Inventory, and from long-term emissions data for the period 1996–2013. Changes in the emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide were reflected in significant trends in snowpack and wetfall chemistry. In general, ammonia emissions in the western USA showed a gradual increase over the past decade, while ammonium concentrations and deposition in snowpacks and wetfall showed upward trends. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide declined while regional trends in snowpack and wetfall concentrations and deposition of nitrate and sulfate were downward.

  19. Effect of water chemistry on deposition for PWR plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Calvar, Marc; Bretelle, J. L.; Cailleaux, J. P.; Lacroix, R.; Guivarch, M.; Gay, N.; Taunier, S.; Gressier, F.; Varry, P.; Corredera, G.; Alos-Ramos, O.; Dijoux, M.

    2012-09-01

    For Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) operation, water chemistry guidelines, specifications and associated surveillance programs are key to avoid deposition of oxides. Deposition of oxides can be detrimental by disrupting results of flow measurements, decreasing the thermal exchange capacity, or even by impairing safety. This paper describes the most important cases of deposition, their consequences for operation, and the implemented improvements to avoid their reoccurrence. Deposition that led to a Crud Induced Power Shift (CIPS) is also described. In the primary and in the secondary sides, orifice plates are typically used for measuring feedwater flow rate in nuclear power plants. Feedwater flow rates are used for control purposes and are important safety parameters as they are used to determine the plant's operating power level. Fouling of orifice plates in the primary side has been found during surveillance testing. For reactor coolant pumps, the formation of deposits on the seal No.1 can cause abnormally high or low leak rates through the seal. The leak rate through this seal must be carefully maintained within a prescribed range during plant operation. In the secondary side, orifice plate fouling has been the cause of feedwater flow/reference thermal power drift. For the steam generators (SG), magnetite deposition has led to fouling of the tube bundle, clogging of the quadri-foiled support plate holes and hard sludge formation on the base plate. For the generators, copper hollow conductors are widely used. Buildup of copper oxides on the interior walls of copper conductors has caused insufficient heat transfer. All these deposition cases have received adequate attention, understanding and response via improvement of our surveillance programs. (authors)

  20. Development of Y-BA-CU-O Coated Conductor Using Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selvamanickam, V

    2003-01-01

    .... The program includes a study of the a) influence of MOCVD processing conditions such as the flow rate of precursor vapors, precursor vaporization temperatures, oxygen partial pressure, reactor pressure, and the deposition temperature...

  1. Felsic magmatism and uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The strongly incompatible behaviour of uranium in silicate magmas results in its concentration in the most felsic melts and a prevalence of granites and rhyolites as primary U sources for the formation of U deposits. Despite its incompatible behavior, U deposits resulting directly from magmatic processes are quite rare. In most deposits, U is mobilized by hydrothermal fluids or ground water well after the emplacement of the igneous rocks. Of the broad range of granite types, only a few have U contents and physico-chemical properties that permit the crystallization of accessory minerals from which uranium can be leached for the formation of U deposits. The first granites on Earth, which crystallized uraninite, dated at 3.1 Ga, are the potassic granites from the Kaapval craton (South Africa) which were also the source of the detrital uraninite for the Dominion Reef and Witwatersrand quartz pebble conglomerate deposits. Four types of granites or rhyolites can be sufficiently enriched in U to represent a significant source for the genesis of U deposits: per-alkaline, high-K met-aluminous calc-alkaline, L-type peraluminous and anatectic pegmatoids. L-type peraluminous plutonic rocks in which U is dominantly hosted in uraninite or in the glass of their volcanic equivalents represent the best U source. Per-alkaline granites or syenites are associated with the only magmatic U-deposits formed by extreme fractional crystallization. The refractory character of the U-bearing minerals does not permit their extraction under the present economic conditions and make them unfavorable U sources for other deposit types. By contrast, felsic per-alkaline volcanic rocks, in which U is dominantly hosted in the glassy matrix, represent an excellent source for many deposit types. High-K calc-alkaline plutonic rocks only represent a significant U source when the U-bearing accessory minerals (U-thorite, allanite, Nb oxides) become metamict. The volcanic rocks of the same geochemistry may be

  2. Felsic magmatism and uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium strongly incompatible behaviour in silicate magmas results in its concentration in the most felsic melts and a prevalence of granites and rhyolites as primary U sources for the formation of U deposits. Despite its incompatible behaviour, U deposits resulting directly from magmatic processes are quite rare. In most deposits, U is mobilized by hydrothermal fluids or ground water well after the emplacement of the igneous rocks. Of the broad range of granite types, only a few have have U contents and physico-chemical properties that permit the crystallization of accessory minerals from which uranium can be leached for the formation of U deposits. The first granites on Earth which crystallized uraninite appeared at 3.1 Ga, are the potassic granites from the Kaapval craton (South Africa) which were also the source of the detrital uraninite for the Dominion Reef and Witwatersrand quartz pebble conglomerate deposits. Four types of granites or rhyolites can be sufficiently enriched in U to represent a significant source for the genesis of U deposits: peralkaline, high-K metaluminous calc-alkaline, L-type peraluminous ones and anatectic pegmatoids. L-type peraluminous plutonic rocks in which U is dominantly hosted in uraninite or in the glass in their volcanic equivalents represent the best U source. Peralkaline granites or syenites represent the only magmatic U-deposits formed by extreme fractional crystallization. The refractory character of the U-bearing minerals does not permit their extraction at the present economic conditions and make them unfavourable U sources for other deposit types. By contrast, felsic peralkaline volcanic rocks, in which U is dominantly hosted in the glassy matrix, represent an excellent source for many deposit types. High-K calc-alkaline plutonic rocks only represent a significant U source when the U-bearing accessory minerals [U-thorite, allanite, Nb oxides] become metamict. The volcanic rocks of the same geochemistry may be also a

  3. Vein-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, R.A.; Holland, H.D.; Petersen, U.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review is presented of published data bearing on the mineralogy, paragenesis, geochemistry, and origin of veiw-type uranium deposits. Its aim is to serve as a starting point for new research and as a basis for the development of new exploration strategies. During the formation of both vein and sandstone types of deposits uranium seems to have been dissolved by and transported in rather oxidized solutions, and deposited where these solutions encountered reducing agents such as carbon, sulfides, ferrous minerals and hydrocarbons. Granitic rocks abnormally enriched in uranium have apparently been the most common source for uranium in vein-type deposits. Oxidizing solutions have been derived either from the surface or from depth. Surface solutions saturated with atmospheric oxygen have frequently passed through red bed or clean sandstone conduits on their way to and from uranium source rocks. Deep solutions of non-surface origin have apparently become sufficiently oxidizing by passage through and equilibration with red beds. The common association of clean sandstones or red beds with uranium-rich granites in the vicinity of vein-type uranium deposits is probably not fortuitous, and areas where these rock types are found together are considered particularly favorable targets for uranium exploration

  4. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal

  5. Understanding the spectrum of diesel injector deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, Robert; Barbour, Robert [Lubrizol Limited, Derby (United Kingdom); Arters, David; Bush, Jim [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the origin of diesel fuel injector deposits used to be relatively simple; for the most part they were caused by the decomposition of fuel during the combustion process, were generally organic in nature and typically only affected the nozzle orifices. However, modem fuel injector designs appear to be both more severe in terms of generating conditions conducive to creating new and different types of deposits and more likely to have their operation affected by those deposits. Changes to fuel composition and type have in some cases increased the potential pool of reactive species or provided new potential deposit precursors. As a result, the universe of diesel injector deposits now range from the traditional organic to partially or fully inorganic in nature and from nozzle coking deposits to deposits which can seize the internal components of the injector; so called internal diesel injector deposits. Frequently, combinations of inorganic and organic deposits are found. While power loss is one well known issue associated with nozzle deposits, other field problems resulting from these new deposits include severe issues with drivability, emissions, fuel consumption and even engine failure. Conventional deposit control additive chemistries were developed to be effective against organic nozzle coking deposits. These conventional additives in many cases may prove ineffective against this wide range of deposit types. This paper discusses the range of deposits that have been found to adversely impact modem diesel fuel injectors and compares the performance of conventional and new, advanced deposit control additives against these various challenges to proper fuel injector functioning. (orig.)

  6. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

    1982-01-19

    A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal.

  7. Analysing the Cenozoic depositional record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goledowski, Bartosz; Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that sediment deposition in the North Sea and on the Norwegian Shelf varied significantly during the Cenozoic as a consequence of varying erosion rate mainly in Western Scandinavia, in Scotland and in the Alps. Recent results have demonstrated that a causal relationship exists...... of variations in erosion rates. Here we present the rationale behind the project, the data available and some preliminary results. The dense seismic and well coverage in the area makes it possible to estimate the rate of deposition of matrix mass. Assuming that sediment storage is not important, this provides...... models. The matrix mass deposition history will be compared with the paleoclimate record (e.g. oxygen isotope curves) to see if the previously observed correlation in the eastern North Sea can be extended to other ages and locations.  ...

  8. Surficial uranium deposits in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokaddem, M.; Fuchs, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Along southern border of the Hoggar (Algeria) Precambrian shield, Lower Palaeozoic sediments lie unconformably on weathered metamorphic rocks. Along the eastern border of the Tin Seririne basin some good examples of the weathered rocks underneath the unconformity are exposed. The palaeosurface is a peneplain with only minor topographical reliefs from one to a few metres high. The nature and intensity of the weathering process was controlled by the topography, and the existence of badly drained areas is particularly important. At one such area the Tahaggart uranium ore deposit was discovered. The uranium ore consists mainly of torbernite and autunite. The deposit is present in the weathered gneiss underneath the palaeosurface. Mineralogical and geochemical observations indicated that the ore deposit was formed during the period of weathering which was controlled by climatological and palaeotopographical factors. (author)

  9. Sub-aerial tailings deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.B.; Haile, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The sub-aerial technique involves the systematic deposition of tailings in thin layers and allowing each layer to settle, drain and partially air dry prior to covering with a further layer. Underdrainage produces densities in excess of those achieved by sub-aqueous deposition and any air-drying serves to preconsolidate each layer with a resulting further increase in density. The low permeability of the tailings surface resulting from this deposition technique results in high runoff coefficients and, by decanting the runoff component of direct precipitation, a net evaporation condition can be achieved even in high rainfall areas. An underdrainage system prevents the build-up of excess pore-pressures within the tailings mass and at decommissioning the tailings are fully consolidated and drained thereby eliminating the possibility of any long term seepage. This paper presents a general description of these design concepts, and details of two projects where the concepts have been applied

  10. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary deposition of iron (primary haemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson's disease) are autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver pathology and subsequent involvement of various other organs. The prevalence of primary haemochromatosis is approximately 0.5%, about......, they may be inadequate in patients diagnosed so late that extensive body deposits of metal have been developed. The main research needs in this field are to further clarify molecular mechanisms of disease progression and to develop new chelators that are more effective and less toxic than those presently...

  11. Investigation on radioactivity of deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaas, L.H.; Smetsers, R.C.G.M.; Mattern, F.C.M.; Drost, R.M.S. van; Ockhuizen, A.; Glastra, P.; Koolwijk, A.C.

    1990-04-01

    This report of the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) summarizes the results of measurements of radionuclides deposited in the Netherlands in 1988. The samples of deposition were taken at Bilthoven, located near the center of the country. In 1988 measurements were carried out to determine the activities of γ-emitters, where 7 Be, 40 K, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were identified, and those of 3 H, 210 Pb and 210 Po. Also the gross α-, gross β- and gross γ-activities were determined. (author). 10 refs.; 7 figs.; 6 tabs

  12. Mathematical geology studies of deposit prospect types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangping

    1998-08-01

    Exact certainty prospect type of uranium deposit, not only can assure the quality of deposit prospects, but also increase economic benefits. Based on the standard of geological prospect of uranium deposit, the author introduces a method of Fuzzy Synthetical Comment for dividing prospect type of uranium deposit. The practical applications demonstrate that the regression accuracy, discriminated by Zadeh operator, of 15 known deposits is 100%

  13. Bank deposits, notions and features of accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta MELNIC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bank deposits are the main method of raising capital and short-term available savings. The opening and using of the bank deposits is the main function of banks. In 2004 the Deposit Guarantee Fund was set up in the Republic of Moldova of Deposit Guarantee Fund and for the first time there was established a guaranteed bank minimum in case of bank insolvency which is currently 6,000 lei for the deposit of each natural person.

  14. The NSLS-II Multilayer Laue Lens Deposition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, R.; Bouet, N.; Biancarosa, J.; Shen, Q.; Boas, L.; Feraca, J.; Rosenbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The NSLS-II(1) program has a requirement for an unprecedented level of x-ray nanofocusing and has selected the wedged multilayer Laue lens(2,3) (MLL) as the optic of choice to meet this goal. In order to fabricate the MLL a deposition system is required that is capable of depositing depth-graded and laterally-graded multilayers with precise thickness control over many thousands of layers, with total film growth in one run up to 100 m thick or greater. This machine design expounds on the positive features of a rotary deposition system(4) constructed previously for MLLs and will contain multiple stationary, horizontally-oriented magnetron sources where a transport will move a substrate back and forth in a linear fashion over shaped apertures at well-defined velocities to affect a multilayer coating.

  15. Powder Flux Regulation in the Laser Material Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizubieta, Jon Iñaki; Wegener, Maximiliam; Arntz, Kristian; Lamikiz, Aitzol; Ruiz, Jose Exequiel

    In the present research work a powder flux regulation system has been designed, developed and validated with the aim of improving the Laser Material Deposition (LMD) process. In this process, the amount of deposited material per substrate surface unit area depends on the real feed rate of the nozzle. Therefore, a regulation system based on a solenoid valve has been installed at the nozzle entrance in order to control the powder flux. The powder flux control has been performed based on the machine real feed rate, which is compared with the programmed feed rate. An instantaneous velocity error is calculated and the powder flow is controlled as a function of this variation using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signals. Thereby, in zones where the Laser Material Deposition machine reduces the feed rate due to a trajectory change, powder accumulation can be avoided and the generated clads would present a homogeneous shape.

  16. Advanced deposition model for thermal activated chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dang

    Thermal Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition (TACVD) is defined as the formation of a stable solid product on a heated substrate surface from chemical reactions and/or dissociation of gaseous reactants in an activated environment. It has become an essential process for producing solid film, bulk material, coating, fibers, powders and monolithic components. Global market of CVD products has reached multi billions dollars for each year. In the recent years CVD process has been extensively used to manufacture semiconductors and other electronic components such as polysilicon, AlN and GaN. Extensive research effort has been directed to improve deposition quality and throughput. To obtain fast and high quality deposition, operational conditions such as temperature, pressure, fluid velocity and species concentration and geometry conditions such as source-substrate distance need to be well controlled in a CVD system. This thesis will focus on design of CVD processes through understanding the transport and reaction phenomena in the growth reactor. Since the in situ monitor is almost impossible for CVD reactor, many industrial resources have been expended to determine the optimum design by semi-empirical methods and trial-and-error procedures. This approach has allowed the achievement of improvements in the deposition sequence, but begins to show its limitations, as this method cannot always fulfill the more and more stringent specifications of the industry. To resolve this problem, numerical simulation is widely used in studying the growth techniques. The difficulty of numerical simulation of TACVD crystal growth process lies in the simulation of gas phase and surface reactions, especially the latter one, due to the fact that very limited kinetic information is available in the open literature. In this thesis, an advanced deposition model was developed to study the multi-component fluid flow, homogeneous gas phase reactions inside the reactor chamber, heterogeneous surface

  17. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.

    To investigate the physical process of deposition and resuspension of particles in the indoor environment, scale experiments are used and a sampling method is established. The influences of surface orientation and turbulence and velocity of the air on the dust load on a surface are analysed....

  18. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...

  19. Deposition gradients across mangrove fringes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstman, Erik Martijn; Mullarney, Julia C.; Bryan, K.R.; Sandwell, Dean R.; Aagaard, Troels; Deigaard, Rolf; Fuhrman, David

    2017-01-01

    Observations in a mangrove in the Whangapoua Harbour, New Zealand, have shown that deposition rates are greatest in the fringing zone between the tidal flats and the mangrove forest, where the vegetation is dominated by a cover of pneumatophores (i.e. pencil roots). Current speeds and suspended

  20. Uranium extraction from underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from underground deposits by passing an aqueous oxidizing solution of carbon dioxide over the ore in the presence of calcium ions. Complex uranium carbonate or bicarbonate ions are formed which enter the solution. The solution is forced to the surface and the uranium removed from it

  1. Electrolytic nickel deposits upon uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.; Chauvin, G.; Coriou, H.; Hure, J.

    1958-01-01

    The authors present a new possibility to protect uranium by very adherent nickel deposits got by aqueous medium electrolysis. Surface treatment of uranium is based upon the chemical etching method from Lietazke. After thermal treatments at 600, 700 and 800 deg. C, under vacuum, a good intermetallic U-Ni diffusion is observed for each case. (author) [fr

  2. IAEA Classification of Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Classifications of uranium deposits follow two general approaches, focusing on: • descriptive features such as the geotectonic position, the host rock type, the orebody morphology, …… : « geologic classification »; • or on genetic aspects: « genetic classification »

  3. Advances in energy deposition theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paretzke, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    In light of the fields of radiation protection and dosimetric problems in medicine, advances in the area of microscopic target related studies are discussed. Energy deposition is discussed with emphasis upon track structures of electrons and heavy charged particles and track computer calculations

  4. Unconformity-related uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewers, G.R.; Ferguson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Documentation of ore deposit characterisation is being undertaken to assess the controls of uranium mineralisation associated with Proterozoic unconformities. The Turee Creek uranium prospect in Western Australia is associated with a faulted contact between the Middle Proterozoic Kunderong Sandstone and the Lower Proterozoic Wyloo Group

  5. Nitrogen deposition and terrestrial biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Clark; Yongfei Bai; William D. Bowman; Jane M. Cowles; Mark E. Fenn; Frank S. Gilliam; Gareth K. Phoenix; Ilyas Siddique; Carly J. Stevens; Harald U. Sverdrup; Heather L. Throop

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen deposition, along with habitat losses and climate change, has been identified as a primary threat to biodiversity worldwide (Butchart et al., 2010; MEA, 2005; Sala et al., 2000). The source of this stressor to natural systems is generally twofold: burning of fossil fuels and the use of fertilizers in modern intensive agriculture. Each of these human...

  6. Electro-spark deposition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Electro-Spark Deposition (ESD) is a micro-welding process that uses short duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit or alloy a consumable electrode material onto a metallic substrate. The ESD process was developed to produce coatings for use in severe environments where most other coatings fail. Because of the exceptional damage resistance of these coatings, and the versatility of the process to apply a wide variety of alloys, intermetallics, and cermets to metal surfaces, the ESD process has been designated critical to the life and economy of the advanced fossil energy systems as the higher temperatures and corrosive environments exceed the limits of known structural materials to accommodate the service conditions. Developments include producing iron aluminide-based coatings with triple the corrosion resistance of the best previous Fe{sub 3}Al coatings, coatings with refractory metal diffusion barriers and multi layer coatings for achieving functionally gradient properties between the substrate and the surface. A new development is the demonstration of advanced aluminide-based ESD coatings for erosion and wear applications. One of the most significant breakthroughs to occur in the last dozen years is the discovery of a process regime that yields an order of magnitude increase in deposition rates and achievable coating thicknesses. Achieving this regime has required the development of advanced ESD electronic capabilities. Development is now focused on further improvements in deposition rates, system reliability when operating at process extremes, and economic competitiveness.

  7. World distribution of uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, M. C.; Irvine, J. A.; Katona, L. F.; Simmon, W. L.; Bruneton, P.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Cuney, M.; Aranha, M.; Pylypenko, O.; Poliakovska, K.

    2018-01-01

    Deposit data derived from IAEA UDEPO (http://infcis.iaea.org/UDEPO/About.cshtml) database with assistance from P. Bruneton (France) and M. Mihalasky (U.S.A.). The map is an updated companion to "World Distribution of Uranium Deposits (UDEPO) with Uranium Deposit Classification, IAEA Tech-Doc-1629". Geology was derived from L.B. Chorlton, Generalized Geology of the World, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529 , 2007. Map production by M.C. Fairclough (IAEA), J.A. Irvine (Austrailia), L.F. Katona (Australia) and W.L. Slimmon (Canada). World Distribution of Uranium Deposits, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria. Cartographic Assistance was supplied by the Geological Survey of South Australia, the Saskatchewan Geological Survey and United States Geological Survey to the IAEA. Coastlines, drainage, and country boundaries were obtained from ArcMap, 1:25 000 000 scale, and are copyrighted data containing the intellectual property of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). The use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply any judgment by the publisher, the IAEA, as to the legal status of such countries or territories, of their authorities and institutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries. Any revisions or additional geological information known to the user would be welcomed by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Geological Survey of Canada.

  8. Deposit competition and loan markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    Less-intense competition for deposits, by mitigating banks’ incentive to take excessive risks, is traditionally believed to lead to lower non-performing loan (NPL) ratios and more-stable banks. This paper revisits this proposition in a model with borrower moral hazard in which banks’ NPL ratios

  9. The uranium deposits of Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The principal types of uranium deposits in Ontario are carbonatites and fenites, alkalic volcanic rocks, pegiatites, calc-silicate rocks, pyritic quartz-pebble conglomerates, polymictic conglomerates and some pelitic rocks, and various 'pitchblende' deposits including late Precambrian unconformities, possibly late Precambrian diabase dikes, and other unconformities: carbonates, sandstones, lignites, and semi-pelitic rocks of middle and upper Precambrian age. Only red unzoned pegmatite and the pyritic quartz-pebble conglomerate have supported production. Ontario reasonably assured and estimated resources in the economic and subeconomic categories in 1977 amounted to 553 000 tonnes U, and 1977 production was 4000 tonnes U. Measured, indicated, and inferred resources in the Elliot Lake - Agnew Lake area are at least 400 000 tonnes U. The latter deposits are also a significant thorium resource. Geological features reflecting major changes in physics and chemistry are prime controls on distribution of uranium deposits. Geological province and subprovince boundaries, major faults, higher metamorphic grades, domain boundaries related to quartz monzonite batholiths, alkalic complexes, and the distribution of carbonate rocks are examples of such geological features

  10. Persisting roughness when deposition stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Moshe; Edwards, S F

    2004-12-01

    Useful theories for growth of surfaces under random deposition of material have been developed by several authors. The simplest theory is that introduced by Edwards and Wilkinson (EW), which is linear and soluble. Its nonlinear generalization by Kardar, Parisi, and Zhang (KPZ) resulted in many subsequent studies. Yet both EW and KPZ theories contain an unphysical feature. When deposition of material is stopped, both theories predict that as time tends to infinity, the surface becomes flat. In fact, of course, the final surface is not flat, but simply has no gradients larger than the gradient related to the angle of repose. We modify the EW and KPZ theories to accommodate this feature and study the consequences for the simpler system which is a modification of the EW equation. In spite of the fact that the equation describing the evolution of the surface is not linear, we find that the steady state in the presence of noise is not very different in the long-wavelength limit from that of the linear EW equation. The situation is quite different from that of EW when deposition stops. Initially there is still some rearrangement of the surface, but that stops as everywhere on the surface the gradient is less than that related to the angle of repose. The most interesting feature observed after deposition stops is the emergence of history-dependent steady-state distributions.

