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Sample records for deposition process pipes

  1. DEPOSITION OF PARTICLES IN TURBULENT PIPE FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei Luo; Suyuan Yu

    2006-01-01

    The deposition of particles in turbulent pipe flow was investigated in terms of two mechanisms, turbulent and thermophoretic. A general equation incorporating these two mechanisms was formulated to calculate the deposition efficiency of aerosol particles in turbulent pipe flow together with thermophoretic deposition. The validity of the equation was confirmed by good agreement between calculated and measured results.

  2. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  3. 46 CFR 154.500 - Cargo and process piping standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo and process piping standards. 154.500 Section 154... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.500 Cargo and process piping standards. The cargo liquid and vapor piping and process piping systems must meet the requirements in §§ 154.503 through...

  4. Laboratory Deposition Apparatus to Study the Effects of Wax Deposition on Pipe Magnetic Field Leakage Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mohd Fauzi Abd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate technique for wax deposition detection and severity measurement on cold pipe wall is important for pipeline cleaning program. Usually these techniques are validated by conventional techniques on laboratory scale wax deposition flow loop. However conventional techniques inherent limitations and it is difficult to reproduce a predetermine wax deposit profile and hardness at designated location in flow loop. An alternative wax deposition system which integrates modified pour casting method and cold finger method is presented. This system is suitable to reproduce high volume of medium hard wax deposit in pipe with better control of wax deposit profile and hardness.

  5. Palaeomagnetic Emplacement Temperature Determinations of Pyroclastic and Volcaniclastic Deposits in Southern African Kimberlite Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, G.; Mac Niocaill, C.; Brown, R.; Sparks, R. S.; Matthew, F.; Gernon, T. M.

    2009-12-01

    Kimberlites are complex, ultramafic and diamond-bearing volcanic rocks preserved in volcanic pipes, dykes and craters. The formation of kimberlite pipes is a strongly debated issue and two principal theories have been proposed to explain pipe formation: (1) the explosive degassing of magma, and (2) the interaction of rising magma with groundwater (phreatomagmatism). Progressive thermal demagnetization studies are a powerful tool for determining the emplacement temperatures of ancient volcanic deposits and we present the first application of such techniques to kimberlite deposits. Lithic clasts were sampled from a variety of lithofacies, from three pipes for which the internal geology is well constrained (A/K1 pipe, Orapa Mine, Botswana and the K1 and K2 pipes, Venetia Mine, South Africa). The sampled deposits included massive and layered vent-filling breccias with varying abundances of lithic inclusions and layered crater-filling pyroclastic deposits, talus breccias and volcaniclastic breccias. Lithic clasts sampled from layered and massive vent-filling pyroclastic deposits in A/K1 were emplaced at >590° C. Results from K1 and K2 provide a maximum emplacement temperature limit for vent-filling breccias of 420-460° C; and constrain equilibrium deposit temperatures at 300-340° C. Crater-filling volcaniclastic kimberlite breccias and talus deposits from A/K1 were emplaced at ambient temperatures, consistent with infilling of the pipe by post-eruption epiclastic processes. Identified within the epiclastic crater-fill succession is a laterally extensive 15-20 metre thick kimberlite pyroclastic flow deposit emplaced at temperatures of 220-440° C. It overlies the post-eruption epiclastic units and is considered an extraneous pyroclastic kimberlite deposit erupted from another kimberlite vent. The results provide important constraints on kimberlite emplacement mechanisms and eruption dynamics. Emplacement temperatures of >590°C for pipe-filling pyroclastic deposits

  6. Emplacement temperatures of pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits in kimberlite pipes in southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Giovanni; Mac Niocaill, Conall; Brown, Richard J.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Field, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic techniques for estimating the emplacement temperatures of volcanic deposits have been applied to pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits in kimberlite pipes in southern Africa. Lithic clasts were sampled from a variety of lithofacies from three pipes for which the internal geology is well constrained (the Cretaceous A/K1 pipe, Orapa Mine, Botswana, and the Cambrian K1 and K2 pipes, Venetia Mine, South Africa). The sampled deposits included massive and layered vent-filling brecc...

  7. Emplacement Temperatures of Pyroclastic and Volcaniclastic Deposits in Kimberlite Pipes in Southern Africa: New constraints From Palaeomagnetic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, G. P.; Macniocaill, C.; Brown, R. J.; Sparks, S. R.; Field, M.; Gernon, T. M.

    2009-05-01

    Palaeomagnetic techniques for estimating the emplacement temperatures of volcanic deposits have been applied for the first time to pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits in kimberlite pipes in southern Africa. Lithic clasts were sampled from a variety of lithofacies, from three pipes for which the internal geology is well constrained (A/K1 pipe, Orapa Mine, Botswana and the K1 and K2 pipes, Venetia Mine, South Africa). The sampled deposits included massive and layered vent-filling breccias with varying abundances of lithic inclusions and layered crater-filling pyroclastic deposits, talus breccias and volcaniclastic breccias. Lithic clasts sampled from layered and massive vent-filling pyroclastic deposits in A/K1 were emplaced at >590° C. Results from K1 and K2 provide a maximum emplacement temperature limit for vent-filling breccias of 420-460° C; and constrain equilibrium deposit temperatures at 300-340° C. Crater-filling volcaniclastic kimberlite breccias and talus deposits from A/K1 were emplaced at ambient temperatures, consistent with infilling of the pipe by post-eruption epiclastic processes. Identified within the epiclastic crater- fill succession is a laterally extensive 15-20 metre thick kimberlite pyroclastic flow deposit emplaced at temperatures of 220-440° C. It overlies the post-eruption epiclastic units and is considered an extraneous pyroclastic kimberlite deposit erupted from another kimberlite vent. The emplacement temperature results are comparable to the estimated emplacement temperatures of other kimberlite deposits and pyroclastic deposits from other volcanic systems, and fall within the proposed stability field for common interstitial matrix mineral assemblages within vent-filling volcaniclastic kimberlites. This is in the range where welding and agglutination of juvenile pyroclasts occurs in other types of pyroclastic deposits. Such high emplacement temperatures for vent-filling pyroclastic deposits are consistent with volatile

  8. Prediction of wall deposition behaviour in a pilot-scale spray dryer using deposition correlations for pipe flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOTA K.; LANGRISH T.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The particle deposition behaviour of skim milk, water and maltodextrin in the conical section of a pilot-scale spray dryer was predicted using simple correlations for particle depositions in pipes. The predicted particle deposition fluxes of these materials were then compared with the measured deposition fluxes. The predicted particle deposition regimes of the spray dryer were expected to be in the diffusional and mixed (diffusional and inertial) regimes, but the experimental results suggested that the particle deposition was mainly in the inertial regime. Therefore, using the pipe correlations for predicting deposition in a pilot-scale spray dryer suggests that they do not sufficiently represent the actual deposition behaviour. This outcome indicates that a further study of particle flow patterns needs to be carried out using numerical simulations (computational fluid dynamics,CFD) in view of the additional geometrical complexity of the spray dryer.

  9. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  10. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  11. Emplacement temperatures of pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits in kimberlite pipes in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Giovanni; Mac Niocaill, Conall; Brown, Richard J.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Field, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    Palaeomagnetic techniques for estimating the emplacement temperatures of volcanic deposits have been applied to pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits in kimberlite pipes in southern Africa. Lithic clasts were sampled from a variety of lithofacies from three pipes for which the internal geology is well constrained (the Cretaceous A/K1 pipe, Orapa Mine, Botswana, and the Cambrian K1 and K2 pipes, Venetia Mine, South Africa). The sampled deposits included massive and layered vent-filling breccias with varying abundances of lithic inclusions, layered crater-filling pyroclastic deposits, talus breccias and volcaniclastic breccias. Basalt lithic clasts in the layered and massive vent-filling pyroclastic deposits in the A/K1 pipe at Orapa were emplaced at >570°C, in the pyroclastic crater-filling deposits at 200-440°C and in crater-filling talus breccias and volcaniclastic breccias at 560°C, although the interpretation of these results is hampered by the presence of Mesozoic magnetic overprints. These temperatures are comparable to the estimated emplacement temperatures of other kimberlite deposits and fall within the proposed stability field for common interstitial matrix mineral assemblages within vent-filling volcaniclastic kimberlites. The temperatures are also comparable to those obtained for pyroclastic deposits in other, silicic, volcanic systems. Because the lithic content of the studied deposits is 10-30%, the initial bulk temperature of the pyroclastic mixture of cold lithic clasts and juvenile kimberlite magma could have been 300-400°C hotter than the palaeomagnetic estimates. Together with the discovery of welded and agglutinated juvenile pyroclasts in some pyroclastic kimberlites, the palaeomagnetic results indicate that there are examples of kimberlites where phreatomagmatism did not play a major role in the generation of the pyroclastic deposits. This study indicates that palaeomagnetic methods can successfully distinguish differences in the

  12. Apparatus and method for pulsed laser deposition of materials on wires and pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Felix E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed which allow uniform coatings to be applied by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on inner and outer surfaces of cylindrical objects, such as rods, pipes, tubes, and wires. The use of PLD makes this technique particularly suitable for complex multicomponent materials, such as superconducting ceramics. Rigid objects of any length, i.e., pipes up to a few meters, and with diameters from less than 1 centimeter to over 10 centimeters can be coated using this technique. Further, deposition is effected simultaneously onto an annular region of the pipe wall. This particular arrangement simplifies the apparatus, reduces film uniformity control difficulties, and can result in faster operation cycles. In addition, flexible wires of any length can be continuously coated using the disclosed invention.

  13. STUDY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC STIRRING REFINING MICRO- STRUCTURES OF PIPE-LINE STEEL SAW DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Zhang; B.N. Qian; X.M. Guo

    2002-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic stirring on the microstructures of pipe-line steel SAWdeposited metal were investigated. The results showed that electromagnetic stirringincreased the number density of inclusions with 0.2-0.6μm in diameter and promotedthe formation and refining of acicular ferrite within austenite grains. The low tem-perature toughness of deposited metal was improved.

  14. PipeOnline 2.0: automated EST processing and functional data sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Patricia; Jin, Xiaojing; Leite, Saul; Liu, Xianghui; Martajaja, Jeson; Abduraham, Abdurashid; Wan, Qiaolan; Yan, Wei; Misawa, Eduardo; Prade, Rolf A

    2002-11-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are generated and deposited in the public domain, as redundant, unannotated, single-pass reactions, with virtually no biological content. PipeOnline automatically analyses and transforms large collections of raw DNA-sequence data from chromatograms or FASTA files by calling the quality of bases, screening and removing vector sequences, assembling and rewriting consensus sequences of redundant input files into a unigene EST data set and finally through translation, amino acid sequence similarity searches, annotation of public databases and functional data. PipeOnline generates an annotated database, retaining the processed unigene sequence, clone/file history, alignments with similar sequences, and proposed functional classification, if available. Functional annotation is automatic and based on a novel method that relies on homology of amino acid sequence multiplicity within GenBank records. Records are examined through a function ordered browser or keyword queries with automated export of results. PipeOnline offers customization for individual projects (MyPipeOnline), automated updating and alert service. PipeOnline is available at http://stress-genomics.org.

  15. PipeOnline 2.0: automated EST processing and functional data sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Patricia; Jin, Xiaojing; Leite, Saul; Liu, Xianghui; Martajaja, Jeson; Abduraham, Abdurashid; Wan, Qiaolan; Yan, Wei; Misawa, Eduardo; Prade, Rolf A.

    2002-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are generated and deposited in the public domain, as redundant, un-annotated, single-pass reactions, with virtually no biological content. PipeOnline automatically analyses and transforms large collections of raw DNA-sequence data from chromatograms or FASTA files by calling the quality of bases, screening and removing vector sequences, assembling and rewriting consensus sequences of redundant input files into a unigene EST data set and finally through translation, amino acid sequence similarity searches, annotation of public databases and functional data. PipeOnline generates an annota ted database, retaining the processed unigene sequence, clone/file history, alignments with similar sequences, and proposed functional classification, if available. Functional annotation is automatic and based on a novel method that relies on homology of amino acid sequence multiplicity within GenBank records. Records are examined through a function ordered browser or keyword queries with automated export of results. PipeOnline offers customization for individual projects (MyPipeOnline), automated updating and alert service. PipeOnline is available at http://stress-genomics.org. PMID:12409467

  16. Acoustic Signal Processing for Pipe Condition Assessment (WaterRF Report 4360)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unique to prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP), individual wire breaks create an excitation in the pipe wall that may vary in response to the remaining compression of the pipe core. This project was designed to improve acoustic signal processing for pipe condition assessment...

  17. Surface analysis of pilot distribution system pipe autopsies: The relationship of organic and inorganic deposits to input water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Rolando; Denman, John; Braun, Kalan; Ho, Lionel; Drikas, Mary

    2015-12-15

    Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) surface analysis was conducted to characterise deposits in polyethylene pipes used in a novel pilot water distribution system (PDS). The system consisted of four (4) parallel distribution systems receiving water from different treatment processes, ranging from conventional coagulation through to an advanced membrane filtration system. After two years of operation, the distribution system was shut down and samples of pipe were collected for autopsy analysis. Inlet and outlet samples from each PDS were collected for purpose of comparison. ToF-SIMS was used to assess chemical differences in surface biofilm accumulation and particulate deposition, which resulted as a consequence of the treatment method and operational mode of each system. These data supplemented previously collected bacteriological and chemical water quality data. Results from the inorganic analysis of the pipes were consistent with corrosion and contamination events that occurred upstream in the corresponding treatment systems. Principal component analysis of data on organic constituents showed oxygen and nitrogen containing fragments were associated with the treatment inlet and outlet samples. These types of signals can often be ascribed to biofilm polysaccharides and proteins. A trend was observed when comparing samples from the same PDS, showing an association of lower molecular weight (MW) organic fragments with the inlet and higher MW organic fragments with the outlet samples.

  18. The algorithm of verification of welding process for plastic pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzasinski, R.

    2017-08-01

    The study analyzes the process of butt welding of PE pipes in terms of proper selection of connector parameters. The process was oriented to the elements performed as a series of types of pipes. Polymeric materials commonly referred to as polymers or plastics, synthetic materials are produced from oil products in the polyreaction compounds of low molecular weight, called monomers. During the polyreactions monomers combine to build a macromolecule material monomer named with the prefix poly polypropylene, polyethylene or polyurethane, creating particles in solid state on the order of 0,2 to 0,4 mm. Finished products from polymers of virtually any shape and size are obtained by compression molding, injection molding, extrusion, laminating, centrifugal casting, etc. Weld can only be a thermoplastic that softens at an elevated temperature, and thus can be connected via a clamp. Depending on the source and method of supplying heat include the following welding processes: welding contact, radiant welding, friction welding, dielectric welding, ultrasonic welding. The analysis will be welding contact. In connection with the development of new generation of polyethylene, and the production of pipes with increasing dimensions (diameter, wall thickness) is important to select the correct process.

  19. Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1989-10-30

    Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments.

  20. New technology for transmission measurements in process pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, C E; Favalli, A; Goda, J M; Ianakiev, K D; Lombardi, M; McCluskey, C W; Paffett, M T; Swinhoe, M T

    2013-02-01

    Transmission measurements of radiation through process pipes provide a non-intrusive method of determining the amount of product present in the pipes. The product could be a liquid, a slurry, or a gas, which is the most challenging because of the low density. Traditionally, these techniques have used a radioactive source that has to be replaced periodically. We have developed a transmission technique based on an X-ray tube instead of a decaying source. A notch filter is used to provide a narrow transmission line, and a thin silicon transmission detector is used to monitor the X-ray tube output. The transmitted X-rays are measured with a high-throughput gamma spectrometer that consists of a NaI(Tl) detector and an MCA with precise dead time correction. This spectrometer provides stable transmission measurements with an accuracy of a fraction of a percent. The shielding and collimator are made of machinable tungsten for thermal mechanical stability, as well low-cost, low-weight tungsten powder in polymer castings. We describe two methods of measuring the pipe wall thickness without evacuating the pipe. Our particular application was for enrichment monitors for UF(6) in process pipes. Enrichment monitors that are independent of the plant data require two measurements: a transmission measurement to determine the total amount of uranium in the pipe and a measurement of the 186-keV gamma-ray line to determine the amount of (235)U present. The ratio of these values gives the enrichment. Previous designs used a decaying radioactive source such as (57)Co (122 keV, T(½)=272 days) or (109)Cd (22 keV, T(½)=1.2 years). A major effort was required to access and periodically replace these sources in operating plants. In this report, we describe the use of an X-ray tube, which eliminated the source problem, and other innovations. Then we present data from an enrichment monitor that incorporates these innovations.

  1. Measurement of the Critical Deposition Velocity in Slurry Transport through a Horizontal Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erian, Fadel F.; Furfari, Daniel J.; Kellogg, Michael I.; Park, Walter R.

    2001-03-01

    Critical Deposition Velocity (CDV) is an important design and operational parameter in slurry transport. Almost all existing correlations that are used to predict this parameter have been obtained experimentally from slurry transport tests featuring single solid species in the slurry mixture. No correlations have been obtained to describe this parameter when the slurry mixture contains more than one solid species having a wide range of specific gravities, particle size distributions, and volume concentrations within the overall slurry mixture. There are no physical or empirical bases that can justify the extrapolation or modification of the existing single species correlations to include all these effects. New experiments must be carried out to obtain new correlations that would be suited for these types of slurries, and that would clarify the mechanics of solids deposition as a function of the properties of the various solid species. Our goal in this paper is to describe a robust experimental technique for the accurate determination of the critical deposition velocity associated with the transport of slurries in horizontal or slightly inclined pipes. Because of the relative difficulty encountered during the precise determination of this useful operational parameter, it has been the practice to connect it with some transitional behavior of more easily measurable flow parameters such as the pressure drop along the slurry pipeline. In doing so, the critical deposition velocity loses its unique and precise definition due to the multitude of factors that influence such transitional behaviors. Here, data has been obtained for single species slurries made up of washed garnet and water and flowing through a 1- inch clear pipe. The selected garnet had a narrow particle size distribution with a mean diameter of 100 mm, approximately. The critical deposition velocity was measured for garnet/water slurries of 10, 20, and 30 percent solids concentration by volume.

  2. Application of neural network method to process planning in ship pipe machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yu-guang; QIU Chang-hua; SHI Dong-yan

    2004-01-01

    Based on artificial neural network for process planning decision in ship pipe manufacturing, a novel method is established by analyzing process characteristics of the ship pipe machining. The process knowledge of pipe machining is shifted from the expression of the external rules to the description of the internal net weight value in order for the net inferring engine to decide the process route of pipe machining rapidly and rightly. Simulation shows that the method can resolve problems of process decision, and overcome the drawbacks of "matching difficulty" and "combination explosion" in traditional intelligent CAPP based on symbol reasoning.

  3. A Taguchi approach on optimal process control parameters for HDPE pipe extrusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G. V. S. S.; Rao, R. Umamaheswara; Rao, P. Srinivasa

    2016-12-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes find versatile applicability for transportation of water, sewage and slurry from one place to another. Hence, these pipes undergo tremendous pressure by the fluid carried. The present work entails the optimization of the withstanding pressure of the HDPE pipes using Taguchi technique. The traditional heuristic methodology stresses on a trial and error approach and relies heavily upon the accumulated experience of the process engineers for determining the optimal process control parameters. This results in setting up of less-than-optimal values. Hence, there arouse a necessity to determine optimal process control parameters for the pipe extrusion process, which can ensure robust pipe quality and process reliability. In the proposed optimization strategy, the design of experiments (DoE) are conducted wherein different control parameter combinations are analyzed by considering multiple setting levels of each control parameter. The concept of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) is applied and ultimately optimum values of process control parameters are obtained as: pushing zone temperature of 166 °C, Dimmer speed at 08 rpm, and Die head temperature to be 192 °C. Confirmation experimental run is also conducted to verify the analysis and research result and values proved to be in synchronization with the main experimental findings and the withstanding pressure showed a significant improvement from 0.60 to 1.004 Mpa.

  4. A Process for the Development of Rapid Prototype Light Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    power on/off, GPS receiver power, onboard data recorder status, battery health, etc. Previously developed systems used light-emitting diodes (LEDs...PCB) to the exterior of a housing. Light pipes allow the use of robust PCB-mounted LEDs even if the entire circuit board is enclosed . This...light pipe is shown in the Appendix. The modeled component consists of cavities to tightly enclose the board-mounted LEDs and rods to transmit the

  5. ArrayPipe: a flexible processing pipeline for microarray data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokamp, Karsten; Roche, Fiona M.; Acab, Michael; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Kuo, Byron; Goode, David; Aeschliman, Dana; Bryan, Jenny; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.

    2004-01-01

    A number of microarray analysis software packages exist already; however, none combines the user-friendly features of a web-based interface with potential ability to analyse multiple arrays at once using flexible analysis steps. The ArrayPipe web server (freely available at www.pathogenomics.ca/arraypipe) allows the automated application of complex analyses to microarray data which can range from single slides to large data sets including replicates and dye-swaps. It handles output from most commonly used quantification software packages for dual-labelled arrays. Application features range from quality assessment of slides through various data visualizations to multi-step analyses including normalization, detection of differentially expressed genes, andcomparison and highlighting of gene lists. A highly customizable action set-up facilitates unrestricted arrangement of functions, which can be stored as action profiles. A unique combination of web-based and command-line functionality enables comfortable configuration of processes that can be repeatedly applied to large data sets in high throughput. The output consists of reports formatted as standard web pages and tab-delimited lists of calculated values that can be inserted into other analysis programs. Additional features, such as web-based spreadsheet functionality, auto-parallelization and password protection make this a powerful tool in microarray research for individuals and large groups alike. PMID:15215429

  6. The alkaline pre-filming process of the RWCU piping surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, D-Y.; Wen, T-J., E-mail: dahyukao@iner.gov.tw [Atomic Energy Council, Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Lungtan Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Fong, C., E-mail: clinton@itri.org.tw [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Chutung, Hsinchu (China); Lu, J-H., E-mail: u879864@taipower.com.tw [Taiwan Power Co., Lungmen Nuclear Power Plant, Gongliao Township, Taipei County (China)

    2010-07-01

    The radiation dose rate on a BWR can cause great damage to operators and their maintenances working quality, so it is very important to lower it. The RWCU of a BWR primary system has the highest radiation dose rate and deposition of an active corrosion product because of: continually cleaning the reactor water and the repeated, acute change of temperature. The Lungmen NPP was built as an advanced BWR (ABWR) system. All new ABWRs in Japan, such as Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP units K6 and K7, Hamaoka NPP unit H5, and Shika NPP unit2, were given in passivation treatment in the stage of nuclear heating or flow-induced vibration (FIV) testing before each plant's initial start up. The conditions of alkaline pre-filming process include: pH, dissolve oxygen (DO) and temperature. This project had been decided by the results of earlier water loop testing. Three kinds of specimens including stainless steel AISI SS316L and carbon steel SA106 GrB, SA333 Gr6 were put into the autoclave located at a bypass system during the process of passivation treatment. The materials of these specimens have been used in RWCU piping, and during the alkaline pre-filming process they were monitored by AC impedances and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP). Their surface analyses including SEM, EDS, ESCA and SIMS data were obtained from the initial test, and obtained every six months thereafter. From the SEM plot of first issue it was found that the specimens' surface of all three different materials presented excellent levels of oxidized pellets. They are almost completely packed, for both large and small granules, and the porosity is less than 40%. The deposition tests of cobalt ion were also completed. The material of stainless steel was nearly not affected through the passive process. However, carbon steel could reduce about 30% to 50% of deposited cobalt ion. This result follows the conclusion of Hatch Company. Based on the nominal cost of radiation protection, i.e. 10000 USD

  7. Analysis of Process Parameters for Optimization of Plastic Extrusion in Pipe Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sandip S. Gadekar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the defects in the plastic pipe, to optimize the plastic pipe manufacturing process. It is very essential to learn the process parameter and the defect in the plastic pipe manufacturing process to optimize it. For the optimization Taguchi techniques is used in this paper. For the research work Shivraj HY-Tech Drip Irrigation pipe manufacturing, Company was selected. This paper is specifically design for the optimization in the current process. The experiment was analyzed using commercial Minitab16 software, interpretation has made, and optimized factor settings were chosen. After prediction of result the quality loss is calculated and it is compare with before implementation of DOE. The research works has improves the Production, quality and optimizes the process.

  8. СOMPACT COMPLEX FOR PROCESSING OF LARGE-DIAMETER PIPES INTO THE ROLLING STEEL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Steblov, A. В.; A. A. Zlobin

    2016-01-01

    A mini-plant conception for processing of previously used large-diameter pipes into the small-section rolling steel products. Projects with capacity from 15 to 200 thousand tons per year are realized in the UIS.

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of J55ERW Steel Pipe Processed by On-Line Spray Water Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An on-line spray water cooling (OSWC process for manufacturing electric resistance welded (ERW steel pipes is presented to enhance their mechanical properties and performances. This technique reduces the processing needed for the ERW pipe and overcomes the weakness of the conventional manufacturing technique. Industrial tests for J55 ERW steel pipe were carried out to validate the effectiveness of the OSWC process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the J55 ERW steel pipe processed by the OSWC technology were investigated. The optimized OSWC technical parameters are presented based on the mechanical properties and impact the performance of steel pipes. The industrial tests show that the OSWC process can be used to efficiently control the microstructure, enhance mechanical properties, and improve production flexibility of steel pipes. The comprehensive mechanical properties of steel pipes processed by the OSWC are superior to those of other published J55 grade steels.

  10. Stress Analysis of the Subsea Dynamic Riser BaseProcess Piping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuanze Ju; Wei Fang; Hanjun Yin; Ying Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Thesubsea dynamic riser base(SDRB)is an important piece of equipment for the floating production platform mooring system.One end is connected to the rigid pipeline, carrying a rigid pipeline thermal expansion load and the other end is connected to a flexible riser, carrying the dynamic load of the flexible riser, so its function is a transition connection between the flexible riser and the rigid pipeline which fixes the flexible riser on the seabed. On the other hand , as a typical subsea product, the design will satisfythe requirements of the standards for subsea products. By studying the stress analysisphilosophy of the topside piping and subsea pipeline, a physical model and procedure for piping stress analysis of the SDRB have been established.The conditions of the adverse design load have been considered, and a combination of the static load from the rigid pipeline and the dynamic load flexibility has also been optimized. And a comparative analysis between the AMSE, DNV and API standards for piping stress with the checking rules has been done.Because theSDRB belongs to the subsea pipeline terminal product, the use of DNV standards to check its process piping stress is recommended. Finally, the process piping stress of the SDRB has been calculated, and the results show that the jacket pipe and the carrier pipe stress of the SDRB process piping satisfy the DNV standards as a whole.The bulkhead cannot be accurately simulated by the AutoPIPE software which uses the FEA software ANSYS inthe detailed analysis, but the checking results will still meet the requirements of the DNV standards.

  11. Film Coating Process Research and Characterization of TiN Coated Racetrack-type Ceramic Pipe

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, Bo; Wei, Wei; Fan, Le; Pei, Xiangtao; Hong, Yuanzhi; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    TiN film was coated on the internal face of racetrack-type ceramic pipe by three different methods: radio-frequency sputtering, DC sputtering and DC magnetron sputtering. The deposition rates of TiN film under different coating methods were compared. According to the AFM, SEM, XPS test results,these properties were analyzed, such as TiN film roughness and surface morphology. At the same time, the deposition rates were studied under two types' cathode, Ti wires and Ti plate. According to the SEM test results, Ti plate cathode can improve the TiN/Ti film deposition rate obviously.

  12. Experimental and Simulation Studies on Cold Welding Sealing Process of Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Chen, Shengle; Huang, Jinlong; Yan, Yuying; Zeng, Zhixin

    2017-03-01

    Sealing quality strongly affects heat pipe performance, but few studies focus on the process of heat pipe sealing. Cold welding sealing technology based on a stamping process is applied for heat pipe sealing. The bonding mechanism of the cold welding sealing process (CWSP) is investigated and compared with the experimental results obtained from the bonding interface analysis. An orthogonal experiment is conducted to observe the effects of various parameters, including the sealing gap, sealing length, sealing diameter, and sealing velocity on bonding strength. A method with the utilization of saturated vapor pressure inside a copper tube is proposed to evaluate bonding strength. A corresponding finite element model is developed to investigate the effects of sealing gap and sealing velocity on plastic deformation during the cold welding process. Effects of various parameters on the bonding strength are determined and it is found that the sealing gap is the most critical factor and that the sealing velocity contributes the least effect. The best parameter combination (A 1 B 3 C 1 D 3, with a 0.5 mm sealing gap, 6 mm sealing length, 3.8 mm sealing diameter, and 50 mm/s sealing velocity) is derived within the experimental parameters. Plastic deformation results derived from the finite element model are consistent with those from the experiment. The instruction for the CWSP of heat pipes and the design of sealing dies of heat pipes are provided.

  13. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Harvey, Karen [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  14. СOMPACT COMPLEX FOR PROCESSING OF LARGE-DIAMETER PIPES INTO THE ROLLING STEEL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. В. Steblov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mini-plant conception for processing of previously used large-diameter pipes into the small-section rolling steel products. Projects with capacity from 15 to 200 thousand tons per year are realized in the UIS.

  15. Influence so fusion processes in the evolution of modeling. Bardenas Reales (Navarra); Influencia de los procesos de sofusion (piping) en la evolucion del modelado. Bardenas Reales (Navarra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desir, G.; Gutierrez, M.

    2009-07-01

    Piping processes are controlled by many interacting factors, such as the index of dispersion and the sodium content, SAR and ESP. To it is necessary to join the density of cracking and the slope of the hillsides on which it develops. In the study area climatic characteristics together with soil structure and chemical and mineralogical composition of the substrate has a key role in Pipings formation. Cracking is linked to the presence of dispersive clays with high contents in SAR and ESP, which give the rates of swelling until 12%. The process presence of piping is linked to two concrete situations: the massive intermediate levels of the intermediate Holocene filling sediments and the sediments deposited by the gullies: whereas in the tertiary materials it does not manage to develop. The size and scale of the pipes studied show a clear relationship among the level thickness, slope and hydraulic gradient. In the Holocene landfills the principal bounding factor is the levels thickness since the lower laminated levels do not facilitate the continuity in depth of the process due to the high number of discontinuities, generating centimeter-scale conduits that are always on duty to the drainage network. (Author) 5 refs.

  16. Estimated volume of soil lost by piping erosion processes. Southeastern Spain; Estimacion de volumenes de suelo perdido por procesos de erosion por piping. Sureste de Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Diaz, A.; Plaza Martinez, J. F.; Sanchez Soraino, A.; Belmote Serrato, F.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.

    2009-07-01

    Piping processes have been widely studied in many countries and regions, but especially in arid environments, on marl soils, reach a great development. We studied eight areas affected by piping, located in the Basin of Mula (Murcia), on terraced farmlands and abandoned about 40 years ago. Have been evaluated sediments mobilized by this process and erosion rates. The erosion rate per plot is 287 t/ha/year, undoubtedly, a very high value of soil losses. For this it is necessary soil conservation practices when these fields are abandoned. (Author) 8 refs.

  17. Tellurium-Gold Mineralization Related to Cryptoexplosive Breccias within Volcanic Pipe in Zhuojiazhuang Gold Deposit,Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Qingdong; Liu Tiebing; Shen Yuanchao; Li Guangming

    2002-01-01

    Zhuojiazhuang gold deposit (ZGD) is the most enriched breccia pipe type gold deposit in East China, resulted from cryptoexplosion related to alkalinic magmatism and orebearing fluid filling. The ZGD is a small-sized mine with over 5 tons of gold reserves and grade of 156g/t in average and the highest 2 728 g/t as known. In addition, tellurium and silver are also valuable.The mineralized breccia pipe is cylinder-like in shape with 15 m long and 10 m wide and controlled by intersection ofNW and EW trend faults. Mining level has reached 170 m below the surface, but the whole pipe mineralization is still stable. Mineralization commonly occurs within the cements of breccias. Gold ores consist of hydrothermal breccia ore, shatteredbreccia ore and cataclastic ore. From the center of the ore body outwards, there is the transition from hydrothermal breccia toshattered breccia and then to cataclastic ores. According to composition and amount of the cements, the hydrothermal brecciaores can further be divided into three subtypes: sulfides cemented, hydrothermal mineral cemented and magma cemented.The content of gold is closely related to the types of the cements. The grade of the sulfide cemented breccia is the highestone, usually more than 1 000 g/t, and the known maximum grade is 2 728 g/t. The composition of the shattered breccia ismainly dioritic porphyrite and cemented by hydrothermal minerals, the grade ranges from ten to several tens g/t. The catsclastic ores are mainly composed of dioritic porphyrite, syenitic porphyry, as well as carbonate with mineralized veins, and the grade is only 35 g/t.Major ore minerals consist of pyrite, native tellurium, sphalerite, with minor calaverite, galena and altaite. Gangueminerals are composed of microcrystalline quartz, decktite and fluorite, with minor sericite and calcite. Brecciated and disseminited structures are main structures of ores. Four ore-forming stages are defined: microcrystalline quartz-pyrite stage

  18. Finite element synthesized analysis of the forming process of spiral welded pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jianrong; Wu Bo; Zhao Zenghui; Ling Xingzhong; Xiao Yunfeng; Chen Haiyang

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulation concerning the forming and welding process of spiral welded pipe was conducted, which included three steps: the first step was the stress analysis when the spiral was formed, and then the stress was regarded as initial condition of melding during the temperature field analysis in the process of welding, the last step was the thermal stress analysis of the weld seam after the welding was over. Moreover, when the steel strip was pushed, the stress was also calculated by non-linearity contact technology using Abaqus Software. By finite element modeling and calculating of the forming and welding process of the spiral welded pipe, the key points of the multi-fields synthetic simulating were studied and discussed.

  19. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  20. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  1. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  2. A study of ceramic-lined composite steel pipes prepared by SHS centrifugal-thermite process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 ceramic-lined steel pipe was produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis centrifugal thermite process (SHS C-T process from Fe2O3 and Al as the raw materials. The composition, phase separation and microstructures were investigated. The result showed the ceramic lined pipe is composed of the three main layers of various compositions, which were subsequently determined to be Fe layer, the transition layer and the ceramic layer. Fe layer is composed of austenite and ferrite, the transition layer consisted of Al2O3 ceramic and Fe, the ceramic layer consisted of the dendritic-shaped Al2O3 and the spinel-shaped structured FeAl2O4.

  3. Investigation of the cold process pipe rupture mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic process pipelines are part of the basic subsystem used in installations for fundamental research in physics, as well as in industrial plants which use LNG or liquid nitrogen. The significant increase in importance of cryogenics entails the need to explore phenomena which have direct impact in the design process of cryogenic systems and their safety systems. These aspects are of high priority due to high investment costs, mainly because of safety issues and reliability. One of the issues which requires thorough investigation is the fracture mechanics of gas pipelines in cryogenic conditions. For this subject, importance is placed not only in when the cracks begin to appear, but also in how they form and how quickly they propagate. Currently, there is a lack of reliable research in the available literature in this area. This is often raised as a significant problem for designers, because knowledge in this topic should be reflected e.g., in the sizing calculations of safety valves for the vacuum syste...

  4. Deposit-related failures of boiler superheater tubing and steam piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotwica, D.J. [Betz Labs. Inc., The Woodlands, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Deposition in superheater tubing can originate from the carryover of water droplets into the superheater bank from the steam drum. Deposition occurs because the concentration of impurities present in the entrained water droplets can be several orders of magnitude greater than that present in steam alone. When the water flashes to steam in the superheater, salts, hardness species, and corrosion products dissolved or suspended in the water build-up on the internal surfaces of the superheater tubing. The detrimental effects of carryover deposition in superheater tubing has been shown to contribute to at least three types of failure: stress-corrosion cracking, overheating, and corrosion gouging. A case history illustrating each one of these failure mechanisms is presented.

  5. Advanced Signal Processing for High Temperatures Health Monitoring of Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Takano, Nobuyuki; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    An advanced signal processing methodology is being developed to monitor the height of condensed water thru the wall of a steel pipe while operating at temperatures as high as 250deg. Using existing techniques, previous study indicated that, when the water height is low or there is disturbance in the environment, the predicted water height may not be accurate. In recent years, the use of the autocorrelation and envelope techniques in the signal processing has been demonstrated to be a very useful tool for practical applications. In this paper, various signal processing techniques including the auto correlation, Hilbert transform, and the Shannon Energy Envelope methods were studied and implemented to determine the water height in the steam pipe. The results have shown that the developed method provides a good capability for monitoring the height in the regular conditions. An alternative solution for shallow water or no water conditions based on a developed hybrid method based on Hilbert transform (HT) with a high pass filter and using the optimized windowing technique is suggested. Further development of the reported methods would provide a powerful tool for the identification of the disturbances of water height inside the pipe.

  6. Piping Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  7. A Temperature-Profile Method for Estimating Flow Processes in Geologic Heat Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2005-01-21

    Above-boiling temperature conditions, as encountered, for example, in geothermal reservoirs and in geologic repositories for the storage of heat-producing nuclear wastes, may give rise to strongly altered liquid and gas flow processes in porous subsurface environments. The magnitude of such flow perturbation is extremely hard to measure in the field. We therefore propose a simple temperature-profile method that uses high-resolution temperature data for deriving such information. The energy that is transmitted with the vapor and water flow creates a nearly isothermal zone maintained at about the boiling temperature, referred to as a heat pipe. Characteristic features of measured temperature profiles, such as the differences in the gradients inside and outside of the heat pipe regions, are used to derive the approximate magnitude of the liquid and gas fluxes in the subsurface, for both steady-state and transient conditions.

  8. FEM Analysis and Experimental Verification of the Integral Forging Process for AP1000 Primary Coolant Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenglong; Yu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Mingxian; Wu, Huanchun

    2016-10-01

    AP1000 primary coolant pipes must be manufactured by integral forging technology according to the designer—Westinghouse Electric Co. The characteristics of these large, special-shaped pipes create nonuniform temperatures, effective stress, and effective strain during shaping of the pipes. This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element simulation (3D FEM) of the integral forging process, and qualitatively evaluates the likelihood of forging defects. By analyzing the evolution histories of the three field variables, we concluded that the initial forging temperature should be strictly controlled within the interval 1123 K to 1423 K (850 °C to 1150 °C) to avoid second-phase precipitation. In the hard deformation zones, small strains do not contribute to recrystallization resulting in coarse grains. Conversely, in the free deformation zone, the large strains can contribute to the dynamic recrystallization, favoring grain refinement and closure of voids. Cracks are likely to appear, however, on the workpiece surface when forging leads to large deformations. Based on the simulation results, an eligible workpiece with good mechanical properties, few macroscopic defects, and favorable grain size has been successfully forged by experiments at an industrial scale, which validates the FEM simulation.

  9. DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed

  10. In-Situ Measurements of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup Process Gas Piping at K-25 - Paper for Waste Management Symposia 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen B.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the final version of a paper submitted to the Waste Management Symposia, Phoenix, 2010, abstract BJC/OR-3280. The primary document from which this paper was condensed is In-Situ Measurement of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup in Process Gas Piping at K-25 Using NaI/HMS4 Gamma Detection Systems, BJC/OR-3355. This work explores the sufficiency and limitations of the Holdup Measurement System 4 (HJVIS4) software algorithms applied to measurements of low enriched uranium holdup in gaseous diffusion process gas piping. HMS4 has been used extensively during the decommissioning and demolition project of the K-25 building for U-235 holdup quantification. The HMS4 software is an integral part of one of the primary nondestructive assay (NDA) systems which was successfully tested and qualified for holdup deposit quantification in the process gas piping of the K-25 building. The initial qualification focused on the measurement of highly enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits. The purpose of this work was to determine if that qualification could be extended to include the quantification of holdup in UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits of lower enrichment. Sample field data are presented to provide evidence in support of the theoretical foundation. The HMS4 algorithms were investigated in detail and found to sufficiently compensate for UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} source self-attenuation effects, over the range of expected enrichment (4-40%), in the North and East Wings of the K-25 building. The limitations of the HMS4 algorithms were explored for a described set of conditions with respect to area source measurements of low enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits when used in conjunction with a 1 inch by 1/2 inch sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detector. The theoretical limitations of HMS4, based on the expected conditions in the process gas system of the K-25 building, are related back to the required data quality objectives (DQO) for the NBA measurement system established for the K-25

  11. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma polymerization process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K M K Srivatsa; M Bera; A Basu; T K Bhattacharya

    2008-08-01

    Antireflection coatings (ARCs) are deposited on the surfaces of optical elements like spectacle lenses to increase light transmission and improve their performance. In the ophthalmic industry, plastic lenses are rapidly displacing glass lenses due to several advantageous features. However, the deposition of ARCs on plastic lenses is a challenging task, because the plastic surface needs treatment for adhesion improvement and surface hardening before depositing the ARC. This surface treatment is usually done in a multi-stage process—exposure to energetic radiations, followed by deposition of a carbonyl hard coating by spin or dip coating processes, UV curing, etc. However, this treatment can also be done by plasma processes. Moreover, the plasma polymerization process allows deposition of optical films at room temperature, essential for plastics. The energetic ions in plasma processes provide similar effects as in ion assisted physical deposition processes to produce hard coatings, without requiring sophisticated ion sources. The plasma polymerization process is more economical than ion-assisted physical vapour deposition processes as regards equipment and source materials and is more cost-effective, enabling the surface treatment and deposition of the ARC in the same deposition system in a single run by varying the system parameters at each step. Since published results of the plasma polymerization processes developed abroad are rather sketchy and the techniques are mostly veiled in commercial secrecy, innovative and indigenous plasma-based techniques have been developed in this work for depositing the complete ARCs on plastic substrates.

  12. 46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping and piping system components: Protection from..., Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.503 Piping and piping system components... cause stresses that exceed the design stresses, the piping and piping system components and cargo...

  13. Influence of process parameters on microstructure of semisolid A356 alloy slug cast through vertical pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-rong; MAO Wei-min; PEI Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Suitable microstructures required for semisolid casting were formed by using a vertical pipe. Different lengths of vertical pipe, slug dimensions and pouring time were used to investigate their influence on the microstructure of A356 alloy. The results indicate that at the same length of the vertical pipe, the morphology of the primary α(Al) gradually deteriorates by the enlargement in the slug size, but the deteriorating speed slows down with increasing pipe length. They also reveal that the increase in the pipe length improves the microstructure, whereas no further improvement appears when the pipe length reaches a certain value. The optimum length of the pipe obtained in the present work is 430 mm. The microstructure of larger slug poured at higher pouring temperature gets worse and it can be improved by moderately elongating pouring time. The relative mechanisms were also discussed.

  14. Optimization of hot rolling process for API-X60 grade line pipe steel with lower yield/tensile ratio for ERW pipe application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, K.S.; Arikere, B.; Sarkar, B.K.; Nagaraj, N.K.; Al-Shammary, S.; Al-Butairi, A. [Saudi Iron and Steel Co., Al-Jubail (Saudi Arabia)

    2004-07-01

    This paper described trials conducted to achieve a yield-to-tensile ratio lower than 0.85 for API X60 line pipes. The trials were based on the parameters affecting the mechanical and physical properties of hot-rolled coils. The production scale trials were performed by controlling: (1) finish rolling temperature; (2) coiling temperature; (3) cooling rates. The study also aimed to determine the effect of grain size and microstructure on yield-to-tensile ratios. A high reduction at approximately 1050 degrees C was provided at the roughing mill to ensure a transfer bar with a fine recrystallized austenitic grain size. A laminar cooling strategy was used to achieve a smaller grain size as well as to transform the austenites to ferrite and pearlite. A higher cooling rate (CR) was used to increase ferrite nucleation sites. Photomicrographs were used to show differences in grain size, grain shape, and the distribution of pearlite in the samples. A volume fraction analysis showed that the pearlite content varied from 8 per cent to 11 per cent in the trials. Samples for testing were collected from pipes made using a cage-forming process and a linear forming process. Results showed that the average yield strength drop from coil to pipe was 43.2 MPa, with a range of 30 to 90 MPa. Significant differences in yield strength drop were noted for the linear forming and cage forming processes. Results suggested that higher deformation temperatures combined with normal coiling temperatures and consistent water cooling patterns will provide optimum yield and tensile strengths with lower yield ratios. It was concluded that that a yield-to-tensile ratio of 0.84-0.88 can be achieved with API-X60 hot-rolled coils using the new process. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  15. Two-Phase Flow in Pipes: Numerical Improvements and Qualitative Analysis for a Refining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira R.G.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase flow in pipes occurs frequently in refineries, oil and gas production facilities and petrochemical units. The accurate design of such processing plants requires that numerical algorithms be combined with suitable models for predicting expected pressure drops. In performing such calculations, pressure gradients may be obtained from empirical correlations such as Beggs and Brill, and they must be integrated over the total length of the pipe segment, simultaneously with the enthalpy-gradient equation when the temperature profile is unknown. This paper proposes that the set of differential and algebraic equations involved should be solved as a Differential Algebraic Equations (DAE System, which poses a more CPU-efficient alternative to the “marching algorithm” employed by most related work. Demonstrating the use of specific regularization functions in preventing convergence failure in calculations due to discontinuities inherent to such empirical correlations is also a key feature of this study. The developed numerical techniques are then employed to examine the sensitivity to heat-transfer parameters of the results obtained for a typical refinery two-phase flow design problem.

  16. Using Loop Heat Pipes to Minimize Survival Heater Power for NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster Power Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    A thermal design concept of using propylene loop heat pipes to minimize survival heater power for NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster power processing units is presented. It reduces the survival heater power from 183 W to 35 W per power processing unit. The reduction is 81%.

  17. Waste Heat Recovery by Heat Pipe Air-Preheater to Energy Thrift from the Furnace in a Hot Forging Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerchai Yodrak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Currently, the heat pipe air-preheater has become importance equipment for energy recovery from industrial waste heat because of its low investment cost and high thermal conductivity. Approach: This purpose of the study was to design, construct and test the waste heat recovery by heat pipe air-preheater from the furnace in a hot brass forging process. The mathematical model was developed to predict heat transfer rate and applied to compute the heat pipe air-preheater in a hot brass forging process. The heat pipe air-preheater was designed, constructed and tested under medium temperature operating conditions with inlet hot gas ranging between 370-420°C using water as the working fluid with 50% filling by volume of evaporator length. Results: The experiment findings indicated that when the hot gas temperature increased, the heat transfer rate also increased. If the internal diameter increased, the heat transfer rate increased and when the tube arrangement changed from inline to staggered arrangement, the heat transfer rate increased. Conclusion/Recommendations: The heat pipe air-preheater can reduced the quantity of using gas in the furnace and achieve energy thrift effectively.

  18. Stress analysis of the O-element pipe during the process of flue gases purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekvasil R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Equipment for flue gases purification from undesired substances is used throughout power and other types of industry. This paper deals with damaging of the O-element pipe designed to remove sulphur from the flue gases, i.e. damaging of the pipe during flue gases purification. This purification is conducted by spraying the water into the O-shaped pipe where the flue gases flow. Thus the sulphur binds itself onto the water and gets removed from the flue gas. Injection of cold water into hot flue gases, however, causes high stress on the inside of the pipe, which can gradually damage the O-element pipe. In this paper initial injection of water into hot pipe all the way to stabilization of temperature fields will be analyzed and the most dangerous places which shall be considered for fatigue will be determined.

  19. Predictive model for deposit velocity of commercial slurries in horizontal pipe%水平管道中工业浆体堆积速度的确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴万荣; 梁向京

    2012-01-01

    According to the changing rules of heterogeneous slurry flow state with the increase of the mean velocity, considering the flow of multisized particulate slurries with wide range of particle diameters, and based on the condition of solid particle start action and the concept of deposit velocity, the measurement model of deposit velocity of commercial slurries in horizontal pipes is studied. The prediction of the deposit velocity of commercial slurries in horizontal pipes is satisfying.%文章根据非均质浆体流态随着浆体平均流速增加的变化规律,考虑到浆体中固体颗粒组成,结合管道底部固体颗粒的起动条件和堆积速度的概念,研究了水平管道中工业浆体堆积速度的计算模型.该模型能较准确地预测水平管道中浆体的堆积流速.

  20. A Temperature-Profile Method for Estimating Flow Processes inGeologic Heat Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens T.

    2004-12-06

    Above-boiling temperature conditions, as encountered, forexample, in geothermal reservoirs and in geologic repositories for thestorage of heat-producing nuclear wastes, may give rise to stronglyaltered liquid and gas flow processes in porous subsurface environments.The magnitude of such flow perturbation is extremely hard to measure inthe field. We therefore propose a simple temperature-profile method thatuses high-resolution temperature data for deriving such information. Theenergy that is transmitted with the vapor and water flow creates a nearlyisothermal zone maintained at about the boiling temperature, referred toas a heat pipe. Characteristic features of measured temperature profiles,such as the differences in the gradients inside and outside of the heatpipe regions, are used to derive the approximate magnitude of the liquidand gas fluxes in the subsurface, for both steady-state and transientconditions.

  1. Synthesis and deposition of metal nanoparticles by gas condensation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maicu, Marina, E-mail: marina.maicu@fep.fraunhofer.de; Glöß, Daniel; Frach, Peter [Fraunhofer Institut für Elektronenstrahl und Plasmatechnik, FEP, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Schmittgens, Ralph; Gerlach, Gerald [Institut für Festkörperelektronik, IFE, TU Dresden, Helmholtz Straße 18, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Hecker, Dominic [Fraunhofer Institut für Elektronenstrahl und Plasmatechnik, FEP, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany and Institut für Festkörperelektronik, IFE, TU Dresden, Helmholtz Straße 18, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    In this work, the synthesis of Pt and Ag nanoparticles by means of the inert gas phase condensation of sputtered atomic vapor is presented. The process parameters (power, sputtering time, and gas flow) were varied in order to study the relationship between deposition conditions and properties of the nanoparticles such as their quantity, size, and size distribution. Moreover, the gas phase condensation process can be combined with a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition procedure in order to deposit nanocomposite coatings consisting of metallic nanoparticles embedded in a thin film matrix material. Selected examples of application of the generated nanoparticles and nanocomposites are discussed.

  2. Post-Processing of the Full Matrix of Ultrasonic Transmit-Receive Array Data for Guided Wave Pipe Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, A.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2009-03-01

    The paper describes a method for processing data from a guided wave transducer array on a pipe. The raw data set from such an array contains the full matrix of time-domain signals from each transmitter-receiver combination. It is shown that for certain configurations of an array the total focusing method can be applied which allows the array to be focused at every point on a pipe surface in both transmission and reception. The effect of array configuration parameters on the sensitivity of the proposed method to the random and coherent noise is discussed. Experimental results are presented using electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT) for exciting and detecting the S0 Lamb wave mode in a 12 inch steel pipe at 200 kHz excitation frequency. The results show that using the imaging algorithm a 2-mm-diameter (0.08 wavelength) half-thickness hole can be detected.

  3. Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, Edward C., Jr.; Bertucci, Cesar; Coates, Andrew; Cravens, Tom; Dandouras, Iannis; Shemansky, Don

    2008-01-01

    Most of Titan's atmospheric organic and nitrogen chemistry, aerosol formation, and atmospheric loss are driven from external energy sources such as Solar UV, Saturn's magnetosphere, solar wind and galactic cosmic rays. The Solar UV tends to dominate the energy input at lower altitudes of approximately 1100 km but which can extend down to approximately 400 km, while the plasma interaction from Saturn's magnetosphere, Saturn's magnetosheath or solar wind are more important at higher altitudes of approximately 1400 km, but the heavy ion plasma [O(+)] of approximately 2 keV and energetic ions [H(+)] of approximately 30 keV or higher from Saturn's magnetosphere can penetrate below 950km. Cosmic rays with energies of greater than 1 GeV can penetrate much deeper into Titan's atmosphere with most of its energy deposited at approximately 100 km altitude. The haze layer tends to dominate between 100 km and 300 km. The induced magnetic field from Titan's interaction with the external plasma can be very complex and will tend to channel the flow of energy into Titan's upper atmosphere. Cassini observations combined with advanced hybrid simulations of the plasma interaction with Titan's upper atmosphere show significant changes in the character of the interaction with Saturn local time at Titan's orbit where the magnetosphere displays large and systematic changes with local time. The external solar wind can also drive sub-storms within the magnetosphere which can then modify the magnetospheric interaction with Titan. Another important parameter is solar zenith angle (SZA) with respect to the co-rotation direction of the magnetospheric flow. Titan's interaction can contribute to atmospheric loss via pickup ion loss, scavenging of Titan's ionospheric plasma, loss of ionospheric plasma down its induced magnetotail via an ionospheric wind, and non-thermal loss of the atmosphere via heating and sputtering induced by the bombardment of magnetospheric keV ions and electrons. This

  4. Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, Edward C., Jr.; Bertucci, Cesar; Coates, Andrew; Cravens, Tom; Dandouras, Iannis; Shemansky, Don

    2008-01-01

    Most of Titan's atmospheric organic and nitrogen chemistry, aerosol formation, and atmospheric loss are driven from external energy sources such as Solar UV, Saturn's magnetosphere, solar wind and galactic cosmic rays. The Solar UV tends to dominate the energy input at lower altitudes of approximately 1100 km but which can extend down to approximately 400 km, while the plasma interaction from Saturn's magnetosphere, Saturn's magnetosheath or solar wind are more important at higher altitudes of approximately 1400 km, but the heavy ion plasma [O(+)] of approximately 2 keV and energetic ions [H(+)] of approximately 30 keV or higher from Saturn's magnetosphere can penetrate below 950km. Cosmic rays with energies of greater than 1 GeV can penetrate much deeper into Titan's atmosphere with most of its energy deposited at approximately 100 km altitude. The haze layer tends to dominate between 100 km and 300 km. The induced magnetic field from Titan's interaction with the external plasma can be very complex and will tend to channel the flow of energy into Titan's upper atmosphere. Cassini observations combined with advanced hybrid simulations of the plasma interaction with Titan's upper atmosphere show significant changes in the character of the interaction with Saturn local time at Titan's orbit where the magnetosphere displays large and systematic changes with local time. The external solar wind can also drive sub-storms within the magnetosphere which can then modify the magnetospheric interaction with Titan. Another important parameter is solar zenith angle (SZA) with respect to the co-rotation direction of the magnetospheric flow. Titan's interaction can contribute to atmospheric loss via pickup ion loss, scavenging of Titan's ionospheric plasma, loss of ionospheric plasma down its induced magnetotail via an ionospheric wind, and non-thermal loss of the atmosphere via heating and sputtering induced by the bombardment of magnetospheric keV ions and electrons. This

  5. Influence of residual stress on the HIC resistance of high frequency induction welded pipes with regard to process-specific influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krageloh, Joachim; Brauer, Holger; Bosch, Christoph [Salzgitter Mannesmann Line Pipe GmbH, (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The industry needs to meet growing demand for pipes with high resistance to sour service conditions. Salzgitter Mannesmann Line Pipe is developing new product ranges of high frequency induction (HFI) welded pipes. This study investigated the influence of residual stress on the resistance of HFI welded pipes to HIC with focus on process-specific influencing factors. Four materials with different strengths were tested. Three of them were not manufactured for sour service and so were sure to show significant HIC damage during the tests. The specimens were studied using the cross-sectioning method for longitudinal and circumferential residual stress. A four-point-bend test in line with ADTM G 39 was also done to determine the HIC resistance of the pipe specimens. The results provide a characteristic HIC value and crack area ratio, CAR. This study showed that residual stress induced by HFI welding of pipes has no negative impact on resistance to HIC.

  6. 管道沟槽式连接制作及安装过程中的质量控制%Pipe Groove Connection the Quality Control in the Production and Installation Process of Pipe Groove Connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙强

    2014-01-01

    The pipe groove connection is widely applied in the electromechanical installation project. In order to ensure the quality of groove connection pipe instal ation, this article carries on the analysis from various aspects of the quality, pipe groove, pipe fit ings and pipe instal ation of the grooved pipe fit ings, and summarizes how to control the grooved piping instal ation quality in the construction process.%管道沟槽连接在机电安装工程中的应用越来越广,为保证沟槽连接管道安装的质量,本文从沟槽管件的质量、管道沟槽、管件安装及管道安装等各方面进行了分析。并总结出了在施工过程中,如何控制沟槽连接管道的安装质量。

  7. ZnS thin film deposited with chemical bath deposition process directed by different stirring speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Dang, X. Y.; Jin, J.; Yu, T.; Li, B. Z.; He, Q.; Li, F. Y.; Sun, Y.

    2010-09-01

    In this combined film thickness, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and optical properties study, we explore the effects of different stirring speeds on the growth and optical properties of ZnS film deposited by CBD method. From the disclosed changes of thickness of ZnS film, we conclude that film thickness is independent of the stirring speeds in the heterogeneous process (deposition time less than 40 min), but increases with the stirring speeds and/or deposition time increasing in the homogeneous process. Grazing incident X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and the study of optical properties disclosed that the ZnS films grown with different stirring speeds show partially crystallized film and exhibit good transmittance (70-88% in the visible region), but the stirring speeds cannot give much effects on the structure and optical properties in the homogeneous process.

