WorldWideScience

Sample records for deposition monitoring networks

  1. Towards development of a deposition monitoring network for air pollution of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman JW; Mennen MG; Fowler D; Flechard CR; Spindler G; Gruner A; Duyzer JH; Ruigrok W; Wyers GP; LLO; TNO; ECN; ITE (Engeland); IFT (Duitsland)

    1996-01-01

    In January 1993 within the framework of the LIFE programme a project was financed which aim was to develop a deposition monitoring method for air pollution of Europe. This method should be used to extend existing European monitoring networks of air concentrations to provide deposition inputs on an e

  2. QA/QC activities and ecological monitoring in the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueda H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented of Quality assurance/Quality control QA/QC activities and current features of the ecological monitoring in the frame of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia EANET. It is stressed that standardization of the methodologies applicable for new topics, such as the catchment analysis and ozone impacts, should be investigated for future monitoring.

  3. Towards development of a deposition monitoring network for air pollution of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman JW; Mennen MG; Fowler D; Flechard CR; Spindler G; Gruner A; Duyzer JH; Ruigrok W; Wyers GP; LLO; TNO; ECN; ITE (Engeland); IFT (Duitsland)

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 werd vanuit het LIFE project van de Europese Commissie DG XI het project 'Towards the development of a deposition monitoring network for air pollution of Europe' gefinancierd. Het doel van dit project was het ontwikkelen en implementeren van een depositiemonitoring-methode voor

  4. Quantifying atmospheric nitrogen deposition through a nationwide monitoring network across China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Xu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global reactive nitrogen (Nr deposition to terrestrial ecosystems has increased dramatically since the industrial revolution. This is especially true in recent decades in China due to continuous economic growth. However, there are no comprehensive reports of both measured dry and wet Nr deposition across China. We therefore conducted a multiple-year study during the period mainly from 2010 to 2014 to monitor atmospheric concentrations of five major Nr species of gaseous NH3, NO2 and HNO3, and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3− in both particles and precipitation, based on a Nationwide Nitrogen Deposition Monitoring Network (NNDMN, covering 43 sites in China. Wet deposition fluxes of Nr species were measured directly; dry deposition fluxes were estimated using airborne concentration measurements and inferential models. Our observations reveal large spatial variations of atmospheric Nr concentrations and dry and wet Nr deposition. The annual average concentrations (1.3–47.0 μg N m−3 and dry plus wet deposition fluxes (2.9–75.2 kg N ha−1 yr−1 of inorganic Nr species ranked by region as North China > Southeast China > Southwest China > Northeast China > Northwest China > the Tibetan Plateau or by land use as urban > rural > background sites, reflecting the impact of anthropogenic Nr emission. Average dry and wet N deposition fluxes were 18.5 and 19.3 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively, across China, with reduced N deposition dominating both dry and wet deposition. Our results suggest atmospheric dry N deposition is equally important to wet N deposition at the national scale and both deposition forms should be included when considering the impacts of N deposition on environment and ecosystem health.

  5. Forest condition and chemical characteristics of atmospheric depositions: research and monitoring network in Lombardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaminio DI GIROLAMO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987, the Regional Forestry Board of Lombardy and the Water Research Institute of the National Research Council have been carrying out surveys of forest conditions and the response of the ecosystem to environmental factors. The study approach is based on a large number of permanent plots for extensive monitoring (Level 1. At this level, crown condition is assessed annually, and soil condition and the nutritional status of forests surveyed. Some of the permanent plots were selected for intensive monitoring (Level 2, focussing mainly on the impact of atmospheric pollution on forest ecosystems. Level 2 monitoring also includes increment analyses, ground vegetation assessment, atmospheric deposition, soil solution analyses and climatic observations. This paper summarises the main results of a pluriannual research, which provides a general picture of the state of forest health in the region and focuses on more detailed investigations, described as case studies. Modified wet and dry samplers which use a water surface to collect dry deposition were used in a pluriannual field campaign at five sites in alpine and prealpine areas, to measure the total atmospheric depositions and to evaluate the nitrogen and sulphate exceedances of critical loads. Throughfall and bulk precipitation chemistry were studied for five years (June 1994-May 1999 at two high elevation forest sites (Val Gerola and Val Masino which were known to differ in terms of tree health, as assessed by live crown condition. Results indicated a higher contribution from the dry deposition of N-NO3 -, N-NH4 + and H+ and considerable canopy leaching of Ca2+, K+ and weak organic acids at Val Gerola, where the symptoms of damage were more evident. In the area of Val Masino (SO, included since 1997 in the national CONECOFOR network, investigations focused on the effectiveness of the biological compartment in modifying fluxes of atmospheric elements, and on the role of nitrogen both as an

  6. Network Monitoring with Nagios

    CERN Document Server

    Dondich, Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Network monitoring can be a complex task to implement and maintain in your IT infrastructure. Nagios, an open-source host, service and network monitoring program can help you streamline your network monitoring tasks and reduce the cost of operation.With this shortcut guide, we'll go over how Nagios fits in the overall network monitoring puzzle. We'll also cover installation and basic usage. Finally, we'll show you how to extend Nagios with other tools to extend functionality.

  7. Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (PMN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (PMN) is a part of the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS). The PMN was created as an outreach program to connect...

  8. Netherlands grass monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienezen, M.W.J.; Remmelink, G.J.; |Weiden, van der T.; Tjoonk, L.; Nolles, J.E.; Voskamp-Harkema, W.; Pol, van den A.

    2016-01-01

    To support on farm grazing management in the Netheralnds a grass monitoring was established in 2014. The aim of the network is to share and publish data on grass quality, grass growth and soil temperature in different regions of the Netherlands to serve as a benchmark. Grass quality, sward height

  9. Comparison of precipitation chemistry measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network and National Atmospheric Deposition Program for the period 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Shaw, Michael J.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Rothert, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    Precipitation chemistry and depth measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN) and the US National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) were compared for the 10-year period 1995–2004. Colocated sets of CAPMoN and NADP instrumentation, consisting of precipitation collectors and rain gages, were operated simultaneously per standard protocols for each network at Sutton, Ontario and Frelighsburg, Ontario, Canada and at State College, PA, USA. CAPMoN samples were collected daily, and NADP samples were collected weekly, and samples were analyzed exclusively by each network’s laboratory for pH, H + , Ca2+  , Mg2+  , Na + , K + , NH+4 , Cl − , NO−3 , and SO2−4 . Weekly and annual precipitation-weighted mean concentrations for each network were compared. This study is a follow-up to an earlier internetwork comparison for the period 1986–1993, published by Alain Sirois, Robert Vet, and Dennis Lamb in 2000. Median weekly internetwork differences for 1995–2004 data were the same to slightly lower than for data for the previous study period (1986–1993) for all analytes except NO−3 , SO2−4 , and sample depth. A 1994 NADP sampling protocol change and a 1998 change in the types of filters used to process NADP samples reversed the previously identified negative bias in NADP data for hydrogen-ion and sodium concentrations. Statistically significant biases (α = 0.10) for sodium and hydrogen-ion concentrations observed in the 1986–1993 data were not significant for 1995–2004. Weekly CAPMoN measurements generally are higher than weekly NADP measurements due to differences in sample filtration and field instrumentation, not sample evaporation, contamination, or analytical laboratory differences.

  10. Icinga network monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Viranch

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a concise and easy-to-follow approach, it will guide you to get you started with Icinga and lead you through the difficult concepts with illustrated examples and screenshots.If you are a system administrator or Linux enthusiast who is looking for a flexible tool to monitor network infrastructure efficiently, or trying to understand the Icinga software, this is a great book for you. You are expected to have solid foundation in Linux.

  11. ICFA SCIC Network Monitoring Report

    CERN Document Server

    McKee, Shawn; Babik, Marian; Hayashi, Soichi; Tierney, Brian; Giemza, Henryk; Vukotic, Ilija; O’Connor, Mike; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    This report may be regarded as a follow up to the previous ICFA Standing Committee on Inter-regional Connectivity (SCIC) Monitoring working group’s Network reports dating back to 1997. The current report updates the January 2015 report. As noted, PingER activities will not be covered in the same depth as earlier reports because of a lack of funding for this effort. We will be including some new areas related to network monitoring in HEP including updates and status on the perfSONAR efforts globally as well as the WLCG Network and Transfer Metrics Working Group activities.

  12. Monitoring particle growth in deposition plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlebrowski, T.; Bahre, H.; Böke, M.; Winter, J.

    2013-12-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition methods are frequently used to deposit barrier layers, e.g. on polymers for food packaging. These plasmas may suffer from particle (dust) formation. We report on a flexible monitoring system for dust. It is based on scanning a 3D plasma volume for particles by laser light scattering. The lower size limit of particles detected in the presented system is 20 nm. We report on existence diagrams for obtaining dust free or dust loaded capacitively or inductively coupled rf-plasmas in C2H2 depending on pressure, flow and rf-power. We further present growth rates for dust in these plasmas and show that monodisperse particles are only obtained during the first growth cycle.

  13. [Monitoring nitrogen deposition on temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju; Kang, Rong-hua; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Yong-mei; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Duan, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Nitrogen deposition on temperate steppe was monitored from November 2011 to October 2012 in Taipusi County, Inner Mongolia. The dry deposition of gaseous nitrogen compounds was calculated based on online-monitored atmospheric concentrations of NH3 and NO2 and dry deposition velocity simulated by CMAQ model. The wet deposition, dry deposition of particle, and throughfall deposition were also estimated by collecting rainfall, dust fall, and throughfall samples and the chemical analysis of NH4+ and NO3-concentrations. Results showed that the total deposition of nitrogen was up to 3.43 g x (m2 x a)(-1), which might be harmful to the ecosystem. The wet deposition accounted for about 44% of the total deposition, while dry deposition of gases and particle accounted for 38% and 18%, respectively. Since the deposition contributed more than wet deposition, a great attention should be paid on dry deposition monitoring. However, the very simple method for total deposition monitoring based on throughfall seemed not suitable for grassland because the monitored throughfall deposition was much lower than the total deposition. In addition, reduced nitrogen (NH4+ and NH3) contributed to 71% of the total deposition, while oxidation nitrogen (NO3- and NO2) was only 29%. Therefore, NH3 emission reduction should be considered as important as nitrogen oxides (NO3x) for controlling nitrogen deposition.

  14. Host Event Based Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Chugg

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of INL’s research on this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a host event based network monitoring tool and the effects on host performance. Current host based network monitoring tools work on polling which can miss activity if it occurs between polls. Instead of polling, a tool could be developed that makes use of event APIs in the operating system to receive asynchronous notifications of network activity. Analysis and logging of these events will allow the tool to construct the complete real-time and historical network configuration of the host while the tool is running. This research focused on three major operating systems commonly used by SCADA systems: Linux, WindowsXP, and Windows7. Windows 7 offers two paths that have minimal impact on the system and should be seriously considered. First is the new Windows Event Logging API, and, second, Windows 7 offers the ALE API within WFP. Any future work should focus on these methods.

  15. A Great Lakes atmospheric mercury monitoring network: evaluation and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Kenski, Donna M.; ,; David, A.

    2014-01-01

    As many as 51 mercury (Hg) wet-deposition-monitoring sites from 4 networks were operated in 8 USA states and Ontario, Canada in the North American Great Lakes Region from 1996 to 2010. By 2013, 20 of those sites were no longer in operation and approximately half the geographic area of the Region was represented by a single Hg-monitoring site. In response, a Great Lakes Atmospheric Mercury Monitoring (GLAMM) network is needed as a framework for regional collaboration in Hg-deposition monitoring. The purpose of the GLAMM network is to detect changes in regional atmospheric Hg deposition related to changes in Hg emissions. An optimized design for the network was determined to be a minimum of 21 sites in a representative and approximately uniform geographic distribution. A majority of the active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region are part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) in North America and the GLAMM network is planned to be part of the MDN. To determine an optimized network design, active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region were evaluated with a rating system of 21 factors that included characteristics of the monitoring locations and interpretations of Hg data. Monitoring sites were rated according to the number of Hg emissions sources and annual Hg emissions in a geographic polygon centered on each site. Hg-monitoring data from the sites were analyzed for long-term averages in weekly Hg concentrations in precipitation and weekly Hg-wet deposition, and on significant temporal trends in Hg concentrations and Hg deposition. A cluster analysis method was used to group sites with similar variability in their Hg data in order to identify sites that were unique for explaining Hg data variability in the Region. The network design included locations in protected natural areas, urban areas, Great Lakes watersheds, and in proximity to areas with a high density of annual Hg

  16. Performance Monitoring in Transparent Reconfigurable WDM Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Kit.Chan; Frank; Tong

    2003-01-01

    This paper classifies and surveys different approaches proposed for performance monitoring, in particular the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) monitoring, in transparent reconfigurable WDM networks. Some considerations for future monitoring schemes are discussed.

  17. Sensor Network Architectures for Monitoring Underwater Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Imad Jawhar; Jameela Al-Jaroodi; Nader Mohamed; Liren Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (Radio Frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network...

  18. An ozone budget for the UK: using measurements from the national ozone monitoring network; measured and modelled meteorological data, and a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy model of dry deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, M.; Smith, R.; Fowler, D

    2003-05-01

    A method of calculating a mass budget for O{sub 3} in the UK boundary layer is presented which shows that the spatial scale of the UK is small relative to the footprint of the atmosphere influenced by UK emissions. - Data from the UK national air-quality monitoring network are used to calculate an annual mass budget for ozone (O{sub 3}) production and loss in the UK boundary layer during 1996. Monthly losses by dry deposition are quantified from 1 kmx1 km scale maps of O{sub 3} concentration and O{sub 3} deposition velocities based on a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy. The quantity of O{sub 3} deposition varies from {approx}50 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1} in the winter to over 200 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1} in the summer when vegetation is actively absorbing O{sub 3}. The net O{sub 3} production or loss in the UK boundary layer is found by selecting days when the UK is receiving 'clean' Atlantic air from the SW to NW. In these conditions, the difference in O{sub 3} concentration observed at Mace Head and a rural site on the east coast of the UK indicates the net O{sub 3} production or loss within the UK boundary layer. A simple box model is then used to convert the concentration difference into a mass. The final budget shows that for most of the year the UK is a net sink for O{sub 3} (-25 to -800 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1}) with production only exceeding losses in the photochemically active summer months (+45 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1})

  19. The Austrian UV monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumthaler, Mario; Klotz, Barbara; Schwarzmann, Michael; Schreder, Josef

    2017-02-01

    The Austrian UV Monitoring network is operational since 1998 providing a large data set of erythemally weighted UV irradiance recorded with broadband UV biometer at 12 stations distributed all over Austria. In order to obtain high quality data all biometer are recalibrated once a year, the detectors are checked regularly for humidity and quality control is done routinely. The collected data are processed and then published on the website http://www.uv-index.at where the UV-Index of all measurement sites is presented in near real time together with a map of the distribution of the UV-Index over Austria. These UV-Index data together with measurements of global radiation and ozone levels from OMI are used to study long term trends for the stations of the monitoring network. Neither for all weather conditions nor for clear sky conditions is a statistically significant trend found for the UV-Index (with one exception) and for ozone. Furthermore, the radiation amplification factor (RAF) is determined experimentally from the power law correlation between UV-Index and ozone level for the site Innsbruck (577 m above sea level, 47.26°N, 11.38°E) for 19°solar elevation. A value of 0.91 ± 0.05 is found for the RAF for clear sky days with low ground albedo and a value of 1.03 ± 0.08 for days with high ground albedo (snow cover).

  20. External quality assurance project report for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program’s National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2013–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Martin, RoseAnn

    2016-07-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Quality Systems operated five distinct programs to provide external quality assurance monitoring for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program’s (NADP) National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network during 2013–14. The National Trends Network programs include (1) a field audit program to evaluate sample contamination and stability, (2) an interlaboratory comparison program to evaluate analytical laboratory performance, and (3) a colocated sampler program to evaluate bias from precipitation sampler upgrades. The Mercury Deposition Network programs include the (4) system blank program and (5) an interlaboratory comparison program. The results indicate that NADP data continue to be of sufficient quality for the analysis of spatial distributions and time trends for chemical constituents in wet deposition.

  1. Environmental Monitoring Using Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Zhang, C.; Li, X.; Huang, Y.; Fu, S.; Acevedo, M. F.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental observatories, consisting of a variety of sensor systems, computational resources and informatics, are important for us to observe, model, predict, and ultimately help preserve the health of the nature. The commoditization and proliferation of coin-to-palm sized wireless sensors will allow environmental monitoring with unprecedented fine spatial and temporal resolution. Once scattered around, these sensors can identify themselves, locate their positions, describe their functions, and self-organize into a network. They communicate through wireless channel with nearby sensors and transmit data through multi-hop protocols to a gateway, which can forward information to a remote data server. In this project, we describe an environmental observatory called Texas Environmental Observatory (TEO) that incorporates a sensor network system with intertwined wired and wireless sensors. We are enhancing and expanding the existing wired weather stations to include wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and telemetry using solar-powered cellular modems. The new WSNs will monitor soil moisture and support long-term hydrologic modeling. Hydrologic models are helpful in predicting how changes in land cover translate into changes in the stream flow regime. These models require inputs that are difficult to measure over large areas, especially variables related to storm events, such as soil moisture antecedent conditions and rainfall amount and intensity. This will also contribute to improve rainfall estimations from meteorological radar data and enhance hydrological forecasts. Sensor data are transmitted from monitoring site to a Central Data Collection (CDC) Server. We incorporate a GPRS modem for wireless telemetry, a single-board computer (SBC) as Remote Field Gateway (RFG) Server, and a WSN for distributed soil moisture monitoring. The RFG provides effective control, management, and coordination of two independent sensor systems, i.e., a traditional datalogger-based wired

  2. Sensor network architectures for monitoring underwater pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nader; Jawhar, Imad; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Zhang, Liren

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (radio frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring.

  3. Sensor Network Architectures for Monitoring Underwater Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Jawhar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (Radio Frequency wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring.

  4. Monitoring the Topology of Growing Dynamical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoyan; Fu, Xinchu; Chen, Guanrong

    In this paper, topology monitoring of growing networks is studied. When some new nodes are added into a network, the topology of the network is changed, which needs to be monitored in many applications. Some auxiliary systems (network monitors) are designed to achieve this goal. Both linear feedback control and adaptive strategy are applied to designing such network monitors. Based on the Lyapunov function method via constructing a potential or energy function decreasing along any solution of the system, and the LaSalle's invariance principle, which is a generalization of the Lyapunov function method, some sufficient conditions for achieving topology monitoring are obtained. Illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method.

  5. Configurable Monitoring for Multi-domain Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Belghith, Aymen; Cousin, Bernard; Lahoud, Samer

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art monitoring architectures proposed for multi-domain networks. We establish the five requirements a multi-domain monitoring architecture must fulfilled. We note that these architectures do not support measurement configuration that enables the providers to perform flexible multi-domain measurements. Therefore, we propose a configurable multi-domain network monitoring architecture in order to give more flexibility in monitorin...

  6. Bridge monitoring using heterogeneous wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haran, Shivan; Kher, Shubhalaxmi; Mehndiratta, Vandana

    2010-03-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are proving to be a good fit where real time monitoring of multiple physical parameters is required. In many applications such as structural health monitoring, patient data monitoring, traffic accident monitoring and analysis, sensor networks may involve interface with conventional P2P systems and it is challenging to handle heterogeneous network systems. Heterogeneous deployments will become increasingly prevalent as it allows for systems to seamlessly integrate and interoperate especially when it comes to applications involving monitoring of large infrastructures. Such networks may have wireless sensor network overlaid on a conventional computer network to pick up data from one distant location and carry out the analysis after relaying it over to another distant location. This paper discusses monitoring of bridges using WSN. As a test bed, a heterogeneous network of WSN and conventional P2P together with a combination of sensing devices (including vibration and strain) is to be used on a bridge model. Issues related to condition assessment of the bridge for situations including faults, overloads, etc., as well as analysis of network and system performance will be discussed. When conducted under controlled conditions, this is an important step towards fine tuning the monitoring system for recommendation of permanent mounting of sensors and collecting data that can help in the development of new methods for inspection and evaluation of bridges. The proposed model, design, and issues therein will be discussed, along with its implementation and results.

  7. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  8. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  9. WiMAX network performance monitoring & optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi; Dam, H

    2008-01-01

    frequency reuse, capacity planning, proper network dimensioning, multi-class data services and so on. Furthermore, as a small operator we also want to reduce the demand for sophisticated technicians and man labour hours. To meet these critical demands, we design a generic integrated network performance......In this paper we present our WiMAX (worldwide interoperability for microwave access) network performance monitoring and optimization solution. As a new and small WiMAX network operator, there are many demanding issues that we have to deal with, such as limited available frequency resource, tight...... this integrated network performance monitoring and optimization system in our WiMAX networks. This integrated monitoring and optimization system has such good flexibility and scalability that individual function component can be used by other operators with special needs and more advanced function components can...

  10. Differences between nipher and slter shielded rain gages at two Colorado deposition monitoring sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, David S.; Denning, A. Scott

    1990-01-01

    In the last decade the United States and Canada have made significant progress in establishing spatial ad temporal estimates of atmospheric deposition throughout North America. Fundamental to the wet-deposition portion of these estimates is the accurate and precise measurement of precipitation amount. Goodison and others (I-3) have reported on a new type of shielded snow gage known as the Canadian MSC Nipher shielded snow gage. Because this shielded snow gage has been shown to be superior to other precipitation gages for the estimation of snowfall amount, its design was adapted to the Universal Belfort precipitation gage (4), the dominant precipitation gage used at deposition monitoring sites in the United States. Favorable results taken from monitoring sites using this modified Nipher shielded snow gage (3-6) have prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Electric Power Research Institute to adopt the Nipher shielded Belfort gage as a standard piece of equipment in the Acid MODES and Operational Evaluation Network (OEN) monitoring programs and to propose that is be included as a standard snow gage in other North American deposition monitoring programs. This communication details preliminary results from two of nine NADP/NTN deposition monitoring sites selected by the Environmental Protection Agency to compare Nipher shielded Belfort precipitation gage volumes to volumes obtained from the standard Belfort gage used in the NADP/NTN monitoring program.

  11. Online APAN IPv6 Network Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    APAN [4] has native IPv6 network across all major APAN exchange points. It is important to validate the performance of the links in the network to ensure the link stability. This paper discusses the technique and mechanism that are used to perform online monitoring of the APAN IPv6 network status. Pchar tool is used to check the performance of the network. Metrics such as bandwidth, hop count and round trip time between nodes in each country's have been adopted for these monitoring activity.

  12. Method development estimating ambient mercury concentration from monitored mercury wet deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Speciated atmospheric mercury data have recently been monitored at multiple locations in North America; but the spatial coverage is far less than the long-established mercury wet deposition network. The present study describes a first attempt linking ambient concentration with wet deposition using Beta distribution fitting of a ratio estimate. The mean, median, mode, standard deviation, and skewness of the fitted Beta distribution parameters were generated using data collected in 2009 at 11 monitoring stations. Comparing the normalized histogram and the fitted density function, the empirical and fitted Beta distribution of the ratio shows a close fit. The estimated ambient mercury concentration was further partitioned into reactive gaseous mercury and particulate bound mercury using linear regression model developed by Amos et al. (2012. The method presented here can be used to roughly estimate mercury ambient concentration at locations and/or times where such measurement is not available but where wet deposition is monitored.

  13. Wireless network topology for monitoring mobile agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Matthew J.; James, Daniel A.; Thiel, David V.

    2005-02-01

    A wireless network of multiple sensor nodes for monitoring large numbers of mobile agents is described and investigated. Wireless monitoring provides time critical information from a number of data sources allowing near real-time analysis of the collected data. The developed wireless network provides a moderate data rate, is able to support many wireless nodes and is a low power solution. Novel network structures have been developed to satisfy all of these requirements. This paper evaluates a number of currently available wireless communication protocols, concluding that a Bluetooth wireless network satisfies the above criteria. To support a large number of devices, topologies using inter-piconet and piconet sharing methods have been developed. These network structures are outlined in detail and have been developed with the current Bluetooth hardware limitations in mind. The proposed wireless networks have been developed to be implemented with current Bluetooth hardware. A summary of network performance is included for each developed network structure, and from these figures an appropriate network structure has been chosen that satisfies the requirements of a wireless sensor network for monitoring mobile agents.