  11. Discharge cleaning of carbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results of discharge cleaning of carbon deposits are presented. Deposits were prepared by creating plasma in pure methane. The methane was cracked in RF discharge at the output power of 250 W. The resultant radicals were bonded to the wall of discharge vessel forming a thin film of hydrogenated black carbon with the thickness of about 200nm. The film was then cleaned in situ by oxygen plasma with the density of about 1x10 16 m -3 , electron temperature of 5 eV, neutral gas kinetic temperature of about 100 0 C and neutral atom density of 6x10 21 m -3 . The treatment time was 30 minutes. The efficiency of plasma cleaning was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. As long as the wall was contaminated with carbon deposit, substantial emission of the CO molecules was detected. As the cleaning was in progress, the CO emission was decreasing and vanished after 30 minutes when the discharge vessel became free of any carbon. The results are explained by interaction of plasma radicals with carbon deposits. (author)

  12. Total dissolved atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the anoxic Cariaco basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasse, R.; Pérez, T.; Giuliante, A.; Donoso, L.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) is an important source of nitrogen for ocean primary productivity that has increased since the industrial revolution. Thus, understanding its role in the ocean nitrogen cycle will help assess recent changes in ocean biogeochemistry. In the anoxic Cariaco basin, the place of the CARIACO Ocean Time-Series Program, the influence of atmospherically-deposited TDN on marine biogeochemistry is unknown. In this study, we measured atmospheric TDN concentrations as dissolved organic (DON) and inorganic (DIN) nitrogen (TDN = DIN + DON) in atmospheric suspended particles and wet deposition samples at the northeast of the basin during periods of the wet (August-September 2008) and dry (March-April 2009) seasons. We evaluated the potential anthropogenic N influences by measuring wind velocity and direction, size-fractionated suspended particles, chemical traces and by performing back trajectories. We found DIN and DON concentration values that ranged between 0.11 and 0.58 μg-N m-3 and 0.11-0.56 μg-N m-3 in total suspended particles samples and between 0.08 and 0.54 mg-N l-1 and 0.02-1.3 mg-N l-1 in wet deposition samples, respectively. Continental air masses increased DON and DIN concentrations in atmospheric suspended particles during the wet season. We estimate an annual TDN atmospheric deposition (wet + particles) of 3.6 × 103 ton-N year-1 and concluded that: 1) Atmospheric supply of TDN plays a key role in the C and N budget of the basin because replaces a fraction of the C (20% by induced primary production) and N (40%) removed by sediment burial, 2) present anthropogenic N could contribute to 30% of TDN atmospheric deposition in the basin, and 3) reduced DON (gas + particles) should be a significant component of bulk N deposition.

  13. Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits of the World - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Dan L.; Berger, Vladimir I.; Singer, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    information in a useful form to policy makers. The foundation of mineral-deposit models is information about known deposits. The purpose of this publication is to present the latest geologic information and newly developed grade and tonnage models for VMS deposits in digital form. This publication contains computer files with information on VMS deposits from around the world. It also presents new grade and tonnage models for three subtypes of VMS deposits and a text file allowing locations of all deposits to be plotted in geographic information system (GIS) programs. The data are presented in FileMaker Pro and text files to make the information available to a wider audience. The value of this information and any derived analyses depends critically on the consistent manner of data gathering. For this reason, we first discuss the rules used in this compilation. Next, we provide new grade and tonnage models and analysis of the information in the file. Finally, the fields of the data file are explained. Appendix A gives the summary statistics for the new grade-tonnage models and Appendix B displays the country codes used in the database.

  14. Wet Deposition of Perchlorate Over the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, S.; Jackson, A. W.; Anderson, T. A.

    2007-12-01

    Natural perchlorate (ClO4-) has been detected in soil, vegetation, food products, and ground and drinking water supplies at various concentrations across the world. For almost a century natural perchlorate has been known to exist in Chilean nitrate deposits that are up to 16 million years old, and recent isotopic evidence has confirmed its source to be predominantly atmospheric. Although the source of natural perchlorate has been attributed to atmospheric deposition, there is almost no data available concerning the deposition rate of perchlorate from precipitation. This research effort, supported by SERDP, was designed to investigate the range of concentrations, and temporal and spatial variations in perchlorate deposition. Sub-samples of precipitation collected through the National Atmospheric Deposition program over a two year period were analyzed for perchlorate. Sample locations included 14 continental states, and Puerto Rico. Perchlorate has been detected (DL= 5 ng/L) in over 65 % of all samples tested with a mean value of 12.60 ± 13.60 ng/L and ranged from 0.5) between ClO4- and other ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO4-2, Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, and NH4+). Results from this study will have important implications to the national perchlorate issue and may aid in explaining the occurrence of non-anthropogenic perchlorate being reported in arid and semi-arid areas.

  15. Selective tungsten deposition in a batch cold wall CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R.; Kang, S.; Harshbarger, W.R.; Susoeff, M.

    1987-01-01

    Selective deposition of tungsten offers many advantages for VLSI technology. The process can be used as a planarization technique for multilevel interconnect technology, it can be used to fill contacts and to provide a barrier layer between Al and Si materials, and the selective W process might be used as a self-aligned technology to provide low resistance layers on source/drain and gate conductors. Recent publications have indicate that cold wall CVD systems provide advantages for development of selective W process. Genus has investigated selective W deposition processing, and we have developed a selective W deposition process for the Genus 8402 multifilm deposition system. This paper describes the Genus 8402 system and the selective W process developed in this reactor. To further develop selective W technology, Genus has signed an agreement with General Electric establishing a joint development program. As a part of this program, the authors characterized the selective W process for encroachment, Si consumption and degrees of selectivity on various dielectrics. The status of this development activity and process characterization is reviewed in this paper

  16. Application of natural analog studies to exploration for ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Natural analogs are viewed as similarities in nature and are routinely utilized by exploration geologists in their search for economic mineral deposits. Ore deposit modeling is undertaken by geologists to direct their exploration activities toward favorable geologic environments and, therefore, successful programs. Two types of modeling are presented: (i) empirical model development based on the study of known ore deposit characteristics, and (ii) concept model development based on theoretical considerations and field observations that suggest a new deposit type, not known to exist in nature, may exist and justifies an exploration program. Key elements that are important in empirical model development are described, and examples of successful applications of these natural analogs to exploration are presented. A classical example of successful concept model development, the discovery of the McLaughlin gold mine in California, is presented. The utilization of natural analogs is an important facet of mineral exploration. Natural analogs guide explorationists in their search for new discoveries, increase the probability of success, and may decrease overall exploration expenditure

  17. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs

  18. Improving deposition tester to study adherent deposits in papermaking

    OpenAIRE

    Monte Lara, Concepción; Sánchez, Mónica; Blanco Suárez, Ángeles; Negro Álvarez, Carlos; Tijero Miquel, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Conventional methods used for the quantification of adherent material contained in a pulp suspension propose either filtration of the sample, which may lead to loss of sticky material in the filtrate, or dilution of the pulp, which may cause destabilization of the dissolved and colloidal material; thus, leading to unreliable results. In 1998, the Cellulose and Paper Group of University Complutense of Madrid developed a deposition tester which aimed to quantify the adherence of material (micro...

  19. Constructing deposition chronologies for peat deposits using radiocarbon dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Piotrowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon dating is one of the main methods used to establish peat chronologies. This article reviews the basis of the method and its application to dating of peat deposits. Important steps in the radiocarbon dating procedure are described, including selection and extraction of material (and fractions for dating, chemical and physical preparation of media suitable for measurements, measurements of 14C activity or concentration, calculations, calibration of results and age-depth modelling.

  20. Vapor deposition of tantalum and tantalum compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkula, M.

    1996-01-01

    Tantalum, and many of its compounds, can be deposited as coatings with techniques ranging from pure, thermal chemical vapor deposition to pure physical vapor deposition. This review concentrates on chemical vapor deposition techniques. The paper takes a historical approach. The authors review classical, metal halide-based techniques and current techniques for tantalum chemical vapor deposition. The advantages and limitations of the techniques will be compared. The need for new lower temperature processes and hence new precursor chemicals will be examined and explained. In the last section, they add some speculation as to possible new, low-temperature precursors for tantalum chemical vapor deposition

  1. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, timely removal of ash deposits is essential for optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash...... deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, ash/deposit composition......, sintering duration, and steel type on the adhesion strength....

  2. Predicting sulphur and nitrogen deposition using a simple statistical method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, F.; Kopáček, Jiří; Chuman, T.; Černohous, V.; Hůnová, I.; Hruška, Jakub; Krám, Pavel; Lachmaová, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Štěpánek, Petr; Tesař, Miroslav; Christopher, Evans D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, sep (2016), s. 456-468 ISSN 1352-2310 Grant - others:EHP(CZ) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-014-2014 Program:CZ02 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985874 Keywords : precipitation * sulphur * nitrogen * deposition * monitoring * upscaling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; DD - Geochemistry (GLU-S); DI - Air Pollution ; Quality (BC-A); BK - Fluid Dynamics (UH-J) Impact factor: 3.629, year: 2016

  3. Dust deposit in recirculation regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griemert, R.

    1985-03-01

    The present report shows investigations, which have been carried out in a closed duct at forward and backward facing steps. Distribution of fluid velocity and fluid fluctuations in and normal to main flow direction as well as the distribution of Reynolds shear stress have been measured. The mass transfer downstream of a backward facing step has been investigated as well. By using graphite-, copper-, tin- and rubber dust, conditions of deposition have been defined experimentally. A serie of photos shows the filling of a recirculation region downstream of a backward facing step with graphite dust. The present investigations allow to avoid deposition of dust in recirculation regions by selecting the fluid numbers in an appropriate way. (orig.) [de

  4. High throughput semiconductor deposition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David L.; Ptak, Aaron Joseph; Kuech, Thomas F.; Schulte, Kevin; Simon, John D.

    2017-11-21

    A reactor for growing or depositing semiconductor films or devices. The reactor may be designed for inline production of III-V materials grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The operating principles of the HVPE reactor can be used to provide a completely or partially inline reactor for many different materials. An exemplary design of the reactor is shown in the attached drawings. In some instances, all or many of the pieces of the reactor formed of quartz, such as welded quartz tubing, while other reactors are made from metal with appropriate corrosion resistant coatings such as quartz or other materials, e.g., corrosion resistant material, or stainless steel tubing or pipes may be used with a corrosion resistant material useful with HVPE-type reactants and gases. Using HVPE in the reactor allows use of lower-cost precursors at higher deposition rates such as in the range of 1 to 5 .mu.m/minute.

  5. The unending deposit insurance mess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, E J

    1989-10-27

    The thrift institution deposit insurance mess is rooted in defects in political and bureaucratic accountability. Under existing incentives, covering up evidence of poor regulatory performance and relaxing binding capital requirements are rational governmental responses to widespread industry insolvency. Similarly, aggressive industry risk taking is a rational response by thrift managers to regulatory forbearances. Far from acknowledging these incentive defects, the Bush plan for cleaning up the mess adopts theories that spotlight other causes: specifically, poor thrift management and the deregulation of thrift institution activities and of deposit interest rates. To end the mess, politicians and regulators must jettison these comfortable theories and surrender discretion that permits them to finesse the need to budget for governmental financial commitments.

  6. Geological aspects of acid deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, O.P.

    1984-01-01

    The general pattern of rain falling on the earth and reacting with the materials of the lithosphere (the weathering reactions so familiar to every beginning geology student) began soon after the earth was formed and has continued to the present. Anthropogenic additions to the natural acidic components of the atmosphere have increased since the time of the industrial revolution until they now rival or exceed those of the natural system. The severity of the environmental perturbations caused by these anthropogenic additions to the atmosphere has become a hotly debated topic in scientific forums and in the political arena. The six chapters in this book address various aspects of the acid deposition phenomenon from a geological perspective. It is hoped that the geological approach will be useful in bringing the problem more clearly into focus and may shed light on the geochemical processes that modify the chemical composition of acid deposition after it encounters and reacts with the materials of the lithosphere

  7. Local deposition of high-purity Pt nanostructures by combining electron beam induced deposition and atomic layer deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackus, A.J.M.; Mulders, J.J.L.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    An approach for direct-write fabrication of high-purity platinum nanostructures has been developed by combining nanoscale lateral patterning by electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with area-selective deposition of high quality material by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Because virtually pure,

  8. Pele Plume Deposit on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The varied effects of Ionian volcanism can be seen in this false color infrared composite image of Io's trailing hemisphere. Low resolution color data from Galileo's first orbit (June, 1996) have been combined with a higher resolution clear filter picture taken on the third orbit (November, 1996) of the spacecraft around Jupiter.A diffuse ring of bright red material encircles Pele, the site of an ongoing, high velocity volcanic eruption. Pele's plume is nearly invisible, except in back-lit photographs, but its deposits indicate energetic ejection of sulfurous materials out to distances more than 600 kilometers from the central vent. Another bright red deposit lies adjacent to Marduk, also a currently active ediface. High temperature hot spots have been detected at both these locations, due to the eruption of molten material in lava flows or lava lakes. Bright red deposits on Io darken and disappear within years or decades of deposition, so the presence of bright red materials marks the sites of recent volcanism.This composite was created from data obtained by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The region imaged is centered on 15 degrees South, 224 degrees West, and is almost 2400 kilometers across. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 3 kilometers across. North is towards the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the west.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  9. Complexing and hydrothermal ore deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Helgeson, Harold C

    1964-01-01

    Complexing and Hydrothermal Ore Deposition provides a synthesis of fact, theory, and interpretative speculation on hydrothermal ore-forming solutions. This book summarizes information and theory of the internal chemistry of aqueous electrolyte solutions accumulated in previous years. The scope of the discussion is limited to those aspects of particular interest to the geologist working on the problem of hydrothermal ore genesis. Wherever feasible, fundamental principles are reviewed. Portions of this text are devoted to calculations of specific hydrothermal equilibriums in multicompone

  10. Modular plants for small deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.; Moral, A.; Otero, J.L.; Suarez, E.

    1985-01-01

    The large investment required to recover uranium from small deposits is the greatest obstacle to their economic development. Various concepts (caravan mill, pure mill or semimobile mill) have been elaborated in different countries. Studies have also been made in Spain to develop a simple and economic flowsheet suitable for the beneficiation of small uranium deposits. An acid heap-leaching and solvent extraction process was chosen because there is already a great deal of experience of it in Spain. Modifications were necessary to make the equipment easy to transport and also to have a low and reusable investment when this flowsheet is used for small deposits. The aim was to develop a modular plant with all the elements fitted in compact units that needs little site preparation and little time and effort to connect the units. A standard small portable crushing plant can be borrowed and the mining operation and heap construction can be put to contract. There is a solvent extraction unit (150 m 3 /d) in continuous operation (24 h/d) and concentrate precipitation and handling facilities. The whole of the equipment is standard and as light as possible. Little civil engineering is required and the erection of the plant only needs a few months. The uranium capacity of these modular plants is between 35 and 50 t U 3 O 8 /a. Special consideration has been paid to regulations and the environmental aspects. (author)

  11. Uranium deposits obtention for fission chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artacho Saviron, E.

    1972-01-01

    The obtention of uranium deposits of the required quality for small cylindrical fission chambers presents some difficulties. With the method of electroplating here described the uniformity, reproducibility and adherence of the obtained deposits were satisfactory. (Author) 6 refs

  12. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Insured Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Summary of Deposits (SOD) is the annual survey of branch office deposits for all FDIC-insured institutions including insured U.S. branches of foreign banks. Data...

  13. Geostatistical ore reserve estimation for a roll-front type uranium deposit (practitioner's guide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.C.; Knudsen, H.P.

    1977-01-01

    This report comprises two parts. Part I contains illustrative examples of each phase of a geostatistical study using a roll-front type uranium deposit. Part II contains five computer programs and comprehensive users' manuals for these programs which are necessary to make a practical geostatistical study

  14. Deposition of magnetite particles onto alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basset, M.; Arbeau, N.; McInerney, J.; Lister, D.H. [Univ. of New Brunswick, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Fouling is a particularly serious problem in the power generating industry. Deposits modify the thermalhydraulic characteristics of heat transfer surfaces by changing the resistance to heat transfer and the resistance to fluid flow, and, if thick enough, can harbour aggressive chemicals. Deposits are also implicated in the increase of radiation fields around working areas in the primary heat transfer systems of nuclear power plants. In order to understand the preliminary steps of the formation of corrosion product deposits on the outsides of steam generator tubes, a laboratory program has investigated the deposition of magnetite particles from suspension in water onto Alloy-800 surfaces under various conditions of flow, chemistry and boiling heat transfer. A recirculating loop made of stainless steel operating at less than 400kPa pressure, with a nominal coolant temperature of 90 degrees C, was equipped with a vertical glass column which housed a 2.5E-01m-long Alloy-800 boiler tube capable of generating a heat flux of 240kW/m{sup 2} . A concentration of suspended magnetite of 5.0E-03kg/m{sup 3} was maintained in the recirculating coolant, which was maintained at a pH of 7.5. The magnetite was synthesized with a sol-gel process, which was developed to produce reproducibly monodispersed, colloidal (<1{mu}m) and nearly spherical particles. A radiotracing method was used to characterize the deposit evolution with time and to quantify the removal of magnetite particles. The results from a series of deposition experiments are presented here. The deposition process is described in terms of a two-step mechanism: the transport step, involving the transport from the bulk of the liquid to the vicinity of the surface, followed by the attachment step, involving the attachment of the particle onto the surface. Under non-boiling heat transfer conditions, diffusion seems to be the dominant factor ruling deposition with a small contribution from thermophoresis; removal was

  15. Deposition of magnetite particles onto alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, M.; Arbeau, N.; McInerney, J.; Lister, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    Fouling is a particularly serious problem in the power generating industry. Deposits modify the thermalhydraulic characteristics of heat transfer surfaces by changing the resistance to heat transfer and the resistance to fluid flow, and, if thick enough, can harbour aggressive chemicals. Deposits are also implicated in the increase of radiation fields around working areas in the primary heat transfer systems of nuclear power plants. In order to understand the preliminary steps of the formation of corrosion product deposits on the outsides of steam generator tubes, a laboratory program has investigated the deposition of magnetite particles from suspension in water onto Alloy-800 surfaces under various conditions of flow, chemistry and boiling heat transfer. A recirculating loop made of stainless steel operating at less than 400kPa pressure, with a nominal coolant temperature of 90 degrees C, was equipped with a vertical glass column which housed a 2.5E-01m-long Alloy-800 boiler tube capable of generating a heat flux of 240kW/m 2 . A concentration of suspended magnetite of 5.0E-03kg/m 3 was maintained in the recirculating coolant, which was maintained at a pH of 7.5. The magnetite was synthesized with a sol-gel process, which was developed to produce reproducibly monodispersed, colloidal (<1μm) and nearly spherical particles. A radiotracing method was used to characterize the deposit evolution with time and to quantify the removal of magnetite particles. The results from a series of deposition experiments are presented here. The deposition process is described in terms of a two-step mechanism: the transport step, involving the transport from the bulk of the liquid to the vicinity of the surface, followed by the attachment step, involving the attachment of the particle onto the surface. Under non-boiling heat transfer conditions, diffusion seems to be the dominant factor ruling deposition with a small contribution from thermophoresis; removal was considered

  16. Acidic deposition and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, N.P.; Ecsedy, C.; Olem, H.; Nikolaidis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    A literature is presented which examines the research published on understanding ecosystem acidification and the effects of acidic deposition on freshwaters. Topics of discussion include the following: acidic deposition; regional assessments; atmospheric deposition and transport; aquatic effects; mathematical modeling; liming acidic waters; global climate change; atmospheric changes; climate feedbacks; and aquatic effects

  17. 19 CFR 210.28 - Depositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depositions. 210.28 Section 210.28 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Discovery and Compulsory Process § 210.28 Depositions. (a) When depositions may be...

  18. 47 CFR 32.4040 - Customers' deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customers' deposits. 32.4040 Section 32.4040... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4040 Customers' deposits. (a) This account shall include the amount of cash deposited with the company by customers as security...

  19. Dry deposition of particles to ocean surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, S.E.; Edson, J.B.; Hummelshoj, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Leeuw, G. de; Mestayer, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    Dry deposition of atmospheric particles mainly depends on wind speed and particle diameter. The dry deposition velocity, Vd, is found to vary by a factor of 100-1,000 with diameter in a likely diameter range, adding uncertainty to deposition estimates, because the diameter distribution for many

  20. European wet deposition maps based on measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen EP van; Erisman JW; Draaijers GPJ; Potma CJM; Pul WAJ van; LLO

    1995-01-01

    To date, wet deposition maps on a European scale have been based on long-range transport model results. For most components wet deposition maps based on measurements are only available on national scales. Wet deposition maps of acidifying components and base cations based on measurements are needed

  1. Atmospheric concentrations and deposition of oxidised sulfur and nitrogen species at Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, 1993-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, G.P.; Gillett, R.W.; Manins, P.C. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, VIC (Australia); Peng Leong Chow; Fook Lim Sze [Malaysian Meteorological Service, Petaling Jaya (Malaysia); Kong Cheah Wai [Tenaga Nasional R and D Berhad, Kajang (Malaysia)

    2000-02-01

    Wet-only rainwater composition, acid-precursor gas mixing ratios and aerosol loading were determined from weekly-averaged samples at Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, over the five year period from March 1993 to March 1998. Annual deposition fluxes of acidic sulfur and nitrogen species estimated from these data show this site to be heavily impacted by acidic deposition, with total oxidised sulfur plus nitrogen deposition in the range 277-480 meq m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. Average contributions were 56% as sulfur species, 44% as nitrogen species, with wet deposition in this region of high rainfall accounting for 67% of total deposition. Thus total acid deposition fluxes were equivalent to levels that provided motivation for emissions reduction programs in both Europe and North America. The possibility of adverse environmental effects in Malaysia caused by acid deposition therefore merits serious consideration and assessment.