  8. Micromorphology of modern tills in southwestern Spitsbergen – insights into depositional and post-depositional processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skolasińska Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Textural properties and microstructures are commonly used properties in the analysis of Pleistocene and older glacial deposits. However, contemporary glacial deposits are seldom studied, particularly in the context of post-depositional changes. This paper presents the results of a micromorphological study of recently deposited tills in the marginal zones of Hansbreen and Torellbreen, glaciers in southwestern Spitsbergen. The main objectives of this study were to compare modern tills deposited in subglacial and supraglacial conditions, as well as tills that were freshly released from ice with those laid down several decades ago. The investigated tills are primarily composed of large clasts of metamorphic rocks and represent coarse-grained, matrix-supported diamictons. The tills reveal several characteristic features for ductile (e.g. turbate structures and brittle (e.g. lineations, microshears deformations, which have been considered to be indicative of subglacial conditions. In supraglacial tills, the same structures are common as in the subglacial deposits, which points to the preservation of the primary features, though the sediment was transferred up to the glacier surface due to basal ice layer deformation and redeposited as slumps, or to formation of similar structures due to short-distance sediment re-deposition by mass flows. This study revealed that it might not be possible to distinguish subglacial and supraglacial tills on the basis of micromorphology if the latter are derived from a subglacial position. The only noted difference was the presence of iron oxide cementation zones and carbonate dissolution features in supraglacial tills. These features were found in tills that were deposited at least a few years ago and are interpreted to be induced by early post-depositional processes involving porewater/sediment interactions.

  9. A Study of Ceramic-Lined Composite Steel Pipes Prepared by SHS Centrifugal-Thermite Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuxin Li; Letao Jiang; Qing Lu; Peikang Bai; Bin Liu; Jianhong Wang

    2016-01-01

    .... The result showed the ceramic lined pipe is composed of the three main layers of various compositions, which were subsequently determined to be Fe layer, the transition layer and the ceramic layer...

  10. Thermal Modeling of Direct Digital Melt-Deposition Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, K. P.; Lambrakos, S. G.

    2011-02-01

    Additive manufacturing involves creating three-dimensional (3D) objects by depositing materials layer-by-layer. The freeform nature of the method permits the production of components with complex geometry. Deposition processes provide one more capability, which is the addition of multiple materials in a discrete manner to create "heterogeneous" objects with locally controlled composition and microstructure. The result is direct digital manufacturing (DDM) by which dissimilar materials are added voxel-by-voxel (a voxel is volumetric pixel) following a predetermined tool-path. A typical example is functionally gradient material such as a gear with a tough core and a wear-resistant surface. The inherent complexity of DDM processes is such that process modeling based on direct physics-based theory is difficult, especially due to a lack of temperature-dependent thermophysical properties and particularly when dealing with melt-deposition processes. In order to overcome this difficulty, an inverse problem approach is proposed for the development of thermal models that can represent multi-material, direct digital melt deposition. This approach is based on the construction of a numerical-algorithmic framework for modeling anisotropic diffusivity such as that which would occur during energy deposition within a heterogeneous workpiece. This framework consists of path-weighted integral formulations of heat diffusion according to spatial variations in material composition and requires consideration of parameter sensitivity issues.

  11. Mitigation of stress corrosion cracking in pressurized water reactor (PWR) piping systems using the mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP{sup R)} or underwater laser beam welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick, Grendys; Marc, Piccolino; Cunthia, Pezze [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, New York (United States); Badlani, Manu [Nu Vision Engineering, New York (United States)

    2009-04-15

    A current issue facing pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of bi metallic welds. PWSCC in a PWR requires the presence of a susceptible material, an aggressive environment and a tensile stress of significant magnitude. Reducing the potential for SCC can be accomplished by eliminating any of these three elements. In the U.S., mitigation of susceptible material in the pressurizer nozzle locations has largely been completed via the structural weld overlay (SWOL) process or NuVision Engineering's Mechanical Stress Improvement Process (MSIP{sup R)}, depending on inspectability. The next most susceptible locations in Westinghouse designed power plants are the Reactor Vessel (RV) hot leg nozzle welds. However, a full SWOL Process for RV nozzles is time consuming and has a high likelihood of in process weld repairs. Therefore, Westinghouse provides two distinctive methods to mitigate susceptible material for the RV nozzle locations depending on nozzle access and utility preference. These methods are the MSIP and the Underwater Laser Beam Welding (ULBW) process. MSIP applies a load to the outside diameter of the pipe adjacent to the weld, imposing plastic strains during compression that are not reversed after unloading, thus eliminating the tensile stress component of SCC. Recently, Westinghouse and NuVision successfully applied MSIP on all eight RV nozzles at the Salem Unit 1 power plant. Another option to mitigate SCC in RV nozzles is to place a barrier between the susceptible material and the aggressive environment. The ULBW process applies a weld inlay onto the inside pipe diameter. The deposited weld metal (Alloy 52M) is resistant to PWSCC and acts as a barrier to prevent primary water from contacting the susceptible material. This paper provides information on the approval and acceptance bases for MSIP, its recent application on RV nozzles and an update on ULBW development.

  12. Nano-scale gap filling and mechanism of deposit-etch-deposit process for phase-change material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Wan-Chun; Liu Bo; Song Zhi-Tang; Xiang Yang-Hui; Wang Zong-Tao; Zhang Bei-Chao; Feng Song-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Ge2Sb2Te5 gap filling is one of the key processes for phase-change random access memory manufacture.Physical vapor deposition is the mainstream method of Ge2Sb2Te5 film deposition due to its advantages of film quality,purity,and accurate composition control.However,the conventional physical vapor deposition process cannot meet the gapfilling requirement with the critical device dimension scaling down to 90 nm or below.In this study,we find that the deposit-etch-deposit process shows better gap-filling capability and scalability than the single-step deposition process,especially at the nano-scale critical dimension.The gap-filling mechanism of the deposit-etch-deposit process was briefly discussed.We also find that re-deposition of phase-change material from via the sidewall to via the bottom by argon ion bombardment during the etch step was a key ingredient for the final good gap filling.We achieve void-free gap filling of phase-change material on the 45-nm via the two-cycle deposit-etch-deposit process.We gain a rather comprehensive insight into the mechanism of deposit-etch-deposit process and propose a potential gap-filling solution for over 45-nm technology nodes for phase-change random access memory.

  13. Powder Flux Regulation in the Laser Material Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizubieta, Jon Iñaki; Wegener, Maximiliam; Arntz, Kristian; Lamikiz, Aitzol; Ruiz, Jose Exequiel

    In the present research work a powder flux regulation system has been designed, developed and validated with the aim of improving the Laser Material Deposition (LMD) process. In this process, the amount of deposited material per substrate surface unit area depends on the real feed rate of the nozzle. Therefore, a regulation system based on a solenoid valve has been installed at the nozzle entrance in order to control the powder flux. The powder flux control has been performed based on the machine real feed rate, which is compared with the programmed feed rate. An instantaneous velocity error is calculated and the powder flow is controlled as a function of this variation using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signals. Thereby, in zones where the Laser Material Deposition machine reduces the feed rate due to a trajectory change, powder accumulation can be avoided and the generated clads would present a homogeneous shape.

  14. Plasma Processes : Microwave plasma deposition of diamond like carbon coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D S Patil; K Ramachandran; N Venkatramani; M Pandey; R D'Cunha

    2000-11-01

    The promising applications of the microwave plasmas have been appearing in the fields of chemical processes and semiconductor manufacturing. Applications include surface deposition of all types including diamond/diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings, etching of semiconductors, promotion of organic reactions, etching of polymers to improve bonding of the other materials etc. With a 2.45 GHz, 700 W, microwave induced plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system set up in our laboratory we have deposited diamond like carbon coatings. The microwave plasma generation was effected using a wave guide single mode applicator. We have deposited DLC coatings on the substrates like stainless steel, Cu–Be, Cu and Si. The deposited coatings have been characterized by FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and ellipsometric techniques. The results show that we have achieved depositing ∼ 95% sp3 bonded carbon in the films. The films are uniform with golden yellow color. The films are found to be excellent insulators. The ellipsometric measurements of optical constant on silicon substrates indicate that the films are transparent above 900 nm.

  15. Analytical and experimental stiffness estimation of heat pipe supporter for nuclear power plant through a homogenization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Young Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to study the in-plane stiffness estimation of heat pipe supporter (a large lattice structure using experimental and numerical methods. The in-plane stiffness of heat pipe supporter for nuclear power plant is very important because of the safety against natural disasters, such as seismic load or tsunami, and has to be evaluated because it greatly affects the durability of the heat exchanger. However, the modeling process of the whole lattice structure for finite element analysis increases resources needed caused by too many nodes and elements. In this study, the mechanical properties of large lattice structures are determined by a unit cell finite element analysis. The mechanical behavior of a large lattice structure has been estimated by finite element analysis through a homogenization process for reducing analysis time and efforts. The finite element analysis results have been verified and show a good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Corrosion resistance of AISI 304 and 444 stainless steel pipes in sanitizing solutions of clean-in-place process

    OpenAIRE

    Lins,Vanessa de Freitas Cunha; Gonçalves,Giselle Aline dos Santos; Leão,Tiago Paschoalin; Soares,Renata Braga; Costa,Cíntia Gonçalves Fonseca; Viana,Adolfo Kalergis do Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Stainless steel (SS) is successfully used in food industries due to the characteristics of its surface, which is essential for the maintenance of the properties of food. Tanks and stainless steel pipes, which come into direct contact with food and drink, undergo a process of cleaning and disinfecting called CIP (Clean-in-Place). This method consists of automatic recirculation of a detergent solution for a controlled time followed by a rinsing with water, and finally a cleaning and sanitizing ...

  17. Application of laser assisted cold spraying process for metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) process is a hybrid technique that uses laser and cold spray to deposit solid powders on metal substrates. For bonding to occur, the particle velocities must be supersonic which are achieved by entraining...

  18. Analysis Of The Extrusion Process Of A Square Tube Multi-Channel Heat Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim K.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat pipes have been recently in use for cooling purposes in various fields, including electronic circuit boards and vehicle parts that generate large amounts of heat. In order to minimize the loss of heat transferred, there is a need to maximize the contact area of the working fluid. This study produced a square tube multi-channel heat pipe to replace the existing circular pipe type to maximize the internal surface area thereof. This expands the surface, allowing the working fluid to come into contact with a wider area and enhancing thermal radiation performance. A mold for the production for such a product was designed, and finite element simulation was performed to determine whether production is possible.

  19. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  20. Heat Pipe Materials Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program to evaluate noncondensable gas generation in ammonia heat pipes was completed. A total of 37 heat pipes made of aluminum, stainless steel and combinations of these materials were processed by various techniques, operated at different temperatures and tested at low temperature to quantitatively determine gas generation rates. In order of increasing stability are aluminum/stainless combination, all aluminum and all stainless heat pipes. One interesting result is the identification of intentionally introduced water in the ammonia during a reflux step as a means of surface passivation to reduce gas generation in stainless-steel/aluminum heat pipes.

  1. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  2. Morphology Simulation for Ion-Assisted Deposition Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenn-SenLin; Shin-PonJu; Jian-MingLu

    2004-01-01

    The molecular dynamics simulation is applied to investigate the lnfluence of the incident 1on energy ana mclident angular distribution upon ion-assisted deposition process. The Cu-Cu and Ar-Cu interactions are modeled using the many body tight-binding potential and the Moliere potential, respectively, and the interface width is used to characterize the surface roughness properties at both transient and final state conditions. The results show that the surface roughness of the deposition film is lower when more Ar-to-Cu ratio is used at the same incident energy and angle. For the relative low or high incident energy, the film morphologies are not sensitive to the incident angle. However, if the incident energy of the argon ions is too high, the film morphology will be worse than that without using the ion-assisted deposition.

  3. Analysis of Aluminum Deposition on Inner Wall of Pipes with Atomic Layer Deposition%采用原子层沉积技术在管道内壁镀铝膜的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恒; 熊玉卿; 王济洲

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of aluminum deposition on inner wall of waveguide by atomic layer deposition was studied. First, by solving adsorption kinetics equation based on gas on the pipe inner wall, the time for the reactant to reach saturated adsorption on the basis was calculated. Then, according to the aluminum crystal structure) the thickness of each deposition cycle was obtained. Finally, the minimum aluminum thickness and number of atomic layer deposition cycles that can meet electromagnetic requirement of wave guide was calculated.%研究分析了采用原子层沉积技术在大长径比管道内壁镀制铝膜的可行性.首先,建立了管道内壁气体吸附动力学方程,通过分离变量法解吸附动力学方程,计算出反应前驱体在管道内壁达到饱和化学吸附的时间;其次,根据铝晶胞的面心立方结构,计算出每层原子层沉积周期所镀制的铝膜厚度;最后,理论计算能实现正常波导的管道内壁所需要的铝膜最小厚度,得出原子层沉积所要循环的周期数.

  4. Effect of Induction Heat Bending Process on the Properties of ASME SA106 Gr. C Carbon Steel Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Young Sik [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyun Young; Oh, Young Jin [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi Ho [R and D Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Recently, the bending process is greatly applied to fabricate the pipe line. Bending process can reduce welding joints and then decrease the number of inspection. Thus, the maintenance cost will be reduced. Induction heat bending process is composed of bending deformation by repeated local heat and cooling. By this thermal process, corrosion properties and microstructure can be affected. This work focused on the effect of induction heating bending process on the properties of ASME SA106 Gr. C low carbon steel pipes. Microstructure analysis, hardness measurements, and immersion corrosion test were performed for base metal and bended area including extrados, intrados, crown up, and down parts. Microstructure was analyzed using an optical microscope and SEM. Hardness was measured using a Rockwell B scale. Induction heat bending process has influenced upon the size and distribution of ferrite and pearlite phases which were transformed into finer structure than those of base metal. Even though the fine microstructure, every bent area showed a little lower hardness than that of base metal. It is considered that softening by the bending process may be arisen. Except of I2, intrados area, the others showed a similar corrosion rate to that of base metal. But even relatively high rate of intrados area was very low and acceptable. Therefore, it is judged that induction heat bending process didn't affect boric acid corrosion behaviour of carbon steel.

  5. A Modified Surface on Titanium Deposited by a Blasting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline O’Sullivan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA coating of hard tissue implants is widely employed for its biocompatible and osteoconductive properties as well as its improved mechanical properties. Plasma technology is the principal deposition process for coating HA on bioactive metals for this application. However, thermal decomposition of HA can occur during the plasma deposition process, resulting in coating variability in terms of purity, uniformity and crystallinity, which can lead to implant failure caused by aseptic loosening. In this study, CoBlastTM, a novel blasting process has been used to successfully modify a titanium (V substrate with a HA treatment using a dopant/abrasive regime. The impact of a series of apatitic abrasives under the trade name MCD, was investigated to determine the effect of abrasive particle size on the surface properties of both microblast (abrasive only and CoBlast (HA/abrasive treatments. The resultant HA treated substrates were compared to substrates treated with abrasive only (microblasted and an untreated Ti. The HA powder, apatitic abrasives and the treated substrates were characterized for chemical composition, coating coverage, crystallinity and topography including surface roughness. The results show that the surface roughness of the HA blasted modification was affected by the particle size of the apatitic abrasives used. The CoBlast process did not alter the chemistry of the crystalline HA during deposition. Cell proliferation on the HA surface was also assessed, which demonstrated enhanced osteo-viability compared to the microblast and blank Ti. This study demonstrates the ability of the CoBlast process to deposit HA coatings with a range of surface properties onto Ti substrates. The ability of the CoBlast technology to offer diversity in modifying surface topography offers exciting new prospects in tailoring the properties of medical devices for applications ranging from dental to orthopedic settings.

  6. Investigation of high-frequency pipe welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Nikolai A.; Lakhno, Nikolay I.; Gushchin, A. G.; Putryk, N. D.; Kovalenko, Vladimir I.; Galkina, V. A.; Veselovsky, Vladimir B.; Furmanov, Valeri B.; Kovika, Nikolai D.; Novikov, Leonid V.; Shcherbina, V. N.

    1993-01-01

    For investigation of a pipe welding process at high-frequency heating aimed at increasing of pipe quality and decreasing of spoilage, the use of high-speed recording and TV-technique is considered to be effective. The authors have created a visual inspection system for pipe welding process studies at a tube mill of the Novomoskovsk Pipe Plant.

  7. Numerical modeling of consolidation processes in hydraulically deposited soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Nicholas Robert

    Hydraulically deposited soils are encountered in many common engineering applications including mine tailing and geotextile tube fills, though the consolidation process for such soils is highly nonlinear and requires the use of advanced numerical techniques to provide accurate predictions. Several commercially available finite element codes poses the ability to model soil consolidation, and it was the goal of this research to assess the ability of two of these codes, ABAQUS and PLAXIS, to model the large-strain, two-dimensional consolidation processes which occur in hydraulically deposited soils. A series of one- and two-dimensionally drained rectangular models were first created to assess the limitations of ABAQUS and PLAXIS when modeling consolidation of highly compressible soils. Then, geotextile tube and TSF models were created to represent actual scenarios which might be encountered in engineering practice. Several limitations were discovered, including the existence of a minimum preconsolidation stress below which numerical solutions become unstable.

  8. Improvement of in-line process in high frequency welded steel pipe mill using advance tube tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babakri, Khalid Ali [Saudi Steel Pipe Company, Dammam, (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-07-01

    The Saudi Steel Pipe Company has designed and implemented a new automated tube tracking system. This paper reported, based on practical experience, the improvement of the in-line process control in high frequency induction (HFI) welded steel pipe mill using this new advance in automated the tube tracking system (TTS). The TTS provides helps in quality control inspection stations (in-process inspection, flattening test, offline ultrasonic, final inspection). For example, the QC inspector at the in-process station is able to choose any tube from the running coil and carry out visual and dimensional inspections. The results will be automatically updated in the TTS. This new system is also integrated with the continuous electronic process control (CEPC) system where the welding and annealing parameters are recorded and linked to each produced coil. It is found that the implementation of the advanced TTS has improved in-line process control on the shop floor. The results showed an increase in productivity and a reduction of operation cost.

  9. Process for electroless deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the electroless deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electroless plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article upon sufficient contact with the article.

  10. Process for electrolytic deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Robert E.

    1979-01-30

    A process for the electrolytic deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electrolytic plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article in the presence of an electrode receiving current.

  11. The Drawing Process and the Die for the Pipe Cap%管帽拉伸工艺及模具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡治钰

    2001-01-01

    In view of the technical requirement of the pipe cap part and through trial manufacture, a reasonable stamping process was determined. And the corresponding drawing die was designed. The application of the die is of good result, and the manufactured parts reached the designed requirement of the drawing.%针对管帽零件的技术要求,通过试制确定了合理的冲压工艺方案,设计了相应的拉伸模,应用效果良好,制件质量达到了图纸设计要求。

  12. Research on the processing experiments of laser metal deposition shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Weijun; Shang, Xiaofeng

    2007-04-01

    Laser additive direct deposition of metals is a new rapid manufacturing technology, which combines with computer-aided design (CAD), laser cladding and rapid prototyping. The advanced technology can build fully dense metal components directly from CAD files with neither mould nor tool. Based on the theory of this technology, a promising rapid manufacturing system called "Laser Metal Deposition Shaping (LMDS)" has been constructed and developed successfully by Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang Institute of Automation. Through the LMDS system, comprehensive experiments are carried out with nickel-based superalloy to systematically investigate the influences of the processing parameters on forming characteristics. By adjusting to the optimal processing parameters, fully dense and near-net-shaped metallic parts can be directly obtained through melting coaxially fed powder with a laser. Moreover, the microstructure and mechanical properties of as-formed samples are tested and analyzed synthetically. As a result, significant processing flexibility with the LMDS system over conventional processing capabilities is recognized, with potentially lower production cost, higher quality components, and shorter lead-time.

  13. Petrography, sulfide mineral chemistry, and sulfur isotope evidence for a hydrothermal imprint on Musina copper deposits, Limpopo Province, South Africa: Evidence for a breccia pipe origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumba, Jeff B.; Mundalamo, Humbulani R.; Ogola, Jason S.; Cox, J. A.; Fleisher, C. J.

    2016-08-01

    values of 0.4 and 0.7‰. The same sample also yielded a δ34Sbornite value of 0.4‰. Another Campbell Mine quartz vein sample yielded a chalcopyrite δ34S value of -0.3‰. Sulfur isotope thermometry for one Campbell Mine quartz vein sample with coexisting sulfides yielded a Δ34Schalcopyrite-bornite value of 359 °C that is consistent with the stability of this mineral pair. Thus, δ34S values from Campbell Mine are consistent with an igneous source for the sulfur. Based on a simple two-end member isotope mixing model, contamination of the sulfur by sulfur derived from granitic country rocks likely occurred at Artonvilla Mine. Based on findings from this study and by other previous investigators, it is concluded that features displayed by the Musina copper deposits are consistent with a breccia pipe origin for the Musina copper deposits.

  14. 46 CFR 154.520 - Piping calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping calculations. 154.520 Section 154.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Process Piping Systems § 154.520 Piping calculations. A piping system must be designed to meet...

  15. UBET analysis of process of extruding aluminum alloy ribbed thin-wall pipes through a porthole die

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建新; 裴强; 刘静安

    2002-01-01

    Using the upper bound element technique (UBET), a numerical model was proposed for analyzing the metal deformation behavior in the extrusion process of ribbed thin-wall pipes through a porthole die. Optimization parameters were contained in the numerical model and determined through minimizing the total work of metal deformation. Taking the extrusion process of thin-wall pipe with one rib as an example, the calculated results using the proposed model are as follows: the extrusion pressure p is linearly related to the extrusion ratio R by p = a+bR 0.683, where a =14.13, b =0.911. When the length of the billet remaining in container is shorter than a quarter of the container diameter, the plastic region extends over the whole of the remained billet and the extrusion process reaches the state of funnel deformation. There exists an optimum depth of welding chamber in respect of the extrusion pressure, and to the calculated example the optimum depth is about 10% of the circumscribed diameter of portholes. To obtain more equitable metal flow in welding chamber, it is required to make the dividing planes in container to be consistent with corresponding welding planes in the chamber ( θ max i = θ′ max i ) through choosing different entering area for each of the portholes.

  16. Optical emission spectroscopy study on deposition process of microcrystalline silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhi-Meng; Lei Qing-Song; Geng Xin-Hua; Zhao Ying; Sun Jian; Xi Jian-Ping

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports that the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is used to monitor the plasma during the deposition process of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon films in a very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system. The OES intensities (SiH*, H*α and H*β) are investigated by varying the deposition parameters. The result shows that the discharge power, silane concentrations and substrate temperature affect the OES intensities. When the discharge power at silane concentration of 4% increases, the OES intensities increase first and then are constant, the intensities increase with the discharge power monotonously at silane concentration of 6%. The SiH* intensity increases with silane concentration, while the intensities of H*α and H*β increase first and then decrease. When the substrate temperature increases, the SiH* intensity decreases and the intensities of H*α and H*β are constant. The correlation between the intensity ratio of IH*α/ISiH* and the crystalline volume fraction (Xc) of films is confirmed.

  17. Reaction network analysis for thin film deposition processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnasubramanian, Krishnaprasath

    Understanding the growth of thin films produced by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) has been one of the most important challenge for surface chemists over the last two to three decades. There has been a lack of complete understanding of the surface chemistry behind these systems due to the dearth of experimental reaction kinetics data available. The data that do exist are generally derived through quantum computations. Thus, it becomes ever so important to develop a deposition model which not only predicts the bulk film chemistry but also explains its self-limiting nature and growth surface stability without the use of reaction rate data. The reaction network analysis tools developed in this thesis are based on a reaction factorization approach that aims to decouple the reaction rates by accounting for the chemical species surface balance dynamic equations. This process eliminates the redundant dynamic modes and identifies conserved modes as reaction invariants. The analysis of these invariants is carried out using a Species-Reaction (S-R) graph approach which also serves to simplify the representation of the complex reaction network. The S-R graph is self explanatory and consistent for all systems. The invariants can be easily extracted from the S-R graph by following a set of straightforward rules and this is demonstrated for the CVD of gallium nitride and the ALD of gallium arsenide. We propose that understanding invariants through these S-R graphs not only provides us with the physical significance of conserved modes but also give us a better insight into the deposition mechanism.

  18. Procesos de piping en el piedemonte distal de la Precordillera Oriental, provincia de San Juan: factores y relieve Piping processes in the eastern piedmont of the Eastern Precordillera, San Juan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Suvires

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available En la región, ubicada al norte del río San Juan, 31°30'S y 68°30'O, parte distal del piedemonte oriental de la Precordillera Oriental, sector La Laja - El Salado, se encontró la presencia de piping en sedimentos y sedimentitas finas rosadas pertenecientes a secuencias neógenas. Se investigan los condicionantes y factores que favorecieron su génesis. Se interpreta, que este proceso es la causa principal de la formación del relieve erosivo con desplomes, hundimientos, caída de rocas en ladera y de la erosión retrocedente existente en las cabeceras y base de los barrancos. Se analizan los distintos factores ambientales: climáticos, litológicos y estructurales de la región. Entre los condicionantes favorables resultan: la presencia de sedimentos y afloramientos de argilitas con muy altos contenidos en sodio, en un clima árido-seco con amplia variación estacional de precipitaciones. Además, la actividad neotectónica presente en ese sitio coadyuva mediante la emergencia de agua subterránea con alta mineralización a contaminar los afloramientos de argilitas. El piping resulta ser entonces, en esta región árida y con actividad neotectónica, un peligro subsuperficial para tener en cuenta en la planificación territorial.Piping process in fine-grained, pink coloured Neogene sediments and sedimentary rocks were studied in the La Laja-El Salado area, northern Río San Juan, in the distal and eastern piedmont of the Eastern Precordillera. Conditions favourable to the genesis of piping were investigated through aerial photo interpretation and fieldwork, and it was concluded that the factors controlling its occurrence are lithology, climate, structure and landscape. The piping in the study area took place mainly in fine clayey materials, with very high values of sodium, and in a dry and arid climatic environment. Neotectonic activity is particularly important for evaluation of the piping processes: some erosional geomorphological features

  19. Processing Parameters Optimization for Material Deposition Efficiency in Laser Metal Deposited Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamood, Rasheedat M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2016-03-01

    Ti6Al4V is an important Titanium alloy that is mostly used in many applications such as: aerospace, petrochemical and medicine. The excellent corrosion resistance property, the high strength to weight ratio and the retention of properties at high temperature makes them to be favoured in most applications. The high cost of Titanium and its alloys makes their use to be prohibitive in some applications. Ti6Al4V can be cladded on a less expensive material such as steel, thereby reducing cost and providing excellent properties. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process, an additive manufacturing process is capable of producing complex part directly from the 3-D CAD model of the part and it also has the capability of handling multiple materials. Processing parameters play an important role in LMD process and in order to achieve desired results at a minimum cost, then the processing parameters need to be properly controlled. This paper investigates the role of processing parameters: laser power, scanning speed, powder flow rate and gas flow rate, on the material utilization efficiency in laser metal deposited Ti6Al4V. A two-level full factorial design of experiment was used in this investigation, to be able to understand the processing parameters that are most significant as well as the interactions among these processing parameters. Four process parameters were used, each with upper and lower settings which results in a combination of sixteen experiments. The laser power settings used was 1.8 and 3 kW, the scanning speed was 0.05 and 0.1 m/s, the powder flow rate was 2 and 4 g/min and the gas flow rate was 2 and 4 l/min. The experiments were designed and analyzed using Design Expert 8 software. The software was used to generate the optimized process parameters which were found to be laser power of 3.2 kW, scanning speed of 0.06 m/s, powder flow rate of 2 g/min and gas flow rate of 3 l/min.

  20. Smooth germanium nanowires prepared by a hydrothermal deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, L.Z., E-mail: lzpei1977@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Zhao, H.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Tan, W. [Henkel Huawei Electronics Co. Ltd., Lian' yungang, Jiangsu 222006 (China); Yu, H.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Chen, Y.W. [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Fan, C.G. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Zhang, Qian-Feng, E-mail: zhangqf@ahut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Smooth germanium nanowires were prepared using Ge and GeO{sub 2} as the starting materials and Cu sheet as the substrate by a simple hydrothermal deposition process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations show that the germanium nanowires are smooth and straight with uniform diameter of about 150 nm in average and tens of micrometers in length. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum of the germanium nanowires display that the germanium nanowires are mainly composed of cubic diamond phase. PL spectrum shows a strong blue light emission at 441 nm. The growth mechanism is also discussed.

  1. High Throughput Atomic Layer Deposition Processes: High Pressure Operations, New Reactor Designs, and Novel Metal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, MoatazBellah Mahmoud

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a vapor phase nano-coating process that deposits very uniform and conformal thin film materials with sub-angstrom level thickness control on various substrates. These unique properties made ALD a platform technology for numerous products and applications. However, most of these applications are limited to the lab scale due to the low process throughput relative to the other deposition techniques, which hinders its industrial adoption. In addition to the low throughput, the process development for certain applications usually faces other obstacles, such as: a required new processing mode (e.g., batch vs continuous) or process conditions (e.g., low temperature), absence of an appropriate reactor design for a specific substrate and sometimes the lack of a suitable chemistry. This dissertation studies different aspects of ALD process development for prospect applications in the semiconductor, textiles, and battery industries, as well as novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials. The investigation of a high pressure, low temperature ALD process for metal oxides deposition using multiple process chemistry revealed the vital importance of the gas velocity over the substrate to achieve fast depositions at these challenging processing conditions. Also in this work, two unique high throughput ALD reactor designs are reported. The first is a continuous roll-to-roll ALD reactor for ultra-fast coatings on porous, flexible substrates with very high surface area. While the second reactor is an ALD delivery head that allows for in loco ALD coatings that can be executed under ambient conditions (even outdoors) on large surfaces while still maintaining very high deposition rates. As a proof of concept, part of a parked automobile window was coated using the ALD delivery head. Another process development shown herein is the improvement achieved in the selective synthesis of organic-inorganic materials using an ALD based process called sequential vapor

  2. New process may aid solution mining. [Fracturing salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1970-12-01

    A novel approach is presented regarding fracturing salt deposits. It promises to make solution mining more eficient in recovering potash from a deep ore-body. In the process, wells to supply process water are drilled in the center of a proposed mining field. The well depth is determined by the location of a water-bearing stratum having a geothermic heat content at least equal to that in the mineral strata to be mined. If process water of lower heat content is used, it can be warmed artificially by steam injection or allowed to absorb heat in the geothermic environment prevailing in the mineral stratum during the process of curing the brine to maturity. Once a process water source is assured, injection wells are drilled to the deepest stratum of sylvinite. The water is then injected adjacent to a clay bed at a hydraulic pressure sufficient to permit breakdown of the formation. Starting at the lowest stratum permits advantage to be taken of an ascending fracture plane. After having achieved breakdown in each stratum, the operator continues injection of water to assure coverage of the necessary fractured plane. Then the brine field development wells are drilled in a convenient pattern to correspond with the direction of the fracture plane (these can be used at a later date either as brine-producing or injection wells). Well spacings are proposed (between injection wells of at least 400 ft.

  3. Numerical calculation of temperature and phase change during the process of atomizing spray quenching on drilling pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A finite element method (FEM) procedure was developed in order to simulate the quenching process for drilling pipe (DP).The calculating model was based on time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams, and incorporated with material properties de-pendent on temperature. The procedure was used to calculate the temperature-time histories, describe the phase transformations ofatomizing spray quenching for DP in the welding zone, and predict the hardness distribution in radius direction after quenching in thezone. The calculated results met well with that of experiments. It was easy to determine the parameters such as volume and pressureof the cooling water and compressed gas by use of the numerical calculation and experiments, because the value of convection coef-ficient was decided greatly by the mixture of the cooling water and compressed gas. Moreover, the simulating results were helpfulnot only to design the quenching equipment, but also to optimize the quenching process for DP's welding zone.

  4. System identification by experimental data processing, application to turbulent transport of a tracer in pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Manuel [Universidad Catolica del Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay). Facultad de Ingenieria y Tecnologias]. E-mail: mburgos@ucu.edu.uy; Getto, Daniel; Berne, Philippe [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, C.E.A. Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France). Section d' Application des Traceurs]. E-mail: daniel.getto@cea.fr; philippe.berne@cea.fr

    2005-07-01

    System identification is the first, and probably the most important step in detecting abnormal behavior, control system design or performance improving. Data analysis is performed for studying the plant behavior, sensitivity of operation procedures and several other goals. In all these cases, the observed data is the convolution of an input function, and the system's impulse response. Practical discrete time convolutions may be performed multiplying a matrix built from the impulse response by the input vector, but for deconvolution it is necessary to invert the matrix which is singular in a causal system. Another method for deconvolution is by means of Fourier Transforms. Actual readings are usually corrupted by noise and, besides, their transform shows high low frequencies components and high frequency ones mainly due to additive noise. Subjective decisions as cut-off frequency should be taken as well. This paper proposes a deconvolution method based on parameters fitting of suitable models, where they exist, and estimation of values where analytical forms are not available. It is based on the global, non linear fitting of them, with a maximum likelihood criteria. An application of the method is shown using data from two fluid flow experiments. The experimental test rigs basically consist in a long section of straight pipe in which fluid is flowing. A pulse of tracer is injected at the entrance and detected at various locations along the pipe. An attempt of deconvolution of signals from successive probes using a classical model describing the flow of tracer as a plug moving with the average fluid velocity, plus some axial dispersion. The parameters are for instance the velocity of the plug and a dispersion coefficient. After parameter fitting, the model is found to reproduce the experimental data well. The flow rates deduced from the adjusted travel times are in very good agreement with the actual values. In addition, the flow dispersion coefficient is

  5. 46 CFR 154.522 - Materials for piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials for piping. 154.522 Section 154.522 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.522 Materials for piping. (a) The materials for piping systems must meet § 154.625 for the minimum design temperature of the piping, except the material for open ended...

  6. Effect of layer thickness setting on deposition characteristics in direct energy deposition (DED) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Do-Sik; Baek, Gyeong-Yun; Seo, Jin-Seon; Shin, Gwang-Yong; Kim, Kee-Poong; Lee, Ki-Yong

    2016-12-01

    Direct energy deposition is an additive manufacturing technique that involves the melting of metal powder with a high-powered laser beam and is used to build a variety of components. In laser-assisted metal deposition, the mechanical and metallurgical properties achieved are influenced by many factors. This paper addresses methods for selecting an appropriate layer thickness setting, which is an important parameter in layer-by-layer deposition manufacturing. A new procedure is proposed for determining the layer thickness setting for use in slicing of a part based on the single-layer height for a given depositing condition. This procedure was compared with a conventional method that uses an empirically determined layer thickness and with a feedback control method. The micro-hardness distribution, location of the melting pool, and microstructures of the deposited layers after deposition of a simple target shape were investigated for each procedure. The experimental results show that even though the feedback control method is the most effective method for obtaining the desired geometry, the deposited region was characterized by inhomogeneity of micro-hardness due to the time-variable depositing conditions involved. The largest dimensional error was associated with the conventional deposition procedure, which produced a rise in the melting zone due to over-deposition with respect to the slicing thickness, especially at the high laser power level considered. In contrast, the proposed procedure produced a stable melting zone position during deposition, which resulted in the deposited part having reasonable dimensional accuracy and uniform micro-hardness throughout the deposited region.

  7. Optimization of Resin Infusion Processing for Composite Pipe Key-Part and K/T Type Joints Using Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changchun; Bai, Guanghui; Yue, Guangquan; Wang, Zhuxi; Li, Jin; Zhang, Boming

    2016-10-01

    In present study, the optimization injection processes for manufacturing the composite pipe key-part and K/T type joints in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) were determined by estimating the filling time and flow front shape of four kinds of injection methods. Validity of the determined process was proved with the results of a scaling-down composite pipe key-part containing of the carbon fiber four axial fabrics and a steel core with a complex surface. In addition, an expanded-size composite pipe part was also produced to further estimate the effective of the determined injection process. Moreover, the resin injection method for producing the K/T type joints via VARTM was also optimized with the simulation method, and then manufactured on a special integrated mould by the determined injection process. The flow front pattern and filling time of the experiments show good agreement with that from simulation. Cross-section images of the cured composite pipe and K/T type joints parts prove the validity of the optimized injection process, which verify the efficiency of simulation method in obtaining a suitable injection process of VARTM.

  8. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  9. Enhancement of surface integrity of titanium alloy with copper by means of laser metal deposition process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erinosho, MF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The laser metal deposition process possesses the combination of metallic powder and laser beam respectively. However, these combinations create an adhesive bonding that permanently solidifies the laser-enhanced-deposited powders. Titanium alloys (Ti...

  10. Fluidized-sediment pipes in Gale crater, Mars, and possible Earth analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David M.; Fairen, A.G.; Frydenvang, J.; Gasnault, O.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Goetz, W.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Le Mouélic, S.; Mangold, N.; Newsom, H.; Oehler, D. Z.; Rapin, W.; Schieber, J.; Wiens, R.C.

    2017-01-01

    Since landing in Gale crater, the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has traversed fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian sedimentary rocks that were deposited within the crater ∼3.6 to 3.2 b.y. ago. Here we describe structures interpreted to be pipes formed by vertical movement of fluidized sediment. Like many pipes on Earth, those in Gale crater are more resistant to erosion than the host rock; they form near other pipes, dikes, or deformed sediment; and some contain internal concentric or eccentric layering. These structures provide new evidence of the importance of subsurface aqueous processes in shaping the near-surface geology of Mars.

  11. Development of high strength pipes grade API 5L X70 PSL2 offshore by the HFIW Process (High Frequency Induction Welding)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, Wilson R.; Melo, Luis C.R.; Gomes, Igor O.; Boni, Luiz P.; Sanctis, Marco A.M. di [Apolo Tubulars, Lorena, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    High strength pipes can be manufactured with excellency in dimensional tolerances, rapidity and efficiency through HFIW process (High Frequency Induction Welding). API 5L 6 5/8 x 0,374 in pipes were made of thin, hot rolled and coiled plates with dimensional 9,300 x 1.040,0 x 140.000 mm. Mechanical tests, chemical and microstructural analysis were performed. For the microstructural analysis, ferrite and perlitic structure were detected. All the results obtained are according to API 5L, 44{sup th} edition, 2008 for the grade API 5L X70 PSL2 Offshore. (author)

  12. Piping Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell provide architectural and engineering services in planning, design and construction of a wide range of projects all over the world. In design analysis, company regularly uses COSMIC computer programs. In computer testing piping design of a power plant, company uses Pipe Flexibility Analysis Program (MEL-21) to analyze stresses due to weight, temperature, and pressure found in proposed piping systems. Individual flow rates are put into the computer, then computer calculates the pressure drop existing across each component; if needed, design corrections or adjustments can be made and rechecked.

  13. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  14. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Nechitaeva Valentina Anatol'evna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna; Shaykhetdinova Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Daminova Yuliya Farikhovna

    2014-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of d...

  15. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  16. Understanding processes affecting mineral deposits in humid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R., II; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interdisciplinary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have resulted in substantial progress toward understanding the influence that climate and hydrology have on the geochemical signatures of mineral deposits and the resulting mine wastes in the eastern United States. Specific areas of focus include the release, transport, and fate of acid, metals, and associated elements from inactive mines in temperate coastal areas and of metals from unmined mineral deposits in tropical to subtropical areas; the influence of climate, geology, and hydrology on remediation options for abandoned mines; and the application of radiogenic isotopes to uniquely apportion source contributions that distinguish natural from mining sources and extent of metal transport. The environmental effects of abandoned mines and unmined mineral deposits result from a complex interaction of a variety of chemical and physical factors. These include the geology of the mineral deposit, the hydrologic setting of the mineral deposit and associated mine wastes, the chemistry of waters interacting with the deposit and associated waste material, the engineering of a mine as it relates to the reactivity of mine wastes, and climate, which affects such factors as temperature and the amounts of precipitation and evapotranspiration; these factors, in turn, influence the environmental behavior of mineral deposits. The role of climate is becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations of mineral deposits because of the growing concerns about climate change.

  17. The stratigraphy, depositional processes, and environment of the late Pleistocene Polallie-period deposits at Mount Hood Volcano, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude

    2005-08-01

    The Polallie eruptive period of Mt. Hood, Oregon, is the last major episode of eruption and dome growth, before the late Holocene activity which was centered at Crater Rock. A volume of 4-8 km 3 of Polallie deposits forms an apron of ca. 60 km 2 on the east, northeast and southeast flanks. The Polallie deposits can be divided, stratigraphically, into four groups: Group I rockslide avalanche and pyroclastic-flow deposits; Group II debris-flow and pyroclastic-flow deposits that suggest some explosive activity and remobilization of pyroclastic debris in a glacial environment; Group III block-and-ash flow deposits that attest to summit dome growth; Group IV alternating debris-flow deposits, glacial sediments, and reworked pyroclastic-flow deposits that indicate a decrease in dome activity and an increase in erosion and transport. Group III clearly indicates frequent episodes of dome growth and collapse, whereas Groups II and IV imply increasing erosion and, conversely, decreasing volcanic activity. The Polallie period occurred in the late Pleistocene during and just after the last Alpine glaciation, which is named Evans Creek in the Cascade Range. According to four K-Ar age dates on lava flows interbedded with Polallie deposits and to published minimum 14C ages on tephra and soils overlying these deposits, the Polallie period had lasted 15,000-22,000 years between 28-34 ka and 12-13 ka. From stratigraphic subdivisions, sedimentary lithofacies and features and from the grain-size and geochemical data, we infer that the Polallie depositional record is a result of the interplay of several processes acting during a long-lasting period of dome growth and destruction. The growth of several domes near the present summit was intermittent, because each group of sediments encompasses primary (pyroclastic) and secondary (volcaniclastic and epiclastic) deposition. Direct deposition of primary material has occurred within intervals of erosion that have probably included meltwater

  18. Appropriate deposition parameters for formation of fcc Co-Ni alloy nanowires during electrochemical deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Aiman; Shahzad Khan, Babar; Mehmood, Tahir

    2016-12-01

    The effect of deposition potential on the crystal structure and composition of Co-Ni alloy nanowires is studied by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX. The alloy nanowires deposited at -3.2 V are metastable fcc phase Co-Ni. The alloy nanowires deposited at -1.8 V are hcp phase Co-Ni. The formation of the metastable fcc alloy nanowires can be attributed to smaller critical clusters formed at the high potential as the smaller critical clusters favor fcc structure because of the significant surface energy effect. The content of Co inside nanowires increases with increasing potential. This can be understood by the polarization curves of depositing Co and Ni nanowires, which show that the current density ratio of Ni to Co at low potential has larger value than that at high potential.

  19. Lahars in Java: Initiations, Dynamics, Hazard Assessment And Deposition Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Lavigne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lahar has been applied as a general term for rapidly flowing, high-concentration, poorly sorted sediment-laden mixtures of rock debris and water (other than normal streamflow from a volcano. Lahars are one of the most destructive phenomena associated with composite volcanoes, which are dominant in Java Island. Resulting deposits of lahar are poorly sorted, massive, made up of clasts (chiefly of volcanic composition, that generally include a mud-poor matrix. The aim of this research is threefold: to discuss the initiation of lahars occurrences, their dynamics, to assess the hazard and to analyse the deposition. Lahars are either a direct result of eruptive activity or not temporally related to eruptions. Syn-eruptive lahars may result from the transformation on pyroclastic flows or debris avalanches which transform to aqueous flows (e.g. at Papandayan in November 2002; They may be also generated through lake outburst or breaching (e.g. at Kelut in 1909 or 1966, and through removal of pyroclastic debris by subsequent heavy rainstorms. Post-eruptive lahar occurs during several years after an eruption. At Merapi, lahars are commonly rain-triggered by rainfalls having an average intensity of about 40 mm in 2 hours. Most occur during the rainy season from November to April. Non-eruptive lahars are flows generated without eruptive activity, particularly in the case of a debris avalanche or a lake outburst (e.g., Kelut. A lahar may include one or more discrete flow processes and encompass a variety of rheological flow types and flow transformations. As such, lahars encompass a continuum between debris flows and hyperconcentrated flows, as observed at Merapi, Kelut and Semeru volcanoes. Debris flows, with water contents ranging from 10 to no more than about 25% weight, are non-newtonian fluids that move as fairly coherent masses in what is thought to be predominantly laminar fashion. However, the relative importance of laminar versus turbulent regime is

  20. Corroded scale analysis from water distribution pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaković-Ognjanović Vladana N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study was the steel pipes that are part of Belgrade's drinking water supply network. In order to investigate the mutual effects of corrosion and water quality, the corrosion scales on the pipes were analyzed. The idea was to improve control of corrosion processes and prevent impact of corrosion on water quality degradation. The instrumental methods for corrosion scales characterization used were: scanning electron microscopy (SEM, for the investigation of corrosion scales of the analyzed samples surfaces, X-ray diffraction (XRD, for the analysis of the presence of solid forms inside scales, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, for the microstructural analysis of the corroded scales, and BET adsorption isotherm for the surface area determination. Depending on the composition of water next to the pipe surface, corrosion of iron results in the formation of different compounds and solid phases. The composition and structure of the iron scales in the drinking water distribution pipes depends on the type of the metal and the composition of the aqueous phase. Their formation is probably governed by several factors that include water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity, buffer intensity, natural organic matter (NOM concentration, and dissolved oxygen (DO concentration. Factors such as water flow patterns, seasonal fluctuations in temperature, and microbiological activity as well as water treatment practices such as application of corrosion inhibitors can also influence corrosion scale formation and growth. Therefore, the corrosion scales found in iron and steel pipes are expected to have unique features for each site. Compounds that are found in iron corrosion scales often include goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, hematite, ferrous oxide, siderite, ferrous hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, ferrihydrite, calcium carbonate and green rusts. Iron scales have characteristic features that include: corroded floor, porous core that contains

  1. Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

    1999-03-30

    The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached

  2. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  3. Development and Application of the Lifting Process Pipe String for Sand Sticking-proof%防砂卡分采举升工艺管柱研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志广; 李风涛; 闫永维; 李川; 张子佳

    2015-01-01

    机械卡堵水技术在实际生产中应用越来越多,生产管柱因卡层出砂导致的砂卡管柱现象日趋严重,经常因砂卡造成管柱大修。研究一种新型分采举升工艺管柱技术,解决卡层出砂导致分采生产管柱砂卡的问题。关键技术是通过工艺管柱的优化设计及配套工具技术研制,在管柱发生砂卡时,通过上提管柱而解卡。如果上提管柱不能解卡,则可从安全释放装置处顺利释放,然后对井筒内管柱进行套洗冲砂,最后将井筒内剩余管柱依次捞出,避免油井进行大修作业。%Mechanical technology for plugging water is widely used in the actual production,and sand stick caused by sand layer in production pipe string is becoming more and more serious,often leading to workover.Therefore,developing a new type of production pipe string technology to a-void the workover caused by sand stick is necessary,the key technology is the optimization design of the lifting process pipe string and matching tool technology development,when pipe string is stuck by sand in controlled layer,it is likely to be released by rising pipe string,if this solution fails,the pipe string can be released from the safety joint smoothly,then wash sand between pipe string and casing in wellbore,finally get the pipe string out of wellbore sequentially,avoiding the workover operation.

  4. UV optical properties of thin film oxide layers deposited by different processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicori, Samuel F; Martinez, Carol L

    2011-10-01

    UV optical properties of thin film layers of compound and mixed oxide materials deposited by different processes are presented. Japan Electron Optics Laboratory plasma ion assisted deposition (JEOL PIAD), electron beam with and without IAD, and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering were used. Comparisons are made with published deposition process data. Refractive indices and absorption values to as short as 145 nm were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Electronic interband defect states are detected that are deposition-process dependent. SE might be effective in identifying UV optical film quality, especially in defining processes and material composition beneficial for high-energy excimer laser applications and environments requiring stable optical properties.

  5. Analysis of Fiber deposition using Automatic Image Processing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belka, M.; Lizal, F.; Jedelsky, J.; Jicha, M.

    2013-04-01

    Fibers are permanent threat for a human health. They have an ability to penetrate deeper in the human lung, deposit there and cause health hazards, e.glung cancer. An experiment was carried out to gain more data about deposition of fibers. Monodisperse glass fibers were delivered into a realistic model of human airways with an inspiratory flow rate of 30 l/min. Replica included human airways from oral cavity up to seventh generation of branching. Deposited fibers were rinsed from the model and placed on nitrocellulose filters after the delivery. A new novel method was established for deposition data acquisition. The method is based on a principle of image analysis. The images were captured by high definition camera attached to a phase contrast microscope. Results of new method were compared with standard PCM method, which follows methodology NIOSH 7400, and a good match was found. The new method was found applicable for evaluation of fibers and deposition fraction and deposition efficiency were calculated afterwards.

  6. Analysis of Fiber deposition using Automatic Image Processing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fibers are permanent threat for a human health. They have an ability to penetrate deeper in the human lung, deposit there and cause health hazards, e.glung cancer. An experiment was carried out to gain more data about deposition of fibers. Monodisperse glass fibers were delivered into a realistic model of human airways with an inspiratory flow rate of 30 l/min. Replica included human airways from oral cavity up to seventh generation of branching. Deposited fibers were rinsed from the model and placed on nitrocellulose filters after the delivery. A new novel method was established for deposition data acquisition. The method is based on a principle of image analysis. The images were captured by high definition camera attached to a phase contrast microscope. Results of new method were compared with standard PCM method, which follows methodology NIOSH 7400, and a good match was found. The new method was found applicable for evaluation of fibers and deposition fraction and deposition efficiency were calculated afterwards.

  7. Theoretical and experimental analysis of dynamic processes of pipe branch for supply water to the Pelton turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir Lj.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the analysis of pipe branch A6 to feed the Hydropower Plant ”Perućica” with integrated action Pelton turbines. The analysis was conducted experimentally (tensometric and numerically. The basis of the experimental research is the numerical finite element analysis of pipe branch A6 in pipeline C3. Pipe branch research was conducted in order to set the experiment and to determine extreme stress states. The analysis was used to perform the determination of the stress state of a geometrically complex assembly. This was done in detail as it had never been done before, even in the design phase. The actual states of the body pipe branch were established, along with the possible occurrence of water hammer accompanied by the appearance of hydraulic oscillation. This provides better energetic efficiency of the turbine devices. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35049 and br. TR 33040

  8. Thermodynamic aspects of heat pipe operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Robert; Gottschlich, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    An expanded heat pipe operating model is described which includes thermodynamic and heat transfer considerations to reconcile disparities between actual and theoretical heat pipe performances. The analysis shows that thermodynamic considerations can explain the observed heat pipe performance limitations. A full understanding of thermodynamic processes could lead to advanced concepts for thermal transport devices.

  9. Nitrogen deposition to the United States: distribution, sources, and processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulate nitrogen deposition over the US in 2006–2008 by using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model at 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution over North America and adjacent oceans. US emissions of NOx and NH3 in the model are 6.7 and 2.9 Tg N a−1 respectively, including a 20% natural contribution for each. Ammonia emissions are a factor of 3 lower in winter than summer, providing a good match to US network observations of NHx (≡NH3 gas + ammonium aerosol and ammonium wet deposition fluxes. Model comparisons to observed deposition fluxes and surface air concentrations of oxidized nitrogen species (NOy show overall good agreement but excessive wintertime HNO3 production over the US Midwest and Northeast. This suggests a model overestimate N2O5 hydrolysis in aerosols, and a possible factor is inhibition by aerosol nitrate. Model results indicate a total nitrogen deposition flux of 6.5 Tg N a−1 over the contiguous US, including 4.2 as NOy and 2.3 as NHx. Domestic anthropogenic, foreign anthropogenic, and natural sources contribute respectively 78%, 6%, and 16% of total nitrogen deposition over the contiguous US in the model. The domestic anthropogenic contribution generally exceeds 70% in the east and in populated areas of the west, and is typically 50–70% in remote areas of the west. Total nitrogen deposition in the model exceeds 10 kg N ha−1 a−1 over 35% of the contiguous US.

  10. Nitrogen deposition to the United States: distribution, sources, and processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We simulate nitrogen deposition over the US in 2006–2008 by using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model at 1/2°×2/3° horizontal resolution over North America and adjacent oceans. US emissions of NOx and NH3 in the model are 6.7 and 2.9 Tg N a−1 respectively, including a 20% natural contribution for each. Ammonia emissions are a factor of 3 lower in winter than summer, providing a good match to US network observations of NHx (≡NH3 gas + ammonium aerosol and ammonium wet deposition fluxes. Model comparisons to observed deposition fluxes and surface air concentrations of oxidized nitrogen species (NOy show overall good agreement but excessive wintertime HNO3 production over the US Midwest and Northeast. This suggests a model overestimate N2O5 hydrolysis in aerosols, and a possible factor is inhibition by aerosol nitrate. Model results indicate a total nitrogen deposition flux of 6.5 Tg N a−1 over the contiguous US, including 4.2 as NOy and 2.3 as NHx. Domestic anthropogenic, foreign anthropogenic, and natural sources contribute respectively 78%, 6%, and 16% of total nitrogen deposition over the contiguous US in the model. The domestic anthropogenic contribution generally exceeds 70% in the east and in populated areas of the west, and is typically 50–70% in remote areas of the west. Total nitrogen deposition in the model exceeds 10 kg N ha−1 a−1 over 35% of the contiguous US.

  11. Controlled Thermal-Mechanical Processing of Tubes and Pipes for Enhanced Manufacturing and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolarik, Robert V.

    2005-11-11

    The Alloy Steel Business of The Timken Company won an award for the controlled thermo-mechanical processing (CTMP) project and assembled a strong international public/private partnership to execute the project. The premise of the CTMP work was to combine Timken's product understanding with its process expertise and knowledge of metallurgical and deformation fundamentals developed during the project to build a predictive process design capability. The CTMP effort succeeded in delivering a pc-based capability in the tube optimization model, with a virtual pilot plant (VPP) feature to represent the desired tube making process to predict the resultant microstructure tailored for the desired application. Additional tasks included a system for direct, online measurement of grain size and demonstration of application of CTMP via robotically enhanced manufacturing.

  12. The adsorptive-kinetic model of in-situ phosphorus doped film polysilicon deposition process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalivaiko O. Yu.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of deposition kinetics of in-situ phosphorus doped polysilicon films has been performed. The adsorptive-kinetic model of in-situ phosphorus doped polysilicon deposition has been developed. The values of heterogeneous reaction constants and constants, which describe the desorption process for monosilane and phosphine, have been defined. The optimal process conditions, which provide the acceptable deposition rate, thickness uniformity, high doping level and conformal step coverage, have been founded.

  13. Analysis of Municipal Pipe Network Franchise Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Sun; Haichuan, Tian; Feng, Xu; Huixia, Zhou

    Franchise institution of municipal pipe network has some particularity due to the characteristic of itself. According to the exposition of Chinese municipal pipe network industry franchise institution, the article investigates the necessity of implementing municipal pipe network franchise institution in China, the role of government in the process and so on. And this offers support for the successful implementation of municipal pipe network franchise institution in China.

  14. Processing Research on Chemically Vapor Deposited Silicon Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    7 A-A79 328 GENERAL ELECTR IC Co PHILADELPH IA PA RE-ENTRY AND ENV--ETC F/S 3/ PROCESING RESEARCH ON CHEMICALLY VAPR DEPOSITED SILICON HITRI ETCIU) I...NH)2] x-- .Si3N 4 as well as NH 3 2) 3SiCI + 6H --- 3i + 6 HC - Si N 4 2 (V,l1) 3 4 pressure may play a part in shifting the deposition sequence from...hot-wall reactor should be further refined with em- phasis on the formation of figured geometries (hemispherical and ogive shells). As part of this

  15. Piping Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In Stennis Space Center's Component Test Facility, piping lines carry rocket propellants and high pressure cryogenic fuels. When the lines are chilled to a pretest temperature of 400 degrees below zero, ordinary piping connectors can leak. Under contract to Stennis, Reflange, Inc. developed the T-Con connector, which included a secondary seal that tolerates severe temperature change. Because of the limited need for the large and expensive T-Con product, Reflange also developed the less costly E-Con, a smaller more compact design with the same technical advantages as the T-Con.

  16. API 5L X80 PSL2 pipes manufactured by ERW process: TenarisConfab and USIMINAS development; Tubos API 5L X80 PSL2 processados por ERW: desenvolvimento TenarisConfab-Usiminas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ronaldo C.; Roza, Juliana E.; Kojima, Sergio S. [TenarisConfab, Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Miranda, Lucio S.; Turani, Leonardo O. [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The utilization of high strength steels can decrease, both, installation and operation costs of a new pipeline, since the increase of mechanical resistance can reduce the pipe wall thickness and, consequently, the weight of the pipe. For this purpose, the manufacture of electric resistance welding (ERW) pipes is recent, and it comes as an opportunity for gas pipelines, mainly onshore projects. As a function of their larger productivity, ERW pipes are more economically attractive than those produced by seamless and SAW processes. TenarisConfab and USIMINAS, through studies and investments in manufacturing processes, have been working to increase their skills, in order to supply ERW pipes in API 5L X80 PSL2 steel. The steel elaborated by USIMINAS is low C, high Mn, Nb, V and Ti microalloyed, and with additions of Cr and Mo, aiming to produce hot rolled coils with acicular microstructure, achieved as a combination between its chemical composition and higher cooling rates after hot rolling. The results in {phi}18''(457 mm) x 0,469''(11,91 mm) pipes are presented in this article. High toughness values reached at very low temperatures suggest that ERW API 5L X80 PSL2 pipes developed by TenarisConfab and USIMINAS may be an excellent option of choice for onshore projects that request pipes in diameters up to 20''(508 mm) and thickness up to 0,500'' (12,7 mm). (author)

  17. Determination of Hydrodynamic Parameters on Two--Phase Flow Gas - Liquid in Pipes with Different Inclination Angles Using Image Processing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Gustavo; Valecillos, María; Romero, Carlos; Gonzáles, Dosinda

    2009-11-01

    In the present research a digital image processing-based automated algorithm was developed in order to determine the phase's height, hold up, and statistical distribution of the drop size in a two-phase system water-air using pipes with 0 , 10 , and 90 of inclination. Digital images were acquired with a high speed camera (up to 4500fps), using an equipment that consist of a system with three acrylic pipes with diameters of 1.905, 3.175, and 4.445 cm. Each pipe is arranged in two sections of 8 m of length. Various flow patterns were visualized for different superficial velocities of water and air. Finally, using the image processing program designed in Matlab/Simulink^, the captured images were processed to establish the parameters previously mentioned. The image processing algorithm is based in the frequency domain analysis of the source pictures, which allows to find the phase as the edge between the water and air, through a Sobel filter that extracts the high frequency components of the image. The drop size was found using the calculation of the Feret diameter. Three flow patterns were observed: Annular, ST, and ST&MI.