  14. Network Monitoring as a Streaming Analytics Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Gupta, Arpit

    2016-11-02

    Programmable switches make it easier to perform flexible network monitoring queries at line rate, and scalable stream processors make it possible to fuse data streams to answer more sophisticated queries about the network in real-time. Unfortunately, processing such network monitoring queries at high traffic rates requires both the switches and the stream processors to filter the traffic iteratively and adaptively so as to extract only that traffic that is of interest to the query at hand. Others have network monitoring in the context of streaming; yet, previous work has not closed the loop in a way that allows network operators to perform streaming analytics for network monitoring applications at scale. To achieve this objective, Sonata allows operators to express a network monitoring query by considering each packet as a tuple and efficiently partitioning each query between the switches and the stream processor through iterative refinement. Sonata extracts only the traffic that pertains to each query, ensuring that the stream processor can scale traffic rates of several terabits per second. We show with a simple example query involving DNS reflection attacks and traffic traces from one of the world\\'s largest IXPs that Sonata can capture 95% of all traffic pertaining to the query, while reducing the overall data rate by a factor of about 400 and the number of required counters by four orders of magnitude. Copyright 2016 ACM.

  15. Prototyping Web Services based Network Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drevers, Thomas; van de Meent, R.; Pras, Aiko; Harjo, J.; Moltchanov, D.; Silverajan, B.

    Web services is one of the emerging approaches in network management. This paper describes the design and implementation of four Web services based network monitoring prototypes. Each prototype follows a speci��?c approach to retrieve management data, ranging from retrieving a single management

  16. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  17. Wireless Sensor Network for Wearable Physiological Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Pandian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Wearable physiological monitoring system consists of an array of sensors embedded into the fabric of the wearer to continuously monitor the physiological parameters and transmit wireless to a remote monitoring station. At the remote monitoring station the data is correlated to study the overall health status of the wearer. In the conventional wearable physiological monitoring system, the sensors are integrated at specific locations on the vest and are interconnected to the wearable data acquisition hardware by wires woven into the fabric. The drawbacks associated with these systems are the cables woven in the fabric pickup noise such as power line interference and signals from nearby radiating sources and thereby corrupting the physiological signals. Also repositioning the sensors in the fabric is difficult once integrated. The problems can be overcome by the use of physiological sensors with miniaturized electronics to condition, process, digitize and wireless transmission integrated into the single module. These sensors are strategically placed at various locations on the vest. Number of sensors integrated into the fabric form a network (Personal Area Network and interacts with the human system to acquire and transmit the physiological data to a wearable data acquisition system. The wearable data acquisition hardware collects the data from various sensors and transmits the processed data to the remote monitoring station. The paper discusses wireless sensor network and its application to wearable physiological monitoring and its applications. Also the problems associated with conventional wearable physiological monitoring are discussed.

  18. Optical Networks for Cost Monitoring and Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Buvanesvari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on cost reduction and monitoring in optical networks. Optical mesh networks are cost savings with switching systems that are interconnected by point-to-point networks. Transponders play a major role in it. All-optical packet switching has been intensively investigated in recent years as an alternative to static, cross connect based networks. Several switch architectures have been proposed, all of them using buffers made of fiber delay lines. We consider the problem of minimizing the congestion in wireless optical (FSO backbone networks by placing controllable relay nodes. We propose algorithms for placement of relays in the network under node interface constraints. Further reduction in cost is done by the conversion of optical to electrical at the intermediate nodes. Optical transport networks offer a new level of flexibility in the optical layer allowing various services and thereby improving the efficiency, performance and robustness. An optical path with a transparent feature allows the transmission of signals that are optical and also independent of data rate and modulation format. Client layer protocol provides transparency for the transport layer in optical networks. Thus there is a significant challenge in terms of function, flexibility and monitoring cost.

  19. BABY MONITORING SYSTEM USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is marked by the sudden death of an infant during sleep that is not predicted by the medical history and remains unexplained even after thorough forensic autopsy and detailed death investigation. In this we developed a system that provides solutions for the above problems by making the crib smart using the wireless sensor networks (WSN and smart phones. The system provides visual monitoring service through live video, alert services by crib fencing and awakens alert, monitoring services by temperature reading and light intensity reading, vaccine reminder and weight monitoring.

  20. Gamma-radiation monitoring network at sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, Ch.; Schilling, G.; Gruettmueller, M.; Becker, K

    1999-04-01

    A stationary monitoring network to observe the sea for radioactive contaminations, using a newly constructed NaI-detector system, is described. The monitoring efficiency for total-{gamma} counting and {gamma}-spectrometry as well as a method suppressing the registration of natural radioactivity are discussed. On the basis of three accident scenarios with releases of radioactivity into the sea it is demonstrated that under sea conditions the limit of detection of this 'in situ' method is comparable to the regularly performed monitoring by radiochemical {sup 137}Cs analysis of seawater samples.

  1. Wireless sensor networks and ecological monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Joe-Air

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art technologies and solutions to tackle the critical challenges faced by the building and development of the WSN and ecological monitoring system but also potential impact on society at social, medical and technological level. This book is dedicated to Sensing systems for Sensors, Wireless Sensor Networks and Ecological Monitoring. The book aims at Master and PhD degree students, researchers, practitioners, especially WSN engineers involved with ecological monitoring. The book will provide an opportunity of a dedicated and a deep approach in order to improve their knowledge in this specific field.  

  2. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  3. Operation of International Monitoring System Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Svetlana; Araujo, Fernando; Aktas, Kadircan; Malakhova, Marina; Otsuka, Riyo; Han, Dongmei; Assef, Thierry; Nava, Elisabetta; Mickevicius, Sigitas; Agrebi, Abdelouaheb

    2015-04-01

    The IMS is a globally distributed network of monitoring facilities using sensors from four technologies: seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide. It is designed to detect the seismic and acoustic waves produced by nuclear test explosions and the subsequently released radioactive isotopes. Monitoring stations transmit their data to the IDC in Vienna, Austria, over a global private network known as the GCI. Since 2013, the data availability (DA) requirements for IMS stations account for quality of the data, meaning that in calculation of data availability data should be exclude if: - there is no input from sensor (SHI technology); - the signal consists of constant values (SHI technology); Even more strict are requirements for the DA of the radionuclide (particulate and noble gas) stations - received data have to be analyzed, reviewed and categorized by IDC analysts. In order to satisfy the strict data and network availability requirements of the IMS Network, the operation of the facilities and the GCI are managed by IDC Operations. Operations has following main functions: - to ensure proper operation and functioning of the stations; - to ensure proper operation and functioning of the GCI; - to ensure efficient management of the stations in IDC; - to provide network oversight and incident management. At the core of the IMS Network operations are a series of tools for: monitoring the stations' state of health and data quality, troubleshooting incidents, communicating with internal and external stakeholders, and reporting. The new requirements for data availability increased the importance of the raw data quality monitoring. This task is addressed by development of additional tools for easy and fast identifying problems in data acquisition, regular activities to check compliance of the station parameters with acquired data by scheduled calibration of the seismic network, review of the samples by certified radionuclide laboratories. The DA for the networks of

  4. Value of monitoring in road network management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouch, M.; Courage, W.; Napoles-Morales, O.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for road network management to assist road authorities in maintenance budget estimations and long-term maintenance strategies definition. Information about road conditions is obtained from monitoring. Available data are used to estimate and update prediction of degradation evo

  5. Smart Sensor Network System For Environment Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ali Baloch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available SSN (Smart Sensor Network systems could be used to monitor buildings with modern infrastructure, plant sites with chemical pollution, horticulture, natural habitat, wastewater management and modern transport system. To sense attributes of phenomena and make decisions on the basis of the sensed value is the primary goal of such systems. In this paper a Smart Spatially aware sensor system is presented. A smart system, which could continuously monitor the network to observe the functionality and trigger, alerts to the base station if a change in the system occurs and provide feedback periodically, on demand or even continuously depending on the nature of the application. The results of the simulation trials presented in this paper exhibit the performance of a Smart Spatially Aware Sensor Networks.

  6. Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM) - Realizing Integrated Environmental Monitoring Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosch, Thomas; Fietzek, Peer

    2016-04-01

    In a variety of scientific and industrial application areas, ranging i.e. from the supervision of hydrate fields over the detection and localization of fugitive emissions from subsea oil and gas production to fish farming, fixed point observatories are useful and applied means. They monitor the water column and/or are placed at the sea floor over long periods of time. They are essential oceanographic platforms for providing valuable long-term time series data and multi-parameter measurements. Various mooring and observatory endeavors world-wide contribute valuable data needed for understanding our planet's ocean systems and biogeochemical processes. Continuously powered cabled observatories enable real-time data transmission from spots of interest close to the shore or to ocean infrastructures. Independent of the design of the observatories they all rely on sensors which demands for regular maintenance. This work is in most cases associated with cost-intensive maintenance on a regular time basis for the entire sensor carrying fixed platform. It is mandatory to encounter this asset for long-term monitoring by enhancing hardware efficiency. On the basis of two examples of use from the area of hydrate monitoring (off Norway and Japan) we will present the concept of the Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM). The modular, scalable and networking capabilities of the MSM allow for an easy adaptation to different monitoring tasks. Providing intelligent power management, combining chemical and acoustical sensors, adaptation of the payload according to the monitoring tasks, autonomous powering, modular design for easy transportation, storage and mobilization, Vessel of Opportunity-borne launching and recovery capability with a video-guided launcher system and a rope recovery system are key facts addressed during the development of the MSM. Step by step the MSM concept applied to the observatory hardware will also be extended towards the gathered data to maximize the

  7. GENASIS national and international monitoring networks for persistent organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Karel; Dušek, Ladislav; Holoubek, Ivan; Hřebíček, Jiří; Kubásek, Miroslav; Urbánek, Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) remain in the centre of scientific attention due to their slow rates of degradation, their toxicity, and potential for both long-range transport and bioaccumulation in living organisms. This group of compounds covers large number of various chemicals from industrial products, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. The GENASIS (Global Environmental Assessment and Information System) information system utilizes data from national and international monitoring networks to obtain as-complete-as-possible set of information and a representative picture of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). There are data from two main datasets on POPs monitoring: 1.Integrated monitoring of POPs in Košetice Observatory (Czech Republic) which is a long term background site of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) for the Central Europe; the data reveals long term trends of POPs in all environmental matrices. The Observatory is the only one in Europe where POPs have been monitored not only in ambient air, but also in wet atmospheric deposition, surface waters, sediments, soil, mosses and needles (integrated monitoring). Consistent data since the year 1996 are available, earlier data (up to 1998) are burdened by high variability and high detection limits. 2.MONET network is ambient air monitoring activities in the Central and Eastern European region (CEEC), Central Asia, Africa and Pacific Islands driven by RECETOX as the Regional Centre of the Stockholm Convention for the region of Central and Eastern Europe under the common name of the MONET networks (MONitoring NETwork). For many of the participating countries these activities generated first data on the atmospheric levels of POPs. The MONET network uses new technologies of air passive sampling, which was developed, tested, and calibrated by RECETOX in cooperation with Environment Canada and Lancaster University, and was originally launched as a

  8. Performance Monitoring Techniques Supporting Cognitive Optical Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko

    2013-01-01

    to solve this issue by realizing a network that can observe, act, learn and optimize its performance, taking into account end-to-end goals. In this letter we present the approach of cognition applied to heterogeneous optical networks developed in the framework of the EU project CHRON: Cognitive...... Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network. We focus on the approaches developed in the project for optical performance monitoring, which enable the feedback from the physical layer to the cognitive decision system by providing accurate description of the performance of the established lightpaths.......High degree of heterogeneity of future optical networks, such as services with different quality-of-transmission requirements, modulation formats and switching techniques, will pose a challenge for the control and optimization of different parameters. Incorporation of cognitive techniques can help...

  9. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the airmonitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  10. Integrated condition monitoring of space information network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilin; Li, Xinming; Li, Yachen; Yu, Shaolin

    2015-11-01

    In order to solve the integrated condition monitoring problem in space information network, there are three works finished including analyzing the characteristics of tasks process and system health monitoring, adopting the automata modeling method, and respectively establishing the models for state inference and state determination. The state inference model is a logic automaton and is gotten by concluding engineering experiences. The state determination model is a double-layer automaton, the lower automaton is responsible for parameter judge and the upper automaton is responsible for state diagnosis. At last, the system state monitoring algorithm has been proposed, which realizes the integrated condition monitoring for task process and system health, and can avoid the false alarm.

  11. Analysis and monitoring design for networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, V.; Flanagan, D.; Rowan, T.; Batsell, S.

    1998-06-01

    The idea of applying experimental design methodologies to develop monitoring systems for computer networks is relatively novel even though it was applied in other areas such as meteorology, seismology, and transportation. One objective of a monitoring system should always be to collect as little data as necessary to be able to monitor specific parameters of the system with respect to assigned targets and objectives. This implies a purposeful monitoring where each piece of data has a reason to be collected and stored for future use. When a computer network system as large and complex as the Internet is the monitoring subject, providing an optimal and parsimonious observing system becomes even more important. Many data collection decisions must be made by the developers of a monitoring system. These decisions include but are not limited to the following: (1) The type data collection hardware and software instruments to be used; (2) How to minimize interruption of regular network activities during data collection; (3) Quantification of the objectives and the formulation of optimality criteria; (4) The placement of data collection hardware and software devices; (5) The amount of data to be collected in a given time period, how large a subset of the available data to collect during the period, the length of the period, and the frequency of data collection; (6) The determination of the data to be collected (for instance, selection of response and explanatory variables); (7) Which data will be retained and how long (i.e., data storage and retention issues); and (8) The cost analysis of experiments. Mathematical statistics, and, in particular, optimal experimental design methods, may be used to address the majority of problems generated by 3--7. In this study, the authors focus their efforts on topics 3--5.

  12. Network developments and network monitoring in Internet2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, E.; Evett, S.

    Given that performance is excellent across backbone networks, and that performance is a problem end-to-end, it is clear that problems are concentrated towards the edge and in network transitions. To achieve good end-to-end performance, we need to diagnose (understand the limits of performance) and address (work with members and application communities to address those performance issues). We envision readily available performance information that is easy to find, ubiquitous, reliable, valuable, actionable (analysis suggests course of action), and automated (applications act on data received). The Internet2 End-to-End Performance Initative (E2Epi) currently focuses on the development and widespread deployment of perfSONAR [1][2], an international consortium developing a performance middleware architecture and a set of protocol standards for inter-operability between measurement and monitoring systems. perfSONAR is a set of open source web services that can be added, piecemeal, and extended to create a performance monitoring framework. It is designed to be standards-based, modular, decentralized, and open source. This makes it applicable to multiple generations of network monitoring systems and encourages outside development while still allowing it to be customized for individual science applications. perfSONAR is a joint effort of ESnet, GÉANT2 JRA1, Internet2, and RNP. The Internet2 Network is a hybrid optical and IP network, that offers dynamic and static wavelength services. The Internet2 Network Observatory supports three types of services: measurement, co-location, and experimental servers to support specific projects. The Observatory collects data and makes it publicly available.

  13. Intrusion detection and monitoring for wireless networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Eric D.; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Lee, Erik J.; Stephano, Amanda (Indiana University); Tabriz, Parisa (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); Pelon, Kristen (Cedarville University); McCoy, Damon (University of Colorado, Boulder); Lodato, Mark (Lafayette College); Hemingway, Franklin (University of New Mexico); Custer, Ryan P.; Averin, Dimitry (Polytechnic University); Franklin, Jason (Carnegie Mellon University); Kilman, Dominique Marie

    2005-11-01

    complete network coverage for use by emergency responders and other municipal agencies. In short, these Wi-Fi networks are being deployed everywhere. Much thought has been and is being put into evaluating cost-benefit analyses of wired vs. wireless networks and issues such as how to effectively cover an office building or municipality, how to efficiently manage a large network of wireless access points (APs), and how to save money by replacing an Internet service provider (ISP) with 802.11 technology. In comparison, very little thought and money are being focused on wireless security and monitoring for security purposes.

  14. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  15. Networked Computing in Wireless Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Jindal, Apoorva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of distributed computation over a network of wireless sensors. While this problem applies to many emerging applications, to keep our discussion concrete we will focus on sensor networks used for structural health monitoring. Within this context, the heaviest computation is to determine the singular value decomposition (SVD) to extract mode shapes (eigenvectors) of a structure. Compared to collecting raw vibration data and performing SVD at a central location, computing SVD within the network can result in significantly lower energy consumption and delay. Using recent results on decomposing SVD, a well-known centralized operation, into components, we seek to determine a near-optimal communication structure that enables the distribution of this computation and the reassembly of the final results, with the objective of minimizing energy consumption subject to a computational delay constraint. We show that this reduces to a generalized clustering problem; a cluster forms a unit on w...

  16. A network monitor for HTTPS protocol based on proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangxin; Zhang, Lingcui; Zhou, Shuguang; Li, Fenghua

    2016-10-01

    With the explosive growth of harmful Internet information such as pornography, violence, and hate messages, network monitoring is essential. Traditional network monitors is based mainly on bypass monitoring. However, we can't filter network traffic using bypass monitoring. Meanwhile, only few studies focus on the network monitoring for HTTPS protocol. That is because HTTPS data is in the encrypted traffic, which makes it difficult to monitor. This paper proposes a network monitor for HTTPS protocol based on proxy. We adopt OpenSSL to establish TLS secure tunes between clients and servers. Epoll is used to handle a large number of concurrent client connections. We also adopt Knuth- Morris-Pratt string searching algorithm (or KMP algorithm) to speed up the search process. Besides, we modify request packets to reduce the risk of errors and modify response packets to improve security. Experiments show that our proxy can monitor the content of all tested HTTPS websites efficiently with little loss of network performance.

  17. Practical considerations for addressing uncertainties in monitoring bulk deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erisman, J.W. [ECN Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands); Daemmgen, U. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (Germany); Cape, J.N.; Fowler, D. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Scotland (United Kingdom); Gruenhage, L. [Institute for Plant Ecology, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    The assessment of the deposition of both wet (rain and cloud) and dry sedimentation particles is a prerequisite for estimating element fluxes in ecosystem research. Many nations and institutions operate deposition networks using different types of sampler. However, these samplers have rarely been characterized with respect to their sink properties. Major errors in assessing bulk deposition can result from poor sampling properties and defective sampling strategies. Relevant properties are: sampler geometry and material, in particular the shape of the rim; sink properties for gases and aerosols; and microbial transformations of the collected samples. An adequate number of replicates allows the identification of samples which are contaminated, in particular by bird droppings. The paper discusses physical and chemical properties of the samplers themselves. The dependence of measurement accuracy on the number of replicates and the sampling area exposed is discussed. Recommendations are given for sampling strategies, and for making corrections and substitution of missing data. Recommendations are given for sampling strategies and for making corrections and substitution of missing data.

  18. Practical considerations for addressing uncertainties in monitoring bulk deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemmgen, Ulrich [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Bundesallee 50, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)]. E-mail: ulrich.daemmgen@fal.de; Erisman, Jan Willem [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Cape, J. Neil [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB, Scotland (United Kingdom); Gruenhage, Ludger [Institute for Plant Ecology, Justus-Liebig-University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Fowler, David [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    The assessment of the deposition of both wet (rain and cloud) and dry sedimenting particles is a prerequisite for estimating element fluxes in ecosystem research. Many nations and institutions operate deposition networks using different types of sampler. However, these samplers have rarely been characterized with respect to their sink properties. Major errors in assessing bulk deposition can result from poor sampling properties and defective sampling strategies. Relevant properties are: sampler geometry and material, in particular the shape of the rim; sink properties for gases and aerosols; and microbial transformations of the collected samples. An adequate number of replicates allows the identification of samples which are contaminated, in particular by bird droppings. The paper discusses physical and chemical properties of the samplers themselves. The dependence of measurement accuracy on the number of replicates and the sampling area exposed is discussed. Recommendations are given for sampling strategies, and for making corrections and substitution of missing data. - Recommendations are given for sampling strategies and for making corrections and substitution of missing data.

  19. Quality control in bio-monitoring networks, Spanish Aerobiology Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteros, Jose; Galán, Carmen; Alcázar, Purificación; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio

    2013-01-15

    Several of the airborne biological particles, such as pollen grains and fungal spores, are known to generate human health problems including allergies and infections. A number of aerobiologists have focused their research on these airborne particles. The Spanish Aerobiology Network (REA) was set up in 1992, and since then dozens of research groups have worked on a range of related topics, including the standardization of study methods and the quality control of data generated by this network. In 2010, the REA started work on an inter-laboratory survey for proficiency testing purposes. The main goal of the study reported in the present paper was to determine the performance of technicians in the REA network using an analytical method that could be implemented by other bio-monitoring networks worldwide. The results recorded by each technician were compared with the scores obtained for a bounded mean of all results. The performance of each technician was expressed in terms of the relative error made in counting each of several pollen types. The method developed and implemented here proved appropriate for proficiency testing in interlaboratory studies involving bio-monitoring networks, and enabled the source of data quality problems to be pinpointed. The test revealed a variation coefficient of 10%. The relative error was significant for 3.5% of observations. In overall terms, the REA staff performed well, in accordance with the REA Management and Quality Manual. These findings serve to guarantee the quality of the data obtained, which can reliably be used for research purposes and published in the media in order to help prevent pollen-related health problems.

  20. Dynamic Shortest Path Monitoring in Spatial Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Shang; Lisi Chen; Zhe-Wei Wei; Dan-Huai Guo; Ji-Rong Wen

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing availability of real-time traffic information, dynamic spatial networks are pervasive nowa-days and path planning in dynamic spatial networks becomes an important issue. In this light, we propose and investigate a novel problem of dynamically monitoring shortest paths in spatial networks (DSPM query). When a traveler aims to a des-tination, his/her shortest path to the destination may change due to two reasons: 1) the travel costs of some edges have been updated and 2) the traveler deviates from the pre-planned path. Our target is to accelerate the shortest path computing in dynamic spatial networks, and we believe that this study may be useful in many mobile applications, such as route planning and recommendation, car navigation and tracking, and location-based services in general. This problem is challenging due to two reasons: 1) how to maintain and reuse the existing computation results to accelerate the following computations, and 2) how to prune the search space effectively. To overcome these challenges, filter-and-refinement paradigm is adopted. We maintain an expansion tree and define a pair of upper and lower bounds to prune the search space. A series of optimization techniques are developed to accelerate the shortest path computing. The performance of the developed methods is studied in extensive experiments based on real spatial data.

  1. Developing hydrological monitoring networks with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Vega, Andres; Villacis, Marcos; Moulds, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The open source hardware platform Arduino is very cost-effective and versatile for the development of sensor networks. Here we report on experiments on the use of Arduino-related technologies to develop and implement hydrological monitoring networks. Arduino Uno boards were coupled to a variety of commercially available hydrological sensors and programmed for automatic data collection. Tested sensors include water level, temperature, humidity, radiation, and precipitation. Our experiments show that most of the tested analogue sensors are quite straightforward to couple to Arduino based data loggers, especially if the electronic characteristics of the sensor are available. However, some sensors have internal digital interfaces, which are more challenging to connect. Lastly, tipping bucket rain gauges prove the most challenging because of the very specific methodology, i.e. registration of bucket tips instead of measurements at regular intervals. The typically low data generation rate of hydrological instruments is very compatible with available technologies for wireless data transmission. Mesh networks such as Xbee prove very convenient and robust for dispersed networks, while wifi is also an option for shorter distances and particular topographies. Lastly, the GSM shield of the Arduino can be used to transfer data to centralized databases. In regions where no mobile internet (i.e. 3G) connection is available, data transmission via text messages may be an option, depending on the bandwidth requirements.

  2. Optimisation of the German moss monitoring network; Optimierung des Moosmonitoring-Messnetzes in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesch, R.; Schroeder, W. [Hochschule Vechta (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftsoekologie; Dieffenbach-Fries, H. [Umweltbundesamt, Langen (Germany). Fachgebiet II 5.4; Genssler, L. [Landesamt fuer Natur, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz Nordrhein-Westfalen, Recklinghausen (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    Germany participated in the Europen Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys 1990, 1995 and 2000. The goal was to map the spatial distribution of the metal accumulation as a comparative measure for the metal deposition in terrestrial ecosystems. In the campaign in 2005, additionally nitrogen was monitored for the first time. It should be investigated how the monitoring network could be reduced from 1028 to 720 sites without any significant influence on chosen statistical criteria. Furthermore, the new network should be linked to other environmental monitoring programmes. (orig.)