  2. Occupational monitoring at radioactive waste deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner S.; Cunha, Franklin S. [Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (COMAP.N/FCN/INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Fábrica de Combustível Nuclear. Coordenação de Meio Ambiente e Proteção Radiológica Ambiental; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br, E-mail: franklincunha@inb.gov.br, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.com, E-mail: Ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The Initial Deposit of Low Activity Radioactive Waste - DIRBA is an ancillary facility to the Nuclear Fuel Factory - FCN for the initial storage of low activity radioactive waste generated in the nuclear fuel cycle under the responsibility of the FCN. Currently approximately 460 200-liter drums containing Class 2.3 waste are stored: Waste containing Natural Radionuclides (RBMN-RN). As part of the nuclear licensing of the facility, an area radiological monitoring program was developed with monthly monitoring of 17 exposure points, 3 direct long-distance air sampling points with CAM alpha-7 monitors, monitored in January and 9 points where smears of alpha long half-life emitters were monitored in January. The mean exposure rate between points was 0.5 μSv∙h{sup -1}, with a maximum of 1.27 μSv∙h{sup -1} varying, on average, between 0.98 μSv∙h{sup -1} at point P1 to 0.23 μSv∙h{sup -1} at P11. The monthly average was the same, 0.50 μSv∙h-1, ranging from 0.46 μSv∙h{sup -1} (November) to 0.57 μSv∙h{sup -1} (August). The half-life long-lived alpha sampling were all below the MDA as well as the 9 smears. Regarding the requirements of monitored areas, the deposit must be considered as supervised area, from the point of view of radioprotection. The possibility of tipping the drums or other accidents with spillage of material contained into them caused, in a proactive way, the area to be considered a controlled area. (author)

  3. Diffusion and deposition of the Schooner clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Todd V [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Schooner was a 31-kt nuclear cratering experiment done as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Plowshare Program. Detonation was at 0800 PST on December 8, 1968 at the Nevada Test Site. The resulting cloud had ceased its dynamic growth by about H+4 min. Two distinct parts, a base surge and a main cloud, were evident. Thereafter, further cloud growth was by diffusion and fallout as the cloud moved downwind. Aircraft sampling of the cloud at H+12.5 min revealed that the main cloud part contained about 10 times as much radioactivity as the base surge part. Later aircraft data, local fallout field measurements, and airborne particle size data indicate that the H+12.5-min cloud burdens, primarily the tungsten isotopes, were depleted by a factor of about 2, due to fallout, over the next few hours. The remaining airborne cloud burdens for each cloud were used as input to diffusion calculations. Calculated main cloud center concentrations using observed cloud sizes, cloud burdens, and meteorology agree with measurements to better than a factor of 2 over 1 1/2 days. These postshot calculations and data are about a factor of 3 higher than calculations done preshot. Base surge calculations are consistent with available data to within about a factor of 4, but the data needed to perform as complete an analysis as was done for the main cloud do not exist. Fallout, as distinguished from deposition of nonfalling debris, was important to a distance of about 500 km for the main cloud and to a distance of about 100 km for the base surge. At distances closer to ground zero, diffusion calculations under-predicted ground level concentration and deposition, but an isotopically scaled external gross gamma fallout calculation was within about a factor of 3 of the data. At larger distances downwind for the base surge, ground level exposure rate calculations and deposition for a variety of nuclides agree to within about a factor of 3 of measurements. (author)

  4. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  5. Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition as a tool for deposition of thin film battery materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, J.F.M.; Dongen, van T.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition was utilized for the deposition of LiCoO2 cathode materials for all-solid-state thin-film micro-batteries. To obtain insight in the deposition process, the most important process parameters were optimized for the deposition of crystalline electrode films on

  6. Dual Nitrate Isotopes in Dry Deposition: Utility for Partitioning Nox Source Contributions to Landscape Nitrogen Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry deposition is a major component of total nitrogen deposition and thus an important source of bioavailable nitrogen to ecosystems. However, relative to wet deposition, less is known regarding the sources and spatial variability of dry deposition. This is in part due to diffi...

  7. Canadian geologic isolation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyne, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Canadian geologic isolation program is directed at examining the potential of (1) salt deposits and (2) hard rock as repositories for radioactive wastes. It was felt essential from the inception that alternative host rocks be evaluated over a fairly large geographical area. The studies on salt deposits to date are based on existing geological information and have identified the areas that show some potential and merit further study. The factors considered include depth, thickness and purity of the deposit, overlying aquifers, and the potential for gas and oil exploration as well as potash recovery. The studies on hard rock are restricted to plutonic igneous rocks in the Ontario part of the Canadian Shield. Because geological information on their nature and extent is sparse, the study is limited to bodies that are well exposed and for which information is available.for which information is available. Field studies in the next two seasons are aimed at mapping the fault and joint patterns and defining the geologic controls on their development. In 1977 and 1978, two or three of the more favorable sites will be mapped in greater detail, and an exploratory drilling program will be established to determine the extent of fracturing at depth and the hydrology of these fractures. Conceptual designs of mined repositories in hard rock are also being made with the hope of identifying, at an early stage in this program, special problems in hard-rock repositories that may require development and study

  8. Towards a genetic classification of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.

    2009-01-01

    As the IAEA's uranium deposit classification is based on the deposit nature and morphology, some deposits which have been formed by very different genetic processes and located in very different geological environments, are grouped according to this classification. In order to build up a reliable genetic classification based on the mechanism at the origin of the formation of the deposit, the author presents the five main categories according to which uranium deposits can be classified: magmatic, hydrothermal, evapotranspiration, syn-sedimentary, and infiltration of meteoric water

  9. A new sampler for simulating aerosol deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dehong; Zhuo Weihai; Yi Yanling; Chen Bo; Liu Haikuan

    2008-01-01

    For estimation of the deposition fractions of radon progeny in different regions of the respiratory tract, a new sampler consisting of three different configurations of sampling heads was developed. The deposition fractions of aerosols on the wire screens inside the sampling heads were calculated with the fan model of filtration theory. The deposition fractions of aerosols in different regions of the respiratory tract were calculated with the lung dose evaluation program (LUDEP) developed by National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) as references. In general indoor and mine environments, the deviation between the deposition fractions of attached aerosol on the wire screens designed in this study and its reference values in the respiratory tract is less than 5%. It is possible to accurately estimate the deposition fractions of radon progeny in different regions of the respiratory tract through mimic measurements of radon progeny collected with the new sampler. (authors)

  10. Prediction of ash deposition using CFD simulation combined to thermodynamic calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshi Muratani; Takashi Hongo [UBE Industries, Ltd., Yamaguchi (Japan). Coal Department, Energy and Environment Division

    2007-07-01

    This study focused on the advanced ash deposition prediction using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis combined to thermodynamic calculation, considering both combustion characteristics and ash fusibility. Combustion field in pulverised coal-fired boiler was calculated through the normal CFD process. As the post process of combustion calculation, ash particles were injected into the combustion field to calculate ash deposition by CFD, in which particle sticking sub-program was newly employed. In this post process, ash deposition condition for CFD calculation was defined with the ash fusibility data obtained from thermodynamic analysis. These results of ash deposition on the furnace wall showed good agreement with the plant observation. Furthermore, in order to improve the plant operation, some virtual cases were simulated, which might reduce ash deposition. 7 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Minerals deposited as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Leyt, D.V. de; Custo, Graciela

    1987-01-01

    Free matrix effects are due to thin film deposits. Thus, it was decided to investigate this technique as a possibility to use pure oxide of the desired element, extrapolating its concentration from analytical curves made with avoiding, at the same time, mathematical corrections. The proposed method was employed to determine iron and titanium concentrations in geological samples. The range studied was 0.1-5%m/m for titanium and 5-20%m/m for iron. For both elements the reproducibility was about 7% and differences between this method and other chemical determinations were 15% for titanium and 7% for iron. (Author) [es

  12. Hinkler Well - Centipede uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, D.; Dudley, R.; Mann, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Hinkler Well - Centipede deposits are near the northeastern margin of the Archean Yilgarn Block on a drainage system entering Lake Way. Basement rocks are granitoids and greenstones. The rocks are deeply weathered and overlain by alluvism. Granitoids, the probable uranium source, currently contain up to 25 ppm uranium, in spite of the weathering. The host calcrete body is 33 km long and 2 km wide. Uranium up to 1000 ppm occurs in carnotite over a 15 km by 2.5 km area. (author)

  13. Surficial uranium deposits: summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otton, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium occurs in a variety of surficial environments in calcretes, gypcretes, silcretes, dolocretes and in organic sediments. Groundwater moving on low gradients generates these formations and, under favourable circumstances, uranium deposits. A variety of geomorphic settings can be involved. Most surficial deposits are formed in desert, temperate wetland, tropical, or transitional environments. The largest deposits known are in sedimentary environments in arid lands. The deposits form largely by the interaction of ground or surface waters on the geomorphic surface in favourable geologic terrains and climates. The deposits are commonly in the condition of being formed or reconstituted, or being destroyed. Carnotite is common in desert deposits while in wetland deposits no uranium minerals may be seen. Radioactive disequilibrium is common, particularly in wetland deposits. Granites and related rocks are major source rocks and most large deposits are in regions with enriched uranium contents, i.e. significantly greater than 5 ppm uranium. Uranium dissolution and transport is usually under oxidizing conditions. Transport in desert conditions is usually as a bicarbonate. A variety of fixation mechanisms operate to extract the uranium and form the deposits. Physical barriers to groundwater flow may initiate ore deposition. Mining costs are likely to be low because of the near surface occurrence, but there may be processing difficulties as clay may be present and the saline or carbonate content may be high. (author)

  14. Carbon deposition and hydrogen retention in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    The results of measurements on co-deposition of hydrogen isotopes and wall materials, hydrogen retention, redeposition of carbon and deposition of hydrogen on PMI of JT-60U are described. From above results, selection of plasma facing material and ability of carbon wall is discussed. Selection of plasma facing materials in fusion reactor, characteristics of carbon materials as the plasma facing materials, erosion, transport and deposition of carbon impurity, deposition of tritium in JET, results of PMI in JT-60, application of carbon materials to PFM of ITER, and future problems are stated. Tritium co-deposition in ITER, erosion and transport of carbon in tokamak, distribution of tritium deposition on graphite tile used as bumper limiter of TFTR, and measurement results of deposition of tritium on the Mark-IIA divertor tile and comparison between them are described. (S.Y.)

  15. Electrostatic Deposition of Large-Surface Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Trudeau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a method for electrostatic deposition of graphene over a large area using controlled electrostatic exfoliation from a Highly Ordered Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG block. Deposition over 130 × 130 µm2 with 96% coverage is achieved, which contrasts with sporadic micro-scale depositions of graphene with little control from previous works on electrostatic deposition. The deposition results are studied by Raman micro-spectroscopy and hyperspectral analysis using large fields of view to allow for the characterization of the whole deposition area. Results confirm that laser pre-patterning of the HOPG block prior to cleaving generates anchor points favoring a more homogeneous and defect-free HOPG surface, yielding larger and more uniform graphene depositions. We also demonstrate that a second patterning of the HOPG block just before exfoliation can yield features with precisely controlled geometries.

  16. Remediation of spent block in Uvanas deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurgaziev, M.A.; Iskakov, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 by 'Kazatomprom' and 'Mining company' board decision, the branch of 'Mining company', 'Steppe ore management body' is reorganized in structure subdivision, the basic activity of which is organization and carrying out remediation works on spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit. In 2002 works are completed on OVOS for operating deposits Uvanas, Kanjugan, Northern Karamurun and Eastern Minkuduk. The results of present work were reported in IAEA conference. The working project 'Remediation of spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit PV-17 polygon of Steppe ore management body' approved in 2005 was developed for carrying out the remediation works. Works funding were carried out from liquidation fund of the current deposit established in accordance with the Republic of Kazakhstan law 'About interior and interior use'. Deposits remediation is the part of deposit operation life cycle which obliges to operate deposits with minimum expenditures for remediation.

  17. The Complex Resistivity Spectrum Characteristics About Stratabound Sulfide Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, P.; Sun, B.; Wang, L.; Chen, Z.; Dong, Z.; Wu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Complex resistivity method has become the key technique of deep prospecting, and widely applied in stratabound sulfide deposits which often form massive ores. However, the complex resistivity spectrum characteristics of stratabound sulfide deposits remains unknown. Through studying variation problem of two-dimensional polarization medium, deducing the differential equations and calculating formula,we applied Cole-Cole model to deduce the spectrum of complex resistivity based on the model of three-node and four-node finite element method, and programmed homologous procedure. We utilized the Earth Model of Geological Layers which has accurate analytical solution to test rationality and accuracy of our modeling. We applied the layer structure provided by drilling results in Chenmenshan copper mine,which is typical strata-bound sulfide deposits in Jiangxi province,China, and calculated the spectra of complex resistivity, then made comparison between modeled and measured values. We find good corellation between them. Our studies may have imporved the interpretation of complex resistivity data, which help apply complex resistivity methods of propecting on stratabound sulfide deposites.

  18. Geochemistry of the Cigar Lake uranium deposit: XPS studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunder, S.; Cramer, J.J.; Miller, N.H.

    1996-01-01

    Samples of uranium ore from the Cigar Lake deposit in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, were analyzed using XPS. High-resolution spectra were recorded for the strongest bands of the major elements (U 4f, C 1 s, O 1 s, Pb 4 f, S 2 p, Cu 2 p, Fe 2 p, and the valence region (0-20 eV)) to obtain chemical state information for these samples. In general, the U VI /U IV ratio was very low, i.e., much less than 0.5, the threshold for the oxidative dissolution of UO 2 . The low values of the U VI /U IV ratio observed for samples from the Cigar Lake deposit indicate thermodynamic stability of the uranium ore in the reduced aqueous environment. Similarities between the disposal vault envisaged in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program and the Cigar Lake deposit suggest that, if geochemical conditions in the vault were to be similar to those in the deposit, the long-term dissolution of UO 2 fuel would be very minimal. (orig.)

  19. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments.

  20. Functional Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Chitil, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Functional programming is a programming paradigm like object-oriented programming and logic programming. Functional programming comprises both a specific programming style and a class of programming languages that encourage and support this programming style. Functional programming enables the programmer to describe an algorithm on a high-level, in terms of the problem domain, without having to deal with machine-related details. A program is constructed from functions that only map inputs to ...

  1. Late Strunian age : a key time frame for VMS deposit exploration in the Iberian Pyrite Belt

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, João Xavier; Pereira, Zélia; Rosa, Carlos J. P.; Rosa, Diogo R. N.; Oliveira, José Tomás; Relvas, Jorge M. R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Estimate of geological environments favorable for the formation of massive sulphide deposits is an important goal to the exploration companies working in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), the main European VMS base metals province, with giant deposits such as Neves Corvo, Aljustrel (Portugal), Rio Tinto and Tharsis (Spain). Palynostratigraphic research programs using more than 40 exploration boreholes (>30 km length) allowed the dating of the sediments of the Volcano-Sedimentary Comp...

  2. An innovative jet boring mining method available for the high grade uranium ore underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narcy, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    An innovative mining method, based on the capability of a high pressure water jet to desaggregate rock, has been conceived and tested with success at the highest grade uranium ore deposit in the world, the Cigar Lake deposit in Saskatchewan, Canada. 113 tonnes of ore at 13% U were mined out by a new jet-boring mining method operated on a semi-industrial basis, in 1992 during the test mining program of Cigar Lake Project. (author). 9 figs

  3. Sediment quality in depositional areas of Shelikof Strait and outermost Cook Inlet, July 1997 - July 1998 (NODC Accession 0000702)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Minerals Management Service (MMS) program "Sediment Quality in Depositional Areas of Shelikof Strait and Outermost Cook Inlet," consisted of a two-year study...

  4. Atmosfærisk deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermann, T.; Hertel, O.; Kemp, K.

    Kvælstofdepositionen til danske havområder, fjorde, vige og bugte er for 2001 blevet beregnet til 118 ktons N, hvilket er ca. 20 % lavere end i 2000. Tilsvarende er depositionen til landområderne beregnet til 87 ktons N, hvilket svarer til deposition i 2000. Den primære årsag til den højere...... deposition for 1999-2001, i forhold til tidligere år, er ændringer i beregningsmetoden. Den samlede kvælstofdeposition til farvandene er faldet svagt i perioden 1989-2001. Depositionen til landoverflader skønnes ikke ændret betydeligt. Depositionen af svovlforbindelser til danske landområder er for 2001...... estimeret til ca. 20 ktons S. Baseret på store og signifikante fald i koncentrationer og våddeposition af svovl vurderes, at den samlede svovldeposition er faldet med ca. 50% siden 1989. For fosfor vurderes, at der ikke er sket betydelige ændringer i koncentrationer og depositioner. Depositioner og...

  5. Legal Deposit of Digital Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Oltmans

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital publishing is causing a real paradigm shift for research institutions and publishers, as well as for libraries. As a consequence these institutions have to develop new policies, new business models and new infrastructures and techniques. A major problem is that, at the same rate at which our world is becoming digital, the digital information is threatened. New types of hardware, computer applications and file formats supersede each other, making our recorded digital information inaccessible in the long-term. In the past years libraries and archives have undertaken several actions and studies on digital preservation issues. For instance the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (KB has jointly with IBM developed a standard-based deposit system: Digital Information Archiving System ( DIAS. Using DIAS the KB realised in 2002 an electronic deposit (the e-Depot and signed archiving agreements with major science publishers for permanent keeping of their digital materials. In this paper I will discuss the fully operational e-Depot at the KB. I will focus on the data flow of processing the digital publications, and I will address the issue of digital preservation in detail.

  6. Gene expression and morphogenesis during the deposition of Drosophila wing cuticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Paul N

    2017-07-03

    The exoskeleton of insects and other arthropods is a very versatile material that is characterized by a complex multilayer structure. In Sobala and Adler (2016) we analyzed the process of wing cuticle deposition by RNAseq and electron microscopy. In this extra view we discuss the unique aspects of the envelope the first and most outermost layer and the gene expression program seen at the end of cuticle deposition. We discussed the role of undulae in the deposition of cuticle and how the hydrophobicity of wing cuticle arises.

  7. Fundamental Mechanisms of Roughening and Smoothing During Thin Film Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headrick, Randall [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2016-03-18

    In this research program, we have explored the fundamental limits for thin film deposition in both crystalline and amorphous (i.e. non-crystalline) materials systems. For vacuum-based physical deposition processes such as sputter deposition, the background gas pressure of the inert gas (usually argon) used as the process gas has been found to be a key variable. Both a roughness transition and stress transition as a function of pressure have been linked to a common mechanism involving collisions of energetic particles from the deposition source with the process inert gas. As energetic particles collide with gas molecules in the deposition process they lose their energy rapidly if the pressure (and background gas density) is above a critical value. Both roughness and stress limit important properties of thin films for applications. In the area of epitaxial growth we have also discovered a related effect; there is a critical pressure below which highly crystalline layers grow in a layer-by-layer mode. This effect is also though to be due to energetic particle thermalization and scattering. Several other important effects such as the observation of coalescence dominated growth has been observed. This mode can be likened to the behavior of two-dimensional water droplets on the hood of a car during a rain storm; as the droplets grow and touch each other they tend to coalesce rapidly into new larger circular puddles, and this process proceeds exponentially as larger puddles overtake smaller ones and also merge with other large puddles. This discovery will enable more accurate simulations and modeling of epitaxial growth processes. We have also observed that epitaxial films undergo a roughening transition as a function of thickness, which is attributed to strain induced by the crystalline lattice mismatch with the substrate crystal. In addition, we have studied another physical deposition process called pulsed laser deposition. It differs from sputter deposition due to the

  8. Aerosol Deposition in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The success of inhalation therapy is not only dependent upon the pharmacology of the drugs being inhaled but also upon the site and extent of deposition in the respiratory tract. This article reviews the main mechanisms affecting the transport and deposition of inhaled aerosol in the human lung. Aerosol deposition in both the healthy and diseased lung is described mainly based on the results of human studies using nonimaging techniques. This is followed by a discussion of the effect of flow regime on aerosol deposition. Finally, the link between therapeutic effects of inhaled drugs and their deposition pattern is briefly addressed. Data show that total lung deposition is a poor predictor of clinical outcome, and that regional deposition needs to be assessed to predict therapeutic effectiveness. Indeed, spatial distribution of deposited particles and, as a consequence, drug efficiency is strongly affected by particle size. Large particles (>6 μm) tend to mainly deposit in the upper airway, limiting the amount of drugs that can be delivered to the lung. Small particles (<2 μm) deposit mainly in the alveolar region and are probably the most apt to act systemically, whereas the particle in the size range 2–6 μm are be best suited to treat the central and small airways. PMID:22686623

  9. Co-Cu-Au deposits in metasedimentary rocks-A preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Causey, J.D.; Eppinger, R.G.; Gray, J.E.; Johnson, C.A.; Lund, K.I.; Schulz, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    A compilation of data on global Co-Cu-Au deposits in metasedimentary rocks refines previous descriptive models for their occurrence and provides important information for mineral resource assessments and exploration programs. This compilation forms the basis for a new classification of such deposits, which is speculative at this early stage of research. As defined herein, the Co-Cu-Au deposits contain 0.1 percent or more by weight of Co in ore or mineralized rock, comprising disseminated to semi-massive Co-bearing sulfide minerals with associated Fe- and Cu-bearing sulfides, and local gold, concentrated predominantly within rift-related, siliciclastic metasedimentary rocks of Proterozoic age. Some deposits have appreciable Ag ? Bi ? W ? Ni ? Y ? rare earth elements ? U. Deposit geometry includes stratabound and stratiform layers, lenses, and veins, and (or) discordant veins and breccias. The geometry of most deposits is controlled by stratigraphic layering, folds, axial-plane cleavage, shear zones, breccias, or faults. Ore minerals are mainly cobaltite, skutterudite, glaucodot, and chalcopyrite, with minor gold, arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, bismuthinite, and bismuth; some deposits have appreciable tetrahedrite, uraninite, monazite, allanite, xenotime, apatite, scheelite, or molybdenite. Magnetite can be abundant in breccias, veins, or stratabound lenses within ore or surrounding country rocks. Common gangue minerals include quartz, biotite, muscovite, K-feldspar, albite, chlorite, and scapolite; many deposits contain minor to major amounts of tourmaline. Altered wall rocks generally have abundant biotite or albite. Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary successions constitute the predominant geologic setting. Felsic and (or) mafic plutons are spatially associated with many deposits and at some localities may be contemporaneous with, and involved in, ore formation. Geoenvironmental data for the Blackbird mining district in central Idaho indicate that weathering of

  10. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways: Progress report, June 1, 1988--February 28, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this research program is to elucidate important factors which influence overall and local deposition of aerosols in the human airways above the trachea, including nasal airways, oral passage, pharynx and larynx. The intent is to develop information which can be used for exposure models for radon from unattached radon progeny (/approximately/1nm) up to 10 μm. Special emphasis is upon flow rate and airway dimensions as influenced by age and respiratory condition, as no experimental data presently exist for age-related deposition. Because of ethical and practical considerations associated with measuring aerosol deposition in children and difficulties of measuring local deposition in vivo, our experimental approach is to construct faithful replicate models of the airways for several ages of humans in which detailed studies of deposition can be carried out with well-characterized aerosols. Initial studies of overall deposition of ultrafine aerosols in an adult model have been carried out using replicate nasal passage models provided from this laboratory. These studies demonstrate a significant deposition percent for particle sizes approaching that of unattached radon progeny (40--50%), decreasing as particle size approaches 0.1 μm. Studies of the effect of flow rate indicate that higher deposition percent is realized at lower flow rate over the range from 4--60 lmin -1

  11. Criticality safety aspects of K-25 Building uranium deposit removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Ingram, J.C. III; Stinnet, E.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The K-25 Building of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now the K-25 Site) went into operation during World War II as the first large scale production plant to separate 235 U from uranium by the gaseous diffusion process. It operated successfully until 1964, when it was placed in a stand-by mode. The Department of Energy has initiated a decontamination and decommissioning program. The primary objective of the Deposit Removal (DR) Project is to improve the nuclear criticality safety of the K-25 Building by removing enriched uranium deposits from unfavorable-geometry process equipment to below minimum critical mass. The method utilized to accomplish this are detailed in this report

  12. Numerical investigation of ash deposition in straw-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    in the design phase of straw-fired boilers. Some of the primary model outputs include improved heat transfer rate predictions and detailed information about local deposit formation rates. This information is essential when boiler availability and efficiency is to be estimated. A stand-alone program has been...... accumulation rates encountered during straw combustion in grate-fired boilers. The sub-models have been based on information about the combustion and deposition properties of straw gathered from the literature and combined into a single Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based analysis tool which can aid...... transfer mechanisms have a pronounced influence on the combustion pattern. The combined set of sub-models has been evaluated using the straw-fired boiler at Masnedø CHP plant as a test case. The predicted grate combustion and KCl release patterns are in qualitative agreement with experimental findings...