  18. ABSTRACTS WELDEL PIPE AND TUBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACTS WELDEL PIPE AND TUBE Vol.24 No.3 May.2001 Huang Jingan(1) Strengthen, Intercourse, Coordination and Promote the Development Together Liang Aiyu(11) The Production and the Development of the Water supply pipe for City Construction From the aspects of the quality, appearance, environment protection, economic analysis etc., This article evaluates the galvanized pipe, plastic steel complex pipe, plastic aluminum pipe, stainless pipe for city water supply. In accordance with the requirements of the city construction programming and development, it is considered that the plastic aluminum pipe and plastic steel pipe instead of galvanization pipe is the trend of the development. The author also gives some constructive proposals for reference. Subject Terms:galvanized pipe complex pipe stainless pipe city water supply evaluation Zhao Rongbin,Li Guangjun(14) The TIG welding of Protected Tantalum-pipe for sheathed thermocouples used in corrosive environment The protected Tantalum-pipe welding of sheathed therocouples was investigated by TIG. The welding process and its key parameters were introduced. Welding quality influenced by processing was discussed. Subject Terms:welding protected Tantalum-pipe corrosion He Defu et al(18) Design and Research for An Automatic MIG Welding Machine of Catalyst Converter of Automobile Two different schemes for automatic MIG welding of catalyst converter of automobile have been compared and analysed. A design of automatic MIG welding machine used for catalyst converter of automobile has been suggested in this paper. Subject Terms:environmental protection automobile tri-catalyst converter MIG welding automatic welding PLC Fang Chucai(24) Cold Crack Analysis of Low Alloy High Strength Steel Weld Seam Heat Affected Area During the welding of low alloy high strength (X65 and above), the fine crack occurs in the weld (especially inner weld) and the low plastic hard brickle structure occurs in the Heat Affected Area (HAZ) sometime. This

  19. Particle dry deposition to water surfaces: Processes and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    's oceans and seas is most significantly impacted by human activities. More than half of the world's population lives within 100 km of a coast and hence the overwhelming majority of anthropogenic fluxes to aquatic systems occur in the coastal zone. We discuss the particular challenges that arise from...... measurement requirements represent significant barriers to application to measurement of particle dry deposition fluxes although, as discussed, innovative solutions are now becoming available. In the final section, we examine meteorological controls on deposition to the coastal zone. This region of the world...... flux to coastal waters, atmosphere-surface exchange represents a significant component of the total flux and may be particularly critical during the summertime when both the riverine input and ambient nutrient concentrations are often at a minimum. In this chapter, we present an overview...

  20. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  1. Process for regeneration of a soot particle filter situated in the exhaust pipe of an air-compressing internal combustion engine. Verfahren zur Regeneration eines in der Abgasleitung einer luftverdichtenden Brennkraftmaschine angeordneten Russpartikelfilters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abthoff, J.; Schuster, H.D.; Langer, H.J.; Strohmer, E.; Gabler, R.; Schulte, R.

    1991-05-08

    A process for the regenration of a soot particle filter situated in the exhaust pipe of an air-compressing injection internal combustion engine by burning off the soot particles is described. A device to control the suction pipe cross section depending on the load and speed is provided in the suction pipe. To prevent damage to the soot filter when changing to thrust operation of the internal combustion engine, it is proposed to move the device to control the suction air pipe cross section directly after a change to thrust operation of the internal combustion engine to a position reducing the pipe crosss ection to a minimum and then to move it continuously to its open position.

  2. 基于RFID的船厂管件加工过程管理研究%Research on the management of shipyard pipe-manufacturing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 李克柱; 任南

    2013-01-01

    为解决船厂管件加工过程生产组织科学性差、生产过程黑箱化的问题,引入物联网的思想,借助于RFID技术对管件加工过程业务模型进行重新设计,在此基础上对相应的信息系统架构进行研究,对关键功能进行阐述,最后对系统实施成效进行分析.本研究为船厂管件加工生产组织优化和系统构建提供参考和借鉴.%Shipyard pipe-manufacturing process is unsatisfactory for it lacks a scientific organization and the processing information is hard to be obtained accurately and timely.In the light of the idea from internet of things (IOT) and with the introduction of RFID technology,the business model and the related system architecture of the pipe-manufacturing process is redesigned,and some key functions are illustrated,in the end,the effectiveness of the system implementation is analyzed.The paper provides a reference in improving pipe-manufacturing organization and system construction.

  3. Closed-Loop Process Control for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Deposition Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Hafley, Robert A. (Inventor); Martin, Richard E. (Inventor); Hofmeister, William H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A closed-loop control method for an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) process includes detecting a feature of interest during the process using a sensor(s), continuously evaluating the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein, and automatically modifying control parameters to control the EBF(sup 3) process. An apparatus provides closed-loop control method of the process, and includes an electron gun for generating an electron beam, a wire feeder for feeding a wire toward a substrate, wherein the wire is melted and progressively deposited in layers onto the substrate, a sensor(s), and a host machine. The sensor(s) measure the feature of interest during the process, and the host machine continuously evaluates the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein. The host machine automatically modifies control parameters to the EBF(sup 3) apparatus to control the EBF(sup 3) process in a closed-loop manner.

  4. 46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must...

  5. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516... and Process Piping Systems § 154.516 Piping: Hull protection. A vessel's hull must be protected from...-522), at: (a) Each piping connection dismantled on a routine basis; (b) Cargo discharge and...

  6. 46 CFR 154.528 - Piping joints: Flange type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints: Flange type. 154.528 Section 154.528... and Process Piping Systems § 154.528 Piping joints: Flange type. (a) A flange must be one of the following types: (1) Welding neck. (2) Slip-on. (3) Socket weld. (b) If the piping is designed for...

  7. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo piping system from liquid pressure exceeding the design pressure must discharge into: (1) A cargo...

  8. 46 CFR 154.514 - Piping: Electrical bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Electrical bonding. 154.514 Section 154.514 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.514 Piping: Electrical bonding. (a) Cargo tanks or piping that...

  9. 46 CFR 154.548 - Cargo piping: Flow capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping: Flow capacity. 154.548 Section 154.548... and Process Piping Systems § 154.548 Cargo piping: Flow capacity. Piping with an excess flow valve must have a vapor or liquid flow capacity that is greater than the rated closing flow under § 154.546....

  10. Electrochemically Deposited Nickel Membranes; Process-Microstructure-Property Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2003-01-01

    -type) or without (0-type) the use of the sulphur-containing additive sodium saccharin. Both types of Ni-foils appeared perfectly smooth when investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), revealed differences in the surface......-type foils during thin film tensile testing, due to microstructural defects caused by sodium saccharin during deposition. Tensile strengths in the order of 700-1000 MPa were observed - highest for the more ductile 0-type foils. A hardness in the order of 6 GPa (590 HV) was found by nanoindentation. Keywords...

  11. Electrochemically Deposited Nickel Membranes; Process-Microstructure-Property Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2003-01-01

    -type) or without (0-type) the use of the sulphur-containing additive sodium saccharin. Both types of Ni-foils appeared perfectly smooth when investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), revealed differences in the surface......-type foils during thin film tensile testing, due to microstructural defects caused by sodium saccharin during deposition. Tensile strengths in the order of 700-1000 MPa were observed - highest for the more ductile 0-type foils. A hardness in the order of 6 GPa (590 HV) was found by nanoindentation. Keywords...

  12. 马氏体不锈钢HFW管线管的开发%Development of Weldable Martensitic Stainless Steel Line Pipe by HFW Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖国章; 高霞; 马星; 赵波锋

    2014-01-01

    A new type of martensitic stainless steel line pipe having excellent weldability and high corrosion resistance in wet CO2 environments manufactured by the high-frequency electric-resistance welding (HFW) process was developed. Through optimized design alloy composition, metallographic structure observation, mechanical property test, the steel pipe external dimension and anticorrosion performance test, the external dimension, mechanical properties of base metal and weld, and metallographic structure of the developed steel pipe can meet the design requirements. The test results showed that the new martensitic stainless steel can produce thin-walled and high precision line pipe, the gas shield welding techniques can be used in HFW; preheat before welding and heat treatment after welding don’t need for HFW steel pipe, the pipe body and weld can satisfy the condition of wet CO2 in oil and gas well.%研究开发了一种具有良好可焊性和抗湿CO2腐蚀的马氏体不锈钢合金及HFW焊管。通过合金成分优化设计、金相组织观察、力学性能试验、钢管外观尺寸及防腐性能试验,所开发的钢管外观尺寸、母材和焊缝的力学性能及金相组织等满足设计目标要求,与传统马氏体不锈钢管相比,具有更精确的外观尺寸。试验结果表明,新型可焊接马氏体不锈钢可以生产薄壁高精度管线管,可以用气体保护技术进行HFW焊接; HFW钢管不需焊前预热和焊后热处理,管体及焊缝所有性能满足油气井湿CO2腐蚀的服役环境。

  13. Characteristics of Single-Track and Multi-track Depositions of Stellite by Micro-plasma Transferred Arc Powder Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Mayur S.; Jain, N. K.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the characteristics study of single-track and multi-track deposition of Stellite 6 on AISI 4130 steel substrate by indigenously developed micro-plasma transferred arc powder deposition (μ-PTAPD) process. Deposition height and width, dilution and microstructure have been used to characterize the single-track depositions by studying effects of micro-plasma power, travel speed of worktable and powder mass flow rate on energy consumption per unit traverse length and power consumption per unit powder mass flow rate. Micro-plasma power was found to be the most influential parameter that affects energy and deposition material consumption. Consequently, its influence on micro-hardness and abrasion resistance of multi-track deposition was studied. Results showed that increase in micro-plasma power decreases micro-hardness and scratch hardness number and increases mean value of friction coefficient. Comparison of microstructure and chemical composition of single-track and multi-track depositions revealed that single-track has finer dendritic microstructure than the multi-track deposition. The black colored matrix and white colored dendrites present in the multi-track deposition have higher wt.% of cobalt and less wt.% of chromium than the single-track deposition. Comparison of µ-PTAPD process capabilities with the existing processes for Stellite deposition establishes that it is an energy-efficient, cost-effective and good quality deposition yielding process.

  14. Study of the deposition process of vinpocetine on the surface of porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenshin, A. S.; Polkovnikova, Yu. A.; Seredin, P. V.

    Currently the most prospective way in pharmacotherapy is the obtaining of nanoparticles involving pharmaceutical substances. Application of porous inorganic materials on the basis of silicon is among the main features in solving of this problem. The present work is concerned with the problem of the deposition of pharmaceutical drug with nootropic activity - vinpocetine - into porous silicon. Silicon nanoparticles were obtained by electrochemical anodic etching of Si plates. The process of vinpocetine deposition was studied in dependence of the deposition time. As a result of the investigations it was found that infrared transmission spectra of porous silicon with the deposited vinpocetine revealed the absorption bands characteristic of vinpocetine substance.

  15. Performance characterization of Ni60-WC coating on steel processed with supersonic laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Luo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ni60-WC particles are used to improve the wear resistance of hard-facing steel due to their high hardness. An emerging technology that combines laser with cold spraying to deposit the hard-facing coatings is known as supersonic laser deposition. In this study, Ni60-WC is deposited on low-carbon steel using SLD. The microstructure and performance of the coatings are investigated through SEM, optical microscopy, EDS, XRD, microhardness and pin-on-disc wear tests. The experimental results of the coating processed with the optimal parameters are compared to those of the coating deposited using laser cladding.

  16. Effect of process parameters on induction plasma reactive deposition of tungsten carbide from tungsten metal powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tungsten carbide deposit was made directly from tungsten metal powder through the reaction with methane in radio frequency induction plasma. Effect of major process parameters on the induction plasma reactive deposition of tungsten carbide was studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, water displacement method, and microhardness test. The results show that methane flow rate, powder feed rate, particle size, reaction chamber pressure and deposition distance have significant influences on the phase composition, density, and microhardness of the deposit. Extra carbon is necessary to ensure the complete conversion of tungsten metal into the carbide.

  17. Gravimetric measurements with use of a cantilever for controlling of electrochemical deposition processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokaryn, Piotr; Janus, Pawel; Zajac, Jerzy; Sierakowski, Andrzej; Domanski, Krzysztof; Grabiec, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we describe the method for monitoring the progress of electrochemical deposition process. The procedure allows to control the deposition of metals as well as conductive polymers on metallic seed layer. The method is particularly useful to very thin layers (1-10 nm) of deposited medium which mechanical or optical methods are troublesome for. In this method deposit is grown on the target and on the test silicon micro-cantilever with a metal pad. Galvanic deposition on the cantilever causes the change of its mass and consequently the change of its resonance frequency. Changes of the frequency is measured with laser vibro-meter then the layer thicknesses can be estimated basing on the cantilever calibration curve. Applying this method for controlling of gold deposition on platinum seed layer, for improving the properties of the biochemical sensors, is described in this paper.

  18. Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Robert E.; Sherman, Anna H.

    1981-01-01

    A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer.

  19. The Research and Development of the External Magnetic Field Acting on Electro-Deposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Menghua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and development status of the electro-deposition technology under the action of external magnetic field are introduced. The basic characteristics and applied manners of external magnetic field in electro-deposition process are summarized. The acting principle of external magnetic field, the effects of magnetic hydrodynamics (MHD caused by the Lorentz force, and the acting of magnetic force on the metal ions and particles are described. The main actions of external magnetic field include MHD effect, magnetizing force, affecting the physical and chemical properties of the bath, affecting the disperse ability and coverage capacity of bath, affecting the mass transfer process of electro-deposition, affecting the chemical reaction process and current distribution of electrode surface. Some examples of electro-depositing single metal coatings, alloy coatings and composite coatings under action of magnetic field are explained. During the electro-depositing process, the external magnetic field has different degrees of impact on solution properties, mass transfer, charge transfer, content of composited nanoparticles, crystal growth and crystal orientation etc. The specific impact of magnetic field during the electro-depositing is also classified and summarized. The problems that existed in electro-deposition process while applying magnetic field and the next development trend were summarized.

  20. Effects of Induction Heat Bending Process on Microstructure and Corrosion Properties of ASME SA312 Gr.TP304 Stainless Steel Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam In; Kim, Young Sik [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Soo; Chang, Hyun Young; Park, Heung Bae; Sung, Gi Ho [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi Ho [R and D Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The usage of bending products recently have increased since many industries such as automobile, aerospace, shipbuilding, and chemical plants need the application of pipings. Bending process is one of the inevitable steps to fabricate the facilities. Induction heat bending is composed of compressive bending process by local heating and cooling. This work focused on the effect of induction heat bending process on the properties of ASME SA312 Gr. TP304 stainless steel pipes. Tests were performed for base metal and bended area including extrados, intrados, crown up, and down parts. Microstructure was analyzed using an optical microscope and SEM. In order to determine intergranular corrosion resistance, Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (DL-EPR) test and ASTM A262 practice A and C tests were done. Every specimen revealed non-metallic inclusion free under the criteria of 1.5i of the standard and the induction heat bending process did not affect the non-metallic inclusion in the alloys. Also, all the bended specimens had finer grain size than ASTM grain size number 5 corresponding to the grain sizes of the base metal and thus the grain size of the pipe bended by induction heat bending process is acceptable. Hardness of transition start, bend, and transition end areas of ASME SA312 TP304 stainless steel was a little higher than that of base metal. Intergranular corrosion behavior was determined by ASTM A262 practice A and C and DL-EPR test, and respectively step structure, corrosion rate under 0.3 mm/y, and Degree of Sensitization (DOS) of 0.001 - 0.075 % were obtained. That is, the induction heat bending process didn't affect the intergranular corrosion behavior of ASME SA312 TP304 stainless steel.

  1. Atomistic study of deposition process of Al thin film on Cu substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Yongzhi, E-mail: yzcaohit@gmail.com [Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Zhang Junjie; Sun Tao; Yan Yongda; Yu Fuli [Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we report molecular dynamics based atomistic simulations of deposition process of Al atoms onto Cu substrate and following nanoindentation process on that nanostructured material. Effects of incident energy on the morphology of deposited thin film and mechanical property of this nanostructured material are emphasized. The results reveal that the morphology of growing film is layer-by-layer-like at incident energy of 0.1-10 eV. The epitaxy mode of film growth is observed at incident energy below 1 eV, but film-mixing mode commences when incident energy increase to 10 eV accompanying with increased disorder of film structure, which improves quality of deposited thin film. Following indentation studies indicate deposited thin films pose lower stiffness than single crystal Al due to considerable amount of defects existed in them, but Cu substrate is strengthened by the interface generated from lattice mismatch between deposited Al thin film and Cu substrate.

  2. A Signal Processing Approach with a Smooth Empirical Mode Decomposition to Reveal Hidden Trace of Corrosion in Highly Contaminated Guided Wave Signals for Concrete-Covered Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Rostami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic guided waves have been extensively applied for non-destructive testing of plate-like structures particularly pipes in past two decades. In this regard, if a structure has a simple geometry, obtained guided waves’ signals are easy to explain. However, any small degree of complexity in the geometry such as contacting with other materials may cause an extra amount of complication in the interpretation of guided wave signals. The problem deepens if defects have irregular shapes such as natural corrosion. Signal processing techniques that have been proposed for guided wave signals’ analysis are generally good for simple signals obtained in a highly controlled experimental environment. In fact, guided wave signals in a real situation such as the existence of natural corrosion in wall-covered pipes are much more complicated. Considering pipes in residential buildings that pass through concrete walls, in this paper we introduced Smooth Empirical Mode Decomposition (SEMD to efficiently separate overlapped guided waves. As empirical mode decomposition (EMD which is a good candidate for analyzing non-stationary signals, suffers from some shortcomings, wavelet transform was adopted in the sifting stage of EMD to improve its outcome in SEMD. However, selection of mother wavelet that suits best for our purpose plays an important role. Since in guided wave inspection, the incident waves are well known and are usually tone-burst signals, we tailored a complex tone-burst signal to be used as our mother wavelet. In the sifting stage of EMD, wavelet de-noising was applied to eliminate unwanted frequency components from each IMF. SEMD greatly enhances the performance of EMD in guided wave analysis for highly contaminated signals. In our experiment on concrete covered pipes with natural corrosion, this method not only separates the concrete wall indication clearly in time domain signal, a natural corrosion with complex geometry that was hidden and

  3. A Signal Processing Approach with a Smooth Empirical Mode Decomposition to Reveal Hidden Trace of Corrosion in Highly Contaminated Guided Wave Signals for Concrete-Covered Pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Javad; Chen, Jingming; Tse, Peter W

    2017-02-07

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been extensively applied for non-destructive testing of plate-like structures particularly pipes in past two decades. In this regard, if a structure has a simple geometry, obtained guided waves' signals are easy to explain. However, any small degree of complexity in the geometry such as contacting with other materials may cause an extra amount of complication in the interpretation of guided wave signals. The problem deepens if defects have irregular shapes such as natural corrosion. Signal processing techniques that have been proposed for guided wave signals' analysis are generally good for simple signals obtained in a highly controlled experimental environment. In fact, guided wave signals in a real situation such as the existence of natural corrosion in wall-covered pipes are much more complicated. Considering pipes in residential buildings that pass through concrete walls, in this paper we introduced Smooth Empirical Mode Decomposition (SEMD) to efficiently separate overlapped guided waves. As empirical mode decomposition (EMD) which is a good candidate for analyzing non-stationary signals, suffers from some shortcomings, wavelet transform was adopted in the sifting stage of EMD to improve its outcome in SEMD. However, selection of mother wavelet that suits best for our purpose plays an important role. Since in guided wave inspection, the incident waves are well known and are usually tone-burst signals, we tailored a complex tone-burst signal to be used as our mother wavelet. In the sifting stage of EMD, wavelet de-noising was applied to eliminate unwanted frequency components from each IMF. SEMD greatly enhances the performance of EMD in guided wave analysis for highly contaminated signals. In our experiment on concrete covered pipes with natural corrosion, this method not only separates the concrete wall indication clearly in time domain signal, a natural corrosion with complex geometry that was hidden and located inside the

  4. PPOOLEX experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-01-15

    factors to this may be the smaller dry well volume per blowdown pipe ratio and the lack of dry well internal structures in the PPOOLEX facility. Furthermore, the pipe material seemed to have an effect on the condensation process inside the pipe. Polycarbonate has two orders of magnitude smaller thermal conductivity than steel. (Author)

  5. Heat-pipe planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2017-09-01

    Observations of the surfaces of all terrestrial bodies other than Earth reveal remarkable but unexplained similarities: endogenic resurfacing is dominated by plains-forming volcanism with few identifiable centers, magma compositions are highly magnesian (mafic to ultra-mafic), tectonic structures are dominantly contractional, and ancient topographic and gravity anomalies are preserved to the present. Here we show that cooling via volcanic heat pipes may explain these observations and provide a universal model of the way terrestrial bodies transition from a magma-ocean state into subsequent single-plate, stagnant-lid convection or plate tectonic phases. In the heat-pipe cooling mode, magma moves from a high melt-fraction asthenosphere through the lithosphere to erupt and cool at the surface via narrow channels. Despite high surface heat flow, the rapid volcanic resurfacing produces a thick, cold, and strong lithosphere which undergoes contractional strain forced by downward advection of the surface toward smaller radii. We hypothesize that heat-pipe cooling is the last significant endogenic resurfacing process experienced by most terrestrial bodies in the solar system, because subsequent stagnant-lid convection produces only weak tectonic deformation. Terrestrial exoplanets appreciably larger than Earth may remain in heat-pipe mode for much of the lifespan of a Sun-like star.

  6. High energy high rate pulsed power processing of materials by powder consolidation and by railgun deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, C.; Marcus, H. L.; Weldon, W. F.

    1987-03-01

    This exploratory research program was initiated to investigate the potential of using pulse power sources for powder consolidation, deposition and other High Energy High Rate Processing. The characteristics of the High Energy High Rate (1MJ/s) powder consolidation using megampere current pulses from a Homopolar Generator, have been defined. Molybdenum Alloy TZM, A Nickel based metallic glass, Copper graphite composites, and P/M Aluminum Alloy X7091 have been investigated. The powder consolidation process produced high densification rates. Density values of 80% to 99% could be obtained with sub second high temperature exposure. Specific energy input and applied pressure were controlling process parameters. Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) concepts underpin a fundamental understanding of pulsed power processing. Deposition experiments were conducted using an exploding foil device (EFD) providing an armature feed to railgun mounted in a vacuum chamber. The material to be deposited - in plasma, gas, liquid or solid state - was accelerated electromagnetically in the railgun and deposited on a substrate.

  7. Si surface passivation by Al2O3 thin films deposited using a low thermal budget atomic layer deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguini, G.; Cianci, E.; Wiemer, C.; Perego, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza MB (Italy); Saynova, D.; Van Roosmalen, J.A.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Westerduinweg 3, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-04-05

    High-quality surface passivation of crystalline Si is achieved using 10 nm thick Al2O3 films fabricated by thermal atomic layer deposition at 100C. After a 5 min post deposition annealing at 200C, the effective carrier lifetime is 1 ms, indicating a functional level of surface passivation. The interplay between the chemical and the field effect passivation is investigated monitoring the density of interface traps and the amount of fixed charges with conductance-voltage and capacitance-voltage techniques. The physical mechanisms underlying the surface passivation are described. The combination of low processing temperatures, thin layers, and good passivation properties facilitate a technology for low-temperature solar cells.

  8. Visualization of working fluid flow in gravity assisted heat pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Nemec Patrik; Malcho Milan

    2015-01-01

    Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapor and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about construction and processes casing in heat pipe during operation. Experiment visualization of working fluid flow is performed with glass heat pipe filed with ethanol. The visualization of working fluid flow explains the phenomena as working fl...

  9. Influence of process parameters on the preparation of pharmaceutical films by electrostatic powder deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Leena Kumari; LaFountaine, Justin S; Keen, Justin M; Williams, Robert O; McGinity, James W

    2016-12-30

    Electrostatic powder deposition (ESPD) has been developed as a solvent-free method to prepare pharmaceutical films. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of process parameters during (1) electrostatic powder deposition, (2) curing, and (3) removal of the film from the substrate on the properties of the film. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) was used as the model polymer and stainless steel 316 as the substrate. Deposition efficiency (i.e. deposited weight) was measured with varying charging voltage, gun tip to substrate distance, and environmental humidity. Scanning electron microscopy was utilized to assess film formation, and adhesive and mechanical strength of films were measured with varying cure temperature and time. Adhesive strength was measured for films prepared on substrates of varying surface roughness. When deposition was performed at low humidity conditions, 25%RH, process parameters did not significantly affect deposition behavior. At 40%RH, increasing deposition efficiency with decreasing gun tip to substrate distance and increasing voltage (up to 60kV) was observed. Complete film formation was seen by 30min at 80°C, compared to lower curing temperatures and times. All films were readily removed from the substrates. The results show the ESPD process can be modified to produce films with good mechanical properties (e.g. tensile strength>0.06MPa), suggesting it is a promising dry powder process for preparing pharmaceutical films.

  10. Mechanistic Details of Surface Reactions in Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Menno; Bouman; Christopher; Clark; Hugo; Tiznado; Francisco; Zaera

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The reaction mechanisms of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes used for thin-film growth have been characterized by a combination of surface sensitive techniques. Our early studies focused on the deposition of TiN films from TiCl4 and ammonia,starting with the independent characterization of each of the two half steps comprising the ALD process. It was found that exposure of the substrate to TiCl4 leads to the initial deposition of titanium in the +3 oxidation state; only at a later st...

  11. Effect of Energy Input on the Characteristic of AISI H13 and D2 Tool Steels Deposited by a Directed Energy Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Seok; Park, Joo Hyun; Lee, Min-Gyu; Sung, Ji Hyun; Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Da Hye

    2016-05-01

    Among the many additive manufacturing technologies, the directed energy deposition (DED) process has attracted significant attention because of the application of metal products. Metal deposited by the DED process has different properties than wrought metal because of the rapid solidification rate, the high thermal gradient between the deposited metal and substrate, etc. Additionally, many operating parameters, such as laser power, beam diameter, traverse speed, and powder mass flow rate, must be considered since the characteristics of the deposited metal are affected by the operating parameters. In the present study, the effect of energy input on the characteristics of H13 and D2 steels deposited by a direct metal tooling process based on the DED process was investigated. In particular, we report that the hardness of the deposited H13 and D2 steels decreased with increasing energy input, which we discuss by considering microstructural observations and thermodynamics.

  12. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  13. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  14. Investigation of Tin (Sn) Film Using an Aerosol Jet Additive Manufacturing Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Aleksandra; Liu, Yue; Ghamarian, Iman; Collins, Peter C.; Chason, Eric

    2017-08-01

    The quality of a Sn film deposited by the aerosol process is compared against the quality of Sn films deposited with traditional electroplating. Using the aerosol additive deposition technique, a Sn film was deposited on a brass substrate and exposed to room (25°C) temperature environments for 30 days, followed by a laser photosintering process. The film characteristics and content, formation of intermetallic compounds, residual stress distribution, grain texture, and the tendency of the film to grow Sn whiskers were analyzed. The preliminary results show a successful deposition of Sn film with an aerosol jet process and tensile residual stresses, whereas it was compressive in nature for electroplated Sn film. X-ray diffraction results also show the absence of intermetallic compound (IMC) formation in the aerosol jet-deposited film, while electroplated Sn film has a significant presence of IMC. The aerosol jet-deposited Sn film has the potential to resist nucleation of Sn whiskers under the operating conditions used in this study.

  15. A sub-atmospheric chemical vapor deposition process for deposition of oxide liner in high aspect ratio through silicon vias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisker, Marco; Marschmeyer, Steffen; Kaynak, Mehmet; Tekin, Ibrahim

    2011-09-01

    The formation of a Through Silicon Via (TSV) includes a deep Si trench etching and the formation of an insulating layer along the high-aspect-ratio trench and the filling of a conductive material into the via hole. The isolation of the filling conductor from the silicon substrate becomes more important for higher frequencies due to the high coupling of the signal to the silicon. The importance of the oxide thickness on the via wall isolation can be verified using electromagnetic field simulators. To satisfy the needs on the Silicon dioxide deposition, a sub-atmospheric chemical vapor deposition (SA-CVD) process has been developed to deposit an isolation oxide to the walls of deep silicon trenches. The technique provides excellent step coverage of the 100 microm depth silicon trenches with the high aspect ratio of 20 and more. The developed technique allows covering the deep silicon trenches by oxide and makes the high isolation of TSVs from silicon substrate feasible which is the key factor for the performance of TSVs for mm-wave 3D packaging.

  16. The erosion performance of cold spray deposited metal matrix composite coatings with subsequent friction stir processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tom; Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios; McNutt, Philip; Iqbal, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    This study forms an initial investigation into the development of SprayStir, an innovative processing technique for generating erosion resistant surface layers on a chosen substrate material. Tungsten carbide - cobalt chromium, chromium carbide - nickel chromium and aluminium oxide coatings were successfully cold spray deposited on AA5083 grade aluminium. In order to improve the deposition efficiency of the cold spray process, coatings were co-deposited with powdered AA5083 using a twin powder feed system that resulted in thick (>300 μm) composite coatings. The deposited coatings were subsequently friction stir processed to embed the particles in the substrate in order to generate a metal matrix composite (MMC) surface layer. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine the erosion performance of the SprayStirred surfaces and demonstrate the benefits of this novel process as a surface engineering technique. Volumetric analysis of the SprayStirred surfaces highlighted a drop of approx. 40% in the level of material loss when compared with the cold spray deposited coating prior to friction stir processing. Micro-hardness testing revealed that in the case of WC-CoCr reinforced coating, the hardness of the SprayStirred material exhibits an increase of approx. 540% over the unaltered substrate and 120% over the as-deposited composite coating. Microstructural examination demonstrated that the increase in the hardness of the MMC aligns with the improved dispersion of reinforcing particles throughout the aluminium matrix.

  17. Φ10mm 碳纤维复合材料管成型工艺及性能研究%Forming Process and Properties of Φ10 mm Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锐霞; 尹亮; 潘玲英; 董波

    2012-01-01

    The forming process and properties of carbon fiber reinforced composite pipe with the diameter of 10mm were investigated. The results show that the carbon fiber reinforced composite pipe fabricated by the thermal shrinkage process has the advantages of simple forming process and better quality reliability. Compared to the stainless steel pipe with the diamemer of 10 mm, the carbon fiber reinforced composite pipe with the same diameter has the e-quivalent flexural stiffness. While the flexural strength of composite pipe is more than three times of the stainless steel with the same diameter, and its weight is only half of the stainless steel pipe. In addition, the composite has good dimension precision which can meet the design requirements.%对外径为Φ10 mm 碳纤维复合材料管成型工艺及性能进行了研究.结果表明,采用热缩工艺成型的碳纤维复合材料管工艺简单、质量可靠,Φ10 mm 碳纤维复合材料管件弯曲刚度与不锈钢管相当,弯曲强度为不锈钢的3倍以上,质量仅为不锈钢的50%,尺寸精度满足设计要求.

  18. 46 CFR 154.524 - Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings. 154.524... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.524 Piping joints: Welded and screwed couplings. Pipe... warmer. (d) Screwed couplings are allowed for instrumentation and control piping that meets §...

  19. LNG接收站工艺管道试压、吹扫%LNG receiving station process piping pressure test and purging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华伟; 仇德朋; 鹿晓斌; 曲顺利

    2014-01-01

    LNG receiving station process piping pressure test and purging is the final inspection of construction quality before project put into operation, to ensure that project smoothly has the vital significance. In view of the LNG clean and low temperature properties, pressure test after the pipe cleaner and dry degree is particularly important, the terminal piping pressure test use hydraulic or pneumatic according to the difference of the pressure or medium..This paper introduces the pipeline pressure test, purging process and matters needing attention, to the future of LNG receiving station test, purging process has a certain reference significance.%LNG接收站工艺管道试压、吹扫是工程投运前对施工质量的最终检验,对确保工程顺利投产具有重要的意义。鉴于LNG清洁及低温特性,试压后管道内的清洁度及干燥度显得尤为重要,目前接收站压力试验根据管道压力、介质的不同通常采用水压或气压。本文介绍了LNG工艺管道试压吹扫的方法、流程和注意事项等,对今后的LNG接收站试压、吹扫具有一定的借鉴意义。

  20. Heat Pipe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Solar Fundamentals, Inc.'s hot water system employs space-derived heat pipe technology. It is used by a meat packing plant to heat water for cleaning processing machinery. Unit is complete system with water heater, hot water storage, electrical controls and auxiliary components. Other than fans and a circulating pump, there are no moving parts. System's unique design eliminates problems of balancing, leaking, corroding, and freezing.

  1. X60螺旋焊钢管焊接工艺分析%Welding process analysis of X60 spiral welded pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艺

    2014-01-01

    The X60 (L415M) steel grade for 323.9mm×7.1mm spiral submerged arc welded steel pipe, welding, argon arc welding and semi-finished product process parameters are designed and discussed.%对X60(L415M)钢级芰323.9 mm×7.1 mm螺旋缝埋弧焊接钢管内、外焊焊接、半成品氩弧焊,补焊工艺进行设计和探讨。

  2. Deposition and post-processing techniques for transparent conductive films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoforo, Mark Greyson; Mehra, Saahil; Salleo, Alberto; Peumans, Peter

    2017-07-04

    In one embodiment, a method is provided for fabrication of a semitransparent conductive mesh. A first solution having conductive nanowires suspended therein and a second solution having nanoparticles suspended therein are sprayed toward a substrate, the spraying forming a mist. The mist is processed, while on the substrate, to provide a semitransparent conductive material in the form of a mesh having the conductive nanowires and nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are configured and arranged to direct light passing through the mesh. Connections between the nanowires provide conductivity through the mesh.

  3. Rare earth-doped alumina thin films deposited by liquid source CVD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschanvres, J.L.; Meffre, W.; Joubert, J.C.; Senateur, J.P. [Ecole Nat. Superieure de Phys. de Grenoble, St. Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. des Materiaux et du Genie Phys.; Robaut, F. [Consortium des Moyens Technologiques Communs, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, BP 75, 38402 St Martin d`Heres (France); Broquin, J.E.; Rimet, R. [Laboratoire d`Electromagnetisme, Microondes et Optoelectronique, CNRS-Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Electronique et Radioelectricite de Grenoble, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble, Cedex (France)

    1998-07-24

    Two types of liquid-source CVD processes are proposed for the growth of rare earth-doped alumina thin films suitable as amplifying media for integrated optic applications. Amorphous, transparent, pure and erbium- or neodymium-doped alumina films were deposited between 573 and 833 K by atmospheric pressure aerosol CVD. The rare earth doping concentration increases by decreasing the deposition temperature. The refractive index of the alumina films increases as a function of the deposition temperature from 1.53 at 573 K to 1.61 at 813 K. Neodymium-doped films were also obtained at low pressure by liquid source injection CVD. (orig.) 7 refs.

  4. Advancement in additive manufacturing & numerical modelling considerations of direct energy deposition process

    OpenAIRE

    Quanren Zeng; Zhenhai Xu; Yankang Tian; Yi Qin

    2016-01-01

    The development speed and application range of the additive manufacturing (AM) processes, such as selective laser melting (SLM), laser metal deposition (LMD) or laser-engineering net shaping (LENS), are ever-increasing in modern advanced manufacturing field for rapid manufacturing, tooling repair or surface enhancement of the critical metal components. LMD is based on a kind of directed energy deposition (DED) technology which ejects a strand of metal powders into a moving molten pool caused ...

  5. The Research and Development of the External Magnetic Field Acting on Electro-Deposition Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Menghua; Jia Weiping

    2016-01-01

    The research and development status of the electro-deposition technology under the action of external magnetic field are introduced. The basic characteristics and applied manners of external magnetic field in electro-deposition process are summarized. The acting principle of external magnetic field, the effects of magnetic hydrodynamics (MHD) caused by the Lorentz force, and the acting of magnetic force on the metal ions and particles are described. The main actions of external magnetic field...

  6. Comparison of deposited surface area of airborne ultrafine particles generated from two welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C; Miranda, Rosa M; Santos, Telmo G; Vieira, M T

    2012-09-01

    This article describes work performed on the assessment of the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in two welding processes metal-active gas (MAG) of carbon steel and friction-stir welding (FSW) of aluminium in terms of deposited area in alveolar tract of the lung using a nanoparticle surface area monitor analyser. The obtained results showed the dependence from process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and clearly demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles, when compared with background levels. The obtained results showed that the process that results on the lower levels of alveolar-deposited surface area is FSW, unlike MAG. Nevertheless, all the tested processes resulted in important doses of ultrafine particles that are to be deposited in the human lung of exposed workers.

  7. Effect of Source, Surfactant, and Deposition Process on Electronic Properties of Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The electronic properties of arrays of carbon nanotubes from several different sources differing in the manufacturing process used with a variety of average properties such as length, diameter, and chirality are studied. We used several common surfactants to disperse each of these nanotubes and then deposited them on Si wafers from their aqueous solutions using dielectrophoresis. Transport measurements were performed to compare and determine the effect of different surfactants, deposition processes, and synthesis processes on nanotubes synthesized using CVD, CoMoCAT, laser ablation, and HiPCO.

  8. Atomic layer deposition of copper and copper silver films using an electrochemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.S., E-mail: jsfang@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Liu, Y.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Chin, T.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the formation and properties of Cu and Cu(Ag) films on a Ru/Si substrate using electrochemical atomic layer deposition. The process was performed layer-by-layer using underpotential deposition (UPD) and surface-limited redox reactions. The first Cu atomic layer was deposited on the Ru/Si substrate via UPD. Using UPD, atomic layered of Pb, which acts as a sacrificial layer, was applied on the Cu layer. Then, a Cu{sup 2+} solution was flushed into the cell at an open-circuit potential, and the Pb layer was exchanged for Cu via redox replacements. The above sequences were repeated 500 times to form a Cu film. The Cu(Ag) alloy films were formed using Cu–UPD and Ag–UPD in predetermined sequences. The lowest electrical resistivity achieved was 3.6 and 2.2 μΩ cm for the Cu film and Cu(Ag) film, respectively, after annealing at 400 °C. Due to the self-limiting reactions, the process has the ability to deposit atomic layers to meet the requirement of Cu interconnects. - Highlights: • Layer-by-layer growth of Cu and Cu(Ag) films are prepared using electrochemical atomic layer deposition. • Cu coverage is from 0.33 to 0.51 ML for each deposition cycle in different NaCl concentrations. • The process can be applied in Cu interconnections.

  9. Empirical-Statistical Study on the Relationship between Deposition Parameters, Process Variables, Deposition Rate and Mechanical Properties of a-C:H:W Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Hetzner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten-modified hydrogenated amorphous carbon coatings (a-C:H:W were deposited on high speed steel by reactive magnetron sputtering of a tungsten carbide target in an argon-ethine atmosphere. The deposition parameters, sputtering power, bias voltage, argon and ethine flow rate, were varied according to a central composite design comprising 25 different parameter combinations. For comparison, a tungsten carbide coating was deposited, as well. During coating deposition, the process variables, total pressure, sputtering voltage and bias current, were measured as process characteristics. The thickness of the deposited coatings was determined using the crater grinding method, and the deposition rate was calculated. Young’s modulus E and indentation hardness HIT were characterized by means of nanoindentation. With E = 80

  10. Apparatus and process for atomic or molecular layer deposition onto particles during pneumatic transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ommen, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The invention provides a process for depositing a coating onto particles being pneumatically transported in a tube. The process comprising the steps of providing a tube having an inlet opening and an outlet opening; feeding a carrier gas entraining particles into the tube at or near the inlet openin

  11. Process sedimentology of submarine fan deposits - new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, George

    2017-04-01

    To link submarine fan process sedimentology with sand distribution, sand body architecture, texture and fabric, the field geologist studies sedimentary facies, facies associations (fan elements) and stratigraphy. Facies analysis resides on factual knowledge of modern fan morphodynamics and physical modelling of en-masse sediment transport. Where do we stand after 55 years of submarine research, i.e. the date when the first submarine fan model was launched by Arnold Bouma in 1962? Since that date students of submarine fans have worked on a number of important, recurring questions concerned with facies analysis of submarine successions in outcrop and core: 1. What type of sediment transport produced the beds? 2. What facies can be related to initial flow conditions? 3. What is the significance of grain size jumps and bounding surface hierarchy in beds consisting of crude and spaced stratification (traction carpets)? Do these point to multi flow events or to flow pulsations by one and the same event? 4. What facies associations relate to the basic elements of submarine fans? 5. What are the autogenic and allogenic signatures in submarine fans? Particularly in the last decade, the enormous technical advancement helped to obtain high-quality data from observations of density flows in modern canyons, deep basins and deep-water delta slopes (refs 1,2,3). In combination with both physical (refs 4,5) and numerical modelling (ref 6) these studies broke new ground into our understanding of density flow processes in various submarine environments and have led to new concepts of submarine fan building by super- and subcritical high-density flow (ref 7). Do these new concepts provide better answers to our recurrent questions related to the morphodynamics of submarine fans and prediction of sand body architecture? In discussing this open question, I shall 1. apply the new concepts to a modern and ancient example of a channel-lobe-transition-zone (ref 8); 2. raise the problem of

  12. Design and fabrication of polymer-concrete pipe for testing in geothermal-energy processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J.E.

    1981-07-01

    Polymer concrete is a composite material which has strength and durability characteristics greatly superior to those of portland cement concrete and better durability in hot brine than steel. Polymer concrete has been successfully tested in brine, flashing brine, and steam at temperatures up to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F). Exposures were as long as 960 days. Glass-filament-wound polymer concrete pipe was developed with excellent strength, low weight, and a cost comparable to or less than Schedule 40 steel. Connections can be made with slip joints for low-pressure applications and flanged joints for high-pressure applications.

  13. Modelling and optimization of film thickness variation for plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Ewan; Gibson, Des; Lin, Li; Fu, Xiuhua

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a method for modelling film thickness variation across the deposition area within plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) processes. The model enables identification and optimization of film thickness uniformity sensitivities to electrode configuration, temperature, deposition system design and gas flow distribution. PECVD deposition utilizes a co-planar 300mm diameter electrodes with separate RF power matching to each electrode. The system has capability to adjust electrode separation and electrode temperature as parameters to optimize uniformity. Vacuum is achieved using dry pumping with real time control of butterfly valve position for active pressure control. Comparison between theory and experiment is provided for PECVD of diamond-like-carbon (DLC) deposition onto flat and curved substrate geometries. The process utilizes butane reactive feedstock with an argon carrier gas. Radiofrequency plasma is used. Deposited film thickness sensitivities to electrode geometry, plasma power density, pressure and gas flow distribution are demonstrated. Use of modelling to optimise film thickness uniformity is demonstrated. Results show DLC uniformity of 0.30% over a 200 mm flat zone diameter within overall electrode diameter of 300mm. Thickness uniformity of 0.75% is demonstrated over a 200mm diameter for a non-conformal substrate geometry. Use of the modelling method for PECVD using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) feedstock is demonstrated, specifically for deposition of silica films using metal-organic tetraethoxy-silane. Excellent agreement between experimental and theory is demonstrated for conformal and non-conformal geometries. The model is used to explore scalability of PECVD processes and trade-off against film thickness uniformity. Application to MEMS, optical coatings and thin film photovoltaics is discussed.

  14. The Heat-Pipe Hypothesis for Early Crustal Development of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A. G.; Moore, W. B.; Simon, J. I.

    2014-12-01

    Crusts of the terrestrial planets other than Earth are dominated by mafic / ultramafic volcanics, with some contractional tectonics and minor extension. This description may also fit the early Earth. Therefore, a single process may have controlled early crustal development. Here we explore the hypothesis that heat-pipe cooling mode dominates early phases of terrestrial planet evolution. Volcanism is the hallmark of heat-pipe cooling: hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels, then is deposited and cools at the surface. A heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downward-advecting lithosphere dominated by mafic/ultra-mafic flows. Contractional deformation occurs throughout the lithosphere as the surface is buried and forced toward smaller radii. Geologies of the Solar system's terrestrial planets are consistent with early heat-pipe cooling. Mercury's surface evolution is dominated by low-viscosity volcanism until ~4.1-4.0 Ga, with little activity other than global contraction since. Similar, younger features at Venus are commonly interpreted in terms of catastrophic resurfacing events with ~0.5 billion-year periodicity, but early support of high topography suggests a transition from heat-pipe to rigid-lid tectonics. Thick heat-pipe lithosphere may preserve the crustal dichotomy between Mars' northern and southern hemispheres, and explain the range in trace element abundances and isotopic compositions of Martian meteorites. At the Moon, global serial volcanism can explain refinement of ferroan anorthite rich rocks and coeval production of the "Mg-suite" rocks. The Moon's shape is out of hydrostatic equilibrium; it may represent a fossil preserved by thick early lithosphere. Active development of Jupiter's moon Io, which is warmed by tidal heating, is widely interpreted in terms of heat-pipe cooling. Given its potential ubiquity in the Solar system, heat-pipe cooling may be a universal process experienced by all terrestrial bodies of sufficient size.

  15. Corrosion behavior in heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurak Rodbumrung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to perform life testing and determine the effect of working fluid on the corrosion of a heat pipe with a sintered wick. The heat pipe was made from a copper tube. The inner heat pipe was filled with 99.97% pure copper powder as a dendritic for the sintering process. The heat pipe had an outer diameter of 6 mm with a length of 200 mm, and distilled water and ethanol were the working fluids. The operating temperature at the evaporator was 125°C. The analysis consisted of using a scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results of the scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that the corrosion of the heat pipe was uniform. The result of the atomic absorption spectroscopy indicated that the concentration of the copper in the ethanol as the working fluid was greater than in the distilled water as the working fluid, and the highest concentration of copper particles in the ethanol was 22.7499 ppm or 0.0409 mg after testing for 3000 h. The concentration of copper was higher when the length of the life test increased due to corrosion of the heat pipe.

  16. Applications and market of PVC for piping industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnny De N. Martins; Estevão Freire; Henry Hemadipour

    2009-01-01

    .... Pipes and fittings constitute the largest volume application at 40% of the marketplace. This paper discusses the piping extrusion process and the worldwide PVC market, emphasizing the Brazilian market...

  17. A parametric simulation study for solvent co-injection process in bitumen deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, A.; Alvestad, J.; Kjonsvik, D.; Gilje, E.; Kowalewski, E. [Statoil Canada (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The extraction of very large Canadian extra heavy oil and bitumen deposits is facing major challenges, such as energy requirements and access to sustainable water resources. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most common commercial in-situ recovery process used for the extraction but it has many associated economic and environmental challenges. Moreover, current knowledge of the fundamental physics and mechanics involved in the process is not satisfactory. This paper presents a parametric simulation study for a solvent co-injection (SCI) process in bitumen deposits. This process has the potential to improve the efficiency of steam processes as well as to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions. The study contributes to further understanding of the development process. Several operational and geological parameters were evaluated to assess their impact on SAGD operations. The results demonstrated that the basis for selecting the optimum solvent should not only be mobility improvement capability but should also include other operational and geological conditions.

  18. Properties of Aluminum Deposited by a High-Velocity Oxygen-Fueled Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R; Decker, T A; Gansert, R V; Gansert, D; Lee, D

    2001-06-12

    Aluminum coatings deposited by a HVOF process have been demonstrated and relevant coating properties evaluated according to two deposition parameters, the spray distance and the oxygen-to-fuel flow ratio. The coating porosity, surface roughness, and microhardness are measured. The coating properties are fairly insensitive to spray distance, the distance between the nozzle and the workpiece, and fuel ratios, the oxygen-to-fuel flow. Increasing the fuel content does appear to improve the process productivity in terms of surface roughness. Minimization of nozzle loading is discussed.

  19. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  20. HPFRCC - Extruded Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Pedersen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    as well as structural design. Material development was carried out considering both processing requirements as well as mechanical properties of the hardened material. A micro-mechanical model for the non-linear material behavior of the hardened material based on the stress-crack width or the $\\sigma...... itself. The structural modeling of the pipe was done making direct use of the $\\sigma-w$ material characterization. The processing technique developed is a novel type of extrusion combiningease of material mixing and few requirements for material pre-processingwith a high degree of accuracy and stability...

  1. The effect of process variables on microstructure in laser-deposited materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontha, Srikanth

    Laser deposition of titanium alloys is under consideration for aerospace applications, which require the consistent control of microstructure and resulting mechanical properties. To date, only limited experimental data exists to link deposition process variables (e.g., laser power and velocity) to resulting microstructure (e.g., grain size and morphology) in laser-deposited materials, and suitable microstructures have typically been obtained only by trial and error. In addition, it is unclear whether knowledge based on small-scale laser deposition processes (e.g., LENS(TM)) can be applied to large-scale (higher power) processes currently under development for commercial applications. Therefore, simulation-based methods are needed to predict the effects of process variables and size-scale on microstructure in laser-deposited titanium and other aerospace materials. The ability to predict and control microstructure in laser deposition processes requires an understanding of the thermal conditions at the onset of solidification. The focus of this work is the development of thermal process maps relating solidification cooling rate and thermal gradient (the key parameters controlling microstructure) to laser deposition process variables (laser power and velocity). The approach employs the well-known Rosenthal solution for a moving point heat source traversing an infinite substrate. Cooling rates and thermal gradients at the onset of solidification are numerically extracted from the Rosenthal solution throughout the depth of the melt pool, and dimensionless process maps are presented for both 2-D thin-wall and bulky 3-D geometries. Results for both small-scale (LENS(TM)) and large-scale (higher power) processes are plotted on solidification maps for predicting trends in grain morphology in laser-deposited Ti-6Al-4V. Although the Rosenthal predictions neglect the nonlinear effects of temperature-dependent properties and latent heat of transformation, a comparison with 2-D

  2. Visualization of working fluid flow in gravity assisted heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapor and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about construction and processes casing in heat pipe during operation. Experiment visualization of working fluid flow is performed with glass heat pipe filed with ethanol. The visualization of working fluid flow explains the phenomena as working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, vapor flow, vapor condensation on the wall, vapor and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall, occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  3. Visualization of working fluid flow in gravity assisted heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2015-05-01

    Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapor and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about construction and processes casing in heat pipe during operation. Experiment visualization of working fluid flow is performed with glass heat pipe filed with ethanol. The visualization of working fluid flow explains the phenomena as working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, vapor flow, vapor condensation on the wall, vapor and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall, occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  4. Working Principle and Forming Process for Directly Forming to Square of Rectangular Pipe%方矩管直接成方原理及成型工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱剑明; 吕晟

    2011-01-01

    Combining with production practice, this article introduced the characteristics of two kinds of forming processes for rectangular pipe, they are forming to square from round and directly forming to square. The basic principle of rectangular pipe directly forming to square and its function in technology system of product, process and equipment were explained, as well as interactional rule among the said three items. The forming theory, method and process of rectangular pipe directly forming to square are with universal and practical significance for enterprises which are manufacturing large-scale rectangular pipe, especially for enterprises which are intending to invest forming equipment for large-scale rectangular pipe.%结合生产实践,将直接成方工艺作为一个完整的技术工程,介绍了直接成方的基本原理,论述了产品、工艺、装备在其技术系统中各自的作用,以及它们之间互为依存,相互作用的内在规律.提出的直接成方成型原理、方法和工艺原则,对于正在生产大型方矩管的企业,特别是将要投资大型方矩管成型机组装备的企业,有着普遍而现实的意义.

  5. Deposition of wear-resistant steel surfaces by the plasma rotating electrode coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Michael Robert

    A high-deposition rate thermal spray method was investigated for the purpose of coating aluminum cylinder bores with a wear resistant surface. This method, the plasma rotating electrode coating system (PROTEC) utilized transferred-arc melting of a rapidly rotating consumable electrode to create a droplet stream via centrifugal atomization. A cylindrical substrate was placed around the rotating rod, in the flight path of the droplets, to deposit a coating onto the internal surface of the cylinder. Selected coatings of 1045 steel deposited by the PROTEC coating method exhibited lower wear loss in lubricated sliding than wire-arc sprayed carbon steel coatings and gray cast iron. Splat cohesion was shown to be a significant factor in the wear resistance of PROTEC coatings. The relationship between deposition enthalpy and cooling rate of the coating was found to have the greatest effect on coating microstructure, and the coating cohesion. The most rapidly solidified coatings showed inferior splat cohesion in comparison to coatings that cooled more slowly. The increase in splat cohesion with decreased cooling rate was accompanied by the formation of a directionally oriented coating microstructure, likely formed during cellular solidification of the coating. A model describing the thermal state of the deposition process was used to predict the deposition conditions that would result in a cellular structure, and the level of splat cohesion required to produce a wear resistant coating.

  6. A discrete element based simulation framework to investigate particulate spray deposition processes

    KAUST Repository

    Mukherjee, Debanjan

    2015-06-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. This work presents a computer simulation framework based on discrete element method to analyze manufacturing processes that comprise a loosely flowing stream of particles in a carrier fluid being deposited on a target surface. The individual particulate dynamics under the combined action of particle collisions, fluid-particle interactions, particle-surface contact and adhesive interactions is simulated, and aggregated to obtain global system behavior. A model for deposition which incorporates the effect of surface energy, impact velocity and particle size, is developed. The fluid-particle interaction is modeled using appropriate spray nozzle gas velocity distributions and a one-way coupling between the phases. It is found that the particle response times and the release velocity distribution of particles have a combined effect on inter-particle collisions during the flow along the spray. It is also found that resolution of the particulate collisions close to the target surface plays an important role in characterizing the trends in the deposit pattern. Analysis of the deposit pattern using metrics defined from the particle distribution on the target surface is provided to characterize the deposition efficiency, deposit size, and scatter due to collisions.

  7. Solution processed deposition of electron transport layers on perovskite crystal surface-A modeling based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortuza, S. M.; Taufique, M. F. N.; Banerjee, Soumik

    2017-02-01

    The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has reached up to ∼20%. However, structural and chemicals defects that lead to hysteresis in the perovskite based thin film pose challenges. Recent work has shown that thin films of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) deposited on the photo absorption layer, using solution processing techniques, minimize surface pin holes and defects thereby increasing the PCE. We developed and employed a multiscale model based on molecular dynamics (MD) and kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to establish a relationship between deposition rate and surface coverage on perovskite surface. The MD simulations of PCBMs dispersed in chlorobenzene, sandwiched between (110) perovskite substrates, indicate that PCBMs are deposited through anchoring of the oxygen atom of carbonyl group to the exposed lead (Pb) atom of (110) perovskite surface. Based on rates of distinct deposition events calculated from MD, kMC simulations were run to determine surface coverage at much larger time and length scales than accessible by MD alone. Based on the model, a generic relationship is established between deposition rate of PCBMs and surface coverage on perovskite crystal. The study also provides detailed insights into the morphology of the deposited film.

  8. Novel electroless copper deposition on carbon fibers with environmentally friendly processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2010-08-15

    A novel electroless deposition (ELD) of copper (Cu) on carbon fibers (CFs) with environmentally friendly processes, silver (Ag) aerosol activation and subsequent nonformaldehyde Cu ELD, was developed. Spark-generated Ag aerosol nanoparticles (approximately 10 nm in mode diameter) were deposited (48.4 microg Ag/g CF in activation intensity) onto the surfaces of CFs. After annealing (at 220 degrees C in a nitrogen atmosphere), the catalytically activated CFs were placed into a solution for Cu ELD (at 82 degrees C). Homogeneous Cu coating (approximately 5.1 nm/min) on CFs was achieved with 90 min of deposition and the corresponding mass deposition rate and Cu grain size for 30-90 min of deposition had ranges of 0.25-1.14 mg Cu/g CF-min and 14.8-37.2 nm, respectively. The porosity of CFs decreased by depositing the Cu for 30-90 min, and the specific surface area and pore volume of CFs decreased from 1536 to 1399 m(2)/g and from 0.65 to 0.57 cm(3)/g, respectively.

  9. Fabrication of FeSe superconducting films with chemical transport deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J. Q.; Zhang, S. N.; Liu, J. X.; Hao, Q. B.; Li, C. S.; Zhang, P. X.

    2017-07-01

    FeSe Superconducting films were fabricated with a chemical transport deposition process. During the fabrication process, Fe foils were adopted as substrates and Se powders were put at one end of the tube furnace. During the heating process, Se powders were vaporized, and vaporized atoms were carried by Ar flow and deposited on the Fe substrates. With a heat treatment process under proper temperature, superconducting tetragonal β-FeSe phase can be obtained. The effects of key parameters, including the sintering temperatures and the distances between Fe substrates and Se source on the phase composition and morphology of the obtained films were systematically investigated. The superconducting transition temperature of 7.8 K was obtained on the optimized film. By further optimization of the heat treatment process, it is promising to fabricate FeSe films with higher superconducting phase content and better superconducting properties.