  3. In Situ Monitoring of the Deposition of Flame-Made Chemoresistive Gas-Sensing Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattmann, Christoph O; Güntner, Andreas T; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2017-07-19

    Flame-deposited semiconducting nanomaterials on microelectronic circuitry exhibit exceptional performance as chemoresistive gas sensors. Current manufacturing technology, however, does not monitor in situ the formation of such nanostructured films, even though this can facilitate the controlled and economic synthesis of these sensors. Here, the resistance of such growing films is measured in situ during fabrication to monitor the creation of a semiconducting nanoparticle network for gas sensors. Upon formation of that network, the film resistance drops drastically to an asymptotic value that depends largely on the film structure or morphology rather than on its thickness and size of nanoparticle building blocks. Precursor solutions of various concentrations enable the flame deposition of Sb-doped SnO2 sensing films of different morphologies, each of which exhibit a characteristic in situ resistance pattern. Low precursor concentrations (1 mM) lead to thin (ca. 0.16 μm) films with slender columnar structures of increasing diameter (up to 25 nm) after prolonged deposition (up to 6 min) and show an oscillating in situ resistance during their fabrication. On the other extreme, high precursor concentrations (100 mM) lead to thick (up to 80 μm) dendritic and porous films consisting of nanoparticles with relatively small primary particle diameter (around 7 nm) that remain invariant of deposition duration, which is in agreement with the stable in situ resistance. Such dendritic films exhibit a sensor recovery time that is an order of magnitude longer than that of those made at lower concentrations. The above understanding enables the rapid and economic flame synthesis of thin gas sensors consisting of minimal semiconducting nanomaterial mass possessing a tuned baseline resistance and exhibiting excellent response to ethanol vapor.

  4. The seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Orazi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy is one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the world. Its activity is currently characterized by moderate seismicity, with hypocenters located beneath the crater zone with depth rarely exceeding 5 km and magnitudes generally less than 3. The current configuration of the seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius consists of 18 seismic stations and 7 infrasound microphones. During the period 2006-2010 a seismic array with 48 channels was also operative. The station distribution provides appropriate coverage of the area around the volcanic edifice. The current development of the network and its geometry, under conditions of low seismic noise, allows locating seismic events with M<1. Remote instruments continuously transmit data to the main acquisition center in Naples. Data transmission is realized using different technological solutions based on UHF, Wi-Fi radio links, and TCP/IP client-server applications. Data are collected in the monitoring center of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples section, which is equipped with systems for displaying and analyzing signals, using both real-time automatic and manual procedures. 24-hour surveillance allows to immediately communicate any significant anomaly to the Civil Protection authorities.

  5. A Wireless Sensor Network For Soil Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlavecz, K.; Cogan, J.; Musaloiu-Elefteri, R.; Small, S.; Terzis, A.; Szalay, A.

    2005-12-01

    The most spatially complex stratum of a terrestrial ecosystem is its soil. Among the major challenges of studying the soil ecosystem are the diversity and the cryptic nature of biota, and the enormous heterogeneity of the soil substrate. Often this patchiness drives spatial distribution of soil organisms, yet our knowledge on the spatio-temporal patterns of soil conditions is limited. To monitor the environmental conditions at biologically meaningful spatial scales we have developed and deployed a wireless sensor network of thirty nodes. Each node is based on a MICAz mote connected to a custom-built sensor suite that includes a Watermark soil moisture sensor, an Irrometer soil temperature sensor, and sensors capable of recording ambient temperature and light intensity. To assess CO2 production at the ground level a subset of the nodes is equipped with Telaire 6004 CO2 sensor. We developed the software running on the motes from scratch, using the TinyOS development environment. Each mote collects measurements every minute, and stores them persistently in a non-volatile memory. The decision to store data locally at each node enables us to reliably retrieve the data in the face of network losses and premature node failures due to power depletion. Collected measurements are retrieved over the wireless network through a PC-class computer acting as a gateway between the sensor network and the Internet. Considering that motes are battery powered, the largest obstacle hindering long-term sensor network deployments is power consumption. To address this problem, our software powers down sensors between sampling cycles and turns off the radio (the most energy prohibitive mote component) when not in use. By doing so we were able to increase node lifetime by a factor of ten. We collected field data over several weeks. The data was ingested into a SQL Server database, which provides data access through a .NET web services interface. The database provides functions for spatial

  6. Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X.; Liang, Y.; Navarro, M.; Zhong, X.; Villalba, G.; Li, Y.; Davis, T.; Erratt, N.

    2015-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained an increasing interest in a broad range of new scientific research and applications. WSN technologies can provide high resolution for spatial and temporal data which has not been possible before, opening up new opportunities. On the other hand, WSNs, particularly outdoor WSNs in harsh environments, present great challenges for scientists and engineers in terms of the network design, deployment, operation, management, and maintenance. Since 2010, we have been working on the deployment of an outdoor multi-hop WSN testbed for hydrological/environmental monitoring in a forested hill-sloped region at the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP), Pennsylvania, USA. The ASWP WSN testbed has continuously evolved and had more than 80 nodes by now. To our knowledge, the ASWP WSN testbed represents one of the first known long-term multi-hop WSN deployments in an outdoor environment. As simulation and laboratory methods are unable to capture the complexity of outdoor environments (e.g., forests, oceans, mountains, or glaciers), which significantly affect WSN operations and maintenance, experimental deployments are essential to investigate and understand WSN behaviors and performances as well as its maintenance characteristics under these harsh conditions. In this talk, based on our empirical studies with the ASWP WSN testbed, we will present our discoveries and investigations on several important aspects including WSN energy profile, node reprogramming, network management system, and testbed maintenance. We will then provide our insight into these critical aspects of outdoor WSN deployments and operations.

  7. Dose rate mapping and quantitative analysis of radioactive deposition with simple monitoring instruments in Finland after the Chernobyl accident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivukoski, J. [Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: janne.koivukoski@intermin.fi

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the Finnish dose-rate mapping equipment and the system to process the obtained results, which were used immediately after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. We present the results of the external gamma-radiation monitoring carried out with simple civil-defence gamma monitoring instruments and compare them with the subsequent deposition mapping performed with research-grade instruments. The analysis shows that the quality of radiation mapping is good enough for decision makers to direct protective measures to the right areas. This review also demonstrates that a simple stationary external gamma radiation monitoring network can be effectively used for early warning in radiation emergency situations. (orig.)

  8. Monitoring dry deposition of gases and particles over a forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennen, M. G.; van Putten, E. M.; Uiterwijk, J. W.; Hogenkamp, J. E. M.; Wiese, C. J.; Draaijers, G.; Erisman, J. W.; Otjes, R. P.; Wyers, G. P.

    1996-12-01

    Dry deposition fluxes of acidifying and eutrophying compounds are continuously determined at Speulder forest, a Douglas fir site in the centre of the Netherlands. The monitoring equipment, installed on a 36-m high tower, consists of a sonic anemometer, a cup anemometer, a wind vane, a Bowen ratio system, three temperature/r.h. sensors, and gas analyzers to measure gradients of SO 2, NO x and NH 3 and concentrations of HCl, HNO 2 and HNO 3. Particles are sampled in two size ranges (<2.5 mm and 2.5-10 mm) on filters, which are analysed for acidifying components and basic cations. Fluxes of SO 2, NO x and NH 3 are determined with the gradient method, while fluxes of the other components are estimated with the inferential method. Parameterizations of the surface resistance ( Rc) for gases are derived from measurements obtained during periods that meet criteria with respect to homogeneous fetch, stationary flow, etc. Parameterized Rc values are used to estimate fluxes during periods that don't fulfil these demands. In this way, yearly average fluxes can be determined. In 1995, the total deposition fluxes of SO x(=SO 2+SO 42-), NO y(=NO x+NO 3-+HNO 2+HNO 3) and NH x, (=NH 3+NH 4+) were 450, 630 and 1620 eq. ha -1 a -1, respectively.

  9. Preservation of Urban Archaeological Deposits: monitoring and characterisation of archaeological deposits at Marks & Spencer, 44-45 Parliament Street, York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davis

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The City of York Council has been pursuing a strict policy of in situ preservation of archaeological deposits since April 1990. Planning consent is normally granted in the historic core of York for a new development so long as less than 5% of the archaeological deposits that are preserved on a site are destroyed. During archaeological evaluation work carried out as part of the redevelopment and expansion proposals for Marks & Spencer plc on Parliament Street, deposit monitoring devices were installed to investigate and monitor both the character of the archaeological deposits present and also the burial environment surrounding them (of particular importance because the burial environment, in terms both of its characteristics and stability, is thought to play a vital role in the preservation in situ of a site's archaeological deposits. The monitoring programme was undertaken between June 1995 and April 1998. As a result the data from a total of 30 site visits have been collected and are presented in this report. This article discusses results of the deposit monitoring project and presents evidence of changes that appear to be taking place in the archaeological deposits. Although the lower deposits at Parliament Street are stable, the upper deposits show considerable seasonal variations. The concept of preservation of archaeological deposits in situ is now deeply embedded both in Codes of Professional Conduct (IFA Code of Conduct and in national policy guidance (PPG 16. However, this emphasis on preservation in situ has been criticised. Does conservation archaeology in general and the City of York policy in particular achieve the preservation of the remaining 95% of the archaeology? Or are these deposits condemned to unseen, unrecorded destruction, sealed below new buildings; indeed if this is the case, shouldn't these deposits be excavated now while they are still viable?

  10. Typing mineral deposits using their associated rocks, grades and tonnages using a probabilistic neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    A probabilistic neural network is employed to classify 1610 mineral deposits into 18 types using tonnage, average Cu, Mo, Ag, Au, Zn, and Pb grades, and six generalized rock types. The purpose is to examine whether neural networks might serve for integrating geoscience information available in large mineral databases to classify sites by deposit type. Successful classifications of 805 deposits not used in training - 87% with grouped porphyry copper deposits - and the nature of misclassifications demonstrate the power of probabilistic neural networks and the value of quantitative mineral-deposit models. The results also suggest that neural networks can classify deposits as well as experienced economic geologists. ?? International Association for Mathematical Geology 2006.

  11. Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring using Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B.

    2013-01-01

    The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for

  12. Air Quality System (AQS) Monitoring Network, EPA OAR OAQPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains points which depict air quality monitors within EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring network. This dataset is updated weekly to...

  13. Intrinsic Monitoring Using Behaviour Models in IPv6 Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfig, Edzard; Coşkun, Hakan

    In conventional networks, correlating path information to resource utilisation on the granularity of packets is a hard problem when using policy-based traffic handling schemes. We introduce a new approach termed ‘intrinsic monitoring’ which relies on the use of IPv6 extension headers in combination with formal behaviour models to gather resource information along a path. This allows a network monitoring system to delegate monitoring functionality to the network devices themselves, with the result of a drastic reduction in management traffic due to the increased autonomy of the monitoring system. As monitoring information travels in-band with the network traffic, path information remains perfectly accurate.

  14. An infrastructure for passive network monitoring of application data streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Deb [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gonzalez, Jose Maria [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jin, Guojun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-03-01

    When diagnosing network problems, it is often desirable to have a view of traffic inside the network. In this paper we describe an infrastructure for passive monitoring that can be used to determine which segments of the network are the source of problems for an application data stream. The monitoring hosts are relatively low-cost, off-the-shelf PCs. A unique feature of the infrastructure is secure activation of monitoring hosts in the core of the network without direct network administrator intervention.

  15. Efficient Network Monitoring for Large Data Acquisition Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Savu, DO; The ATLAS collaboration; Al-Shabibi, A; Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, SM; Stancu, SN

    2011-01-01

    Though constantly evolving and improving, the available network monitoring solutions have limitations when applied to the infrastructure of a high speed real-time data acquisition (DAQ) system. DAQ networks are particular computer networks where experts have to pay attention to both individual subsections as well as system wide traffic flows while monitoring the network. The ATLAS Network at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has more than 200 switches interconnecting 3500 hosts and totaling 8500 high speed links. The use of heterogeneous tools for monitoring various infrastructure parameters, in order to assure optimal DAQ system performance, proved to be a tedious and time consuming task for experts. To alleviate this problem we used our networking and DAQ expertise to build a flexible and scalable monitoring system providing an intuitive user interface with the same look and feel irrespective of the data provider that is used. Our system uses custom developed components for critical performance monitoring and...

  16. Low Cost Wireless Sensor Network for Continuous Bridge monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Bo; Kalis, A; Tragas, P

    2012-01-01

    Continuous monitoring wireless sensor networks (WSN) are considered as one of the most promising means to harvest information from large structures in order to assist in structural health monitoring and management. At the same time, continuous monitoring WSNs suffer from limited network lifetimes...... the network increases. Therefore, in order for WSNs to be considered as an efficient tool to monitor the health state of large structures, their energy consumption should be reduced to a bare minimum. In this work we consider a couple of novel techniques for increasing the life-time of the sensor network......, related to both node and network architecture. Namely, we consider new node de-signs that are of low cost, low complexity, and low energy consumption. Moreover, we present a new net-work architecture for such small nodes, that would enable them to reach a base station at large distances from the network...

  17. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF SCOUR AND DEPOSITION IN A CHANNEL NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yuan LEE; Hui-Ming HSIEH

    2003-01-01

    A numerical model,which is capable of simulating scouring and deposition behaviors in a channel network,is developed in this study. The model treats suspended load and bed load separately,and hence is able to simulate the depositional behavior of the suspended sediment under a nonequilibrium process. The model solves the de Saint Venant equation,and thus can be applied to unsteady flow conditions. An internal boundary condition based on the sediment transport capacity was proposed to distribute the incoming sediment load into the downstream links. An assessment of this model's performance has been conducted through a comparison to an analytical solution. The application of this model to the Tanhsui River system in Taiwan,and several hydraulic model studies gave very convincing results.

  18. Reaction network analysis for thin film deposition processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnasubramanian, Krishnaprasath

    Understanding the growth of thin films produced by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) has been one of the most important challenge for surface chemists over the last two to three decades. There has been a lack of complete understanding of the surface chemistry behind these systems due to the dearth of experimental reaction kinetics data available. The data that do exist are generally derived through quantum computations. Thus, it becomes ever so important to develop a deposition model which not only predicts the bulk film chemistry but also explains its self-limiting nature and growth surface stability without the use of reaction rate data. The reaction network analysis tools developed in this thesis are based on a reaction factorization approach that aims to decouple the reaction rates by accounting for the chemical species surface balance dynamic equations. This process eliminates the redundant dynamic modes and identifies conserved modes as reaction invariants. The analysis of these invariants is carried out using a Species-Reaction (S-R) graph approach which also serves to simplify the representation of the complex reaction network. The S-R graph is self explanatory and consistent for all systems. The invariants can be easily extracted from the S-R graph by following a set of straightforward rules and this is demonstrated for the CVD of gallium nitride and the ALD of gallium arsenide. We propose that understanding invariants through these S-R graphs not only provides us with the physical significance of conserved modes but also give us a better insight into the deposition mechanism.

  19. Optimizing Groundwater Monitoring Networks Using Integrated Statistical and Geostatistical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Krishna Thakur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate new approaches using methods based on statistics and geo-statistics for spatio-temporal optimization of groundwater monitoring networks. The formulated and integrated methods were tested with the groundwater quality data set of Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany. Spatially, the monitoring network was optimized using geo-statistical methods. Temporal optimization of the monitoring network was carried out using Sen’s method (1968. For geostatistical network optimization, a geostatistical spatio-temporal algorithm was used to identify redundant wells in 2- and 2.5-D Quaternary and Tertiary aquifers. Influences of interpolation block width, dimension, contaminant association, groundwater flow direction and aquifer homogeneity on statistical and geostatistical methods for monitoring network optimization were analysed. The integrated approach shows 37% and 28% redundancies in the monitoring network in Quaternary aquifer and Tertiary aquifer respectively. The geostatistical method also recommends 41 and 22 new monitoring wells in the Quaternary and Tertiary aquifers respectively. In temporal optimization, an overall optimized sampling interval was recommended in terms of lower quartile (238 days, median quartile (317 days and upper quartile (401 days in the research area of Bitterfeld/Wolfen. Demonstrated methods for improving groundwater monitoring network can be used in real monitoring network optimization with due consideration given to influencing factors.

  20. Optimizing the spatial pattern of networks for monitoring radioactive releases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, S.J.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Twenhofel, C.J.W.; Dijk, van A.; Hiemstra, P.H.; Baume, O.P.; Stohlker, U.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a method to optimize the sampling design of environmental monitoring networks in a multi-objective setting. We optimize the permanent network of radiation monitoring stations in the Netherlands and parts of Germany as an example. The optimization method proposed combines

  1. Optimizing the spatial pattern of networks for monitoring radioactive releases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, S.J.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Twenhofel, C.J.W.; Dijk, van A.; Hiemstra, P.H.; Baume, O.P.; Stohlker, U.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a method to optimize the sampling design of environmental monitoring networks in a multi-objective setting. We optimize the permanent network of radiation monitoring stations in the Netherlands and parts of Germany as an example. The optimization method proposed combines minimiza

  2. Improving evaluation criteria for monitoring networks of weak radioactive plumes after nuclear emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urso, L.; Astrup, Poul; Helle, K.B.

    2012-01-01

    . Germany and the Netherlands decided to set up relatively dense networks for the detection of weak radioactive plumes and, additionally, environmental radioactivity from deposited aerosols. Plausible evaluation criteria are presented here to assess important properties which determine the reliability......Networks of monitoring stations have been set up in many European countries to detect the passage of a radioactive cloud in the event of a large-scale nuclear emergency. The layout and spatial density of these networks differs according to the needs and criteria defined by national authorities...

  3. Energy Monitoring and Management Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadakis Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we discuss a mechanism for the monitoring and management of energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks. We consider that the Wireless Sensor Network consists of nodes that operate individually and collaborate with each other. After briefly discussing the typical network topologies and associating with the expected communications needs, we describe a conceptual framework for monitoring and managing the energy consumption on per process basis.

  4. Surface Acoustic Wave Monitor for Deposition and Analysis of Ultra-Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) based thin film deposition monitor device and system for monitoring the deposition of ultra-thin films and nanomaterials and the analysis thereof is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include differential delay line device designs, and which can optionally have integral reference devices fabricated on the same substrate as the sensing device, or on a separate device in thermal contact with the film monitoring/analysis device, in order to provide inherently temperature compensated measurements. These deposition monitor and analysis devices can include inherent temperature compensation, higher sensitivity to surface interactions than quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) devices, and the ability to operate at extreme temperatures.

  5. Wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong

    2016-01-01

    This brief covers the emerging area of wireless sensor network (WSN)-based structural health monitoring (SHM) systems, and introduces the authors’ WSN-based platform called SenetSHM. It helps the reader differentiate specific requirements of SHM applications from other traditional WSN applications, and demonstrates how these requirements are addressed by using a series of systematic approaches. The brief serves as a practical guide, explaining both the state-of-the-art technologies in domain-specific applications of WSNs, as well as the methodologies used to address the specific requirements for a WSN application. In particular, the brief offers instruction for problem formulation and problem solving based on the authors’ own experiences implementing SenetSHM. Seven concise chapters cover the development of hardware and software design of SenetSHM, as well as in-field experiments conducted while testing the platform. The brief’s exploration of the SenetSHM platform is a valuable feature for civil engine...

  6. Modeling Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring in Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadimi, Esmaeil

    parameters, as the use of wired sensors is impractical. In this thesis, a ZigBee based wireless sensor network was employed and only a part of the herd was monitored, as monitoring each individual animal in a large herd under practical conditions is inefficient. Investigations to show that the monitored...

  7. Wireless Sensor Network for Wearable Physiological Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Pandian; K. P. Safeer; Pragati Gupta; D. T. Shakunthala; B. S. Sundersheshu; V. C. Padaki

    2008-01-01

    Wearable physiological monitoring system consists of an array of sensors embedded into the fabric of the wearer to continuously monitor the physiological parameters and transmit wireless to a remote monitoring station. At the remote monitoring station the data is correlated to study the overall health status of the wearer. In the conventional wearable physiological monitoring system, the sensors are integrated at specific locations on the vest and are interconnected to the wearable data acqui...

  8. Spatio-Temporal Clustering of Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, I.; Pilz, J.

    2009-04-01

    Pakistan has much diversity in seasonal variation of different locations. Some areas are in desserts and remain very hot and waterless, for example coastal areas are situated along the Arabian Sea and have very warm season and a little rainfall. Some areas are covered with mountains, have very low temperature and heavy rainfall; for instance Karakoram ranges. The most important variables that have an impact on the climate are temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed and elevation. Furthermore, it is hard to find homogeneous regions in Pakistan with respect to climate variation. Identification of homogeneous regions in Pakistan can be useful in many aspects. It can be helpful for prediction of the climate in the sub-regions and for optimizing the number of monitoring sites. In the earlier literature no one tried to identify homogeneous regions of Pakistan with respect to climate variation. There are only a few papers about spatio-temporal clustering of monitoring network. Steinhaus (1956) presented the well-known K-means clustering method. It can identify a predefined number of clusters by iteratively assigning centriods to clusters based. Castro et al. (1997) developed a genetic heuristic algorithm to solve medoids based clustering. Their method is based on genetic recombination upon random assorting recombination. The suggested method is appropriate for clustering the attributes which have genetic characteristics. Sap and Awan (2005) presented a robust weighted kernel K-means algorithm incorporating spatial constraints for clustering climate data. The proposed algorithm can effectively handle noise, outliers and auto-correlation in the spatial data, for effective and efficient data analysis by exploring patterns and structures in the data. Soltani and Modarres (2006) used hierarchical and divisive cluster analysis to categorize patterns of rainfall in Iran. They only considered rainfall at twenty-eight monitoring sites and concluded that eight clusters

  9. Home medical monitoring network based on embedded technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guozhong; Deng, Wenyi; Yan, Bixi; Lv, Naiguang

    2006-11-01

    Remote medical monitoring network for long-term monitoring of physiological variables would be helpful for recovery of patients as people are monitored at more comfortable conditions. Furthermore, long-term monitoring would be beneficial to investigate slowly developing deterioration in wellness status of a subject and provide medical treatment as soon as possible. The home monitor runs on an embedded microcomputer Rabbit3000 and interfaces with different medical monitoring module through serial ports. The network based on asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) or local area network (LAN) is established and a client - server model, each embedded home medical monitor is client and the monitoring center is the server, is applied to the system design. The client is able to provide its information to the server when client's request of connection to the server is permitted. The monitoring center focuses on the management of the communications, the acquisition of medical data, and the visualization and analysis of the data, etc. Diagnosing model of sleep apnea syndrome is built basing on ECG, heart rate, respiration wave, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, air temperature of mouth cavity or nasal cavity, so sleep status can be analyzed by physiological data acquired as people in sleep. Remote medical monitoring network based on embedded micro Internetworking technology have advantages of lower price, convenience and feasibility, which have been tested by the prototype.

  10. Wet deposition of mercury in the U.S. and Canada, 1996-2005: Results and analysis of the NADP mercury deposition network (MDN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestbo, Eric M.; Gay, David A.

    One of the most critical measurements needed to understand the biogeochemical cycle of mercury, and to verify atmospheric models, is the rate of mercury wet-deposition. The Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) operates sites across North America to monitor total mercury in wet-deposition. MDN's primary goal is to provide both spatial and temporal continental-scale observations of mercury wet-deposition fluxes to support researchers, modelers, policy-makers and the public interest. MDN represents the only continental-scale mercury deposition database with a >10-year record of continuous values. This study provides analysis and interpretation of MDN observations at 10 years (1996-2005) with an emphasis on investigating whether rigorous, statistically-significant temporal trends and spatial patterns were present and where they occurred. Wet deposition of mercury ranges from more than 25 μg m -2 yr in south Florida to less than 3 μg m -2 yr in northern California. Volume-weighted total mercury concentrations are statistically different between defined regions overall (Southeast ≈ Midwest > Ohio River > Northeast), with the highest in Florida, Minnesota, and several Southwest locations (10-16 ng L -1). Total mercury wet-deposition is significantly different between defined regions (Southeast > Ohio River > Midwest > Northeast). Mercury deposition is strongly seasonal in eastern North America. The average mercury concentration is about two times higher in summer than in winter, and the average deposition is approximately more than three times greater in summer than in winter. Forty-eight sites with validated datasets of five years or more were tested for trends using the non-parametric seasonal Kendall trend test. Significant decreasing mercury wet-deposition concentration trends were found at about half of the sites, particularly across Pennsylvania and extending up through the Northeast.