  13. Criticality safety aspects of K-25 Building uranium deposit removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ingram, J.C. III; Stinnet, E.C. Jr. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The K-25 Building of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now the K-25 Site) went into operation during World War II as the first large scale production plant to separate {sup 235}U from uranium by the gaseous diffusion process. It operated successfully until 1964, when it was placed in a stand-by mode. The Department of Energy has initiated a decontamination and decommissioning program. The primary objective of the Deposit Removal (DR) Project is to improve the nuclear criticality safety of the K-25 Building by removing enriched uranium deposits from unfavorable-geometry process equipment to below minimum critical mass. The method utilized to accomplish this are detailed in this report.

  14. Surficial uranium deposits in Somalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briot, P.

    1984-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits in Somalia are of the valley-fill calcrete type and occur in the arid Mudugh Province of the Dusa Mareb-El Bur region. They are located in a belt about 240 km in length which is orientated parallel to the north-south regional tectonic framework. The uranium resources of the region amount to about 5,000 t U 3 O 8 at an average grade of 0.1% U 3 O 8 . Basement rocks constitute a 7,000 m thick succession of Jurassic to Quaternary sediments of the Somalian Basin. Uranium mineralization in the form of carnotite occurs in the uppermost Mercia Series. The origin of the uranium and vanadium is unclear due to a shortage of the favourable source rocks. (author)

  15. Heterogeneity in the Effects of Reward- and Deposit-based Financial Incentives on Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Benjamin; Small, Dylan S.; Saulsgiver, Kathryn; Harhay, Michael O.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Loewenstein, George; Asch, David A.; Volpp, Kevin G.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Targeting different smoking cessation programs to smokers most likely to quit when using them could reduce the burden of lung disease. Objectives: To identify smokers most likely to quit using pure reward-based financial incentives or incentive programs requiring refundable deposits to become eligible for rewards. Methods: We conducted prespecified secondary analyses of a randomized trial in which 2,538 smokers were assigned to an $800 reward contingent on sustained abstinence from smoking, a refundable $150 deposit plus a $650 reward, or usual care. Measurements and Main Results: Using logistic regression, we identified characteristics of smokers that were most strongly associated with accepting their assigned intervention and ceasing smoking for 6 months. We assessed modification of the acceptance, efficacy, and effectiveness of reward and deposit programs by 11 prospectively selected demographic, smoking-related, and psychological factors. Predictors of sustained smoking abstinence differed among participants assigned to reward- versus deposit-based incentives. However, greater readiness to quit and less steep discounting of future rewards were consistently among the most important predictors. Deposit-based programs were uniquely effective relative to usual care among men, higher-income participants, and participants who more commonly failed to pay their bills (all interaction P values patient characteristics. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01526265). PMID:27064456

  16. Carbonaceous deposits on naptha reforming catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redwan, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonaceous deposits on naphtha reforming catalysts play a decisive role in limiting process performance. The deposits negatively after catalyst activity, selectivity and the production cycle of a semi regenerative reformer. The magnitude of negative effect of those deposits is directly proportional to their amounts and complexity. Investigations on used reforming catalysts samples reveal that the amount and type (complexity of the chemical nature) of carbonaceous deposits are directly proportional to the catalysts life on stream and the severity of operating conditions. In addition, the combustibility behavior of carbonaceous deposits on the catalyst samples taken from different reformers are found to be different. Optimal carbon removal, for in situ catalyst regeneration, requires the specific conditions be developed, based on the results of well designed and properly performed investigations of the amount and type of carbonaceous deposits. (author)

  17. Deposition of aerosol particles in bent pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroshi; Ohhata, Tsutomu

    1989-01-01

    An equation to estimate deposition fraction of aerosol particles in a bent pipe is derived and the validity is verified experimentally. The equation is obtained by assuming that the resultant acceleration of the gravity and the centrifugal force induced in the bend acts on the aerosol particles, and is found to give a relatively accurate estimation of the deposition fraction if a certain correction factor is introduced to the equation. The deposition fraction has a minimum against Reynold number, and the deposition due to centrifugal force dominates at greater Reynolds number than that at the minimum deposition fraction. On the other hand, the smaller the radius of curvature of the bend is, the larger the deposition fraction due to the centrifugal force is. (author)

  18. Acid deposition. Origins, impacts and abatement strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S. (Manchester Polytechnic, Acid Rain Information Centre (United Kingdom). Dept. of Environmental and Geographical Studies) (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    The subject of acid deposition is one of the most important of our contemporary environmental problems. Presenting and discussing new data on the sources and effects of such deposition, this book seeks to assist in the definition of our future research requirements and policy developments. It is divided into four broad themes: Emissions, Chemistry and Deposition, Ecosystem Effects (freshwater, soils and forest systems), Effects on Structural Materials, and Mitigation, Control and Management. (orig.) With 130 figs.

  19. Ion vapor deposition and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, H.; Schulze, D.; Wilberg, R.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from the fundamentals of ion vapor deposition the characteristic properties of ion-plated coatings are briefly discussed. Examples are presented of successful applications of ion-plated coatings such as coatings with special electrical and dielectric properties, coatings for corrosion prevention, and coatings for improving the surface properties. It is concluded that ion vapor deposition is an advantageous procedure in addition to vapor deposition. (author)

  20. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  1. Information problems and deposit constraints at banks

    OpenAIRE

    Jith Jayaratne; Donald Morgan

    1997-01-01

    Following the investment-cash flow literature, we test whether bank lending is constrained by the availability of insured deposits--a necessary condition for the existence of bank lending channel of monetary policy. We treat insured deposits as a type of "internal fund," similar to cash flows. We use a simple model to sort out the possible identification issues in interpreting a lending-deposit correlation, including reverse causality and omitted variable bias. To minimize the latter, we spli...

  2. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    Ammonium carbonates are commonly used as the lixiviant for in-situ leaching of uranium ores. However this leads to the deposition of ammonium ions in the uranium ore formation and the problem of ammonia contamination of ground water which may find its way into the drinking water supply. The ammonia contamination of the ore deposit may be reduced by injecting an aqueous solution of a potassium salt (carbonate, bicarbonate, halide, sulfate, bisulfate, persulfate, or monopersulfate) into the deposit after mining has ceased

  3. A Hierarchical Agency Model of Deposit Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Carroll; Shino Takayama

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a hierarchical agency model of deposit insurance. The main purpose is to undertake a game theoretic analysis of the consequences of deposit insurance schemes and their effects on monitoring incentives for banks. Using this simple framework, we analyze both risk- independent and risk-dependent premium schemes along with reserve requirement constraints. The results provide policymakers with not only a better understanding of the effects of deposit insurance on welfare and th...

  4. Urban acid deposition in Greater Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E. (Manchester Polytechnic, Manchester (UK). Acid Rain Information Centre)

    1989-08-01

    Data are presented from a monitoring network of 18 bulk precipitation collectors and one wet-only collector in the urban area of Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. Weekly samples were analysed for all the major ions in precipitation along with gaseous nitrogen dioxide concentrations from diffusion tubes. Statistical analysis of the data shows significant spatial variation of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and calcium concentrations, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Calcium is thought to be responsible for the buffering of acidity and is of local origin. Wet deposition is the likely removal process for calcium in the atmosphere and probably by below cloud scavenging. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations and depositions show close spatial, temporal and statistical association. Examination of high simultaneous episodes of nitrate and ammonium deposition shows that these depositions cannot be explained in terms of trajectories and it is suggested that UK emissions of ammonia may be important. Statistical analysis of the relationships between nitrate and ammonium depositions, concentrations and precipitation amount suggest that ammonia from mesoscale sources reacts reversibly with nitric acid aerosol and is removed by below cloud scavenging. High episodes of the deposition of non marine sulphate are difficult to explain by trajectory analysis alone, perhaps suggesting local sources. In a comparison between wet deposition and bulk deposition, it was shown that only 15.2% of the non marine sulphur was dry deposited to the bulk precipitation collector. 63 refs., 86 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Uraniferous surficial deposits in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Levin, M.; Wagener, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits are located in the north-western Cape Province of South Africa, in the Namib Desert east of Walvis Bay in South West Africa/Namibia and in the Serule Block of Botswana. They have been classified into the valley-fill, lacustrine, and pedogenic types. Carnotite is the main uranium-bearing mineral in the larger surficial deposits, with other minerals such as soddyite and phosphuranylite occurring locally. Uraninite or urano-organic complexes occur in the reducing environments of the diatomaceous earth, peat-rich deposits. Economically, the valley-fill type is the most important, with the largest deposits occurring in South West Africa/Namibia. In South West Africa/Namibia the valley-fill surficial uranium deposits occur in the Tumas and Langer Heinrich formations of the Teriary to Recent Namib Group. The Tubas, Langer Heinrich, and Welwitchia deposits are discussed: in them, carnotite occurs in calcareous and gypsiferous fluvial gravels. The pedogenic deposit at Mile 72 occurs in weathered granite and overlying gypcrete and has little economic potential. The economic potential of the surficial deposits in the north-western Cape Province is very limited in comparison with their South West African/Namibian counterparts, but the most important deposits are the lacustrine type, in particular those containing peat and diatomaceous earth. The mechanisms for the precipitation and preservation of the uranium are discussed

  6. Deposition of corrosion products in-core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.

    1994-11-01

    Data on corrosion product deposits on fuel sheaths are presented for a variety of operating conditions and water chemistries: boiling and non-boiling water; surface heat flux; pH, dissolved hydrogen concentration. Corrosion product behaviour in-core may be interpreted in terms of the solubility of magnetite and how it changes with water chemistry and temperature. A hypothesis of the deposition and release mechanisms was proposed in the 1970s in which particles deposited onto the sheath and subsequently dissolved in the heated water while being irradiated. Some of the deposition data may be interpreted using a model of these mechanisms. (author). 5 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  7. Low-fluorine Stockwork Molybdenite Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2009-01-01

    Low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits are closely related to porphyry copper deposits, being similar in their tectonic setting (continental volcanic arc) and the petrology (calc-alkaline) of associated igneous rock types. They are mainly restricted to the Cordillera of western Canada and the northwest United States, and their distribution elsewhere in the world may be limited. The deposits consist of stockwork bodies of molybdenite-bearing quartz veinlets that are present in and around the upper parts of intermediate to felsic intrusions. The deposits are relatively low grade (0.05 to 0.2 percent Mo), but relatively large, commonly >50 million tons. The source plutons for these deposits range from granodiorite to granite in composition; the deposits primarily form in continental margin subduction-related magmatic arcs, often concurrent with formation of nearby porphyry copper deposits. Oxidation of pyrite in unmined deposits or in tailings and waste rock during weathering can lead to development of acid-rock drainage and limonite-rich gossans. Waters associated with low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits tend to be nearly neutral in pH; variable in concentrations of molybdenum (10,000 ug/L); below regulatory guidelines for copper, iron, lead, zinc, and mercury; and locally may exceed guidelines for arsenic, cadmium, and selenium.

  8. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronne, Antonio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco [CNR-SPIN and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Calabria, Raffaela [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Califano, Valeria, E-mail: v.califano@im.cnr.it [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Fanelli, Esther [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Massoli, Patrizio [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Vicari, Luciano R.M. [CNR-SPIN and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Lipase from Candida Rugosa was deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) on KBr pellets, mica and glass substrate. • The deposited film was characterized morphologically and structurally by optical microscopy, SEM and FTIR analysis. • Results of characterization underlined a phenomenon of aggregation taking place. • The aggregation phenomenon was reversible since lipase showed activity in the transesterification reaction between soybean oil and isopropyl alcohol once detached from the substrate. - Abstract: Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.

  9. Spray deposition using impulse atomization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellendt, N.; Schmidt, R.; Knabe, J.; Henein, H.; Uhlenwinkel, V.

    2004-01-01

    A novel technique, impulse atomization, has been used for spray deposition. This single fluid atomization technique leads to different spray characteristics and impact conditions of the droplets compared to gas atomization technique which is the common technique used for spray deposition. Deposition experiments with a Cu-6Sn alloy were conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of impulse atomization to produce dense material. Based on these experiments, a model has been developed to simulate the thermal history and the local solidification rates of the deposited material. A numerical study shows how different cooling conditions affect the solidification rate of the material

  10. Tungsten Deposition on Graphite using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Uttam; Chauhan, Sachin S; Sharma, Jayshree; Sanyasi, A K; Ghosh, J; Choudhary, K K; Ghosh, S K

    2016-01-01

    The tokamak concept is the frontrunner for achieving controlled thermonuclear reaction on earth, an environment friendly way to solve future energy crisis. Although much progress has been made in controlling the heated fusion plasmas (temperature ∼ 150 million degrees) in tokamaks, technological issues related to plasma wall interaction topic still need focused attention. In future, reactor grade tokamak operational scenarios, the reactor wall and target plates are expected to experience a heat load of 10 MW/m 2 and even more during the unfortunate events of ELM's and disruptions. Tungsten remains a suitable choice for the wall and target plates. It can withstand high temperatures, its ductile to brittle temperature is fairly low and it has low sputtering yield and low fuel retention capabilities. However, it is difficult to machine tungsten and hence usages of tungsten coated surfaces are mostly desirable. To produce tungsten coated graphite tiles for the above-mentioned purpose, a coating reactor has been designed, developed and made operational at the SVITS, Indore. Tungsten coating on graphite has been attempted and successfully carried out by using radio frequency induced plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (rf -PECVD) for the first time in India. Tungsten hexa-fluoride has been used as a pre-cursor gas. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) clearly showed the presence of tungsten coating on the graphite samples. This paper presents the details of successful operation and achievement of tungsten coating in the reactor at SVITS. (paper)

  11. Heterogeneity in the Effects of Reward- and Deposit-based Financial Incentives on Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Scott D; French, Benjamin; Small, Dylan S; Saulsgiver, Kathryn; Harhay, Michael O; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Loewenstein, George; Asch, David A; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-10-15

    Targeting different smoking cessation programs to smokers most likely to quit when using them could reduce the burden of lung disease. To identify smokers most likely to quit using pure reward-based financial incentives or incentive programs requiring refundable deposits to become eligible for rewards. We conducted prespecified secondary analyses of a randomized trial in which 2,538 smokers were assigned to an $800 reward contingent on sustained abstinence from smoking, a refundable $150 deposit plus a $650 reward, or usual care. Using logistic regression, we identified characteristics of smokers that were most strongly associated with accepting their assigned intervention and ceasing smoking for 6 months. We assessed modification of the acceptance, efficacy, and effectiveness of reward and deposit programs by 11 prospectively selected demographic, smoking-related, and psychological factors. Predictors of sustained smoking abstinence differed among participants assigned to reward- versus deposit-based incentives. However, greater readiness to quit and less steep discounting of future rewards were consistently among the most important predictors. Deposit-based programs were uniquely effective relative to usual care among men, higher-income participants, and participants who more commonly failed to pay their bills (all interaction P values rewards, deposits were more effective among black persons (P = 0.022) and those who more commonly failed to pay their bills (P = 0.082). Relative to rewards, deposits were more commonly accepted by higher-income participants, men, white persons, and those who less commonly failed to pay their bills (all P incentives suggests potential benefits of targeting behavior-change interventions based on patient characteristics. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01526265).

  12. Fission products in National Atmospheric Deposition Program—Wet deposition samples prior to and following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident, March 8?April 5, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Nilles, Mark A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Gay, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes I-131, Cs-134, or Cs-137, products of uranium fission, were measured at approximately 20 percent of 167 sampled National Atmospheric Deposition Program monitoring sites in North America (primarily in the contiguous United States and Alaska) after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident on March 12, 2011. Samples from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program were analyzed for the period of March 8-April 5, 2011. Calculated 1- or 2-week radionuclide deposition fluxes at 35 sites from Alaska to Vermont ranged from 0.47 to 5,100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period of March 15-April 5, 2011. No fission-product isotopes were measured in National Atmospheric Deposition Program samples obtained during March 8-15, 2011, prior to the arrival of contaminated air in North America.

  13. Rare Earth Elements (REE Deposits Associated with Great Plain Margin Deposits (Alkaline-Related, Southwestern United States and Eastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia T. McLemore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available W.G. Lindgren in 1933 first noted that a belt of alkaline-igneous rocks extends along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains and Basin and Range provinces from Alaska and British Columbia southward into New Mexico, Trans-Pecos Texas, and eastern Mexico and that these rocks contain relatively large quantities of important commodities such as, gold, fluorine, zirconium, rare earth elements (REE, tellurium, gallium, and other critical elements. In New Mexico, these deposits were called Great Plain Margin (GPM deposits, because this north-south belt of alkaline-igneous rocks roughly coincides with crustal thickening along the margin between the Great Plains physiographic province with the Basin and Range (including the Rio Grande rift and Rocky Mountains physiographic provinces, which extends into Trans-Pecos Texas and eastern Mexico. Since 1996, only minor exploration and development of these deposits in New Mexico, Texas, and eastern Mexico has occurred because of low commodity prices, permitting issues, and environmental concerns. However, as the current demand for gold and critical elements, such as REE and tellurium has increased, new exploration programs have encouraged additional research on the geology of these deposits. The lack of abundant quartz in these systems results in these deposits being less resistant to erosion, being covered, and not as well exposed as other types of quartz-rich deposits, therefore additional undiscovered alkaline-related gold and REE deposits are likely in these areas. Deposits of Th-REE-fluorite (±U, Nb epithermal veins and breccias are found in the several GPM districts, but typically do not contain significant gold, although trace amounts of gold are found in most GPM districts. Gold-rich deposits in these districts tend to have moderate to low REE and anomalously high tungsten and sporadic amounts of tellurium. Carbonatites are only found in New Mexico and Mexico. The diversity of igneous rocks, including

  14. Hideout in steam generator tube deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Franklin, K.J.; Turner, C.W.

    1998-05-01

    Hideout in deposits on steam generator tubes was studied using tubes coated with magnetite. Hideout from sodium chloride solutions at 279 degrees C was followed using an on-line high-temperature conductivity probe, as well as by chemical analysis of solution samples from the autoclave in which the studies were done. Significant hideout was observed only at a heat flux greater than 200 kW/m 2 , corresponding to a temperature drop greater than 2 degrees C across the deposits. The concentration factor resulting from the hideout increased highly non-linearly with the heat flux (varying as high as the fourth power of the heat flux). The decrease in the apparent concentration factor with increasing deposit thickness suggested that the pores in the deposit were occupied by a mixture of steam and water, which is consistent with the conclusion from the thermal conductivity measurements on deposits in a separate study. Analyses of the deposits after the hideout tests showed no evidence of any hidden-out solute species, probably due to the concentrations being very near the detection limits and to their escape from the deposit as the tests were being ended. This study showed that hideout in deposits may concentrate solutes in the steam generator bulk water by a factor as high as 2 x 10 3 . Corrosion was evident under the deposit in some tests, with some chromium enrichment on the surface of the tube. Chromium enrichment usually indicates an acidic environment, but the mobility required of chromium to become incorporated into the thick magnetite deposit may indicate corrosion under an alkaline environment. An alkaline environment could result from preferential accumulation of sodium in the solution in the deposit during the hideout process. (author)

  15. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    During the report period significant progress on the quantitative understanding of regional upper airway deposition of airborne particle has been realized. Replicate models of the human upper airways obtained from post-mortem casting of the nasal, oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal and upper tracheal regions and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the same regions of adults and children have been employed to determine the overall and local deposition characteristics of aerosols in the ultrafine (1--100 μm diameter) and fine (0.8--12 μm diameter) region. Studies have been carried out for both nasal and oral breathing during inspiratory and expiratory flow at constant flow rates representative of rest and states of exercise. The results of these investigations indicate that particles in the size range of ''unattached'' radon progeny (1--3 nm) are deposited in both the nasal and oral passages with high efficiency (60--80%) for both inspiration and expiration, with the nasal deposition being somewhat greater (5--10%) than oral deposition. The effect of flow rate on upper airway deposition for both pathways is not great; data analysis indicates that the deposition for all flow rates from 4--50 liters/minute can be grouped by plotting deposition vs Q- 1/8 , where Q is flow rate, a far weaker dependency than observed for inertial deposition. Diffusional transport is the primary mechanism of deposition, and size dependence can be accounted for by plotting, deposition percent vs D n where D is particle diffusion coefficient and n ranges from 0.5--0.66. 2 refs

  16. Pulsed laser deposition in Twente: from research tool towards industrial deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, David H.A.; Dekkers, Jan M.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    After the discovery of the perovskite high Tc superconductors in 1986, a rare and almost unknown deposition technique attracted attention. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD), or laser ablation as it was called in the beginning, became popular because of the possibility to deposit complex materials, like

  17. Patterned deposition by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced spatial atomic layer deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poodt, P.; Kniknie, B.J.; Branca, A.; Winands, G.J.J.; Roozeboom, F.