  10. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Inconel 625 Alloy during Pulsed Plasma Arc Deposition Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fujia Xu; Yaohui Lv; Yuxin Liu; Fengyuan Shu; Peng He; Binshi Xu

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed plasma arc deposition (PPAD),which combines pulsed plasma cladding with rapid prototyping,is a promising technology for manufacturing near net shape components due to its superiority in cost and convenience of processing.In the present research,PPAD was successfully used to fabricate the Ni-based superalloy Inconel 625 components.The microstructures and mechanical properties of deposits were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),optical microscopy (OM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS),microhardness and tensile testers.It was found that the as-deposited structure exhibited homogenous columnar dendrite structure,which grew epitaxially along the deposition direction.Moreover,some intermetallic phases such as Laves phase,minor MC (NbC,TiC) carbides and needle-like δ-Ni3Nb were observed in γ-Ni matrix.Precipitation mechanism and distribution characteristics of these intermetallic phases in the as-deposited 625 alloy sample were analyzed.In order to evaluate the mechanical properties of the deposits,microhardness was measured at various location (including transverse plane and longitudinal plane).The results revealed hardness was in the range of 260-285 HVo.2.In particular,microhardness at the interface region between two adjacent deposited layers was slightly higher than that at other regions due to highly refined structure and the disperse distribution of Laves particles.Finally,the influence of precipitation phases and fabrication strategies on the tensile properties of the as-deposited samples was investigated.The failure modes of the tensile specimens were analyzed with fractography.

  11. Research and Development on Heat Pipes and Related Thermal Engineering Technologies in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    OSHIMA, Koichi

    1989-01-01

    Five advanced heat pipe systems utilizing phase changing heat transfer concept are introduced, which are; a separate type heat pipe heat exchanger, a heat pipe turbine, micro heat pipes, a thermocapillary loop system and mass-produced tubes with inner fin. Inside of these heat pipes, contrary to the conventional heat transfer tubes, evaporation and condensation processes are heavily influenced by the surface tension effect. This effect is also dominant in the heat pipes operating under micro-...

  12. Evaluation of Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, WY, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dam, Wiliam [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) began reassessing the former Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site area for potential contaminant sources impacting groundwater. A flood in 2010 along the Little Wind River resulted in increases in groundwater contamination (DOE 2013).This investigation is a small part of continued efforts by DOE and other stakeholders to update human health and ecological risk assessments, to make a comprehensive examination of all exposure pathways to ensure that the site remains protective through established institutional controls. During field inspections at the Riverton Site in 2013, a white evaporitic mineral deposit was identified along the bank of the Little Wind River within the discharge zone of the groundwater contamination plume. In December 2013, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel collected a sample for analysis by X-ray fluorescence (Figure 1 shows the type of material sampled). The sample had a uranium concentration of approximately 64 to 73 parts per million. Although the uranium in this mineral deposit is within the expected range for evaporatic minerals in the western United States (SRNL 2014), DOE determined that additional assessment of the mineral deposit was warranted. In response to the initial collection and analysis of a sample of the mineral deposit, DOE developed a work plan (Work Plan to Sample Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site [DOE 2014]) to further define the extent of these mineral deposits and the concentration of the associated contaminants (Appendix A). The work plan addressed field reconnaissance, mapping, sampling, and the assessment of risk associated with the mineral deposits adjacent to the Little Wind River.

  13. Active soft solder deposition by magnetron-sputter-ion-plating (MSIP)-PVD-process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugscheider, E.; Bobzin, K.; Erdle, A

    2004-01-30

    In different technical areas micro electro mechanical systems (M.E.M.S.), e.g. micro pumps, micro sensors, actuators and micro dosage systems are in use today. The components of these M.E.M.S. consist of various materials, which have to be joined. To join materials like ceramics, plastics or metals to a hybrid M.E.M.S., established joining technologies have to be adjusted. For the assembling and mounting of temperature sensible micro components, a low temperature joining process, e.g. transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding or an active soft soldering process can be performed. In this article the deposition of a low melting active soft solder by magnetron-sputter (MS)-PVD deposition with an active substrate cooling will be presented. The substrate temperatures were set and controlled by an additional cooling unit, which was integrated into the sputtering facility. In the performed experiments a substrate temperature range from -40 to +20 deg. C was investigated. The effects of these different substrate temperatures to the microstructure and the soldering suitability of the solder system were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation and soldering tests. The chemical composition of the deposited solder systems was examined by glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOS)-analysis. As a suitable substrate temperature range for deposition -10 to -20 deg. C was detected. Solder systems deposited in this temperature range showed good solder abilities.

  14. Magnetic properties related to hydrothermal alteration processes at the Escondida porphyry copper deposit, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, K.; Veloso, E.; Campos, E.; Menzies, A.; Véliz, W.

    2014-08-01

    Fluid-rock interaction related to the circulation of hydrothermal fluids can strongly modify the physicochemical properties of wall rocks in porphyry Cu deposits. These processes can also produce compositional and textural changes in ferromagnetic minerals, which can be quantified using magnetic methods. In the Escondida porphyry Cu deposit of northern Chile, each hydrothermally altered lithology is characterized by a discrete assemblage of Fe-Ti oxide minerals. These minerals have distinctive bulk magnetic susceptibility ( K bulk), temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, and magnetic hysteresis parameters. Selectively altered rocks (i.e., potassic and chloritic alteration types) exhibit the highest K bulk values (>3.93 × 10-3 SI units), and their hysteresis parameters indicate multidomain magnetic mineral behavior. This suggests that these rocks are composed of the coarsest magnetic grain sizes within the deposit. Optical analyses and susceptibility-temperature curves confirm that the magnetic signals in selectively altered rocks are mainly carried by secondary magnetite. In contrast, pervasively altered rocks (i.e., quartz-sericite and argillic alteration types) exhibit low K bulk values (hydrothermal alteration processes, Fe-Ti oxide minerals, and magnetic properties of the wall rock in the Escondida deposit. These magnetic methods can be considered a sensitive and efficient petrophysical tool for the identification and semi-quantification of alteration assemblages, and facilitating the recognition and mapping of discrete hydrothermal zones during exploration and operation of porphyry Cu deposits.

  15. Basical characteristics of fluid geologic process of interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-typeuranium deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; BoLin; LIU; ChiYang; WANG; JianQiang

    2007-01-01

    This paper reveals the physicochemical properties such as component, formulation, genesis, tem- perature, pH, Eh, salinity and pressure of all main alteration fluid of interlayer oxidation zone sand- stone-type uranium deposits after studying the geologic process and geochemistry of internal typical sandstone-type uranium deposits such as Shihongtan deposit in the Turpan-Hami basin, 512 deposit in the Yili basin, Dongsheng deposit in the Ordos basin. The composition of fluid can be divided into two parts based on the analysis of inclusion: one can be affirmed as atmospheric water with ordinary temperature epigenesist according to the character of hydrogen and oxygen isotope of inclusion, the other is natural gas containing gaseous hydrocarbon like CH4, and CO2 as well as a little H2S, CO, H2, N2 and so on, it always contains a small quantity of hydrocarbon liquid in petroliferous basins. The fluid property of oxidation alteration zone is always oxidation alkaline, and neutrality or weak acid-weak alkaline and reducibility during the metallizing process, but at secondary reduction or deoxidization zone it becomes strong reduction alkaline. Oxygenic groundwater in the fluid is the activate and mig- ratory medium of uranium element, but the gaseous hydrocarbon like CH4 as well as H2, H2S, CO from natural gas is the important sedimentary reducer of uranium mineral; the transformation of pH,Eh in fluid environment is the main reason for the formation of uranium metallization.

  16. Optimization of Nano-Process Deposition Parameters Based on Gravitational Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlina Mohd Sabri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is focusing on the radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering process, a physical vapor deposition technique which is widely used in thin film production. This process requires the optimized combination of deposition parameters in order to obtain the desirable thin film. The conventional method in the optimization of the deposition parameters had been reported to be costly and time consuming due to its trial and error nature. Thus, gravitational search algorithm (GSA technique had been proposed to solve this nano-process parameters optimization problem. In this research, the optimized parameter combination was expected to produce the desirable electrical and optical properties of the thin film. The performance of GSA in this research was compared with that of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, Genetic Algorithm (GA, Artificial Immune System (AIS and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO. Based on the overall results, the GSA optimized parameter combination had generated the best electrical and an acceptable optical properties of thin film compared to the others. This computational experiment is expected to overcome the problem of having to conduct repetitive laboratory experiments in obtaining the most optimized parameter combination. Based on this initial experiment, the adaptation of GSA into this problem could offer a more efficient and productive way of depositing quality thin film in the fabrication process.

  17. Modeling Mechanism and Growth Reactions for New Nanofabrication Processes by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Simon D; Dey, Gangotri; Maimaiti, Yasheng; Ablat, Hayrensa; Filatova, Ekaterina A; Fomengia, Glen N

    2016-07-01

    Recent progress in the simulation of the chemistry of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is presented for technologically important materials such as alumina, silica, and copper metal. Self-limiting chemisorption of precursors onto substrates is studied using density functional theory so as to determine reaction pathways and aid process development. The main challenges for the future of ALD modeling are outlined.

  18. Reusable pipe flange covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, James Elliott (Simpsonville, SC); Perez, Julieta (Houston, TX)

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  19. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A; Parisher

    2000-01-01

    Pipe designers and drafters provide thousands of piping drawings used in the layout of industrial and other facilities. The layouts must comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date. Pipe Drafting and Design, Second Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers and drafters and students in Engineering Design Graphics and Engineering Technology through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings using symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. The book is appropriate primarily for pipe

  20. Instrumented failure of hillslope models with soil-pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Raj H.; Konietzky, Heinz

    2011-07-01

    Soil-pipes (porous pipes inside a hillslope) are often detected in collapsed slopes indicating their influence on slope failure processes. Only limited studies can be found regarding the impacts of soil-pipes on landslide mechanisms. Hillslope models prepared in a flume are experimented with different soil-pipe configurations: a) no pipe, b) closed pipe and c) open pipe. Pore-water pressures were measured at six different locations along a slope. Discharges at the outlet of soil-pipe and groundwater seepage were also recorded. For the above mentioned pipe configurations two types of experiments were conducted: a) rainfall-induced failure and b) seepage-induced failure. Experimental results show that a closed pipe accumulates water around its lower end and continuously increases pore-water pressure till a failure. An open pipe works as a means of hillslope drainage and reduces the pore-water pressure of an entire slope. However, if open pipe is blocked, pore-water pressure close to its lower end rises rapidly, leading to immediate soil mass movement. For both seepage and rainfall-induced failure experiments, the maximum pressure before the failure was larger at a slope with an open pipe (once it is closed) than a slope with a pipe closed from the beginning or that without a soil-pipe. This indicates that the blockage of soil-pipes makes a slope more susceptible to failure. Displacement vectors show that soil movement velocity close to the surface was highest at slopes with open pipes after closure and lowest at slopes without pipes because of a higher degree of saturation and pore-water pressure at the time of failure of the former. Before a large failure, small fluctuations in pore-water pressure were also observed which can be an indicator of impending failure.

  1. Self-assembling Process of Alkanethiol Monolayers on Gold Surface via Underpotential Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It was demonstrated feasible that underpotential deposition(UPD) of copper on a monolayer-modified gold substrate can be used to determine the gold electrode area. The deposition and stripping of a Cu adlayer can take place reversibly and stably at a bared or a self-assembled monolayer modified gold electrode. The growth kinetics of decanethiol/Au was also investigated via Cu UPD. The difference between the assembling kinetics determined by UPD and that by quartz crystal microbalance measurements reveals the configuration transmutation of the assembled molecules from a disordered arrangement to an ordered arrangement during the self-assembling processes.

  2. STUDY OF DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING PROCESSED ULTEM MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Adhiyamaan Arivazhagan; Ammar Saleem; S. H. Masood; Mostafa Nikzad; K. A. JAGADEESH

    2014-01-01

    Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), a renowned Rapid Prototyping (RP) process, has been successfully implemented in several industries to fabricate concept models and prototypes for rapid manufacturing. This study furnishes terse notes about the material damping properties of FDM made ULTEM samples considering the effect of FDM process parameters. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) is carried out using DMA 2980 equipment to study the dynamic response of the FDM material subjected to single canti...

  3. Modeling of atmospheric iron processing carried by mineral dust and its deposition to ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickovic, Slobodan; Vukovic, Ana; Vujadinovic, Mirjam

    2014-05-01

    Relatively insoluble iron in dust originating from desert soils increases its solubility after Fe carried by mineral dust is chemically processed by the atmosphere. After dust is deposited deposition to the ocean, soluble Fe as a nutrient could enhance the marine primary production. The atmospheric dust cycle is driven by the atmospheric processes often of smaller, meso-scales. The soil mineralogy of dust emitted from sources determines also how much Fe in the aerosol will be finding. Once Fe is exposed to the atmospheric processes, the atmospheric radiation, clouds and polluted air will chemically affect the iron in dust. Global dust-iron models, having typical horizontal resolutions of 100-300 km which are mostly used to numerically simulate the fate of iron in the atmosphere can provide rather global picture of the dust and iron transport, but not details. Such models often introduce simplistic approximation on the Fe content in dust-productive soils. To simulate the Fe processing we instead implemented a high resolution regional atmospheric dust-iron model with detailed 1km global map for the geographic distribution of Fe content in soil. We also introduced a parameterization of the Fe processing caused by dust mineralogy, cloud processes and solar radiation. We will present results from simulation experiments in order to explore the model capability to reproduce major observed patterns of deposited Fe into the Atlantic cruises.

  4. Structure and depositional processes of a gravelly tsunami deposit in a shallow marine setting: Lower Cretaceous Miyako Group, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, S.; Masuda, F.; Tagomori, S.; Matsumoto, D.

    2006-06-01

    This study reports a newly discovered gravelly tsunami deposit from the Lower Cretaceous Miyako Group, Japan. The deposit was formed in an open shallow marine setting. The event deposit erosionally overlies shoreface deposits and shows marked lateral facies change. At the basin margin, the deposit is composed mainly of amalgamated HCS sandstones with liquefaction structures, overlain by finer sediments that contain many plant fragments or micas. Conglomerates accompanying the HCS sandstones contain molluscan fossils and many coral clasts. In the basin center, the event deposit is made up mainly of conglomerates and lenticular sandstone beds, and passes upwards into alternating sandstones and siltstones. A condensed organic debris layer is intercalated within the alternating section. Conglomerates contain abundant beach gravel, and also contain beachrock, coral blocks, and boulders. Bivalve fossils are well preserved despite their occurrence in grain-supported conglomerates. The event deposit is divided into sub-layers bounded by internal scours that are wavy and intersect. Each sub-layer consists of a conglomerate grading into a sandstone layer. Imbrications just above the scours in sub-layers show seawards paleocurrents; however, imbrications just beneath the sandstone horizons in the same sub-layers feature landward paleocurrents. Respective sub-layers in the tsunami deposit were formed by substrate erosion due to backwash flow, gravel deposition, reworking by flood flow, and sand deposition during the stagnant water period. The overall upward-fining trend reflects decline of the tsunami event. Development of the gravelly deposit in the central part of the basin and lateral facies change may be attributed to hydrodynamic response of the tsunami pulse to local bathymetry and geography.

  5. 46 CFR 154.526 - Piping joints: Flange connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints: Flange connection. 154.526 Section 154.526 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.526 Piping joints: Flange connection. Flange...

  6. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge...

  7. Numerical solution of moving boundary problem for deposition process in solid fuel gas generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokhov, V. M.; Dorofeenko, S. O.; Sharov, M. S.; Toktaliev, P. D.

    2016-11-01

    Moving boundary problem in application to process of depositions formation in gas generator are considered. Gas generator, as a part of fuel preparation system of high-speed vehicle, convert solid fuel into multicomponent multiphase mixture, which further burned down in combustion chamber. Mathematical model of two-phase “gas-solid particles” flow, including Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flow in gas generator and mass, impulse conservations laws for elementary depositions layer are proposed. Verification of proposed mathematical model for depositions mass in gas generator conditions is done. Further possible improvements of proposed model, based on more detail accounting of particle-wall interaction and wall's surface adhesion properties are analyzed.

  8. Effect of Processing Parameters on Performance of Spray-Deposited Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack W. Owen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs is often strongly dependent on the fabrication procedure. In this study, we fabricate OTFTs of soluble small-molecule organic semiconductors by spray-deposition and explore the effect of processing parameters on film morphology and device mobility. In particular, we report on the effect of the nature of solvent, the pressure of the carrier gas used in deposition, and the spraying distance. We investigate the surface morphology using scanning force microscopy and show that the molecules pack along the π-stacking direction, which is the preferred charge transport direction. Our results demonstrate that we can tune the field-effect mobility of spray-deposited devices two orders of magnitude, from 10−3 cm2/Vs to 10−1 cm2/Vs, by controlling fabrication parameters.

  9. Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 5. Heat pipe topical, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-07-01

    Work performed by Dynatherm Corporation for Teledyne Isotopes during a program entitled ''Heat Pipe Fabrication, Associated Technical Support and Reporting'' is reported. The program was initiated on November 29, 1972; the main objectives were accomplished with the delivery of the heat pipes for the HPG. Life testing of selected heat pipe specimens is continuing to and beyond the present date. The program consisted of the following tasks: Heat Pipe Development of Process Definition; Prototype Heat Pipes for Fin Segment Test; HPG Heat Pipe Fabrication and Testing; Controlled Heat Pipe Life Test; and Heat Pipe Film Coefficient Determination. (TFD)

  10. BEAM PIPE IS INSTALLED

    CERN Multimedia

    The installation of the central section of the beam pipe into the heart of the  CMS was completed by 23 April. All the beam pipe elements have been successfully vacuum-tested and the bakeout started.  

  11. Plasma polymers deposited in atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges: Influence of process parameters on film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Katja, E-mail: k.fricke@inp-greifswald.de [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology e.V. (INP Greifswald), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Girard-Lauriault, Pierre-Luc [Plasma Processing Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 0C5 (Canada); Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology e.V. (INP Greifswald), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Wertheimer, Michael R. [Department of Engineering Physics, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Box 6079, Station Centre-Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2016-03-31

    We present results on the deposition of plasma polymer (PP) films in a dielectric barrier discharge system fed with mixtures of argon or nitrogen carrier gas plus different hydrocarbon precursors, where the latter possess different carbon-to-hydrogen ratios: CH{sub 4} < C{sub 2}H{sub 6} < C{sub 2}H{sub 4} = C{sub 3}H{sub 6} < C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The influence of precursor gas mixture and flow rate, excitation frequency, and absorbed power on PP film compositions and properties has been investigated. The discharge was characterized by electrical measurements, while the chemical compositions and structures of coatings were analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, total combustion, and elastic recoil detection analyses, the latter two for determining carbon-to-hydrogen ratios. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the coatings' morphology, and profilometry for evaluating deposition rates. - Highlights: • Atmospheric pressure DBD is used to deposit organic hydrocarbon films. • High deposition rates can be achieved by varying the power and/or gas mixture ratio. • Process parameters affect the films' surface chemical composition and morphology. • Deposited films are not soluble in aqueous environment. • No delamination of coatings produced from argon plasma.

  12. Growth process conditions of tungsten oxide thin films using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houweling, Z. Silvester, E-mail: Z.S.Houweling@uu.nl [Nanophotonics - Physics of Devices, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Princetonlaan 4, 3584 CB Utrecht (Netherlands); Geus, John W. [Electron Microscopy, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, Michiel de; Harks, Peter-Paul R.M.L.; Werf, Karine H.M. van der; Schropp, Ruud E.I. [Nanophotonics - Physics of Devices, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Princetonlaan 4, 3584 CB Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Process parameters to control hot-wire CVD of WO{sub 3-x} are categorized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth time, oxygen partial pressure, filament and substrate temperature are varied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical and crystal structure, optical bandgap and morphology are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen partial pressure determines the deposition rate up to as high as 36 {mu}m min{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructures, viz. wires, crystallites and closed crystallite films, are controllably deposited. - Abstract: We report the growth conditions of nanostructured tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3-x}) thin films using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). Two tungsten filaments were resistively heated to various temperatures and exposed to an air flow at various subatmospheric pressures. The oxygen partial pressure was varied from 6.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 1.0 mbar and the current through the filaments was varied from 4.0 to 9.0 A, which constitutes a filament temperature of 1390-2340 Degree-Sign C in vacuum. It is observed that the deposition rate of the films is predominantly determined by the oxygen partial pressure; it changes from about 1 to about 36,000 nm min{sup -1} in the investigated range. Regardless of the oxygen partial pressure and filament temperature used, thin films with a nanogranular morphology are obtained, provided that the depositions last for 30 min or shorter. The films consist either of amorphous or partially crystallized WO{sub 3-x} with high averaged transparencies of over 70% and an indirect optical band gap of 3.3 {+-} 0.1 eV. A prolonged deposition time entails an extended exposure of the films to thermal radiation from the filaments, which causes crystallization to monoclinic WO{sub 3} with diffraction maxima due to the (0 0 2), (2 0 0) and (0 2 0) crystallographic planes, furthermore the nanograins sinter and the films exhibit a cone

  13. Processes and environmental significance of the subglacial chemical deposits in Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Gengnian; LUO; Risheng; CAO; Jun

    2005-01-01

    On the bedrock surface of Glacier No.1 in the headwater of Urumqi River, Tianshan Mts., well layered and crystallized subglacial calcite precipitations were discovered. Based on observations and analysis of the surface form, sedimentary texture and structure, and chemical composition of the deposits, clues about the subglacial processes and environment are deduced. The radial-growth crustation texture of the deposits, which builds up in the saturated CaCO3 solution, proves the existence of pressure melting water and water films under Glacier No.1; and their rhythmic beddings, dissolved planes and unconformable contacts show that the water films responsible for the formation of these structures were in a wide range of spatial as well as temporal variations. Though formed under continental glacier in non-limestone area, the deposits are quite similar to those formed under temperate glaciers in limestone areas, a fact that shows a similar process of chemical precipitation between the two. Hence the enrichment of calcium in the subglacial melting water and the process of precipitation have actually little to do with the bedrock lithology and the glacier types. The cemented detritus in the deposits are rich in Fe and Al while depleted in K, Na and Si; also the included clay mineral consists mainly of illite, which reveals some weak chemical weathering under the continental glacier. The subglacial CaCO3 precipitates when plenty of Ca++ melt into the subglacial melting water on a comparatively enclosed ice-bedrock interface under a high CO2 partial pressure, the forming of subglacial chemical deposits therefore offers unequivocal evidence for the ongoing of subglacial chemical reactions.

  14. Technical Letter Report - Analysis of Ultrasonic Data on Piping Cracks at Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Before and After Applying a Mechanical Stress Improvement Process, JCN-N6319, Task 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Crawford, Susan L.

    2008-02-26

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing a position on the management of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in piping systems previously analyzed for leak-before-break (LBB). Part of this work involves determining whether inspections alone are sufficient or if inspections plus mitigation techniques are needed. The work described in this report addresses the reliability of ultrasonic phased-array (PA) examinations for inspection of cracks that have been subjected to the mitigation method of mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP). It is believed that stresses imparted during MSIP may make ultrasonic crack responses in piping welds more difficult to detect and accurately characterize. To explore this issue, data were acquired, both before and after applying MSIP, and analyzed from cracked areas in piping at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. This work was performed under NRC Project JCN-N6319, PWSCC in Leak-Before-Break Systems.

  15. Properties of multilayer gallium and aluminum doped ZnO(GZO/AZO)transparent thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Hyum SHIN; Dong-Kyun SHIN; Hee-Young LEE; Jai-Yeoul LEE

    2011-01-01

    Multilayer gallium and aluminum doped ZnO (GZO/AZO) films were fabricated by alternative deposition of Ga-doped zinc oxide(GZO) and Al-doped zinc oxide(AZO) thin film by using pulsed laser deposition(PLD) process. The electrical and optical properties of these GZO/AZO thin films were investigated and compared with those of GZO and AZO thin films. The GZO/AZO GZO/AZO thin films linearly decreases with increasing the Al ratio.

  16. INFLUENCE OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF PARTS MANUFACTURED USING FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Górski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental study – part of research of additive technology using thermoplastics as a build material, namely Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM. Aim of the study was to identify the relation between basic parameter of the FDM process – model orientation during manufacturing – and a dimensional accuracy and repeatability of obtained products. A set of samples was prepared – they were manufactured with variable process parameters and they were measured using 3D scanner. Significant differences in accuracy of products of the same geometry, but manufactured with different set of process parameters were observed.

  17. Long time durability tests of fabric inlet stratification pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The long time durability of seven different two layer fabric inlet stratification pipes for enhancing thermal stratification in hot water stores is investigated experimentally. Accelerated durability tests are carried out with the inlet stratification pipes both in a domestic hot water tank...... and that this destroys the capability of building up thermal stratification for the fabric inlet stratification pipe. The results also show that although dirt, algae etc. are deposited in the fabric pipes in the space heating tank, the capability of the fabric inlet stratifiers to build up thermal stratification...

  18. A new highly automated sputter equipment for in situ investigation of deposition processes with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhrmann, Ralph; Botta, Stephan; Buffet, Adeline; Santoro, Gonzalo; Schlage, Kai; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Bommel, Sebastian; Risch, Johannes F. H.; Mannweiler, Roman; Brunner, Simon; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Roth, Stephan V.

    2013-04-01

    HASE (Highly Automated Sputter Equipment) is a new mobile setup developed to investigate deposition processes with synchrotron radiation. HASE is based on an ultra-high vacuum sputter deposition chamber equipped with an in-vacuum sample pick-and-place robot. This enables a fast and reliable sample change without breaking the vacuum conditions and helps to save valuable measurement time, which is required for experiments at synchrotron sources like PETRA III at DESY. An advantageous arrangement of several sputter guns, mounted on a rotative flange, gives the possibility to sputter under different deposition angles or to sputter different materials on the same substrate. The chamber is also equipped with a modular sample stage, which allows for the integration of different sample environments, such as a sample heating and cooling device. The design of HASE is unique in the flexibility. The combination of several different sputtering methods like standard deposition, glancing angle deposition, and high pressure sputter deposition combined with heating and cooling possibil-ities of the sample, the large exit windows, and the degree of automation facilitate many different grazing incidence X-ray scattering experiments, such as grazing incidence small and wide angle X-ray scattering, in one setup. In this paper we describe in detail the design and the performance of the new equipment and present the installation of the HASE apparatus at the Micro and Nano focus X-ray Scattering beamline (MiNaXS) at PETRA III. Furthermore, we describe the measurement options and present some selected results. The HASE setup has been successfully commissioned and is now available for users.

  19. A new highly automated sputter equipment for in situ investigation of deposition processes with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehrmann, Ralph; Botta, Stephan; Buffet, Adeline; Santoro, Gonzalo; Schlage, Kai; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Risch, Johannes F. H.; Mannweiler, Roman; Roth, Stephan V. [DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Bommel, Sebastian [DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Brunner, Simon; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter [Lehrstuhl fuer Funktionelle Materialien, Physik-Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    HASE (Highly Automated Sputter Equipment) is a new mobile setup developed to investigate deposition processes with synchrotron radiation. HASE is based on an ultra-high vacuum sputter deposition chamber equipped with an in-vacuum sample pick-and-place robot. This enables a fast and reliable sample change without breaking the vacuum conditions and helps to save valuable measurement time, which is required for experiments at synchrotron sources like PETRA III at DESY. An advantageous arrangement of several sputter guns, mounted on a rotative flange, gives the possibility to sputter under different deposition angles or to sputter different materials on the same substrate. The chamber is also equipped with a modular sample stage, which allows for the integration of different sample environments, such as a sample heating and cooling device. The design of HASE is unique in the flexibility. The combination of several different sputtering methods like standard deposition, glancing angle deposition, and high pressure sputter deposition combined with heating and cooling possibil-ities of the sample, the large exit windows, and the degree of automation facilitate many different grazing incidence X-ray scattering experiments, such as grazing incidence small and wide angle X-ray scattering, in one setup. In this paper we describe in detail the design and the performance of the new equipment and present the installation of the HASE apparatus at the Micro and Nano focus X-ray Scattering beamline (MiNaXS) at PETRA III. Furthermore, we describe the measurement options and present some selected results. The HASE setup has been successfully commissioned and is now available for users.

  20. Effects of Processing Variables on Tantalum Nitride by Reactive-Ion-Assisted Magnetron Sputtering Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao‑Tsang; Shieh, Han‑Ping D.

    2006-08-01

    The binary compound tantalum nitride (TaN) and ternary compounds tantalum tungsten nitrides (Ta1-xWxNy) exhibit interesting properties such as high melting point, high hardness, and chemical inertness. Such nitrides were deposited on a tungsten carbide (WC) die and silicon wafers by ion-beam-sputter evaporation of the respective metal under nitrogen ion-assisted deposition (IAD). The effects of N2/Ar flux ratio, post annealing, ion-assisted deposition, deposition rate, and W doping in coating processing variables on hardness, load critical scratching, oxidation resistance, stress and surface roughness were investigated. The optimum N2/Ar flux ratios in view of the hardness and critical load of TaN and Ta1-xWxNy films were ranged from 0.9 to 1.0. Doping W into TaN to form Ta1-xWxNy films led significant increases in hardness, critical load, oxidation resistance, and reduced surface roughness. The optimum doping ratio was [W/(W+Ta)]=0.85. From the deposition rate and IAD experiments, the stress in the films is mainly contributed by sputtering atoms. The lower deposition rate at a high N2/Ar flux ratio resulted in a higher compressive stress. A high compressive residual stress accounts for a high hardness. The relatively high compressive stress was attributed primarily to peening by atoms, ions and electrons during film growth, the Ta1-xWxNy films showed excellent hardness and strength against a high temperature, and sticking phenomena can essentially be avoided through their use. Ta1-xWxNy films showed better performance than the TaN film in terms of mechanical properties and oxidation resistance.

  1. Ore Zoning and Dynamics of Ore—Forming Processes of Yinshan Polymetallic Deposit in Dexing,Jiangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德会; 於崇文; 等

    1997-01-01

    The Yinshan deposit,one of the large-scale Cu-Pb-Zn-Au-Ag polymetallic deposits,may be named a middle-low temperature subvolcanic hydrothermal deposit and referred to as the "transitional deposit"linking mineralization of the epithermal and porphyry coppertypes.In this paper,the characteristics and structures of ore zoning are briefly described.On the basis of the dynamics of ore-forming processes and applying computer numerical simulation technique,the mechanism of ore zoning is discussed and a concealed igneous body controlling ore deposition at depth of the Yinshan mine is predicted.

  2. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{sup trademark} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Difficulty, or inability of measuring threshold surface contamination values, worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of this approach. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane.

  3. An Experimental Study on Slurry Erosion Resistance of Single and Multilayered Deposits of Ni-WC Produced by Laser-Based Powder Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Prabu; Hamid, Syed; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2013-11-01

    Single and multilayered deposits containing different mass fractions of tungsten carbide (WC) in nickel (Ni)-matrix (NT-20, NT-60, NT-80) are deposited on a AISI 4140 steel substrate using a laser-based powder deposition process. The transverse cross section of the coupons reveals that the higher the mass fraction of WC in Ni-matrix leads to a more uniform distribution through Ni-matrix. The slurry erosion resistance of the fabricated coupons is tested at three different impingement angles using an abrasive water jet cutting machine, which is quantified based on the erosion rate. The top layer of a multilayered deposit (i.e., NT-60 in a two-layer NT-60 over NT-20 deposit) exhibits better erosion resistance at all three tested impingement angles when compared to a single-layer (NT-60) deposit. A definite increase in the erosion resistance is noted with an addition of nano-size WC particles. The relationship between the different mass fractions of reinforcement (WC) in the deposited composite material (Ni-WC) and their corresponding matrix (Ni) hardness on the erosion rate is studied. The eroded surface is analyzed in the light of a three-dimensional (3-D) profilometer and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that a volume fraction of approximately 62% of WC with a Ni-matrix hardness of 540 HV resulting in the gouging out of WC from the Ni-matrix by the action of slurry. It is concluded that the slurry erosion resistance of the AISI 4140 steel can be significantly enhanced by introducing single and multilayered deposits of Ni-WC composite material fabricated by the laser-based powder deposition process.

  4. THE ROLE OF CRYOGENIC PROCESSES IN THE FORMATION OF LOESS DEPOSITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav N. Konishchev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new approach to the analysis of the genetic nature of mineral substances in loess deposits. In permafrost under the influence of multiple alternate freezing and thawing in dispersed deposits, quartz particles accumulate the 0.05-0.01 mm fraction, while feldspars are crushed to a coarse fraction of 0.1-0.05 mm. In dispersed sediments formed in temperate and warm climatic zones, the granulometric spectrum of quartz and feldspar has the opposite pattern. The proposed methodology is based on a differential analysis of the distribution of these minerals by the granulometric spectrum. We have proposed two criteria - the coefficient of cryogenic contrast (CCC and the coefficient of distribution of heavy minerals, which allow determination of the degree of participation of cryogenic processes in the formation of loess sediments and processes of aeolian or water sedimentation.

  5. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H

    2000-02-01

    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  6. Impedance modelling of pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasy, M. Austin

    2016-03-01

    Impedance models of pipes can be used to estimate resonant frequencies of standing waves and model acoustic pressure of closed and open ended pipes. Modelling a pipe with impedance methods allows additional variations to the pipe to be included in the overall model as a system. Therefore an actuator can be attached and used to drive the system and the impedance model is able to include the dynamics of the actuator. Exciting the pipe system with a chirp signal allows resonant frequencies to be measured in both the time and frequency domain. The measurements in the time domain are beneficial for introducing undergraduates to resonances without needing an understanding of fast Fourier transforms. This paper also discusses resonant frequencies in open ended pipes and how numerous texts incorrectly approximate the resonant frequencies for this specific pipe system.

  7. Ellipsometry study of process deposition of amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide sputtered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talagrand, C., E-mail: talagrand@emse.fr [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne CMP-GC, Dept PS2, Gardanne, 880 route de Mimet (France); Boddaert, X. [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne CMP-GC, Dept PS2, Gardanne, 880 route de Mimet (France); Selmeczi, D.G.; Defranoux, C. [Semilab Semiconductor Physics Laboratory Co. Ltd., Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Collot, P. [Ecole Nationale Supérieure d' Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Aix-en-Provence, 2 cours des Arts et Métiers (France)

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on an InGaZnO optical study by spectrometric ellipsometry. First of all, the fitting results of different models and different structures are analysed to choose the most appropriate model. The Tauc–Lorentz model is suitable for thickness measurements but a more complex model allows the refractive index and extinction coefficient to be extracted more accurately. Secondly, different InGaZnO process depositions are carried out in order to investigate stability, influence of deposition time and uniformity. Films present satisfactory optical stability over time. InGaZnO optical property evolution as a function of deposition time is related to an increase in temperature. To understand the behaviour of uniformity, mapping measurements are correlated to thin film resistivity. Results show that temperature and resputtering are the two phenomena that affect IGZO uniformity. - Highlights: • Model and structure are investigated to fit IGZO ellipsometric angles. • Maximum refractive index rises with substrate temperature and thus deposition time. • Resputtering leads to inhomogeneity in IGZO electrical and optical properties.

  8. Oxidation of ZnO thin films during pulsed laser deposition process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E De Posada; L Moreira; J Pérez De La Cruz; M Arronte; L V Ponce; T Flores; J G Lunney

    2013-06-01

    Pulsed laser deposition of ZnO thin films, using KrF laser, is analysed. The films were deposited on (001) sapphire substrates at 400 °C, at two different oxygen pressures (0.3 and 0.4 mbar) and two different target–substrate distances (30 and 40 mm). It is observed that in order to obtain good quality in the photoluminescence of the films, associated with oxygen stoichiometry, it is needed to maximize the time during which the plasma remains in contact with the growing film (plasma residence time), which is achieved by selecting suitable combinations of oxygen pressures and target to substrate distances. It is also discussed that for the growth parameters used, the higher probability for ZnO films growth results from the oxidation of Zn deposited on the substrate and such process takes place during the time that the plasma is in contact with the substrate. Moreover, it is observed that maximizing the plasma residence time over the growing film reduces the rate of material deposition, favouring the surface diffusion of adatoms, which favours both Zn–O reaction and grain growth.

  9. Biomimetic formation of titania thin films: effect of amino acids on the deposition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durupthy, Olivier; Jeurgens, Lars P H; Bill, Joachim

    2011-05-01

    Different types of amino acids have been used as additives to control the aqueous deposition of titanium dioxide thin films on single-crystal Si wafers. Thin titania films can be obtained through a chemical bath deposition (CBD) process using TiCl₄ as a precursor in an aqueous solution at temperatures below 100 °C. The addition of amino acids to the deposition solution was shown to reduce the thickness and roughness of the films and to increase their density. These protein building blocks were employed to modify the deposition rate as well as the size of aggregates that form the film. The thickness, crystallinity, morphology and composition of the grown films were characterized by a variety of techniques, including XRD, XPS, AFM and SEM. The consequences of the type of the amino acid additive (and its concentration in the solution) on the microstructural evolutions of the deposed films are thus revealed and discussed on the basis of the organic-inorganic interactions in solution and at the film surface.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of the deposition process of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YuJun; DONG GuangNeng; MAO JunHong; XIE YouBai

    2008-01-01

    The deposition process of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) film greatly affects its frictional properties. In this study, CH3 radicals are selected as source species to deposit hydrogenated DLC films for molecular dynamics simulation. The growth and structural properties of hydrogenated DLC films are investigated and elucidated in detail. By comparison and statistical analysis, the authors find that the ratio of carbon to hydrogen in the films generally shows a monotonously increasing trend with the increase of impact energy. Carbon atoms are more reactive during deposition and more liable to bond with substrate atoms than hydrogen atoms. In addition, there exists a peak value of the number of hydrogen atoms deposited in hydrogenated DLC films. The trends of the variation are opposite on the two sides of this peak point, and itbecomes stable when impact energy is greater than 80 eV. The average relative density also indicates a rising trend along with the increment of impact energy, while it does not reach the saturation value until impact energy comes to 50 eV. The hydrogen content in source species is a key factor to determine the hydrogen content in hydrogenated DLC films. When the hydrogen content in source species is high, the hydrogen content in hydrogenated DLC films is accordingly high.

  11. The interconnection of wet and dry deposition and the alteration of deposition budgets due to incorporation of new process understanding in regional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, R. L.; Bash, J. O.; Foley, K. M.; Gilliam, R.; Pinder, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Deposition is affected by the chemical and physical processes represented in the regional models as well as source strength. The overall production and loss budget (wet and dry deposition) is dynamically connected and adjusts internally to changes in process representation. In addition, the scrubbing of pollutants from the atmosphere by precipitation is one of several processes that remove pollutants, creating a coupling with the atmospheric aqueous and gas phase chemistry that can influence wet deposition rates in a nonlinear manner. We explore through model sensitivities with the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model the influence on wet and dry deposition, and the overall continental nitrogen budget, of changes in three process representations in the model: (1) incorporation of lightning generated NO, (2) improved representation of convective precipitation, and (3) replacement of the typical unidirectional dry deposition of NH3 with a state of the science representation of NH3 bi-directional air-surface exchange. Results of the sensitivity studies will be presented. (1) Incorporation of lightning generated NO significantly reduces a negative bias in summer wet nitrate deposition, but is sensitive to the choice of convective parameterization. (2) Use of a less active trigger of convective precipitation in the WRF meteorological model to reduce summertime precipitation over prediction bias reduces the generation of NO from lightning. It also reduces the wet deposition of nitrate and increases the dry deposition of oxidized nitrogen, as well as changing (reducing) the surface level exposure to ozone. Improvements in the convective precipitation processes also result in more non-precipitating clouds leading to an increase in SO4 production through the aqueous pathway resulting in improvements in summertime SO4 ambient aerosol estimates.(3) Incorporation of state of the science ammonia bi-directional air surface exchange affects both the dry

  12. Bending of pipes with inconel cladding; Curvamento de tubos revestidos com inconel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachpitz, Leonardo; Menezes, Carlos Eduardo B.; Vieira, Carlos R. Tavares [PROTUBO, Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The pipes used in offshore equipment, such as wet Christmas trees, sub sea manifolds and rigid platform risers, as well as some pipes for refineries and ships, must have mechanical resistance to high pressure and also be resistant to corrosion from acids. Some special materials, such as stainless steel, duplex and super duplex steel are used to resolve this problem, but the cost is very high. Besides the problem of cost, these materials have other drawbacks, such as the difficulty of welding them, a technology mastered in few countries. As a better alternative, the use has been increasing of carbon steel and API pipes coated internally with inconel by welding deposition. This groundbreaking technology, of proven efficiency, has a far superior cost-benefit relation. Carbon steel and API pipes, besides having better mechanical resistance to high pressure and corrosion resistance, can be fabricated with technology mastered worldwide. Nickel alloys, such as inconel, are highly resistant to corrosion and temperature, and in these aspects are better than stainless steels. The pipes for transportation equipment and for refining hydrocarbons, as mentioned above, require various turns and special geometries, which generally are solved by the use of bends and spools made by high-frequency induction. This technology, already well established for various carbon and stainless steels, was developed to work with pipes coated internally with inconel (inconel cladding). Therefore, our work describes the process of fabricating bends from API steel pipes with inconel cladding, demonstrating the efficacy of this technology along with its quality gains and cost reduction. (author)

  13. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Cem Sarica

    2003-10-01

    -Phase Studies, with a focus on heat transfer and paraffin deposition at various pipe inclinations, which will be used to enhance the paraffin deposition code for gas-liquid flow in pipes. (3) Deposition Physics and Water Impact Studies, which will address the aging process, improve our ability to characterize paraffin deposits and enhance our understanding of the role water plays in paraffin deposition in deepwater pipelines. As in the previous two studies, knowledge gained in this suite of studies will be integrated into a state-of-the-art three-phase paraffin deposition computer program.

  14. Simulation of polyatomic discharges for thin film deposition processes in low-pressure plasma reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Kallol

    conditions of experimental reactors. The discharge models were used to investigate the effects of operating and design parameters of the reactors on plasma process characteristics to obtain better process characteristics on the wafer. These parameters can be used to design new reactors for the deposition/etching process. The models can be modified for different feed gases for other applications like plasma etching or sputtering.

  15. REE concentration processes in ion adsorption deposits: Evidence from Madagascar and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin; Estrade, Guillaume; Marquis, Eva; Goodenough, Kathryn; Nasun, Peter; Cheng, Xu; Kynicky, Jindrich

    2017-04-01

    Lateritic clay deposits, where the rare earth elements (REE) occur adsorbed to clay mineral surfaces, are the world's dominant supply of heavy REE (Gd-Lu). These deposits are currently only mined in China where there is a reported heavy REE enrichment, but other deposits are currently under exploration in Brazil, the Philippines and Madagascar. Concentration of REE within IADs has been proposed to be a dominantly supergene process, where easily degradable REE-minerals (e.g. REE-fluorcarbonates) break down and release REE that are then adsorbed to clay minerals resulting in HREE enrichment. Here we present data from the Ambohimirahavavy Complex, Madagascar, and compare them to data from mineralised profiles in China, with the aim of further constraining the formation and REE enrichment processes in ion adsorption deposits. Bulk rock total REE contents from Madagascar vary from 400-5000ppm, with the HREE varying from 10 to 20% of the TREE. Ammonium Sulphate leaches (designed to remove clay-adsorbed REE) of laterite show leachable TREE from 130-500ppm, with no preferential HREE adsorption. Within the sequential extraction procedure the reducible fraction (hydroxylammonium chloride leach) showed the highest REE, but this is largely attributable to Ce4+ in oxide layers. Analysis of laterite profiles show that the REE distribution is heterogeneous, with control from both bedrock heterogeneity, and the hydrological variation between pedolith and saprolith. Similar patterns are seen in Chinese profiles from Jiangxi province. X-ray diffraction shows the clay fraction in all sites is dominated by kaolinite and halloysite. These data are consistent with experimental data which show that kaolinite is only HREE selective in high ionic strength solutions (Coppin et al., 2002), and suggest that HREE enrichment in lateritic deposits may be a function of exceptional bed rock conditions. Petrographic investigation of the Zhaibei granite, immediately underlying HREE enriched

  16. Processing and characterization of high temperature superconductor thin films deposited by electron beam co-evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jeong-Uk

    Ever since the high temperature superconductors (HTS) were discovered in the late 1980s, there have been enormous efforts to make this into applications such as power transmission cables, transformers, motors and generators. However, many obstacles in performance and high manufacturing cost made this difficult. The first generation HTS wires had low critical current density and were expensive to fabricate. The motivation of this research was to make high performance and low cost second generation HTS coated conductor. Electron beam co-evaporation technique was used to deposit YBCO(YBa2Cu3O7-x ) film at a high rate (10nm/s and higher) on single crystals and metal tapes. The oxygen pressure at the stage of depositing Y, Ba, Cu was 5x10 -5 Torr and the process temperature was 810-840°C. In-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to monitor the optical properties of the YBCO during and after deposition. The deposit transformed to a glassy amorphous mixture of Y, Ba and Cu at 3 mTorr of oxygen. YBCO crystallization occurred after extra oxygen was applied to several Torr. FTIR showed almost the same signature during the formation of YBCO and liquid Ba-Cu-O during deposition, which indicates the liquid played an important role in determining the properties of YBCO in terms of providing epitaxy and fast transport of atoms to nucleate on the film-metal interface. The transformation was very rapid---seconds to minutes, compared to minutes to hours for other post-reaction processes. The oxygen partial pressure and the rate of oxidation (supersaturation) in the liquid region defined in the YBCO phase stability diagram determined the electrical and microstructural properties. In-situ X-ray diffraction heating stage with ambient control was utilized to study this supersaturation effect and explore the temperature-pressure space during YBCO growth. With all the information gathered from FTIR and XRD in-situ experiments and also with nano-engineering during

  17. The fate of SOC during the processes of water erosion and subsequent deposition: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemelryck, H.; Govers, G.; van Oost, K.; Merckx, R.

    2009-04-01

    Globally soils are the largest terrestrial pool of carbon (C). A relatively small increase or decrease in soil carbon content due to changes in land use or management practices could therefore result in a significant net exchange of C between the soil C reservoir and the atmosphere. As such, the geomorphic processes of water and tillage erosion have been identified to significantly impact on this large pool of soil organic carbon (SOC). Soil erosion, transport and deposition not only result in redistribution of sediments and associated carbon within a landscape, but also affect the exchange of C between the pedosphere and the atmosphere. The direction and magnitude of an erosion-induced change in the global C balance is however a topic of much debate as opposing processes interact: i) At eroding sites a net uptake of C could be the result of reduced respiration rates and continued inputs of newly produced carbon. ii) Colluvial deposition of eroded sediment and SOC leads to the burial of the original topsoil and this may constrain the decomposition of its containing SOC. iii) Eroded sediment could be transported to distal depositional environments or fluvial systems where it will either be conserved or become rapidly mineralized. iv) Increased emission of CO2 due to erosion may result from the disruptive energy of erosive forces causing the breakdown of aggregates and exposing previously protected SOC to microbial decomposition. The above-mentioned processes show a large spatial and temporal variability and assessing their impact requires an integrated modeling approach. However uncertainties about the basic processes that accompany SOC displacement are still large. This study focuses on one of these large information gaps: the fate of eroded and subsequently deposited SOC. A preceding experimental study (Van Hemelryck et al., 2008) was used to identify controlling factors (erosional intensity, changes in soil structure,…). However this experimental research

  18. Investigation and Analysis of Weld Induced Residual Stresses in Two Dissimilar Pipes by Finite Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi, S.; Khoushehmehr, R. J.; Rohani, B.; Mostafapour, A.

    In the present study, Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMAW) of austenitic stainless steel to carbon steel were studied. The Schaeffler diagram were used in determining suitable filler metal for this process and then the finite element analysis of residual stresses in butt welding of two dissimilar pipes is performed with the commercial software ANSYS, which includes moving heat source, material deposit, temperature dependant material properties, metal plasticity and elasticity, transient heat transfer and mechanical analysis. The residual stresses distribution and magnitude in the hoop and axial directions in the inner and outer surfaces of two dissimilar pipes were obtained. Welding simulation considered as a sequentially coupled thermo-mechanical analysis and the element birth and death technique was employed for simulation of filler metal deposition.

  19. A replacement of high-k process for CMOS transistor by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Choi, Byung Joon; Yang, J. Joshua; Moon, Dong-Il; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Williams, R. Stanley; Meyyappan, M.

    2013-08-01

    A replacement of high-k process was implemented on an independent double gate FinFET, following the ordinary gate-first process with minor modifications. The present scheme involves neither exotic materials nor unprecedented processing. After the source/drain process, the sacrificial gate oxide was selectively substituted with amorphous Ta2O5 via conformal plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition. The present gate-first gate-dielectric-last scheme combines the advantages of the process and design simplicity of the gate-first approach and the control of the effective gate workfunction and the interfacial oxide of the gate-dielectric-last approach. Electrical characterization data and cross-sectional images are provided as evidence of the concept.

  20. One-step electrodeposition process of CuInSe2: Deposition time effect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Meglali; N Attaf; A Bouraiou; M S Aida; S Lakehal

    2014-10-01

    CuInSe2 thin films were prepared by one-step electrodeposition process using a simplified twoelectrodes system. The films were deposited, during 5, 10, 15 and 20 min, from the deionized water solution consisting of CuCl2, InCl3 and SeO2 onto ITO-coated glass substrates. As-deposited films have been annealed under vacuum at 300 °C during 30 min. The structural, optical band gap and electrical resistivity of elaborated films were studied, respectively, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV spectrophotometer and four-point probe method. The micro structural parameters like lattice constants, crystallite size, dislocation density and strain have been evaluated. The XRD investigation proved that the film deposited at 20 min present CuInSe2 single phase in its chalcopyrite structure and with preferred orientation along (1 1 2) direction, whereas the films deposited at 5, 10 and 15 min show the CuInSe2 chalcopyrite structure with the In2Se3 as secondary phase. We have found that the formation mechanism of CuInSe2 depends on the In2Se3 phase. The optical band gap of the films is found to decrease from 1.17 to 1.04 eV with increase in deposition time. All films show Raman spectra with a dominant A1 mode at 174 cm-1, confirming the chalcopyrite crystalline quality of these films. The films exhibited a range of resistivity varying from 2.3 × 10-3 to 4.4 × 10-1 cm.

  1. Chemically deposited CdS by an ammonia-free process for solar cells window layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa-Landin, R. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, 76001 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son. (Mexico); Sastre-Hernandez, J.; Vigil-Galan, O. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional UP Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edif. 9, 07738 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Ramirez-Bon, R. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, 76001 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    Chemically deposited CdS window layers were studied on two different transparent conductive substrates, namely indium tin oxide (ITO) and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO), to determine the influence of their properties on CdS/CdTe solar cells performance. Three types of CdS films obtained from different chemical bath deposition (CBD) processes were studied. The three CBD processes employed sodium citrate as the complexing agent in partial or full substitution of ammonia. The CdS films were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical transmission spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. CdS/CdTe devices were completed by depositing 3 {mu}m thick CdTe absorbent layers by means of the close-spaced vapor transport technique (CSVT). Evaporated Cu-Au was used as the back contact in all the solar cells. Dark and under illumination J-V characteristic and quantum efficiency measurements were done on the CdS/CdTe devices to determine their conversion efficiency and spectral response. The efficiency of the cells depended on the window layer and on the transparent contact with values between 5.7% and 8.7%. (author)

  2. Bio-mineralization and potential biogeochemical processes in bauxite deposits: genetic and ore quality significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskou, Magdalini; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria

    2013-08-01

    The Parnassos-Ghiona bauxite deposit in Greece of karst type is the 11th largest bauxite producer in the world. The mineralogical, major and trace-element contents and δ18O, δ12C, δ34S isotopic compositions of bauxite ores from this deposit and associated limestone provide valuable evidence for their origin and biogeochemical processes resulting in the beneficiation of low grade bauxite ores. The organic matter as thin coal layers, overlying the bauxite deposits, within limestone itself (negative δ12C isotopic values) and the negative δ34S values in sulfides within bauxite ores point to the existence of the appropriate circumstances for Fe bio-leaching and bio-mineralization. Furthermore, a consortium of microorganisms of varying morphological forms (filament-like and spherical to lenticular at an average size of 2 μm), either as fossils or presently living and producing enzymes, is a powerful factor to catalyze the redox reactions, expedite the rates of metal extraction and provide alternative pathways for metal leaching processes resulting in the beneficiation of bauxite ore.

  3. Depositional and welding processes in low aspect ratio ignimbrites: examples from the Sulcis Volcanic District(Sardinia, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Mulas, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The rheomorphic, high-grade, welded ignimbrites are a special type of pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits usually associated with high intensity volcanic explosive activity (VEI >4). They are characterized by a high variability of physical features and sedimentological structures that may testify different emplacement mechanisms from a PDC and a different response to topography during and after the end of the depositional processes. When the temperatures of the deposits are higher than...

  4. Preparation of Chromium Oxide Coatings on Aluminum Borate Whiskers by a Hydrothermal Deposition Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum borate whiskers (9Al2O32B2O3) can be used to reinforce aluminum alloys to produce light and strong composites. However, the adverse interfacial reactions between the whiskers and the aluminum alloys inhibit their practical uses; therefore, a protective coating is needed on whiskers. In this work, aluminum borate whiskers were coated with chromium-coating deposits in a hydrothermal solution containing CrCl3, Na2C4H4O6, NaPH2O2, and H3BO3. The presence of the impurity P in the hydrothermal deposits can be avoided by reducing the amount of NaPH2O2 in the coating solution. Thermodynamic analysis was used to discuss the behavior of ions in the coating process. The subsequent heating of the hydrothermal products in air at 800 ℃ yielded smooth Cr2O3 films with a thickness of 0.060.07 μm.

  5. Optimizing the Pipe Diameter of the Pipe Belt Conveyor Based on Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong-cun; Wang, Shuang; Hu, Kun; Li, De-yong

    2016-03-01

    In order to increase the transport volume of the pipe belt conveyor and reduce lateral pressure of the supporting roller set, this study aims to optimize the pipe diameter of the pipe belt conveyor. A mechanical model of the pipe belt conveyor with six supporting roller sets in the belt bearing section was built based on the infinitesimal method, and the formula for calculating the lateral pressure of each supporting roller was deduced on the basis of reasonable assumption. Simulated analysis was carried out on the operation process of the pipe belt conveyor by using the discrete element method. The result showed that, when the other conditions were certain, as the pipe diameter increased, the average lateral pressure of the supporting roller set increased, with a gradually decreasing increment, which was consistent with the calculated result of the theoretical formula. An optimized pipe diameter under the current conditions was obtained by fitting the curve of the formula for calculating the transport volume of the pipe belt conveyor and its simulation curve. It provided a certain reference value for improving the transport efficiency and prolonging the service life of the pipe belt conveyor.

  6. Applications and market of PVC for piping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny De N. Martins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic materials by the piping industry accounts for a significant volume of polymers. In this segment PVC represents the largest worldwide market for plastics. PVC is often used in plastic pressure pipe systems for pipelines in the water and sewer industries because of its inexpensive nature and flexibility. Pipes and fittings constitute the largest volume application at 40% of the marketplace. This paper discusses the piping extrusion process and the worldwide PVC market, emphasizing the Brazilian market. It is also presented a case study including an overall cost calculation for making an extrusion line for PVC piping.

  7. Deposition behavior of residual aluminum in drinking water distribution system: Effect of aluminum speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Baoyou; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Mingquan; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Finished drinking water usually contains some residual aluminum. The deposition of residual aluminum in distribution systems and potential release back to the drinking water could significantly influence the water quality at consumer taps. A preliminary analysis of aluminum content in cast iron pipe corrosion scales and loose deposits demonstrated that aluminum deposition on distribution pipe surfaces could be excessive for water treated by aluminum coagulants including polyaluminum chloride (PACl). In this work, the deposition features of different aluminum species in PACl were investigated by simulated coil-pipe test, batch reactor test and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The deposition amount of non-polymeric aluminum species was the least, and its deposition layer was soft and hydrated, which indicated the possible formation of amorphous Al(OH)3. Al13 had the highest deposition tendency, and the deposition layer was rigid and much less hydrated, which indicated that the deposited aluminum might possess regular structure and self-aggregation of Al13 could be the main deposition mechanism. While for Al30, its deposition was relatively slower and deposited aluminum amount was relatively less compared with Al13. However, the total deposited mass of Al30 was much higher than that of Al13, which was attributed to the deposition of particulate aluminum matters with much higher hydration state. Compared with stationary condition, stirring could significantly enhance the deposition process, while the effect of pH on deposition was relatively weak in the near neutral range of 6.7 to 8.7. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Mechanical Expanding Diameter Process of X70 JCOE Pipe%X70JCOE焊管机械扩径工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志明; 卢胜勇; 苏景富; 苏志; 熊伟

    2011-01-01

    根据国产TMCP微合金管线钢板屈服强度(R)变化较大的现状,有针对性地对某厂X70管线钢板采用了JCO+机械扩径制造工艺,获得了对应屈服强度、抗拉强度、屈强比和冲击韧性的变化曲线,分析了不同扩径率下钢管的力学性能变化规律和微观组织对力学性能的作用机理,阐述了合理选择扩径工艺的实践作法,并给出了JCOE直缝埋弧焊管生产线X70管线钢板建议验收的下极限.%According to the bigger change of yield strength (R0.5)for China domestic TMCP microalloy pipeline steel plate, a kind of relevant manufacturing process was adopted for X70 steel plate in some factory, and the change curve of corresponding yield strength, tensile strength, yield ratio and impact toughness were obtained. It analyzed mechanical properties change role and effect mechanism of microstructure to mechanical properties, expatiated practices of reasonably selecting expanding process, and gave the ultimate limit for accepting X70 steel plate used for JCOE SAWL pipe production line.