  11. Design of the Network Monitoring Applications Using SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol with Early Warning System and Network Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazam Nugroho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP adalah sebuah protokol yang digunakan untuk kebutuhan monitoring pada jaringan komputer. Dalam bekerja, SNMP terdiri dari Network Management Station (NMS atau manager dan SNMP agent. NMS berfungsi sebagai mesin pengolahan informasi dari perangkat-perangkat jaringan yang dipantau (yang disebut sebagai SNMP agent. SNMP agent  terimplementasi  pada manageable node seperti router, server, dan perangkat jaringan lainnya.Pada periode sebelumnya,di Laboratorium Jaringan Telekomunikasi Jurusan Teknik Elektro ITS telah dibuat tiga sistem monitoring jaringan, yaitu network monitor yang dilengkapi dengan database, sistem peringatan dini, dan pemetaan jaringan (Network Mapping. Ketiga sistem ini masih berdiri sendiri, sehingga perlu dilakukan integrasi agar didapat suatu sistem yang memiliki fungsi lengkap.Dalam tugas akhir ini dilakukan perancangan dan pembuatan suatu Network Monitoring System yang merupakan integrasi antara Network Monitoring, Network Mapping, dan Sistem Peringatan Dini.

  12. Perancangan Network Monitoring Tools Menggunakan Autonomous Agent Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurniawan Eko S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tugas pengelolaan jaringan yang dilakukan administrator jaringan diantaranya yaitu pengumpulan informasi resource jaringan yang tersedia. Teknologi SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol memberikan fleksibilitas bagi administrator jaringan dalam mengatur network secara keseluruhan dari satu lokasi. Aplikasi Network Monitoring Tools berbasis Agent JAVA terdiri dari Master agent yang bertugas untuk melakukan management Request agent serta akses database. Request agent yang bertugas untuk melakukan pemantauan server yang mengimplementasi library SNMP4j dengan sistem multi-agent. Disisi interface, aplikasi Network Monitoring Tools menggunakan media web sebagai interface administrator sehingga dapat digunakan darimana saja  dan kapan saja.  Hasil dari penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa aplikasi yang dibuat bekerja sebagai Network Monitoring Tools mampu bekerja dengan persen error pada kisaran 0-18%. Selain itu Aplikasi ini menghasilkan tren pembacaan data server lebih stabil dan cepat dibandingkan dengan aplikasi Cacti. Hal ini didukung oleh kemampuan Request Agent yang mampu merespon tingkat beban kerja server yang di pantau.

  13. Distributed and Redundant Design of Ship Monitoring and Control Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jun-dong; SUI; Jiang-hua

    2002-01-01

    The world trend in ship automation is to integrate the monitoring, intelligent control and systematic management of the instruments and equipments both on bridge and in engine room. The paper presents a design scheme of the ship integrated monitoring and operating system based on two layers distributed and redundant computer network. The lower layer network is the field bus network connected mainly by CAN bus; the upper one is the PC local network in TCP/IP protocol, which consisted of a database server, monitoring and operating computers, industrial computers and a set of switches. Distributed schemes are fully applied to both software and hardware. This paper specifically describes the composition, software distribution and redundant technology of the upper local network and gives some important sample codes for the implement of the redundant and distributed design. The technologies here have been proved in the many applications and it may be applied to other industrial fields.

  14. Online Monitor Framework for Network Distributed Data Acquisition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Tomoyuki; Cabrera, Anatael; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Kuze, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Yasunobu; the Double Chooz Collaboration

    Data acquisition (DAQ) systems for recent high energy physics experiments consist of lots of subsystems distributed in the local area network. Therefore, scalability for the number of connections from subsystems and availability of access via the Internet are required. "Online monitor framework" is a general software framework for online data monitoring, which provides a way to collect monitoring information distributed in the network and pass them though the firewalls. The framework consists of two subsystems; "Monitor Sever" and "Monitor Viewer". Monitor Server is a core system of the framework. The server collects monitoring information from the DAQ subsystems to provide them to Monitor Viewer. Monitor Viewer is a graphical user interface of the monitor framework, which displays plots in itself. We adapted two types of technologies; Java and HTML5 with Google Web Toolkit, which are independent of operating systems or plugin-libraries like ROOT and contain some functionalities of communicating via the Internet and drawing graphics. The monitoring framework was developed for the Double Chooz reactor neutrino oscillation experiment but is general enough for other experiments. This document reports the structure of the online monitor framework with some examples from the adaption to the Double Chooz experiment.

  15. Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring using Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B.

    2013-01-01

    The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for understandi

  16. Electromagnetic sensors for monitoring of scour and deposition processes at bridges and offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Panagiotis; Tarantino, Alessandro; Judd, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Recent increases in precipitation have resulted in severe and frequent flooding incidents. This has put hydraulic structures at high risk of failure due to scour, with severe consequences to public safety and significant economic losses. Foundation scour is the leading cause of bridge failures and one of the main climate change impacts to highway and railway infrastructure. Scour action is also being considered as a major risk for offshore wind farm developments as it leads to excessive excavation of the surrounding seabed. Bed level conditions at underwater foundations are very difficult to evaluate, considering that scour holes are often re-filled by deposited loose material which is easily eroded during smaller scale events. An ability to gather information concerning the evolution of scouring will enable the validation of models derived from laboratory-based studies and the assessment of different engineering designs. Several efforts have focused on the development of instrumentation techniques to measure scour processes at foundations. However, they are not being used routinely due to numerous technical and cost issues; therefore, scour continues to be inspected visually. This research project presents a new sensing technique, designed to measure scour depth variation and sediment deposition around the foundations of bridges and offshore wind turbines, and to provide an early warning of an impending structural failure. The monitoring system consists of a probe with integrated electromagnetic sensors, designed to detect the change in the surrounding medium around the foundation structure. The probe is linked to a wireless network to enable remote data acquisition. A developed prototype and a commercial sensor were evaluated to quantify their capabilities to detect scour and sediment deposition processes. Finite element modelling was performed to define the optimum geometric characteristics of the prototype scour sensor based on models with various permittivity

  17. A Novel Method for Enhancing Network Monitoring in Remote Medical Applications Using Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Parsaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important way for providing health in a large population, particularly developing countries, is developing efficient health care services such that everyone can use the services equally and justly. Telemedicine is a new area which uses modern communication technology for exchanging medical information. This communication might be between a patient and a doctor or two medical centers for consultation. Implementation of a Telemedicine system requires creating the necessary infrastructures, among which network monitoring is one of the most important ones. From hundreds to thousands of computers, hubs to switched networks, and Ethernet to either ATM or 10Gbps Ethernet, administrators need more sophisticated network traffic monitoring and analysis tools in order to deal with development. These tools are needed, not only to fix network problems on time, but also to prevent network failure, to detect inside and outside threats, and make good decisions for network planning. In this paper, a comprehensive survey on Telemedicine and network monitoring is performed. Afterward, network monitoring techniques and methods in current networks are discussed. Finally, an efficient architecture based on Software Defined Networks (SDNs in remote surgical applications is presented which significantly improves monitoring of the communication networks. The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. In-situ monitoring during pulsed laser deposition using RHEED at high pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, David H.A.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Koster, Gertjan; Rogalla, Horst

    1998-01-01

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is, due to its surface sensitivity, often used for the analysis and monitoring of thin film growth in ultra-high vacuum deposition systems. RHEED is usually applied in combination with pulsed laser deposition (PLD) by adjusting the background

  19. Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Monitoring of the Cyclic Voltammetric Deposition of Polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingji; Li, Zhili; Deng, Chunyan; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Youyu; Ma, Ming; Xia, Shaoxi; Xiao, Xiaoming; Yin, Dulin; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2007-01-01

    A real-time, labeled-free and nanogram-sensitive mass sensor, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) is used to monitor a cyclic voltammetric deposition of polyaniline (PANI). The results determined that the efficiency for PANI deposition and the anion-doping ratio is calculated in one single cyclic voltammetric.

  20. Network and Service Monitoring in Heterogeneous Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delphinanto, A.

    2012-01-01

    Home networks are becoming dynamic and technologically heterogeneous. They consist of an increasing number of devices which offer several functionalities and can be used for many different services. In the home, these devices are interconnected using a mixture of networking technologies (for

  1. Network and Service Monitoring in Heterogeneous Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delphinanto, A.

    2012-01-01

    Home networks are becoming dynamic and technologically heterogeneous. They consist of an increasing number of devices which offer several functionalities and can be used for many different services. In the home, these devices are interconnected using a mixture of networking technologies (for example

  2. Applied network security monitoring collection, detection, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Applied Network Security Monitoring is the essential guide to becoming an NSM analyst from the ground up. This book takes a fundamental approach to NSM, complete with dozens of real-world examples that teach you the key concepts of NSM. Network security monitoring is based on the principle that prevention eventually fails. In the current threat landscape, no matter how much you try, motivated attackers will eventually find their way into your network. At that point, it is your ability to detect and respond to that intrusion that can be the difference between a small incident and a major di

  3. The Technique of Building a Networked Manufacturing Process Monitoring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yong; ZHANG Yu; YANG Musheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the constitute, structure and the software model of a set of networked manufacturing process monitoring system, using JAVA network technique to realize a set of three layer distributed manufacturing process monitoring system which is comprised with remote manage center, manufacturing process supervision center and the units of measure and control layer such as displacement sensor, the device of temperature measure and alarm etc. The network integration of the production management layer, the process control layer and the hard ware control layer is realized via using this approach. The design using object-oriented technique based on JAVA can easily transport to different operation systems with high performance of the expansibility.

  4. Is a salinity monitoring network "Worth its salt"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion threatens the water supplies of many coastal communities. Management of these water supplies requires well-designed and properly maintained and operated salinity monitoring networks. Long-standing deficiencies identified in a salinity monitoring network in southwest Florida during a 2013 study (Prinos, 2013) help to illustrate the types of problems that can occur in aging and poorly maintained networks. This cooperative U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) study also describes improvements that can be implemented to overcome these deficiencies.

  5. Coal mine gas monitoring system based on wireless sensor network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; WANG Ru-lin; WANG Xue-min; SHEN Chuan-he

    2007-01-01

    Based on the nowadays'condition.it is urgent that the gas detection cable communication system must be replaced by the wireless communication systems.The wireless sensors distributed in the environment can achieve the intelligent gas monitoring system.Apply with multilayer data fuse to design working tactics,and import the artificial neural networks to analyze detecting result.The wireless sensors system communicates with the controI center through the optical fiber cable.All the gas sensor nodes distributed in coal mine are combined into an intelligent,flexible structure wireless network system.forming coal mine gas monitoring system based on wireless sensor network.

  6. Optical Performance Monitoring and Signal Optimization in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2006-01-01

    -optical-electrical regeneration points decreases. This thesis evaluates the impact of signal degrading effects that are becoming of increasing concern in all-optical high-speed networks due to all-optical switching and higher bit-rates. Especially group-velocity-dispersion (GVD) and a number of nonlinear effects will require......The thesis studies performance monitoring for the next generation optical networks. The focus is on all-optical networks with bit-rates of 10 Gb/s or above. Next generation all-optical networks offer large challenges as the optical transmitted distance increases and the occurrence of electrical...... enhanced attention to avoid signal degradations. The requirements for optical performance monitoring features are discussed, and the thesis evaluates the advantages and necessity of increasing the level of performance monitoring parameters in the physical layer. In particular, methods for optical...

  7. Spectroscopic monitoring of metallic bonding in laser metal deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ya, Wei; Konuk, A.R.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.; Pathiraj, B.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    A new approach is presented in this paper to link optical emission spectrum analysis to the quality of clad layers produced with laser metal deposition (LMD). A Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1.064 μm) was used to produce clad tracks with Metco 42C powder on AISI 4140 steel substrate. The laser power was ramped

  8. Network Traffic Anomalies Detection and Identification with Flow Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Huy; Kim, Dong Il; Choi, Deokjai

    2010-01-01

    Network management and security is currently one of the most vibrant research areas, among which, research on detecting and identifying anomalies has attracted a lot of interest. Researchers are still struggling to find an effective and lightweight method for anomaly detection purpose. In this paper, we propose a simple, robust method that detects network anomalous traffic data based on flow monitoring. Our method works based on monitoring the four predefined metrics that capture the flow statistics of the network. In order to prove the power of the new method, we did build an application that detects network anomalies using our method. And the result of the experiments proves that by using the four simple metrics from the flow data, we do not only effectively detect but can also identify the network traffic anomalies.

  9. The Reliability of Wireless Sensor Network on Pipeline Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizh Prihtiadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network (WSN is an attractive technology, which combines embedded systems and communication networks making them more efficient and effective. Currently, WSNs have been developed for various monitoring applications. In this research, a wireless mesh network for a pipeline monitoring system was designed and developed. Sensor nodes were placed at each branch in the pipe system. Some router fails were simulated and the response of each node in the network was evaluated. Three different scenarios were examined to test the data transmission performance. The results proved that the wireless mesh network was reliable and robust. The system is able to perform link reconfiguration, automatic routing and safe data transmission from the beginning node to the end node.

  10. A study of reactor monitoring method with neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeshima, Kunihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the methodology of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) monitoring with neural networks, which create the plant models by the learning of the past normal operation patterns. The concept of this method is to detect the symptom of small anomalies by monitoring the deviations between the process signals measured from an actual plant and corresponding output signals from the neural network model, which might not be equal if the abnormal operational patterns are presented to the input of the neural network. Auto-associative network, which has same output as inputs, can detect an kind of anomaly condition by using normal operation data only. The monitoring tests of the feedforward neural network with adaptive learning were performed using the PWR plant simulator by which many kinds of anomaly conditions can be easily simulated. The adaptively trained feedforward network could follow the actual plant dynamics and the changes of plant condition, and then find most of the anomalies much earlier than the conventional alarm system during steady state and transient operations. Then the off-line and on-line test results during one year operation at the actual NPP (PWR) showed that the neural network could detect several small anomalies which the operators or the conventional alarm system didn't noticed. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis suggests that the plant models by neural networks are appropriate. Finally, the simulation results show that the recurrent neural network with feedback connections could successfully model the slow behavior of the reactor dynamics without adaptive learning. Therefore, the recurrent neural network with adaptive learning will be the best choice for the actual reactor monitoring system. (author)

  11. Integrating wireless sensor network for monitoring subsidence phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturià, Jordi; Lopez, Ferran; Gigli, Giovanni; Intrieri, Emanuele; Mucchi, Lorenzo; Fornaciai, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    An innovative wireless sensor network (WSN) for the 3D superficial monitoring of deformations (such as landslides and subsidence) is being developed in the frame of the Wi-GIM project (Wireless sensor network for Ground Instability Monitoring - LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033). The surface movement is detected acquiring the position (x, y and z) by integrating large bandwidth technology able to detect the 3D coordinates of the sensor with a sub-meter error, with continuous wave radar, which allows decreasing the error down to sub-cm. The Estació neighborhood in Sallent is located over the old potassium mine Enrique. This zone has been affected by a subsidence process over more than twenty years. The implementation of a wide network for ground auscultation has allowed monitoring the process of subsidence since 1997. This network consists of: i) a high-precision topographic leveling network to control the subsidence in surface; ii) a rod extensometers network to monitor subsurface deformation; iii) an automatic Leica TCA Total Station to monitor building movements; iv) an inclinometers network to measure the horizontal displacements on subsurface and v) a piezometer to measure the water level. Those networks were implemented within an alert system for an organized an efficient response of the civil protection authorities in case of an emergency. On 23rd December 2008, an acceleration of subsoil movements (of approx. 12-18 cm/year) provoked the activation of the emergency plan by the Catalan Civil Protection. This implied the preventive and scheduled evacuation of the neighbours (January 2009) located in the area with a higher risk of collapse: around 120 residents of 43 homes. As a consequence, the administration implemented a compensation plan for the evacuation of the whole neighbourhood residents and the demolition of 405 properties. In this work, the adaptation and integration process of Wi-GIM system with those conventional monitoring network are presented for its testing

  12. Nitrogen emissions, deposition, and monitoring in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Richard Haeuber; Gail S. Tonnesen; Jill S. Baron; Susanne Grossman-Clarke; Diane Hope; Daniel A. Jaffe; Scott Copeland; Linda Geiser; Heather M. Rueth; James O. Sickman

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition in the western United States ranges from 1 to 4 kilograms (kg) per hectare (ha) per year over much of the region to as high as 30 to 90 kg per ha per year downwind of major urban and agricultural areas. Primary N emissions sources are transportation, agriculture, and industry. Emissions of N as ammonia are about 50% as great as emissions of N as...

  13. Leveraging network connectivity for quality assurance of clinical display monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The VA Midwest Health Care Network, VISN 23, is one of 21 veteran integrated health service networks (VISN) under the Department of Veterans Affairs. There are approximately 300,000 imaging studies generated per year and currently more than 14,000 picture archiving and communication system (PACS) users in VISN 23. Biomedical Engineering Services within VISN 23 coordinates the provision of medical technology support. One emerging technology leverages network connectivity as a method of calibrating and continuously monitoring clinical display monitors in support of PACS. Utilizing a continuous calibration monitoring system, clinical displays can be identified as out of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) compliance through a centralized server. The technical group can receive immediate notification via e-mail and respond proactively. Previously, this problem could go unnoticed until the next scheduled preventive maintenance was performed. This system utilizes simple network management protocols (SNMP) and simple mail transfer protocols (SMTP) across a wide area network for real-time alerts from a centralized location. This central server supports and monitors approximately 320 clinical displays deployed across five states. Over the past three years of implementation in VISN 23, the remote calibration and monitoring capability has allowed for more efficient support of clinical displays and has enhanced patient safety by ensuring a consistent display of images on these clinical displays.

  14. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.; Hout, D. van den; Zandveld, P.; Ratingen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in

  15. Mobile sensor networks for environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballari, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters and the human pressure on natural resources have increased the need for environmental monitoring. Proper decisions, based on real-time information gathered from the environment, are critical to protecting human lives and natural resources. To this end, mobile senso

  16. Mobile sensor networks for environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballari, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters and the human pressure on natural resources have increased the need for environmental monitoring. Proper decisions, based on real-time information gathered from the environment, are critical to protecting human lives and natural resources. To this end, mobile

  17. Locomotive monitoring system using wireless sensor networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Croucamp, PL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Theft of cables used for powering a locomotive not only stops the train from functioning but also paralyzes the signalling and monitoring system. This means that information on certain locomotive's cannot be passed onto other locomotives which may...

  18. Monitoring activities in the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network in 2000 and 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzakker BG van; LLO

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML in Dutch) is one of the responsibilities of the Air Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment. The main objectives of the LML are to monitor ambient air quality, facilitate implementation of air quality

  19. Monitoring activities in the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network in 2000 and 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzakker BG van; LLO

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML in Dutch) is one of the responsibilities of the Air Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment. The main objectives of the LML are to monitor ambient air quality, facilitate implementation of air quality s

  20. SURFmap: A Network Monitoring Tool Based on the Google Maps API

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, R.J.; Hofstede, R. J.; Fioreze, Tiago

    2009-01-01

    Network monitoring allows network managers to get a better insight in the network traffic transiting in a managed network. In order to make the tasks of a network manager easier, many network monitoring tools are made available for a wide range of purposes (e.g., traffic accounting, performance

  1. SURFmap: A Network Monitoring Tool Based on the Google Maps API

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, R. J.; Fioreze, T.

    2009-01-01

    Network monitoring allows network managers to get a better insight in the network traffic transiting in a managed network. In order to make the tasks of a network manager easier, many network monitoring tools are made available for a wide range of purposes (e.g., traffic accounting, performance anal

  2. Hermes: Distributed social network monitoring system

    OpenAIRE

    Cea Royes, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] Nowadays, social network services play a very important role in the way people interact with each other and with the world. This generates big amounts of data that can be used to study social relationships and extract useful information about preferences and trends. When analysing this information, two main problems emerge: The need to aggregate dif- ferent data coming from multiple sources, and hardware limitations due to the incapability traditional systems have to d...

  3. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

  4. Development of a Ground-Based Atmospheric Monitoring Network for the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprovieri F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent, high-quality measurements of atmospheric mercury (Hg are necessary in order to better understand Hg emissions, transport, and deposition on a global scale. Although the number of atmospheric Hg monitoring stations has increased in recent years, the available measurement database is limited and there are many regions of the world where measurements have not been extensively performed. Long-term atmospheric Hg monitoring and additional ground-based monitoring sites are needed in order to generate datasets that will offer new insight and information about the global scale trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and deposition. In the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, a coordinated global observational network for atmospheric Hg is being established. The overall research strategy of GMOS is to develop a state-of-the-art observation system able to provide information on the concentration of Hg species in ambient air and precipitation on the global scale. This network is being developed by integrating previously established ground-based atmospheric Hg monitoring stations with newly established GMOS sites that are located both at high altitude and sea level locations, as well as in climatically diverse regions. Through the collection of consistent, high-quality atmospheric Hg measurement data, we seek to create a comprehensive assessment of atmospheric Hg concentrations and their dependence on meteorology, long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric emissions.

  5. Energy Efficient Networks for Monitoring Water Quality in Subterranean Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ge

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fresh water in rivers beneath the Earth’s surface is as significant to humans as that on the surface. However, the water quality is difficult to monitor due to its unapproachable nature. In this work, we consider building networks to monitor water quality in subterranean rivers. The network node is designed to have limited functions of floating and staying in these rivers when necessary. We provide the necessary conditions to set up such networks and a topology building method, as well as the communication process between nodes. Furthermore, we provide every an node’s energy consumption model in the network building stage, the data acquiring and transmission stage. The numerical results show that the energy consumption in every node is different, and the node number should be moderate to ensure energy efficiency.

  6. DESIGN OF GROUNDWATER LEVEL MONITORING NETWORK WITH ORDINARY KRIGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Feng-guang; CAO Shu-you; LIU Xing-nian; YANG Ke-jun

    2008-01-01

    The primary network of groundwater level observation wells aims at realizing a regional groundwater management policy. It may give a regional picture of groundwater level with emphasis on the natural situation. Observation data from the primary network can be used to estimate the actual state of groundwater system. Since the cost of the installation and maintenance of a groundwater monitoring network is extremely high, the assessment of effectiveness of the network becomes very necessary. Groundwater level monitoring networks are the examples of discontinuous sampling on variables presenting spatial continuity and highly skewed frequency distributions. Anywhere in the aquifer, ordinary kriging provides estimates of the variable sampled and a standard error of the estimate. In this article, the average Kriging standard deviation was used as a criterion for the determination of network density,and the GIS-based approach was analysized. A case study of groundwater level network simulation in the Chaiwopu Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, was presented. In the case study, the initial phreatic water observation wells were 18, a comparison of the three variogram parameters of the three defferent variogram models shows that the Gaussian model is the best. Finally, a network with 55 wells was constructed.

  7. Hybrid wireless sensor network for rescue site monitoring after earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Shuo; Tang, Chong; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Hu, Weijian; Tan, Min; Gao, Bowei

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses the design of a low-cost, low-complexity, and rapidly deployable wireless sensor network (WSN) for rescue site monitoring after earthquakes. The system structure of the hybrid WSN is described. Specifically, the proposed hybrid WSN consists of two kinds of wireless nodes, i.e., the monitor node and the sensor node. Then the mechanism and the system configuration of the wireless nodes are detailed. A transmission control protocol (TCP)-based request-response scheme is proposed to allow several monitor nodes to communicate with the monitoring center. UDP-based image transmission algorithms with fast recovery have been developed to meet the requirements of in-time delivery of on-site monitor images. In addition, the monitor node contains a ZigBee module that used to communicate with the sensor nodes, which are designed with small dimensions to monitor the environment by sensing different physical properties in narrow spaces. By building a WSN using these wireless nodes, the monitoring center can display real-time monitor images of the monitoring area and visualize all collected sensor data on geographic information systems. In the end, field experiments were performed at the Training Base of Emergency Seismic Rescue Troops of China and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the monitor system.