    2011-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition reactor has been developed, to deposit Al2O3 films from trimethyl aluminum and an He/O2 plasma. This technique can be used for 2D patterned deposition in a single in-line process by making use of switched localized plasma sources. It

  18. Global reactive nitrogen deposition from lightning NOx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepon, A.; Gildor, H.; Labrador, L.J.; Butler, T.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Lawrence, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    We present results of the deposition of nitrogen compounds formed from lightning (LNO x ) using the global chemical transport Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry¿Max Planck Institute for Chemistry version. The model indicates an approximately equal deposition of LNO x in both terrestrial

  19. Assessment of Global Mercury Deposition through Litterfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Bao, Zhengduo; Lin, Che-Jen; Yuan, Wei; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-08-16

    There is a large uncertainty in the estimate of global dry deposition of atmospheric mercury (Hg). Hg deposition through litterfall represents an important input to terrestrial forest ecosystems via cumulative uptake of atmospheric Hg (most Hg(0)) to foliage. In this study, we estimate the quantity of global Hg deposition through litterfall using statistical modeling (Monte Carlo simulation) of published data sets of litterfall biomass production, tree density, and Hg concentration in litter samples. On the basis of the model results, the global annual Hg deposition through litterfall is estimated to be 1180 ± 710 Mg yr(-1), more than two times greater than the estimate by GEOS-Chem. Spatial distribution of Hg deposition through litterfall suggests that deposition flux decreases spatially from tropical to temperate and boreal regions. Approximately 70% of global Hg(0) dry deposition occurs in the tropical and subtropical regions. A major source of uncertainty in this study is the heterogeneous geospatial distribution of available data. More observational data in regions (Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America) where few data sets exist will greatly improve the accuracy of the current estimate. Given that the quantity of global Hg deposition via litterfall is typically 2-6 times higher than Hg(0) evasion from forest floor, global forest ecosystems represent a strong Hg(0) sink.

  20. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  1. Genetic types of uranium deposits of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anysimov, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    There are three genetic classes of uranium deposits in Ukraine. Eight types of uranium deposits are described with reference to their genesis, age and geological position. The attributes of uranium concentration in Precambrian and Proterozoic periods of activization are shown. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  3. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-11-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po{sup 218} particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Uranium deposits of Australia to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spannari, S.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography provides a retrospective account of Australian uranium deposits, particularly the unpublished materials in the Australian Capital Territory. Some abstracts are included. Occurrences, mineralogy, ore genesis, structural controls and the eonomic geology of uranium deposits are covered but the mining of uranium, exploration reports, surveys, environmental aspects and controversial materials are not

  5. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po 218 particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po 218 particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po 218 particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig

  6. 49 CFR 386.46 - Depositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INTERMODAL EQUIPMENT PROVIDER, BROKER, FREIGHT FORWARDER, AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROCEEDINGS General Rules... to referral to the Office of Hearings, a party may petition the Assistant Administrator, in accordance with § 386.37, for leave to conduct a deposition based on good cause shown. (2) Depositions may be...

  7. 37 CFR 1.25 - Deposit accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ordering services offered by the Office, copies of records, etc., deposit accounts may be established in... receipt of the statement to cover the value of items or services charged to the account and thus restore..., copies, etc., requested must always be on deposit. Charges to accounts with insufficient funds will not...

  8. 37 CFR 2.208 - Deposit accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copies of records, or services offered by the Office, deposit accounts may be established in the Office... upon receipt of the statement to cover the value of items or services charged to the account and thus... services requested must always be on deposit. Charges to accounts with insufficient funds will not be...

  9. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1993-12-31

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  10. Atomic layer deposition for graphene device integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervuurt, R.H.J.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bol, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Graphene is a two dimensional material with extraordinary properties, which make it an interesting material for many optical and electronic devices. The integration of graphene in these devices often requires the deposition of thin dielectric layers on top of graphene. Atomic layer deposition (ALD)

  11. Excimer Laser Deposition of PLZT Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, GAry

    1991-01-01

    .... In order to integrate these devices into optical systems, the production of high quality thin films with high transparency and perovskite crystal structure is desired. This requires development of deposition technologies to overcome the challenges of depositing and processing PLZT thin films.

  12. Direct uptake by vegetation of deposited materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aa.

    1977-01-01

    Interception and retention in pasture grass of nuclides in ionic form and of labelled particles (40-63, 63-100, 100-200 μ in size) were studied experimentally during 1968-70. The results obtained are compared with data from grazing experiments during 1970-72. The data showed that the relative amount of material intercepted by the vegetation decreased markedly in the following order: wet-deposited nuclides > wet-deposited particles > particles dry-deposited on grass wet rain > particles dry-deposited on grass superficially wet > particles dry-deposited on dry grass, and small particles > larger particles. At high relative humidity of the air much more of a deposition could be intercepted than at low relative humidity. The retention of intercepted material was influenced by type of material and by precipitation. Intense rains shortened the half residence time considerably. Dry-deposited materials intercepted in grass suffered marked losses by falloff during the first few days after deposition, which was followed by a phase with a longer half residence time. (author)

  13. Goudafzettingen in Suriname (Gold deposits in Surinam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinck, J.W.

    1956-01-01

    THE GOLD DEPOSITS IN SURINAM AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONCESSIONS THROUGH THE COUNTRY The fieldwork on the occurrence of primary and secondary gold deposits in Surinam on which this thesis is based was carried out by order of the Welfare Fund Surinam (Welvaarts Fonds Suriname) during the periods

  14. Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sedimentary facies and facies associations within the lithostratigraphic column of the Middle Siwalik rocks show temporal repetition of sedimentary facies associations suggesting oscillation between proximal-, mid- and distal fan setups within a palaeo-alluvial fan depositional environment similar to the depositional ...

  15. Energy deposition in NSRR test fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Nobuaki; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Tanzawa, Tomio; Kitano, Teruaki; Okazaki, Shuji

    1978-02-01

    Interpretation of fuel performance data collected during inpile testing in the NSRR requires a knowledge of the energy deposition or enthalpy increase in each sample tested. The report describes the results of absolute measurement of fission products and contents of uranium in irradiated test fuels which were performed to determine the energy deposition. (auth.)

  16. Time Resolved Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Hogan, J.; Wampler, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of deposition in current tokamaks are crucial to gain a predictive understanding of deposition with a view to mitigating tritium retention and deposition on diagnostic mirrors expected in next-step devices. Two quartz crystal microbalances have been installed on NSTX at a location 0.77m outside the last closed flux surface. This configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. The deposits were analyzed ex-situ and found to be dominantly carbon, oxygen, and deuterium. A rear facing quartz crystal recorded deposition of lower sticking probability molecules at 10% of the rate of the front facing one. Time resolved measurements over a 4-week period with 497 discharges, recorded 29.2 (micro)g/cm 2 of deposition, however surprisingly, 15.9 (micro)g/cm 2 of material loss occurred at 7 discharges. The net deposited mass of 13.3 (micro)g/cm 2 matched the mass of 13.5 (micro)g/cm 2 measured independently by ion beam analysis. Monte Carlo modeling suggests that transient processes are likely to dominate the deposition

  17. The geomicrobiology of bauxite deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiluo Hao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite deposits are studied because of their economic value and because they play an important role in the study of paleoclimate and paleogeography of continents. They provide a rare record of the weathering and evolution of continental surfaces. Geomicrobiological analysis makes it possible to verify that microorganisms have played a critical role during the formation of bauxite with the possibility already intimated in previous studies. Ambient temperature, abundance of water, organic carbon and bioavailable iron and other metal substrates provide a suitable environment for microbes to inhabit. Thiobacillus, Leptospirilum, Thermophilic bacteria and Heterotrophs have been shown to be able to oxidize ferrous iron and to reduce sulfate-generating sulfuric acid, which can accelerate the weathering of aluminosilicates and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides. Microorganisms referred to the genus Bacillus can mediate the release of alkaline metals. Although the dissimilatory iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in bauxites have not yet been identified, some recorded authigenic carbonates and “bacteriopyrites” that appear to be unique in morphology and grain size might record microbial activity. Typical bauxite minerals such as gibbsite, kaolinite, covellite, galena, pyrite, zircon, calcium plagioclase, orthoclase, and albite have been investigated as part of an analysis of microbial mediation. The paleoecology of such bauxitic microorganisms inhabiting continental (sub surfaces, revealed through geomicrobiological analysis, will add a further dimension to paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies.

  18. Aquatic chemistry of acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumm, W; Sigg, L; Schnoor, J L

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of acid precipitation in many regions of the Northern hemisphere is a consequnece of human interference in the cycles that unite land, water and atmosphere. The oxidation of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, resulting mostly from fossil fuel burning, rivals oxidation processes induced by photosynthesis and respiration and disturbs redox conditions in the atmosphere. The paper discusses oxidation-reduction reactions, particularly those involving atmospheric pollutants that are important in the formation of acid precipitation. Topics covered are: a stoichiometric model of acid rain formation; sulfur dioxide and ammonia adsorption; acid neutralizing capacity. The paper concludes that explanations of simple chemical equilibria between gases and water aid our understanding of how acidifying gases become dissolved in cloud water, in droplets of falling rain, or in fog. Rigorous definitions of base- or acid-neutralizing capacities are prerequisites to measuring and interpreting residual acidity in dry and wet deposition and for assessing the disturbance caused by the transfer of acid to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 20 references.

  19. Biosensor Applications of MAPLE Deposited Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Califano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE is a thin film deposition technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD for deposition of delicate (polymers, complex biological molecules, etc. materials in undamaged form. The main difference of MAPLE technique with respect to PLD is the target: it is a frozen solution or suspension of the (guest molecules to be deposited in a volatile substance (matrix. Since laser beam energy is mainly absorbed by the matrix, damages to the delicate guest molecules are avoided, or at least reduced. Lipase, an enzyme catalyzing reactions borne by triglycerides, has been used in biosensors for detection of β-hydroxyacid esters and triglycerides in blood serum. Enzymes immobilization on a substrate is therefore required. In this paper we show that it is possible, using MAPLE technique, to deposit lipase on a substrate, as shown by AFM observation, preserving its conformational structure, as shown by FTIR analysis.

  20. Uranium ore deposits: geology and processing implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyk, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    There are fifteen accepted types of uranium ore deposits and at least forty subtypes readily identified around the world. Each deposit type has a unique set of geological characteristics which may also result in unique processing implications. Primary uranium production in the past decade has predominantly come from only a few of these deposit types including: unconformity, sandstone, calcrete, intrusive, breccia complex and volcanic ones. Processing implications can vary widely between and within the different geological models. Some key characteristics of uranium deposits that may have processing implications include: ore grade, uranium and gangue mineralogy, ore hardness, porosity, uranium mineral morphology and carbon content. Processing difficulties may occur as a result of one or more of these characteristics. In order to meet future uranium demand, it is imperative that innovative processing approaches and new technological advances be developed in order that many of the marginally economic traditional and uneconomic non-traditional uranium ore deposits can be exploited. (author)

  1. Laser-induced chemical vapor deposition reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teslenko, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of investigation of chemical reactions of deposition of different substances from the gas phase when using the energy of pulse quasicontinuous and continuous radiation of lasers in the wave length interval from 0.193 to 10.6 μm are generalized. Main attetion is paid to deposition of inorganic substances including nonmetals (C, Si, Ge and others), metals (Cu, Au, Zn, Cd, Al, Cr, Mo, W, Ni) and some simple compounds. Experimental data on the effect of laser radiation parameters and reagent nature (hydrides, halogenides, carbonyls, alkyl organometallic compounds and others) on the deposition rate and deposit composition are described in detail. Specific features of laser-chemical reactions of deposition and prospects of their application are considered

  2. A lithium deposition system for tokamak devices*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziul, Christopher; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Hoffman, Daniel; Timberlake, John; Card, David

    2002-11-01

    The production of a lithium deposition system using commercially available components is discussed. This system is intended to provide a fresh lithium wall coating between discharges in a tokamak. For this purpose, a film 100-200 Å thick is sufficient to ensure that the plasma interacts solely with the lithium. A test system consisting of a lithium evaporator and a deposition monitor has been designed and constructed to investigate deposition rates and coverage. A Thermionics 3kW e-gun is used to rapidly evaporate small amounts of solid lithium. An Inficon XTM/2 quartz deposition monitor then measures deposition rate at varying distances, positions and angles relative to the e-gun crucible. Initial results from the test system will be presented. *Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-76CH-03073

  3. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership......Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...

  4. Carbonatites of the World, Explored Deposits of Nb and REE - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vladimir I.; Singer, Donald A.; Orris, Greta J.

    2009-01-01

    estimate the possible economic viability of these resources. Thus, mineral-deposit models play a central role in presenting geoscience information in a useful form to policy makers. The foundation of mineral-deposit models is information about known deposits. This publication presents the latest geologic information and newly developed grade and tonnage models for Nb- and REE-carbonatite deposits in digital form. The publication contains computer files with information on deposits from around the world. It also contains a text file allowing locations of all deposits to be plotted in geographic information system (GIS) programs. The data are presented in FileMaker Pro as well as in .xls and text files to make the information available to a broadly based audience. The value of this information and any derived analyses depends critically on the consistent manner of data gathering. For this reason, we first discuss the rules used in this compilation. Next, the fields of the database are explained. Finally, we provide new grade and tonnage models and analysis of the information in the file.

  5. Lichen-based critical loads for atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Western Oregon and Washington Forests, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiser, Linda H., E-mail: lgeiser@fs.fed.u [US Forest Service Pacific Northwest Region Air Resource Management Program, Siuslaw National Forest, PO Box 1148, Corvallis, OR 97339 (United States); Jovan, Sarah E. [US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 620 SW Main St, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Glavich, Doug A. [US Forest Service Pacific Northwest Region Air Resource Management Program, Siuslaw National Forest, PO Box 1148, Corvallis, OR 97339 (United States); Porter, Matthew K. [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Critical loads (CLs) define maximum atmospheric deposition levels apparently preventative of ecosystem harm. We present first nitrogen CLs for northwestern North America's maritime forests. Using multiple linear regression, we related epiphytic-macrolichen community composition to: 1) wet deposition from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, 2) wet, dry, and total N deposition from the Communities Multi-Scale Air Quality model, and 3) ambient particulate N from Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE). Sensitive species declines of 20-40% were associated with CLs of 1-4 and 3-9 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in wet and total deposition. CLs increased with precipitation across the landscape, presumably from dilution or leaching of depositional N. Tight linear correlation between lichen and IMPROVE data suggests a simple screening tool for CL exceedance in US Class I areas. The total N model replicated several US and European lichen CLs and may therefore be helpful in estimating other temperate-forest lichen CLs. - Lichen-based critical loads for N deposition in western Oregon and Washington forests ranged from 3 to 9 kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}, increasing with mean annual precipitation.

  6. Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.C.B.; Dukler, A.E.

    1985-10-01

    The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data

  7. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  8. A field study of pollutant deposition in radiation fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, J.M.; Jacob, D.J.; Munger, J.W.; Hoffman, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    Deposition during fog episodes can make a significant contribution to the overall flux of pollutants in certain ecosystems. Furthermore, when atmospheric stagnation prevents normal ventilation in a region, fog deposition may become the main route of pollutant removal. Fogs can consequently exert dominant control over pollutant levels in certain atmospheres. The southern San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California is a region prone to wintertime episodes of atmospheric stagnation. These lead to elevated pollutant concentrations and/or dense, widespread fogs. Major oil-recovery operations plus widespread agricultural and livestock feeding activities are important sources of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub X/ and NH/sub 3/ in the valley. A multifaceted program of field monitoring was conducted in the SJV during the winter 1984-1985, focusing on aspects of pollutant scavenging and removal in the fog-laden atmosphere. Concentrations of major species were measured in gas, dry aerosol and fogwater phases. In addition, depositional fluxes were monitored by surrogate-surface methods. These measurements were employed to directly assess the magnitude of removal enhancement by fog.

  9. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits. A selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, P.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Daniel, E.W. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    A bibliography of 479 references encompassing the fields of uranium and thorium geochemistry and mineralogy, geology of uranium deposits, uranium mining, and uranium exploration techniques has been compiled by the Ecological Sciences Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The bibliography was produced for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, which is funded by the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. The references contained in the bibliography have been divided into the following eight subject categories: (1) geology of deposits, (2) geochemistry, (3) genesis O deposits, (4) exploration, (5) mineralogy, (6) uranium industry, (7) reserves and resources, and (8) geology of potential uranium-bearing areas. All categories specifically refer to uranium and thorium; the last category contains basic geologic information concerning areas which the Grand Junction Office feels are particularly favorable for uranium deposition. The references are indexed by author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword.

  10. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits. A selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, P.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Daniel, E.W.

    1980-06-01

    A bibliography of 479 references encompassing the fields of uranium and thorium geochemistry and mineralogy, geology of uranium deposits, uranium mining, and uranium exploration techniques has been compiled by the Ecological Sciences Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The bibliography was produced for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, which is funded by the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. The references contained in the bibliography have been divided into the following eight subject categories: (1) geology of deposits, (2) geochemistry, (3) genesis O deposits, (4) exploration, (5) mineralogy, (6) uranium industry, (7) reserves and resources, and (8) geology of potential uranium-bearing areas. All categories specifically refer to uranium and thorium; the last category contains basic geologic information concerning areas which the Grand Junction Office feels are particularly favorable for uranium deposition. The references are indexed by author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword

  11. The discovery and character of Pleistocene calcrete uranium deposits in the Southern High Plains of west Texas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Hall, Susan M.

    2017-12-18

    This report describes the discovery and geology of two near-surface uranium deposits within calcareous lacustrine strata of Pleistocene age in west Texas, United States. Calcrete uranium deposits have not been previously reported in the United States. The west Texas uranium deposits share characteristics with some calcrete uranium deposits in Western Australia—uranium-vanadium minerals hosted by nonpedogenic calcretes deposited in saline lacustrine environments.In the mid-1970s, Kerr-McGee Corporation conducted a regional uranium exploration program in the Southern High Plains province of the United States, which led to the discovery of two shallow uranium deposits (that were not publicly reported). With extensive drilling, Kerr-McGee delineated one deposit of about 2.1 million metric tons of ore with an average grade of 0.037 percent U3O8 and another deposit of about 0.93 million metric tons of ore averaging 0.047 percent U3O8.The west-Texas calcrete uranium-vanadium deposits occur in calcareous, fine-grained sediments interpreted to be deposited in saline lakes formed during dry interglacial periods of the Pleistocene. The lakes were associated with drainages upstream of a large Pleistocene lake. Age determinations of tephra in strata adjacent to one deposit indicate the host strata is middle Pleistocene in age.Examination of the uranium-vanadium mineralization by scanning-electron microscopy indicated at least two generations of uranium-vanadium deposition in the lacustrine strata identified as carnotite and a strontium-uranium-vanadium mineral. Preliminary uranium-series results indicate a two-component system in the host calcrete, with early lacustrine carbonate that was deposited (or recrystallized) about 190 kilo-annum, followed much later by carnotite-rich crusts and strontium-uranium-vanadium mineralization in the Holocene (about 5 kilo-annum). Differences in initial 234U/238U activity ratios indicate two separate, distinct fluid sources.

  12. Effects of deposition time in chemically deposited ZnS films in acidic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, H.; Chelouche, A., E-mail: azeddinechelouche@gmail.com; Talantikite, D.; Merzouk, H.; Boudjouan, F.; Djouadi, D.

    2015-08-31

    We report an experimental study on the synthesis and characterization of zinc sulfide (ZnS) single layer thin films deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition technique in acidic solution. The effect of deposition time on the microstructure, surface morphology, optical absorption, transmittance, and photoluminescence (PL) was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis–NIR spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results showed that the samples exhibit wurtzite structure and their crystal quality is improved by increasing deposition time. The latter, was found to affect the morphology of the thin films as showed by SEM micrographs. The optical measurements revealed a high transparency in the visible range and a dependence of absorption edge and band gap on deposition time. The room temperature PL spectra indicated that all ZnS grown thin films emit a UV and blue light, while the band intensities are found to be dependent on deposition times. - Highlights: • Single layer ZnS thin films were deposited by CBD in acidic solution at 95 °C. • The effect of deposition time was investigated. • Coexistence of ZnS and ZnO hexagonal structures for time deposition below 2 h • Thicker ZnS films were achieved after monolayer deposition for 5 h. • The highest UV-blue emission observed in thin film deposited at 5 h.

  13. Deposit3D: a tool for automating structure depositions to the Protein Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badger, J.; Hendle, J.; Burley, S. K.; Kissinger, C. R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a Python script that may be used to gather all required structure-annotation information into an mmCIF file for upload through the RCSB PDB ADIT structure-deposition interface. Almost all successful protein structure-determination projects in the public sector culminate in a structure deposition to the Protein Data Bank (PDB). In order to expedite the deposition proces, Deposit3D has been developed. This command-line script calculates or gathers all the required structure-deposition information and outputs this data into a mmCIF file for subsequent upload through the RCSB PDB ADIT interface. Deposit3D might be particularly useful for structural genomics pipeline projects because it allows workers involved with various stages of a structure-determination project to pool their different categories of annotation information before starting a deposition session

  14. Deposit3D: a tool for automating structure depositions to the Protein Data Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, J., E-mail: jbadger@active-sight.com; Hendle, J.; Burley, S. K.; Kissinger, C. R. [SGX Inc., 10505 Roselle Street, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a Python script that may be used to gather all required structure-annotation information into an mmCIF file for upload through the RCSB PDB ADIT structure-deposition interface. Almost all successful protein structure-determination projects in the public sector culminate in a structure deposition to the Protein Data Bank (PDB). In order to expedite the deposition proces, Deposit3D has been developed. This command-line script calculates or gathers all the required structure-deposition information and outputs this data into a mmCIF file for subsequent upload through the RCSB PDB ADIT interface. Deposit3D might be particularly useful for structural genomics pipeline projects because it allows workers involved with various stages of a structure-determination project to pool their different categories of annotation information before starting a deposition session.

  15. Achieving uniform layer deposition by atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Ok [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Woo Seok, E-mail: kang@kimm.re.kr [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environment & Energy Mechanical Engineering, University of Science & Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Min; Lee, Jin Young [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young-Hoon [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environment & Energy Mechanical Engineering, University of Science & Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-31

    This work investigates the use of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition under atmospheric pressure for achieving uniform layer formation. Electrical and optical measurements demonstrated that the counterbalance between oxygen and precursors maintained the homogeneous discharge mode, while creating intermediate species for layer deposition. Several steps of the deposition process of the layers, which were processed on a stationary stage, were affected by flow stream and precursor depletion. This study showed that by changing the flow streamlines using substrate stage motion uniform layer deposition under atmospheric pressure can be achieved. - Highlights: • Zirconium oxide was deposited by atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • Homogeneous plasma was maintained by counterbalancing between discharge gas and precursors. • Several deposition steps were observed affected by the gas flow stream and precursor depletion. • Thin film layer was uniformly grown when the substrate underwent a sweeping motion.