  9. A Study on Reactive Spray Deposition Technology Processing Parameters in the Context of Pt Nanoparticle Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Justin M.; Maric, Radenka

    2015-12-01

    Catalytic materials are complex systems in which achieving the desired properties (i.e., activity, selectivity and stability) depends on exploiting the many degrees of freedom in surface and bulk composition, geometry, and defects. Flame aerosol synthesis is a process for producing nanoparticles with ample processing parameter space to tune the desired properties. Flame dynamics inside the reactor are determined by the input process variables such as solubility of precursor in the fuel; solvent boiling point; reactant flow rate and concentration; flow rates of air, fuel and the carrier gas; and the burner geometry. In this study, the processing parameters for reactive spray deposition technology, a flame-based synthesis method, are systematically evaluated to understand the residence times, reactant mixing, and temperature profiles of flames used in the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles. This provides a framework for further study and modeling. The flame temperature and length are also studied as a function of O2 and fuel flow rates.

  10. [Paste deposition and chip bonding process development]. IBM, Endicott tenth quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The scope of Endicott activity during this quarter includes: paste deposition process development and chip bonding process development. It was discovered that small voids exist in the photobumps. These are typically at the base of the bump and are believed to have always been present. Although the reliability test results have been positive and no failure is attributed to voids, the process development work during the last quarter has focused on understanding how these form and how to reduce them. High feed pressure, slow nozzle speed and lower viscosity reduce void formation. Nozzle design changes have been identified. One change will increase the shearing of the paste during feed, thus reducing the viscosity, a second change will allow higher feed pressures. Chip bonding process development has focused on correlating bonding results between the IBM in-house chip bonder made by Research Devices, Inc. and the Universal development bond tool. Two variables have been identified that correlate with poor bond results. The report describes more detail of the activity during the tenth quarter for paste deposition and chip bonding in each of these areas.

  11. Industrial application of ultrasound based in-line rheometry: From stationary to pulsating pipe flow of chocolate suspension in precrystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouriev, Boris; Windhab, Erich; Braun, Peter; Birkhofer, Beat

    2004-10-01

    In-line visualization and on-line characterization of nontransparent fluids becomes an important subject for process development in food and nonfood industries. In our work, a noninvasive Doppler ultrasound-based technique is introduced. Such a technique is applied for investigation of nonstationary flow in the chocolate precrystallization process. Unstable flow conditions were induced by abrupt flow interruption and were followed up by strong flow pulsations in the piping system. While relying on available process information, such as absolute pressures and temperatures, no analyses of flow conditions or characterization of suspension properties could possibly be done. It is obvious that chocolate flow properties are sensitive to flow boundary conditions. Therefore, it becomes essential to perform reliable structure state monitoring and particularly in application to nonstationary flow processes. Such flow instabilities in chocolate processing can often lead to failed product quality with interruption of the mainstream production. As will be discussed, a combination of flow velocity profiles, on-line fit into flow profiles, and pressure difference measurement are sufficient for reliable analyses of fluid properties and flow boundary conditions as well as monitoring of the flow state. Analyses of the flow state and flow properties of chocolate suspension are based on on-line measurement of one-dimensional velocity profiles across the flow channel and their on-line characterization with the power-law model. Conclusions about flow boundary conditions were drawn from a calculated velocity standard mean deviation, the parameters of power-law fit into velocity profiles, and volumetric flow rate information.

  12. Formation of carbonate pipes in the northern Okinawa Trough linked to strong sulfate exhaustion and iron supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Guo, Zixiao; Chen, Shun; Sun, Zhilei; Xu, Hengchao; Ta, Kaiwen; Zhang, Jianchao; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Jiwei; Du, Mengran

    2017-05-01

    The microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a key biogeochemical process that consumes substantial amounts of methane produced in seafloor sediments, can lead to the formation of carbonate deposits at or beneath the sea floor. Although Fe oxide-driven AOM has been identified in cold seep sediments, the exact mode by which it may influence the formation of carbonate deposits remains poorly understood. Here, we characterize the morphology, petrology and geochemistry of a methane-derived Fe-rich carbonate pipe in the northern Okinawa Trough (OT). We detect abundant authigenic pyrites, as well as widespread trace Fe, within microbial mat-like carbonate veins in the pipe. The in situ δ34S values of these pyrites range from -3.9 to 31.6‰ (VCDT), suggesting a strong consumption of seawater sulfate by sulfate-driven AOM at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone. The positive δ56Fe values of pyrite and notable enrichment of Fe in the OT pipe concurrently indicate that the pyrites are primarily derived from Fe oxides in deep sediments. We propose that the Fe-rich carbonate pipe formed at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone, below which Fe-driven AOM, rather than Fe-oxide reduction coupled to organic matter degradation, might be responsible for the abundantly available Fe2+ in the fluids from which pyrites precipitated. The Fe-rich carbonate pipe described in this study probably represents the first fossil example of carbonate deposits linked to Fe-driven AOM. Because Fe-rich carbonate deposits have also been found at other cold seeps worldwide, we infer that similar processes may play an essential role in biogeochemical cycling of sub-seafloor methane and Fe at continental margins.

  13. Fissible Deposit Characterization at the Former Oak Ridge K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant by {sup 252}CF-Source-Driven Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, T.F.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Uckan, T.; Valentine, T.E.; Wyatt, M.S.

    1998-05-01

    The Deposit Removal Project was undertaken with the support of the U. S. Department of Energy at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) formerly the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The project team performed the safe removal of the hydrated uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) deposits from the K-29 Building of the former Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The deposits had developed as a result of air leakage into UF{sub 6} gas process pipes; UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} became hydrated by moisture from the air and deposited inside the pipes. The mass, its distribution, and the hydrogen content [that is, the ratio of H to U (H/U)], were the key parameters that controlled the nuclear criticality safety of the deposits. Earlier gamma-ray spectrometry measurements in K-29 had identified the largest deposits in the building. The first and third largest deposits in the building were measured in this program. The first deposit, found in the Unit 2, Cell 7, B-Line Outlet process pipe (called the ''Hockey Stick'') was about 1,300 kg ({+-} 50% uncertainty) at 3.34 wt% {sup 235}U enrichment ({+-}50% uncertainty) and according to the gamma-ray spectroscopy was uniformly distributed. The second deposit (the third-largest deposit in the building), found in the Unit 2, Cell 6, A-Line Outlet process pipe (called the ''Tee-Pipe''), had a uranium deposit estimated to be about 240 kg ({+-} 50% uncertainty) at 3.4 wt % {sup 235}U enrichment ({+-} 20% uncertainty). Before deposit removal activities began, the Deposit Removal Project team needed to survey the inside of the pipes intrusively to assess the nuclear criticality safety of the deposits. Therefore, the spatial distribution of the deposits, the total uranium deposit mass, and the moderation level resulting from hydration of the deposits, all of which affect nuclear criticality safety were required. To perform the task safely and effectively, the Deposit Removal Project team requested that Oak Ridge National

  14. Sedimentological characteristics and depositional processes of sediment gravity flows in rift basins: The Palaeogene Dongying and Shahejie formations, Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Chen, Hongde; Zhong, Yijiang; Wang, Jun; Xu, Changgui; Chen, Anqing; Du, Xiaofeng

    2017-10-01

    Sediment gravity flow deposits are common, particularly in sandy formations, but their origin has been a matter of debate and there is no consensus about the classification of such deposits. However, sediment gravity flow sandstones are economically important and have the potential to meet a growing demand in oil and gas exploration, so there is a drive to better understand them. This study focuses on sediment gravity flow deposits identified from well cores in Palaeogene deposits from the Liaodong Bay Depression in Bohai Bay Basin, China. We classify the sediment gravity flow deposits into eight lithofacies using lithological characteristics, grain size, and sedimentary structures, and interpret the associated depositional processes. Based on the scale, spatial distribution, and contact relationships of sediment gravity flow deposits, we defined six types of lithofacies associations (LAs) that reflect transformation processes and depositional morphology: LA1 (unconfined proximal breccia deposits), LA2 (confined channel deposits), LA3 (braided-channel lobe deposits), LA4 (unconfined lobe deposits), LA5 (distal sheet deposits), and LA6 (non-channelized sheet deposits). Finally, we established three depositional models that reflect the sedimentological characteristics and depositional processes of sediment gravity flow deposits: (1) slope-apron gravel-rich depositional model, which involves cohesive debris flows deposited as LA1 and dilute turbidity currents deposited as LA5; (2) non-channelized surge-like turbidity current depositional model, which mainly comprises sandy slumping, suspended load dominated turbidity currents, and dilute turbidity currents deposited as LA5 and LA6; and (3) channelized subaqueous-fan depositional model, which consists of non-cohesive bedload dominated turbidity currents, suspended load dominated turbidity currents, and dilute turbidity currents deposited as LA2-LA5, originating from sustained extrabasinal turbidity currents

  15. Formation of Si-Al-Mg-Ca-rich zoned magnetite in an end-Permian phreatomagmatic pipe in the Tunguska Basin, East Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Else-Ragnhild; Svensen, Henrik H.; Polozov, Alexander G.; Hammer, Øyvind

    2017-03-01

    Magma-sediment interactions in the evaporite-rich Tunguska Basin resulted in the formation of numerous phreatomagmatic pipes during emplacement of the Siberian Traps. The pipes contain magnetite-apatite deposits with copper and celestine mineralization. We have performed a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of magnetite from long cores drilled through three pipe breccia structures near Bratsk, East Siberia. The magnetite samples are zoned and rich in Si (≤5.3 wt% SiO2), Ca, Al, and Mg. They exhibit four textural types: (1) massive ore in veins, (2) coating on breccia clasts, (3) replacement ore, and (4) reworked ore at the crater base. The textural types have different chemical characteristics. "Breccia coating" magnetite has relatively low Mg content relative to Si, as compared to the other groups, and appears to have formed at lower oxygen fugacity. Time series analyses of MgO variations in microprobe transects across Si-bearing magnetite in massive ore indicate that oscillatory zoning in the massive ore was controlled by an internal self-organized process. We suggest that hydrothermal Fe-rich brines were supplied from basalt-sediment interaction zones in the evaporite-rich sedimentary basin, leading to magnetite ore deposition in the pipes. Hydrothermal fluid composition appears to be controlled by proximity to dolerite fragments, temperature, and oxygen fugacity. Magnetite from the pipes has attributes of iron oxide-apatite deposits (e.g., textures, oscillatory zoning, association with apatite, and high Si content) but has higher Mg and Ca content and different mineral assemblages. These features are similar to magnetite found in skarn deposits. We conclude that the Siberian Traps-related pipe magnetite deposit gives insight into the metamorphic and hydrothermal effects following magma emplacement in a sedimentary basin.

  16. Numerical study of heat pipe application in heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Lin; Broadbent, John; McGlen, Ryan [Thermacore Europe, Ashington (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are two-phase heat transfer devices with extremely high effective thermal conductivity. They can be cylindrical or planar in structure. Heat pipes can be embedded in a metal cooling plate, which is attached to the heat source, and can also be assembled with a fin stack for fluid heat transfer. Due to the high heat transport capacity, heat exchangers with heat pipes have become much smaller than traditional heat exchangers in handling high heat fluxes. With the working fluid in a heat pipe, heat can be absorbed on the evaporator region and transported to the condenser region where the vapour condenses releasing the heat to the cooling media. Heat pipe technology has found increasing applications in enhancing the thermal performance of heat exchangers in microelectronics, energy and other industrial sectors. Utilisation of a heat pipe fin stack in the drying cycle of domestic appliances for heat recovery may lead to a significant energy saving in the domestic sector. However, the design of the heat pipe heat exchanger will meet a number of challenges. This paper presents a design method by using CFD simulation of the dehumidification process with heat pipe heat exchangers. The strategies of simulating the process with heat pipes are presented. The calculated results show that the method can be further used to optimise the design of the heat pipe fin stack. The study suggests that CFD modelling is able to predict thermal performance of the dehumidification solution with heat pipe heat exchangers. (Author)

  17. New deposition processes for the growth of oxide and nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apen, E.A.; Atagi, L.M.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Hubbard, K.M.; Salazar, K.V.; Samuels, J.A.; Smith, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Hoffman, D.M. [Univ. of Houston, TX (US)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this effort is to study the use of homoleptic metal amido compounds as precursors for chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The amides offer potential for the deposition of a variety of important materials at low temperatures. The establishment of these precursor compounds will enhance the ability to exploit the properties of advanced materials in numerous coatings applications. Experiments were performed to study the reactivity of Sn[NMe{sub 2}]{sub 4} with oxygen. The data demonstrated that gas-phase insertion of oxygen into the Sn-N bond, leading to a reactive intermediate, plays an important role in tin oxide deposition. Several CVD processes for technologically important materials were developed using the amido precursor complexes. These included the plasma enhanced CVD of TiN and Zr{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and the thermal CVD of GaN and Al N. Quality films were obtained in each case, demonstrating the potential of the amido compounds as CVD precursors.

  18. Influence of flocculation on sediment deposition process at the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangwei; Liu, Xiaofang; Ji, Zuwen; Dong, Zhandi; Hu, Haihua

    2016-01-01

    By comparing the original particle gradation of sediment from the Three Gorges Reservoir with the single particle gradation, the differences in these two particle gradations showed that there is sediment flocculation in the Three Gorges Reservoir, which can accelerate the sediment deposition rate in the reservoir. In order to determine the influence of flocculation on the sediment settling velocity, sediment was collected at the Three Gorges Reservoir, and the indoor quiescent settling experiment was performed to study the mechanism of sediment flocculation. The experimental results showed that sediments aggregated from single particles into floccules in the settling processes. The single particles smaller than 0.022 mm will participate in the formation of floccules, which accounts for 83% of the total amount of sediment in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Moreover, the degree of sediment flocculation and the increase in sediment settling velocity were directly proportional to the sediment concentration. Taking the average particle size and the median particle size as the representative particle size, respectively, the maximum flocculation factors were calculated to be 3.4 and 5.0. Due to the sediment flocculation, the volume of sediment deposition will increase by 66% when the mass settling flux factor of total sediment had a maximum value of 1.66, suggesting that flocculation has a significant influence on the sediment deposition rate in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  19. What processes at mid-ocean ridges tell us about volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathles, Lawrence M.

    2011-07-01

    Episodic seafloor spreading, ridge topography, and fault movement at ridges find (more extreme) analogs in the arc and back-arc setting where the volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits that we mine today were formed. The factors affecting sulfide accumulation efficiency and the extent to which sulfides are concentrated spatially are the same in both settings, however. The processes occurring at mid-ocean ridges therefore provide a useful insight into those producing VMS deposits in arcs and back-arcs. The critical observation investigated here is that all the heat introduced by seafloor spreading at mid-ocean ridges is carried out of the crust within a few hundred meters of the ridge axis by ˜350°C hydrothermal fluids. The high-temperature ridge hydrothermal systems are tied to the presence of magma at the ridge axis and greatly reduce the size and control the shape of axial magma intrusions. The amount of heat introduced to each square kilometer of ocean crust during its formation can be calculated, and its removal by high-temperature convection allows calculation of the total base metal endowment of the ocean basins. Using reasonable metal deposition efficiencies, we conclude that the ocean floor is a giant VMS district with metal resources >600 times the total known VMS reserves on land and a copper resource which would last >6,000 years at current production rates.

  20. Tuning polymorphism and orientation in organic semiconductor thin films via post-deposition processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiszpanski, Anna M; Baur, Robin M; Kim, Bumjung; Tremblay, Noah J; Nuckolls, Colin; Woll, Arthur R; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2014-11-05

    Though both the crystal structure and molecular orientation of organic semiconductors are known to impact charge transport in thin-film devices, separately accessing different polymorphs and varying the out-of-plane molecular orientation is challenging, typically requiring stringent control over film deposition conditions, film thickness, and substrate chemistry. Here we demonstrate independent tuning of the crystalline polymorph and molecular orientation in thin films of contorted hexabenzocoronene, c-HBC, during post-deposition processing without the need to adjust deposition conditions. Three polymorphs are observed, two of which have not been previously reported. Using our ability to independently tune the crystal structure and out-of-plane molecular orientation in thin films of c-HBC, we have decoupled and evaluated the effects that molecular packing and orientation have on device performance in thin-film transistors (TFTs). In the case of TFTs comprising c-HBC, polymorphism and molecular orientation are equally important; independently changing either one affects the field-effect mobility by an order of magnitude.

  1. Half-sandwich cobalt complexes in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgi, Colin [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Hapke, Marko; Thiel, Indre [Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e.V. an der Universität Rostock (LIKAT), Albert-Einstein-Straße 29a, Rostock 18059 (Germany); Hildebrandt, Alexander [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Waechtler, Thomas; Schulz, Stefan E. [Fraunhofer Institute of Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Technologie-Campus 3, Chemnitz 09126 (Germany); Technische Universität Chemnitz, Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM), Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Lang, Heinrich, E-mail: heinrich.lang@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany)

    2015-03-02

    A series of cobalt half-sandwich complexes of type [Co(η{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5})(L)(L′)] (1: L, L′ = 1,5-hexadiene; 2: L = P(OEt){sub 3}, L′ = H{sub 2}C=CHSiMe{sub 3}; 3: L = L′ = P(OEt){sub 3}) has been studied regarding their physical properties such as the vapor pressure, decomposition temperature and applicability within the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process, with a focus of the influence of the phosphite ligands. It could be shown that an increasing number of P(OEt){sub 3} ligands increases the vapor pressure and thermal stability of the respective organometallic compound. Complex 3 appeared to be a promising MOCVD precursor with a high vapor pressure and hence was deposited onto Si/SiO{sub 2} (100 nm) substrates. The resulting reflective layer is closed, dense and homogeneous, with a slightly granulated surface morphology. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies demonstrated the formation of metallic cobalt, cobalt phosphate, cobalt oxide and cobalt carbide. - Highlights: • Thermal studies and vapor pressure measurements of cobalt half-sandwich complexes was carried out. • Chemical vapor deposition with cobalt half-sandwich complexes is reported. • The use of Co-phosphites results in significant phosphorous-doped metallic layers.

  2. RESEARCH ON LASER DIRECT DEPOSITION PROCESS OF Ti-6Al-4V ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Y. Gao; Y.Z. Zhang; L.K. Shi; B.L. Du; M.Z. Xi; H.Z. Ji

    2007-01-01

    Laser direct deposition (LDD) of metallic components is an advanced technology of combining CAD/CAM (computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing), high power laser, and rapid prototyping. This technology uses laser beam to melt the powders fed coaxially into the molten pool by the laser beam to fabricate fully dense metallic components. The present article mainly studies the LDD of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, which can be used to fabricate aircraft components. The mechanical properties of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, fabricated by LDD, are obtained using the tension test, and the oxygen content of used powders and deposited specimens are measured. In the present article, it can be seen that the mechanical properties obtained using this method are higher than the ones obtained by casting, and equal to those got by wrought anneal. One aircraft pan has been made using the LDD process. Because of this aircraft part, with sophisticated shape, the effect of the laser scanning track on the internal soundness of the deposited part was discussed.

  3. Arterial gas occlusions in operating heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of noncondensable gases on high performance arterial heat pipes has been investigated both analytically and experimentally. Models have been generated which characterize the dissolution of gases in condensate and the diffusional loss of dissolved gases from condensate in arterial flow. These processes, and others, have been used to postulate stability criteria for arterial heat pipes. Experimental observations of gas occlusions were made using a stainless steel heat pipe equipped with viewing ports, and the working fluids methanol and ammonia with the gas additives helium, argon, and xenon. Observations were related to gas transport models.

  4. 顶管施工过程中的地面沉降风险控制%Risk control of land subsidence in the process of pipe jacking construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟

    2016-01-01

    Pipe jacking is a very complicated system construction, and there are certain risks in each link of construction. Risks of land subsidence in the process of pipe jacking construction are analyzed in this article. Some risk control methods of land subsidence during pipe jacking construction are summarized, which could provide some references for land subsidence risk control of similar pipe jacking construction.%顶管施工是一项系统性很强的复杂工程,在施工的每个环节都存在一定的风险。本文主要针对顶管施工过程中的地面沉降风险进行分析,总结了一些关于顶管施工过程中地面沉降风险控制的方法,可为类似顶管工程施工的地面沉降风险控制提供参考。

  5. The study on submarine flexible pipe installation process in Jinzhou 9-3 West oilfield%JZ9-3W油田海底柔性管道铺设方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓灵; 梁国庆; 赵敬考; 孔瑞林; 韩雪艳

    2012-01-01

    柔性管道作为新型海底油气输送设备逐步应用于海洋油田开发领域,尤其是使用国产柔性管道可以有效降低开发成本。本文结合中海踟Z9—3w油田国产柔性管道的铺设,对其铺设稳定性、张力以及入水角等进行了分析研究,希望能为今后浅海铺设柔性管道提供参考。%Flexible pipe is phased in off-shore oilfield development as a new type of oil&gas transportation facility,especially homegrown flexible pipe can reduce the oilfield exploration cost effficiently.The paper does some research on the stability,tension and degree of entry in the process of homegrown flexible pipe installation in Jinzhou 9-3 West oilfield.May the result offer some references for later installation of flexible pipe in hollow water.

  6. Heat Pipe Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    When volcanism dominates heat transport, a terrestrial body enters a heat-pipe mode, in which hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels. Even at high heat flow, a heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downwards-advecting lithosphere dominated by (ultra-)mafic flows and contractional deformation at the surface. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an episode of heat-pipe cooling early in their histories.

  7. Impact of hydrotalcite deposition on biogeochemical processes in a shallow tropical bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, Daniel M; McKinnon, A David

    2011-03-01

    The biogeochemistry of a tropical shoal bay (Melville Bay, Australia) impacted by the effluent release, precipitation, and deposition of hydrotalcite from an alumina refinery was studied in both wet and dry seasons. Within the deposition zone, sulfate reduction dominated benthic carbon cycling accounting for ≈100% of total microbial activity, with rates greater than those measured in most other marine sediments. These rapid rates of anoxic metabolism resulted in high rates of sulfide and ammonium production and low C:S ratios, implying significant preservation of S in stable sulfide minerals. Rates of total microbial activity were significantly less in control sediments of equivalent grain size, where sulfate reduction accounted for ≈50% of total benthic metabolism. Rates of planktonic carbon cycling overlying the deposition zone were also greater than those measured in the control areas of southern Melville Bay. At the sediment surface, productive algal and cyanobacterial mats helped stabilize the sediment surface and oxidize sulfide to sulfate to maintain a fully oxygenated water-column overlying the impacted zone. The mats utilized a significant fraction of dissolved inorganic N and P released from the sea bed; some nutrients escaped to the water-column such that benthic regeneration of NH₄+ and PO₄³⁻ accounted for 100% and 42% of phytoplankton requirements for N and P, respectively. These percentages are high compared to other tropical coastal environments and indicate that benthic nutrient recycling may be a significant factor driving water-column production overlying the deposition zone. With regard to remediation, it is recommended that the sea bed not be disturbed as attempts at removal may result in further environmental problems and would require specific assessment of the proposed removal process.

  8. Textural and depositional processes of surface sediments of Kalpakkam, Southeast Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Usha NATESAN; K.Deepthi; AL.MUTHULAKSHMI; Vincent A.FERRER; S.V.NARASIMHAN; V.P.VENUGOPALAN

    2012-01-01

    To understand the influence of human disturbance on the sediment processes along Kalpakkam coast,India,beach and seabed sediments at 200 m,500 m,and 1 km into the sea were collected monthly for one year and analyzed.Coarser material close to the tidal inlets (river) and manmade structures (sea wall) indicate the effect of these features in altering the grain size distribution from the general trend.The bivariant plots confirm the dominance of deposition under beach environment.The CM diagram (C-one percentile grain diameter,M-median) divulges that the deposition takes place by suspension and rolling of sediments with C < 1 mm.Linear discriminate function analysis for sediments at Kalpakkam indicates a shallow marine environment for all the samples collected.On the multigroup multivariant discriminant functions V1-V2 diagram,the bulk of the samples from Kalpakkam to Mahabalipuram fall in the field of beach deposition.These results show that reworked sediments,submerged during the Holocene marine transgression are being deposited on present-day beaches by waves,currents and rivers in the study area.Though a high wave energy environment is prevailing in the study area,dominant northward sediment transport along the Kalpakkam-Mahabalipuram coast is not altered due to human interventions.Beach building activity in front of the sea wall ensures the safety ofIndira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) from wave actions without causing any significant changes to the coastal environment.

  9. Deposition of calcium carbonate films by a polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Laurie B.; Odom, Damian J.

    2000-03-01

    A polypeptide additive has been used to transform the solution crystallization of calcium carbonate to a solidification process of a liquid-phase mineral precursor. In situ observations reveal that polyaspartate induces liquid-liquid phase separation of droplets of a mineral precursor. The droplets deposit on the substrate and coalesce to form a coating, which then solidifies into calcitic tablets and films. Transition bars form during the amorphous to crystalline transition, leading to sectorization of calcite tablets, and the defect textures and crystal morphologies are atypical of solution grown crystals. The formation of nonequilibrium crystal morphologies using an acidic polypeptide may have implications in the field of biomineralization, and the environmentally friendly aspects of this polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process may offer new techniques for aqueous-based processing of ceramic films, coatings, and particulates.

  10. Pulsed laser deposition of the lysozyme protein: an unexpected “Inverse MAPLE” process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Matei, Andreea; Constantinescu, Catalin

    2012-01-01

    the ejection and deposition of lysozyme. This can be called an “inverse MAPLE” process, since the ratio of “matrix” to film material in the target is 10:90, which is inverse of the typical MAPLE process where the film material is dissolved in the matrix down to several wt.%. Lysozyme is a well-known protein...... which is used in food processing and is also an important constituent of human secretions such as sweat and saliva. It has a well-defined mass (14307 u) and can easily be detected by mass spectrometric methods such as MALDI (Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization) in contrast to many other organic...

  11. Chemical characterisation of rainwater at Stromboli Island (Italy): The effect of post-depositional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, Marianna; Madonia, Paolo; Favara, Rocco

    2017-04-01

    Volcanoes emit fluids and solid particles into the atmosphere that modify the chemical composition of natural precipitation. We have investigated the geochemistry of Stromboli's rainfall during the period from November 2014 to March 2016 using a network of a new type of sampler specifically designed for operations on volcanic islands. We found that most of the chemical modifications are due to processes occurring after the storage of rainwater in the sampling bottles. These processes include dissolution of volcanogenic soluble salts encrusting volcanic ash and a variable contribution of sea spray aerosol. Our data showed noticeably less scatter than has previously been achieved with a different sampling system that was more open to the atmosphere. This demonstrates the improved efficacy of the new sampler design. The data showed that post-depositional chemical alteration of rain samples dominates over processes occurring during droplet formation ad precipitation. This has important implications for the calculation of fluxes of chemicals from rainfall in volcanic regions.

  12. Chemical vapor deposition graphene transfer process to a polymeric substrate assisted by a spin coater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Felipe; da Rocha, Caique O. C.; Medeiros, Gabriela S.; Fechine, Guilhermino J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new method to transfer chemical vapor deposition graphene to polymeric substrates is demonstrated here, it is called direct dry transfer assisted by a spin coater (DDT-SC). Compared to the conventional method DDT, the improvement of the contact between graphene-polymer due to a very thin polymeric film deposited by spin coater before the transfer process prevented air bubbles and/or moisture and avoided molecular expansion on the graphene-polymer interface. An acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer, a high impact polystyrene, polybutadiene adipate-co-terephthalate, polylactide acid, and a styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer are the polymers used for the transfers since they did not work very well by using the DDT process. Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy were used to identify, to quantify, and to qualify graphene transferred to the polymer substrates. The quantity of graphene transferred was substantially increased for all polymers by using the DDT-SC method when compared with the DDT standard method. After the transfer, the intensity of the D band remained low, indicating low defect density and good quality of the transfer. The DDT-SC transfer process expands the number of graphene applications since the polymer substrate candidates are increased.

  13. Mechanistic modeling study on process optimization and precursor utilization with atmospheric spatial atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhang; He, Wenjie; Duan, Chenlong [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rongchen@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Shan, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Spatial atomic layer deposition (SALD) is a promising technology with the aim of combining the advantages of excellent uniformity and conformity of temporal atomic layer deposition (ALD), and an industrial scalable and continuous process. In this manuscript, an experimental and numerical combined model of atmospheric SALD system is presented. To establish the connection between the process parameters and the growth efficiency, a quantitative model on reactant isolation, throughput, and precursor utilization is performed based on the separation gas flow rate, carrier gas flow rate, and precursor mass fraction. The simulation results based on this model show an inverse relation between the precursor usage and the carrier gas flow rate. With the constant carrier gas flow, the relationship of precursor usage and precursor mass fraction follows monotonic function. The precursor concentration, regardless of gas velocity, is the determinant factor of the minimal residual time. The narrow gap between precursor injecting heads and the substrate surface in general SALD system leads to a low Péclet number. In this situation, the gas diffusion act as a leading role in the precursor transport in the small gap rather than the convection. Fluid kinetics from the numerical model is independent of the specific structure, which is instructive for the SALD geometry design as well as its process optimization.

  14. Synthesis of magnetic tunnel junctions with full in situ atomic layer and chemical vapor deposition processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovan, R., E-mail: roberto.mantovan@mdm.imm.cnr.it [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Vangelista, S.; Kutrzeba-Kotowska, B.; Cocco, S.; Lamperti, A.; Tallarida, G. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Mameli, D. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli studi Milano-Bicocca, Via R Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic tunnel junctions, i.e. the combination of two ferromagnetic electrodes separated by an ultrathin tunnel oxide barrier, are core elements in a large variety of spin-based devices. We report on the use of combined chemical vapor and atomic layer deposition processes for the synthesis of magnetic tunnel junctions with no vacuum break. Structural, chemical and morphological characterizations of selected ferromagnetic and oxide layers are reported, together with the evidence of tunnel magnetoresistance effect in patterned Fe/MgO/Co junctions.

  15. Self-catalytic growth of tin oxide nanowires by chemical vapor deposition process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thabethe, BS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporation Journal of Nanomaterials Volume 2013, Article ID 712361, 7 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/712361 Research Article Self-Catalytic Growth of Tin Oxide Nanowires by Chemical Vapor Deposition Process Bongani S. Thabethe,1,2 Gerald F. Malgas,1... Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535, South Africa Correspondence should be addressed to Gerald F. Malgas; gmalgas@csir.co.za and David E. Motaung; dmotaung@csir.co.za Received 20 February 2013; Accepted 10...

  16. Parametric study of an HVOF process for the deposition of nanostructured WC-Co coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartuli, Cecilia; Valente, Teodoro; Cipri, Fabio; Bemporad, Edoardo; Tului, Mario

    2005-06-01

    Nanocrystalline WC-Co coatings were deposited by high velocity oxyfuel from commercial nanostructured composite powders. Processing parameters were optimized for maximal retention of the nanocrystalline size and for minimal decarburation of the ceramic reinforcement. Thermochemical and gas-dynamical properties of gas and particle flows within the combustion flame were identified in various operating conditions by computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) simulation. Significant improvements of the mechanical properties of the coatings were obtained: a decrease of the friction coefficient was measured for the nanostructured coatings, together with an increase of microhardness and fracture toughness.

  17. Base surge deposits, eruption history, and depositional processes of a wet phreatomagmatic volcano in Central Anatolia (Cora Maar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençalioğlu-Kuşcu, Gonca; Atilla, Cüneyt; Cas, Ray A. F.; Kuşcu, İlkay

    2007-01-01

    Cora Maar is a Quaternary volcano located to the 20 km northwest of Mount Erciyes, the largest of the 19 polygenetic volcanic complexes of the Cappadocian Volcanic Province in central Anatolia. Cora Maar is a typical example of a maar-diatreme volcano with a nearly circular crater with a mean diameter of c.1.2 km, and a well-bedded base surge-dominated maar rim tephra sequence up to 40 m in thickness. Having a diameter/depth ratio ( D/ d) of 12, Cora is a relatively "mature" maar compared to recent maar craters in the world. Cora crater is excavated within the andesitic lava flows of Quaternary age. The tephra sequence is not indurated, and consists of juvenile clasts up to 70 cm, non-juvenile clasts up to 130 cm, accretionary lapilli up to 1.2 cm in diameter, and ash to lapilli-sized tephra. Base surge layers display well-developed antidune structures indicating the direction of the transport. Both progressive and regressive dune structures are present within the tephra sequence. Wavelength values increase with increasing wave height, and with large wavelength and height values. Cora tephra display similarities to Taal and Laacher See base surge deposits. Impact sags and small channel structures are also common. Lateral and vertical facies changes are observed for the dune bedded and planar bedsets. According to granulometric analyses, Cora Maar tephra samples display a bimodal distribution with a wide range of Md φ values, characteristic for the surge deposits. Very poorly sorted, bimodal ash deposits generally vary from coarse tail to fine tail grading depending on the grain size distribution while very poorly sorted lapilli and block-rich deposits display a positive skewness due to fine tail grading.

  18. Working fluid flow visualization in gravity heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapour and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about gravity heat pipe construction and processes casing inside during heat pipe operation. Experiment working fluid flow visualization is performed with two glass heat pipes with different inner diameter (13 mm and 22 mm and filled with water. The working fluid flow visualization explains the phenomena as a working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, and vapour condensation on the wall, vapour and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  19. Working fluid flow visualization in gravity heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2016-03-01

    Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapour and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about gravity heat pipe construction and processes casing inside during heat pipe operation. Experiment working fluid flow visualization is performed with two glass heat pipes with different inner diameter (13 mm and 22 mm) and filled with water. The working fluid flow visualization explains the phenomena as a working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, and vapour condensation on the wall, vapour and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  20. Waste heat recovery with heat pipes in the modern electric arc furnace process%电炉流程中热管式余热回收

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振国; 刘青; 谢银幕

    2011-01-01

    结合国内外电炉烟气热量处理的现状,分析了热管式余热回收的原理及特点,研究了其系统的结构特点、工艺流程、关键参数以及如何使系统产生的蒸汽质量满足VD(RH)炉生产的要求,并对其在莱钢50t电炉余热回收中的工程应用情况进行了阐述,指出该技术具有良好的应用前景.%The principle and characteristic of waste heat recovery with heat pipes were analyzed in combination with the present condition of utilizing electric arc furnace(EAF) flue gas at home and abroad.The structure character,technical processes,and key parameters of this system were studied comprehensively.How to make high quality steam to meet the demand of VD(RH) furnaces was also discussed.A practical application of waste heat recovery in 50t EAF in Laiwu Steel shows a good prospect of the technology.

  1. Sensor-based atomic layer deposition for rapid process learning and enhanced manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wei

    In the search for sensor based atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to accelerate process learning and enhance manufacturability, we have explored new reactor designs and applied in-situ process sensing to W and HfO 2 ALD processes. A novel wafer scale ALD reactor, which features fast gas switching, good process sensing compatibility and significant similarity to the real manufacturing environment, is constructed. The reactor has a unique movable reactor cap design that allows two possible operation modes: (1) steady-state flow with alternating gas species; or (2) fill-and-pump-out cycling of each gas, accelerating the pump-out by lifting the cap to employ the large chamber volume as ballast. Downstream quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) sampling is applied for in-situ process sensing of tungsten ALD process. The QMS reveals essential surface reaction dynamics through real-time signals associated with byproduct generation as well as precursor introduction and depletion for each ALD half cycle, which are then used for process learning and optimization. More subtle interactions such as imperfect surface saturation and reactant dose interaction are also directly observed by QMS, indicating that ALD process is more complicated than the suggested layer-by-layer growth. By integrating in real-time the byproduct QMS signals over each exposure and plotting it against process cycle number, the deposition kinetics on the wafer is directly measured. For continuous ALD runs, the total integrated byproduct QMS signal in each ALD run is also linear to ALD film thickness, and therefore can be used for ALD film thickness metrology. The in-situ process sensing is also applied to HfO2 ALD process that is carried out in a furnace type ALD reactor. Precursor dose end-point control is applied to precisely control the precursor dose in each half cycle. Multiple process sensors, including quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and QMS are used to provide real time process information. The

  2. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  3. Equivalent thermal conductivity of heat pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zesheng LU; Binghui MA

    2008-01-01

    In precision machining, the machining error from thermal distortion carries a high proportion of the total errors. If a precision machining tool can transfer heat fast, the thermal distortion will be reduced and the machining precision will be improved. A heat pipe working based on phase transitions of the inner working liquid transfers heat with high efficiency and is widely applied in spaceflight and chemical industries. In mechanics, applications of heat pipes are correspondingly less. When a heat pipe is applied to a hydrostatic motor-ized spindle, the thermal distortion cannot be solved dur-ing the heat transfer process because thermal conductivity or equivalent thermal conductivity should be provided first for special application in mechanics. An equivalent thermal conductivity model based on equivalent thermal resistances is established. Performance tests for a screen wick pipe, gravity pipe, and rotation heat pipe are done to validate the efficiency of the equivalent thermal conduc-tivity model. The proposed model provides a calculation method for the thermal distortion analysis of heat pipes applied in the motorized spindle.

  4. Processes in Environmental Depositional Systems and Deformation in Sedimentary Basins: Goals for Exoloration in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Ochoa, J.

    2005-05-01

    Among the recent needs to establish new goals in the mexican energy industry to increase the petroleum reserves, has been necessary to recapitulate on some academic an operative concepts and definitions applied to the Petroliferous Basins Exploration; first of all, in order to understand the Petroleum System in given tectonophysical framework. The tectonophysical environment experienced by the petroliferous basin in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, merely in the Campeche Sound and adjacent terrestrial regions (Figure 1); has been the result of interaction among the tectonic plates, the Coco's Plate with impingement and subduction beneath the Northamerican Plate and the Yucatán Microplate and even in very deep connection with the oceanic crust of southwesternmost portion of the Gulf of Mexico and the one of the Caribbean sea beneath the gulf of Belize-Honduras. The tectonosedimentary effects in the Campeche Bay starting with the skeleton formed for the Cenozoic Era, kept simultaneous conditions in depositions and deformations because of strain, stress and collapse fields, acted through this Era up to the present day, as observed in the surface Aguayo et al, 1999 and Sandoval, 2000. The involved portions of the crust and its boundaries have also been performing the relative sinking of the mere southwestern centre of the Gulf of Mexico, and the rising of the southeastern lands of Mexico. In the middle contiguity are found the productive Tertiary basins of: Comalcalco, Macuspana, Salina del Itsmo, Campeche-Champoton and other in deep waters; all of them, in an arrangement of basins among distensive faulted blocks in echelon, falling down to the deep centre of the Gulf Sandoval, op cit. With this scenario and that ones of other basins, a recapitulation on concepts and definitions, has been made on the regional natural processes of the environmental depositional systems and on the basins analysis in the tectonophysical framework, in order to reflect on the

  5. Equatorial Layered Deposits in Arabia Terra, Mars: Facies and Process Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondrelli, M.; Rossi, A.; van Gasselt, S.; Le Deit, L.; Glamoclija, M.; Cavalazzi, B.; Franchi, F.; Fueten, F.; Hauber, E.; Zegers, T.

    2012-12-01

    Genetic mechanisms proposed to explain Equatorial Layered Deposits (ELDs) formation include subglacial volcanism, aeolian/airfall, lacustrine, lacustrine/volcanic and spring-fed deposition. ELDs have been frequently shown to consist of sulfates (e.g. Gendrin et al., 2005) that might form as a response to evaporation in a playa environment (Hoefen et al., 2003) or during spring precipitation (e.g. Allen and Oehler, 2008; Rossi et al., 2008). The importance of groundwater-dominated hydrological systems was proposed to explain the formation of light-toned deposits in Meridiani Planum and Arabia Terra (e.g. Andrews-Hanna et al. 2007). Additionally, fluid expulsion processes have been invoked to explain the formation of mounds within the light-toned deposits in Arabia Terra (Allen and Oehler, 2008; Rossi et al., 2008; Pondrelli et al., 2011). Potential for habitable conditions of both playa and spring-related settings (Cavalazzi et al., 2007; Glamoclija et al., 2011) coupled with the high preservation potential within sulfates (Panieri et al., 2010), make these deposits a good candidate to understand the potential past habitability of the planet. In order to investigate ELDs genesis, an area in the vicinity of Firsoff crater, where ELDs are present within and outside the craters, was selected for geological mapping and analysis of the landforms and their association using the available dataset, including CRISM in order to infer ELDs composition. Within Firsoff crater, ELDs form a bulge that can be estimated to be at least a few hundred meters thick, while, outside the craters, ELDs form flat-lying deposits. Although heavily eroded by wind and carved by yardangs, several morphologies within the ELDs in the craters seem to be depositional, which would exclude that the entire Firsoff basin had been originally filled by ELDs. Within craters, ELDs consist of roughly meter thick layers draping and onlapping the substratum. They appear affected by polygonal patterns with no

  6. Electromagnetic sensors for monitoring of scour and deposition processes at bridges and offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Panagiotis; Tarantino, Alessandro; Judd, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Recent increases in precipitation have resulted in severe and frequent flooding incidents. This has put hydraulic structures at high risk of failure due to scour, with severe consequences to public safety and significant economic losses. Foundation scour is the leading cause of bridge failures and one of the main climate change impacts to highway and railway infrastructure. Scour action is also being considered as a major risk for offshore wind farm developments as it leads to excessive excavation of the surrounding seabed. Bed level conditions at underwater foundations are very difficult to evaluate, considering that scour holes are often re-filled by deposited loose material which is easily eroded during smaller scale events. An ability to gather information concerning the evolution of scouring will enable the validation of models derived from laboratory-based studies and the assessment of different engineering designs. Several efforts have focused on the development of instrumentation techniques to measure scour processes at foundations. However, they are not being used routinely due to numerous technical and cost issues; therefore, scour continues to be inspected visually. This research project presents a new sensing technique, designed to measure scour depth variation and sediment deposition around the foundations of bridges and offshore wind turbines, and to provide an early warning of an impending structural failure. The monitoring system consists of a probe with integrated electromagnetic sensors, designed to detect the change in the surrounding medium around the foundation structure. The probe is linked to a wireless network to enable remote data acquisition. A developed prototype and a commercial sensor were evaluated to quantify their capabilities to detect scour and sediment deposition processes. Finite element modelling was performed to define the optimum geometric characteristics of the prototype scour sensor based on models with various permittivity

  7. Nanostructured bioactive glass-ceramic coatings deposited by the liquid precursor plasma spraying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanfeng; Song, Lei; Liu, Xiaoguang; Huang, Yi; Huang, Tao; Wu, Yao; Chen, Jiyong; Wu, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings have great potential in dental and orthopedic medical implant applications, due to its excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility and osteoinductivity. However, most of the coating preparation techniques either produce only thin thickness coatings or require tedious preparation steps. In this study, a new attempt was made to deposit bioactive glass-ceramic coatings on titanium substrates by the liquid precursor plasma spraying (LPPS) process. Tetraethyl orthosilicate, triethyl phosphate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate solutions were mixed together to form a suspension after hydrolysis, and the liquid suspension was used as the feedstock for plasma spraying of P 2O 5-Na 2O-CaO-SiO 2 bioactive glass-ceramic coatings. The in vitro bioactivities of the as-deposited coatings were evaluated by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 4 h, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively. The as-deposited coating and its microstructure evolution behavior under SBF soaking were systematically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that P 2O 5-Na 2O-CaO-SiO 2 bioactive glass-ceramic coatings with nanostructure had been successfully synthesized by the LPPS technique and the synthesized coatings showed quick formation of a nanostructured HCA layer after being soaked in SBF. Overall, our results indicate that the LPPS process is an effective and simple method to synthesize nanostructured bioactive glass-ceramic coatings with good in vitro bioactivity.

  8. Deposits on heat exchanging surfaces, causes in the bleaching process and countermeasures; Belaeggningar paa vaermevaexlare, orsaker i blekprocessen och aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Staahl, Charlotte; Widell, Lars [AaF-Celpap AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Energy conservation in process industry implies to a large extent recovery of heat (or cold) from a process stream and its utilization for another process stream. The savings of energy that can be achieved depend on the process streams, but also on the efficiency of the heat exchange. A small driving temperature difference is a condition for an extensive recovery and a satisfactory preservation of its quality, i.e. its temperature. As process streams contain compounds or components that can precipitate and form deposits on heat exchanging surfaces, the recovery of heat is degraded. In the pulp and paper industry, two trends combine to increase the extent of fouling: a larger degree of closure for the process and a change in pH-profile caused by a switch to elementary chlorine free bleaching. In this study, the occurrence of deposits has been investigated for the mills that produce mechanical pulp and for the fiber line in mills producing chemical pulp. Deposits on the evaporator surfaces are treated in a parallel study. Except for some plants, deposits are not an important problem today. That does not mean that there has not been any problem or that problems will not occur. The origin of deposits lies in the chemistry of the process, but deposits have consequences for the thermal energy management. A list of possible actions in order to avoid deposits or to mitigate their consequences has been dressed in this report. They should be considered with the following order of priority: avoiding that the compounds that may form deposits enter at all the process, section 6.1; avoiding that these compounds form a deposit once they have entered the process, section 6.2; cleaning if nothing else helps or costs too much, section 6.3. Some of these methods are well known or are conventional changes in the processes. Some of these methods are less well proven or less well documented. In a longer time perspective, the kidney technology that is being developed could contribute to

  9. Rhythmic bedding in prodeltaic deposits of the ancient Colorado River: Exploring genetic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waresak, Sandra; Nalin, Ronald; Lucarelli, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Prodeltaic deposits represent a valuable archive for the characterization of deltaic depositional systems, offering a distal, minimally reworked record of dominant processes active at the fluvial-marine interface. The Fish Creek Basin (CA, US) preserves a ~ 3-km thick, lower Pliocene, progradational deltaic succession formed when the ancestral Colorado River infiltrated a marine rift basin (the early Gulf of California). The unit in this succession interpreted as prodeltaic, corresponding to the upper Mud Hills Member of the Deguynos Formation, consists of ~ 300 m of muddy siltstones. A striking attribute of parts of this unit is the presence of rhythmic bedding, with consistently alternating silt- to fine sand-dominated and clay-dominated beds forming couplets with an average thickness of 12 cm. By performing a detailed sedimentological analysis of the rhythmites and investigating periodicities in bed thickness, our study aimed at reconstructing the mode of deposition of this enigmatic prodeltaic succession. We measured at high stratigraphic resolution 265 consecutive couplets, for a total thickness of 33 m. Individual beds have good lateral persistence of at least tens of meters and gradational to sharp, flat contacts. Observed sedimentary structures are concentrated on the coarser portion of the couplets and mostly consist of parallel and wavy lamination, with subordinate ripple cross-lamination and localized internal scours. Bioturbation appears low in intensity or absent. Most notably, grain size analysis performed with laser diffraction techniques on several couplets shows a consistent pattern of inverse grading transitioning to normal grading. The cumulative evidence of these sedimentological features indicates that deposition of the rhythmites was accomplished via hyperpycnal flows, each couplet most likely representing an individual event in a setting characterized by high overall depositional rates. We performed time series analysis on bed thickness of

  10. Sediments as tracers for transport and deposition processes in peri-alpine lakes: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Maurizio; Toffolon, Marco; Lucarelli, Corrado; Serafini, Michele

    2011-12-01

    SummaryThe benthic sediment fingerprint is analysed in the small peri-alpine lake Levico (Trentino, Italy) to identify the causes of recurrent phenomena of turbidity peaks, particularly evident in a littoral region of the water body. In order to study the sediment transport processes, we exploit the fact that the sediment supply from the major tributary has a specific chemical composition, which differs from that of the nearby lake basin. Three elements (Fe, Al, K) have been used as tracers to identify the source and the deposition patterns of tributary sediments, and another typical element, Si, has been critically analysed because of its dual (allochthonous and autochthonous) origin. Several samples of the benthic material have been analysed using SEM-EDS, and the results of the sedimentological characterisation have been compared with the patterns of sediment accumulation at the bed of the lake obtained using a three-dimensional numerical model, in response to the tributary supply under different external forcing and stratification conditions. The coupled use of field measurements and numerical results suggests that the turbidity phenomena are strongly related to the deposition of the sediments supplied by the tributary stream, and shows that it is possible to reconstruct the process of local transport when the tributary inflow is chemically specific.

  11. Energy distribution of secondary particles in ion beam deposition process of Ag: experiment, calculation and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundesmann, C.; Feder, R.; Lautenschlaeger, T.; Neumann, H. [Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Ion beam sputter deposition allows tailoring the properties of the film-forming, secondary particles (sputtered target particles and backscattered primary particles) and, hence, thin film properties by changing ion beam (ion energy, ion species) and geometrical parameters (ion incidence angle, polar emission angle). In particular, the energy distribution of secondary particles and their influence on the ion beam deposition process of Ag was studied in dependence on process parameters. Energy-selective mass spectrometry was used to measure the energy distribution of sputtered and backscattered ions. The energy distribution of the sputtered particles shows, in accordance with theory, a maximum at low energy and an E{sup -2} decay for energies above the maximum. If the sum of incidence angle and polar emission angle is larger than 90 , additional contributions due to direct sputtering events occur. The energy distribution of the backscattered primary particles can show contributions by scattering at target particles and at implanted primary particles. The occurrence of these contributions depends again strongly on the scattering geometry but also on the primary ion species. The energy of directly sputtered and backscattered particles was calculated using equations based on simple two-particle-interaction whereas the energy distribution was simulated using the well-known Monte Carlo code TRIM.SP. In principal, the calculation and simulation data agree well with the experimental findings. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Role of Granitic Intrusions and Serpentinization Processes in The Forming of Iron Deposits: Yellice-Dumluca Iron Deposits, Divrigi, Sivas, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ceyda; Ozcan Kilic, Cumhur; Unlu, Taner

    2016-04-01

    Divrigi iron ore deposit is one of the most important iron province in Turkey. Genesis of the Divrigi iron deposits is still highly controversial. In Divrigi-Yellice vicinity, no granitic intrusions takes place. Low grade (average 18-20% Fe3O4), 125 million tones magnetite formation in Yellice deposit is found within serpentinites. On the other hand, in Divrigi-Dumluca deposit, granitic intrusions cut the serpentinite units. In the contact between granitic and serpentinized rocks, high grade (%57 Fe), 8 million tones magnetite is substantive. Yellice deposit is consist of characteristic liquid magmatic phase minerals such as chromite, magnetite, pentlandite, pyrotine, chalcopyrite and also pyrite disseminations. Due to serpentinization process, secondary magnetites formed by the iron released from ferromagnesian minerals. Also pyrite and silicate minerals accompanies secondary magnetite occurences. In Dumluca deposit, ore minerals such as magnetite, hematite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, limonite, marcasite, millerite accompanied by characteristic skarn zone paragenesis, diopside, actinolite and quartz. Performed Confocal Raman Spectroscopy studies to determine the serpentine types show that, serpentine minerals of Yellice deposit is mainly antigorite with talc. But however, serpentine minerals of Dumluca deposit is mostly chrysotile. This difference suggests that, serpentinization in Yellice deposit occurred in high temperatures (450-550°C), otherwise in Dumluca deposit, serpentinization occurred in relatively low temperatures (350-400°C). Performed chemical analysis on ore samples shows the distinct differences in major oxides such as Fe2O3, MgO, SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, Cr2O3 and in trace elements, Rb, Sr, Zr and Ni. Yellice samples have mean 48,79% Fe2O3, 28,24% MgO, 26,46% SiO2, 1,05% Al2O3, 0,02% Na2O, 0.712% Cr2O3 and 44,7 ppm Rb, 6,2 ppm Sr, 1,9 ppm Zr, 2592,9 ppm Ni values whereas Dumluca samples have mean 65,29% Fe2O3, 10,24% MgO, 37,66% SiO2, 4,38% Al2O3, 0,72% Na2

  13. Transformation of cadmium hydroxide to cadmium oxide thin films synthesized by SILAR deposition process: Role of varying deposition cycles

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) was used to deposit nanocrystalline cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films on microscopic glass substrates for various cycles (40–120). This is based on alternate dipping of the substrate in CdCl2 solution made alkaline (pH ∼12) with NaOH, rinsing with distilled water, followed by air treatment with air dryer and annealing at 300 °C for 1 h in air. The prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Visible Spectrophotomer (UV–Vi...

  14. A Computational approach in optimizing process parameters of GTAW for SA 106 Grade B steel pipes using Response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumesh, A.; Sai Ramnadh, L. V.; Manish, P.; Harnath, V.; Lakshman, V.

    2016-09-01

    Welding is one of the most common metal joining techniques used in industry for decades. As in the global manufacturing scenario the products should be more cost effective. Therefore the selection of right process with optimal parameters will help the industry in minimizing their cost of production. SA 106 Grade B steel has a wide application in Automobile chassis structure, Boiler tubes and pressure vessels industries. Employing central composite design the process parameters for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding was optimized. The input parameters chosen were weld current, peak current and frequency. The joint tensile strength was the response considered in this study. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the statistical significance of the parameters and a Regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of input parameters over the response. From the experiment the maximum tensile strength obtained was 95 KN reported for a weld current of 95 Amp, frequency of 50 Hz and peak current of 100 Amp. With an aim of maximizing the joint strength using Response optimizer a target value of 100 KN is selected and regression models were optimized. The output results are achievable with a Weld current of 62.6148 Amp, Frequency of 23.1821 Hz, and Peak current of 65.9104 Amp. Using Die penetration test the weld joints were also classified in to 2 categories as good weld and weld with defect. This will also help in getting a defect free joint when welding is performed using GTAW process.

  15. Explosive welding of pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennov, O.; Burtseva, O.; Kitin, A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-15

    Arrangement of pipelines for the transportation of oil and gas is a complicated problem. In this paper it is suggested to use the explosive welding method to weld pipes together. This method is rather new. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its static analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. We suggest to perform explosive welding according to the following scheme: the ends of the 2 pipes are connected, the external surfaces are kept at a similar level. A cylindrical steel layer of diameter larger than the pipe diameter is set around the pipe joint and an explosive charge is placed on its external surface. The basic problem is the elimination of strains and reduction of pipe diameter in the area of the dynamic effect. The suggestion is to use water as filler: the volume of pipes in the area adjacent to the zone of explosive welding is totally filled with water. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gas dynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler.

  16. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    The paper treats a piping system, where the layout of the network is given but the diameters of the pipes should be chosen among a small number of different values. The cost of realizing the system should be minimized while keeping the energy heads at the nodes above some lower limits. A new...

  17. A heat pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachev, L.A.; Kravtsov, A.A.

    1979-02-08

    A thermal pipe is described which contains a hermetically sealed body with a reticular filler. In order to increase the transmitted thermal power, the pipe is equipped with a high voltage source and with insulators, located between the wall of the body and the filler, where the latter is switched in to the high voltage source, preferably an adjustable one.

  18. Determination of geomagnetic archaeomagnitudes from clay pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, K. P.; Baker, M. E.

    1981-02-01

    Archaeomagnitude determinations of a selection of clay pipes dateable to AD 1645+/-10 as well as studies of pottery samples from the same site and of the same age have been made. Values of the magnitude of the ancient magnetic field (Banc), were obtained from two pottery sherds, two pipe bowls and three pipe stems. The values from the sherds and bowls agree within 2% and compare well with the average value of the magnitude of the magnetic field for the seventeenth century as determined by other archaeomagnetic studies. However, the pipe stems give values of Banc which are significantly less than those from the bowls and pottery. We have not yet been able to explain this and thus we suggest that reliable archaeomagnitude determinations can be made from the bowls of clay pipes but not from the stems. Nevertheless, this result provides a new source of material for investigating variations in the geomagnetic field strength over the past 400 yr. Clay pipes have been manufactured in England since the end of the sixteenth century. In the firing process some pipes were broken and disposed of without ever having been smoked. One such collection, discovered at Rainford, Lancashire, in 1978, consisted of a series of discrete dumps including pipes, kiln debris and a small collection of contemporary used earthenware sherds. The internal consideration of the dumps suggested a very short period of activity and archaeologists (P. Davey, personal communication) ascribe all the material to the period 1645+/-10 yr. With such well-dated material, we set out to check whether or not reliable archaeomagnitudes could be obtained from the pipes.

  19. Effects of particle density on depositing properties of WC-1 7 Co by HVOF process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁坤英; 王立君

    2014-01-01

    The in-flight and deposition properties ofthree types ofWC-1 7 Co powder with different particle densities during a high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF)thermal spray process were investigated.Three types ofpowder exhibited similar velocity upon impact on the substrate surface.The powder with the lower particle density exhibited a higher temperature upon impingement process,resulting in the generation ofa higher flattening ratio.Thus,the coating derived from the powder with the lower particle density possessed superior micro-hardness,porosity and surface roughness.However,the coating with the lowest particle density showed the poorest fracture toughness because ofthe generation ofthe largest amount ofamorphous phase.