  8. Optimal estuarine sediment monitoring network design with simulated annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, L M; Caeiro, S; Cunha, M C; Ribeiro, L

    2006-02-01

    An objective function based on geostatistical variance reduction, constrained to the reproduction of the probability distribution functions of selected physical and chemical sediment variables, is applied to the selection of the best set of compliance monitoring stations in the Sado river estuary in Portugal. These stations were to be selected from a large set of sampling stations from a prior field campaign. Simulated annealing was chosen to solve the optimisation function model. Both the combinatorial problem structure and the resulting candidate sediment monitoring networks are discussed, and the optimal dimension and spatial distribution are proposed. An optimal network of sixty stations was obtained from an original 153-station sampling campaign.

  9. Chemical sensor network for pH monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Manjarrés

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of water sources is a major concern worldwide. Wireless sensor networks (WSN may be used for this monitoring. However, current systems employ mainly physical sensors for variables such as temperature, pressure, humidity and light. Wireless chemical sensors networks (WCSNs for environmental monitoring are scarce due to the lack of autonomy of conventional sensors. This paper presents results of a WCSN for monitoring pH based on ion selective field effect transistors (ISFETs. Sensing nodes employ a human interface required for in situ calibration of chemical sensors. Unlike most studies, our work evaluates the network employing chemical measurements and wireless network metrics. Results show zero packet losses by using a time division multiple access (TDMA protocol. The network allows wireless communication within 300 m including attenuation from buildings and trees. Therefore, the system presented in this paper is suitable for long range applications with unobstructed line of sight. pH measurements present a standard deviation below 1%, showing high repeatability. When compared to a commercial pH meter, difference in measurements is below 5%. As a consequence, accuracy is adequate for the application. Measurements also presented high stability during 3 h of continuous measurement.

  10. Monitoring air quality in mountains: Designing an effective network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitatively robust yet parsimonious air-quality monitoring network in mountainous regions requires special attention to relevant spatial and temporal scales of measurement and inference. The design of monitoring networks should focus on the objectives required by public agencies, namely: 1) determine if some threshold has been exceeded (e.g., for regulatory purposes), and 2) identify spatial patterns and temporal trends (e.g., to protect natural resources). A short-term, multi-scale assessment to quantify spatial variability in air quality is a valuable asset in designing a network, in conjunction with an evaluation of existing data and simulation-model output. A recent assessment in Washington state (USA) quantified spatial variability in tropospheric ozone distribution ranging from a single watershed to the western third of the state. Spatial and temporal coherence in ozone exposure modified by predictable elevational relationships ( 1.3 ppbv ozone per 100 m elevation gain) extends from urban areas to the crest of the Cascade Range. This suggests that a sparse network of permanent analyzers is sufficient at all spatial scales, with the option of periodic intensive measurements to validate network design. It is imperative that agencies cooperate in the design of monitoring networks in mountainous regions to optimize data collection and financial efficiencies.

  11. Rainfall monitoring with microwave link networks -state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Lotte; Overeem, Aart; Ríos Gaona, Manuel; van Leth, Tommy; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2017-04-01

    For the purpose of hydrological applications, meteorology, climate monitoring and agriculture, accurate high resolution rainfall monitoring is highly desirable. Often used techniques to measure rainfall include rain gauge networks and radar. However, accurate rainfall information is lacking in large areas in the world, and the number of rain gauges is even severely declining in Europe, South-America and Africa. The investments required for the installation and maintenance of dense sensor networks can form a large obstacle. Over the past decade, various investigations have shown that microwave links from cellular communication networks may be used for rainfall monitoring. These commercial networks are installed for the purpose of cellular communication. These consist of antennas that transmit microwave link signals through the atmosphere over a path of typically several kilometers. Microwave signals are sensitive to rainfall at the frequencies that are typically used. The loss of signal (attenuation) over the link-path, which is logged in real-time by cellular communication companies for quality monitoring, can therefore be interpreted as a rainfall measurement. In recent years, various techniques have been developed to quantitatively determine rainfall from these microwave link attenuations. An overview of error sources in this process, quantitative rainfall determination techniques, as well as the results of various validation studies are provided. These studies show that there is considerable potential in using commercial microwave link networks for rainfall monitoring. This is a promising development, as these networks cover 20% of the land surface of the earth and have high density, especially in urban areas where there is generally a lack of in situ ground measurements.

  12. Performance of Network and Service Monitoring Frameworks

    CERN Document Server

    Lahmadi, Abdelkader; Festor, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency and the performance of anagement systems is becoming a hot research topic within the networks and services management community. This concern is due to the new challenges of large scale managed systems, where the management plane is integrated within the functional plane and where management activities have to carry accurate and up-to-date information. We defined a set of primary and secondary metrics to measure the performance of a management approach. Secondary metrics are derived from the primary ones and quantifies mainly the efficiency, the scalability and the impact of management activities. To validate our proposals, we have designed and developed a benchmarking platform dedicated to the measurement of the performance of a JMX manager-agent based management system. The second part of our work deals with the collection of measurement data sets from our JMX benchmarking platform. We mainly studied the effect of both load and the number of agents on the scalability, the impact of management...

  13. Wireless Sensor Network for Electric Transmission Line Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphenaar, Bruce

    2009-06-30

    Generally, federal agencies tasked to oversee power grid reliability are dependent on data from grid infrastructure owners and operators in order to obtain a basic level of situational awareness. Since there are many owners and operators involved in the day-to-day functioning of the power grid, the task of accessing, aggregating and analyzing grid information from these sources is not a trivial one. Seemingly basic tasks such as synchronizing data timestamps between many different data providers and sources can be difficult as evidenced during the post-event analysis of the August 2003 blackout. In this project we investigate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of deploying a network of wireless power line monitoring devices as a method of independently monitoring key parts of the power grid as a complement to the data which is currently available to federal agencies from grid system operators. Such a network is modeled on proprietary power line monitoring technologies and networks invented, developed and deployed by Genscape, a Louisville, Kentucky based real-time energy information provider. Genscape measures transmission line power flow using measurements of electromagnetic fields under overhead high voltage transmission power lines in the United States and Europe. Opportunities for optimization of the commercial power line monitoring technology were investigated in this project to enable lower power consumption, lower cost and improvements to measurement methodologies. These optimizations were performed in order to better enable the use of wireless transmission line monitors in large network deployments (perhaps covering several thousand power lines) for federal situational awareness needs. Power consumption and cost reduction were addressed by developing a power line monitor using a low power, low cost wireless telemetry platform known as the ''Mote''. Motes were first developed as smart sensor nodes in wireless mesh networking applications

  14. Network-Oriented Radiation Monitoring System (NORMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; David F. Spencer

    2007-10-01

    We have developed a multi-functional pocket radiation monitoring system capable of detecting and storing gamma ray and neutron data and then sending the data through a wireless connection to a remote central facility upon request. The device has programmable alarm trigger levels that can be modified for specific applications. The device could be used as a stand-alone device or in conjunction with an array to cover a small or large area. The data is stored with a date/time stamp. The device may be remotely configured. Data can be transferred and viewed on a PDA via direct connection or wirelessly. Functional/bench tests have been completed successfully. The device detects low-level neutron and gamma sources within a shielded container in a radiation field of 10 uR/hr above the ambient background level.

  15. A Flexible Acoustic Sensor Network for Various Monitoring Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Wessels, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic monitoring using a sensor network is a powerful instrument to assess and manage complex noise situations. It can provide a basis to identify appropriate and cost effective measures, and to assess their effect by comparing before and after implementation. It can also be an instrument for com

  16. BANip: Enabling Remote Healthcare Monitoring with Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokovski, Nikolay; Halteren, van Aart; Widya, Ing; Guelfi, Nicolas; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a Java service platform for mobile healthcare that enables remote health monitoring using 2.5/3G public wireless networks. The platform complies with todayrsquos healthcare delivery models, in particular it incorporates some functionality of a healthcare call center, a healthport

  17. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  18. BANip: Enabling Remote Healthcare Monitoring with Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokovski, N.T.; van Halteren, Aart; Widya, I.A.; Guelfi, Nicolas; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a Java service platform for mobile healthcare that enables remote health monitoring using 2.5/3G public wireless networks. The platform complies with todayrsquos healthcare delivery models, in particular it incorporates some functionality of a healthcare call center, a healthport

  19. Combine harvester monitor system based on wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    A measurement method based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) was developed to monitor the working condition of combine harvester for remote application. Three JN5139 modules were chosen for sensor data acquisition and another two as a router and a coordinator, which could create a tree topology netwo...

  20. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Navia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN. These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion or passive (low observability inside the nodes. This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART, serial peripheral interface (SPI, and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference, about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature.

  1. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Marlon; Campelo, Jose C; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael; Capella, Juan V; Serrano, Juan J

    2015-09-18

    Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART), serial peripheral interface (SPI), and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference), about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature.

  2. Integrated System for Performance Monitoring of ATLAS TDAQ Network

    CERN Document Server

    Savu, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Martin, B; Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, S; Stancu, S

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS TDAQ Network consists of three separate networks spanning four levels of the experimental building. Over 200 edge switches and 5 multi-blade chassis routers are used to interconnect 2000 processors, adding up to more than 7000 high speed interfaces. In order to substantially speed-up ad-hoc and post mortem analysis, a scalable, yet flexible, integrated system for monitoring both network statistics and environmental conditions, processor parameters and data taking characteristics was required. For successful up-to-the-minute monitoring, information from many SNMP compliant devices, independent databases and custom APIs was gathered, stored and displayed in an optimal way. Easy navigation and compact aggregation of multiple data sources were the main requirements; characteristics not found in any of the tested products, either open-source or commercial. This paper describes how performance, scalability and display issues were addressed and what challenges the project faced during development and deplo...

  3. IPv6-Based Smart Metering Network for Monitoring Building Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart electricity monitoring system of building is presented using ZigBee and internet to establish the network. This system consists of three hardware layers: the host PC, the router, and the sensor nodes. A hierarchical ant colony algorithm is developed for data transmission among the wireless sensor nodes. The wireless communication protocol is also designed based on IPv6 protocol on IEEE 802.15.4 wireless network. All-IP approach and peer-to-peer mode are integrated to optimize the network building. Each node measures the power, current, and voltage and transmits them to the host PC through the router. The host software is designed for building test characteristics, having a tree hierarchy and a friendly interface for the user. The reliability and accuracy of this monitoring system are verified in the experiment and application.

  4. Pipelining in structural health monitoring wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Dorvash, Siavash; Cheng, Liang; Pakzad, Shamim

    2010-04-01

    Application of wireless sensor network (WSN) for structural health monitoring (SHM), is becoming widespread due to its implementation ease and economic advantage over traditional sensor networks. Beside advantages that have made wireless network preferable, there are some concerns regarding their performance in some applications. In long-span Bridge monitoring the need to transfer data over long distance causes some challenges in design of WSN platforms. Due to the geometry of bridge structures, using multi-hop data transfer between remote nodes and base station is essential. This paper focuses on the performances of pipelining algorithms. We summarize several prevent pipelining approaches, discuss their performances, and propose a new pipelining algorithm, which gives consideration to both boosting of channel usage and the simplicity in deployment.

  5. A Unified Monitoring Framework for Energy Consumption and Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Clouet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Providing experimenters with deep insight about the effects of their experiments is a central feature of testbeds. In this paper, we describe Kwapi, a framework designed in the context of the Grid'5000 testbed, that unifies measurements for both energy consumption and network traffic. Because all measurements are taken at the infrastructure level (using sensors in power and network equipment, using this framework has no dependencies on the experiments themselves. Initially designed for OpenStack infrastructures, the Kwapi framework allows monitoring and reporting of energy consumption of distributed platforms. In this article, we present the extension of Kwapi to network monitoring, and outline how we overcame several challenges: scaling to a testbed the size of Grid'5000 while still providing high-frequency measurements; providing long-term loss-less storage of measurements; handling operational issues when deploying such a tool on a real infrastructure.

  6. Novel method for fog monitoring using cellular networks infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2012-08-01

    A major detrimental effect of fog is visibility limitation which can result in serious transportation accidents, traffic delays and therefore economic damage. Existing monitoring techniques including satellites, transmissometers and human observers - suffer from low spatial resolution, high cost or lack of precision when measuring near ground level. Here we show a novel technique for fog monitoring using wireless communication systems. Communication networks widely deploy commercial microwave links across the terrain at ground level. Operating at frequencies of tens of GHz they are affected by fog and are, effectively, an existing, spatially world-wide distributed sensor network that can provide crucial information about fog concentration and visibility. Fog monitoring potential is demonstrated for a heavy fog event that took place in Israel. The correlation between transmissomters and human eye observations to the visibility estimates from the nearby microwave links was found to be 0.53 and 0.61, respectively. These values indicate the high potential of the proposed method.

  7. Patient Health Monitoring Using Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Myat Thwe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays remote patient health monitoring using wireless technology plays very vigorous role in a society. Wireless technology helps monitoring of physiological parameters like body temperature heart rate respiration blood pressure and ECG. The main aim of this paper is to propose a wireless sensor network system in which both heart rate and body temperature ofmultiplepatients can monitor on PC at the same time via RF network. The proposed prototype system includes two sensor nodes and receiver node base station. The sensor nodes are able to transmit data to receiver using wireless nRF transceiver module.The nRF transceiver module is used to transfer the data from microcontroller to PC and a graphical user interface GUI is developed to display the measured data and save to database. This system can provide very cheaper easier and quick respondent history of patient.

  8. Wireless sensor networks for monitoring physiological signals of multiple patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmaghani, R S; Bobarshad, H; Ghavami, M; Choobkar, S; Wolfe, C

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the design of a novel wireless sensor network structure to monitor patients with chronic diseases in their own homes through a remote monitoring system of physiological signals. Currently, most of the monitoring systems send patients' data to a hospital with the aid of personal computers (PC) located in the patients' home. Here, we present a new design which eliminates the need for a PC. The proposed remote monitoring system is a wireless sensor network with the nodes of the network installed in the patients' homes. These nodes are then connected to a central node located at a hospital through an Internet connection. The nodes of the proposed wireless sensor network are created by using a combination of ECG sensors, MSP430 microcontrollers, a CC2500 low-power wireless radio, and a network protocol called the SimpliciTI protocol. ECG signals are first sampled by a small portable device which each patient carries. The captured signals are then wirelessly transmitted to an access point located within the patients' home. This connectivity is based on wireless data transmission at 2.4-GHz frequency. The access point is also a small box attached to the Internet through a home asynchronous digital subscriber line router. Afterwards, the data are sent to the hospital via the Internet in real time for analysis and/or storage. The benefits of this remote monitoring are wide ranging: the patients can continue their normal lives, they do not need a PC all of the time, their risk of infection is reduced, costs significantly decrease for the hospital, and clinicians can check data in a short time.

  9. Event localization in underwater wireless sensor networks using Monitoring Courses

    KAUST Repository

    Debont, Matthew John Robert

    2012-08-01

    We propose m-courses (Monitoring Courses), a novel solution to localize events in an underwater wireless sensor network. These networks consists of surface gateways and relay nodes. GPS can localize the position of surface gateways which can then distribute their locations through the network using acoustic modems. Relay nodes are deployed to remain static, but these untethered nodes may drift due to water currents, resulting in disruption of communication links. We develop a novel underwater alarm system using a cyclic graph model. In the event of link failure, a series of alarm packets are broadcast in the network. These alarms are then captured by the underwater m-courses, which can also be used to assure network connectivity and identify node failures. M-courses also allow the network to localize events and identify network issues locally before forwarding results upwards to a Surface Gateway node. This reduces communication overhead and allows for efficient management of nodes in a mobile network. Our results show that m-course routing reduces the number of sends required to report an event to a Surface Gateway by up to 80% when compared to a naïve routing implementation.

  10. Analog-experiment analysis of ash-deposition monitoring model of boiler economizers in power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wei-liang; XIA Guo-dong; XU Shou-chen

    2005-01-01

    Ash deposition is a form of particulate fouling, and appears usually in boiler economizers. The ash deposition increases capital expenditure, energy input and maintenance costs. An analog experiment for monitoring ash deposition was performed from the analogous objective of a 410 t/h boiler economizer to verify the rationality and reliability of the ash-deposition-monitoring model presented in order to increase the security and economy in economizer running. The analog experiment platform is a tube-shell exchanger that conforms well to the conditions of a self-modeling area. The analog flue gas in the shell side is the heated air mixed with ash,and in the tube side the fluid is water heated by the flue gas. The fluid state in the water side and the flue gas side follows the second self-modeling area. A 4-factor-3 level orthogonal table was used to schedule 9 operation conditions of orthogonal experiment, with the 4 factors being heat power, flue gas velocity, ashes grain diameter and adding ashes quantity while the three levels are different values due to different position classes in every factor. The ash deposition thermal resistances is calculated by the model with the measure parameters of temperature and pressure drop. It shows that the values of the ash deposition thermal resistances gradually increase up to a stable state. And the experimental results are reliable by F testing method at α = 0. 001. Therefore, the model can be applied in online monitoring of ash deposition in a boiler economizers in power plants and provides scientific decision on ash deposition prediction and sootblowing.

  11. EPMOSt: An Energy-Efficient Passive Monitoring System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P. Garcia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring systems are important for debugging and analyzing Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. In passive monitoring, a monitoring network needs to be deployed in addition to the network to be monitored, named the target network. The monitoring network captures and analyzes packets transmitted by the target network. An energy-efficient passive monitoring system is necessary when we need to monitor a WSN in a real scenario because the lifetime of the monitoring network is extended and, consequently, the target network benefits from the monitoring for a longer time. In this work, we have identified, analyzed and compared the main passive monitoring systems proposed for WSN. During our research, we did not identify any passive monitoring system for WSN that aims to reduce the energy consumption of the monitoring network. Therefore, we propose an Energy-efficient Passive MOnitoring SysTem for WSN named EPMOSt that provides monitoring information using a Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP agent. Thus, any management tool that supports the SNMP protocol can be integrated with this monitoring system. Experiments with real sensors were performed in several scenarios. The results obtained show the energy efficiency of the proposed monitoring system and the viability of using it to monitor WSN in real scenarios.

  12. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F. (Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches)

    1991-01-01

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging.

  13. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1991-12-31

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging.

  14. Network Distributed Monitoring System Based on Robot Technology Middleware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunikatsu Takase

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a network distributed monitoring system for human assistance robot system was developed to improve the interaction among the users and local service robotic system and enable a remote user to get a better understanding of what is going on in the local environment. Home integration robot system and network monitoring system using QuickCam Orbit cameras were developed and demonstrated from June 9 to June 19 at the 2005 World Exposition, Aichi, Japan. Improvements of network distributed monitoring system using IEEE1394 cameras with high performance and high resolution have been done in order to extend the application of system. Robot Technology Middleware (RTM was used in the developed system. By using RTM, we can develop cameras functional elements as RT software components that can be implemented by different programming languages, run in different operating system, or connected in different networks to interoperate.It is also easy to create comprehensive robot system application by reusing existing modules thus facilitating networkdistributed software sharing and improving the cost of writing and maintaining software.

  15. Environmental Monitoring and Greenhouse Control by Distributed Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.BOSELIN PRABHU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A sensor is a miniature component which measure physical parameters from the environment. Sensors measure the physical parameters and transmit them either by wired or wireless medium. In wireless medium the sensor and its associated components are called as node. A node is self-possessed by a processor, local memory, sensors, radio, battery and a base station responsible for receiving and processing data collected by the nodes. They carry out joint activities due to limited resources such as battery, processor and memory. Nowadays, the applications of these networks are numerous, varied and the applications in agriculture are still budding. One interesting application is in environmental monitoring and greenhouse control, where the crop conditions such as climate and soil do not depend on natural agents. To control and monitor the environmental factors, sensors and actuators are necessary. Under these circumstances, these devices must be used to make a distributed measure, spreading sensors all over the greenhouse using distributed clustering. This paper reveals an idea of environmental monitoring and greenhouse control using a sensor network. The hardware implementation shows periodic monitoring and control of greenhouse gases in an enhanced manner. Future work is concentrated in application of the same mechanism using wireless sensor network.

  16. Novel anomaly detection approach for telecommunication network proactive performance monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhua YU; Jun WANG; Xiaosu ZHAN; Junde SONG

    2009-01-01

    The mode of telecommunication network management is changing from "network oriented" to "subscriber oriented". Aimed at enhancing subscribers'feeling, proactive performance monitoring (PPM) can enable a fast fault correction by detecting anomalies designating performance degradation. In this paper, a novel anomaly detection approach is the proposed taking advantage of time series prediction and the associated confidence interval based on multiplicative autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). Furthermore, under the assumption that the training residual is a white noise process following a normal distribution, the associated confidence interval of prediction can be figured out under any given confidence degree 1-α by constructing random variables satisfying t distribution. Experimental results verify the method's effectiveness.

  17. An Air-Ground Wireless Sensor Network for Crop Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rossi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaborative system made up of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN and an aerial robot, which is applied to real-time frost monitoring in vineyards. The core feature of our system is a dynamic mobile node carried by an aerial robot, which ensures communication between sparse clusters located at fragmented parcels and a base station. This system overcomes some limitations of the wireless networks in areas with such characteristics. The use of a dedicated communication channel enables data routing to/from unlimited distances.

  18. Practical silicon deposition rules derived from silane monitoring during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlome, Richard, E-mail: richard.bartlome@alumni.ethz.ch; De Wolf, Stefaan; Demaurex, Bénédicte; Ballif, Christophe [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory, Rue de la Maladière 71b, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Amanatides, Eleftherios; Mataras, Dimitrios [University of Patras, Department of Chemical Engineering, Plasma Technology Laboratory, P.O. Box 1407, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2015-05-28

    We clarify the difference between the SiH{sub 4} consumption efficiency η and the SiH{sub 4} depletion fraction D, as measured in the pumping line and the actual reactor of an industrial plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. In the absence of significant polysilane and powder formation, η is proportional to the film growth rate. Above a certain powder formation threshold, any additional amount of SiH{sub 4} consumed translates into increased powder formation rather than into a faster growing Si film. In order to discuss a zero-dimensional analytical model and a two-dimensional numerical model, we measure η as a function of the radio frequency (RF) power density coupled into the plasma, the total gas flow rate, the input SiH{sub 4} concentration, and the reactor pressure. The adjunction of a small trimethylboron flow rate increases η and reduces the formation of powder, while the adjunction of a small disilane flow rate decreases η and favors the formation of powder. Unlike η, D is a location-dependent quantity. It is related to the SiH{sub 4} concentration in the plasma c{sub p}, and to the phase of the growing Si film, whether the substrate is glass or a c-Si wafer. In order to investigate transient effects due to the RF matching, the precoating of reactor walls, or the introduction of a purifier in the gas line, we measure the gas residence time and acquire time-resolved SiH{sub 4} density measurements throughout the ignition and the termination of a plasma.