  16. CTS and CZTS for solar cells made by pulsed laser deposition and pulsed electron deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt

    This thesis concerns the deposition of thin films for solar cells using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and pulsed electron deposition (PED). The aim was to deposit copper tin sulfide (CTS) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) by pulsed laser deposition to learn about these materials in relation to copper zinc tin...... time. We compared the results of CZTS deposition by PLD at DTU in Denmark to CZTS made by PED at IMEM-CNR, where CIGS solar cells have successfully been fabricated at very low processing temperatures. The main results of this work were as follows: Monoclinic-phase CTS films were made by pulsed laser...... deposition followed by high temperature annealing. The films were used to understand the double band gap that we and other groups observed in the material. The Cu-content of the CTS films varied depending on the laser fluence (the laser energy per pulse and per area). The material transfer from...

  17. The effect of fog on radionuclide deposition velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, R.; Carson, P.; Thompson, W.

    1997-01-01

    Current nuclear power station release models do not evaluate deposition under foggy atmospheric conditions. Deposition velocities and scavenging coefficients of radioactive particles entrained in fog are presented for the Point Lepreau area of the Bay of Fundy coast. It is recommended to calculate deposition based on fog deposition velocities. The deposition velocities can be calculated from common meteorological data. The range of deposition velocities is approximately 1 - 100 cm/s. Fog deposition is surface roughness dependent with forests having larger deposition and deposition velocities than soil or grasses. (author)

  18. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway. Nationwide survey 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, Eiliv; Berg, Torunn; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Pfaffhuber, Katrine Aspmo

    2011-01-01

    The geographical distribution of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway was mapped in 2010 by analysis of moss samples from 464 sites all over the country. This report provides a presentation of the results and a comparison with data from a series of corresponding moss surveys starting 1977. The survey is part of an international program comprising large parts of Europe. The survey primarily concerns the ten metals of priority in the European program: vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead. In addition data are reported for another 42 elements in the moss. The discussion of the obtained data mainly refers to contributions from air pollution. In addition influence from natural processes to the elemental composition of the moss and how it may influence the interpretation of the data is discussed. (Author)

  19. Biological roles of crop NADP-malic enzymes and molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    刘增辉

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to produce pyruvate, CO2 and .... causes dryness of soil and atmosphere, which can limit the plant ... closing through regulate the degradation of malic in day. In addition, there ...

  20. Industrial types of uranium deposits in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, G.V.

    2001-01-01

    The main industrial uranium deposits of Kazakhstan that can be commercially mined, are located in two ore regions and are represented by two types of the uranium deposits. The first region is named Chu-Syrdarya (75.6% of total resources of Kazakhstan) and is located in the South of Kazakhstan and this one is the largest in the world among the regions of the deposits connected with the bed oxidation zone, localized in the permeable sediments and amenable for in-situ leach mining. The second region is named Kokshetau (16% of total resources) and is located in the North of Kazakhstan at the north edge of Kazak Shield and is characterized by the vein-stockwork type of deposit. Other industrial deposits (8.4% of total resources) are grouped in two regions that have been determined and are retained as reserves for economical and ecological reasons. These are: Pricaspian region with the organic phosphate type of uranium deposits; and Ili-Balkhash region with mainly the coal-uranium type. There are 44 industrial uranium deposits with resources ranging from 1000 t to 100000 t U and more in each of them, in all, in Kazakhstan. Seven of them are completely mined now. Total uranium resources in Kazakhstan are determined at 1670000 t U. (author)

  1. Development of Budenovskoye Deposit in South Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matunov, A.; Niyetbayev, M.

    2014-01-01

    Budenovskoye deposit was discovered in 1979 in permeable alluvial deposits of the Upper Cretaceous and is the world largest sandstone type deposit. The prospecting and exploration works were started there in 1987 with inferred resources of the southern flank only estimated at about 200,000 tU. Key geology features of the deposit are: • The deposit is located in the maximum submerged part of the depression formed in the Upper Cretaceous period by channel facies; a very complex morphology of mineralisation in plan, large vertical area, multilayer structure, relatively high productivity of the deposits. • High-pressure nature of groundwaters with positive occurrence of piezometric level, very high water conductivity, permeability of horizons and their water abundance, lack of consistent confining layers, and location of the deposit in the artesian basin at the junction with hydrogeological massif of B Karatau Range. • Relatively low concentration of main syngenetic genesis reducing agents in ore-bearing rocks in combination with other factors causes the insufficiently contrastive reducing barrier and extraordinary stretched profile of epigenetic zonation with fuzzy boundaries between separate zones and subzones.

  2. Reducing tube bundle deposition with alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Klimas, S.J.; Frattini, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Particle deposition rates have been measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates an order of magnitude greater than those measured for magnetite, although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) ammonia (0.51) : dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to two-phase forced convection through a thin film. (author)

  3. Reducing tube bundle deposition using alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Klimas, S.J.; Frattini, P.L.

    1999-07-01

    Particle deposition rates were measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled, using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates 10 times greater than those measured for magnetite although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) : ammonia (0.51) dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat-transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to 2-phase forced-convection through a thin film. (author)

  4. Inhalation of nanoplatelets - Theoretical deposition simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Primary objective of the contribution was the theoretical prediction of nanoplatelet deposition in the human respiratory tract. Modeling was founded on the hypothetical inhalation of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) measuring 0.01 and 0.1μm in thickness and adopting a projected area diameter of 1-30μm. Particle uptake was assumed to take place with inhalation flow rates of 250, 500, 750, and 1000cm 3 s -1 , respectively. For an appropriate description of pulmonary particle behavior, transport of GNP in a stochastic lung structure and deposition formulae based on analytical and numerical studies were presupposed. The results obtained from the theoretical approach clearly demonstrate that GNP with a thickness of 0.01μm deposit in the respiratory tract by 20-50%, whereas GNP with a thickness of 0.1μm exhibit a deposition of 20-90%. Larger platelets deposit with higher probability than small ones. Increase of inhalation flow rate is accompanied by decreased deposition in the case of thin GNP, whilst thicker GNP are preferably accumulated in the extrathoracic region. Generation-specific deposition ranges from 0.05 to 7% (0.01μm) and from 0.05 to 9%, with maximum values being obtained in airway generation 20. In proximal airway generations (0-10), deposition is increased with inhalation flow rate, whereas in intermediate to distal generations a reverse effect may be observed. Health consequences of GNP deposition in different lung compartments are subjected to an intense debate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Uranium deposit types and resources of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, L.; Cuney, M.

    2014-01-01

    The uranium-related activities in Argentina begun in the 1950s and, as a result of the systematic exploration, several types of deposits have been discovered since then: volcanic and caldera-related, sandstone-hosted, vein spatially related to granite (intragranitic and perigranitic) and surficial. The deposits that have been the focus of the most important uranium exploitations are the ones that belong to the volcaniclastic type. These are localized in Permian formations associated with synsedimentary acid volcanism in the Sierra Pintada district (Mendoza province). The volcanic and caldera related type is also present in the Laguna Colorada deposit (Chubut province) located in the San Jorge basin (Cretaceous). Several important uranium mineralisations have been identified in Cretaceous fluvial sandstones and conglomerates, among which the most relevant is the Cerro Solo deposit (Chubut province) that corresponds to the paleochannel structure subtype. Other subtypes of sandstone model have been studied. For instance, the Don Otto deposit (Salta province), located in the Salta Group Basin (Cretaceous - Tertiary), belongs to the tabular U-V subtype. The roll front subtype can be also found in the Los Mogotes Colorados deposit (La Rioja province) which is hosted by Carboniferous continental sandstones. The uranium mineralisations in veins and disseminated episyenites within peraluminous leucogranites of the Sierras Pampeanas (Cordoba and San Luis provinces) represent other types of existing deposits. These granites are Devonian – Carboniferous and the related deposits are comparable to those from the Middle European Variscan. There are also other vein-type uranium deposits located in metamorphic basement in the periphery of high potassium calcalkaline granites (Sierras Pampeanas of Catamarca and La Rioja provinces), where the mineralisation control is mainly structural. The current uranium identified resources of the country are approximately 24,000 tU in the

  6. Dry deposition of radionuclides on leafy vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuberger, H.; Tschiersch, J.; Shinonaga, T.; Bunzl, K.; Pliml, A.; Dietl, F.; Keusch, M.

    2004-01-01

    The dry deposition of gaseous elemental radio-iodine and particulate radio-caesium on mature leafy vegetable was studied in chamber experiments. The simultaneous exposition of endive, head lettuce, red oak leaf lettuce and spinach (spring leafy vegetable) rsp. curly kale, white cabbage and spinach (summer leafy vegetable) was performed under homogeneous and controlled conditions. The sample collective of each species was such large that for the expected variation of the results a statistically firm analysis was possible. Significant differences were observed for the 131 I deposition on spring vegetable: the deposition on spinach was roughly 3times that on leaf lettuce, 4times that on endive and 9times that on head lettuce. For 134 Cs, there was no significant difference between spinach and leaf lettuce, about twice the amount was deposited on both species as on endive and 3times as on head lettuce. All summer vegetables showed differences in deposition. For lodine, the deposition on spinach was roughly 3times (6times) that on curly kale and 35times (100times) that on white cabbage in the 2 experiments. For caesium, the deposition to curly kale was highest, about twice that on spinach and 35times (80times) that on white cabbage. The deposition velocity could be estimated, in average it was about 8times higher for 131 I than for 134 Cs. The influence of the particle size on the deposition velocity was small in the considered size range. Washing could reduce the contamination by about 10% for 131 I and 45% for 134 Cs. (orig.)

  7. How deposition parameters control growth dynamics of nc-Si deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, H.R.; To, B.; Jiang, C.-S.; Xu, Y.; Nelson, B.P.; Teplin, C.W.; Jones, K.M.; Perkins, J.; Al-Jassim, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the growth of silicon films deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition under different values of filament current, substrate temperature, and hydrogen dilution ratio. The physical and electrical properties of the films were studied by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, conductive-atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. There is an interdependence of the growth parameters, and films grown with different parameters can have similar structures. We discuss why this interdependence occurs and how it influences the properties of the deposited films, as well as the deposition rate. In general, the films have a complex structure, with a mixture of amorphous (220)-oriented crystalline and nanocrystalline phases present in most cases. The amount of each phase can be controlled by the variation of one or more of the growth parameters at a time

  8. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition budget in a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (Nam Theun II case study, Lao PDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adon, Marcellin; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Serça, Dominique; Guerin, Frederic; Guedant, Pierre; Vonghamsao, Axay; Rode, Wanidaporn

    2016-04-01

    With 490 km² at full level of operation, Nam Theun 2 (NT2) is one of the largest hydro-reservoir in South East Asia. NT2 is a trans-basin hydropower project that diverts water from the Nam Theun river (a Mekong tributary) to the Xe Ban Fai river (another Mekong tributary). Atmospheric deposition is an important source of nitrogen (N), and it has been shown that excessive fluxes of N from the atmosphere has resulted in eutrophication of many coastal waters. A large fraction of atmospheric N input is in the form of inorganic N. This study presents an estimation of the atmospheric inorganic nitrogen budget into the NT2 hydroelectric reservoir based on a two-year monitoring (July 2010 to July 2012) including gas concentrations and precipitation. Dry deposition fluxes are calculated from monthly mean surface measurements of NH3, HNO3 and NO2 concentrations (passive samplers) together with simulated deposition velocities, and wet deposition fluxes from NH4+ and NO3- concentrations in single event rain samples (automated rain sampler). Annual rainfall amount was 2500 and 3160 mm for the two years. The average nitrogen deposition flux is estimated at 1.13 kgN.ha-1.yr-1 from dry processes and 5.52 kgN.ha-1.yr-1 from wet ones, i.e., an average annual total nitrogen flux of 6.6 kgN.ha-1.yr-1 deposited into the NT2 reservoir. The wet deposition contributes to 83% of the total N deposition. The nitrogen deposition budget has been also calculated over the rain tropical forest surrounding the reservoir. Due to higher dry deposition velocities above forested ecosystems, gaseous dry deposition flux is estimated at 4.0 kgN.ha-1.yr-1 leading to a total nitrogen deposition about 9.5 kgN.ha-1.yr-1. This result will be compared to nitrogen deposition in the African equatorial forested ecosystems in the framework of the IDAF program (IGAC-DEBITS-AFrica).

  9. Magnetoresistive multilayers deposited on the AAO membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkinski, Leszek M.; Chalastaras, Athanasios; Vovk, Andriy; Jung, Jin-Seung; Kim, Eun-Mee; Jun, Jong-Ho; Ventrice, Carl A.

    2005-01-01

    Silicon and GaAs wafers are the most commonly used substrates for deposition of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) multilayers. We explored a new type of a substrate, prepared electrochemically by anodization of aluminum sheets, for deposition of GMR multilayers. The surface of this AAO substrate consists of nanosized hemispheres organized in a regular hexagonal array. The current applied along the substrate surface intersects many magnetic layers in the multilayered structure, which results in enhancement of giant magnetoresistance effect. The GMR effect in uncoupled Co/Cu multilayers was significantly larger than the magnetoresistance of similar structures deposited on Si

  10. Study on geologic structure of hydrogenic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The problem of studying geologic structure of hydrogenic uranium deposits developed by underground leaching (UL), is elucidated. Geologic maps of the surface are used to characterize engineering and geologic conditions. Main geologoic papers are maps drawn up according to boring data. For total geologic characteristic of the deposit 3 types of maps are usually drawn up: structural maps of isohypses or isodepths, lithologic-facies maps on the horizon and rhythm, and maps of epigenetic alterations (geochemmcal). Besides maps systems of sections are drawn up. Problems of studying lithologic-facies and geohemical peculiarities of deposits, epigenotic alterations, substance composition of ores and enclosing rocks, documentation and core sampting, are considered in details

  11. Laser vapor phase deposition of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlov, N.V.; Luk' ianchuk, B.S.; Sisakian, E.V.; Shafeev, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    The pyrolytic effect of IR laser radiation is investigated with reference to the initiation and control of the vapor phase deposition of semiconductor films. By selecting the gas mixture composition and laser emission parameters, it is possible to control the deposition and crystal formation processes on the surface of semiconductors, with the main control action achieved due to the nonadiabatic kinetics of reactions in the gas phase and high temperatures in the laser heating zone. This control mechanism is demonstrated experimentally during the laser vapor deposition of germanium and silicon films from tetrachlorides on single-crystal Si and Ge substrates. 5 references.

  12. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000°C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off with the help of an electrically...... controlled arm. Higher sintering temperatures resulted in greater adhesion strengths, with a sharp increase observed near the melting point of the ash. Repetition of experiments with fixed operation conditions revealed considerable variation in the obtained adhesion strengths, portraying the stochastic...

  13. Magnetite deposition in PWR secondary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, V.; Riess, R.; Ruehle, W.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, local magnetite (Fe 3 04) deposition has been observed at various locations within the secondary systems of Siemens-designed PWRs. These deposits sometimes limited operational flexibility and affected routine operation checks. In addition, these deposits may affect the heat transfer characteristics of heat exchangers. Prior to replacement of components or piping or other extensive maintenance activities it should be investigated whether any modification in secondary-side water chemistry might counteract this corrosion phenomenon, which has proven very effective in maintaining steam generator performance. A VGB study will make an assessment of available field information, and countermeasures will be elaborated. This paper describes the current status of the project. (orig.) [de

  14. Structurally controlled deposition of silicon onto nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijie; Liu, Zuqin; Han, Song; Bornstein, Jonathan; Stefan, Constantin Ionel

    2018-03-20

    Provided herein are nanostructures for lithium ion battery electrodes and methods of fabrication. In some embodiments, a nanostructure template coated with a silicon coating is provided. The silicon coating may include a non-conformal, more porous layer and a conformal, denser layer on the non-conformal, more porous layer. In some embodiments, two different deposition processes, e.g., a PECVD layer to deposit the non-conformal layer and a thermal CVD process to deposit the conformal layer, are used. Anodes including the nanostructures have longer cycle lifetimes than anodes made using either a PECVD or thermal CVD method alone.

  15. Characterization of primary geochemical haloes for gold exploration at the Huanxiangwa gold deposit, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Changming; Carranza, E.J.M; Zhang, Shouting; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Xiaoji Liu; Zhang, Da; Sun, Xiang; Duan, Cunji

    2013-01-01

    Recognition of primary geochemical haloes is one of the most important tools for exploring undiscovered mineral resources. This tool is being routinely applied in exploration programs at the Huanxiangwa gold deposit, Xiong'er Mountains, China. Sampling of unweathered rock for multi-element analysis

  16. The contribution of nitrogen deposition to the eutrophication signal in understorey plant communities of European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Vries, de W.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen on the composition of forest understorey vegetation both in space and time, using repeated data from the European wide monitoring program ICP-Forests, which focuses on normally managed forest. Our aim was to assess whether both spatial and

  17. Mechanical properties of vapor-deposited thin metallic films: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanical properties of vapor-deposited thin metallic films are being studied in conjunction with the target fabrication group associated with the laser-fusion energy program. The purpose of the work is to gain an understanding as to which metals are structurally best suited to contain a glass microsphere filled with deuterium-tritium (D-T) gas at large internal pressures

  18. Characterization of deposits and their influence on corrosion in waste incineration plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH

    2001-01-01

    A program has been initiated in Denmark to investigate the aggressive environment in various waste incineration plants. The results described are the preliminary results from one waste incineration plant. Deposits and corrosion products have been removed from various locations in the boiler...

  19. Deposition characteristics of titanium coating deposited on SiC fiber by cold-wall chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xian, E-mail: luo_shenfan@hotmail.com; Wu, Shuai; Yang, Yan-qing; Jin, Na; Liu, Shuai; Huang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    The deposition characteristics of titanium coating on SiC fiber using TiCl{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar gas mixture in a cold-wall chemical vapor deposition were studied by the combination of thermodynamic analysis and experimental studies. The thermodynamic analysis of the reactions in the TiCl{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar system indicates that TiCl{sub 4} transforms to titanium as the following paths: TiCl{sub 4} → TiCl{sub 3} → Ti, or TiCl{sub 4} → TiCl{sub 3} → TiCl{sub 2} → Ti. The experimental results show that typical deposited coating contains two distinct layers: a TiC reaction layer close to SiC fiber and titanium coating which has an atomic percentage of titanium more than 70% and that of carbon lower than 30%. The results illustrate that a carbon diffusion barrier coating needs to be deposited if pure titanium is to be prepared. The deposition rate increases with the increase of temperature, but higher temperature has a negative effect on the surface uniformity of titanium coating. In addition, appropriate argon gas flow rate has a positive effect on smoothing the surface morphology of the coating. - Highlights: • Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental studies were adopted in this work. • The transformation paths of TiCl{sub 4} to Ti is: TiCl{sub 4} → TiCl{sub 3} → Ti, or TiCl{sub 4} → TiCl{sub 3} → TiCl{sub 2} → Ti. • Typical deposited Ti coating on SiC fiber contained two distinct layers. • Deposition temperature is important on deposition rate and morphologies. • Appropriate argon gas flow rate has a positive effect on smoothing of the coating.

  20. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  1. Natural analogue study of uranium deposits in Japan with special reference to the Tono uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Kosei; Sasao, Eiji

    2004-05-01

    In order to verify the safety assessment for geological disposal system of high-level radioactive waste, it is necessary to evaluate properly the stability of the disposal system under natural hydrogeological environment over long period of time (ten to hundred thousands years). For the safety assessment for that in the Japanese Islands, many geological processes inherent in the tectonically active Island-Arc system should be also taken into consideration in addition to those in stable continental environment. However, it is difficult because some processes such as earthquake seem to be accidental and some are periodic or gradual over our life scale. The uranium deposits in Japan are subjected to many geological processes inherent in the tectonically active Island-Arc system. The studies on long-term preservation of uranium deposits in Japan from a natural analogue viewpoint would be expected to provide useful information for the assessment in the Japanese Islands over long period of time. In order to understand the behavior of radionuclides under natural hydrogeological environment in Japanese Islands over long period of time, the uranium deposits in Japan, especially of the Tono uranium deposit was investigated from a natural analogue viewpoint under the course of joint research program by University of Tsukuba and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. Important conclusions obtained in the present study are summarized as follows: The migration behavior of the radionuclides in the granite area is mainly controlled by the stability of original minerals in oxic condition, being due to poor reducing agents such as organic matter and sulfide minerals. In the case of hydrothermal alteration, yttrialite and fergusonite were decomposed and thorogummite was formed at the altered part, whereas zircon and allanite have not been significantly altered. In the case of weathering, autunite and torbernite were formed, probably due to the high phosphorus weathering

  2. Role of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+-ICDH) on cellular defence against oxidative injury by gamma-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Jo, S H; Lee, S M; Koh, H J; Song, H; Park, J W; Lee, W H; Huh, T L

    2004-09-01

    To investigate the regulation of NADPH-producing isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) in cytosol (IDPc) and mitochondria (IDPm) upon gamma-ray irradiation, and the roles of IDPc and IDPm in the protection against cellular damage induced by gamma-ray irradiation. Changes of IDPc and IDPm proteins upon gamma-ray irradiation to NIH3T3 cells were analysed by immunoblotting. To increase or decrease the expression of IDPc or IDPm, NIH3T3 cells were stably transfected with mouse IDPc or IDPm cDNA in either the sense or the antisense direction. The transfected cells with either increased or decreased IDPc or IDPm were exposed to gamma-rays, and the levels of reactive oxygen species generation, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation were measured. Both IDPc and IDPm activities were induced by gamma-ray in NIH3T3 cells. Cells with decreased expression of IDPc or IDPm had elevated reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. Conversely, overproduction of IDPc or IDPm protein partially protected the cells from oxidative damage induced by gamma-ray irradiation. The protective role of IDPc and IDPm against gamma-ray-induced cellular damage can be attributed to elevated NADPH, reducing equivalents needed for recycling reduced glutathione in the cytosol and mitochondria. Thus, a primary biological function of the ICDHs may be production of NADPH, which is a prerequisite for some cellular defence systems against oxidative damage.

  3. Nitrogen deposition and traffic. State-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeuwisse, S.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen deposition is caused, among other things, by road traffic. This article addresses the relation between traffic and nitrogen deposition and the manner in which the contribution of traffic to nitrogen deposition can be quantified. [nl

  4. Plasma deposition by discharge in powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gamal, H.A.; El-Tayeb, H.A.; Abd El-Moniem, M.; Masoud, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Different types of material powders have been fed to the breach of a coaxial discharge. The coaxial discharge is powered from a 46.26 mu F, 24 KV capacitor bank. When the discharge takes place at the breach, the powder is heated and ionized to form a sheath of its material. The plasma sheath is ejected from the discharge zone with high velocity. The plasma sheath material is deposited on a glass substrate. It has been found from scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis that the deposited material is almost homogenous for ceramic and graphite powders. The grain size is estimated to be the order of few microns. To measure the deposited material thickness the microdensitometer and a suitable arrangement of a laser interferometer and an optical microscope are used. It has also been found that deposited material thickness depends on the discharge number of shots and the capacitor bank energy

  5. Solid Organic Deposition During Gas Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandekar, Abhijit Y.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    Recently a series of first contact miscibility (swelling) experiments have been performed on undersaturated light and heavy oils using LPG rich and methane rich injection gases, in which solid organic deposition was observed. A compositional gradient in the oils during the gas injection process....... The asphaltene content of the different oil samples were determined by the TP 143 method. The standard asphaltenes and the solid organic deposit recovered from the swelling tests were analyzed using FTIR, HPLC-SEC and H-1 NMR. The aim of these analyses is to reveal the molecular nature of the deposits formed...... during the gas injection process in comparison with the standard asphaltenes in order to understand the mechanisms involved in asphaltene deposition....