  20. Influence of as-deposited conductive type on sensitization process of PbSe films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Chen, Lei; Zheng, Jianbang; Qiao, Kai; Li, Xiaojiang

    2016-07-01

    The as-grown n- and p-type polycrystalline PbSe thin films are fabricated by vapor phase deposition using substrate temperature regulation. The surface polycrystalline structures and photoelectric properties of n- and p-type polycrystalline PbSe films are provided. Surface composition of n-type-sensitized PbSe film has been analyzed according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. The oxygen roles in n- and p-type PbSe polycrystalline films during the sensitization process are studied experimentally, respectively. The dependence of sensitized photoelectric performance on the initial conductive state has been firstly observed and discussed, as we know presently. It is revealed that oxygen can trigger photo-response in the sensitization process for n-type PbSe film, but not for p-type. These discussions may be useful for understanding the sensitization mechanism of lead salt materials.

  1. Electro-deposition painting process improvement of cab truck by Six Sigma concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawitu, Kitiya; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    The case study company is a manufacturer of trucks and currently facing a high rework cost due to the thickness of the electro-deposited paint (EDP) of the truck cab is lower than standard. In addition, the process capability is very low. The Six Sigma concept consisting of 5 phases (DMAIC) is applied to determine new parameter settings for each significant controllable factor. After the improvement, EDP thickness of the truck cab increases from 17.88μ to 20μ (i.e. standard = 20 ± 3μ). Moreover, the process capability indexes (Cp and Cpk) are increased from 0.9 to 1.43, and from 0.27 to 1.43, respectively. This improvement could save the rework cost about 1.6M THB per year.

  2. Combustion of spent shales from the Rotem deposit. Pt. 1. Concurrent thermal processes: Pyrolysis and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabicky, J. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Institutes for Applied Research Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). M.R. Bloch Center for Coal Research); Wohlfarth, A. (Pama - Energy Resources Development Ltd., Arava (Israel))

    1991-06-01

    Spent shales prepared by the Fisher method from oil shales of the Rotem deposit/Israel were studied in a continuous fluidized bed reactor at 700-900deg C under atmospheric pressure, using mixtures of nitrogen and carbon dioxide as the fluidizing gas. A set of simultaneus processes takes place, including pyrolysis of the organic residue in the spent shales, decomposition of calcium carbonate, dehydration of clay phases, decomposition of pyrites, reduction of anhydrite to calcium sulfide and other minor reactions. An important secondary process is gasification of the organic residue by carbon dioxide produced by carbonate decomposition or combustion. The extent to which these reactions take place depends on temperature, composition of the fluidizing gas, particle size of the spent shales, and mean residence time of the particles in the reactor. (orig.).

  3. Development of slurry erosion resistant materials by laser-based direct metal deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrapareddy, Eswar

    The current research deals with the development of slurry erosion resistant materials by the laser-based direct metal deposition (LBDMD) process for different industrial applications. The work started with the development of functionally graded materials using nickel-tungsten carbide (Ni-Tung) powders and finally produced a better erosion resistant materials system by reinforcing nano-tungsten carbide particles with nickel-tungsten carbide powders. Functionally graded materials (FGMs) consisting of Ni-Tung) powders with different concentrations of tungsten carbide particles are successfully deposited by the LBDMD process on 4140 Steel substrates. The slurry erosion behavior of the Ni-Tung FGMs is studied at different impingement angles. The slurry erosion tests are performed at Southern Methodist University's Center for Laser Aided Manufacturing using a centrifugal force driven erosion testing machine. For the purpose of comparison, Ni-Tung 40 depositions and 4140 steel samples are also tested. The results indicate that the LBDMD process is able to deposit defect-free Ni-Tung FGMs with a uniform distribution of tungsten carbide particles in a nickel-based matrix. The slurry erosion resistance of Ni-Tung FGMs is observed to be much better than that of the Ni-Tung 40 and 4140 steels. The superior slurry erosion resistance of Ni-Tung FGMs is attributed to the presence of large amounts of very hard tungsten carbide particles. The material removal rate (MRR) from erosion decreases with a decrease in the impingement angle, except at a 45 degree impingement angle on 4140 steel. The relationship among the material removal rates, the craters depth of penetration, the areas of the craters formed, the average surface roughness values, and the impingement angles is established for Ni-Tung FGMs, Ni-Tung 40, and 4140 steels. The surface profiles of the eroded samples are analyzed by measuring the depth of penetration of the craters formed by the slurry jet using a needle

  4. Macro controlling of copper oxide deposition processes and spray mode by using home-made fully computerized spray pyrolysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Mohammed Sh.; Chiad, Bahaa T.; Shafeeq, Omer Sh.

    2017-09-01

    Thin Films of Copper Oxide (CuO) absorption layer have been deposited using home-made Fully Computerized Spray Pyrolysis Deposition system FCSPD on glass substrates, at the nozzle to substrate distance equal to 20,35 cm, and computerized spray mode (continues spray, macro-control spray). The substrate temperature has been kept at 450 °c with the optional user can enter temperature tolerance values ± 5 °C. Also that fixed molar concentration of 0.1 M, and 2D platform speed or deposition platform speed of 4mm/s. more than 1000 instruction program code, and specific design of graphical user interface GUI to fully control the deposition process and real-time monitoring and controlling the deposition temperature at every 200 ms. The changing in the temperature has been recorded during deposition processes, in addition to all deposition parameters. The films have been characterized to evaluate the thermal distribution over the X, Y movable hot plate, the structure and optical energy gap, thermal and temperature distribution exhibited a good and uniform distribution over 20 cm2 hot plate area, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature and can be assigned to monoclinic CuO structure. Optical band gap varies from 1.5-1.66 eV depending on deposition parameter.

  5. Effect of Geopolymer filler in Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) Pipe for Piping Application: Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus Abu Hashim, Mohammad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Che; Hussin, Kamarudin; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The present work is aimed to carry out the effect of geopolymer material which is fly ash as filler in the glass reinforced epoxy pipe on the micro structure of fly ash geopolymer, compression properties, and bulk density using the filament winding method. Conventional glass reinforced epoxy pipes has its own disadvantages such as high corrosion resistance at acidic environment and low strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymer is a type of amorphous alumino-silicate and can be synthesized by geopolymerization process. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentage geopolymer filler which is fly ash with 4 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of the raw material fly ash and fly ash based-geopolymer surface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the additions of fly ash at the beginning with 10 wt% are showing higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without fly ash geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these series of samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. It was found that compressive strength for samples fly ash based-geopolymer filler are higher as compared to glass reinforced epoxy pipe without geopolymer filler. However, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with fly ash geopolymer filler continues to decline when added to 20 wt% - 40 wt% of geopolymer filler loading. The results showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be obtained in this study.

  6. Mapping process and age of Quaternary deposits on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K. M.; Minor, S. A.; Bedford, D.

    2016-12-01

    Employing a geomorphic process-age classification scheme, we mapped the Quaternary surficial geology of Santa Rosa (SRI) within the Channel Islands National Park. This detailed (1:12,000 scale) map represents upland erosional transport processes and alluvial, fluvial, eolian, beach, marine terrace, mass wasting, and mixed depositional processes. Mapping was motivated through an agreement with the National Park Service and is intended to aid natural resource assessments, including post-grazing disturbance recovery and identification of mass wasting and tectonic hazards. We obtained numerous detailed geologic field observations, fossils for faunal identification as age control, and materials for numeric dating. This GPS-located field information provides ground truth for delineating map units and faults using GIS-based datasets- high-resolution (sub-meter) aerial imagery, LiDAR-based DEMs and derivative raster products. Mapped geologic units denote surface processes and Quaternary faults constrain deformation kinematics and rates, which inform models of landscape change. Significant findings include: 1) Flights of older Pleistocene (>120 ka) and possibly Pliocene marine terraces were identified beneath younger alluvial and eolian deposits at elevations as much as 275 m above modern sea level. Such elevated terraces suggest that SRI was a smaller, more submerged island in the late Neogene and (or) early Pleistocene prior to tectonic uplift. 2) Structural and geomorphic observations made along the potentially seismogenic SRI fault indicate a protracted slip history during the late Neogene and Quaternary involving early normal slip, later strike slip, and recent reverse slip. These changes in slip mode explain a marked contrast in island physiography across the fault. 3) Many of the steeper slopes are dramatically stripped of regolith, with exposed bedrock and deeply incised gullies, presumably due effects related to past grazing practices. 4) Surface water presence is

  7. Transformation of cadmium hydroxide to cadmium oxide thin films synthesized by SILAR deposition process: Role of varying deposition cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Nwanya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR was used to deposit nanocrystalline cadmium oxide (CdO thin films on microscopic glass substrates for various cycles (40–120. This is based on alternate dipping of the substrate in CdCl2 solution made alkaline (pH ∼12 with NaOH, rinsing with distilled water, followed by air treatment with air dryer and annealing at 300 °C for 1 h in air. The prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV–Visible Spectrophotomer (UV–Vis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The 80th cycle was observed to be the saturation stage for this reaction. The XRD results confirmed the films to be CdO with some Cd(OH2 phase at higher deposition cycles. The films were polycrystalline in nature having high orientation along (111 and (200 planes. As the number of cycles increases the calculated average crystallite sizes increase gradually up till the 80th cycle after which a gradual decrease in the crystallite size was observed with increasing number of cycles. The films’ transmittance in the visible and near infrared region decreased as the number of cycles increased and ranged between 25 and 80%. This work shows the feasibility of using simple SILAR method at room temperature to obtain Cd(OH2 films which are transformed to CdO thin films after annealing.

  8. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  9. The monster sound pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-03-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which illustrates how an Internet keyboard can be used to estimate the fundamental pitches of each pipe. Since both pipes have similar end corrections, the pitch discrepancy between the smooth pipe and drainage tube is due to the corrugations, which lower the speed of sound inside the flexible tube, dropping its pitch a semitone.

  10. Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2010-07-01

    Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances.

  11. Narrow gap HST welding process and its application to candidate pipe material for 700 C USC boiler component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Gang; Sato, Takashi; Fukuda, Yuji [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Research Lab.; Mitsuhata, Koichi [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Div.

    2008-07-01

    Increasing steam temperature and pressure conditions of 700 C USC (Ultra Super Critical) power plants under consideration require the adoption of Ni-based alloys. One of the most crucial issues for the application of 700 C USC power plants is the establishment of welding technology for the thick-walled components. This paper reports the research results on the practicability of candidate material for the thickwalled components. The weld test was conducted on Ni-based Alloy617 (52Ni-22Cr- 13Co-9Mo-Ti-Al) by using the narrow gap HST (Hot wire Switching TIG) welding process developed by Babcock-Hitachi K.K with the matching filler wire of Alloy617. The weldability and strength properties of weld joint were examined. The sound weld joint was achieved. The advantages of narrow gap HST welding process for the thick-walled components of Ni-based alloy were discussed from the viewpoints of weld metal chemical composition and creep rupture strength. Due to the good shielding effect, the melting loss of alloy elements in the weld consumable during the narrow gap HST welding procedure was suppressed successfully. The narrow gap HST weld joint showed comparable strength with the parent metal. (orig.)

  12. Microstructural Effects and Properties of Non-line-of-Sight Coating Processing via Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Bryan J.; Zhu, Dongming; Schmitt, Michael P.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is a unique processing method that bridges the gap between conventional thermal spray and vapor phase methods, and enables highly tailorable coatings composed of a variety of materials in thin, dense layers or columnar microstructures with modification of the processing conditions. The strengths of this processing technique are material and microstructural flexibility, deposition speed, and potential for non-line-of-sight (NLOS) capability by vaporization of the feedstock material. The NLOS capability of PS-PVD is investigated here using yttria-stabilized zirconia and gadolinium zirconate, which are materials of interest for turbine engine applications. PS-PVD coatings were applied to static cylindrical substrates approximately 6-19 mm in diameter to study the coating morphology as a function of angle. In addition, coatings were deposited on flat substrates under various impingement configurations. Impingement angle had significant effects on the deposition mode, and microscopy of coatings indicated that there was a shift in the deposition mode at approximately 90° from incidence on the cylindrical samples, which may indicate the onset of more turbulent flow and PVD-like growth. Coatings deposited at non-perpendicular angles exhibited a higher density and nearly a 2× improvement in erosion performance when compared to coatings deposited with the torch normal to the surface.

  13. Characterization and Optimization of Mechanical Properties of ABS Parts Manufactured by the Fused Deposition Modelling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey C. Onwubolu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While fused deposition modelling (FDM is one of the most used additive manufacturing (AM techniques today due to its ability to manufacture very complex geometries, the major research issues have been to balance ability to produce aesthetically appealing looking products with functionality. In this study, five important process parameters such as layer thickness, part orientation, raster angle, raster width, and air gap have been considered to study their effects on tensile strength of test specimen, using design of experiment (DOE. Using group method of data handling (GMDH, mathematical models relating the response with the process parameters have been developed. Using differential evolution (DE, optimal process parameters have been found to achieve good strength simultaneously for the response. The optimization of the mathematical model realized results in maximized tensile strength. Consequently, the additive manufacturing part produced is improved by optimizing the process parameters. The predicted models obtained show good correlation with the measured values and can be used to generalize prediction for process conditions outside the current study. Results obtained are very promising and hence the approach presented in this paper has practical applications for design and manufacture of parts using additive manufacturing technologies.

  14. Is the wash-off process of road-deposited sediment source limited or transport limited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Chen, Xuefei; Hao, Shaonan; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Jiang; Zou, Changliang; Xie, Wenxia

    2016-09-01

    An in-depth understanding of the road-deposited sediments (RDS) wash-off process is essential to estimation of urban surface runoff pollution load and to designing methods to minimize the adverse impacts on the receiving waters. There are two debatable RDS wash-off views: source limited and transport limited. The RDS build-up and wash-off process was characterized to explore what determines the wash-off process to be source limited or transport limited based on twelve RDS sampling activities on an urban road in Beijing. The results showed that two natural rain events (2.0mm and 23.2mm) reduced the total RDS mass by 30%-40%, and that finer particles (transport limited, but that finer particles tend to be source limited. To further explore and confirm the results of the field experiment, a total of 40 simulated rain events were designed to observe the RDS wash-off with different particle size fractions. The finer particles have a higher wash-off percentage (Fw) than the coarser particles, and the Fw values provide a good view to characterize the wash-off process. The key conclusions drawn from the combined field and simulated experiments data are: (i) Finer and coarser particle wash-off processes tend to be source limited and transport limited, respectively. (ii) The source and transport limited processes occur during the initial period (the first flush) and later periods, respectively. (iii) The smaller and larger rain events tend to be transport limited and source limited, respectively. Overall, the wash-off process is generally a combination of source and transport limited processes.

  15. Rare-earth-doped optical-fiber core deposition using full vapor-phase SPCVD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnini, A.; Robin, T.; Cadier, B.; Aka, G.; Caurant, D.; Gotter, T.; Guyon, C.; Pinsard, E.; Guitton, P.; Laurent, A.; Montron, R.

    2017-02-01

    One key parameter in the race toward ever-higher power fiber lasers remains the rare earth doped optical core quality. Modern Large Mode Area (LMA) fibers require a fine radial control of the core refractive index (RI) close to the silica level. These low RI are achieved with multi-component materials that cannot be readily obtained using conventional solution doping based Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD) technology. This paper presents a study of such optical material obtained through a full-vapor phase Surface Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (SPCVD). The SPCVD process generates straight glassy films on the inner surface of a thermally regulated synthetic silica tube under vacuum. The first part of the presented results points out the feasibility of ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate fibers by this process. In the second part we describe the challenge controlling the refractive index throughout the core diameter when using volatile fluorine to create efficient LMA fiber profiles. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to counter-act the loss of fluorine at the center of the core by adjusting the core composition locally. Our materials yielded, when used in optical fibers with numerical apertures ranging from 0.07 to 0.09, power conversion efficiency up to 76% and low background losses below 20 dB/km at 1100nm. Photodarkening has been measured to be similar to equivalent MCVD based fibers. The use of cerium as a co-dopant allowed for a complete mitigation of this laser lifetime detrimental effect. The SPCVD process enables high capacity preforms and is particularly versatile when it comes to radial tailoring of both rare earth doping level and RI. Large core diameter preforms - up to 4mm - were successfully produced.

  16. TC17 titanium alloy laser melting deposition repair process and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Wang, Yudai; Zheng, Hang; Tang, Kang; Li, Huaixue; Gong, Shuili

    2016-08-01

    Due to the high manufacturing cost of titanium compressor blisks, aero engine repairing process research has important engineering significance and economic value. TC17 titanium alloy is a rich β stable element dual α+β phase alloy whose nominal composition is Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr. It has high mechanical strength, good fracture toughness, high hardenability and a wide forging-temperature range. Through a surface response experiment with different laser powers, scanning speeds and powder feeding speeds, the coaxial powder feeding laser melting deposition repair process is studied for the surface circular groove defects. In this paper, the tensile properties, relative density, microhardness, elemental composition, internal defects and microstructure of the laser-repaired TC17 forging plate are analyzed. The results show that the laser melting deposition process could realize the form restoration of groove defect; tensile strength and elongation could reach 1100 MPa and 10%, which could reach 91-98% that of original TC17 wrought material; with the optimal parameters (1000 W-25 V-8 mm/s), the microhardness of the additive zone, the heat-affected zone and base material is evenly distributed at 370-390 HV500. The element content difference between the additive zone and base material is less than ±0.15%. Due to the existence of the pores 10 μm in diameter, the relative density could reach 99%, which is mainly inversely proportional to the powder feeding speed. The repaired zone is typically columnar and dendrite crystal, and the 0.5-1.5 mm-deep heat-affected zone in the groove interface is coarse equiaxial crystal.

  17. Studies on Nanostructure Aluminium Thin Film Coatings Deposited using DC magnetron Sputtering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh M, Muralidhar; G, Vijaya; MS, Krupashankara; Sridhara, B. K.; Shridhar, T. N.

    2016-09-01

    Nanostructured thin film metallic coatings has become an area of intense research particularly in applications related solar, sensor technologies and many other optical applications such as laser windows, mirrors and reflectors. Thin film metallic coatings were deposited using DC magnetron sputtering process. The deposition rate was varied to study its influence on optical behavior of Aluminum thin films at a different argon flow rate. Studies on the optical response of these nanostructure thin film coatings were characterized using UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer with integrating sphere in the wavelength range of (250-2500nm) and Surface morphology were carried out using atomic force microscope with roughness ranging from 2 to 20nm and thickness was measured using Dektak measuring instrument. The reflection behavior of aluminium coatings on polycarbonate substrates has been evaluated. UV-VIS-NIR Spectrophotometer analysis indicates higher reflectance of 96% for all the films in the wavelength range of 250 nm to 2500 nm. Nano indentation study revealed that there was a considerable change in hardness values of the films prepared at different conditions.

  18. Mechanical and structural properties of titanium dioxide deposited by innovative magnetron sputtering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcieszak Damian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide thin films were prepared using two types of magnetron sputtering processes: conventional and with modulated plasma. The films were deposited on SiO2 and Si substrates. X-ray diffraction measurements of prepared coatings revealed that the films prepared using both methods were nanocrystalline. However, the coatings deposited using conventional magnetron sputtering had anatase structure, while application of sputtering with modulated plasma made possible to obtain films with rutile phase. Investigations performed with the aid of scanning electron microscope showed significant difference in the surface morphology as well as the microstructure at the thin film cross-sections. The mechanical properties of the obtained coatings were determined on the basis of nanoindentation and abrasion resistance tests. The hardness was much higher for the films with the rutile structure, while the scratch resistance was similar in both cases. Optical properties were evaluated on the basis of transmittance measurements and showed that both coatings were well transparent in a visible wavelength range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient were higher for TiO2 with rutile structure.

  19. Deposition of substituted apatites with anticolonizing properties onto titanium surfaces using a novel blasting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, C; O'Hare, P; O'Leary, N D; Crean, A M; Ryan, K; Dobson, A D W; O'Neill, L

    2010-10-01

    A series of doped apatites have been deposited onto titanium (V) substrates using a novel ambient temperature blasting process. The potential of these deposited doped apatites as non-colonizing osteoconductive coatings has been evaluated in vitro. XPS, EDX, and gravimetric analysis demonstrated that a high degree of coating incorporation was observed for each material. The modified surfaces were found to produce osteoblast proliferation comparable to, or better than, a hydroxyapatite finish. Promising levels of initial microbial inhibition were observed from the Sr- and Ag-doped surfaces, with the strontium showing prolonged ability to reduce bacteria numbers over a 30-day period. Ion elution profiles have been characterized and linked to the microbial response and based on the results obtained, mechanisms of kill have been suggested. In this study, the direct contact of coated substrate surfaces with microbes was observed to be a significant contributing factor to the antimicrobial performance and the anticolonizing activity. The silver substituted apatite was observed to out-perform both the SrA and ZnA in terms of biofilm inhibition.

  20. Iron isotope constraints on the mineralization processes of the Sandaowanzi telluride gold deposit, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Liu, Junlai; Lu, Di; Ren, Shunli; Liu, Zhengyang

    2016-04-01

    located at level +130m, but decreases gradually towards deeper and shallower levels. It is generally accepted that the isotopically light iron preferentially deposited early during the evolution process of mineralizing fluids and in the residues heavy Fe isotopes are enriched. Two stages of iron isotope fractionation are thus expected: enrichment of the isotopically light iron in the early stage at the level 170m and enrichment of the isotopically heavy iron in the later stage at the 130m. The results, therefore, suggest that mineralization first started at the level 170m and ended at the economic bonanza veins at level 130m. Meanwhile, the δ57Fe from levels 170m and 130m may suggest that mineralization started early near the core of the ore body, but the values from the level 50m may imply that mineralization started from one end of the ore lode.

  1. High deposition rate processes for the fabrication of microcrystalline silicon thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michard, S. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research 5 - Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Meier, M., E-mail: ma.meier@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Energy and Climate Research 5 - Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Grootoonk, B.; Astakhov, O.; Gordijn, A.; Finger, F. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research 5 - Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    The increase of deposition rate of microcrystalline silicon absorber layers is an essential point for cost reduction in the mass production of thin-film silicon solar cells. In this work we explored a broad range of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) parameters in order to increase the deposition rate of intrinsic microcrystalline silicon layers keeping the industrial relevant material quality standards. We combined plasma excitation frequencies in the VHF band with the high pressure high power depletion regime using new deposition facilities and achieved deposition rates as high as 2.8 nm/s. The material quality evaluated from photosensitivity and electron spin resonance measurements is similar to standard microcrystalline silicon deposited at low growth rates. The influence of the deposition power and the deposition pressure on the electrical and structural film properties was investigated.

  2. STUDY OF DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING PROCESSED ULTEM MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhiyamaan Arivazhagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM, a renowned Rapid Prototyping (RP process, has been successfully implemented in several industries to fabricate concept models and prototypes for rapid manufacturing. This study furnishes terse notes about the material damping properties of FDM made ULTEM samples considering the effect of FDM process parameters. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA is carried out using DMA 2980 equipment to study the dynamic response of the FDM material subjected to single cantilever loading under periodic stress. Three FDM process parameters namely Build Style, Raster Width and Raster Angle were contemplated. ULTEM parts are fabricated using solid normal build style and three values each of raster width and raster angle. DMA is performed with temperature sweep at three different fixed frequencies of 1, 50 and 100 Hz. Results were obtained for dynamic properties such as Maximum Storage Modulus, Maximum Loss Modulus, Maximum Tan Delta and Maximum Complex Viscosity. The present work discusses the effect of increasing the frequencies and temperature on FDM made ULTEM samples using different FDM process parameters.

  3. Process of Energetic Carbon Atom Deposition on Si (001) Substrate by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于威; 滕晓云; 李晓苇; 傅广生

    2002-01-01

    The process of energetic C atom deposition on Si (001)-(2×1) is studied by the molecular dynamics method using the semi-empirical many-bond Tersoff potential. It is found that the incident energy of the carbon atom has an important effect on the collision process and its diffusion process on the substrate. Most of the incident energy of the carbon atom is transferred to the substrate atoms within the initial two vibration periods of substrate atoms and its value increases with the incident energy. The spreading distance and penetration depth of the incident atom increasing with the incident energy are also identified. The simulated results imply that an important effect of energy of incident carbon on the film growth at Iow substrate temperature provides activation energy for silicon carbide formation through the vibration enhancement of local substrate atoms. In addition, suppressing carbon atom inhomogeneous collection and dispensing with the silicon diffusion process may be effectively promoted by the spreading and penetration of the energetic carbon atom in the silicon substrate.

  4. 椭圆管状铆钉自冲铆接工艺研究%Research on Self-piercing Riveting Process of Elliptic Pipe Rivet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志超; 刘伟燕; 薛曙光

    2013-01-01

    With elliptic pipe rivet as research object,the design method of orthogonal experiment (DOE)is applied in one-way tensile test of three jointing forms of rivets,and load-stroke curve variation trend of different jointing forms is analyzed.The impact of the parameters,including rivet thickness,height,radial rate,placement form,rivet end angle and thickness of sheet material on the jointing strength and section quahty is analyzed with extremum difference analysis and variance analysis.The optimal process parameter combination is defined,thus an excellent mechanical performance for self-piercing riveting joint is obtained.%以椭圆管状铆钉为研究对象,利用正交试验设计方法,针对铆接件的3种接头形式进行了单向拉伸试验,分析了不同铆接接头形式的载荷-行程曲线变化趋势.采用极差分析法和方差分析法,分析了椭圆管状铆钉的壁厚、高度、向心率、铆钉放置形式、端面角度以及板料厚度组合等参数对接头强度和剖面质量的影响,确定了合理的工艺参数组合方案,从而获得良好的自冲铆接接头力学性能.

  5. Manufacturing processes of cellular metals. Part II. Solid route, metals deposition, other processes; Procesos de fabricacion de metales celulares. Parte II: Via solida, deposicion de metales otros procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, P.; Cruz, L. J.; Coleto, J.

    2009-07-01

    At the first part of this paper review a description about cellular metal processes by liquid route, was made. In this second part, solid processes and metals deposition are described. In similar way, the different kind of processes in each case are reviewed; making a short description about the main parameters involved and the advantages and drawbacks in each of them. (Author) 147 refs.

  6. Optimization of fused deposition modeling process using teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venkata Rao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of rapid prototyping (RP processes is often measured in terms of build time, product quality, dimensional accuracy, cost of production, mechanical and tribological properties of the models and energy consumed in the process. The success of any RP process in terms of these performance measures entails selection of the optimum combination of the influential process parameters. Thus, in this work the single-objective and multi-objective optimization problems of a widely used RP process, namely, fused deposition modeling (FDM, are formulated, and the same are solved using the teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO algorithm and non-dominated Sorting TLBO (NSTLBO algorithm, respectively. The results of the TLBO algorithm are compared with those obtained using genetic algorithm (GA, and quantum behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO algorithm. The TLBO algorithm showed better performance as compared to GA and QPSO algorithms. The NSTLBO algorithm proposed to solve the multi-objective optimization problems of the FDM process in this work is a posteriori version of the TLBO algorithm. The NSTLBO algorithm is incorporated with non-dominated sorting concept and crowding distance assignment mechanism to obtain a dense set of Pareto optimal solutions in a single simulation run. The results of the NSTLBO algorithm are compared with those obtained using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II and the desirability function approach. The Pareto-optimal set of solutions for each problem is obtained and reported. These Pareto-optimal set of solutions will help the decision maker in volatile scenarios and are useful for the FDM process.

  7. Application of the Electricity Motor Driving Pipe End Beveling Machine in Cr-Mo Heat-resistant Alloy Steel Pipe Groove Processing%电动管端坡口机在铬钼耐热钢管坡口加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文洲

    2014-01-01

    管道在安装前都需要进行坡口加工,坡口加工质量优劣直接影响焊接质量。对常用坡口加工机具及其加工质量进行了比较分析,阐述了电动管端坡口机的结构组成和工作原理。应用效果显示:电动管端坡口机在铬钼耐热合金钢管焊接工序中加工出来的坡口平整光亮,保证了焊接质量,省时高效,避免了采用其他方式加工坡口造成的各种质量问题。而且针对钢质管道安装维修特点,提出采用直流电机和便携式锂离子电源,省时高效、经济环保。%Before pipeline installation, the pipe need bevel process, and bevel machining quality directly affects welding quality. In this article, it made a comparative analysis on the common bevel processing equipment and its processing quality, and expatiated the structure and working principle of electricity motor driving pipe end beveling machine. The application results indicated that the bevel is smooth and bright by using electricity motor driving pipe end beveling machine in Cr-Mo heat-resistant alloy steel pipe welding process. It ensures the welding quality, time-saving and efficient, avoiding various quality problems caused by other methods of processing bevel. According to the characteristics of the pipeline installation and maintenance, it put forward using DC motor and portable lithium-ion power resource, it is with time-saving and efficient, economic and environmental protection.

  8. Initiated-chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon layers: Monomer adsorption, bulk growth, and process window definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aresta, G.; Palmans, J.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Creatore, M.

    2012-01-01

    Organosilicon layers have been deposited from 1,3,5-trivinyl-1,3,5-trimethylcyclotrisiloxane (V3D3) by means of the initiated-chemical vapor deposition (i-CVD) technique in a deposition setup, ad hoc designed for the engineering of multilayer moisture permeation barriers. The application of Fourier

  9. Optimization of process parameter for synthesis of silicon quantum dots using low pressure chemical vapour deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipika Barbadikar; Rashmi Gautam; Sanjay Sahare; Rajendra Patrikar; Jatin Bhatt

    2013-06-01

    Si quantum dots-based structures are studied recently for performance enhancement in electronic devices. This paper presents an attempt to get high density quantum dots (QDs) by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) on SiO2 substrate. Surface treatment, annealing and rapid thermal processing (RTP) are performed to study their effect on size and density of QDs. The samples are also studied using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence study (PL). The influence of Si–OH bonds formed due to surface treatment on the density of QDs is discussed. Present study also discusses the influence of surface treatment and annealing on QD formation.

  10. Self-Catalytic Growth of Tin Oxide Nanowires by Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongani S. Thabethe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis of tin oxide (SnO2 nanowires by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD process. Commercially bought SnO nanopowders were vaporized at 1050°C for 30 minutes with argon gas continuously passing through the system. The as-synthesized products were characterized using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The band gap of the nanowires determined from UV-visible absorption was around 3.7 eV. The SEM micrographs revealed “wool-like” structure which contains nanoribbons and nanowires with liquid droplets at the tips. Nanowires typically have diameter in the range of 50–200 nm and length 10–100 μm. These nanowires followed the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS growth mechanism.

  11. Fabrication of Nanosized Lanthanum Zirconate Powder and Deposition of Thermal Barrier Coating by Plasma Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Jagdeesh, N.; Pathak, L. C.

    2016-07-01

    The present manuscript discusses our findings on fabrication of nanosized lanthanum zirconate powder for thermal barrier coating application and its coating by plasma spray on nickel-based superalloy substrate. Single-phase La2Zr2O7 coating of thickness of the order of 45 µm on the Ni-Cr-Al bond coat coated Ni-based superalloy substrate was deposited by plasma spray process. The layers at the interface did not show spallation and inter diffusion was very less. The microstructure, interface, porosity, and mechanical properties of different layers are investigated. The lanthanum zirconate hardness and modulus were 10.5 and 277 GPa, respectively. The load depth curve for lanthanum zirconate showed good elastic recovery around 74%.

  12. The Influence of Process Parameters on Properties of Conversion Coatings Deposited on Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaś M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of process parameters of conversion coatings on the corrosion resistance was investigated. To produce anodic coatings, the solutions of H2SO4 of 0.5 and 1 M concentrations and current densities of 0.5 and 1 A/dm2 were applied. The coatings were deposited by galvanostatic technique on titanium Grade 1. The result of the study was comparison of the corrosion resistance of coatings produced under varying parameters such as: the anodic current density, the electrolyte concentration, and the speed of reaching the preset voltage. Corrosion tests performed by potentiodynamic polarization test have shown that even nanometric anodic films of amorphous structure improve the corrosion resistance of titanium alloy. The lowest corrosion current and the corrosion potential of the most cathodic nature were observed in the sample with anodic coating produced at J = 1 A/dm2 in a 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte concentration.

  13. Reeling of tight fit pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Focke, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    If it would be possible to install Tight Fit Pipe by means of reeling, it would be an attractive new option for the exploitation of offshore oil and gas fields containing corrosive hydrocarbons. Tight Fit Pipe is a mechanically bonded double walled pipe where a corrosion resistant alloy liner pipe

  14. Experimenting with a "Pipe" Whistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Olga

    2012-01-01

    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here…

  15. Ion beam sputter deposition of Ge films: Influence of process parameters on film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundesmann, C., E-mail: carsten.bundesmann@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Feder, R. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Wunderlich, R.; Teschner, U.; Grundmann, M. [Universität Leipzig, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Neumann, H. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-08-31

    Several sets of Ge films were grown by ion beam sputter deposition under systematic variation of ion beam parameters (ion species and ion energy) and geometrical parameters (ion incidence angle and polar emission angle). The films were characterized concerning thickness, growth rate, mass density, structural properties and composition. The film thicknesses show a cosine-like angular distribution, and the growth rates were found to increase with increasing ion incidence angle and ion energy. All films are amorphous and the average mass density was found to be (4.3 ± 0.2) g/cm{sup 3}, without a systematic relation to ion energy and geometrical parameters. Slightly higher mass densities were found for Ge films grown by sputtering with Xe than for sputtering with Ar. The Ge films contain a fraction of inert gas atoms from backscattered primary particles. This fraction is found to be higher for sputtering with Ar than for sputtering with Xe. The fraction of inert gas atoms increases with increasing polar emission angle and increasing ion incidence angle. Raman scattering experiments revealed also systematic shifts of the characteristic Raman mode. The shifts are tentatively assigned to the change of the Ge particle densities caused by the incorporation of inert gas particles. There seem to be also slight changes in short range ordering. The experimental data are discussed with respect to the known energy and angular distributions of the sputtered and backscattered particles. - Highlights: • Ion beam sputter deposition under systematic variation of process parameters • Thickness, growth rate, mass density, composition, structure, phonon properties • All germanium films are amorphous with small variations in mass density. • Incorporation of considerable amount of inert process gas • Vibrational properties correlate with composition.

  16. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A

    2011-01-01

    Pipe Drafting and Design, Third Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers, drafters, and students through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings. It includes instructions for the proper drawing of symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. More than 350 illustrations and photographs provide examples and visual instructions. A unique feature is the systematic arrangement of drawings that begins with the layout of the structural foundations of a facility and continues through to the development of a 3-D model. Advanced chapters

  17. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    The paper treats a piping system, where the layout of the network is given but the diameters of the pipes should be chosen among a small number of different values. The cost of realizing the system should be minimized while keeping the energy heads at the nodes above some lower limits. A new...... algorithm using successive linear programming is presented. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by optimizing a network with 201 pipes and 172 nodes. It is concluded that the new algorithm seems to be very efficient and stable, and that it always finds a solution with a cost near the best...

  18. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    A heat pipe of new design, using an electrode structure to orient and guide the dielectric liquid phase flow, is proposed. Analysis indicates that the operation of the electrohydrodynamic heat pipe is in direct analogy to capillary devices, with the polarization force acting in place of capillarity. Advantages of these new heat pipes include greatly reduced liquid friction, electrohydrodynamically enhanced evaporation and condensation heat transfer, and a possible voltage-controlled on/off feature. Preliminary calculations indicate that relatively high performance devices are possible.

  19. Electrohydrodynamic heat pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe of radical design is proposed which substitutes polarization electrohydrodynamic force effects for capillarity in collecting, guiding, and pumping a condensate liquid phase. The discussed device is restricted to the use of dielectric liquids as working fluids. Because of the relatively poor thermal transport properties of these liquids, capillary heat pipes using these liquids have not been high performance devices. The employment of the electrohydrodynamic concept should enhance this performance and help fill the performance gap that exists in the temperature range from 250 F to 750 F for 'conventional' capillary heat pipes.

  20. Robotic platform for traveling on vertical piping network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Thomas A; Vrettos, Nick J; Krementz, Daniel; Marzolf, Athneal D

    2015-02-03

    This invention relates generally to robotic systems and is specifically designed for a robotic system that can navigate vertical pipes within a waste tank or similar environment. The robotic system allows a process for sampling, cleaning, inspecting and removing waste around vertical pipes by supplying a robotic platform that uses the vertical pipes to support and navigate the platform above waste material contained in the tank.

  1. Surface Hardness of Friction Stir Welded AA6063 Pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Azman; Awang Mokhtar

    2014-01-01

    The external surface hardness of friction stir welded aluminum alloy 6063 pipe joint was investigated in this paper. The 89mm of outside diameter pipe with 5mm of wall thickness was used as test pipe piece for this experiment on closed butt joint configuration by utilising Bridgeport 2216 CNC milling machine and orbital clamping unit specially designed to cater for this task and function. Several welded samples were produced on varying process parameters which were successfully joined by usin...

  2. Characterization of corrosion scale formed on stainless steel delivery pipe for reclaimed water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Yu, Kanghua; Hu, Hongying; Jiang, Wei; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    To reveal corrosion behavior of stainless steel delivery pipe used in reclaimed water treatment, this research focused on the morphological, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scale and corroded passive film. Corrosion scale and coupon samples were taken from a type 304 pipe delivering reclaimed water to a clear well in service for more than 12 years. Stainless steel corrosion scales and four representative pipe coupons were investigated using mineralogy and material science research methods. The results showed corrosion scale was predominantly composed of goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, magnetite, ferrous oxide, siderite, chrome green and chromite, the same as that of corroded pipe coupons. Hence, corrosion scale can be identified as podiform chromite deposit. The loss of chromium in passive film is a critical phenomenon when stainless steel passive film is damaged by localized corrosion. This may provide key insights toward improving a better comprehension of the formation of stainless steel corrosion scale and the process of localized corrosion. The localized corrosion behavior of stainless steel is directly connected with reclaimed water quality parameters such as residual chlorine, DO, Cl(-) and SO4(2-). In particular, when a certain amount of residual chlorine in reclaimed water is present as an oxidant, ferric iron is the main chemical state of iron minerals.

  3. On the feasibility of silicene encapsulation by AlN deposited using an atomic layer deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bui, H., E-mail: H.VanBui@utwente.nl, E-mail: M.P.deJong@utwente.nl; Wiggers, F. B.; Kovalgin, A. Y.; Jong, M. P. de, E-mail: H.VanBui@utwente.nl, E-mail: M.P.deJong@utwente.nl [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Friedlein, R.; Yamada-Takamura, Y. [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2015-02-14

    Since epitaxial silicene is not chemically inert under ambient conditions, its application in devices and the ex-situ characterization outside of ultrahigh vacuum environments require the use of an insulating capping layer. Here, we report on a study of the feasibility of encapsulating epitaxial silicene on ZrB{sub 2}(0001) thin films grown on Si(111) substrates by aluminum nitride (AlN) deposited using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) precursors. By in-situ high-resolution core-level photoelectron spectroscopy, the chemical modifications of the surface due to subsequent exposure to TMA and NH{sub 3} molecules, at temperatures of 300 °C and 400 °C, respectively, have been investigated. While an AlN-related layer can indeed be grown, silicene reacts strongly with both precursor molecules resulting in the formation of Si–C and Si–N bonds such that the use of these precursors does not allow for the protective AlN encapsulation that leaves the electronic properties of silicene intact.

  4. The Influence of Vibration on CaCO3 Scale Formation in Piping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangestiyono W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate scale is a common problem found in a piping system of industrial process. The presence of mechanical equipment such as turbine, compressor, blower, mixer and extruder produce a mechanical vibration on the piping system which is placed near these equipments. The influence of vibration on the CaCO3 scale formation in the piping system was experimentally investigated in the present study. The aim of the research was to understand the effect of vibration on the kinetics, deposition rates and the crystals formation in the synthetic solution. The solution was prepared using CaCl2 and Na2CO3 for concentration of calcium of 3.500 ppm, while the induction time, deposition rate, crystal growth were investigated at temperature of 25°C. In generating the vibration force, the mechanical equipment consisting of electrical motor, crankshaft, connecting rod and a vibration table were employed, including four coupons inside the pipe for investigating the scale formed. Frequency of the vibration was set at 0.00, 1.00 Hz and 2.00 Hz, respectively. A dosing pump with two inlets and two outlets was used to circulate the solutions at flowrate of 30 ml/min from each vessel to the coupons. After running for three hours, the induction time was recorded at 17; 10 and 8 minute with vibration frequency of 0.00; 1.00 and 2.00 Hz, respectively. The scale formed was then characterized using SEM/EDX for crystal morphology and elemental analysis. The results show that the deposition rates were 0.9457 and 3.3441 gram/h for the frequency of 1.00 and 2.00 Hz. The carbonate crystals found in coupon and filter were vaterite.

  5. Thermally stable yttrium-scandium oxide high-k dielectrics deposited by a solution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenbing; Frost, Bradley; Peterson, Rebecca L.

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the thermal stability of electrical properties in ternary alloy (Y x Sc1-x )2O3 high-k oxides as a function of yttrium fraction, x. The yttrium-scandium oxide dielectric films are deposited using a facile ink-based process. The oxides have a stoichiometry-dependent relative dielectric constant of 26.0 to 7.7 at 100 kHz, low leakage current density of 10-8 A·cm-2, high breakdown field of 4 MVṡcm-1, and interface trap density of 1012 cm-2·eV-1 with silicon. Compared with binary oxides, ternary alloys exhibit less frequency dispersion of the dielectric constant and a higher crystallization temperature. After crystallization is induced through a 900 °C anneal, ternary (Y0.6Sc0.4)2O3 films maintain their low leakage current and high breakdown field. In contrast, the electrical performance of the binary oxides significantly degrades following the same treatment. The solution-processed ternary oxide dielectrics demonstrated here may be used as high-k gate insulators in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies, in novel electronic material systems and devices, and in printed, flexible thin film electronics, and as passivation layers for high power devices. These oxides may also be used as insulators in fabrication process flows that require a high thermal budget.

  6. Pulsed laser deposition of the lysozyme protein: an unexpected “Inverse MAPLE” process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Matei, Andreea; Constantinescu, Catalin

    2012-01-01

    the ejection and deposition of lysozyme. This can be called an “inverse MAPLE” process, since the ratio of “matrix” to film material in the target is 10:90, which is inverse of the typical MAPLE process where the film material is dissolved in the matrix down to several wt.%. Lysozyme is a well-known protein...... which is used in food processing and is also an important constituent of human secretions such as sweat and saliva. It has a well-defined mass (14307 u) and can easily be detected by mass spectrometric methods such as MALDI (Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization) in contrast to many other organic...... materials. Also, the thermal properties of lysozyme, including the heat-induced decomposition behavior are comparatively well-known. The ablation of lysozyme from a dry pressed target in vacuum was measured by weight loss in nanosecond laser ablation at 355 with a fluence of 0.5 to 6 J/cm2. Films...

  7. Evolution and preservation potential of fluvial and transgressive deposits on the Louisiana inner shelf: Understanding depositional processes to support coastal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, J.; Miner, M.D.; Twichell, D.C.; Lavoie, D.L.; Kindinger, J.

    2009-01-01

    The barrier-island systems of the Mississippi River Delta plain are currently undergoing some of the highest rates of shoreline retreat in North America (???20 m/year). Effective management of this coastal area requires an understanding of the processes involved in shoreline erosion and measures that can be enacted to reduce loss. The dominant stratigraphy of the delta plain is fluvial mud (silts and clays), delivered in suspension via a series of shallow-water delta lobes that prograded across the shelf throughout the Holocene. Abandonment of a delta lobe through avulsion leads to rapid land subsidence through compaction within the muddy framework. As the deltaic headland subsides below sea level, the marine environment transgresses the bays and wetlands, reworking the available sands into transgressive barrier shorelines. This natural process is further complicated by numerous factors: (1) global sea-level rise; (2) reduced sediment load within the Mississippi River; (3) diversion of the sediment load away from the barrier shorelines to the deep shelf; (4) storm-induced erosion; and (5) human alteration of the littoral process through the construction of hardened shorelines, canals, and other activities. This suite of factors has led to the deterioration of the barrier-island systems that protect interior wetlands and human infrastructure from normal wave activity and periodic storm impact. Interior wetland loss results in an increased tidal prism and inlet cross-sectional areas, and expanding ebb-tidal deltas, which removes sand from the littoral processes through diversion and sequestration. Shoreface erosion of the deltaic headlands does not provide sufficient sand to balance the loss, resulting in thinning and dislocation of the islands. Abatement measures include replenishing lost sediment with similar material, excavated from discrete sandy deposits within the muddy delta plain. These sand bodies were deposited by the same cyclical processes that formed the

  8. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Dielectric liquid for transfer of heat provides liquid flow from the condenser section to the evaporator section in conventional heat pipes. Working fluid is guided or pumped by an array of wire electrodes connected to a high-voltage source.

  9. Simulation of three-dimensional stress field in welding process of high-frequency welded pipe%高频焊管在焊接过程中三维应力场的模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何世权; 刘飞; 徐德怀; 钟辉

    2011-01-01

    In the production process of high-frequency welded pipe, the elimination of the high-frequency welding residual stresses caused by high-frequency welding is an important working operation. A knowledge of the residual stress of the welded pipe in advance of welding is significant for the residual stress elimination. Making use of APDL language embedded in ANSYS, a finite element model of high-frequency welded pipe was established. Then the linear thermal source model was used to conduct the computation.Meantime, the thermal boundary conditions and the physical structure of the constraints of this finite element model were also taken into account, so that the three-dimensional stress field and displacement field could be obtained for the high-frequency pipe welding process. From the analysis of result of the finite element simulation, the stress field and displacement field of the welded pipe could be theoretically obtained in advance of the stress relief process.%在高频焊管生产过程中,消除因高频焊接造成的焊管残余应力是一项重要的工序,预先得出焊管残余应力场对于消除焊管残余应力具有指导意义.利用ANSYS参数化语言APDL,建立高频焊管的有限元模型,采用高频焊接线热源模型进行计算,同时考虑高频焊管有限元模型的热边界条件及物理结构约束,从而获得高频焊管在焊接过程中三维应力场及位移场.通过对有限元模拟结果的分析,可以从理论上得出焊管在进行消除残余应力工序前的应力和位移分布.

  10. Research and Application of Centrifugal Casting Process for Nickel-based Composite Pipe%离心浇铸镍基复合管的研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锡洲; 苏孔荣; 王庆潮; 李亮

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of centrifugal casting composite pipes used in harsh working conditions of high acid gas field was analyzed to reduce the costs in exploration and transportation of high-sulfur gas and improve the security in exploitation and transportation, and the design and manufacturing process for centrifugal casting composite pipes and the data in performance test were studied. L360QS/825 material for composite pipes was successfully developed and applied in Puguang gas field.%为大幅度降低高含硫天然气开采和输送成本,提高天然气开采和输送安全性,对离心浇铸复合管材在高酸气田恶劣工况使用的可行性进行了分析,对离心浇铸复合管材设计、制造工艺以及性能检测数据进行了研究.成功研制出了L360QS/825复合管材,并在普光气田进行了成功的应用.

  11. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better

  12. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed

    2016-03-10

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  13. The Monster Sound Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-01-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which…

  14. Processes of ore genesis at the world-class Yuchiling molybdenum deposit, Henan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Ye, Hui-shou; Zhou, Ke; Meng, Fang

    2014-01-01

    The Yuchiling molybdenum deposit is one of the most significant porphyry molybdenum systems in the eastern Qinling of central China. The mineralization is mainly hosted by a porphyritic granite and associated cryptoexplosive breccia. Hydrothermal alteration minerals include K-feldspar, sericite, pyrite, chlorite, epidote, carbonate, kaolinite, fluorite, and gypsum. Ore minerals are dominated by molybdenite and pyrite, with lesser amounts of chalcopyrite, galena, scheelite, wolframite, ilmenite, leucoxene, native gold, sphalerite, and hematite. The δ34S compositions of sulfide minerals range from -6.0‰ to +4.0‰. The deposit is characterized by four hydrothermal stages: quartz-K-feldspar (stage I), molybdenite-quartz (stage II), pyrite-sericite-quartz (stage III), and quartz-carbonate (stage IV). Microthermometric studies of fluid inclusions show that the fluids evolved gradually during the ore-forming process. Homogenization temperatures, salinities, and minimum pressure estimates for the inclusions from each mineralization stage evolved as follows: (1) stage I: homogenization temperatures = 203.7-525.8 °C, salinities = 2.96-10.49 and 29.66 wt.% NaCl equiv., and minimum pressures = 101.9-196.2 MPa; (2) stage II: homogenization temperatures = 173.6-448.6 °C, salinities = 1.81-9.74 wt.% NaCl equiv., and minimum pressures = 93.1-172.0 MPa; (3) stage III: homogenization temperatures = 130.1-386.0 °C, salinities = 1.40-9.73 and 34.07 wt.% NaCl equiv., and minimum pressures = 95.5-142.5 MPa; (4) stage IV: homogenization temperatures = 170-230 °C and salinities = 0.18-5.71 wt.% NaCl equiv. Various fluid inclusions were observed to contain H2O, CO2, CH4, SO2, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, and (or) H2S, as well as solids that include halite, sylvite, anhydrite, chalcopyrite, hematite, molybdenite, and jamesonite. The δ18O and δD of the hydrothermal fluids vary from -4.4‰ to +8.5‰ and -81‰ to -61‰, respectively. Microthermometric and stable isotope data indicate that

  15. Impact of working fluids on gravitational heat pipe performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobb, Marián; Kosa, Ľuboš; Nosek, Radovan; Malcho, Milan

    2016-06-01

    Performance heat pipes depends on several parameters. This article deals with the performance of heat pipes, depending on the working fluid and operating temperature. There is described the essential function of the heat pipe manufacturing process. Stainless heat pipes were made of material AISI 304 and filled with a distilled water and solution of distilled water with silver nitrate, up to 20% of the heat pipe inner volume. Measurements were carried at an operating temperature of 40 °C to 90 °C. The performance was measured on the experimental device. Presented results show the progress of individual measurements and the effect of operating parameters and working fluid on the performance of heat pipes.

  16. In-Orbit Construction with a Helical Seam Pipe Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhooley, N.

    The challenges of building large structures in space, and in particular a torus habitat, require novel processes. One potential method is to manufacture helical seam (also called spiral) pipe in orbit using a pipe mill. These machines turn rolls of steel or alloy into fully formed, welded and inspected pipe, pressure vessels and silos of various diameters. Pipe mills are highly automated and efficient in a factory environment and are increasingly being used for in-situ repair. By constructing in-orbit (on-orbit assembly) the launch vehicle can supply full payloads of compact, robust rolls of material; and the installation design is less restricted by fairing constraints and modular limitations. The use of a pipe mill is discussed as a possible construction method, for comparison an example design envelope is shown and further pipe mill products are considered.

  17. Analysis and Optimisation of Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe

    on reels. Flexible pipes are constructed in a layer structure in which each layer adds specific properties to the pipe such as; collapse strength, fluid integrity, bursting strength, tensile strength etc. The inner-most layer of a flexible pipe is the carcass; a flexible interlocking stainless steel......Un-bonded flexible pipes are used in the offshore oil and gas industry worldwide transporting hydrocarbons from seafloor to floating production vessels topside. Flexible pipes are advantageous over rigid pipelines in dynamic applications and during installation as they are delivered in full length...... structure that provides mechanical and collapse strength for the flexible pipe. The manufacturing process of carcass is a combination of roll forming stainless steel strips and helical winding the profiles around a mandrel interlocking the profiles with themselves. The focus of the present project...

  18. Role of minerals properties on leaching process of weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖燕飞; 刘向生; 冯宗玉; 黄小卫; 黄莉; 陈迎迎; 吴文远

    2015-01-01

    Granite belonged to intrusive rock and volcanic was extrusive rock. There may be many differences in their degree of weathering and mineral chemical composition. The present study investigated the minerals properties and the leaching mechanism of the granitic weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ore from Longnan Rare Earth Mine area (LN ores) and volcanic weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ore from Liutang Rare Earth Mine area (LT ores). The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to characterize the phase of rare earth ores. The particle size distributions and main composition of the ore were also presented in this paper. The leaching mechanisms of two kinds of rare earth ores were analyzed with different kinetics models and could be described by the shrinking-core model. They were all inner diffusion-controlled leaching processes. The leaching equation of the kinetics of the LN ores could be expressed as:4 LN LN 1.096 10 2/3 0.377 8.314 0 2 3=0.1061 (1 ) Tr e tη η×−−− − −, leaching equation of kinetics of LT ores was 3 LT LT 4.640 10 2/3 0.411 8.314 0 32 3=8.33 101 (1 ) Tr e tη η×−− −×− − −. The rare earth leaching rate of LT ores was always lower in the same condition, and it would need more time and more (NH4)2SO4 consump-tion to achieve the same rare earth leaching efficiency, which would lead to more serious ammonia-nitrogen pollution. Therefore, magnesium salt was proposed as the leaching agent to eliminate ammonia-nitrogen pollution and further studies would be taken in the future.

  19. Microstructures, hardness and bioactivity of hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by direct laser melting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme; Akinlabi, Esther; Shukla, Mukul; Pityana, Sisa

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) coatings on bioinert metals such as Ti-6Al-4V are necessary for biomedical applications. Together, HAP and Ti-6Al-4V are biocompatible and bioactive. The challenges of depositing HAP on Ti-6Al-4V with traditional thermal spraying techniques are well founded. In this paper, HAP was coated on Ti-6Al-4V using direct laser melting (DLM) process. This process, unlike the traditional coating processes, is able to achieve coatings with good metallurgical bonding and little dilution. The microstructural and mechanical properties, chemical composition and bio-activities of the produced coatings were studied with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Vickers hardness machine, and by immersion test in Hanks' solution. The results showed that the choice of the laser power has much influence on the evolving microstructure, the mechanical properties and the retainment of HAP on the surface of the coating. Also, the choice of laser power of 750 W led to no dilution. The microhardness results inferred a strong intermetallic-ceramic interfacial bonding; which meant that the 750 W coating could survive long in service. Also, the coating was softer at the surface and stronger in the heat affected zones. Hence, this process parameter setting can be considered as an optimal setting. The soak tests revealed that the surface of the coating had unmelted crystals of HAP. The CaP ratio conducted on the soaked coating was 2.00 which corresponded to tetra calcium phosphate. This coating seems attractive for metallic implant applications.

  20. Fabrication of a multifunctional carbon nanotube "cotton" yarn by the direct chemical vapor deposition spinning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao-Hua; Li, Ya-Li; Feng, Jian-Min; Kang, Yan-Ru; Han, Shuai-Shuai

    2012-09-21

    A continuous cotton-like carbon nanotube fiber yarn, consisting of multiple threads of high purity double walled carbon nanotubes, was fabricated in a horizontal CVD gas flow reactor with water vapor densification by the direct chemical vapor deposition spinning process. The water vapor interaction leads to homogeneous shrinking of the CNT sock-like assembly in the gas flow. This allows well controlled continuous winding of the dense thread inside the reactor. The CNT yarn is quite thick (1-3 mm), has a highly porous structure (99%) while being mechanically strong and electrically conductive. The water vapor interaction leads to homogeneous oxidation of the CNTs, offering the yarn oxygen-functionalized surfaces. The unique structure and surface of the CNT yarn provide it multiple processing advantages and properties. It can be mechanically engineered into a dense yarn, infiltrated with polymers to form a composite and mixed with other yarns to form a blend, as demonstrated in this research. Therefore, this CNT yarn can be used as a "basic yarn" for various CNT based structural and functional applications.

  1. On the magnetic properties of iron nanostructures fabricated via focused electron beam induced deposition and autocatalytic growth processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, F.; Drost, M.; Vollnhals, F.; Späth, A.; Carrasco, E.; Fink, R. H.; Marbach, H.

    2016-09-01

    We employ Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) in combination with autocatalytic growth (AG) processes to fabricate magnetic nanostructures with controllable shapes and thicknesses. Following this route, different Fe deposits were prepared on silicon nitride membranes under ultra-high vacuum conditions and studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission x-ray microspectroscopy (STXM). The originally deposited Fe nanostructures are composed of pure iron, especially when fabricated via autocatalytic growth processes. Quantitative near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy was employed to derive information on the thickness dependent composition. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) in STXM was used to derive the magnetic properties of the EBID prepared structures. STXM and XMCD analysis evinces the existence of a thin iron oxide layer at the deposit-vacuum interface, which is formed during exposure to ambient conditions. We were able to extract magnetic hysteresis loops for individual deposits from XMCD micrographs with varying external magnetic field. Within the investigated thickness range (2-16 nm), the magnetic coercivity, as evaluated from the width of the hysteresis loops, increases with deposit thickness and reaches a maximum value of ˜160 Oe at around 10 nm. In summary, we present a viable technique to fabricate ferromagnetic nanostructures in a controllable way and gain detailed insight into their chemical and magnetic properties.

  2. Study on Varying Metallic Properties of Straight and Elbow Pipes of Main Steam Piping after Long-Time Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Hongsheng; Lin Zhongyuan; Duan Xuzhen

    2005-01-01

    The mechanic properties, lasting strength and microstructural properties of straight and elbow pipesof 12CrMo, 10CrMo910 and 12CrlMoV low alloy steel main steam piping system after long-time service weretested and studied. The testing results showed that, for straight and elbow pipes of mainsteam piping under theconditions of high temperature and high pressure, the numerical operating performance indexes of their metalchanged with little difference, generally both within 5%, and the Values of elbow were higher than those ofstraight pipes. These phenomena proved that the aging processes of pipe metal at different positions are thesame. And the cause for higher numerical performance indexes of elbow and higher failure rate at elbow posi-tion during operation of steam pipes were investigated.