  19. Event Localization in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks using Monitoring Courses

    KAUST Repository

    Debont, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    In this thesis we consider different methods to localize events in a multi-hop wireless sensor network operating underwater using acoustic modems. The network consists of surface gateway nodes and relay nodes. Localization of surface gateways can be achieved through GPS, but we cannot rely on this technology for localizing underwater nodes. Surface Gateway nodes can distribute their locations through the network using the incoming signals by the acoustic modems from the relay nodes. Relay nodes are deployed to remain static but due to water currents, floating, and the untethered nature of the nodes, they often suffer from frequent drifting which can result in a deployed network suffering link failures. In this work, we developed a novel concept of an underwater alarming system, which adapts a cyclic graph model. In the event of link failure, a series of alarm packets are broadcasted in the network. These alarms are then captured through a novel concept of underwater Monitoring Courses (M-Courses), which can also be used to assure network connectivity and identify node faults. M-Courses also allow the network to localize events and identify network issues at a local level before forwarding any results upwards to a Surface Gateway nodes. This reduces the amount of communication overhead needed and allowing for distributed management of nodes in a network which may be constantly moving. We show that the proposed algorithms can reduce the number of send operations needed for an event to be localized in a network. We have found that M-Course routing reduces the number of sends required to report an event to a Surface Gateway by up to 80% in some cases when compared to a naive routing implementation. But this is achieved by increasing the time for an event to reach a Surface Gateway. These effects are both due to the buffering effect of M-Course routing, which allows us to efficiently deal with multiple events in an local area and we find that the performance of M

  20. How minimum detectable displacement in a GNSS Monitoring Network change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi Erkoç, Muharrem; Doǧan, Uǧur; Aydın, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    The minimum detectable displacement in a geodetic monitoring network shows the displacement magnitude which may be just discriminated with known error probabilities. This displacement, which is originally deduced from sensitivity analysis, depends on network design, observation accuracy, datum of the network, direction of the displacement and power of the statistical test used for detecting the displacements. One may investigate how different scenarios on network design and observation accuracies influence the minimum detectable displacements for the specified datum, a-priorly forecasted directions and assumed power of the test and decide which scenario is the best or most optimum. It is sometimes difficult to forecast directions of the displacements. In that case, the minimum detectable displacements in a geodetic monitoring network are derived on the eigen-directions associated with the maximum eigen-values of the network stations. This study investigates how minimum detectable displacements in a GNSS monitoring network change depending on the accuracies of the network stations. For this, CORS-TR network in Turkey with 15 stations (a station fixed) is used. The data with 4h, 6h, 12 h and 24 h observing session duration in three sequential days of 2011, 2012 and 2013 were analyzed with Bernese 5.2 GNSS software. The repeatabilities of the daily solutions belonging to each year were analyzed carefully to scale the Bernese cofactor matrices properly. The root mean square (RMS) values for daily repeatability with respect to the combined 3-day solution are computed (the RMS values are generally less than 2 mm in the horizontal directions (north and east) and < 5 mm in the vertical direction for 24 h observing session duration). With the obtained cofactor matrices for these observing sessions, the minimum detectable displacements along the (maximum) eigen directions are compared each other. According to these comparisons, more session duration less minimum detectable

  1. Environmental monitoring networks in Spain; Redes de vigilancia radiologica ambiental en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque Heredia, S.; Martin Matarranz, J. L.; Marugan Tovar, I.; Rey del Castillo, C.; Salas Collantes, R.; Sterling Carmona, A.; Ramos Salvador, L. M.

    2011-07-01

    Environmental monitoring in Spain is carried out by several networks with different objectives and scope, a monitoring network in the vicinity of nuclear facilities and radioactive nuclear fuel cycle and various monitoring networks nationally funded and managed by agencies public. The aim of this paper is to present a summary of all monitoring networks, including a series of figures with the stations that are, their geographical distribution and the programs in them.

  2. Wireless body sensor networks for health-monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yang; Foster, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Current wireless technologies, such as wireless body area networks and wireless personal area networks, provide promising applications in medical monitoring systems to measure specified physiological data and also provide location-based information, if required. With the increasing sophistication of wearable and implantable medical devices and their integration with wireless sensors, an ever-expanding range of therapeutic and diagnostic applications is being pursued by research and commercial organizations. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of recent developments in wireless sensor technology for monitoring behaviour related to human physiological responses. It presents background information on the use of wireless technology and sensors to develop a wireless physiological measurement system. A generic miniature platform and other available technologies for wireless sensors have been studied in terms of hardware and software structural requirements for a low-cost, low-power, non-invasive and unobtrusive system.

  3. Investigation of Wireless Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are one of the most able technologies in the structural health monitoring (SHM field. Through intelligent, self-organising means, the contents of this paper will test a variety of different objects and different working principles of sensor nodes connected into a network and integrated with data processing functions. In this paper the key issues of WSN applied in SHM are discussed, including the integration of different types of sensors with different operational modalities, sampling frequencies, issues of transmission bandwidth, real-time ability, and wireless transmitter frequency. Furthermore, the topology, data fusion, integration, energy saving, and self-powering nature of different systems will be investigated. In the FP7 project “Health Monitoring of Offshore Wind Farms,” the above issues are explored.

  4. A versatile and interoperable network sensors for water resources monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Alberto; Brandini, Carlo; Costantini, Roberto; Costanza, Letizia; Innocenti, Lucia; Sabatini, Francesco; Gozzini, Bernardo

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring systems to assess water resources quantity and quality require extensive use of in-situ measurements, that have great limitations like difficulties to access and share data, and to customise and easy reconfigure sensors network to fulfil end-users needs during monitoring or crisis phases. In order to address such limitations Sensor Web Enablement technologies for sensors management have been developed and applied to different environmental context under the EU-funded OSIRIS project (Open architecture for Smart and Interoperable networks in Risk management based on In-situ Sensors, www.osiris-fp6.eu). The main objective of OSIRIS was to create a monitoring system to manage different environmental crisis situations, through an efficient data processing chain where in-situ sensors are connected via an intelligent and versatile network infrastructure (based on web technologies) that enables end-users to remotely access multi-domain sensors information. Among the project application, one was focused on underground fresh-water monitoring and management. With this aim a monitoring system to continuously and automatically check water quality and quantity has been designed and built in a pilot test, identified as a portion of the Amiata aquifer feeding the Santa Fiora springs (Grosseto, Italy). This aquifer present some characteristics that make it greatly vulnerable under some conditions. It is a volcanic aquifer with a fractured structure. The volcanic nature in Santa Fiora causes levels of arsenic concentrations that normally are very close to the threshold stated by law, but that sometimes overpass such threshold for reasons still not fully understood. The presence of fractures makes the infiltration rate very inhomogeneous from place to place and very high in correspondence of big fractures. In case of liquid-pollutant spills (typically hydrocarbons spills from tanker accidents or leakage from house tanks containing fuel for heating), these fractures can act

  5. Monitoring water distribution systems: understanding and managing sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Ediriweera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are currently being trialed by the water distribution industry for monitoring complex distribution infrastructure. The paper presents an investigation in to the architecture and performance of a sensor system deployed for monitoring such a distribution network. The study reveals lapses in systems design and management, resulting in a fifth of the data being either missing or erroneous. Findings identify the importance of undertaking in-depth consideration of all aspects of a large sensor system with access to either expertise on every detail, or to reference manuals capable of transferring the knowledge to non-specialists. First steps towards defining a set of such guidelines are presented here, with supporting evidence.

  6. SensIs - Underwater acoustic network for ice-monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Reinen, Tor Arne; Knudsen, Finn Tore

    2016-01-01

    Routing for low latency underwater acoustic network-communication is investigated. The application is monitoring of ice-threats to offshore operations in the Arctic - to provide warnings that enable operators to react to such threats. The scenario produces relatively high traffic load, and the network should favour low delay and adequate reliability rather than energy usage minimization. The ICRP (Information-Carrying based Routing Protocol), originally proposed by Wei Liang et al. in 2007, is chosen as basis. ICRP obtains unicast routing paths by sending data payload as broadcast packets when no route information is available. Thus, data can be delivered without the cost of reactive signalling latency. In this paper we explore the capabilities of a slightly enhanced/adapted ICRP, tailored to the ice monitoring application. By simulations and experiments at sea it is demonstrated that the protocol performs well and can manage the applications high traffic load - this provided that the point-to-point links pro...

  7. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavi K. Khedo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. Inthis paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN for air pollution monitoring inMauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution isbecoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system namedWireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS to monitor air pollution inMauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposedsystem makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order toimprove the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithmnamed Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ. The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminateduplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reducethe amount of data to be transmitted to the sink and thus saving energy. For better power management weused a hierarchical routing protocol in WAPMS and caused the motes to sleep during idle time.

  8. Assessing the weather monitoring capabilities of cellular microwave link networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fencl, Martin; Vrzba, Miroslav; Rieckermann, Jörg; Bareš, Vojtěch

    2016-04-01

    Using of microwave links for rainfall monitoring was suggested already by (Atlas and Ulbrich, 1977). However, this technique attracted broader attention of scientific community only in the recent decade, with the extensive growth of cellular microwave link (CML) networks, which form the backbone of today's cellular telecommunication infrastructure. Several studies have already shown that CMLs can be conveniently used as weather sensors and have potential to provide near-ground path-integrated observations of rainfall but also humidity or fog. However, although research is still focusing on algorithms to improve the weather sensing capabilities (Fencl et al., 2015), it is not clear how to convince cellular operators to provide the power levels of their network. One step in this direction is to show in which regions or municipalities the networks are sufficiently dense to provide/develop good services. In this contribution we suggest a standardized approach to evaluate CML networks in terms of rainfall observation and to identify suitable regions for CML rainfall monitoring. We estimate precision of single CML based on its sensitivity to rainfall, i.e. as a function of frequency, polarization and path length. Capability of a network to capture rainfall spatial patterns is estimated from the CML coverage and path lengths considering that single CML provides path-integrated rain rates. We also search for suitable predictors for regions where no network topologies are available. We test our approach on several European networks and discuss the results. Our results show that CMLs are very dense in urban areas (> 1 CML/km2), but less in rural areas (density (e.g. R2 = 0.97 in Czech Republic), thus population could be a simple proxy to identify suitable regions for CML weather monitoring. To enable a simple and efficient assessment of the CML monitoring potential for any region worldwide, we are currently integrating our approach into open source online tool. In summary

  9. Network Based Real Time Condition Monitoring of Rotating Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a network based real time condition monitoring system of rotating machinery. The system is built up in a double net structure consisting of local net (including client and server) and intranet. The client serves as a field data collector and processor that samples the vibration signals and process parameters of a machine monitored in the net and processes the sampled data. The data collected by the client are transmitted to the server that processes the data further and provides the results of the diagnosis of each machine to any distant terminals through intranet or internet. Such a structure of the monitoring system is advantageous in safety, reliability and reasonably shares the existing net resources. In order to ensure real time transmission of the data, two procedures of data transmission, virtual channel and data pool, are developed and applied in the monitoring system. The experimental results show that the monitoring system works well and is suitable to monitor a large group of rotating machines.

  10. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  11. Sensor network architecture for monitoring turtles on seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Gámez, Blanca E.; Cruz, Victor; Díaz-Casco, Manuel A.; Franco, Andrea; Escobar, Carolina; Colin, Abilene; Carreto-Arellano, Chadwick

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, advances in information and communication technologies have made it possible to diversify the use of sensor networks in different areas of knowledge (medicine, education, militia, urbanization, protection of the environment, etc.). At present, this type of tools is used to develop applications that allow the identification and monitoring of endangered animals in their natural habitat; however, there are still limitations because some of the devices used alter the behavior of the animals, as in the case of sea turtles. Research and monitoring of sea turtles is of vital importance in identifying possible threats and ensuring their preservation, the behavior of this species (migration, reproduction, and nesting) is highly related to environmental conditions. Because of this, behavioral changes information of this species can be used to monitor global climatic conditions. This work presents the design, development and implementation of an architecture for the monitoring and identification of the sea turtle using sensor networks. This will allow to obtain information for the different investigations with a greater accuracy than the conventional techniques, through non-invasive means for the species and its habitat. The proposed architecture contemplates the use of new technology devices, selfconfigurable, with low energy consumption, interconnection with various communication protocols and sustainable energy supply (solar, wind, etc.).

  12. Hydrogeological modeling for improving groundwater monitoring network and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jay Krishna

    2016-09-01

    The research aimed to investigate a new approach for spatiotemporal groundwater monitoring network optimization using hydrogeological modeling to improve monitoring strategies. Unmonitored concentrations were incorporated at different potential monitoring locations into the groundwater monitoring optimization method. The proposed method was applied in the contaminated megasite, Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany. Based on an existing 3-D geological model, 3-D groundwater flow was obtained from flow velocity simulation using initial and boundary conditions. The 3-D groundwater transport model was used to simulate transport of α-HCH with an initial ideal concentration of 100 mg/L injected at various hydrogeological layers in the model. Particle tracking for contaminant and groundwater flow velocity realizations were made. The spatial optimization result suggested that 30 out of 462 wells in the Quaternary aquifer (6.49 %) and 14 out of 357 wells in the Tertiary aquifer (3.92 %) were redundant. With a gradual increase in the width of the particle track path line, from 0 to 100 m, the number of redundant wells remarkably increased, in both aquifers. The results of temporal optimization showed different sampling frequencies for monitoring wells. The groundwater and contaminant flow direction resulting from particle tracks obtained from hydrogeological modeling was verified by the variogram modeling through α-HCH data from 2003 to 2009. Groundwater monitoring strategies can be substantially improved by removing the existing spatio-temporal redundancy as well as incorporating unmonitored network along with sampling at recommended interval of time. However, the use of this model-based method is only recommended in the areas along with site-specific experts' knowledge.

  13. Design of the National Trends Network for monitoring the chemistry of atmospheric precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J.K.; Wilson, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Long-term monitoring (10 years minimum) of the chemistry of wet deposition will be conducted at National Trends Network (NTN) sites across the United States. Precipitation samples will be collected at sites that represent broad regional characteristics. Design of the NTN considered four basic elements during construction of a model to distribute 50, 75, 100, 125 or 150 sites. The modeling oriented design was supplemented with guidance developed during the course of the site selection process. Ultimately, a network of 151 sites was proposed. The basic elements of the design are: (1) Assurance that all areas of the country are represented in the network on the basis of regional ecological properties (96 sites); (2) Placement of additional sites east of the Rocky Mountains to better define high deposition gradients (27 sites); (3) Placement of sites to assure that potentially sensitive regions are represented (15 sites); (4) Placement of sites to allow for other considerations, such as urban area effects (5 sites), intercomparison with Canada (3 sites), and apparent disparities in regional coverage (5 sites). Site selection stressed areas away from urban centers, large point sources, or ocean influences. Local factors, such as stable land ownership, nearby small emission sources (about 10 km), and close-by roads and fireplaces (about 0.5 km) were also considered. All proposed sites will be visited as part of the second phase of the study.

  14. Monitoring of the Deposition of PAHs and Metals Produced by a Steel Plant in Taranto (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amodio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A high time-resolved monitoring campaign of bulk deposition of PAHs and metals was conducted near the industrial area and at an urban background site in province of Taranto (Italy in order to evaluate the impact of the biggest European steel plant. The deposition fluxes of the sum of detected PAHs at the industrial area ranged from 92 to 2432 ng m−2d−1. In particular the deposition fluxes of BaP, BaA, and BkF were, on average, 10, 14, and 8 times higher than those detected at the urban background site, respectively. The same finding was for metals. The deposition fluxes of Ni (19.8 µg m−2 d−1 and As (2.2 µg m−2 d−1 at the industrial site were about 5 times higher than those at the urban background site, while the deposition fluxes of Fe (57 mg m−2d−1 and Mn (1.02 mg m−2d−1 about 31 times higher. Precipitation and wind speed played an important role in PAH deposition fluxes. Fe and Mn fluxes at the industrial site resulted high when wind direction favored the transport of air masses from the steel plant to the receptor site. The impact of the industrial area was also confirmed by IP/(IP + BgP, IP/BgP, and BaP/BgP diagnostic ratios.

  15. Low-power wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaloiu-Elefteri, Razvan

    Significant progress has been made in the field of Wireless Sensor Networks in the decade that passed since its inception. This thesis presents several advances intended to make these networks a suitable instrument for environmental monitoring. The thesis first describes Koala, a low-power data-retrieval system that can achieve duty cycles below 1% by using bulk transfers, and Low Power Probing, a novel mechanism to efficiently wake up a network. The second contribution is Serendipity, another data-retrieval system, which takes advantage of the random rendezvous inherent in the Low Power Probing mechanism to achieve a very low duty cycle for low data rate networks. The third part explores the problem of and presents a solution for the interference between WSNs using IEEE 802.15.4 radios and the ubiquitous WiFi networks in the 2.4 GHz spectrum bandwidth. The last contribution of this thesis is Latte, a restricted version of the JavaScript language, that not only can be compiled to C and dynamically loaded on a sensing node, but can also be simulated and debugged in a JavaScript-enabled browser.

  16. Carbon nanostructures and networks produced by chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowlgi, N.K.K.; Koper, G.J.M.; Van Raalten, R.A.D.

    2012-01-01

    The invention pertains to a method for manufacturing crystalline carbon nanostructures and/or a network of crystalline carbon nanostructures, comprising: (i) providing a bicontinuous micro-emulsion containing metal nanoparticles having an average particle size between 1and 100nm; (ii) bringing said

  17. Carbon nanostructures and networks produced by chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowlgi, N.K.K.; Koper, G.J.M.; Van Raalten, R.A.D.

    2012-01-01

    The invention pertains to a method for manufacturing crystalline carbon nanostructures and/or a network of crystalline carbon nanostructures, comprising: (i) providing a bicontinuous micro-emulsion containing metal nanoparticles having an average particle size between 1and 100nm; (ii) bringing said

  18. Distributed Interplanetary Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN) Monitor and Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of Distributed interplanetary Delay Tolerant Network Monitor and Control System as a DTN system network management implementation in JPL is defined to provide methods and tools that can monitor the DTN operation status, detect and resolve DTN operation failures in some automated style while either space network or some heterogeneous network is infused with DTN capability. In this paper, "DTN Monitor and Control system in Deep Space Network (DSN)" exemplifies a case how DTN Monitor and Control system can be adapted into a space network as it is DTN enabled.

  19. SYSTEM FOR DETECTION AND CONTROL OF DEPOSITION IN KRAFT CHEMICAL RECOVERY BOILERS AND MONITORING GLASS FURNACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Peter Ariessohn

    2003-04-15

    Combustion Specialists, Inc. has just completed a project designed to develop the capability to monitor and control the formation of deposits on the outside of boiler tubes inside an operating kraft recovery furnace. This project, which was carried out in the period from April 1, 2001 to January 31, 2003, was funded by the Department of Energy's Inventions and Innovations program. The primary objectives of the project included the development and demonstration of the ability to produce clear images of deposits throughout the convective sections of operating recovery boilers using newly developed infrared imaging technology, to demonstrate the automated detection and quantification of these deposits using custom designed image processing software developed as part of the project, and to demonstrate the feasibility of all technical elements required for a commercial ''smart'' sootblowing control system based on direct feedback from automated imaging of deposits in real-time. All of the individual tasks have been completed and all objectives have been substantially achieved. Imaging of deposits throughout the convective sections of several recovery boilers has been demonstrated, a design for a combined sootblower/deposit inspection probe has been developed and a detailed heat transfer analysis carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of this design, an improved infrared imager which can be sufficiently miniaturized for this application has been identified, automated deposit detection software has been developed and demonstrated, a detailed design for all the necessary communications and control interfaces has been developed, and a test has been carried out in a glass furnace to demonstrate the applicability of the infrared imaging sensor in that environment. The project was completed on time and within the initial budget. A commercial partner has been identified and further federal funding will be sought to support a project to develop a

  20. Passive and Active Monitoring on a High Performance Research Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Warren

    2001-05-01

    The bold network challenges described in ''Internet End-to-end Performance Monitoring for the High Energy and Nuclear Physics Community'' presented at PAM 2000 have been tackled by the intrepid administrators and engineers providing the network services. After less than a year, the BaBar collaboration has collected almost 100 million particle collision events in a database approaching 165TB (Tera=10{sup 12}). Around 20TB has been exported via the Internet to the BaBar regional center at IN2P3 in Lyon, France, for processing and around 40 TB of simulated events have been imported to SLAC from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An unforseen challenge has arisen due to recent events and highlighted security concerns at DoE funded labs. New rules and regulations suggest it is only a matter of time before many active performance measurements may not be possible between many sites. Yet, at the same time, the importance of understanding every aspect of the network and eradicating packet loss for high throughput data transfers has become apparent. Work at SLAC to employ passive monitoring using netflow and OC3MON is underway and techniques to supplement and possibly replace the active measurements are being considered. This paper will detail the special needs and traffic characterization of a remarkable research project, and how the networking hurdles have been resolved (or not!) to achieve the required high data throughput. Results from active and passive measurements will be compared, and methods for achieving high throughput and the effect on the network will be assessed along with tools that directly measure throughput and applications used to actually transfer data.

  1. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  2. Impact of acid atmospheric deposition on soils: Field monitoring and aluminium chemistry.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acid atmospheric deposition on concentrations and transfer of major solutes in acid, sandy soils was studied. Emphasis was given to mobilization and transport of potentially toxic aluminum. Data on solute concentrations and fluxes in meteoric water as well as soil solutions were obtained from intensive monitoring programmes conducted at a number of sites in northwestern Europe and North-America. Specific hypotheses were tested in laboratory experiments.Atmospheric acid inputs do...

  3. Surface air concentration and deposition of lead-210 in French Guiana: two years of continuous monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melieres, Marie-Antoinette E-mail: melieres@glaciog.ujf-grenoble.fr; Pourchet, Michel; Richard, Sandrine

    2003-07-01

    To make up for the lack of data on {sup 210}Pb aerosol deposition in tropical regions and to use this radionuclide as an aerosol tracer,a monitoring station was run for two years at Petit-Saut, French Guiana. Lead-210 concentration in air at ground level was monitored continuously together with atmospheric total deposition. The air concentration has a mean value of 0.23{+-}0.02 mBq m{sup -3} during both wet and dry seasons, and it is only weakly affected by the precipitation mechanism. This result was unexpected in a wet tropical region, with a high precipitation rate. In contrast, deposition clearly correlates with precipitation for low/moderate rainfall (<15 cm per 15-day), while this correlation is masked by strong fluctuations at high rainfall. The estimated mean annual deposition over the last ten years is 163{+-}75 Bq m{sup -2} y{sup -1}. This provides a procedure fo estimating this mean flux at other sites in French Guiana.

  4. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Stancu, S; Ciobotaru, M, E-mail: rune.velle.sjoen@cern.c [' Politehnica' University of Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities and limitations of this diagnostic tool, giving an example of its use in solving system problems that arise during the ATLAS data taking.

  5. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    CERN Document Server

    Sjoen, R; Ciobotaru, M; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities a...

  6. Transboundary Air Pollution over the Central Himalayas: Monitoring network and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianggong; Kang, Shichang

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas, stretching over 3000 kms along west-east, separates South Asia continent and the Tibetan Plateau with its extreme high altitudes. The South Asia is being increasingly recognized to be among the hotspots of air pollution, posing multi-effects on regional climate and environment. Recent monitoring and projection have indicated an accelerated decrease of glacier and increasing glacier runoff in the Himalayas, and a remarkable phenomenon has been recognized in the Himalayas that long-range transport atmospheric pollutants (e.g., black carbon and dust) deposited on glacier surface can promote glacier melt, and in turns, may liberate historical contaminant legacy in glaciers into downward ecosystems. To understand the air pollution variation and how they can infiltrate the Himalayas and beyond, we started to operate a coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network composing 11 sites with 5 in Nepal and 6 in Tibet since April 2013. Atmospheric total suspended particles ( TSP air mass trajectories suggested that the transboundary air pollution over the Himalayas is episodic and is likely concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons. Our results emphasis the potential transport and impact of air pollution from South Asia to Himalayas and further inland Tibetan Plateau. The monitoring network will be continuously operated to provide basis for defining the transboundary air pollution and their impact on the environments and ecosystems over the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau.

  7. Performance of sulfation and nitration plates used to monitor atmospheric pollutant deposition in a real environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, D.; Hechler, J.; Roberge, H.

    1989-01-01

    Sulfation and nitration plates were exposed outdoors for various periods of time to evaluate their performance in a real environment. These passive monitors are used to estimate the deposition of pollutants on metallic surfaces, and thus to evaluate the influence of the atmosphere on the corrosion. Single-column ion chromatography was used to determine the quantity of anions absorbed on the plates. This technique is better than other analytical procedures such as turbidimetry or colorimetry because passive monitors exposed in an atmosphere with a low degree of pollution can be analyzed without preconcentration. However, the pH of the sample to be injected on the chromatographic column must be adjusted to between 6.0 and 12.0 in order to obtain reproducible sulfate values. For sulfation plates, the additivity of the deposition process is excellent for a period of exposure up to 3 months, with a reproducibility of about 2%. For nitration plates, the deposition process is not cumulative due to a physical change of the monitor during exposure. The correlation between the amounts of sulfate found on sulfation snd nitration plates was also examined. 16 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Intelligent Wireless Sensor Networks for System Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Network (PAN) standard are finding increasing use in the home automation and emerging smart energy markets. The network and application layers, based on the ZigBee 2007 Standard, provide a convenient framework for component-based software that supports customer solutions from multiple vendors. WSNs provide the inherent fault tolerance required for aerospace applications. The Discovery and Systems Health Group at NASA Ames Research Center has been developing WSN technology for use aboard aircraft and spacecraft for System Health Monitoring of structures and life support systems using funding from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center and Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program. This technology provides key advantages for low-power, low-cost ancillary sensing systems particularly across pressure interfaces and in areas where it is difficult to run wires. Intelligence for sensor networks could be defined as the capability of forming dynamic sensor networks, allowing high-level application software to identify and address any sensor that joined the network without the use of any centralized database defining the sensors characteristics. The IEEE 1451 Standard defines methods for the management of intelligent sensor systems and the IEEE 1451.4 section defines Transducer Electronic Datasheets (TEDS), which contain key information regarding the sensor characteristics such as name, description, serial number, calibration information and user information such as location within a vehicle. By locating the TEDS information on the wireless sensor itself and enabling access to this information base from the application software, the application can identify the sensor unambiguously and interpret and present the sensor data stream without reference to any other information. The application software is able to read the status of each sensor module, responding in real-time to changes of

  9. A Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring Atmospheric Aggressiveness in Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pancardo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Humid tropical climate favours the existence of a c orrosive atmosphere that causes deterioration of me tals. This article describes an automated system for moni toring environmental values (temperature and relati ve humidity in order to know the time of wetness (TOW , which is key factor in determining the atmospher ic aggressiveness which are exposed the metals used, f or example, in industrial facilities. System is implemented on a wireless sensor network and the ma in function of the software developed is to count t he time of wetness which is considered the effective t ime in which metals corrode. System was designed considering the user requirements as the selection of the frequency of measurements, the calculation o f TOW and verification of the residual energy of sens or nodes. The results show the effectiveness of the technology used, so that, we can conclude that this type of networks represent a feasible alternative for automated monitoring of corrosion in metals.