  6. Perspective: Highly stable vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    This article describes recent progress in understanding highly stable glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition and provides perspective on further research directions for the field. For a given molecule, vapor-deposited glasses can have higher density and lower enthalpy than any glass that can be prepared by the more traditional route of cooling a liquid, and such glasses also exhibit greatly enhanced kinetic stability. Because vapor-deposited glasses can approach the bottom of the amorphous part of the potential energy landscape, they provide insights into the properties expected for the "ideal glass." Connections between vapor-deposited glasses, liquid-cooled glasses, and deeply supercooled liquids are explored. The generality of stable glass formation for organic molecules is discussed along with the prospects for stable glasses of other types of materials.

  7. Deposition of intranasal glucocorticoids--preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapiejko, Piotr; Sosnowski, Tomasz R; Sova, Jarosław; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Intranasal glucocorticoids are the treatment of choice in the therapy of rhinitis. The differences in efficiency of particular medications proven by therapeutic index may result from differences in composition of particular formulations as well as from diverse deposition in nasal cavities. Intranasal formulations of glucocorticoids differ in volume of a single dose in addition to variety in density, viscosity and dispenser nozzle structure. The aim of this report was to analyze the deposition of most often used intranasal glucocorticoids in the nasal cavity and assessment of the usefulness of a nose model from a 3D printer reflecting anatomical features of a concrete patient. Three newest and most often used in Poland intranasal glucocorticoids were chosen to analysis; mometasone furoate (MF), fluticasone propionate (FP) and fluticasone furoate (FF). Droplet size distribution obtained from the tested formulations was determined by use of a laser aerosol spectrometer Spraytec (Malvern Instruments, UK). The model of the nasal cavity was obtained using a 3D printer. The printout was based upon a tridimensional reconstruction of nasal cavity created on the basis of digital processing of computed tomography of paranasal sinuses. The deposition of examined medications was established by a method of visualization combined with image analysis using commercial substance which colored itself intensively under the influence of water being the dominant ingredient of all tested preparations. On the basis of obtained results regions of dominating deposition of droplets of intranasal medication on the wall and septum of the nasal cavity were compared. Droplet size of aerosol of tested intranasal medications typically lies within the range of 25-150 µm. All tested medications deposited mainly on the anterior part of inferior turbinate. FP preparation deposited also on the anterior part of the middle nasal turbinate, marginally embracing a fragment of the central part of this

  8. Stability of nanocrystalline electrochemically deposited layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2009-01-01

    have different microstructure and properties compared to bulk materials and the thermodynamic non-equilibrium state of as-deposited layers frequently results in changes of the microstructure as a function of time and/or temperature. The evolving microstructure affects the functionality and reliability......The technological demand for manufacturing components with complex geometries of micrometer or sub-micrometer dimensions and ambitions for ongoing miniaturization have attracted particular attention to electrochemical deposition methods. Thin layers of electrochemically deposited metals and alloys...... of electrodeposited components, which can be beneficial, as for the electrical conductivity of copper interconnect lines, or detrimental, as for reduced strength of nickel in MEMS applications. The present work reports on in-situ studies of the microstructure stability of as-deposited nanocrystalline Cu-, Ag- and Ni...

  9. Integrated prospecting model in Jinguanchong uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yongjian

    2006-01-01

    Jinguanchong uranium deposit is large in scale, which brings difficulties to prospecting and researches. Based on conditions of mineral-formation, geophysics and geochemistry, this paper summarizes a few geophysical and geochemical prospecting methods applied to this deposit. The principles, characteristics, application condition and exploration phases of these prospecting methods are discussed and some prospecting examples are also given in the prospecting for Jinguanchong uranium deposit. Based on summarizing the practice and effects of different methods such as gamma and electromagnetic method, soil emanation prospecting, track etch technique and polonium method used in uranium prospecting, the author finally puts forward a primary uranium prospecting model for the further prospecting in Jinguanchong uranium deposit through combining the author's experience with practice. (authors)

  10. Deposition of contaminant aerosol on human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Byrne, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Over recent years, it has been established that deposition of various types of pollutant aerosols (e.g., radioactive) on human skin can have serious deleterious effects on health. However. only few investigations in the past have been devoted to measurement of deposition velocities on skin...... of particles of the potentially problematic sizes. An experimental programme has shown the deposition velocities on skin of particles in the ca. 0.5-5 mu m AMAD range to be high and generally associated with great variations. A series of investigations have been made to identify some of the factors that lead...... to this variation. Part of the variation was found to be caused by differences between individuals, whereas another part was found to be related to environmental factors, The identification of major influences on skin contaminant deposition is important in estimating health effects as well as in identifying means...

  11. Earth Surface Processes, Landforms and Sediment Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, John; Demicco, Robert

    Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits are intimately related - involving erosion of rocks, generation of sediment, and transport and deposition of sediment through various Earth surface environments. These processes, and the landforms and deposits that they generate, have a fundamental bearing on engineering, environmental and public safety issues; on recovery of economic resources; and on our understanding of Earth history. This unique textbook brings together the traditional disciplines of sedimentology and geomorphology to explain Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits in a comprehensive and integrated way. It is the ideal resource for a two-semester course in sedimentology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and Earth surface processes from the intermediate undergraduate to beginning graduate level. The book is also accompanied by a website hosting illustrations and material on field and laboratory methods for measuring, describing and analyzing Earth surface processes, landforms and sediments.

  12. NOAA/WDC Global Tsunami Deposits Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Discover where, when and how severely tsunamis affected Earth in geologic history. Information regarding Tsunami Deposits and Proxies for Tsunami Events complements...

  13. Lagrangian-similarity diffusion-deposition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    A Lagrangian-similarity diffusion model has been incorporated into the surface-depletion deposition model. This model predicts vertical concentration profiles far downwind of the source that agree with those of a one-dimensional gradient-transfer model

  14. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the ophthalmic industry, plastic lenses are rapidly displacing glass lenses ... Moreover, the plasma polymerization process allows deposition of optical films at room temperature, essential for plastics. ... Bulletin of Materials Science | News.

  15. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  16. Chemical vapour deposition of carbon nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arendse, CJ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available , effective, more versatile and easily scalable to large substrate sizes. In this paper, we present a design of the hot-wire CVD system constructed at the CSIR for the deposition of CNTs. Additionally, we will report on the structure of CNTs deposited... exhibit exceptional chemical and physical properties related to toughness, chemical inertness, magnetism, and electrical and thermal conductivity. A variety of preparation methods to synthesise CNTs are known, e.g. carbon-arc discharge, laser ablation...

  17. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T. O.; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  18. Deposit Insurance in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Jovanovski

    1998-01-01

    Additional protection of the stability of the banking system and deposited funds in the banks and savings houses is provided by the systems for deposit insurance (implicit or explicit). Wolrdwide, particularly in the developing countries and economies in transition, there is a tendency to introduce explicit systems, because they are considered to have the following advantages: 1/ they have better administrative procedure for dealing with banks'bankruptcies and depositors protection; 2/ they a...

  19. Uranium deposit of Bauzot (Saone et Loire)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrat, G.H.

    1956-01-01

    The best known of the uranium ore deposits of the Morvan (a province of France) is in the form of a bundle of quartz-fluor lodes with pitchblende and B.P.G.C. ore. The pitchblende seems to have been deposited at different time in respect to the formation of the gangue minerals, but generally it is ore of the first-formed. The main concentrations of ore are always in the vicinity of dykes of basic crystalline rocks. (author) [fr

  20. Major Brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Charles H.; DeWitt, Ed; Maron, Marcos A.; Ladeira, Eduardo A.

    2001-07-01

    Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (>20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  1. Fabrication of Micro Components by Electrochemical Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben

    The main issue of this thesis is the combination of electrochemical deposition of metals and micro machining. Processes for electroplating and electroless plating of nickel and nickel alloys have been developed and optimised for compatibility with microelectronics and silicon based micromechanics...... of electrochemical machining and traditional machining is compared to micro machining techniques as performed in the field of microelectronics. Various practical solutions and equipment for electrochemical deposition of micro components are demonstrated, as well as the use and experience obtained utilising...

  2. Energy deposition in STARFIRE reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Brooks, J.N.

    1985-04-01

    The energy deposition in the STARFIRE commercial tokamak reactor was calculated based on detailed models for the different reactor components. The heat deposition and the 14 MeV neutron flux poloidal distributions in the first wall were obtained. The poloidal surface heat load distribution in the first wall was calculated from the plasma radiation. The Monte Carlo method was used for the calculation to allow an accurate modeling for the reactor geometry

  3. Selective Electroless Silver Deposition on Graphene Edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, D.; Larsen, M. V.; Andryieuski, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a method of electroless selective silver deposition on graphene edges or between graphene islands without covering the surface of graphene. Modifications of the deposition recipe allow for decoration of graphene edges with silver nanoparticles or filling holes in damaged graphene...... on silica substrate and thus potentially restoring electric connectivity with minimal influence on the overall graphene electrical and optical properties. The presented technique could find applications in graphene based transparent conductors as well as selective edge functionalization and can be extended...

  4. Surface coatings deposited by CVD and PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    The demand for wear and corrosion protective coatings is increasing due to economic facts. Deposition processes in gas atmospheres like the CVD and PVD processes attained a tremendous importance especially in the field of the deposition of thin hard refractory and ceramic coatings. CVD and PVD processes are reviewed in detail. Some examples of coating installations are shown and numerous applications are given to demonstrate the present state of the art. (orig.) [de

  5. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  6. The anthracite of Nazar-Ayloksk deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this chapter of book author gives information about anthracites of Nazar-Ayloksk deposit. It was show that heightened and anomalous content of some elements-dirt in these anthracites of deposit create presupposition of using them as complex energy-mineral raw material. In same time at using coal as fuel it is necessary take in to account heightened content such toxic elements as Sb, Hg and As and some others which are ecologically harmful

  7. Major brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, C.H.; Dewitt, E.; Maron, M.A.; Ladeira, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased 'rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (> 20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Caraja??s Mineral Province.

  8. Ion beam deposited epitaxial thin silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrman-Rossiter, K.G.; Al-Bayati, A.H.; Armour, D.G.; Donnelly, S.E.; Berg, J.A. van den

    1991-01-01

    Deposition of thin films using low energy, mass-separated ion beams is a potentially important low temperature method of producing epitaxial layers. In these experiments silicon films were grown on Si (001) substrates using 10-200 eV 28 Si + and 30 Si + ions at substrate temperatures in the range 273-1073 K, under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions (deposition pressure -7 Pa). The film crystallinity was assessed in situ using medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). Films of crystallinity comparable to bulk samples were grown using 10-40 eV 28 Si + and 30 Si + ions at deposition temperatures in the range 623-823 K. These experiments confirmed the role of key experimental parameters such as ion energy, substrate temperature during deposition, and the surface treatment prior to deposition. It was found that a high temperature in situ anneal (1350-1450 K) gave the best results for epitaxial nucleation, whereas low energy (20-40 eV) Cl + ion bombardment resulted in amorphous film growth. The deposition energy for good epitaxial growth indicates that it is necessary to provide enough energy to induce local mobility but not to cause atomic displacements leading to the buildup of stable defects, e.g. divacancies, below the surface layer of the growing film. (orig.)

  9. Water evaporation in silica colloidal deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, Jorge; Lefèvre, Grégory; Coudert, François-Xavier; Hurisse, Olivier

    2013-10-15

    The results of an experimental study on the evaporation and boiling of water confined in the pores of deposits made of mono-dispersed silica colloidal micro-spheres are reported. The deposits are studied using scanning electron microscopy, adsorption of nitrogen, and adsorption of water through attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy. The evaporation is characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis. Optical microscopy is used to observe the patterns on the deposits after evaporation. When heating at a constant rate and above boiling temperature, the release of water out of the deposits is a two step process. The first step is due to the evaporation and boiling of the surrounding and bulk water and the second is due to the desorption of water from the pores. Additional experiments on the evaporation of water from membranes having cylindrical pores and of heptane from silica deposits suggest that the second step is due to the morphology of the deposits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of droplet deposition in rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, W.; Gu, C.Y.; Anglart, H.

    1997-01-01

    Deposition model for droplets in gas droplet two-phase flow in rod bundle is developed in this work using the Lagrangian method. The model is evaluated in a 9-rod bundle geometry. The deposition coefficient in the bundle geometry are compared with that in round tube. The influences of the droplet size and gas mass flow rate on deposition coefficient are investigated. Furthermore, the droplet motion is studied in more detail by dividing the bundle channel into sub-channels. The results show that the overall deposition coefficient in the bundle geometry is close to that in the round tube with the diameter equal to the bundle hydraulic diameter. The calculated deposition coefficient is found to be higher for higher gas mass flux and smaller droplets. The study in the sub-channels show that the ratio between the local deposition coefficient for a sub-channel and the averaged value for the whole bundle is close to a constant value, deviations from the mean value for all the calculated cases being within the range of ±13%. (author)

  11. Climax-Type Porphyry Molybdenum Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Climax-type porphyry molybdenum deposits, as defined here, are extremely rare; thirteen deposits are known, all in western North America and ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to mainly Tertiary. They are consistently found in a postsubduction, extensional tectonic setting and are invariably associated with A-type granites that formed after peak activity of a magmatic cycle. The deposits consist of ore shells of quartz-molybdenite stockwork veins that lie above and surrounding the apices of cupola-like, highly evolved, calc-alkaline granite and subvolcanic rhyolite-porphyry bodies. These plutons are invariably enriched in fluorine (commonly >1 percent), rubidium (commonly >500 parts per million), and niobium-tantalum (Nb commonly >50 parts per million). The deposits are relatively high grade (typically 0.1-0.3 percent Mo) and may be very large (typically 100-1,000 million tons). Molybdenum, as MoS2, is the primary commodity in all known deposits. The effect on surface-water quality owing to natural influx of water or sediment from a Climax-type mineralized area can extend many kilometers downstream from the mineralized area. Waste piles composed of quartz-silica-pyrite altered rocks will likely produce acidic drainage waters. The potential exists for concentrations of fluorine or rare metals in surface water and groundwater to exceed recommended limits for human consumption near both mined and unmined Climax-type deposits.

  12. Plasma deposited fluorinated films on porous membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gancarz, Irena [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Bryjak, Marek, E-mail: marek.bryjak@pwr.edu.pl [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Kujawski, Jan; Wolska, Joanna [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Kujawa, Joanna; Kujawski, Wojciech [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Chemistry, 7 Gagarina St., 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2015-02-01

    75 KHz plasma was used to modify track etched poly(ethylene terephthalate) membranes and deposit on them flouropolymers. Two fluorine bearing monomers were used: perflourohexane and hexafluorobenzene. The modified surfaces were analyzed by means of attenuated total reflection infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and wettability. It was detected that hexaflourobenxene deposited to the larger extent than perflourohaxane did. The roughness of surfaces decreased when more fluoropolymer was deposited. The hydrophobic character of surface slightly disappeared during 20-days storage of hexaflourobenzene modified membrane. Perfluorohexane modified membrane did not change its character within 120 days after modification. It was expected that this phenomenon resulted from post-reactions of oxygen with radicals in polymer deposits. The obtained membranes could be used for membrane distillation of juices. - Highlights: • Plasma deposited hydrophobic layer of flouropolymers. • Deposition degree affects the surface properties. • Hydrohilization of surface due to reaction of oxygen with entrapped radicals. • Possibility to use modified porous membrane for water distillation and apple juice concentration.

  13. The Pulsed Cylindrical Magnetron for Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2012-10-01

    The magnetron sputtering deposition of films and coatings broadly uses in microelectronics, material science, environmental applications and etc. The rate of target evaporation and time for deposition of films and coatings depends on magnetic field. These parameters link with efficiency of gas molecules ionization by electrons. The cylindrical magnetrons use for deposition of films and coatings on inside of pipes for different protective films and coatings in oil, chemical, environmental applications. The classical forming of magnetic field by permanent magnets or coils for big and long cylindrical magnetrons is complicated. The new concept of pulsed cylindrical magnetron for high rate deposition of films and coating for big and long pipes is presented in this paper. The proposed cylindrical magnetron has azimuthally pulsed high magnetic field, which allows forming the high ionized plasma and receiving high rate of evaporation material of target (central electrode). The structure of proposed pulsed cylindrical magnetron sputtering system is given. The main requirements to deposition system are presented. The preliminary data for forming of plasma and deposition of Ta films and coatings on the metal pipers are discussed. The comparison of classical and proposed cylindrical magnetrons is given. The analysis of potential applications is considered.

  14. Crud deposition on fuel in WWER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kysela, J.; Svarc, V.; Androva, K.; Ruzickova, M.

    2008-01-01

    Reliability of nuclear fuel and radiation fields surrounding primary systems are important aspects of overall nuclear reactor safety. Corrosion product (crud) deposition on fuel surfaces has implications for fuel performance through heat transfer and local chemistry modifications. Crud is currently one of the key industry issues and has been implicated in several recent cases of crud-related fuel failures and core plugging. Activated crud is deposited on out-of-core surfaces, mainly steam generators, resulting in high radiation fields and high doses of plant staff. Due to radiation build-up in primary circuit systems, decontamination of primary systems components and steam generators is used. Several issues involving decontamination were observed in some cases. After decontamination higher corrosion product release occurs followed by subsequent crud deposition on fuel surfaces. The paper summarizes experience with water chemistry and decontamination that can influence crud deposition on fuel surfaces. The following areas are discussed: 1) Experience with crud deposition, primary water chemistry and decontamination under operating conditions; 2) The behaviour of organic compounds in primary coolant and on fuel surfaces; 3) A proposed experimental programme to study crud deposition. (authors)

  15. Phanerozoic Rifting Phases And Mineral Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaan, Mahmoud

    2016-04-01

    In North Africa occur Mediterranean and Red Sea metallogenic provinces. In each province distribute 47 iron- manganese- barite and lead-zinc deposits with tectonic-structural control. The author presents in this paper aspects of position of these deposits in the two provinces with Phanerozoic rifting . The Mediterranean Province belongs to two epochs, Hercynian and Alpine. The Hercynian Epoch manganese deposits in only Moroccoa- Algeria belong to Paleozoic tectonic zones and Proterozoic volcanics. The Alpine Epoch iron-manganese deposits are of post-orogenic exhalative-sedimentary origin. Manganese deposits in southern Morocco occur in Kabil-Rief quartz-chalcedony veins controlled by faults in andesitic sheets and in bedded pelitic tuffs, strata-form lenses and ore veins, in Precambrian schist and in Triassic and Cretaceous dolomites. Disseminated manganese with quartz and barite and effusive hydrothermal veins are hosted in Paleocene volcanics. Manganese deposits in Algeria are limited and unrecorded in Tunisia. Strata-form iron deposits in Atlas Heights are widespread in sub-rift zone among Jurassic sediments inter-bedding volcanic rocks. In Algeria, Group Beni-Saf iron deposits are localized along the Mediterranean coast in terrigenous and carbonate rocks of Jurassic, Cretaceous and Eocene age within faults and bedding planes. In Morocco strata-form hydrothermal lead-zinc deposits occur in contact zone of Tertiary andesite inter-bedding Cambrian shale, Lias dolomites and Eocene andesite. In both Algeria and Tunisia metasomatic Pb-Zn veins occur in Campanian - Maastrichtian carbonates, Triassic breccia, Jurassic limestone, Paleocene sandstones and limestone and Neogene conglomerates and sandstones. The Red Sea metallogenic province belongs to the Late Tertiary-Miocene times. In Wadi Araba hydrothermal iron-manganese deposits occur in Cretaceous sediments within 320°and 310 NW faults related to Tertiary basalt. Um-Bogma iron-manganese deposits are closely

  16. Geological characteristics of the main deposits in the world. Geological characteristics of French uranium deposits; their consequences on the different stages of valorisation. The uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.; Lenoble, A.; Mabile, J.

    1958-07-01

    This document gathers three contributions. In the first one, after having recalled data regarding uranium ore and metal reserves in Canada, USA, South Africa and France, the author describes and discusses the geological and mineral characteristics of the main deposits in Canada (Great Bear Lake, Ace-Verna and other deposits of the Beaverlodge district, Gunnar, Blind River and Bancroft), in the USA (New Mexico, Colorado and Arizona), and in South Africa (similar structure as observed in Blind River). The second contribution addresses the French uranium deposits by firstly presenting, describing and classifying vein deposits (five types are distinguished) and sedimentary deposits in different geological formations, and by secondly discussing the impacts of these characteristics on exploration, surface exploration works, and mining works. The third contribution proposes an overview of the uranium market: comments of world productions (conventional extraction processes and technical peculiarities, costs and prices, reserves and production in Canada, USA, South Africa, France, Australia and others), presentation of the French program (location and production capacity of uranium production plants, locations of ore extraction), overview of the current situation of the world market (price levels, possible prices after 1962), discussion of the comparison between demands and supplies, overview of the French uranium policy

  17. Fluid expulsion sites on the Cascadia accretionary prism: mapping diagenetic deposits with processed GLORIA imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Bobb; Seke, Erol; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Holmes, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    Point-discharge fluid expulsion on accretionary prisms is commonly indicated by diagenetic deposition of calcium carbonate cements and gas hydrates in near-surface (topographic and lithologic information. We have processed GLORIA imagery from the Oregon continental margin to remove topographic effects. A synthetic side scan image was created initially from Sea Beam bathymetric data and then was subtracted iteratively from the original GLORIA data until topographic features disappeared. The residual image contains high-amplitude backscattering that we attribute to diagenetic deposits associated with fluid discharge, based on submersible mapping, Ocean Drilling Program drilling, and collected samples. Diagenetic deposits are concentrated (1) near an out-of-sequence thrust fault on the second ridge landward of the base of the continental slope, (2) along zones characterized by deep-seated strikeslip faults that cut transversely across the margin, and (3) in undeformed Cascadia Basin deposits which overlie incipient thrust faults seaward of the toe of the prism. There is no evidence of diagenetic deposition associated with the frontal thrust that rises from the dècollement. If the dècollement is an important aquifer, apparently the fluids are passed either to the strike-slip faults which intersect the dècollement or to the incipient faults in Cascadia Basin for expulsion. Diagenetic deposits seaward of the prism toe probably consist dominantly of gas hydrates.

  18. Impurities in chromium deposits produced by electroplating and physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J.W.