  3. Sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River Shale in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok-Hoon; Koh, Chang-Seong; Joe, Young-Jin; Woo, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    The Horn River Basin in the northeastern British Columbia, Canada, is one of the largest unconventional gas accumulations in North America. It consists mainly of Devonian shales (Horn River Formation) and is stratigraphically divided into three members, the Muskwa, Otterpark and Evie in descending order. This study focuses on sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River shale based on sedimentary facies analysis aided by well-log mineralogy (ECS) and total organic carbon (TOC) data. The shale formation consists dominantly of siliceous minerals (quartz, feldspar and mica) and subordinate clay mineral and carbonate materials, and TOC ranging from 1.0 to 7.6%. Based on sedimentary structures and micro texture, three sedimentary facies were classified: homogeneous mudstone (HM), indistinctly laminated mudstone (ILM), and planar laminated mudstone (PLM). Integrated interpretation of the sedimentary facies, lithology and TOC suggests that depositional environment of the Horn River shale was an anoxic quiescent basin plain and base-of-slope off carbonate platform or reef. In this deeper marine setting, organic-rich facies HM and ILM, dominant in the Muskwa (the upper part of the Horn River Formation) and Evie (the lower part of the Horn River Formation) members, may have been emplaced by pelagic to hemipelagic sedimentation on the anoxic sea floor with infrequent effects of low-density gravity flows (turbidity currents or nepheloid flows). In the other hand, facies PLM typifying the Otterpark Member (the middle part of the Horn River Formation) suggests more frequent inflow of bottom-hugging turbidity currents punctuating the hemipelagic settling of the background sedimentation process. The stratigraphic change of sedimentary facies and TOC content in the Horn River Formation is most appropriately interpreted to have been caused by the relative sea-level change, that is, lower TOC and frequent signal of turbidity current during the sea

  4. Round dance in pipes; Runddans i roer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensen, Anders J.

    2004-07-01

    On the offshore production plants, oil, water, and gas are separated from the well streams. The oil is sold on the market while the gas is in part exported, in part reinjected into the wells in large quantities to sustain the pressure in the reservoirs. The water is cleaned, some is pumped to the sea and some returned to the reservoir. Although these processes may seem straightforward, they cause a great deal of worry since there are so many complex processing and pipe systems taking up space. Pipes vibrate and make noise, most often because of pressure fluctuations created by the flowing liquid and gas. Or vortices form inside the pipe that make the whole pipe drone. In the offshore activities, these phenomena can be very annoying; on the Statfjord B platform people baulked at entering the area where the produced water treatment system was standing. A new system had to be developed since existing equipment would take up too much space. In the new system, a pipe section is installed in the pipeline that makes the gas/liquid mixture spin rapidly as in a centrifuge. The gas collects along the centre of the pipe and is tapped off. The principle can also be used to separate liquid from gas. In many gas treatment systems, liquid accumulation, or carry over, is detrimental. But gas dehydrators are usually dimensioned for a minimal content of liquid in the gas. Important features of these new pipe-based separators are that they are small, remove bottlenecks in the production, and are straightforward to install. But operators who live with the problems every day are very sceptical about the new separators and should be given the opportunity to test them on land before they are installed in the field.

  5. Synthesis of Ag-doped hydrogenated carbon thin films by a hybrid PVD–PECVD deposition process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Majji Venkatesh; Sukru Taktak; Efstathios I Meletis

    2014-12-01

    Silver-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (Ag-DLC) films were deposited on Si substrates using a hybrid plasma vapour deposition–plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PVD–PECVD) process combining Ag target magnetron sputtering and PECVD in an Ar–CH4 plasma. Processing parameters (working pressure, CH4/Ar ratio and magnetron current) were varied to obtain good deposition rate and a wide variety of Ag films. Structure and bonding environment of the films were obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy studies. Variation of processing parameters was found to produce Ag-doped amorphous carbon or diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with a range of characteristics with CH4/Ar ratio exercising a dominant effect. It was pointed out that Ag concentration and deposition rate of the film increased with the increase in d.c. magnetron current. At higher Ar concentration in plasma, Ag content increased whereas deposition rate of the film decreased. FTIR study showed that the films contained a significant amount of hydrogen and, as a result of an increase in the Ag content in the hydrogenated DLC film, $sp^{2}$ bond content also increased. The TEM cross sectional studies revealed that crystalline Ag particles were formed with a size in the range of 2–4 nm throughout an amorphous DLC matrix.

  6. Different types of nitrogen deposition show variable effects on the soil carbon cycle process of temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuhan; Guo, Peng; Liu, Jianqiu; Wang, Chunyu; Yang, Ning; Jiao, Zhenxia

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition significantly affects the soil carbon (C) cycle process of forests. However, the influence of different types of N on it still remained unclear. In this work, ammonium nitrate was selected as an inorganic N (IN) source, while urea and glycine were chosen as organic N (ON) sources. Different ratios of IN to ON (1 : 4, 2 : 3, 3 : 2, 4 : 1, and 5 : 0) were mixed with equal total amounts and then used to fertilize temperate forest soils for 2 years. Results showed that IN deposition inhibited soil C cycle processes, such as soil respiration, soil organic C decomposition, and enzymatic activities, and induced the accumulation of recalcitrant organic C. By contrast, ON deposition promoted these processes. Addition of ON also resulted in accelerated transformation of recalcitrant compounds into labile compounds and increased CO2 efflux. Meanwhile, greater ON deposition may convert C sequestration in forest soils into C source. These results indicated the importance of the IN to ON ratio in controlling the soil C cycle, which can consequently change the ecological effect of N deposition.

  7. Avaliação de processos MIG/MAG curto-circuito convencional e controlado para a soldagem de dutos de aço carbono em passe único Assessment of conventional and controlled short-circuit MIG/MAG processes for steel-pipe welding in single pass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonson Ferreira Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de fontes de soldagem com processos derivativos MIG/MAG com transferência por curto-circuito, também conhecidos como curto-circuito controlado, tem-se tornado uma tendência na busca de soldas de qualidade e produtividade, principalmente na união de dutos, pois acredita-se que, o controle da corrente permite melhorar a transferência metálica, proporcionando estabilidade ao processo de soldagem e a poça de fusão. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho é determinar envelope operacional e estabelecer vantagens e limitações operacionais dos processos MIG/MAG com transferência por curto-circuito convencional e derivativos (STT - SurfaceTensionTransfer, RMD - Regulated Metal Deposition e CMT - Cold Metal Transfer, para a união de dutos de aço carbono com diâmetro nominal de 2 ½"e parede fina com passe único, nas progressões ascendente e descendente. Para tal, optou-se por variar os parâmetros de regulagem de cada processo e a velocidade de alimentação do arame, além das técnicas de soldagem, procurando manter a mesma quantidade de material depositado por comprimento de solda. Os resultados encontrados mostraram que o curto-circuito convencional apresentou um envelope operacional constante para a progressão ascendente e para a descendente quanto ao número de ensaios. Ao passo que, o STT e o RMD apresentaram um maior envelope operacional na progressão descendente. Por outro lado, o CMT, com envelope operacional maior na ascendente, trabalha com valores de tensão de soldagem muito mais baixos, o que justifica o baixo aporte térmico do processo.The development of power sources towards the MIG/MAG derivative processes with short-circuit metal transfer (also known as controlled short-circuit has become a trend in the search for high productivity and high quality weldments, especially in pipe welding. It is believed that the control of current achieved in such processes improves the metal transfer, reaching

  8. Effect of substrate bias on deposition behaviour of charged silicon nanoparticles in ICP-CVD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Wan; You, Shin-Jae; Kim, Jung-Hyung; Seong, Dae-Jin; Seo, Byong-Hoon; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a substrate bias on the deposition behaviour of crystalline silicon films during inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICP-CVD) was analysed by consideration of non-classical crystallization, in which the building block is a nanoparticle rather than an individual atom or molecule. The coexistence of positively and negatively charged nanoparticles in the plasma and their role in Si film deposition are confirmed by applying bias voltages to the substrate, which is sufficiently small as not to affect the plasma potential. The sizes of positively and negatively charged nanoparticles captured on a carbon membrane and imaged using TEM are, respectively, 2.7-5.5 nm and 6-13 nm. The film deposited by positively charged nanoparticles has a typical columnar structure. In contrast, the film deposited by negatively charged nanoparticles has a structure like a powdery compact with the deposition rate about three times higher than that for positively charged nanoparticles. All the films exhibit crystallinity even though the substrate is at room temperature, which is attributed to the deposition of crystalline nanoparticles formed in the plasma. The film deposited by negatively charged nanoparticles has the highest crystalline fraction of 0.84.

  9. Microstructures, hardness and bioactivity of hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by direct laser melting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme, E-mail: MTlotleng@csir.co.za [Laser Materials Processing Group, National Laser Center CSIR, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, Kingsway Campus, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Akinlabi, Esther [Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, Kingsway Campus, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Shukla, Mukul [Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Department of Mechanical Engineering, MNNIT, Allahabad, UP 211004 (India); Pityana, Sisa [Laser Materials Processing Group, National Laser Center CSIR, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) coatings on bioinert metals such as Ti–6Al–4V are necessary for biomedical applications. Together, HAP and Ti–6Al–4V are biocompatible and bioactive. The challenges of depositing HAP on Ti–6Al–4V with traditional thermal spraying techniques are well founded. In this paper, HAP was coated on Ti–6Al–4V using direct laser melting (DLM) process. This process, unlike the traditional coating processes, is able to achieve coatings with good metallurgical bonding and little dilution. The microstructural and mechanical properties, chemical composition and bio-activities of the produced coatings were studied with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Vickers hardness machine, and by immersion test in Hanks' solution. The results showed that the choice of the laser power has much influence on the evolving microstructure, the mechanical properties and the retainment of HAP on the surface of the coating. Also, the choice of laser power of 750 W led to no dilution. The microhardness results inferred a strong intermetallic–ceramic interfacial bonding; which meant that the 750 W coating could survive long in service. Also, the coating was softer at the surface and stronger in the heat affected zones. Hence, this process parameter setting can be considered as an optimal setting. The soak tests revealed that the surface of the coating had unmelted crystals of HAP. The CaP ratio conducted on the soaked coating was 2.00 which corresponded to tetra calcium phosphate. This coating seems attractive for metallic implant applications. - Highlights: • Characteristics of HAP coatings produced on Ti-6Al-4V achieved with direct laser melting are reported. • Optimal process parameters necessary to achieve biocompatible coating are reported. • The SEM micrograph of the soaked HAP coating revealed partially melted crystals of HAP. • The HAP coating was retained at the surface of

  10. Biogeometallurgical pre-mining characterization of ore deposits: an approach to increase sustainability in the mining process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Bernhard; Weibel, Leyla

    2013-11-01

    Based on the knowledge obtained from acid mine drainage formation in mine waste environments (tailings impoundments and waste rock dumps), a new methodology is applied to characterize new ore deposits before exploitation starts. This gives the opportunity to design optimized processes for metal recovery of the different mineral assemblages in an ore deposit and at the same time to minimize the environmental impact and costs downstream for mine waste management. Additionally, the whole economic potential is evaluated including strategic elements. The methodology integrates high-resolution geochemistry by sequential extractions and quantitative mineralogy in combination with kinetic bioleach tests. The produced data set allows to define biogeometallurgical units in the ore deposit and to predict the behavior of each element, economically or environmentally relevant, along the mining process.

  11. Regularly arranged indium islands on glass/molybdenum substrates upon femtosecond laser and physical vapor deposition processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringleb, F.; Eylers, K.; Teubner, Th.; Boeck, T., E-mail: torsten.boeck@ikz-berlin.de [Leibniz-Institute for Crystal Growth, Max-Born-Straße 2, Berlin 12489 (Germany); Symietz, C.; Bonse, J.; Andree, S.; Krüger, J. [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, Berlin 12205 (Germany); Heidmann, B.; Schmid, M. [Department of Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimalle 14, Berlin 14195 (Germany); Nanooptical Concepts for PV, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, Berlin 14109 (Germany); Lux-Steiner, M. [Nanooptical Concepts for PV, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, Berlin 14109 (Germany); Heterogeneous Material Systems, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, Berlin 14109 (Germany)

    2016-03-14

    A bottom-up approach is presented for the production of arrays of indium islands on a molybdenum layer on glass, which can serve as micro-sized precursors for indium compounds such as copper-indium-gallium-diselenide used in photovoltaics. Femtosecond laser ablation of glass and a subsequent deposition of a molybdenum film or direct laser processing of the molybdenum film both allow the preferential nucleation and growth of indium islands at the predefined locations in a following indium-based physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. A proper choice of laser and deposition parameters ensures the controlled growth of indium islands exclusively at the laser ablated spots. Based on a statistical analysis, these results are compared to the non-structured molybdenum surface, leading to randomly grown indium islands after PVD.

  12. Development of a NbN Deposition Process for Superconducting Quantum Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Glowacka, D M; Withington, S; Muhammad, H; Yassin, G; Tan, B K

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a detailed programme to explore the superconducting characteristics of reactive DC-magnetron sputtered NbN. The basic principle is to ignite a plasma using argon, and then to introduce a small additional nitrogen flow to achieve the nitridation of a Nb target. Subsequent sputtering leads to the deposition of NbN onto the host substrate. The characteristics of a sputtered film depend on a number of parameters: argon pressure, nitrogen flow rate and time-evolution profile, substrate material, etc. Crucially, the hysteresis in the target voltage as a function of the nitrogen flow can be used to provide a highly effective monitor of nitrogen consumption during the reactive process. By studying these dependencies we have been able to achieve highly reproducible film characteristics on sapphire, silicon dioxide on silicon, and silicon nitride on silicon. Intrinsic film stress was minimised by optimising the argon pressure, giving NbN films having Tc = 14.65 K. In the paper, we report characteris...

  13. A study of color modulation of porous alumina processed by physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xulongqi; Zhang Haijun; Zhang Dongxian, E-mail: zhangdx@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China)

    2011-02-01

    With the development of the porous alumina (PA) fabrication technology, more and more scholars plough into the research of its properties, especially optical properties. Recently, we observed an interesting phenomenon that the PA templates processed by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) show color differences related to light path difference. Our work attempts to make the principle clear and to find an effective method to modulate the color of PA samples. This article describes the details of our experimental and theoretical results. We successfully prepared some PA templates with different pore-depth by controlling the time of anodization in oxalic acid solution. In order to enhance the reflectivity of air-PA interface, a layer of TiO{sub 2} film of 18 nm is coated with PVD technique, which makes PA templates display quite distinct colors with different hole-depth. By modelling and analyzing PA samples, we make the interpretation of this optical property by taking the PA sample with 150 nm pore-depth as an example, and then put forward a way to simulate sample's color within its hole-depth and material refraction-index. The results are in good agreement with our theoretical analysis, which proves the feasibility of our simulation mode.

  14. Simulation of Powder Layer Deposition in Additive Manufacturing Processes Using the Discrete Element Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbold, E. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walton, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homel, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    This document serves as a final report to a small effort where several improvements were added to a LLNL code GEODYN-­L to develop Discrete Element Method (DEM) algorithms coupled to Lagrangian Finite Element (FE) solvers to investigate powder-­bed formation problems for additive manufacturing. The results from these simulations will be assessed for inclusion as the initial conditions for Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) simulations performed with ALE3D. The algorithms were written and performed on parallel computing platforms at LLNL. The total funding level was 3-­4 weeks of an FTE split amongst two staff scientists and one post-­doc. The DEM simulations emulated, as much as was feasible, the physical process of depositing a new layer of powder over a bed of existing powder. The DEM simulations utilized truncated size distributions spanning realistic size ranges with a size distribution profile consistent with realistic sample set. A minimum simulation sample size on the order of 40-­particles square by 10-­particles deep was utilized in these scoping studies in order to evaluate the potential effects of size segregation variation with distance displaced in front of a screed blade. A reasonable method for evaluating the problem was developed and validated. Several simulations were performed to show the viability of the approach. Future investigations will focus on running various simulations investigating powder particle sizing and screen geometries.

  15. Development of a NbN Deposition Process for Superconducting Quantum Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Glowacka, D M; Withington, S; Muhammad, H; Yassin, G

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a detailed programme to explore the superconducting characteristics of reactive DC-magnetron sputtered NbN. The basic principle is to ignite a plasma using argon, and then to introduce a small additional nitrogen flow to achieve the nitridation of a Nb target. Subsequent sputtering leads to the deposition of NbN onto the host substrate. The characteristics of a sputtered film depend on a number of parameters: argon pressure, nitrogen flow rate and time-evolution profile, substrate material, etc. Crucially, the hysteresis in the target voltage as a function of the nitrogen flow can be used to provide a highly effective monitor of nitrogen consumption during the reactive process. By studying these dependencies we have been able to achieve highly reproducible film characteristics on sapphire, silicon dioxide on silicon, and silicon nitride on silicon. Intrinsic film stress was minimised by optimising the argon pressure, giving NbN films having Tc = 14.65 K. In the paper, we report characteris...

  16. Light-emitting diode therapy increases collagen deposition during the repair process of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Claudia Aparecida Viana; Alves, Agnelo Neves; Terena, Stella Maris Lins; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; da Silva, Daniela de Fátima Teixeira; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzed the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) therapy on the morphology of muscle tissue as well as collagen remodeling and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity in the skeletal muscle of rats following acute injury. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (1) control, (2) sham, (3) untreated cryoinjury, and (4) cryoinjury treated with LED. Cryoinjury was induced by two applications of a metal probe cooled in liquid nitrogen directly onto the belly of the tibialis anterior muscle. For treatment, the LED equipment (wavelength 850 nm, output power 30 mW, and total energy 3.2 J) was used daily. The study periods were 1, 3, and 7 days after cryoinjury. Morphological aspects were evaluated through hematoxylin-eosin staining. The amount of collagen fibers was evaluated using Picro Sirius Red staining under polarized light. The gelatinase activity of MMP-2 was evaluated using zymography. The results showed significant reductions in inflammatory infiltrate after 3 days and an increased number of immature muscle fibers after 7 days. Furthermore, treatment induced a reduction in the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 after 1, 3, and 7 days in comparison to the untreated injury groups and increased the collagen deposition after 3 and 7 days in the treated groups. LED therapy at 850 nm induced a significant reduction in inflammation, decreased MMP-2 activity, and increased the amount of immature muscle and collagen fibers during the muscle repair process following acute injury.

  17. Laser-processing of VO2 thin films synthesized by polymer-assisted-deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenfeld, Eric; Kim, Heungsoo; Gorzkowski, Edward P.; Sutto, Thomas E.; Piqué, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    We investigate a novel route for synthesis and laser-sintering of VO2 thin films via solution-based polymer-assisted-deposition (PAD). By replacing the traditional solvent for PAD (water) with propylene glycol, we are able to control the viscosity and improve the environmental stability of the precursor. The solution stability and ability to control the viscosity makes for an ideal solution to pattern simple or complex shapes via direct-write methods. We demonstrate the potential of our precursor for printing applications by combining PAD with laser induced forward transfer (LIFT). We also demonstrate large-area film synthesis on 4 in. diameter glass wafers. By varying the annealing temperature, we identify the optimal synthesis conditions, obtaining optical transmittance changes of 60% at a 2500 nm wavelength and a two-order-of-magnitude semiconductor-to-metal transition. We go on to demonstrate two routes for improved semiconductor-to-metal characteristics. The first method uses a multi-coating process to produce denser films with large particles. The second method uses a pulsed-UV-laser sintering step in films annealed at low temperatures (<450° C) to promote particle growth and improve the semiconductor-to-metal transition. By comparing the hysteresis width and semiconductor-to-metal transition magnitude in these samples, we demonstrate that both methods yield high quality VO2 with a three-order-of-magnitude transition.

  18. Impact of the Fused Deposition (FDM Printing Process on Polylactic Acid (PLA Chemistry and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Arthur Cuiffo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA is an organic polymer commonly used in fused deposition (FDM printing and biomedical scaffolding that is biocompatible and immunologically inert. However, variations in source material quality and chemistry make it necessary to characterize the filament and determine potential changes in chemistry occurring as a result of the FDM process. We used several spectroscopic techniques, including laser confocal microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and photoacousitc FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS in order to characterize both the bulk and surface chemistry of the source material and printed samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used to characterize morphology, cold crystallinity, and the glass transition and melting temperatures following printing. Analysis revealed calcium carbonate-based additives which were reacted with organic ligands and potentially trace metal impurities, both before and following printing. These additives became concentrated in voids in the printed structure. This finding is important for biomedical applications as carbonate will impact subsequent cell growth on printed tissue scaffolds. Results of chemical analysis also provided evidence of the hygroscopic nature of the source material and oxidation of the printed surface, and SEM imaging revealed micro- and submicron-scale roughness that will also impact potential applications.

  19. Numerical simulation of centrifugal casting of pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschnitz, E.

    2012-07-01

    A numerical simulation model for the horizontal centrifugal pipe casting process was developed with the commercial simulation package Flow3D. It considers - additionally to mass, energy and momentum conservation equations and free surface tracking - the fast radial and slower horizontal movement of the mold. The iron inflow is not steady state but time dependent. Of special importance is the friction between the liquid and the mold in connection with the viscosity and turbulence of the iron. Experiments with the mold at controlled revolution speeds were carried out using a high-speed camera. From these experiments friction coefficients for the description of the interaction between mold and melt were obtained. With the simulation model, the influence of typical process parameters (e.g. melts inflow, mold movement, melt temperature, cooling media) on the wall thickness of the pipes can be studied. The comparison to results of pipes from production shows a good agreement between simulation and reality.

  20. Reliability of piping system components. Volume 1: Piping reliability - A resource document for PSA applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, R.; Erixon, S.; Tomic, B.; Lydell, B.

    1995-12-01

    SKI has undertaken a multi-year research project to establish a comprehensive passive component failure database, validate failure rate parameter estimates and establish a model framework for integrating passive component failures in existing PSAs. Phase 1 of the project produced a relational database on worldwide piping system failure events in the nuclear and chemical industries. This phase 2 report gives a graphical presentation of piping system operating experience, and compares key failure mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plants and chemical process industry. Inadequacies of traditional PSA methodology are addressed, with directions for PSA methodology enhancements. A data-driven-and-systems-oriented analysis approach is proposed to enable assignment of unique identities to risk-significant piping system component failures. Sufficient operating experience does exist to generate quality data on piping failures. Passive component failures should be addressed by today`s PSAs to allow for aging analysis and effective, on-line risk management. 111 refs, 36 figs, 20 tabs.

  1. Origin and evolution of Sariñena Lake (central Ebro Basin): A piping-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Carmen; Javier Gracia, F.; Rodríguez-Ochoa, Rafael; Zarroca, Mario; Roqué, Carles; Linares, Rogelio; Desir, Gloria

    2017-08-01

    The origin and nature of the numerous lakes in the central Ebro Basin have been interpreted according to the prevailing arid or semiarid conditions, the easily-eroded materials and the solubility of the gypsum- and/or carbonate-rich Tertiary/Cenozoic substratum, involving important dissolution (karstic) and/or aeolian deflation. However, the origin of Sariñena Lake, the largest in the central Ebro Basin, remains unknown since the typical lake-generating processes in the region are not applicable. This work provides significant clues to the genesis and evolution of Sariñena Lake in a regional context. The combination of geomorphological mapping and high resolution LiDAR data together with sedimentological observations, the characterisation of soils and sediments around the lake, and the application of high-resolution geophysical techniques suggest that piping is the major genetic process driving the evolution of the Sariñena depression and lake. Field evidence demonstrates that piping is, at present, the most important erosive process in the region, generating significant collapse and surface lowering. Sariñena Lake is located within a deep endorheic depression excavated from Na-rich Tertiary materials. This work hypothesises that once an early, fluvially-originated palustrine area had developed, the progressive lowering of the regional water table linked to regional fluvial incision favoured the establishment of a hydrological gradient high enough to trigger piping processes within the claystones and siltstones underlying the original palustrine area. The Quaternary evolution of the Sariñena lacustrine basin was then controlled by successive water table fluctuations, linked to different phases of incision and alluvial deposition in the surrounding fluvial systems. All the evidence supporting a piping-related origin for this lake, together with examples of lakes generated by similar processes in different contexts, is used to propose a new genetic type of

  2. Erosional and Depositional Processes of the 18 March 2007 Lahar at Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, B. C.; Fagents, S. A.; Houghton, B. F.

    2010-12-01

    Spatiotemporal variability in the deposits of lahars offers clues into the characteristics and fluid dynamics of sediment-laden flows. The 18 March 2007 Crater Lake break-out lahar at Mount Ruapehu, New Zealand, emplaced 1.4 million m3 of boulder-bearing, matrix-rich, massively and weakly bedded deposits over the first 47.4 km of its flow-path. Traditionally these would be classified as debris flow and hyperconcentrated flow deposits, respectively. Grain size and componentry analyses were performed on samples collected over the first 11 km of flow path, for both the 2007 lahar and existing deposits that contributed sediment to the lahar. Heavily altered landslide material contributed a major proportion of sediment to the flow 0.6 km from source, and was used as a marker to establish downstream evolution of flow characteristics. Variations in the proportions of altered material with grain size suggest that abrasion and cataclasis occurred during transport. Furthermore, oxidized components are more rounded than all other sediment contributions, demonstrating greater vulnerability of the former to mechanical breakdown. Ten of sixteen samples of the 2007 lahar have distinctive sand-sized (1-2 Φ) secondary modes that become more pronounced with depth in the deposit, while primary modes coarsen. Similar but primary modes of 1-2 Φ exist 7 km from source, in deposits near the head of a side channel that captured the upper portion of the lahar after it overtopped a drainage divide. The grain size data suggest that sand may percolate downwards from a dilute upper region of the flow into a lower depositional region. We put forth a model for deposition in the first 11 km reach by the waning hyperconcentrated phase of a lahar with a concentrated basal flow but a strong vertical concentration gradient. During peak sediment concentration, the laminar basal region underwent en masse deposition, containing an abundance of sand. As the sediment concentration decreased over time

  3. Shale depositional processes: Example from the Paleozoic Barnett Shale, Fort Worth Basin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelresh, Mohamed; Slatt, Roger

    2011-12-01

    A long held geologic paradigm is that mudrocks and shales are basically the product of `hemipelagic rain' of silt- and/or clay-sized, detrital, biogenic and particulate organic particles onto the ocean floor over long intervals of time. However, recently published experimental and field-based studies have revealed a plethora of micro-sedimentary features that indicate these common fine-grained rocks also could have been transported and/or reworked by unidirectional currents. In this paper, we add to this growing body of knowledge by describing such features from the Paleozoic Barnett Shale in the Fort Worth Basin, Texas, U.S.A. which suggests transport and deposition was from hyperpycnal, turbidity, storm and/or contour currents, in addition to hemipelagic rain. On the basis of a variety of sedimentary textures and structures, six main sedimentary facies have been defined from four 0.3 meter intervals in a 68m (223 ft) long Barnett Shale core: massive mudstone, rhythmic mudstone, ripple and low-angle laminated mudstone, graded mudstone, clay-rich facies, and spicule-rich facies. Current-induced features of these facies include mm- to cmscale cross- and parallel-laminations, scour surfaces, clastic/biogenic particle alignment, and normal- and inverse-size grading. A spectrum of vertical facies transitions and bed types indicate deposition from waxing-waning flows rather than from steady `rain' of particles to the sea floor. Detrital sponge spicule-rich facies suggests transport to the marine environment as hypopycnal or hyperpycnal flows and reversal in buoyancy by transformation from concentrated to dilute flows; alternatively the spicules could have originated by submarine slumping in front of contemporaneous shallow marine sponge reefs, and then transported basinward as turbidity current flows. The occurrence of dispersed biogenic/organic remains and inversely size graded mudstones also support a hyperpycnal and/or turbidity flow origin for a significant part of

  4. Four-point bending JCOC process:A new technology for forming longitudinally submerged arc welding pipe%大型直缝焊管四点弯曲JCOC成形新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军; 孙红磊; 宋晓抗; 马瑞

    2012-01-01

    在分析大型直缝焊管四点弯曲JCO成形力学原理的基础上,对缩径矫圆的理论和实验进行研究,提出了四点弯曲JCOC成形新工艺.该工艺具有成形道次少、生产效率高、无需预弯边、残余应力小、柔性程度高、成形质量好和防止缺陷扩大等成形特点和优势.按照相似性原理,采用JCOC成形新工艺,以X80钢级φ1219mm×22mm钢管为原型,同比例缩小模具和管件尺寸,制成缩径矫圆后φ260.4mm× 4.7mm管坯.该批管坯的椭圆度最大值≤0.5%,满足生产技术要求.JCOC成形新工艺具有良好的市场推广和工程应用价值.%Based on the analysis of the mechanical principles of the "four-point bending JCO (J-Forming C-Forming O-Forming)" process for LSAW (longitudinal submerged ard welding) pipe as well as theoretical and experimental researches on "compression to make round", this paper presented a new technology called the "four-point bending JCOC (J-Forming C-Forming O-Forming and Compression to make round) process". The advantages of the new technology included fewer steps of formation, higher pro-ductivity, the dispensing with crimping process, less residual stress, higher flexibility, better forming quality and preventing the expansion of flaws. Scaling down the mold and pipe dimensions in accordance with the principle of similarity, this experiment used the new technology to make φ260. 4mm× 4. 7mm pipe samples from φ1219mm× 22mm of X80 steel pipe. The samples made by the new process met production requirements with the ovality up to 0. 5%. This indicated that the new technology had good marketing and engineering applications.

  5. Correlation of Fracture Mode Transition of Ceramic Particle with Critical Velocity for Successful Deposition in Vacuum Kinetic Spraying Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungkwon; Kim, Jinyoung; Lee, Sung Bo; Lee, Changhee

    2016-12-01

    Vacuum kinetic spraying (VKS) is a promising room-temperature process to fabricate dense ceramic films. However, unfortunately, the deposition mechanism is still not clearly understood. In this respect, the critical conditions for successful deposition were investigated. Based on simulation and microstructural analysis, it was found that as the particle velocity increased, fracture mode transition from tensile fracture to shear fracture occurred and particle did not bounce off anymore above a certain velocity. Simultaneously, particle underwent shock-induced plasticity and dynamic fragmentation. The plasticity assisted to prevent the fragments from rebounding by spending the excessive kinetic energy and fragmentation is essential for fragment bonding and film growth considering that the deposition rate increased as the fraction of fragmentation increased. Accordingly, plasticity and fragmentation take a crucial role for particle deposition. In this respect, the velocity that fracture mode transition occurs is newly defined as critical velocity. Consequently, for successful deposition, the particle should at least exceed the critical velocity and thus it is very crucial for film fabrication in VKS process at room temperature.

  6. North Atlantic Ocean deep-water processes and depositional environments: A study of the Cenozoic Norway Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oline Hjelstuen, Berit; Andreassen, Elin V.

    2015-04-01

    Despite the enormous areas deep-water basins occupy in modern oceans, our knowledge about them remains poor. At depths of greater than 2000 m, the Cenozoic Norway Basin in the northernmost part of the Atlantic Ocean, is one such basin. Interpretation of 2D multichannel seismic data suggests a three-stage evolution for the Norway Basin. (1) Eocene-Pliocene. This time period is characterised by deposition of ooze-rich sediments in a widening and deepening basin. (2) Early-Middle Pleistocene. A significant shift in sedimentary processes and depositional environments took place in the Early Pleistocene. Mass failures initiated on the Norwegian continental slope, and three Early and Middle Pleistocene slide debrites, with maximum thicknesses of 600 m and sediment volumes of up to 25000 km3, were deposited. With ages estimated at c. 2.7-1.7 Ma, 1.7-1.1 Ma and 0.5 Ma, these slide deposits are among the largest identified worldwide, and among the oldest mapped along the entire NE Atlantic continental margin. (3) Late Pleistocene-Present. Since c. 0.5 Ma the Norway Basin has been effected by glacigenic debris flows, the Storegga Slide and hemipelagic-glacimarine sedimentation. These sedimentary processes were active during a time of repeated shelf-edge ice advances along the NE Atlantic continental margin. This study shows that deep-water basins represent dynamic depositional environments reflecting regional tectonic and climatic changes trough time.

  7. Linking microbial ultrastructure and physiology to iron depositional processes in deep sea hydrothermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. S.; Fleming, E. J.; Emerson, D.; Edwards, K. J.

    2008-12-01

    directional growth may be useful in detecting microscale environmental gradients. Furthermore, this behavior may be preserved in the fossil record, which would allow provide insight into the chemistry of past microenvironments. Experiments are being performed to determine the rate of stalk Fe deposition per cell, in order to relate microbial scale processes to geologic-scale deposits. We are currently investigating the details of taxis and motility. Given available data, we posit a life cycle that involves the following: (1) a "free" stalk-less swimming cell, (2) the cell attaches to a solid surface and starts forming a stalk, (3) depending upon the microenvironment, stalks may grow toward higher oxygen (4) stalk growth stops when conditions no longer sustain cell metabolism and the cell detaches to become a free- swimming cell once again. This study gives yields a better understanding of how these microbes colonize and control chemical gradients in deep-sea microbial mats, and provides criteria to evaluate the biogenicity and environments of fossilized mats. We are beginning cryoelectron tomography studies of M. ferrooxydans, in which we will observe internal and external ultrastructure, allowing us to localize the cellular machinery involved in stalk formation, iron oxidation, and biomineralization.

  8. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  9. Microwave processing of epoxy resins and synthesis of carbon nanotubes by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Liming

    Microwave processing of advanced materials has been studied as an attractive alternative to conventional thermal processing. In this dissertation, work was preformed in four sections. The first section is a review on research status of microwave processing of polymer materials. The second section is investigation of the microwave curing kinetics of epoxy resins. The curing of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and 3, 3'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) system under microwave radiation at 145 °C was governed by an autocatalyzed reaction mechanism. A kinetic model was used to describe the curing progress. The third section is a study on dielectric properties of four reacting epoxy resins over a temperature range at 2.45 GHz. The epoxy resin was DGEBA. The four curing agents were DDS, Jeffamine D-230, m-phenylenediamine, and diethyltoluenediamine. The mixtures of DGEBA and the four curing agents were stoichiometric. The four reacting systems were heated under microwave irradiation to certain cure temperatures. Measurements of temperature and dielectric properties were made during free convective cooling of the samples. The cooled samples were analyzed with a Differential Scanning Calorimeter to determine the extents of cure. The Davidson-Cole model can be used to describe the dielectric data. A simplified Davidson-Cole expression was proposed to calculate the parameters in the Davidson-Cole model and describe the dielectric properties of the DGEBA/DDS system and part of the dielectric data of the other three systems. A single relaxation model was used with the Arrhenius expression for temperature dependence to model the results. The evolution of all parameters in the models during cure was related to the decreasing number of the epoxy and amine groups in the reactants and the increasing viscosity of the reacting systems. The last section is synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on silicon substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition of a gas mixture of

  10. 76 FR 11757 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... unfinished drill collars (including all drill collar green tubes) and unfinished drill pipe (including drill pipe green tubes, which are tubes meeting the following description: seamless tubes with an outer... release any bond or other security posted and refund any cash deposit of estimated antidumping duties made...

  11. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your..., CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.30 Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco are taxed at the following rates...

  12. Dynamic Analysis of Offshore Oil Pipe Installation Using the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy D; Madsen, Søren B; Hyldahl, Per Christian

    2013-01-01

    of offshore submerged oil pipes using oceangoing vessels. In this investigation such an oil pipe is modeled using ANCF beam elements to simulate the dynamic behavior of the pipe during the installation process. Multiple physical effects such as gravity, buoyancy, seabed contact, and fluid damping...

  13. SiNx coatings deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering: Process parameters influencing the residual coating stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Hänninen, T.; Wissting, J.; Hultman, L.; Goebbels, N.; Santana, A.; Tobler, M.; Högberg, H.

    2017-05-01

    The residual coating stress and its control is of key importance for the performance and reliability of silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings for biomedical applications. This study explores the most important deposition process parameters to tailor the residual coating stress and hence improve the adhesion of SiNx coatings deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (rHiPIMS). Reactive sputter deposition and plasma characterization were conducted in an industrial deposition chamber equipped with pure Si targets in N2/Ar ambient. Reactive HiPIMS processes using N2-to-Ar flow ratios of 0 and 0.28-0.3 were studied with time averaged positive ion mass spectrometry. The coatings were deposited to thicknesses of 2 μm on Si(001) and to 5 μm on polished CoCrMo disks. The residual stress of the X-ray amorphous coatings was determined from the curvature of the Si substrates as obtained by X-ray diffraction. The coatings were further characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation in order to study their elemental composition, morphology, and hardness, respectively. The adhesion of the 5 μm thick coatings deposited on CoCrMo disks was assessed using the Rockwell C test. The deposition of SiNx coatings by rHiPIMS using N2-to-Ar flow ratios of 0.28 yield dense and hard SiNx coatings with Si/N ratios <1. The compressive residual stress of up to 2.1 GPa can be reduced to 0.2 GPa using a comparatively high deposition pressure of 600 mPa, substrate temperatures below 200 °C, low pulse energies of <2.5 Ws, and moderate negative bias voltages of up to 100 V. These process parameters resulted in excellent coating adhesion (ISO 0, HF1) and a low surface roughness of 14 nm for coatings deposited on CoCrMo.

  14. Composite drill pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, James C [Fountain Valley, CA; Leslie, II, James C.; Heard, James [Huntington Beach, CA; Truong, Liem , Josephson; Marvin, Neubert [Huntington Beach, CA; Hans, [Anaheim, CA

    2008-12-02

    A composite pipe segment is formed to include tapered in wall thickness ends that are each defined by opposed frustoconical surfaces conformed for self centering receipt and intimate bonding contact within an annular space between corresponding surfaces of a coaxially nested set of metal end pieces. The distal peripheries of the nested end pieces are then welded to each other and the sandwiched and bonded portions are radially pinned. The composite segment may include imbedded conductive leads and the axial end portions of the end pieces are shaped to form a threaded joint with the next pipe assembly that includes a contact ring in one pipe assembly pierced by a pointed contact in the other to connect the corresponding leads across the joint.

  15. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  16. Distribution of heat flux by working fluid in loop heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2016-03-01

    The main topics of article are construction of loop heat pipe, thermal visualization of working fluid dynamics and research results interpretation. The work deals about heat flux transport by working fluid in loop heat pipe from evaporator to condenser evolution. The result of the work give us how the hydrodynamic and thermal processes which take place inside the loop of heat pipe affect on the overall heat transport by loop heat pipe at start-up and during operation.

  17. Distribution of heat flux by working fluid in loop heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topics of article are construction of loop heat pipe, thermal visualization of working fluid dynamics and research results interpretation. The work deals about heat flux transport by working fluid in loop heat pipe from evaporator to condenser evolution. The result of the work give us how the hydrodynamic and thermal processes which take place inside the loop of heat pipe affect on the overall heat transport by loop heat pipe at start-up and during operation.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of the formation of sp3 hybridized bonds in hydrogenated diamondlike carbon deposition processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yasuo; Horiguchi, Seishi; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2010-04-01

    The formation process of sp3 hybridized carbon networks (i.e., diamondlike structures) in hydrogenated diamondlike carbon (DLC) films has been studied with the use of molecular-dynamics simulations. The processes simulated in this study are injections of hydrocarbon (CH3 and CH) beams into amorphous carbon (a-C) substrates. It has been shown that diamondlike sp3 structures are formed predominantly at a subsurface level when the beam energy is relatively high, as in the "subplantation" process for hydrogen-free DLC deposition. However, for hydrogenated DLC deposition, the presence of abundant hydrogen at subsurface levels, together with thermal spikes caused by energetic ion injections, substantially enhances the formation of carbon-to-carbon sp3 bonds. Therefore, the sp3 bond formation process for hydrogenated DLC films essentially differs from that for hydrogen-free DLC films.

  19. Development of remote pipe cutting tool for divertor cassettes in JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Takao, E-mail: hayashi.takao@jaea.go.jp; Sakurai, Shinji; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Sakasai, Akira

    2014-10-15

    Remote pipe cutting tool accessing from inside pipe has been newly developed for JT-60SA. The tool head equips a disk-shaped cutter blade and four rollers which are subjected to the reaction force. The tool pushes out the cutter blade by decreasing the distance between two cams. The tool cuts a cooling pipe by both pushing out the cutter blade and rotating the tool head itself. The roller holder is not pushed out anymore after touching the inner wall of the pipe. In other words, only cutter blade is pushed out after bringing the tool axis into the pipe axis. Outer diameter of the cutting tool head is 44 mm. The cutting tool is able to push out the cutter blade up to 32.5 mm in radius, i.e. 65 mm in diameter, which is enough to cut the pipe having an outer diameter of 59.8 mm. The thickness and material of the cooling pipe are 2.8 mm and SUS316L, respectively. The length of the cutting tool head is about 1 m. The tool is able to cut a pipe locates about 480 mm in depth from the mounting surface on the divertor cassette. The pipe cutting system equips two cutting heads and they are able to cut two pipes at the same time in order to remove the inner target plate. Reproducibility of the cross-sectional shape of the cut pipe is required for re-welding. The degree of reproducibility is inside 0.1 mm except for burr at outside of the pipe, which is enough to re-weld the cut pipe. Some swarf is generated during cutting the double-layered pipe assuming a plug located on the top of the pipe. The swarf is deposited on the bottom of the plug and collected by pulling out the plug in the actual equipment.

  20. Design of signal processing system of portable quality detector for oil drill pipes%便携式钻杆质量检测仪信号处理系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彬; 何箭

    2014-01-01

    便携式钻杆质量检测仪可在油气开采现场对钻杆进行无损检测,野外作业的特点对信号处理系统提出了体积小、功耗低、检测灵敏度高以及与显示终端间数据传输灵活的要求。文章设计了一套完整的可进行信号采集、处理、显示的嵌入式软硬件系统和手持终端软件系统,嵌入式处理系统与手持式显示终端之间采用无线方式进行数据通信。整套系统性能符合相应的国家标准,能够满足野外开采现场对钻杆进行检测的需要。%Portable drill pipe quality detector can conduct nondestructive test on drill pipe at oil and gas extracting sites .The signal processing system fulfills the requirements of field operation with compact size ,low power consumption and high detection sensitivity with flexible data transmission between display terminal and DSP .The embedded software and hardware system and the software for portable display terminal system are designed ,working as a complete set for data acquisition ,processing and display .The system which owns relatively high sampling sensitivity and sampling precision with wire-less transmission for terminal data is suitable for the drill pipe testing in field extracting operations , and it meets the requirements of related national standards .

  1. Pipe Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Buddy

    This teacher's guide contains nine units of instruction for a course on computer-assisted pipe drafting. The course covers the following topics: introduction to pipe drafting with CAD (computer-assisted design); flow diagrams; pipe and pipe components; valves; piping plans and elevations; isometrics; equipment fabrication drawings; piping design…

  2. Handbook of thin film deposition processes and techniques principles, methods, equipment and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Seshan, Krishna

    2002-01-01

    New second edition of the popular book on deposition (first edition by Klaus Schruegraf) for engineers, technicians, and plant personnel in the semiconductor and related industries. This book traces the technology behind the spectacular growth in the silicon semiconductor industry and the continued trend in miniaturization over the last 20 years. This growth has been fueled in large part by improved thin film deposition techniques and the development of highly specialized equipment to enable this deposition. The book includes much cutting-edge material. Entirely new chapters on contamination and contamination control describe the basics and the issues-as feature sizes shrink to sub-micron dimensions, cleanliness and particle elimination has to keep pace. A new chapter on metrology explains the growth of sophisticated, automatic tools capable of measuring thickness and spacing of sub-micron dimensions. The book also covers PVD, laser and e-beam assisted deposition, MBE, and ion beam methods to bring together a...

  3. The Interlayer Stress Analysis of Polyethylene-steel Composite Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xu-guang

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene-steel Composite Pipes is widely used in conveying corrosive media occasions, but the pipe may lose effectiveness in the process of transporting hot and cold media, so the research of stress distribution and variation in polyethylene-steel composite pipes is very necessary.This article first assume that a thin adhesive layer is in between the polyethylene and steel, the adhesive layer along the axial shear stress is the major cause of the polyethylene layer and the steel pipe off sticky.Secondly, we use a method of finite element to computer simulation by ANSYS, and verify initial assumptions. Finally, based on simulation data, we analyse the adhesive layer stress distribution and the variation with different parameters to change.Through the above research, preliminarily summarize the variation and distribution of interlaminar stress, and provide technical support for future design and process improvement of polyethylenesteel pipe.

  4. Process Requirements for Piping Design in the Cold Box of Air Separation Unit%空分装置冷箱内配管的工艺流程要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙东升; 李超

    2015-01-01

    The principle of piping design is to meet the process requirements, ensure the safety and economic rational?ity of the pipeline and related equipment. Meeting the requirements of the process is the most important task of the piping design,it is saturated gas,liquid or medium of two-phase flow in the pipeline of air separation unit cold box, the process has many requirements for the details of pipelines, and needs the pipeline designers to pay attention.%管道设计的原则是满足工艺流程要求、保证管道及相关设备的安全性和经济性.满足工艺流程要求是管道设计的首要任务,空分装置冷箱管道内是饱和的气体、液体或两相流介质,工艺流程对配管有很多细节要求,需要管道设计人员重视.

  5. PE 100 pipe systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brömstrup, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    English translation of the 3rd edition ""Rohrsysteme aus PE 100"". Because of the considerably increased performance, pipe and pipe systems made from 100 enlarge the range of applications in the sectors of gas and water supply, sewage disposal, industrial pipeline construction and in the reconstruction and redevelopment of defective pipelines (relining). This book applies in particular to engineers, technicians and foremen working in the fields of supply, disposal and industry. Subject matters of the book are all practice-relevant questions regarding the construction, operation and maintenance

  6. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis on the microstructures of electrolytic Cu deposition in the through hole filling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C.E., E-mail: ceho1975@hotmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liao, C.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan, ROC (China); School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Pan, C.X. [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Chen, H.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, J.C.; Chen, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-10-01

    Through hole (TH) filling by electrolytic Cu deposition has become a critical process for high density interconnection technologies associated with three-dimensional packaging. In this study, the morphological and crystallographic evolutions of the electrolytic Cu TH filling with the plating time (t) were investigated using an optical microscope and a field-emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis system. The Cu deposition rate in the TH was strongly dependent on t, which was established at a moderate rate of ∼ 0.3 μm/min at t = 40 min–74 min, then dramatically accelerated to ∼ 4 μm/min at t = 74 min–80 min (termed “fast deposition regime”), and subsequently decelerated in the final plating regime (t = 80 min–100 min). EBSD analyses showed that the electrolytic Cu predominantly possessed high-angle grain boundaries with strong coincidence site lattices at ∑3 (60° rotation at <111>) and ∑9 (38.9° rotation at <101>) for all t examined. Interestingly, the [111]‖TD (transverse direction) orientation displayed a relatively strong presence in the initial induction regime, while the [111]‖TD + [101]‖TD orientations with large grain sizes became dominant in the fast deposition regime (i.e., t = 74 min–80 min), and there was a very low concentration of the [111]‖TD orientation in the final deposition regime. This research offered a better understanding of the morphological and crystallographic evolutions in each stage of the electrolytic Cu TH filling. - Highlights: • Through hole (TH) filling by electrolytic Cu deposition • The Cu deposition rate is strongly dependent on the plating time in the THs. • The dominant Cu orientations were [111]‖TD (transverse direction) and [101]‖TD. • Cu possessed high angle grain boundaries with strong coincidence site lattices.

  7. Studies on Effect of Fused Deposition Modelling Process Parameters on Ultimate Tensile Strength and Dimensional Accuracy of Nylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaraj, C. K.; Vishwas, M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses the process parameters for fused deposition modelling (FDM). Layer thickness, Orientation angle and shell thickness are the process variables considered for studies. Ultimate tensile strength, dimensional accuracy and manufacturing time are the response parameters. For number of experimental runs the taguchi's L9 orthogonal array is used. Taguchis S/N ratio was used to identify a set of process parameters which give good results for respective response characteristics. Effectiveness of each parameter is investigated by using analysis of variance. The material used for the studies of process parameter is Nylon.

  8. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  9. Nanostructured TaxC interlayer synthesized via double glow plasma surface alloying process for diamond deposition on cemented carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wolong; Hei, Hongjun; Zhong, Qiang; Shen, Yanyan; Liu, Xiaoping; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Bing; He, Zhiyong; Yu, Shengwang

    2015-12-01

    The aim in this work was to improve the adhesion of diamond coating with pre-deposition of a TaxC interlayer on cemented carbide (WC-Co) substrate by double glow plasma surface alloying technique. The following deposition of diamond coating on the interlayer was performed in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor. TaxC interlayer with an inner diffusion layer and an outer deposition layer was composed of Ta2C and TaC nanocrystalline, and it exhibited a special compact surface morphology formed of flower-shaped pits. As the gradual element distributions existed in the diffusion layer, the interlayer displayed a superior adherence to the substrate with significantly enhanced surface microhardness to the original substrate. After CVD process, the preferred orientation of TaC changed from (2 2 2) to (2 0 0) plane, and a uniform and tense diamond coating with adhesion referred to class HF 2 at least (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure 3198 norm) was obtained on the interlayered substrate. It indicated that the diffusion of Co was effectively inhibited by the formation of TaxC diffusion-deposition interlayer. The TaxC interlayer is most likely to improve the performance of diamond coatings used in cutting tools.

  10. Simulation of Deposition the Corrosion Waste in a Water Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peráčková Jana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In water distribution systems can be found particles of rust and other mechanical contaminants. The particles are deposited in locations where the low velocity of water flow. Where a can cause the pitting corrosion. Is a concern in the systems made of galvanized steel pipes. The contribution deals with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of water flow and particles deposition in water distribution system. CFD Simulations were compared with the corrosive deposits in real pipeline. Corrosion is a spontaneous process of destruction of metal material due to electrochemical reactions of metal with the aggressive surrounding. Electrochemical corrosion is caused by the thermodynamic instability of metal and therefore can not be completely suppress, it can only influence the speed of corrosion. The requirement is to keep metal properties during the whole its lifetime. Requested service lifetime the water pipe according to EN 806-2 is 50 years.

  11. Simulation of guided waves in complex piping geometries using the elastodynamic finite integration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Kevin E; Leonard, Kevin R; Bingham, Jill P; Hinders, Mark K

    2007-03-01

    Although many technologies exist for inspecting piping systems, they are most successful on straight pipes and are often unable to accommodate the added complexities of pipe elbows, bends, twists, and branches, particularly if the region of interest is inaccessible. This paper presents a numerical technique based on the elastodynamic finite integration technique for simulating guided elastic wave propagation in piping systems. Comparisons show agreement between experimental and simulated data, and guided wave interaction with flaws, focusing, and propagation in pipe bends are presented. These examples demonstrate the ability of the simulation method to be used to study elastic wave propagation in piping systems which include three-dimensional pipe bends, and suggest its potential as a design tool for designing pipe inspection hardware and ultrasonic signal processing algorithms.

  12. 75 FR 18788 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Preliminary Results and Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Pacific Pipe at the cash deposit rate required at the time of entry. Interested parties are invited to... by section 751(a)(1) of the Act: (1) for Saha Thai, the cash deposit rate will be the rate... listed above, the cash deposit rate will be the company-specific rate established for the most...

  13. Perspective: Highly ordered MoS2 thin films grown by multi-step chemical vapor deposition process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Heo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We established a process for growing highly ordered MoS2 thin films. The process consists of four steps: MoO3 thermal evaporation, first annealing, sulfurization, and second annealing. The main feature of this process is that thermally deposited MoO3 thin films are employed as a precursor for the MoS2 films. The first deposition step enabled us to achieve precise control of the resulting thickness of the MoS2 films with high uniformity. The crystalline structures, surface morphologies, and chemical states at each step were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on these characterizations and a careful optimization of the growth conditions, we successfully produced a highly oriented MoS2 thin film with a thickness of five monolayers over an entire one-centimeter-square sapphire substrate.

  14. DEPOSITION OF TiBN HARD FILMS ON HOT-WORKING-STEEL DIES FOR ALUMINIUM EXTRUSION VIA A DUPLEX PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. MUller

    2001-01-01

    Hot working steels have been used as die materials for hot extrusion of aluminium.Due to tribological interaction at elevated temperature between the die bearing and thesurface of extruded aluminium profiles, not only the surface quality of the extrudedproduct, but also the lifetime of the dies decreases. Deposition of TiBN hard films onthe die bearing could improve the die performance. Treatment should be done in aduplex process process combining a plasma nitriding pretreatment (PN) and a plasmaassisted chemical vapour deposition (PACVD) of TiBN. In this study the influence ofthe process conditions on the properties of the duplex coatings was investigated. Therelationship between structure and mechanical property was researched. For testingthese TiBN hardfilms under elevated temperature conditions and for comparison withother possible coatings special extrusion dies with different coated bearings were used.The extrusion trials were performed on the 8MN-extrusion press at the research anddevelopment center for extrusion, Technical University of Berlin.

  15. A Novel Pre-cooling System for a Cryogenic Pulsating Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Liu, Huiming; Gong, Linghui; Xu, Xiangdong; Li, Laifeng

    To reduce the influence of the pipe material on the measurement of effective thermal conductivity, the pipe of a cryogenic pulsating heat pipe is generally made of stainless steel. Because of the low thermal conductivity of stainless steel, the pre-cooling of the evaporator in cryogenic pulsating heat pipe using helium as working fluid at 4.2 K is a problem. We designed a mechanical-thermal switch between the cryocooler and the evaporator, which was on during the pre-cooling process and off during the test process. By using the pre-cooling system, the cool down time of the cryogenic pulsating heat pipe was reduced significantly.

  16. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  17. Aeronautical tubes and pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauclair, N.

    1984-12-01

    The main and subcomponent French suppliers of aircraft tubes and pipes are discussed, and the state of the industry is analyzed. Quality control is essential for tubes with regard to their i.d. and metallurgical compositions. French regulations do not allow welded seam tubes in hydraulic circuits unless no other form is available, and then rustproofed steel must be installed. The actual low level of orders for any run of tubes dictates that the product is only one of several among the manufacturers' line. Automation, both in NDT and quality control, assures that the tubes meet specifications. A total of 10 French companies participate in the industry, serving both civil and military needs, with some companies specializing only in titanium, steel, or aluminum materials. Concerns wishing to enter the market must upgrade their equipment to meet the higher aeronautical specifications and be prepared to furnish tubes and pipes that serve both functional and structural purposes simultaneously. Additionally, pipe-bending machines must also perform to tight specifications. Pipes can range from 0.2 mm exterior diameter to 40 mm, with wall thicknesses from 0.02 mm to 3 mm. A chart containing a list of manufacturers and their respective specifications and characteristics is presented, and a downtrend in production with reduction of personnel is noted.

  18. [Piping cinnamon] 791

    OpenAIRE

    W L H Skeen and Co

    2003-01-01

    279 x 211 mm. Showing female workers making cinnamon pipes. The cinnamon is placed on a low tripod formed from four sticks, and steadied with the operator's foot while the cuticle is scraped off with a small curved knife. Annotated '791' on the bottom right hand corner of the photograph. Date approximate.

  19. Development of coatings for ultrasonic additive manufacturing sonotrode using laser direct metal deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Niyanth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jordan, Brian H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    ORNL partnered with Fabrisonic, LLC to develop galling resistant hard facing coatings on sonotrodes used to fabricate 3D printed materials using ultrasonic additive manufacturing. The development and deployment of a coated sonotrode is expected to push the existing state of the art to facilitate the solidstate additive manufacturing of hard steels and titanium alloys. To this effect a structurally amorphous stainless steel material and cobalt chrome material were deposited on the sonotrode material. Both the deposits showed good adhesion to the substrate. The coatings made using the structurally amorphous steel materials showed cracking during the initial trials and cracking was eliminated by deposition on a preheated substrate. Both the coatings show hardness in excess of 600 HVN. Thus the phase 1 of this project has been used to identify suitable materials to use to coat the sonotrode. Despite the fact that successful deposits were obtained, the coatings need to be evaluated by performing detailed galling tests at various temperatures. In addition field tests are also necessary to test the stability of these coatings in a high cycle ultrasonic vibration mode. If awarded, phase 2 of the project would be used to optimize the composition of the deposit material to maximize galling resistance. The industrial partner would then use the coated sonotrode to fabricate builds made of austenitic stainless steel to test the viability of using a coated sonotrode.

  20. 2A12合金的无润滑管材挤压工艺实验研究%Research of 2A12 alloy pipe extrusion process experiment with no lubrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡世军; 张代录; 梁东旭; 袁铭; 王瑞哲; 张红香

    2012-01-01

    In order to complete no lubrication extrusion on domestic 35 MN extruder, and reduce waste generation, by analyzing the material properties of 2A12 alloy and the structure characteristics of domestic 35 MN extruder, the transform of the extruder perforation needle system structure was performed and a no lubrication pipe extrusion experiment of the 2A12 alloy pipe on the machine was made. The experimental results show that the no lubrication pipe extrusion of 2A12 alloy can be realized in the proper control of process parameters, such as the extrusion speed, extrusion temperature and heating temperature. The inner surfaces of the extrusion product has good quality, its eccentricity is also improved greatly.%为了在国产35 MN挤压机上实现2A12合金管材的无润滑挤压,减少废品的产生,通过分析2A12合金的材料性能及国产35 MN挤压机的结构特点,对挤压机的穿孔针系统结构进行改造,并在该挤压机上进行了2A12合金的无润滑管材挤压实验.实验结果表明,在合理控制挤压速度、挤压温度、铸锭加热温度等工艺参数的条件下,可以实现2A12合金的无润滑管材挤压;挤压产品的内表面质量好,偏心度得到很大改善.