  10. Using graphene networks to build bioinspired self-monitoring ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Olivier T.; Rocha, Victoria G.; Ferraro, Claudio; Ni, Na; D'Elia, Eleonora; Meille, Sylvain; Chevalier, Jerome; Saunders, Theo; Peijs, Ton; Reece, Mike J.; Saiz, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    The properties of graphene open new opportunities for the fabrication of composites exhibiting unique structural and functional capabilities. However, to achieve this goal we should build materials with carefully designed architectures. Here, we describe the fabrication of ceramic-graphene composites by combining graphene foams with pre-ceramic polymers and spark plasma sintering. The result is a material containing an interconnected, microscopic network of very thin (20-30 nm), electrically conductive, carbon interfaces. This network generates electrical conductivities up to two orders of magnitude higher than those of other ceramics with similar graphene or carbon nanotube contents and can be used to monitor `in situ' structural integrity. In addition, it directs crack propagation, promoting stable crack growth and increasing the fracture resistance by an order of magnitude. These results demonstrate that the rational integration of nanomaterials could be a fruitful path towards building composites combining unique mechanical and functional performances.

  11. Wireless sensor networks for indoor air quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsang-Chu; Lin, Chung-Chih; Chen, Chun-Chang; Lee, Wei-Lun; Lee, Ren-Guey; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Liu, Shi-Ping

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to build an indoor air quality monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technology. The main functions of the system include (1) remote parameter adjustment and firmware update mechanism for the sensors to enhance the flexibility and convenience of the system, (2) sensor nodes are designed by referring to the IEEE 1451.4 standard. This way, sensor nodes can automatically adjust and be plug and play, and (3) calibration method to strength the measurement value's sensitivity and accuracy. The experimental results show that transmission speed improves 30% than Trickle, transmission volume reduced to 42% of the original volume, updating task in 5*5 network topology can be executed 1.79 times and power consumption reduced to 30%. When baseline drifts, we can use the firmware update mechanism to adjust the reference value. The way can reduce error percentage from 15% to 7%. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatially Resolved Monitoring of Drying of Hierarchical Porous Organic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Manuel Isaac; Silletta, Emilia V; Gomez, Cesar G; Strumia, Miriam C; Stapf, Siegfried; Monti, Gustavo Alberto; Mattea, Carlos; Acosta, Rodolfo H

    2016-03-01

    Evaporation kinetics of water confined in hierarchal polymeric porous media is studied by low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Systems synthesized with various degrees of cross-linker density render networks with similar pore sizes but different response when soaked with water. Polymeric networks with low percentage of cross-linker can undergo swelling, which affects the porosity as well as the drying kinetics. The drying process is monitored macroscopically by single-sided NMR, with spatial resolution of 100 μm, while microscopic information is obtained by measurements of spin-spin relaxation times (T2). Transition from a funicular to a pendular regime, where hydraulic connectivity is lost and the capillary flow cannot compensate for the surface evaporation, can be observed from inspection of the water content in different sample layers. Relaxation measurements indicate that even when the larger pore structures are depleted of water, capillary flow occurs through smaller voids.

  13. Optimisation of Lilla Edet Landslide GPS Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Khameneh, M. A.; Eshagh, M.; Sjöberg, L. E.

    2015-06-01

    Since the year 2000, some periodic investigations have been performed in the Lilla Edet region to monitor and possibly determine the landslide of the area with GPS measurements. The responsible consultant has conducted this project by setting up some stable stations for GPS receivers in the risky areas of Lilla Edet and measured the independent baselines amongst the stations according to their observation plan. Here, we optimise the existing surveying network and determine the optimal configuration of the observation plan based on different criteria.We aim to optimise the current network to become sensitive to detect 5 mm possible displacements in each net point. The network quality criteria of precision, reliability and cost are used as object functions to perform single-, bi- and multi-objective optimisation models. It has been shown in the results that the single-objective model of reliability, which is constrained to the precision, provides much higher precision than the defined criterion by preserving almost all of the observations. However, in this study, the multi-objective model can fulfil all the mentioned quality criteria of the network by 17% less measurements than the original observation plan, meaning 17%of saving time, cost and effort in the project.

  14. Wearable and implantable wireless sensor network solutions for healthcare monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Ashraf; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies are considered one of the key research areas in computer science and the healthcare application industries for improving the quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to provide a snapshot of current developments and future direction of research on wearable and implantable body area network systems for continuous monitoring of patients. This paper explains the important role of body sensor networks in medicine to minimize the need for caregivers and help the chronically ill and elderly people live an independent life, besides providing people with quality care. The paper provides several examples of state of the art technology together with the design considerations like unobtrusiveness, scalability, energy efficiency, security and also provides a comprehensive analysis of the various benefits and drawbacks of these systems. Although offering significant benefits, the field of wearable and implantable body sensor networks still faces major challenges and open research problems which are investigated and covered, along with some proposed solutions, in this paper.

  15. A climatological network for regional climate monitoring in Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delitala, Alessandro M. S.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the Region of Sardinia has been working to set-up a Regional Climatological Network of surface stations, in order to monitor climate (either stationary or changing) at sub-synoptic scale and in order to make robust climatological information available to researchers and to local stake-holders. In order to do that, an analysis of long climatological time series has been performed on the different historical networks of meteorological stations that existed over the past two centuries. A set of some hundreds of stations, with about a century of observations of daily precipitation, was identified. An important subset of them was also defined, having long series of observations of temperature, wind, pressure and other quantities. Specific investments were made on important stations sites where observations had been carried for decades, but where the climatological stations did not exist anymore. In the present talk, the Regional Climatological Network of Sardinia will be presented and its consistency discussed. Specific attention will be given to the most important climatological stations which have got more than a century of observations of meteorological quantities. Critical issues of the Regional Climatological Network, like relocation of stations and inhomogeneity of data due to instrumental changes or environmental modifications, will be discussed.

  16. Wearable and Implantable Wireless Sensor Network Solutions for Healthcare Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Ashraf; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies are considered one of the key research areas in computer science and the healthcare application industries for improving the quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to provide a snapshot of current developments and future direction of research on wearable and implantable body area network systems for continuous monitoring of patients. This paper explains the important role of body sensor networks in medicine to minimize the need for caregivers and help the chronically ill and elderly people live an independent life, besides providing people with quality care. The paper provides several examples of state of the art technology together with the design considerations like unobtrusiveness, scalability, energy efficiency, security and also provides a comprehensive analysis of the various benefits and drawbacks of these systems. Although offering significant benefits, the field of wearable and implantable body sensor networks still faces major challenges and open research problems which are investigated and covered, along with some proposed solutions, in this paper. PMID:22163914

  17. Wearable and Implantable Wireless Sensor Network Solutions for Healthcare Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Darwish

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN technologies are considered one of the key research areas in computer science and the healthcare application industries for improving the quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to provide a snapshot of current developments and future direction of research on wearable and implantable body area network systems for continuous monitoring of patients. This paper explains the important role of body sensor networks in medicine to minimize the need for caregivers and help the chronically ill and elderly people live an independent life, besides providing people with quality care. The paper provides several examples of state of the art technology together with the design considerations like unobtrusiveness, scalability, energy efficiency, security and also provides a comprehensive analysis of the various benefits and drawbacks of these systems. Although offering significant benefits, the field of wearable and implantable body sensor networks still faces major challenges and open research problems which are investigated and covered, along with some proposed solutions, in this paper.

  18. Network analytical tool for monitoring global food safety highlights China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepusz, Tamás; Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P

    2009-08-18

    The Beijing Declaration on food safety and security was signed by over fifty countries with the aim of developing comprehensive programs for monitoring food safety and security on behalf of their citizens. Currently, comprehensive systems for food safety and security are absent in many countries, and the systems that are in place have been developed on different principles allowing poor opportunities for integration. We have developed a user-friendly analytical tool based on network approaches for instant customized analysis of food alert patterns in the European dataset from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed. Data taken from alert logs between January 2003-August 2008 were processed using network analysis to i) capture complexity, ii) analyze trends, and iii) predict possible effects of interventions by identifying patterns of reporting activities between countries. The detector and transgressor relationships are readily identifiable between countries which are ranked using i) Google's PageRank algorithm and ii) the HITS algorithm of Kleinberg. The program identifies Iran, China and Turkey as the transgressors with the largest number of alerts. However, when characterized by impact, counting the transgressor index and the number of countries involved, China predominates as a transgressor country. This study reports the first development of a network analysis approach to inform countries on their transgressor and detector profiles as a user-friendly aid for the adoption of the Beijing Declaration. The ability to instantly access the country-specific components of the several thousand annual reports will enable each country to identify the major transgressors and detectors within its trading network. Moreover, the tool can be used to monitor trading countries for improved detector/transgressor ratios.

  19. Network analytical tool for monitoring global food safety highlights China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nepusz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Beijing Declaration on food safety and security was signed by over fifty countries with the aim of developing comprehensive programs for monitoring food safety and security on behalf of their citizens. Currently, comprehensive systems for food safety and security are absent in many countries, and the systems that are in place have been developed on different principles allowing poor opportunities for integration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a user-friendly analytical tool based on network approaches for instant customized analysis of food alert patterns in the European dataset from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed. Data taken from alert logs between January 2003-August 2008 were processed using network analysis to i capture complexity, ii analyze trends, and iii predict possible effects of interventions by identifying patterns of reporting activities between countries. The detector and transgressor relationships are readily identifiable between countries which are ranked using i Google's PageRank algorithm and ii the HITS algorithm of Kleinberg. The program identifies Iran, China and Turkey as the transgressors with the largest number of alerts. However, when characterized by impact, counting the transgressor index and the number of countries involved, China predominates as a transgressor country. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reports the first development of a network analysis approach to inform countries on their transgressor and detector profiles as a user-friendly aid for the adoption of the Beijing Declaration. The ability to instantly access the country-specific components of the several thousand annual reports will enable each country to identify the major transgressors and detectors within its trading network. Moreover, the tool can be used to monitor trading countries for improved detector/transgressor ratios.

  20. Analysis of the Monitoring Network at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    The Salmon site in southern Mississippi was the location of two underground nuclear tests and two methane-oxygen gas explosion tests conducted in the Tatum Salt Dome at a depth of 2,715 feet below ground surface. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy [DOE]) and the U.S. Department of Defense jointly conducted the tests between 1964 and 1970. The testing operations resulted in surface contamination at multiple locations on the site and contamination of shallow aquifers. No radionuclides from the nuclear tests were released to the surface or to groundwater, although radionuclide-contaminated drill cuttings were brought to the surface during re-entry drilling. Drilling operations generated the largest single volume of waste materials, including radionuclide-contaminated drill cuttings and drilling fluids. Nonradioactive wastes were also generated as part of the testing operations. Site cleanup and decommissioning began in 1971 and officially ended in 1972. DOE conducted additional site characterization between 1992 and 1999. The historical investigations have provided a reasonable understanding of current surface and shallow subsurface conditions at the site, although some additional investigation is desirable. For example, additional hydrologic data would improve confidence in assigning groundwater gradients and flow directions in the aquifers. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency monitored groundwater at the site as part of its Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program from 1972 through 2007, when DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM) assumed responsibility for site monitoring. The current monitoring network consists of 28 monitoring wells and 11 surface water locations. Multiple aquifers which underlie the site are monitored. The current analyte list includes metals, radionuclides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  1. Contribution of Geodetic Datum in GNSS Networks to Monitored Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Alpay; Dogan, Ugur; Aydin, Cuneyt

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of datum definition on the monitored displacements of GNSS networks. The datum definition is a significant problem in terms of reliable deformation analysis and interpretation on determining the deformation in GNSS networks. The observations have been analyzed to show the reliability analysis of a group of station in the network and the influence of datum definition on the deformations of GNSS monitoring networks. For this purpose, we studied GPS observations in the CORS-TR network collected on a set of 13 station to detect co-seismic deformation of the 23 October 2011 (Mw=7.2) Van earthquake in the eastern of Turkey. The GPS observations were processed in the ITRF 2008 reference frame using the Bernese 5.2 GNSS software. Seven datum configuration modes which depend on the number of datum stations, which are selected from 9 IGS stations, were defined to determine co-seismic deformation of the Van earthquake and the deformations of GPS stations were computed for every datum definition. Our results indicate that each station showed different temporal behavior and significant relative motions with respect to datum definition. On the other hand, the distribution of the datum stations around the monitored region seems to be very important factor for determining the displacements. To show the effect of datum station distribution, we compare the displacements obtained from two different datum configuration modes (mode 1: 4 datum station "BUCU, GRAZ, MATE, SOFI" located at Eurasian plate, which are far away from the region, and mode 2: 9 datum station "BUCU, GRAZ, MATE, SOFI, TUBI, CRAO, ZECK, NICO, DRAG" located around the region). For instance, co-seismic displacements for station MURA, which is the closest station to the earthquake epicenter (˜43 km), amounted to -82.24 ± 0.60 mm for the north component, 12.01 ± 0.76 mm for the east component and -25.19 ± 2.49 mm for the up component with respect to mode 1, -89

  2. Journal Article: the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June, 1998, the U.S. EPA established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN). The primary goal of NDAMN is determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric CDDs, CDFs, and coplanar PCBs at rural and nonimpacted locations throughout the United States. Currently operating at 32 sampling stations, NDAMN has three primary purposes: (1) to determine the atmospheric levels and occurrences of dioxin-like compounds in rural and agricultural areas where livestock, poultry and animal feed crops are grown; (2) to provide measurements of atmospheric levels of dioxin-like compounds in different geographic regions of the U.S.; and (3) to provide information regarding the long-range transport of dioxin-like compounds in air over the U.S. At Dioxin 2000, we reported on the preliminary results of monitoring at 9 rural locations from June 1998 through June 1999. By the end of 1999, NDAMN had expanded to 21 sampling stations. Then, at Dioxin 2001, we reported the results of the first 18 months of operation of NDAMN at 15 rural and 6 National Park stations in the United States. The following is intended to be an update to this national monitoring effort. We are reporting the air monitoring results of 17 rural and 8 National Park NDAMN stations operational over 4 sampling moments during calendar year 2000. Two stations located in suburban Washington DC and San Francisco, CA are more urban in character and serve as an indicator of CDD/F and cop

  3. An intelligent environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minghua; Wang, Huiqin; Peng, Duo; Jia, Kejun

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, information technology is becoming more and more important to improve the productivity of agriculture, especially for real time environment monitoring. However, the traditional method of environmental data collection is unable to provide real-time and highly accurate data of the monitored region to meet the requirements of precision agriculture. As wireless sensor networks(WSNs) has profound impacts on many fields due to its promising capability, in this paper, a WSN-based environment monitoring system is proposed. A prototype of the system that utilizes GAINSJ nodes based on Zigbee communication protocol has been implemented, and its packet error rate in different conditions was evaluated. Based on the proposed system architecture and technologies, the real time data can be measured, transmitted and stored in high accuracy. Moreover, the system was applied in upland grassland in Yushu, Qinghai province, and compared the results with the data acquired by local weather station. The system evaluation and experimental results show the effectiveness and reliability of the system in measuring the variations of temperature and humidity data within monitored region.

  4. Monitoring system of arch bridge for safety network management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Bong Chul; Yoo, Young Jun; Lee, Chin Hyung; Park, Ki Tae; Hwang, Yoon Koog

    2010-03-01

    Korea has constructed the safety management network monitoring test systems for the civil infrastructure since 2006 which includes airport structure, irrigation structure, railroad structure, road structure, and underground structure. Bridges among the road structure include the various superstructure types which are Steel box girder bridge, suspension bridge, PSC-box-girder bridge, and arch bridge. This paper shows the process of constructing the real-time monitoring system for the arch bridge and the measured result by the system. The arch type among various superstructure types has not only the structural efficiency but the visual beauty, because the arch type superstructure makes full use of the feature of curve. The main measuring points of arch bridges composited by curved members make a difference to compare with the system of girder bridges composited by straight members. This paper also shows the method to construct the monitoring system that considers the characteristic of the arch bridge. The system now includes strain gauges and thermometers, and it will include various sensor types such as CCTV, accelerometers and so on additionally. For the long term and accuracy monitoring, the latest optical sensors and equipments are applied to the system.

  5. Comparison of modelled and monitored deposition fluxes of sulphur and nitrogen to ICP-forest sites in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Westling

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP MSC-W Eulerian chemical transport model, and its predictions of deposition of acidifying and eutrophying pollutants over Europe, play a key role in the development of emission control strategies for the UNECE and EU. It is important that this model is tested against observational data. Such model evaluation is usually conducted using observations from the EMEP monitoring network, which includes around 70 sites with wet deposition measurements in a variety of landscapes. Here we compare the results of the EMEP model with a completely independent data-set, that of the EU/ICP Forest (Level II monitoring network. Modelled data from 1997 and 2000 were compared with observed deposition data from 160 ICP-Forest plots.

    In general, similarities between modelled and observed deposition in this study were reasonably good (r2 values between 0.5-0.8 for most components and years, with mean values across all sites being within 30%, despite the uncertainty in comparing measured plot data with modelled grid data. EMEP tends to give somewhat lower values for the average, median and percentile SO2-4, NO-3 and NH+4, wet deposition in the whole deposition gradient compared to ICP, but differences in mean values were within 20% in 1997 and 30% in 2000. Modelled and observed concentrations of SO2-4, NO -3 and NH4+ in precipitation are very similar as average (differences of 0-14%, median and percentiles, and the correlation between modelled and observed data is rather high r2=0.50-0.78. Many of the sites showing large discrepancies between EMEP and ICP data were found to have unusually high inter-annual variability in the precipitation amounts registered by ICP, suggesting that some differences may be due to sampling procedures or complex topographic effects. A

  6. Development of Sediment Deposition Height Capacity Equation in Sewer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yangho; Jo, Deokjun; Lee, Jungho

    2017-04-01

    Sediment characteristics and transport processes in sewers are markedly different from river. There is a wide range of particle densities and smaller particle size variation in sewers. Sediment supply and the available erodible material are more limited in sewers, and the diverse hydraulic characteristics in sewer systems are more unsteady. Prevention of sewer sediment accumulation, which can cause major sewer operational problems, is imperative and has been an immense concern for engineers. The effects of sediment formation in sewer systems, an appropriate sediment transport modelling with the ability to determine the location and depth of sediment deposit is needed. It is necessary to design efficiently considering the transfer and settling phenomena of the sediment coming into the sewer systems. During transport in the sewer, the minimum shear flow velocity and possible shear stress at which the sediment is transported smoothly. However, the interaction of sediment and fluid within the sewer systems has been very complex and the rigorous theoretical handling of this problem has not been developed. It is derived from the empirical values obtained from the river bed. The basic theory that particles float is based on the balance between sedimentation of particles by gravity and turbulent diffusion of fluids. There are many variables related. Representative parameters include complex phenomena due to collisions between particles, particles and fluids, and interactions between particles and tube walls. In general, the main parameters that form the boundary between the main transport and sediment are particle size, density, volume fraction, pipe diameter and gravity. As the particle size and volume concentration increase, the minimum feed rate increases and the same tendency is observed for the change of the capillary diameter. Based on this tendency, this study has developed a sediment deposition height capacity formula to take into consideration the sewer discharge

  7. A High-Resolution Sensor Network for Monitoring Glacier Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S.; Murray, T.; O'Farrell, T.; Rutt, I. C.; Loskot, P.; Martin, I.; Selmes, N.; Aspey, R.; James, T.; Bevan, S. L.; Baugé, T.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets due to ice flow/ice-berg calving are a major uncertainty affecting sea-level rise forecasts. Latterly GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) have been employed extensively to monitor such glacier dynamics. Until recently however, the favoured methodology has been to deploy sensors onto the glacier surface, collect data for a period of time, then retrieve and download the sensors. This approach works well in less dynamic environments where the risk of sensor loss is low. In more extreme environments e.g. approaching the glacial calving front, the risk of sensor loss and hence data loss increases dramatically. In order to provide glaciologists with new insights into flow dynamics and calving processes we have developed a novel sensor network to increase the robustness of data capture. We present details of the technological requirements for an in-situ Zigbee wireless streaming network infrastructure supporting instantaneous data acquisition from high resolution GNSS sensors thereby increasing data capture robustness. The data obtained offers new opportunities to investigate the interdependence of mass flow, uplift, velocity and geometry and the network architecture has been specifically designed for deployment by helicopter close to the calving front to yield unprecedented detailed information. Following successful field trials of a pilot three node network during 2012, a larger 20 node network was deployed on the fast-flowing Helheim glacier, south-east Greenland over the summer months of 2013. The utilisation of dual wireless transceivers in each glacier node, multiple frequencies and four ';collector' stations located on the valley sides creates overlapping networks providing enhanced capacity, diversity and redundancy of data 'back-haul', even close to ';floor' RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) levels around -100 dBm. Data loss through radio packet collisions within sub-networks are avoided through the

  8. Method of monitoring photoactive organic molecules in-situ during gas-phase deposition of the photoactive organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Vartanian, Garen; Rolin, Cedric

    2015-06-23

    A method for in-situ monitoring of gas-phase photoactive organic molecules in real time while depositing a film of the photoactive organic molecules on a substrate in a processing chamber for depositing the film includes irradiating the gas-phase photoactive organic molecules in the processing chamber with a radiation from a radiation source in-situ while depositing the film of the one or more organic materials and measuring the intensity of the resulting photoluminescence emission from the organic material. One or more processing parameters associated with the deposition process can be determined from the photoluminescence intensity data in real time providing useful feedback on the deposition process.

  9. Emergency response networks for disaster monitoring and detection from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, Tanya; Sweeting, Martin N.; Vitanov, Ivan; Vitanov, Valentin I.

    2009-05-01

    Numerous man-made and natural disasters have stricken mankind since the beginning of the new millennium. The scale and impact of such disasters often prevent the collection of sufficient data for an objective assessment and coordination of timely rescue and relief missions on the ground. As a potential solution to this problem, in recent years constellations of Earth observation small satellites and in particular micro-satellites (techniques. For a large number of applications the resulting delay between image capture and delivery is not acceptable, in particular for rapid response remote sensing aiming at disaster monitoring and detection. In such cases almost instantaneous data availability is a strict requirement to enable an assessment of the situation and instigate an adequate response. Examples include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding, forest fires and oil spills. The proposed solution to this issue are low-cost networked distributed satellite systems in low Earth orbit capable of connecting to terrestrial networks and geostationary Earth orbit spacecraft in real time. This paper discusses enabling technologies for rapid response disaster monitoring and detection from space such as very small satellite design, intersatellite communication, intelligent on-board processing, distributed computing and bio-inspired routing techniques.