    1994-05-01

    Impurity contents in electrodeposited (hexavalent and trivalent) chromium deposits and physically vapor deposited (thermal evaporation, electron beam evaporation and rf-sputtering) were compared. Oxygen is the key impurity obtained in electrodeposited films but it can be minimized in hexavalent plating solutions by operating at high temperature, e. g., 85 C. Electrodeposits produced in trivalent chromium plating solutions and physically vapor deposited films have much higher oxygen contents than electrodeposits produced in hexavalent chromium solutions operated at temperatures around 85 C. Depending on the target material used for physically vapor deposited films, these films can also have high amounts of other impurities.

  19. Bank Interest Margin and Default Risk under Basel III Capped Capital Adequacy Accord and Regulatory Deposit Insurance Fund Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Chuen-Ping Chang; Shi Chen

    2015-01-01

    We study the optimal bank interest margin and default risk under the capped ratio schedule of government capital instruments in the Basel III Capital Adequacy Accord and the Deposit Insurance Fund arrangement program. We show that an increase in the capped ratio (a decrease in the capped government capital injection) increases the default risk in the bank¡¯s equity return at a reduced interest margin. Regulatory deposit insurance fund protection reinforces the reduced bank interest margin and...

  20. Dispersion, deposition and resuspension of atmospheric contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: dry deposition, oil shale fugitive air emissions, particle resuspension and translocation, theoretical studies and applications, and processing of emissions by clouds and precipitation. The concentration of contaminant species in air is governed by the rate of input from sources, the rate of dilution or dispersion as a result of air turbulence, and the rate of removal to the surface by wet and dry deposition processes. Once on the surface, contaminants also may be resuspended, depending on meteorological and surface conditions. An understanding of these processes is necessary for accurate prediction of exposures of hazardous or harmful contaminants to humans, animals, and crops. In the field, plume dispersion and plume depletion by dry deposition were studied by the use of tracers. Dry deposition was investigated for particles of both respiration and inhalation interest. Complementary dry deposition studies of particles to rock canopies were conducted under controlled conditions in a wind tunnel. Because of increasing concern about hazardous, organic gases in the atmosphere some limited investigations of the dry deposition of nitrobenzene to a lichen mat were conducted in a stirred chamber. Resuspension was also studied using tracers and contaminated surfaces and in the wind tunnel. The objective of the resuspension studies was to develop and verify models for predicting the airborne concentrations of contaminants over areas with surface contamination, develop resuspension rate predictors for downwind transport, and develop predictors for resuspension input to the food chain. These models will be of particular relevance to the evaluation of deposition and resuspension of both radionuclides and chemical contaminants

  1. Investigating Dry Deposition of Ozone to Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sam J.; Heald, Colette L.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric ozone loss through dry deposition to vegetation is a critically important process for both air quality and ecosystem health. The majority of atmospheric chemistry models calculate dry deposition using a resistance-in-series parameterization by Wesely (1989), which is dependent on many environmental variables and lookup table values. The uncertainties contained within this parameterization have not been fully explored, ultimately challenging our ability to understand global scale biosphere-atmosphere interactions. In this work, we evaluate the GEOS-Chem model simulation of ozone dry deposition using a globally distributed suite of observations. We find that simulated daytime deposition velocities generally reproduce the magnitude of observations to within a factor of 1.4. When correctly accounting for differences in land class between the observations and model, these biases improve, most substantially over the grasses and shrubs land class. These biases do not impact the global ozone burden substantially; however, they do lead to local absolute changes of up to 4 ppbv and relative changes of 15% in summer surface concentrations. We use MERRA meteorology from 1979 to 2008 to assess that the interannual variability in simulated annual mean ozone dry deposition due to model input meteorology is small (generally less than 5% over vegetated surfaces). Sensitivity experiments indicate that the simulation is most sensitive to the stomatal and ground surface resistances, as well as leaf area index. To improve ozone dry deposition models, more measurements are necessary over rainforests and various crop types, alongside constraints on individual depositional pathways and other in-canopy ozone loss processes.

  2. Aerosol Deposition and Solar Panel Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, W. P.; Rollings, A.; Taylor, S. J.; Parks, J.; Barnard, J.; Holmes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Passive and active solar collector farms are often located in relatively dry desert regions where cloudiness impacts are minimized. These farms may be susceptible to reduced performance due to routine or episodic aerosol deposition on collector surfaces. Intense episodes of wind blown dust deposition may negatively impact farm performance, and trigger need to clean collector surfaces. Aerosol deposition rate depends on size, morphology, and local meteorological conditions. We have developed a system for solar panel performance testing under real world conditions. Two identical 0.74 square meter solar panels are deployed, with one kept clean while the other receives various doses of aerosol deposition or other treatments. A variable load is used with automation to record solar panel maximum output power every 10 minutes. A collocated sonic anemometer measures wind at 10 Hz, allowing for both steady and turbulent characterization to establish a link between wind patterns and particle distribution on the cells. Multispectral photoacoustic instruments measure aerosol light scattering and absorption. An MFRSR quantifies incoming solar radiation. Solar panel albedo is measured along with the transmission spectra of particles collected on the panel surface. Key questions are: At what concentration does aerosol deposition become a problem for solar panel performance? What are the meteorological conditions that most strongly favor aerosol deposition, and are these predictable from current models? Is it feasible to use the outflow from an unmanned aerial vehicle hovering over solar panels to adequately clean their surface? Does aerosol deposition from episodes of nearby forest fires impact performance? The outlook of this research is to build a model that describes environmental effects on solar panel performance. Measurements from summer and fall 2015 will be presented along with insights gleaned from them.

  3. Recent exploration progresses on sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in north-western China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The metallogenic target selection using multiple exploration techniques and drilling program for sandstone-hosted uranium deposits have been intensively carried out for recent years, and big progresses on new discoveries of uranium reserve/resource have been made in the Mesozoic sedimentary basins such as in Yili, Ordos etc. in North-western China The Yili basin is a depression one within the Tianshan Mountain belt in the western part of China. Its basement is composed of Proterozoic-Paleozoic metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, and covers of Mesozoic sediments. The early-middle Jurassic Shuixigou Group is major uranium-productive beds which are composed of three Formations such as Badaowan, Sangonghe, Xisanyao and eight sedimentary cycles. Uranium deposits are found in the south margin of the Basin and controlled by the redox zone. The combined exploration techniques of detailed sedimentary facies study, Rn-survey, high-precision magnetic and soil geochemical and seismic surveys have been successfully used to have locate the potential targets and mineralization zones. The enlargement of uranium reserve/resources in the known deposits and new resources in the selected new targets and cycles have been achieved through further drilling programs. The Ordos basin is a large Meso-Cenozoic basin developed in North China Platform, with its size of approximately 250,000 km"2 and is well known as an important “energy resources basin” because of abundance of coal, oil and gas deposits. The Dongsheng sandstone type uranium deposit is a large one discovered in recent years in northeastern Ordos basin. It is a special kind of sandstone type uranium deposit, different from other ordinary sandstone type deposits because of its unique signatures. It is generally controlled by a transitional zone between greenish and grayish sandstones, both of those two kinds of sandstones now indicate reduced geochemical environments. The greenish color of the paleooxidized sandstones mainly

  4. Linking deposit morphology and clogging in subsurface remediation: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, David C. [University of Colorado Denver

    2013-12-11

    Groundwater is a crucial resource for water supply, especially in arid and semiarid areas of the United States west of the 100th meridian. Accordingly, remediation of contaminated groundwater is an important application of science and technology, particularly for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which oversees a number of groundwater remediation sites from Cold War era mining. Groundwater remediation is complex, because it depends on identifying, locating, and treating contaminants in the subsurface, where remediation reactions depend on interacting geological, hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological factors. Within this context, permeability is a fundamental concept, because it controls the rates and pathways of groundwater flow. Colloid science is intimately related to permeability, because when colloids are present (particles with equivalent diameters between 1 nanometer and 10 micrometers), changes in hydrological or geochemical conditions can trigger a detrimental reduction in permeability called clogging. Accordingly, clogging is a major concern in groundwater remediation. Several lines of evidence suggest that clogging by colloids depends on (1) colloid deposition, and (2) deposit morphology, that is, the structure of colloid deposits, which can be quantified as a fractal dimension. This report describes research, performed under a 2-year, exploratory grant from the DOE’s Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) program. This research employed a novel laboratory technique to simultaneously measure flow, colloid deposition, deposit morphology, and permeability in a flow cell, and also collected field samples from wells at the DOE’s Old Rifle remediation site. Field results indicate that suspended solids at the Old Rifle site have fractal structures. Laboratory results indicate that clogging is associated with colloid deposits with smaller fractal dimensions, in accordance with previous studies on initially clean granular media. Preliminary

  5. Diffusive deposition of aerosols in Phebus containment during FPT-2 test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontautas, A.; Urbonavicius, E.

    2012-01-01

    At present the lumped-parameter codes is the main tool to investigate the complex response of the containment of Nuclear Power Plant in case of an accident. Continuous development and validation of the codes is required to perform realistic investigation of the processes that determine the possible source term of radioactive products to the environment. Validation of the codes is based on the comparison of the calculated results with the measurements performed in experimental facilities. The most extensive experimental program to investigate fission product release from the molten fuel, transport through the cooling circuit and deposition in the containment is performed in PHEBUS test facility. Test FPT-2 performed in this facility is considered for analysis of processes taking place in containment. Earlier performed investigations using COCOSYS code showed that the code could be successfully used for analysis of thermal-hydraulic processes and deposition of aerosols, but there was also noticed that diffusive deposition on the vertical walls does not fit well with the measured results. In the CPA module of ASTEC code there is implemented different model for diffusive deposition, therefore the PHEBUS containment model was transferred from COCOSYS code to ASTEC-CPA to investigate the influence of the diffusive deposition modelling. Analysis was performed using PHEBUS containment model of 16 nodes. The calculated thermal-hydraulic parameters are in good agreement with measured results, which gives basis for realistic simulation of aerosol transport and deposition processes. Performed investigations showed that diffusive deposition model has influence on the aerosol deposition distribution on different surfaces in the test facility. (authors)

  6. The uranium mine Key Lake, Canada, as an example of final deposition of radioactive tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, T.

    1984-01-01

    The main part of that waste handling system is tailing storage. The other parts include the water storage reservoirs and monitoring ponds. Soil conditions and design features of the tailings pond are described in detail as well as the method of tailings disposal. Finally the method of deposition results in a laminated radioactive tailings deposit and the tailings reach a degree of compactness comparable to concrete. The Key Lake Mining Corporation and its consultants have developed a tailings handling program in order to minimize environmental impact and to take advantage of the natural topography and soil materials in the project area. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Mass transfer in silicon at deposition of Ti thin films assisted by self ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalkovich, O.M.; Tashlykov, I.S.; Gusakov, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a composite structure, processes of diffusion in Si, modified by means of ion-assisted deposition of coatings in conditions of a self-irradiation are discussed. Rutherford backscattering in combination with a channelling (RBS/Ch) of He + ions and computer program RUMP were applied to investigate an element composition. It is established, that coatings include atoms of metal, hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, silicon. The interstitial Si atoms, generated by radiation effect, diffuse during deposition of thin coating, both in a depth of a wafers, and in coatings. The influence of irradiation of ions Xe+ on diffusion processes in silicon are revealed. (authors)

  8. Deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract as a function of age at exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Healy, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A respiratory tract deposition model was developed that would accommodate age 1 month to adulthood as an initial step in calculating radiation dose following inhalation during environmental exposures. The approach to changing respiratory tract and physiological parameters to be applicable to children was to derive an analytical function describing the ratio of the child value to the value for a reference adult with the desired characteristics. A computer program was written to carry out the tracing of airflow through the respiratory tract and deposition in each of the sections for monodispersed particles of known density and diameter. 7 references

  9. TPR system: a powerful technique to monitor carbon nanotube formation during chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tristao, Juliana Cristina; Moura, Flavia Cristina Camilo; Lago, Rochel Montero; Sapag, Karim

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a TPR (Temperature Programmed Reduction) system is used as a powerful tool to monitor carbon nanotubes production during CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition), The experiments were carried out using catalyst precursors based on Fe-Mo supported on Al 2 O 3 and methane as carbon source. As methane reacts on the Fe metal surface, carbon is deposited and H2 is produced. TPR is very sensitive to the presence of H2 and affords information on the temperature where catalyst is active to form different forms of carbon, the reaction kinetics, the catalyst deactivation and carbon yields. (author)

  10. Cobalt—Styles of deposits and the search for primary deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzman, Murray W.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Slack, John F.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2017-11-30

    Cobalt (Co) is a potentially critical mineral. The vast majority of cobalt is a byproduct of copper and (or) nickel production. Cobalt is increasingly used in magnets and rechargeable batteries. More than 50 percent of primary cobalt production is from the Central African Copperbelt. The Central African Copperbelt is the only sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform copper district that contains significant cobalt. Its presence may indicate significant mafic-ultramafic rocks in the local basement. The balance of primary cobalt production is from magmatic nickel-copper and nickel laterite deposits. Cobalt is present in several carbonate-hosted lead-zinc and copper districts. It is also variably present in Besshi-type volcanogenic massive sulfide and siliciclastic sedimentary rock-hosted deposits in back arc and rift environments associated with mafic-ultramafic rocks. Metasedimentary cobalt-copper-gold deposits (such as Blackbird, Idaho), iron oxide-copper-gold deposits, and the five-element vein deposits (such as Cobalt, Ontario) contain different amounts of cobalt. None of these deposit types show direct links to mafic-ultramafic rocks; the deposits may result from crustal-scale hydrothermal systems capable of leaching and transporting cobalt from great depths. Hydrothermal deposits associated with ultramafic rocks, typified by the Bou Azzer district of Morocco, represent another type of primary cobalt deposit.In the United States, exploration for cobalt deposits may focus on magmatic nickel-copper deposits in the Archean and Proterozoic rocks of the Midwest and the east coast (Pennsylvania) and younger mafic rocks in southeastern and southern Alaska; also, possibly basement rocks in southeastern Missouri. Other potential exploration targets include—The Belt-Purcell basin of British Columbia (Canada), Idaho, Montana, and Washington for different styles of sedimentary rock-hosted cobalt deposits;Besshi-type VMS deposits, such as the Greens Creek (Alaska) deposit and

  11. DIAPARK. A theoretical model for radiological assessments after short-term release and deposition of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, J.; Mueller, H.; Proehl, G.; Jacob, P.

    1995-05-01

    The DIAPARK program package is an enhancement of the ECOSYS-87 model for radioecological assessment, developed by GSF. The program version of the ECOSYS-87 model covers primarily the results and information derived from measurements performed after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Much importance has been attached to making the model fit for customized adjustment by modification of model parameters in order to be able to take into account the various conditions in various regions. The program package allows calculation of the deposition and interception, food contamination (as determined by plant contamination, contamination of animal products, radioactivity levels changed by storage and processing), doses resulting from ingestion and inhalation, and external exposure. (HP) [de

  12. Origin and chemical composition of evaporite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, George William

    1960-01-01

    A comparative study of marine evaporite deposits forming at the present time along the pacific coast of central Mexico and evaporite formations of Permian age in West Texas Basin was made in order to determine if the modern sediments provide a basis for understanding environmental conditions that existed during deposition of the older deposits. The field work was supplemented by investigations of artificial evaporite minerals precipitated in the laboratory and by study of the chemical composition of halite rock of different geologic ages. The environment of deposition of contemporaneous marine salt deposits in Mexico is acidic, is strongly reducing a few centimeters below the surface, and teems with microscopic life. Deposition of salt, unlike that of many other sediments, is not wholly a constructional phenomenon. Permanent deposits result only if a favorable balance exists between deposition in the dry season and dissolution in the wet season. Evaporite formations chosen for special study in the West Texas Basin are, in ascending order, the Castile, Salado, and Rustler formations, which have a combined thickness of 1200 meters. The Castile formation is largely composed of gypsum rock, the Salado, halite rock, and the Rustler, quartz and carbonate sandstone. The lower part of the Castile formation is bituminous and contains limestone laminae. The Castile and Rustler formations thicken to the south at the expense of salt of the intervening Salado formation. The clastic rocks of the Rustler formation are interpreted as the deposits of a series of barrier islands north of which halite rock of the Salado was deposited. The salt is believed to have formed in shallow water of uniform density that was mixed by the wind. Where water depth exceeded the depth of the wind mixing, density stratification developed, and gypsum was deposited. Dense water of high salinity below the density discontinuity was overlain by less dense, more normally saline water which was derived from

  13. Model boiler studies on deposition and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; McVey, E.G.

    1977-09-01

    Deposit formation was studied in a model boiler, with sea-water injections to simulate the in-leakage which could occur from sea-water cooled condensers. When All Volatile Treatment (AVT) was used for chemistry control the deposits consisted of the sea-water salts and corrosion products. With sodium phosphate added to the boiler water, the deposits also contained the phosphates derived from the sea-water salts. The deposits were formed in layers of differing compositions. There was no significant corrosion of the Fe-Ni-Cr alloy boiler tube under deposits, either on the open area of the tube or in crevices. However, carbon steel that formed a crevice around the tube was corroded severely when the boiler water did not contain phosphate. The observed corrosion of carbon steel was caused by the presence of acidic, highly concentrated chloride solution produced from the sea-water within the crevice. Results of theoretical calculations of the composition of the concentrated solution are presented. (author)

  14. Definition and classification of surficial uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Uraniferous surficial deposits may be broadly defined as uraniferous sediments or soils, usually of Tertiary to Recent age, that have not been subjected to deep burial and may or may not have been cemented to some degree. Evaluation of the available literature shows that confusion has arisen as to the use of the term ''calcrete'' when describing fluviatile sediments that have been calcified to a greater or lesser degree. It is felt that a useful purpose would be served by proposing a classification system which may go some way towards a redefinition of the applicable terminology. Unfortunately the terms ''calcrete'' or ''valley calcrete'' have been used to define Tertiary to Recent sediments ranging from boulder beds to silts which, in some Namibian examples, contain between 5 and 50% CaCO 3 and as much as 90% total carbonate in some Australian surficial uranium deposits. It is proposed that the detrital material constituting the sediments be prefixed with the terms calcareous, dolomitic, gypsiferous, halitiferous or ferruginous (e.g. calcareous grit) rather than the terms calcrete, dolocrete, gypcrete, and ferricrete, all of which have genetic connotations. The latter group of terms are preferably used for the pedogenic uranium deposits only. This will have the effect of placing these deposits in categories of their own and not confusing the issue with the overprint of pedogenic calcrete or duricrustal deposits which may or may not be present. This view is not shared by some authorities notably Butt and Carlisle (see this volume). (author)

  15. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  16. Dry deposition to vegetated surfaces: parametric dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, B.Y.

    1987-12-01

    The dry deposition velocity of airborne pollutants to vegetated surfaces depends on the physico-chemical form of the pollutant, on meteorological conditions (windspeed, atmospheric stability) and on characteristics of the surface cover. This report examines these dependencies, drawing on experimental data and on information from theoretical analyses. A canopy model is outlined which uses first-order closure of the equations for turbulent transport of momentum (or matter), with losses of momentum (or matter) to individual canopy elements parameterised in terms of the mean windspeed: the model has previously been tested against experimental data on an artificial 'grass' canopy. The model is used to elucidate the features of the dependence of deposition velocity on windspeed and on whether the pollutant is in gaseous or particulate form: in the former case, the dependence on the molecular diffusivity of the gas is shown; in the latter case, dependencies on particle diameter and density are deduced. The predictions are related to available measurements. Additional hypotheses are introduced to treat the influence of atmospheric stability on deposition, and the analysis is used to shed light on the somewhat confusing picture that has emerged from past experimental studies. In considering the dependence of deposition velocity on the structural properties of the vegetation, it is established that more parameters than the single one conventionally used -aerodynamic roughness length - are needed to characterise the surface cover. Some indications of the extent of variation in deposition velocity from one type of vegetation to another are elicited from the model. (author)

  17. Genetic effects from internally deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    It was learned in the late 1920's that ionizing radiation could produce genetic effects such as gene mutations and chromosome aberrations. However, at least until 1945, the focus on interest in radiation protection was primarily on somatic effects manifested in the individual exposed. Studies of the genetic effects of radiation using drosophila, however, refocused attention on effects transmitted to the exposed individuals offspring and concern over fallout in the 1950's resulted in efforts to estimate the genetic effects from exposure of human populations to internally deposited radionuclides. No human populations have been identified with burdens of internally deposited radioactive materials which have been shown to produce evidence of transmissible genetic damage. As a result, the research approach has been one in which macromolecular, cellular, and whole animal genetic studies have been combined to estimate genetic effects on humans following the deposition of radioactive materials in the body. The purpose of this report is to update the information available from animal and cellular experiments that relates genetic effects to deposited activity and dose from internally deposited radioactive materials

  18. Macro controlling of copper oxide deposition processes and spray mode by using home-made fully computerized spray pyrolysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Mohammed Sh.; Chiad, Bahaa T.; Shafeeq, Omer Sh.

    2017-09-01

    Thin Films of Copper Oxide (CuO) absorption layer have been deposited using home-made Fully Computerized Spray Pyrolysis Deposition system FCSPD on glass substrates, at the nozzle to substrate distance equal to 20,35 cm, and computerized spray mode (continues spray, macro-control spray). The substrate temperature has been kept at 450 °c with the optional user can enter temperature tolerance values ± 5 °C. Also that fixed molar concentration of 0.1 M, and 2D platform speed or deposition platform speed of 4mm/s. more than 1000 instruction program code, and specific design of graphical user interface GUI to fully control the deposition process and real-time monitoring and controlling the deposition temperature at every 200 ms. The changing in the temperature has been recorded during deposition processes, in addition to all deposition parameters. The films have been characterized to evaluate the thermal distribution over the X, Y movable hot plate, the structure and optical energy gap, thermal and temperature distribution exhibited a good and uniform distribution over 20 cm2 hot plate area, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature and can be assigned to monoclinic CuO structure. Optical band gap varies from 1.5-1.66 eV depending on deposition parameter.

  19. Exploring the deposition of oxides on silicon for photovoltaic cells by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, L.M.; de Moor, Hugo H.C.; Rogalla, Horst; Blank, David H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Since most commercially available solar cells are still made from silicon, we are exploring the introduction of passivating qualities in oxides, with the potential to serve as an antireflection coating. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was used to deposit TiO2 and SrTiO3 coatings on silicon substrates.

  20. Spatial atomic layer deposition: a route towards further industrialization of atomic layer deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poodt, P.; Cameron, D.C.; Dickey, E.; George, S.M.; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Parsons, G.N.; Roozeboom, F.; Sundaram, G.; Vermeer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial atomic layer deposition can be used as a high-throughput manufacturing technique in functional thin film deposition for applications such as flexible electronics. This; however, requires low-temperature processing and handling of flexible substrates. The authors investigate the process