  1. Correlations between optical properties, microstructure, and processing conditions of Aluminum nitride thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jonghoon [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)]. E-mail: jhoon6@hotmail.com; Ma, James [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Becker, Michael F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Keto, John W. [Department of Physics, Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Kovar, Desiderio [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2007-06-25

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) films were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto sapphire (0001) substrates with varying processing conditions (temperature, pressure, and laser fluence). We have studied the dependence of optical properties, structural properties and their correlations for these AlN films. The optical transmission spectra of the produced films were measured, and a numerical procedure was applied to accurately determine the optical constants for films of non-uniform thickness. The microstructure and texture of the films were studied using various X-ray diffraction techniques. The real part of the refractive index was found to not vary significantly with processing parameters, but absorption was found to be strongly dependent on the deposition temperature and the nitrogen pressure in the deposition chamber. We report that low optical absorption, textured polycrystalline AlN films can be produced by PLD on sapphire substrates at both low and high laser fluence using a background nitrogen pressure of 6.0 x 10{sup -2} Pa (4.5 x 10{sup -4} Torr) of 99.9% purity.

  2. Photocatalytic evaluation of self-assembled porous network structure of ferric oxide film fabricated by dry deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yunchan; Kim, Hyungsub; Lee, Geon-Yong; Pawar, Rajendra C.; Lee, Jai-Sung; Lee, Caroline Sunyong, E-mail: sunyonglee@hanyang.ac.kr

    2016-09-15

    Ferric oxide powder in the alpha phase (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was deposited on an aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrate by a nanoparticle deposition system using the dry deposition method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) images confirmed that the phase of the deposited α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} did not change. The deposited α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was characterized in terms of its microstructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A porous network microstructure formed when small agglomerates of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (SAF) were deposited. The deposition and formation mechanism of the microstructure were investigated using SEM and three-dimensional (3D) profile analysis. First, a dense coating layer formed when the film was thinner than the particle size. After that, as the film thickness increased to over 5 μm, the porous network structure formed by excavating the surface of the coating layer as it was bombarded by particles. Rhodamine B (RhB) was degraded after 6 h of exposure to the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating layer with SAF, which has good photocatalytic activity and a high porous network structure. The kinetic rate constants of the SAF and large agglomerates of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (LAF) were calculated to be 0.197(h{sup −1}) and 0.128(h{sup −1}), respectively, based on the absorbance results. Using linear sweep voltammetry, we confirmed that the photoelectric effect occurred in the coating layer by measuring the resulting current under illuminated and dark conditions. - Graphical abstract: Self-assembled porous photocatalytic film fabricated by dry deposition method for water purification. - Highlights: • Different sizes of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} agglomerates were used to form porous network structure. • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} agglomerate particles were deposited using solvent-free process. • Self-assembled porous network microstructure formed better with small agglomerates of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Fabricated porous network structure showed its potential to be used

  3. A Humidity Sensor Based on Silver Nanoparticles Thin Film Prepared by Electrostatic Spray Deposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thutiyaporn Thiwawong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, thin film of silver nanoparticles for humidity sensor application was deposited by electrostatic spray deposition technique. The influence of the deposition times on properties of films was studied. The crystal structures of sample films, their surface morphology, and optical properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, and UV-VIS spectrophotometer, respectively. The crystalline structure of silver nanoparticles thin film was found in the orientation of (100 and (200 planes of cubic structure at diffraction angles 2θ  =  38.2° and 44.3°, respectively. Moreover, the silver nanoparticles thin films humidity sensor was fabricated onto the interdigitated electrodes. The sensor exhibited the humidity adsorption and desorption properties. The sensing mechanisms of the device were also elucidated by complex impedance analysis.

  4. In situ ellipsometric study of the three-stage process in CuInSe{sub 2} film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakata, Sho; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Matsunaga, Hiroaki [Faculty of Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    In Situ ellipsometric study has been carried out during the deposition of the CuInSe{sub 2} thin film by means of the three-stage process. A rotator analyzing ellipsomerter using a 632.8 nm He-Ne laser was used. Ellipsometric parameters ({Psi} and {Delta}) and reflectivity R was obtained during the entire deposition stages, in which a complex reflection coefficient is {rho}=tan{Psi} exp(i{Delta}). Cu, In and Se were deposited on the Mo-coated SLG substrate. At the first-stage (In-Se deposition), the In-Se film deposition rate and its reflactive index has been obtained on the basis of the light interference. At the second-stage, changes in both {Psi} and {Delta} are observed. Based on the X-ray diffraction measurement, these changes are related to the stoichiometric composition of the film from In-rich to Cu-rich. This signal was utilized as a process switch from the second-stage to the third-stage. At the third stage, the weak change in {Psi} has been observed showing the change of the stoichiometric composition from the Cu- rich to the In-rich. By means of the in situ ellipsometry-controlled three-stage process, the CuInSe{sub 2} layer with single phase chalcopyrite structure has successfully been prepared, which exhibits an intense near-band-edge photoluminescence at 0.998 eV at room temperature. The preliminary fabricated ZnO/CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} solar cell exhibited a conversion efficiency of 5.6%. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. ANALYSIS OF GROUP MAINTENANCE STRATEGY -ROAD PAVEMENT AND SEWERAGE PIPES-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Keishi; Sugimoto, Yasuaki; Miyamoto, Shinya; Nada, Hideki; Hosoi, Yoshihiko

    Recently, it is critical to manage deteriorating sewerage and road facilities efficiently and strategically. Since the sewerage pipes are mostly installed under road pavement, the works for the replacement of the sewerage pipes are partially common to the works for the road. This means that the replacement cost can be saved by coordinating the timing of the replacements by sewerage pipe and road pavement. The purpose of the study is to develop the model based on Markov decision process to derive the optimal group maintenance policy so as to minimize lifecycle cost. Then the model is applied to case study area and demonstrated to estimate the lifecycle cost using statistical data such as pipe replacement cost, road pavement rehabilitation cost, and state of deterioration of pipes and road pavement.

  6. Buckling behavior of pipes in oil and gas wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the non-linear differential equations of buckled pipes, the buckling behavior of pipes in different wellbores has been analyzed. The relation between the deflection of buckled pipe and the loads on it has been given, and the critical loads for sinusodal and helical buckling within different wellbores subjected to axial and torsional loads have been determined. Therefore, the profile of load increase during the post-buckling process and the bending moments in the buckled pipe can be determined. In addition, the effects of down-hole packer as fixed end on the helical buckling behavior of pipes have been investigated. These results can be applied to the related engineering design and construction.

  7. Entransy dissipation analysis and optimization of separated heat pipe system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN XiaoDong; LI Zhen; MENG JiAn; LI ZhiXin

    2012-01-01

    Seperated heat pipe systems are widely used in the fields of waste heat recovery and air conditioning due to their high heat transfer capability,and optimization of heat transfer process plays an important role in high-efficiency energy utilization and energy conservation.In this paper,the entransy dissipation analysis is conducted for the separated heat pipe system,and the result indicates that minimum thermal resistance principle is applicable to the optimization of the separated heat pipe system.Whether in the applications of waste heat recovery or air conditioning,the smaller the entransy-dissipation-based thermal resistance of the separated heat pipe system is,the better the heat transfer performance will be.Based on the minimum thermal resistance principle,the optimal area allocation relationship between evaporator and condenser is deduced,which is numerically verified in the optimation design of separated heat pipe system.

  8. Preparation and characteristics of C/C composite brake disc by multi-cylindrical chemical vapor deposition processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yi-dong; ZHANG Fu-kuan; ZHOU Wan-cheng

    2005-01-01

    The C/C composite brake discs were prepared by tri-cylindrical chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The optimum processing parameters were as follows: deposition temperature was 830-930 ℃, the gas-flow rates of N2 and propylene were 4.8-5.2 m3/h and 5.8-6.2 m3/h, respectively, the furnace pressure was 4.5-5.5 kPa and the deposition time was 200 h.The effects of processing parameters on the densified rates, thermal-physical property and mechanical performance of C/C composite brake discs were studied. The results show that density, heat conductivity, bend strength and abrasion ratio of the multi-cylindrica brake discs are 1.02-1.78 g/cm3, 31 W/(m·K), 114 MPa and 7 μm/s, respectively, which are approximately similar to those of the single-cylindrical ones. The gas flow rate has no relation to the number of the cylinder and furnace loading. The utilization ratio of carbon can be improved by multi-cylinder CVD process without changing the characteristics of brake disc.

  9. Room Temperature Deposition Processes Mediated By Ultrafast Photo-Excited Hot Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-30

    unreliable fabrication methods . Further, a technique to mass-produce diamond wafers, such as the Czochralski method for silicon, has not yet been...developed the first known method for the selective heteroepitaxial deposition of diamond patterning, potentially paving the way for an all-diamond

  10. Deposition and characterization of La 2Ti 2O 7 thin films via spray pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovsky, D. S.; Todorovska, R. V.; Milanova, M. M.; Kovacheva, D. G.

    2007-03-01

    Thin films of La 2Ti 2O 7 have been deposited on fused silica and Si substrates by a spray pyrolysis method using ethylene glycol solution of La(III)-Ti(IV)-citrate complexes as starting material and O 2 as a carrier gas. The composition, crystal structure and morphology of the films are studied.

  11. Direct Deposition of Metal (DDM) as a Repair Process for Metallic Military Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-20

    properties such as, better corrosion resistance , increased strength, increased toughness and finer microstructure. DDM also has improved ductility...Figure 12: Samples after 168 hours salt spray corrosion test UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 15 Stellite 6 Deposit Mechanical Tests • Specimen...less than 1% elongation (from www.matweb.com) • Corrosion test – Stellite material was not subjected to corrosion testing. Figure 13

  12. Nanoparticle-electrode collision processes: the underpotential deposition of thallium on silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Ge; Rees, Neil V; Compton, Richard G

    2011-08-01

    The electrochemistry of collisions between metal nanoparticles (NPs) and electrode surfaces has been of recent interest with the development of anodic particle coulometry as a characterisation method. For the first time the underpotential deposition of metal ions from solution onto metal nanoparticles during collisions between the NPs and an inert electrode is reported.

  13. Growth Process Conditions of Tungsten Oxide Thin Films Using Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, Z.S.; Geus, J.W.; de Jong, M.; Harks, P.P.R.M.L.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    We report the growth conditions of nanostructured tungsten oxide (WO3−x) thin films using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). Two tungsten filaments were resistively heated to various temperatures and exposed to an air flow at various subatmospheric pressures. The oxygen partial pressure was

  14. Theoretical Study of Laser-Stimulated Chemical Vapor Deposition Processes of Importance in Microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    fundamental microscopic theory for the laser-induced periodic surface structure ( LIPSS ), which includes electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom of the...deposition rate. The dynamics of subsequent multilayer LIPSS formation is treated using a metal-metal interaction potential obtained by combining MO theory

  15. An automatic modeling system of the reaction mechanisms for chemical vapor deposition processes using real-coded genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takahiro; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Kinpara, Hiroki; Ema, Yoshinori

    2011-09-01

    The identification of appropriate reaction models is very helpful for developing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. In this study, we have developed an automatic system to model reaction mechanisms in the CVD processes by analyzing the experimental results, which are cross-sectional shapes of the deposited films on substrates with micrometer- or nanometer-sized trenches. We designed the inference engine to model the reaction mechanism in the system by the use of real-coded genetic algorithms (RCGAs). We studied the dependence of the system performance on two methods using simple genetic algorithms (SGAs) and the RCGAs; the one involves the conventional GA operators and the other involves the blend crossover operator (BLX-alpha). Although we demonstrated that the systems using both the methods could successfully model the reaction mechanisms, the RCGAs showed the better performance with respect to the accuracy and the calculation cost for identifying the models.

  16. Processes of depositing platinum on carbon nanotubes and their effect on performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhui Li; Jun Ding; Junfeng Chen; Zongqiang Mao; Cailu Xu; Dehai Wu

    2004-01-01

    The ultrafine platinum nanoparticles deposited on the surfaces of carbon nanotubes (Pt/CNTs) were prepared by a chemical precipitation method and used as the catalyst of proton exchange membrane fuel cell. The depositing process parameters such as the solution pH value, Pt content and treatment temperature were analyzed. The experimental results show that the optimum process parameters to prepare Pt/CNTs are the solution pH value of 7.0, the theoretical Pt content of 25% (mass fraction) and the heating temperature of 500℃, under the conditions the best performance of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell can be obtained and its voltage can reach 580 mV at a current density of 500 mA/cm2.

  17. Trimethyl(phenylsilane — a precursor for gas phase processes of SiCx:H film deposition: Synthesis and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya N. Ermakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The technique of synthesis and purification of trimethyl(phenylsilane PhSiMe3, allowing to obtain the product with high yield. Individuality of the product was confirmed by elemental analysis for C, H, Si was developed. IR, UV and 1H NMR-spectroscopic studies were used to define its spectral characteristics. Complex thermal analysis and thermogravimetry defined thermoanalytical behavior of PhSiMe3 in an inert atmosphere. Tensimetric studies have shown that the compound has sufficient volatility and thermal stability for use as a precursor in the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD. The composition and temperature limits of the possible crystalline phase complexes in equilibrium with the gas phase of different composition has been determined by method of thermodynamic modeling. Calculated CVD diagrams allow us to select the optimal conditions of film deposition. The possibility of using trimethyl(phenylsilane in CVD processes for producing dielectric films of hydrogenated silicon carbide has been demonstrated.

  18. Metallogenesis of superlarge gold deposits in Jiaodong region and deep processes of subcontinental lithosphere beneath North China Craton in Mesozoic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Xinhua(周新华); YANG; Jinhui(杨进辉); ZHANG; Lianchang(张连昌)

    2003-01-01

    The study of ore-forming chronology indicates that the superlarge gold deposits in the Jiaodong region were formed in 120±10 Ma. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions from typical gold deposits suggest that ore-forming materials were derived from the multisources, mantle component was partly involved in mineralization, the deep dynamic processes are the major geological background of large-scale metallogenesis in the Jiaodong region in Mesozoic. The deep pro- cesses mainly include the effect of post deep-subduction of continental crust of the central orogen belt and the distant effect of subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate underneath the Eurasian continent. However, lithosphere thinning, crust-mantle interaction, crustal extension and formation of large-type ore-controlling structures would be the comprehensive consequences of the above- mentioned geodynamic processes in the region.

  19. Physicochemical parameters of magmatic and hydrothermal processes at the Yaman-Kasy massive sulfide deposit, the southern Urals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, V. A.; Kovyazin, S. V.; Terenya, E. O.; Maslennikov, V. V.; Zaykov, V. V.; Maslennikova, S. P.

    2006-10-01

    Melt and fluid inclusions in minerals have been studied and physicochemical parameters of magmatic processes and hydrothermal systems estimated at the Yaman-Kasy copper massive sulfide deposit in the southern Urals. It was established that relatively low-temperature (910-945°C) rhyodacitic melts belonging to the tholeiitic series and containing 2.7-5.2 wt % water participated in the formation of the igneous complexes that host the Yaman-Kasy deposit. As follows from ion microprobe results, these silicic magmas had a primitive character. In the distribution of trace elements, including REE, the rhyodacites are closer to basaltic rather than silicic volcanic rocks, and they are distinguished in this respect from the igneous rocks from other massive sulfide deposits of the Urals and the Rudny Altai. Two types of solutions actively took part in the formation of hydrothermal systems: (1) solutions with a moderate salinity (5-10 wt % dissolved salts) and (2) solutions with a low salinity (a value close to that of seawater or even lower). Concentrated fluids with more than 11.5 wt % dissolved salts were much less abundant. Hydrothermal solutions heated to 130-160, 160-270, or occasionally 280-310°C predominated in ore formation. The sequence of mineral-forming processes at the Yaman-Kasy deposit is demonstrated. Mineral assemblages were formed with an inversion of the parameters characterizing ore-forming solutions. An increase in the temperature and salinity of solutions at the early stages was followed by a decrease at the final stages. The evolution of the hydrothermal system at the Yaman-Kasy deposit has much in common with the parameters of black smokers in the present-day Pacific backarc basins.

  20. Hardness and microstructural characterization of API 5L X70 steel pipes welded by HF/ERW process; Caracterizacao microestrutural e de dureza em tubos de aco API 5L X70 soldados pelo processo HF/ERW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcada, Mauricio Vieira; Voorwald, Herman Jacobus Cornelis; Nascimento, Marcelino Pereira do [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2010-07-01

    The materials that stand in the manufacture of steel pipes are called API, that should have, high mechanical resistance, high corrosion resistance, high fatigue resistance, good weldability, and other properties. Thus, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the microstructure and hardness of welded joints by the HF/ERW process of API 5L X70 steel pipes. The microstructural analysis was performed using a surface finish with grit sizes from 220 to 25 {mu}m e polishing with diamond paste from 9 {mu}m to 0.05 {mu}m; the revelation was made with 3% Nital attack. The Vickers hardness was performed across the welded joint by 33 points to indentation. The results were: 80.5 {+-} 3.4% of ferrite and 19.5 {+-} 3.4% of perlite for microanalysis. As for hardness, the values were: 215.69 HV10 for weld line, 218.65 HV10 for ZTA and 218.95 HV10 for base metal. (author)

  1. Pipe Crawler{reg_sign} internal piping characterization system - deactivation and decommissioning focus area. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Pipe Crawler{reg_sign} is a pipe surveying system for performing radiological characterization and/or free release surveys of piping systems. The technology employs a family of manually advanced, wheeled platforms, or crawlers, fitted with one or more arrays of thin Geiger Mueller (GM) detectors operated from an external power supply and data processing unit. Survey readings are taken in a step-wise fashion. A video camera and tape recording system are used for video surveys of pipe interiors prior to and during radiological surveys. Pipe Crawler{reg_sign} has potential advantages over the baseline and other technologies in areas of cost, durability, waste minimization, and intrusiveness. Advantages include potentially reduced cost, potential reuse of the pipe system, reduced waste volume, and the ability to manage pipes in place with minimal disturbance to facility operations. Advantages over competing technologies include potentially reduced costs and the ability to perform beta-gamma surveys that are capable of passing regulatory scrutiny for free release of piping systems.

  2. Bottom's Semiology: The Duck-Rabbit and Magritte's Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoff, Ann E.

    1993-01-01

    Explores how a dyadic understanding of perception cancels the validity it might have as a model for the linguistic process. Discusses commonly misunderstood exhibits in the gallery of perception studies--the duck-rabbit and Magritte's pipe. (RS)

  3. A unique laboratory test rig reduces the need for offshore tests to combat calcium naphthenate deposition in oilfield process equipment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediaas, Heidi; Grande, Knut; Hustad, Britt-Marie; Hoevik, Kim Reidar; Kummernes, Hege; Nergaard, Bjoern; Vindstad, Jens Emil

    2006-03-15

    Producing and refining high-TAN crude oils introduces a number of challenges, among which calcium naphthenate deposition in process facilities is the most serious production issue. Until recently, the only option for studying chemicals and process parameters in order to prevent naphthenate deposition has been field tests. Statoil has now developed a small scale pilot plant where these experiments can be performed in the laboratory at Statoil's Research and Technology Center in Trondheim, Norway. The results from the pilot plant are in full agreement with the extensive naphthenate experience obtained from almost 9 years operation of the Heidrun oilfield. The design and operational procedures for this test facility are based on the recent discovery by Statoil and ConocoPhillips of the ARN acid. The ARN acid is a prerequisite for calcium naphthenate deposition. The new continuous flow pilot plant, the Naphthenate Rig, is used to develop new environmental friendly naphthenate inhibitors and to optimize process operating conditions. Since it operates on real crudes the need for field tests in qualifying new naphthenate inhibitors is reduced. To the best of our knowledge, the rig is the first of its kind in the world. (Author)

  4. Modeling and simulation of the deposition/relaxation processes of polycrystalline diatomic structures of metallic nitride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M. F.; Restrepo-Parra, E.; Riaño-Rojas, J. C.

    2015-05-01

    This work develops a model that mimics the growth of diatomic, polycrystalline thin films by artificially splitting the growth into deposition and relaxation processes including two stages: (1) a grain-based stochastic method (grains orientation randomly chosen) is considered and by means of the Kinetic Monte Carlo method employing a non-standard version, known as Constant Time Stepping, the deposition is simulated. The adsorption of adatoms is accepted or rejected depending on the neighborhood conditions; furthermore, the desorption process is not included in the simulation and (2) the Monte Carlo method combined with the metropolis algorithm is used to simulate the diffusion. The model was developed by accounting for parameters that determine the morphology of the film, such as the growth temperature, the interacting atomic species, the binding energy and the material crystal structure. The modeled samples exhibited an FCC structure with grain formation with orientations in the family planes of , and . The grain size and film roughness were analyzed. By construction, the grain size decreased, and the roughness increased, as the growth temperature increased. Although, during the growth process of real materials, the deposition and relaxation occurs simultaneously, this method may perhaps be valid to build realistic polycrystalline samples.

  5. Linking the distribution of microbial deposits from the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) to tectonic and climatic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Anthony; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Boulle, Julien; Pace, Aurélie; Bourillot, Raphaël; Thomazo, Christophe; Brayard, Arnaud; Désaubliaux, Guy; Goslar, Tomasz; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Dupraz, Christophe; Visscher, Pieter T.

    2016-10-01

    The Great Salt Lake is a modern hypersaline lake, in which an extended modern and ancient microbial sedimentary system has developed. Detailed mapping based on aerial images and field observations can be used to identify non-random distribution patterns of microbial deposits, such as paleoshorelines associated with extensive polygons or fault-parallel alignments. Although it has been inferred that climatic changes controlling the lake level fluctuations explain the distribution of paleoshorelines and polygons, straight microbial deposit alignments may underline a normal fault system parallel to the Wasatch Front. This study is based on observations over a decimetre to kilometre spatial range, resulting in an integrated conceptual model for the controls on the distribution of the microbial deposits. The morphology, size and distribution of these deposits result mainly from environmental changes (i.e. seasonal to long-term water level fluctuations, particular geomorphological heritage, fault-induced processes, groundwater seepage) and have the potential to bring further insights into the reconstruction of paleoenvironments and paleoclimatic changes through time. New radiocarbon ages obtained on each microbial macrofabric described in this study improve the chronological framework and question the lake level variations that are commonly assumed.

  6. Observations and modelling of soil slip-debris flow initiation processes in pyroclastic deposits: the Sarno 1998 event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Crosta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyroclastic soils mantling a wide area of the Campanian Apennines are subjected to recurrent instability phenomena. This study analyses the 5 and 6 May 1998 event which affected the Pizzo d’Alvano (Campania, southern Italy. More than 400 slides affecting shallow pyroclastic deposits were triggered by intense and prolonged but not extreme rainfall. Landslides affected the pyroclastic deposits that cover the steep calcareous ridges and are soil slip-debris flows and rapid mudflows. About 30 main channels were deeply scoured by flows which reached the alluvial fans depositing up to 400 000 m3 of material in the piedmont areas. About 75% of the landslides are associated with morphological discontinuities such as limestone cliffs and roads. The sliding surface is located within the pyroclastic cover, generally at the base of a pumice layer. Geotechnical characterisation of pyroclastic deposits has been accomplished by laboratory and in situ tests. Numerical modelling of seepage processes and stability analyses have been run on four simplified models representing different settings observed at the source areas. Seepage modelling showed the formation of pore pressure pulses in pumice layers and the localised increase of pore pressure in correspondence of stratigraphic discontinuities as response to the rainfall event registered between 28 April and 5 May. Numerical modelling provided pore pressure values for stability analyses and pointed out critical conditions where stratigraphic or morphological discontinuities occur. This study excludes the need of a groundwater flow from the underlying bedrock toward the pyroclastic cover for instabilities to occur.

  7. Observations and modelling of soil slip-debris flow initiation processes in pyroclastic deposits: the Sarno 1998 event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, G. B.; Dal Negro, P.

    Pyroclastic soils mantling a wide area of the Campanian Apennines are subjected to recurrent instability phenomena. This study analyses the 5 and 6 May 1998 event which affected the Pizzo d'Alvano (Campania, southern Italy). More than 400 slides affecting shallow pyroclastic deposits were triggered by intense and prolonged but not extreme rainfall. Landslides affected the pyroclastic deposits that cover the steep calcareous ridges and are soil slip-debris flows and rapid mudflows. About 30 main channels were deeply scoured by flows which reached the alluvial fans depositing up to 400 000 m3 of material in the piedmont areas. About 75% of the landslides are associated with morphological discontinuities such as limestone cliffs and roads. The sliding surface is located within the pyroclastic cover, generally at the base of a pumice layer. Geotechnical characterisation of pyroclastic deposits has been accomplished by laboratory and in situ tests. Numerical modelling of seepage processes and stability analyses have been run on four simplified models representing different settings observed at the source areas. Seepage modelling showed the formation of pore pressure pulses in pumice layers and the localised increase of pore pressure in correspondence of stratigraphic discontinuities as response to the rainfall event registered between 28 April and 5 May. Numerical modelling provided pore pressure values for stability analyses and pointed out critical conditions where stratigraphic or morphological discontinuities occur. This study excludes the need of a groundwater flow from the underlying bedrock toward the pyroclastic cover for instabilities to occur.

  8. Fluorine and boron co-doped diamond-like carbon films deposited by pulsed glow discharge plasma immersion ion processing

    CERN Document Server

    He, X M; Peters, A M; Taylor, B; Nastasi, M

    2002-01-01

    Fluorine (F) and boron (B) co-doped diamond-like carbon (FB-DLC) films were prepared on different substrates by the plasma immersion ion processing (PIIP) technique. A pulse glow discharge plasma was used for the PIIP deposition and was produced at a pressure of 1.33 Pa from acetylene (C sub 2 H sub 2), diborane (B sub 2 H sub 6), and hexafluoroethane (C sub 2 F sub 6) gas. Films of FB-DLC were deposited with different chemical compositions by varying the flow ratios of the C sub 2 H sub 2 , B sub 2 H sub 6 , and C sub 2 F sub 6 source gases. The incorporation of B sub 2 H sub 6 and C sub 2 F sub 6 into PIIP deposited DLC resulted in the formation of F-C and B-C hybridized bonding structures. The levels of the F and B concentrations effected the chemical bonding and the physical properties as was evident from the changes observed in density, hardness, stress, friction coefficient, and contact angle of water on films. Compared to B-doped or F-doped DLC films, the F and B co-doping of DLC during PIIP deposition...

  9. ZnS Thin Films Deposited by a Spin Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seungyeol; Lee, D. H.; Ryu, S. O.; Chang, Chih-hung

    2010-05-20

    In this article, we reported a spin successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method for the first time. ZnS thin films were deposited by spin SILAR using ZnCl2 and Na2S aqueous precursor solutions at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. The optical, structural, and morphological characterizations of the films were studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV/visible spectroscopy. Smooth (average roughness <3 nm), uniform, and highly transparent ZnS (transmittance of over 90% in the visible band) thin films could be successfully deposited using this technique with shorter cycle time and much less solvent usage.

  10. Pulsed-laser-deposited YBCO thin films using modified MTG processed targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C H; Kim, I T; Hahn, T S

    1999-01-01

    YBCO thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition from targets fabricated using the modified melt-textured growth (MTG) method and the solid-state sintering (SSS) method. All of the films showed c-axis orientations, but the films from the MTG targets had better crystallinity than those from the SSS targets. As the substrate temperature was increased, T sub c and J sub c of the films increased. The films from the MTG targets showed better superconducting properties than those from the SSS targets. From the composition analysis of the targets, the Y-richer vapor species arriving at the substrate from the MTG targets are thought to form a thermodynamically more stable YBCO phase with less cation disorder.

  11. LHCb: Beam Pipe portrait

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector: it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  12. LHCb: Beam Pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector:it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  13. Cadmium cathodic deposition on polycrystalline p-selenium: Dark and photoelectrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragoisha, G.A., E-mail: ragoishag@bsu.b [Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems, Belarusian State University, Leningradskaya 14, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Streltsov, E.A.; Rabchynski, S.M.; Ivanou, D.K. [Chemistry Department, Belarusian State University, Minsk 220030 (Belarus)

    2011-04-01

    Cathodic reduction of Cd{sup 2+} on p-Se proceeds at low overpotential in the dark and results in bulk Cd, while the underpotential deposition is kinetically inhibited. Cadmium adlayer is photoelectrochemically deposited on illuminated electrode 0.7 V above E(Cd{sup 2+}/Cd). The adlayer cathodic deposition under illumination proceeds with simultaneous formation of CdSe nanoparticles. Potentiodynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has discriminated the two products of the photoelectrochemical reaction both by their potentials of anodic oxidation and by characteristic dependences of impedance on potential. Anodic oxidation of CdSe nanoparticles gives a sharp peak of real impedance in low frequencies close to the corresponding anodic current peak in cyclic voltammogram. The impedance peak appears below a threshold frequency f{sub t}. The latter separates two modes of diffusion in anodic dissolution of CdSe nanoparticles. The diffusion proceeds independently at different particles above f{sub t} and turns to cooperative mode below the threshold frequency. Due to this effect, information on spatial distribution of growing nuclei on electrode surface in early stages of electrodeposition can be obtained from potentiodynamic impedance spectra.

  14. Development of Vacuum Lost Foam-Investment Shell Mould Composite Casting Process Used for Ductile Iron Pipes Production%球铁管件真空消失模壳型复合铸造工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符坚; 龙枚青; 符寒光

    2012-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the vacuum lost foam fasting process and the investment casting process were compared- By combining two processes flexibly,a composite process consisted of vacuum lost foam process plus investment shell mould process and useable for large scale production of high property pipe castings was developed. An introduction was given to the determ illation of the rigidity of the lost foam pattern, dimensions choice of the gating system, establishment of the shell mould making process flow, the choice and preparation of the raw materials of shell mould,as well as the sodium silicate shell mould making process (low. The test result showed: (a )When using above process for the pipes production,the operation procedure was easy and the easting quality was stable with the casting pass rate higher than 98.5% ; (b )This process needs only making 4 layers of mould shells,much less than that of the normal investment casting process which needs making 8 and even more layers of mould shells.and therefore,the productivity was enhanced,both the. production cost and the labors cost were reduced.%比较了真空消失模铸造和熔模铸造两种工艺的优缺点,将两种工艺的优点有机结合,开发了适应大量生产高性能出口管件的真空消失模壳型复合铸造工艺.介绍了消失模铸造模型刚度的确定、浇注系统尺寸的选择,壳型工艺流程的制订、壳型涂料的原材料选用和配制、以及水玻璃壳型制造流程.试验结果显示:(1)用此工艺生产的管件,工序简单且铸件质最稳定,铸件合格率达到98.5%以上;(2)此工艺只要制4层壳,相比普通蜡模精密铸造制壳要8层以上,提高了生产效率,降低了生产成本和人力资源成本.

  15. 46 CFR 76.33-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.33-15 Section 76.33-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... System, Details § 76.33-15 Piping. (a) Individual pipes shall be not less than 3/4-inch standard pipe size. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings of ferrous materials shall be protected inside and...

  16. Discussion on the Finish Welding Method in Tack and Finish Welding Process of SAWH Pipe%螺旋埋弧焊管预精焊工艺精焊方式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玮玮; 王强; 赵波

    2013-01-01

    In this article, it introduced the development history and characteristics of SAWH pipe tack and finish welding process, and compared its advancement with the traditional one-step manufacturing process. It emphasized 3 kinds of different finish welding stations, such as frame construction method, spiral driving method and welding cart method. It respectively summarized the advantage and disadvantage of the above three methods and its application condition, and pointed out the main difference lies in the different transfer system, which will greatly affect manufacturing costs and running accuracy. Finally, it put forward the opinions and suggestions of popularizing of the tack and finish welding process of SAWH pipe by adopting different methods in finish welding station.%介绍了螺旋埋弧焊管预精焊生产工艺的发展过程和特点,以及与传统的一步法制造工艺相比具有的先进性.重点介绍了门式框架结构方式、螺旋传动方式以及焊接车方式这3种不同的精焊工作站形式,并对其各自的优缺点和当前的应用状况进行了论述.指出3种方式主要区别在于钢管的传送系统不同,这对其制造成本和运行精度有较大的影响.最后,提出了利用精焊工作站不同方式推广螺旋埋弧焊管预精焊生产工艺的看法和建议.

  17. Corrosion Resistance of Ni-Based WC/Co Coatings Deposited by Spray and Fuse Process Varying the Oxygen Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, H.; Olaya, J. J.; Alfonso, J. E.; Mtshali, C. B.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of oxygen flow variation in the corrosion behavior of Ni-based WC/Co coatings deposited by spray and fuse process was investigated. The coatings were deposited on gray cast iron substrates using a Superjet Eutalloy thermal spraying gun. The morphology of the coatings was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The crystallographic phases were registered by x-ray diffraction (XRD), the diffraction patterns show the crystalline phases of the powder components with principal reflections for Ni and WC, the increase in flame temperature, due to the oxygen flow variation, generated amorphization in the nickel and an important crystallization of the planes (111) and (222) of WC as well as the decarburization of WC in W2C and W metallic. The corrosion behavior was investigated at room temperature in a 3.5% w/w aqueous solution of NaCl via potentiodynamic polarization. Electrochemical corrosion test showed that the coatings deposited under neutral flame conditions with an oxygen flow of 12.88 SCFH evidenced higher corrosion resistance. The chemical composition of the coatings and corrosion areas were analyzed by particle-induced x-ray emission, this technique permitting the corroboration of the decarburization process of WC determined by XRD and the formation of Cl structures.

  18. Experimenting with a ``Pipe'' Whistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Olga

    2012-04-01

    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here allows students in a physics of music or introductory physics course to study an example of an "edge tone" device that produces discrete sound frequencies. From their textbooks, students likely know about standing waves produced by pipes or strings, as well as the resonant frequencies for open and closed pipes. To go a bit further, they can also learn how the frequency of the sound wave depends on the orifice-to-edge distance of the wind instrument.

  19. The effect of orientation difference in fused deposition modeling of ABS polymer on the processing time, dimension accuracy, and strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoto, Yopi Y.; Anggono, Juliana; Siahaan, Ian H.; Budiman, Wesley

    2017-01-01

    There are several parameters that must be set before manufacturing a product using 3D printing. These parameters include the orientation deposition of that product, type of material, form fill, fill density, and other parameters. The finished product of 3D printing has some responses that can be observed, measured, and tested. Some of those responses are the processing time, the dimensions of the end product, its surface roughness and the mechanical properties, i.e. its yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and impact resistance. This research was conducted to study the relationship between process parameters of 3D printing machine using a technology of fused deposition modeling (FDM) and the generated responses. The material used was ABS plastic that was commonly used in the industry. Understanding the relationship between the parameters and the responses thus the resulting product can be manufactured to meet the user needs. Three different orientations in depositing the ABS polymer named XY(first orientation), YX (second orientation), and ZX (third orientation) were studied. Processing time, dimensional accuracy, and the product strength were the responses that were measured and tested. The study reports that the printing process with third orientation was the fastest printing process with the processing time 2432 seconds followed by orientation 1 and 2 with a processing time of 2688 and 2780 seconds respectively. Dimension accuracy was also measured from the width and the length of gauge area of tensile test specimens printed in comparison with the dimensions required by ASTM 638-02. It was found that the smallest difference was in thickness dimension, i.e. 0.1 mm thicker in printed sample using second orientation than as required by the standard. The smallest thickness deviation from the standard was measured in width dimension of a sample printed using first orientation (0.13 mm). As with the length dimension, the closest dimension to the standard was

  20. Experimental Study on Treatment of High-concentrated Sulfur Wastewater by Process of Depositing Natrojarosite and Its Environmental Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shengfeng; WANG Changqiu; LU Anhuai; GUO Yanjun; HE Hongliao

    2007-01-01

    High-concentrated sulfur wastewater with sodium and COD (chemical oxygen demand) up to 26000 mg/L from a chemical plant, Jiangsu Province of China has been treated by deposition of natrojarosite in lab. The results indicated that the COD of the wastewater was decreased sharply from 26000 mg/L to 1001 mg/L, with removal rate of COD up to 96% by twice precipitations of natrojarosite and twice oxidation of H2O2. The treated sulfur wastewater reached the requirement of subsequent biochemical treatment to water quality. The optimal operational parameters should be controlled on provided an experimental basis for pretreatment of high-concentrated sulfur wastewater and proposed a new mineralogical method on treatment of other wastewaters. Depositing process ofjarosite and its analogs should be able to be used to treat wastewater from mine and other industries to remove S, Fe and other toxic and harmful elements, such as As, Cr, Hg, Pb, etc. in the water.

  1. Antireflection and downconversion response of Nd3+ doped Y2O3/Si thin film deposited by AACVD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, R.; Salhi, R.; Deschanvres, J.-L.; Maalej, R.

    2014-09-01

    Nd3+:Y2O3 nanograins-like structure films with various Nd concentrations, were deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) process. The intense 900 nm emission of Nd3+ corresponding to the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 transition was investigated as a function of the annealing temperature. The reflectance percentage of the optimized 5 mol.% Nd:Y2O3 film was recorded at about 16% in 400-1000 nm range. The refractive index (n = 1.94) and the low porosity (P = 2.74%) showed the high transparency of this film. The obtained results demonstrate that this film can enhance the Si solar cell efficiency by light trapping and spectrum shifting.

  2. A novel Ag catalyzation process using swelling impregnation method for electroless Ni deposition on Kevlar® fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hongwei; Bai, Ruicheng; Shao, Qinsi; Gao, Yufang; Li, Aijun; Tang, Zhiyong

    2015-12-01

    A novel Ag catalyzation process using swelling impregnation pretreatment method was developed for electroless nickel (EN) deposition on Kevlar fiber. Firstly, the fiber was immersed into an aqueous dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution of silver nitrate to impart silver nitrate into the inner part of the fiber near the surface. Subsequently silver nitrate was reduced to metal silver nanoparticles on the fiber surface by treatment with aqueous solution of sodium borohydride. After electroless plating, a dense and homogeneous nickel coating was obtained on the fiber surface. The silver nanoparticles formed at the fiber surface functioned as a catalyst for electroless deposition as well as an anchor for the plated layer. The study also revealed that the incorporation of surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in electroless nickel plating bath can enhance the adhesion strength of EN layer with the fiber surface and minimize the surface roughness of the EN coating. The Ni plated Kevlar fiber possessed excellent corrosion resistance and high tensile strength.

  3. Using quantitative topographic analysis to understand the role of water on transport and deposition processes on crater walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palucis, Marisa Christina

    The amount of water runoff need to evolve landscapes is rarely assessed. Empirical studies correlate erosion rate to runoff or mean annual precipitation, but rarely is the full history of a landscape known such that it is possible to assess how much water was required to produce it. While this may not seem to be of primary importance on Earth where water is commonly plentiful, on Mars the amount of water to drive landscape evolution is a key question. Here we tackle this question through a series of five chapters, one devoted to field work at Meteor Crater, another to laboratory experiments about controlling processes, and then two chapters on analysis of landforms and implications of water runoff on Mars (associated with the Mars Science Laboratory mission to Gale Crater), and then we complete this effort with a consideration of how we can reliably assign relative timing between events resulting in small depositional features. What follows below is a summary of what is found in each chapter. Meteor Crater, a 4.5 km2 impact crater that formed ˜50,000 years ago in northern Arizona, has prominent gully features on its steep walls that appear similar to some gullies found on Mars. At the crater bottom, there are over 30 meters of lake sediments from a lake that disappeared ˜10,000 to 11,000 years ago, indicating the transition from the Pleistocene to the current, drier climate. A combination of fieldwork, cosmogenic dating, and topographic analysis of LiDAR data show that debris flows, not seepage erosion and fluvial processes as previously suggested in the literature, drove gully incision during their formation period of ˜40,000 years before the onset of the Holocene. Runoff from bare bedrock source areas high on the crater wall cut into lower debris mantled slopes, where the runoff bulked up and transformed into debris flows that carried boulders down to ˜5 to 8 degree slopes, leaving distinct boulder lined levees and lobate tongues of terminal debris deposits

  4. Investigation of higher order correlations in swirling pipe flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrivlellis, M.; Jungbluth, H.; Cantrak, S.

    1982-04-01

    Statistical quantities of swirling pipe flows generated by radial guide vanes were studied by a triple hot-wire probe and digital data reduction at two cross-sections of the pipe, one directly behind the swirl generator and the other some distance downstream from the vanes. The influence of swirl intensity on the axial pipe flow was investigated with the measured second and third order correlations as well as the third and fourth order central moments. The probability-density distribution shows the significance of the turbulence transfer mechanism in the complicated process of swirling flows.

  5. Design and evaluation of a heat pipe exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.H.; Zeigler, E.

    1982-06-01

    A promising approach to energy conservation is the use of heat pipes to recover heat now lost in effluent processing wastewater streams. At Radford Army Ammunition Plant a prototype water-to-water heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX) was evaluated. Heat was extracted from wastewater and recovered heat then used to preheat incoming fresh water. The heat pipe is schematicized. Design objectives--access to wasterwater section, provision for periodic inspection--are specified. Based on these objectives the HPHX design is shown. A performance analysis is carried out by means of equations. Based on mobilization rates at Radford, a savings of significant amount will be realized.

  6. Development Of Advanced Sandwich Core Topologies Using Fused Deposition Modeling And Electroforming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Steven M.

    New weight efficient materials are needed to enhance the performance of vehicle systems allowing increased speed, maneuverability and fuel economy. This work leveraged a multi-length-scale composite approach combined with hybrid material methodology to create new state-of-the-art additive manufactured sandwich core material. The goal of the research was to generate a new material to expands material space for strength versus density. Fused-Deposition-Modeling (FDM) was used to remove geometric manufacturing constraints, and electrodepositing was used to generate a high specific-strength, bio-inspired hybrid material. Microtension samples (3mm x 1mm with 250mum x 250mum gage) were used to investigate the electrodeposited coatings in the transverse (TD) and growth (GD) directions. Three bath chemistries were tested: copper, traditional nickel sulfamate (TNS) nickel, and nickel deposited with a platinum anode (NDPA). NDPA shows tensile strength exceeding 1600 MPa, significantly beyond the literature reported values of 60MPa. This strengthening was linked to grain size refinement into the sub-30nm range, in addition to grain texture refinement resulting in only 17% of the slip systems for nickel being active. Anisotropy was observed in nickel deposits, which was linked to texture evolution inside of the coating. Microsample testing guided the selection of 15mum layer of copper deposition followed by a 250 mum NDPA layer. Classical formulas for structural collapse were used to guide an experimental parametric study to establish a weight/volume efficient strut topology. Length, diameter and thickness were all investigated to determine the optimal column topology. The most optimal topology exists when Eulerian buckling, shell micro buckling and yielding failure modes all exist in a single geometric topology. Three macro-scale sandwich topologies (pyramidal, tetrahedral, and strut-reinforced-tetrahedral (SRT) were investigated with respect to strength-per-unit-weight. The

  7. Multileg Heat-Pipe Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Parallel pipes provide high heat flow from small heat exchanger. Six parallel heat pipes extract heat from overlying heat exchanger, forming evaporator. Vapor channel in pipe contains wick that extends into screen tube in liquid channel. Rods in each channel hold wick and screen tube in place. Evaporator compact rather than extended and more compatible with existing heat-exchanger geometries. Prototype six-pipe evaporator only 0.3 m wide and 0.71 m long. With ammonia as working fluid, transports heat to finned condenser at rate of 1,200 W.

  8. Causal knowledge extraction by natural language processing in material science: a case study in chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Kajikawa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications written in natural language still play a central role as our knowledge source. However, due to the flood of publications, the literature survey process has become a highly time-consuming and tangled process, especially for novices of the discipline. Therefore, tools supporting the literature-survey process may help the individual scientist to explore new useful domains. Natural language processing (NLP is expected as one of the promising techniques to retrieve, abstract, and extract knowledge. In this contribution, NLP is firstly applied to the literature of chemical vapor deposition (CVD, which is a sub-discipline of materials science and is a complex and interdisciplinary field of research involving chemists, physicists, engineers, and materials scientists. Causal knowledge extraction from the literature is demonstrated using NLP.

  9. Dual phase steel for line pipe applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merwin, M.J. [United States Steel Corp., Research and Technology Centre, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study of 2 samples of commercially produced line pipe from the same melting grade. The chemistries of the steel samples were presented. The study was conducted in response to requests by the American Petroleum Institute (API) for line pipe steel with a yield-strength-to-tensile-strength ratio (Y/T) of 0.85 or less, for use in offshore installations. The United States Steel Corporation initiated this program to achieve lower Y/T for line pipe grades while maintaining robust processing capability and mechanical properties. Heat treated seamless tubular products are typically processed in a manner that can be readily modified to produce dual phase microstructures by applying intercritical soaking before quenching. The steel line pipe industry is interested in dual phase steel for use in reel barge pipe laying operations because the the yield strength of dual phase steel is lower than tensile strength. In this study, the compositions of commercially produced material already in use for the line pipe market were studied. The developed dual phase microstructures were found to be stable over a range of intercritical temperatures. Tempering temperature and small chemistry differences were found to have the greatest influence on properties. The toughness performance was found to be excellent in samples tempered at temperatures greater than 550 degrees C, a regime which produced materials with strength suitable for use in API X60 line pipe. An incomprehensible difference in tensile strength between steels of similar chemistry was also noted. Welding performance was examined through the simulation of 3 regions of the heat-affected zone. The heat-affected zone properties were not influenced by either intercritical or tempering temperature. The only significant factor was the peak temperature that was achieved in the thermal cycle. The hardness of the heat-affected zone increased continuously with increasing peak temperature

  10. Heat Transfer Characteristics of SiC-coated Heat Pipe for Passive Decay Heat Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The main concern with the Fukushima accident was the failure of active and passive core cooling systems. The main function of existing passive decay heat removal systems is feeding additional coolant to the reactor core. Thus, an established emergency core cooling system (ECCS) cannot operate properly because of impossible depressurization under the station blackout (SBO) condition. Therefore, a new concept for passive decay heat removal system is required. In this study, an innovative hybrid control rod concept is considered for passive in-core decay heat removal that differs from the existing direct vessel injection core cooling system and passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). The heat transfer between the evaporator and condenser sections occurs by phase change of the working fluid and capillary action induced by wick structures installed on the inner wall of the heat pipe. In this study, a hybrid control rod is developed to take the roles of both neutron absorption and heat removal by combining the functions of a heat pipe and control rod. Previous studies on enhancing the heat removal capacity of heat pipes used nanofluids, self-rewetting fluids, various wick structures and condensers. Many studies have examined the thermal performances of heat pipes using various nanofluids. They concluded that the enhanced thermal performance of the heat pipe using nanofluids is due to nanoparticle deposition on the wick structures. Thus, the wick structure of heat pipes has been modified by nanoparticle deposition to enhance the heat removal capacity. However, previous studies used relatively small heat pipes and narrow ranges of heat loads. The environment of a nuclear reactor is very specific, and the decay heat produced by fission products after shutdown is relatively large. Thus, this study tested a large-scale heat pipe over a wide range of power. The concept of a hybrid heat pipe for an advanced in-core decay heat removal system was introduced for complete

  11. Silver deposition on titanium surface by electrochemical anodizing process reduces bacterial adhesion of Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Gallardo, Maria; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana G; Delgado, Luis M; Manero, José M; Javier Gil, F; Rodríguez, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial properties of silver-doped titanium surfaces prepared with a novel electrochemical anodizing process. Titanium samples were anodized with a pulsed process in a solution of silver nitrate and sodium thiosulphate at room temperature with stirring. Samples were processed with different electrolyte concentrations and treatment cycles to improve silver deposition. Physicochemical properties were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, white-light interferometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Cellular cytotoxicity in human fibroblasts was studied with lactate dehydrogenase assays. The in vitro effect of treated surfaces on two oral bacteria strains (Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus salivarius) was studied with viable bacterial adhesion measurements and growth curve assays. Nonparametric statistical Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for multiple and paired comparisons, respectively. Post hoc Spearman's correlation tests were calculated to check the dependence between bacteria adhesion and surface properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the presence of silver on treated samples and showed that treatments with higher silver nitrate concentration and more cycles increased the silver deposition on titanium surface. No negative effects in fibroblast cell viability were detected and a significant reduction on bacterial adhesion in vitro was achieved in silver-treated samples compared with control titanium. Silver deposition on titanium with a novel electrochemical anodizing process produced surfaces with significant antibacterial properties in vitro without negative effects on cell viability. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Combined multi-nozzle deposition and freeze casting process to superimpose two porous networks for hierarchical three-dimensional microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jessica E; Hunger, Philipp M; Wang, Chengyang; Hamid, Qudus; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Sun, Wei

    2014-03-01

    An engineered three-dimensional scaffold with hierarchical porosity and multiple niche microenvironments is produced using a combined multi-nozzle deposition-freeze casting technique. In this paper we present a process to fabricate a scaffold with improved interconnectivity and hierarchical porosity. The scaffold is produced using a two-stage manufacturing process which superimposes a printed porous alginate (Alg) network and a directionally frozen ceramic-polymer matrix. The combination of two processes, multi-nozzle deposition and freeze casting, provides engineering control of the microenvironment of the scaffolds over several length scales; including the addition of lateral porosity and the ratio of polymer to ceramic microstructures. The printed polymer scaffold is submerged in a ceramic-polymer slurry and subsequently, both structures are directionally frozen (freeze cast), superimposing and patterning both microenvironments into a single hierarchical architecture. An optional additional sintering step removes the organic material and densifies the ceramic phase to produce a well-defined network of open pores and a homogenous cell wall material composition. The techniques presented in this contribution address processing challenges, such as structure definition, reproducibility and fine adjustments of unique length scales, which one typically encounters when fabricating topological channels between longitudinal and transverse porous networks.

  13. Simulation of geochemical processes responsible for the formation of the Zhezqazghan deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhenko, B. N.; Cherkasova, E. V.

    2014-05-01

    Physicochemical computer simulation of water-rock systems at a temperature of 25-150°C and under a pressure of up to 600 bar has been carried out for quantitative description of the mineralization formation conditions at sandstone- and shale-hosted copper deposits. The simulation is based on geological and geochemical information concerning the Zhezqazghan deposit and considers (i) a source of ore matter, (ii) composition of the fluid that transfers ore matter to the ore formation zone, and (iii) factors of ore concentration. It has been shown that extraction of copper from minerals of rocks and its accumulation in aqueous solution are optimal at a high mass ratio of rock to water (R/W > 10), Eh of +200 to -100 mV, and an obligatory content of chloride ions in the aqueous phase. The averaged ore-bearing fluid Cl95SO44//Ca50(Na + K)30Mg19 (eq %), pH ˜ 4, mineralization of up to 400 g/L, is formed by the interaction of red sandstone beds with a sedimentogenic brine (a product of metamorphism of seawater in carbonate rocks enriched in organic matter). The ore concentration proceeds in the course of cooling from 150 to 50°C during filtration of ore-bearing fluid through red sandstone beds in the rock-water system thermodynamically opened with respect to the reductive components.

  14. Study on Monitoring Rock Burst through Drill Pipe Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to identify the danger of rock burst from the response of drill pipe torque during drilling process to overcome many defects of the conventional volume of drilled coal rubble method. It is based on the relationship of rock burst with coal stress and coal strength. Through theoretic analysis, the change mechanism of drill pipe torque and the relationship of drill pipe torque with coal stress, coal strength, and drilling speed are investigated. In light of the analysis, a new device for testing drill pipe torque is developed and a series of experiments is performed under different conditions; the results show that drill pipe torque linearly increases with the increase of coal stress and coal strength; the faster the drilling speed, the larger the drill pipe torque, and vice versa. When monitoring rock burst by drill pipe torque method, the index of rock burst is regarded as a function in which coal stress index and coal strength index are principal variables. The results are important for the forecast of rock burst in coal mine.

  15. Study of a risk-based piping inspection guideline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Shiaw-Wen; Hwang, Wen-Tsung; Tsai, Chih-Hung

    2007-02-01

    A risk-based inspection system and a piping inspection guideline model were developed in this study. The research procedure consists of two parts--the building of a risk-based inspection model for piping and the construction of a risk-based piping inspection guideline model. Field visits at the plant were conducted to develop the risk-based inspection and strategic analysis system. A knowledge-based model had been built in accordance with international standards and local government regulations, and the rational unified process was applied for reducing the discrepancy in the development of the models. The models had been designed to analyze damage factors, damage models, and potential damage positions of piping in the petrochemical plants. The purpose of this study was to provide inspection-related personnel with the optimal planning tools for piping inspections, hence, to enable effective predictions of potential piping risks and to enhance the better degree of safety in plant operations that the petrochemical industries can be expected to achieve. A risk analysis was conducted on the piping system of a petrochemical plant. The outcome indicated that most of the risks resulted from a small number of pipelines.

  16. Uniaxial Fatigue of HDPE-100 Pipe. Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental analysis for determining the fatigue strength of PE-100, one of the most used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE materials for pipes, under cyclic axial loadings is presented. HDPE is a thermoplastic material used for piping systems, such as natural gas distribution systems, sewer systems and cold water systems, which provides a good alternative to metals such as cast iron or carbon steel. One of the causes for failures of HDPE pipes is fatigue which is the result of pipes being subjected to cyclic loading, such as internal pressure, weight loads or external loadings on buried pipes, which generate stress in different directions: circumferential, longitudinal and radial. HDPE pipes are fabricated using an extrusion process, which generates anisotropic properties. By testing in the Laboratory a series of identical specimens obtained directly from PE-100 HDPE pipes in longitudinal directions, the relationships between amplitude stress and number of cycles (S-N curve test frequency 2 Hz and stress ratio R = 0.0 are established.

  17. Processing for optically active erbium in silicon by film co-deposition and ion-beam mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedrabbo, S., E-mail: sxa0215@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan); Mohammed, Q. [Tadawul Shares and Bonds Mediation L.L.C., Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Fiory, A.T. [Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07901 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Techniques of film deposition by co-evaporation, ion-beam assisted mixing, oxygen ion implantation, and thermal annealing were been combined in a novel way to study processing of erbium-in-silicon thin-film materials for optoelectronics applications. Structures with erbium concentrations above atomic solubility in silicon and below that of silicide compounds were prepared by vacuum co-evaporation from two elemental sources to deposit 200-270 nm films on crystalline silicon substrates. Ar{sup +} ions were implanted at 300 keV. Oxygen was incorporated by O{sup +}-ion implantation at 130 keV. Samples were annealed at 600 deg. C in vacuum. Concentration profiles of the constituent elements were obtained by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Results show that diffusion induced by ion-beam mixing and activated by thermal annealing depends on the deposited Si-Er profile and reaction with implanted oxygen. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra show Er{sup 3+} transitions in a 1480-1550 nm band and integrated intensities that increase with the oxygen-to-erbium ratio.

  18. Mass transport deposits and processes in the north slope of the Xisha Trough, northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Zhiliang; WU Shiguo; WANG Dawei; LI Wei; GONG Shaojun; MI Lijun; SPENCE George

    2015-01-01

    Triple mass-transport deposits (MTDs) with areas of 625, 494 and 902 km2, respectively, have been identified on the north slope of the Xisha Trough, northern South China Sea margin. Based on high-resolution seismic reflection data and multi-beam bathymetric data, the Quaternary MTDs are characterized by typical geometric shapes and internal structures. Results of slope analysis showed that they are developed in a steep slope ranging from 5° to 35°. The head wall scarps of the MTDs arrived to 50 km in length (from headwall to termination). Their inner structures include well developed basal shear surface, growth faults, stepping lateral scarps, erosion grooves, and frontal thrust deformation. From seismic images, the central deepwater channel system of the Xisha Trough has been filled by interbedded channel-levee deposits and thick MTDs. Therefore, we inferred that the MTDs in the deepwater channel system could be dominated by far-travelled slope failure deposits even though there are local collapses of the trough walls. And then, we drew the two-dimensional process model and three-dimensional structure model diagram of the MTDs. Combined with the regional geological setting and previous studies, we discussed the trigger mechanisms of the triple MTDs.

  19. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  20. Deployable Pipe-Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a concept of deployable Pipe-Z (dPZ): a modular structural system which takes advantage of the robustness of rigid-panel mechanism and allows to create free-form links which are also reconfigurable and deployable. The concept presented can be applied for building habitats and infrastructures for human exploration of oceans and outer space. dPZ structures can adapt to changing requirements e.g. mission objectives, crew condition and technological developments. Furthermore, such lightweight and adaptable structural concept can assist in sustainable exploration development. After brief introduction, the concept of Pipe-Z (PZ) is presented. Next, the reconfigurability of PZ is explained and illustrated with continuous and collision-free transition from a PZ forming a Trefoil knot to a Figure-eight knot. The following sections introduce, explain and illustrate the folding mechanism of a single foldable Pipe-Z module (fPZM) and entire dPZ structure. The latter is illustrated with asynchronous (delayed) unfolding of a relatively complex Unknot. Several applications of PZ are suggested, namely for underwater and deep-space and surface habitats, for permanent, but in particular, temporary or emergency passages. As an example, a scenario of a failure of one of the modules of the International Space Station is presented where a rigid structure of 40 fPZMs bypasses the "dead link". A low-fidelity prototype of a 6-module octagonal dPZ is presented; several folding schemes including concentric toric rings are demonstrated. Practical issues of pressurization and packing are briefly discussed.