  10. COAP BASED ACUTE PARKING LOT MONITORING SYSTEM USING SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aarthi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle parking is the act of temporarily maneuvering a vehicle in to a certain location. To deal with parking monitoring system issue such as traffic, this paper proposes a vision of improvements in monitoring the vehicles in parking lots based on sensor networks. Most of the existing paper deals with that of the automated parking which is of cluster based and each has its own overheads like high power, less energy efficiency, incompatible size of lots, space. The novel idea in this work is usage of CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol which is recently created by IETF (draft-ietf-core-coap-18, June 28, 2013, CoRE group to develop RESTful application layer protocol for communications within embedded wireless networks. This paper deals with the enhanced CoAP protocol using multi hop flat topology, which makes the acuters feel soothe towards parking vehicles. We aim to minimize the time consumed for finding free parking lot as well as increase the energy efficiency

  11. Evaluation of the national Acidification Trend Monitoring Network (TMV); Evaluatie TrendMeetnet Verzuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Goffau, A.; Wattel-Koekkoek, E.J.W.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Boumans, L.J.M.

    2009-07-01

    The national Acidification Trend Monitoring Network (TMV) has proven to be an effective instrument for demonstrating the impacts of government policies on acidification and air pollution on the quality of groundwater in the Netherlands. The network records the effect of atmospheric deposition - the deposition of acidifying and eutrophicating substances from the atmosphere - on the quality of groundwater. Reduced deposition is reflected in improvements in groundwater quality. Based on these groundwater quality measurements, the network has demonstrated that nitrate concentrations in groundwater have dropped significantly over the past 30 years. These are the findings of an evaluation of the TMV that was performed by the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) by order of the Ministry of Public Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM). The TMV was established in 1989 and is administered by the RIVM. The network monitors the quality of the top 1 m of groundwater under natural areas (forest and heather land) with sandy soils. The groundwater under these areas is not affected by any other notable acidifying and eutrophicating substances and, in addition, sandy soils have a limited capacity to neutralize the impacts of acidification. For these reasons, the impacts of atmospheric deposition on groundwater quality are most clearly detected under natural terrains with sandy soils. In other monitoring networks, the effects of atmospheric deposition are difficult or impossible to distinguish from other sources of pollution. In agricultural areas, for example, the impacts of fertilizer application on groundwater quality eclipse those of other sources of pollution. The evaluation report recommends utilizing the measurements of the TMV in the Water Framework Directive reports on groundwater quality and, thereby, bringing the monitoring frequency of the TMV in line with the WFD reporting cycle (cycle of 6 years). In this case, the monitoring

  12. The Monitoring Network of the Vancouver 2010 Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Paul; Scott, Bill; Doyle, Chris; Isaac, George; Gultepe, Ismail; Forsyth, Douglas; Cober, Stewart; Campos, Edwin; Heckman, Ivan; Donaldson, Norman; Hudak, David; Rasmussen, Roy; Kucera, Paul; Stewart, Ron; Thériault, Julie M.; Fisico, Teresa; Rasmussen, Kristen L.; Carmichael, Hannah; Laplante, Alex; Bailey, Monika; Boudala, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    An innovative monitoring network was implemented to support the operational and science programs for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics. It consisted of in situ weather stations on custom-designed platforms. The sensors included an HMP45C for temperature, humidity and pressure, a tipping bucket rain gauge, an acoustic snow depth sensor, a Pluvio 1 precipitation gauge and an anemometer placed at gauge height and at 10 m height. Modifications to commercial automated precipitation gauges were necessary for the heavy snowfall conditions. Advanced or emerging technologies were deployed to support scientific and nowcasting studies into precipitation intensity, typing, visibility and wind. The sensors included an FD12P visibility and precipitation sensor, a precipitation occurrence sensing system (POSS) present weather sensor, a Hotplate precipitation sensor and a Parsivel disdrometer. Data were collected at 1 min sampling intervals. A Doppler weather radar was deployed in a valley location and provided critical detailed low-level data. An X-band dual-polarized radar was deployed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to monitor Vancouver and Cypress Mountain. Three remote sensing stations for vertical profiling were established. At the base of Whistler Mountain, a micro-rain radar, a 22-channel radiometer, a ceilometer, a Parsivel and a POSS were installed. At the base of Cypress Mountain, a micro-rain radar, a ceilometer, a low cost rain sensor (LCR by ATTEX) and a POSS were installed. At Squamish, a wind profiler and a POSS were installed. Weather sensors were mounted on the Whistler Village Gondola and on the Peak to Peak gondola. Sites were established along the Whistler Mountain slope and at other key locations. The combination of sites and instruments formed a comprehensive network to provide observations appropriate for nowcasting in winter complex terrain and investigate precipitation, visibility and wind processes. The contribution provides a

  13. 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident: summary of regional radioactive deposition monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2012-09-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting Tsunami on March 11, 2011, serious accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has been occurred. Huge amounts of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. Japanese prefectural governments have carried out environmental radioactivity monitoring; external dose rate, radioactivity measurements in environmental samples and others. Since March 18, 2011, daily and monthly deposition samples were collected in 45 stations covering Japanese Islands and radionuclides in the deposition samples were determined. We summarize radioactive deposition data reported by Japanese Government and study the depositional behaviors of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides. The results revealed that Fukushima-derived radioactive cloud dominantly affected in the central and eastern part of Honshu-Island, although it affected all of Japanese land area and also western North Pacific. The temporal change of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs revealed that the apparent atmospheric residence time of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in sites within 300 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPis about 10 d.

  14. Monitoring and Discovery for Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso Caraguay, Ángel Leonardo; García Villalba, Luis Javier

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the Monitoring and Discovery Framework of the Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks SELFNET project. This design takes into account the scalability and flexibility requirements needed by 5G infrastructures. In this context, the present framework focuses on gathering and storing the information (low-level metrics) related to physical and virtual devices, cloud environments, flow metrics, SDN traffic and sensors. Similarly, it provides the monitoring data as a generic information source in order to allow the correlation and aggregation tasks. Our design enables the collection and storing of information provided by all the underlying SELFNET sublayers, including the dynamically onboarded and instantiated SDN/NFV Apps, also known as SELFNET sensors. PMID:28362346

  15. Monitoring and Discovery for Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraguay, Ángel Leonardo Valdivieso; Villalba, Luis Javier García

    2017-03-31

    This paper presents the Monitoring and Discovery Framework of the Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks SELFNET project. This design takes into account the scalability and flexibility requirements needed by 5G infrastructures. In this context, the present framework focuses on gathering and storing the information (low-level metrics) related to physical and virtual devices, cloud environments, flow metrics, SDN traffic and sensors. Similarly, it provides the monitoring data as a generic information source in order to allow the correlation and aggregation tasks. Our design enables the collection and storing of information provided by all the underlying SELFNET sublayers, including the dynamically onboarded and instantiated SDN/NFV Apps, also known as SELFNET sensors.

  16. Monitoring and Discovery for Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Leonardo Valdivieso Caraguay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Monitoring and Discovery Framework of the Self-Organized Network Management in Virtualized and Software Defined Networks SELFNET project. This design takes into account the scalability and flexibility requirements needed by 5G infrastructures. In this context, the present framework focuses on gathering and storing the information (low-level metrics related to physical and virtual devices, cloud environments, flow metrics, SDN traffic and sensors. Similarly, it provides the monitoring data as a generic information source in order to allow the correlation and aggregation tasks. Our design enables the collection and storing of information provided by all the underlying SELFNET sublayers, including the dynamically onboarded and instantiated SDN/NFV Apps, also known as SELFNET sensors.

  17. Review of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) applied to corrosion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbutt, S.; Picton, P.; Shaw, P.; Black, S.

    2012-05-01

    The assessment of corrosion within an engineering system often forms an important aspect of condition monitoring but it is a parameter that is inherently difficult to measure and predict. The electrochemical nature of the corrosion process allows precise measurements to be made. Advances in instruments, techniques and software have resulted in devices that can gather data and perform various analysis routines that provide parameters to identify corrosion type and corrosion rate. Although corrosion rates are important they are only useful where general or uniform corrosion dominates. However, pitting, inter-granular corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking (stress corrosion) are examples of corrosion mechanisms that can be dangerous and virtually invisible to the naked eye. Electrochemical noise (EN) monitoring is a very useful technique for detecting these types of corrosion and it is the only non-invasive electrochemical corrosion monitoring technique commonly available. Modern instrumentation is extremely sensitive to changes in the system and new experimental configurations for gathering EN data have been proven. In this paper the identification of localised corrosion by different data analysis routines has been reviewed. In particular the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) analysis to corrosion data is of key interest. In most instances data needs to be used with conventional theory to obtain meaningful information and relies on expert interpretation. Recently work has been carried out using artificial neural networks to investigate various types of corrosion data in attempts to predict corrosion behaviour with some success. This work aims to extend this earlier work to identify reliable electrochemical indicators of localised corrosion onset and propagation stages.

  18. ULF radio monitoring network in a seismic area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toader, Victorin; Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    ULF monitoring is a part of a multidisciplinary network (AeroSolSys) located in Vrancea (Curvature Carpathian Mountains). Four radio receivers (100 kHz - microwave) placed on faults in a high seismic area characterized by deep earthquakes detect fairly weak radio waves. The radio power is recorded in correlation with many other parameters related to near surface low atmosphere phenomena (seismicity, solar radiation, air ionization, electromagnetic activity, radon, CO2 concentration, atmospheric pressure, telluric currents, infrasound, seismo-acoustic emission, meteorological information). We follow variations in the earth's surface propagate radio waves avoiding reflection on ionosphere. For this reason the distance between stations is less than 60 km and the main source of emission is near (Bod broadcasting transmitter for long- and medium-wave radio, next to Brasov city). In the same time tectonic stress affects the radio propagation in air and it could generates ULF waves in ground (LAI coupling). To reduce the uncertainty is necessary to monitor a location for extended periods of time to outline local and seasonal fluctuations. Solar flares do not affect seismic activity but they produce disturbances in telecommunications networks and power grids. Our ULF monitoring correlated with two local magnetometers does not indicate this so far with our receivers. Our analysis was made during magnetic storms with Kp 7 and 8 according to NOAA satellites. To correlate the results we implemented an application that monitors the satellite EUTELSAT latency compared to WiMAX land communication in the same place. ULF band radio monitoring showed that our receiver is dependent on temperature and that it is necessary to introduce a band pass filter in data analysis. ULF data acquisition is performed by Kinemetrics and National Instruments digitizers with a sampling rate of 100 Hz in Miniseed format and then converted into text files with 1 Hz rate for analysis in very low

  19. Use of digital monitoring in the Czech Phenology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virag, M.; Mozny, M.; Nekovar, J.; Striz, M.; Bares, D.; Hajkova, L.

    2009-09-01

    Prospects for the use of digital monitoring of the phenological observations are very promising. Because of recent improvements in digital camera's technologies, it is now possible to quantify canopy development and plant phenological states of plant individuals using digital camera data which eliminates the subjectivity inherent in observer-based systems. The seasonal cycle of canopy greenness is the determining factor in the length of the growing season, growing season CO2-assimilation, and is stronly influencing the energy balance of the earth's surface. Whole year remote monitoring of forest-tree species phenological phases project has been started at the Doksany observatory in September, 2006. The digital camera Canon PowerShot S3 is located on a piece of land, where an International Phenological Garden is located and the camera is connected via ethernet network to a computer inside the observatory. The camera is fully controlled by the computer running special program on it.; that allows to set parameters of photographing, focuses the camera to a particular details and moves the camera in both vertical and horizontal directions. Because of good results of the pilot project in Doksany its counted on successive enlargements of digital monitoring to other sites.

  20. Entropy-Based Approach to Remove Redundant Monitoring Wells from Regional-Scale Groundwater Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An entropy-based approach is applied to identify redundant wells in the network. In the process of this research, groundwater-monitoring network is considered as a communication system with a capability to transfer information, and monitoring wells are taken as information receivers. The concepts of entropy and mutual information are then applied to measure the information content of individual monitoring well and information relationship between monitoring well pairs. The efficiency of information transfer among monitoring wells is the basis to judge the redundancy in the network. And the capacity of the monitoring wells to provide information on groundwater is the point of evaluation to identify redundant monitoring wells. This approach is demonstrated using the data from a regional-scale groundwater network in Hebei plain, China. The result shows that the entropy-based method is recommendable in optimizing groundwater networks, especially for those within media of higher heterogeneities and anisotropies.

  1. Monitor Network Traffic with Packet Capture (pcap) on an Android Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TN-0650 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Monitor Network Traffic with Packet Capture (pcap) on an Android Device by...Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TN-0650 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Monitor Network Traffic with Packet...Sep 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4/15/14–9/1/14 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monitor Network Traffic with Packet Capture (pcap

  2. Centralized Data Engineering for the Monitoring of the CERN Electrical Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kiourkos, A; Gonzalez-Berges, M; Infante, S; Tournier, J-C

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring and control of the CERN electrical network consists of a great variety of devices and software: it spans from low level acquisition devices to high level data concentrators, supervision systems as well as power network simulation tools.

  3. Monitoring network-design influence on assessment of ecological condition in wadeable streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated outcomes of three monitoring networks for assessing ecological character and condition of wadeable streams in the Waikato region, New Zealand. Sites were selected 1) based on a professional judgment network, 2) within categories of stream and watershed characteris...

  4. Environmental Monitoring using Measurements from Cellular Network Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Gao, O. H.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurements of atmospheric parameters at ground level are fundamentally essential for hazard warning, meteorological forecasting and for various applications in agriculture, hydrology, transportation and more. The accuracy of existing instruments, however, is often limited as a result of technical and practical constraints. Existing technologies such as satellite systems cover large areas but may experience lack of precision at near surface level. On the other hand, ground based in-situ sensors often suffer from low spatial representativity. In addition, these conventional monitoring instruments are costly to implement and maintain. At frequencies of tens of GHz, various atmospheric hydrometeors affect microwave beams, causing perturbations to radio signals. Consequently, commercial wireless links that constitute the infrastructure for data transport between cellular base stations can be considered as a built in environmental monitoring facility (Messer et al., Science, 2006). These microwave links are widely deployed worldwide at surface level altitudes and can provide measurements of various atmospheric phenomena. The implementation costs are minimal since the infrastructure is already situated in the field. This technique has been shown to be applicable for 2D rainfall monitoring (e.g. Overeem et al., PNAS, 2013; Liberman et al., AMT, 2014) and potentially for water vapor observations (David et al., ACP, 2009; Chwala et al., Atmos. Res., 2013). Moreover, it has been recently shown that the technology has strong potential for detection of fog and estimation of its intensity (David et al., JGR-Atmos., 2013; David et al., BAMS, 2014). The research conducted to this point forms the basis for the initiation of a research project in this newly emerging field at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Cornell University. The presentation will provide insights into key capabilities of the novel approach. The potential to monitor various

  5. Variability of multifractal parameters in an urban precipitation monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licznar, Paweł; De Michele, Carlo; Dżugaj, Dagmara; Niesobska, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Precipitation especially over urban areas is considered a highly non-linear process, with wide variability over a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. Despite obvious limitations of rainfall gauges location at urban sites, rainfall monitoring by gauge networks is a standard solution of urban hydrology. Often urban precipitation gauge networks are formed by modern electronic gauges and connected to control units of centralized urban drainage systems. Precipitation data, recorded online through these gauge networks, are used in so called Real-Time-Control (RTC) systems for the development of optimal strategies of urban drainage outflows management. As a matter of fact, the operation of RTC systems is motivated mainly by the urge of reducing the severity of urban floods and combined sewerage overflows, but at the same time, it creates new valuable precipitation data sources. The variability of precipitation process could be achieved by investigating multifractal behavior displayed by the temporal structure of precipitation data. There are multiply scientific communications concerning multifractal properties of point-rainfall data from different worldwide locations. However, very little is known about the close variability of multifractal parameters among closely located gauges, at the distances of single kilometers. Having this in mind, here we assess the variability of multifractal parameters among gauges of the urban precipitation monitoring network in Warsaw, Poland. We base our analysis on the set of 1-minute rainfall time series recorded in the period 2008-2011 by 25 electronic weighing type gauges deployed around the city by the Municipal Water Supply and Sewerage Company in Warsaw as a part of local RTC system. The presence of scale invariance and multifractal properties in the precipitation process was investigated with spectral analysis, functional box counting method and studying the probability distributions and statistical moments of the rainfall

  6. GMDH and neural networks applied in temperature sensors monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Elaine Inacio, E-mail: ebueno@cefetsp.b [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e, E-mail: martinez@ipen.b, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work a monitoring system was developed based on the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) and Neural Networks (ANNs) methodologies. This methodology was applied to the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN by using a database obtained from a theoretical model of the reactor. The IEA-R1 research reactor is a pool type reactor of 5 MW, cooled and moderated by light water, and uses graphite and beryllium as reflector. The theoretical model was developed using the Matlab GUIDE toolbox. The equations are based in the IEA-R1 mass and energy inventory balance and physical as well as operational aspects are taken into consideration. This methodology was developed by using the GMDH algorithm as input variables to the ANNs. The results obtained using the GMDH and ANNs were better than that obtained using only ANNs. (author)

  7. Preprocessing in a Tiered Sensor Network for Habitat Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbiao Wang

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate task decomposition and collaboration in a two-tiered sensor network for habitat monitoring. The system recognizes and localizes a specified type of birdcalls. The system has a few powerful macronodes in the first tier, and many less powerful micronodes in the second tier. Each macronode combines data collected by multiple micronodes for target classification and localization. We describe two types of lightweight preprocessing which significantly reduce data transmission from micronodes to macronodes. Micronodes classify events according to their cross-zero rates and discard irrelevant events. Data about events of interest is reduced and compressed before being transmitted to macronodes for target localization. Preliminary experiments illustrate the effectiveness of event filtering and data reduction at micronodes.

  8. Research on Network-based Integrated Condition Monitoring Unit for Rotating Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Xiao-peng; ZHANG Wen-rui; XI Shuan-min; JING Min-qing; YU Lie

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a network-based monitoring unit for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery is designed and implemented. With the technology of DSP( Digital signal processing), TCP/IP, and simultaneous acquisition, a mechanism of multi-process and inter-process communication, the integrating problem of signal acquisition, the data dynamic management and network-based configuration in the embedded condition monitoring system is solved. It offers the input function of monitoring information for network-based condition monitoring and a fault diagnosis system.

  9. February 2012 workshop jumpstarts the Mekong Fish Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Matthew E.; Ainsley, Shaara M.

    2012-01-01

    , Cambodia, and Vietnam. Representatives from the governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and the Mekong River Commission discussed current and potential methods and mechanisms of the Mekong Fish Monitoring Network. The goals of the workshop were to determine if the Network and associated databases were of interest and value to the LMB nations, to determine if future fisheries monitoring data would be comparable among the nations, and to establish methods and an organizational structure for collaborating on future monitoring and research. The participants in this international workshop agreed that the Network would be useful but would require additional funding to secure their full participation. The USGS and FISHBIO are collaboratively seeking additional funding to expand research participation and projects in all four LMB nations. If the Network can facilitate cooperation among many fisheries researchers in the LMB, the basin would become a model of cooperative international fishery studies and would increase the understanding of a river basin rich in natural resources.

  10. Enhanced data validation strategy of air quality monitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkat, Mohamed-Faouzi; Mansouri, Majdi; Nounou, Mohamed; Nounou, Hazem

    2017-10-05

    Quick validation and detection of faults in measured air quality data is a crucial step towards achieving the objectives of air quality networks. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are threefold: (i) to develop a modeling technique that can be used to predict the normal behavior of air quality variables and help provide accurate reference for monitoring purposes; (ii) to develop fault detection method that can effectively and quickly detect any anomalies in measured air quality data. For this purpose, a new fault detection method that is based on the combination of generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) will be developed. GLRT is a well-known statistical fault detection method that relies on maximizing the detection probability for a given false alarm rate. In this paper, we propose to develop GLRT-based EWMA fault detection method that will be able to detect the changes in the values of certain air quality variables; (iii) to develop fault isolation and identification method that allows defining the fault source(s) in order to properly apply appropriate corrective actions. In this paper, reconstruction approach that is based on Midpoint-Radii Principal Component Analysis (MRPCA) model will be developed to handle the types of data and models associated with air quality monitoring networks. All air quality modeling, fault detection, fault isolation and reconstruction methods developed in this paper will be validated using real air quality data (such as particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen and carbon oxides measurement). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. SSME Condition Monitoring Using Neural Networks and Plume Spectral Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Randall; Benzing, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    For a variety of reasons, condition monitoring of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has become an important concern for both ground tests and in-flight operation. The complexities of the SSME suggest that active, real-time condition monitoring should be performed to avoid large-scale or catastrophic failure of the engine. In 1986, the SSME became the subject of a plume emission spectroscopy project at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Since then, plume emission spectroscopy has recorded many nominal tests and the qualitative spectral features of the SSME plume are now well established. Significant discoveries made with both wide-band and narrow-band plume emission spectroscopy systems led MSFC to develop the Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) system. The OPAD system is designed to provide condition monitoring of the SSME during ground-level testing. The operational health of the engine is achieved through the acquisition of spectrally resolved plume emissions and the subsequent identification of abnormal emission levels in the plume indicative of engine erosion or component failure. Eventually, OPAD, or a derivative of the technology, could find its way on to an actual space vehicle and provide in-flight engine condition monitoring. This technology step, however, will require miniaturized hardware capable of processing plume spectral data in real-time. An objective of OPAD condition monitoring is to determine how much of an element is present in the SSME plume. The basic premise is that by knowing the element and its concentration, this could be related back to the health of components within the engine. For example, an abnormal amount of silver in the plume might signify increased wear or deterioration of a particular bearing in the engine. Once an anomaly is identified, the engine could be shut down before catastrophic failure occurs. Currently, element concentrations in the plume are determined iteratively with the help of a non-linear computer

  12. GuMNet - Guadarrama Monitoring Network initiative (Madrid,Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo

    2017-04-01

    The Guadarrama Monitoring Network initiative (GuMNet) is an observational infrastructure focused on monitoring the state of the atmosphere, surface and subsurface in the Sierra de Guadarrama, 50 km NW of the city of Madrid. The network is composed of 10 automatic real time weather stations ranging from low altitude (ca. 900 m.a.s.l) to high mountain areas (ca. 2400 m.a.s.l). The GuMNet infrastructure consists in 10 real time automatic weather stations with instrumentation for observing the state of the atmosphere, surface and the subsurface at the Sierra de Guadarrama, just 50 km north-northwest of the city of Madrid. GuMNet lays the foundations of a research network on weather, soil thermodynamics, boundary layer physics, climate and ecosystem oriented impacts, air pollutions, etc. in the Sierra de Guadarrama. GuMNet represents a first step to provide a unique observational network in an environment of high protection to be used as a laboratory serving a wide range of scientific and educational interests. High altitude sites are focused on periglacial areas and lower altitude sites have emphasis on pastures. One of the low altitude sites is equipped with a 10 m high anemometric tower with a 3D sonic anemometer at the top jointly with a CO2/H2O analyzer that will allow sampling of wind profiles and H2O and CO2 eddy covariance fluxes, important for soil respiration and CO2 and water vapor exchange. A portable station has also a 3D sonic anemometer with CO2/H2O analyzer, this 4 meters-high portable tower is designed for comparison with other soil terrain fluxes. The network is connected via general packet radio service (GPRS) to the central lab in the Campus of Excellence of Moncloa and a management software has been developed to handle the operation of the infrastructure. The deployment of instrumentation and connection of sites to the network was finished in 2016. GuMNet is currently in the process of becoming operational. Conceptually, GuMNet intends to convert a

  13. Global optimal design of ground water monitoring network using embedded kriging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Anirban; Datta, Bithin

    2009-01-01

    We present a methodology for global optimal design of ground water quality monitoring networks using a linear mixed-integer formulation. The proposed methodology incorporates ordinary kriging (OK) within the decision model formulation for spatial estimation of contaminant concentration values. Different monitoring network design models incorporating concentration estimation error, variance estimation error, mass estimation error, error in locating plume centroid, and spatial coverage of the designed network are developed. A big-M technique is used for reformulating the monitoring network design model to a linear decision model while incorporating different objectives and OK equations. Global optimality of the solutions obtained for the monitoring network design can be ensured due to the linear mixed-integer programming formulations proposed. Performances of the proposed models are evaluated for both field and hypothetical illustrative systems. Evaluation results indicate that the proposed methodology performs satisfactorily. These performance evaluation results demonstrate the potential applicability of the proposed methodology for optimal ground water contaminant monitoring network design.

  14. Energy Harvesting for Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.; Farrar, C. R.; Todd, M. D.; Hodgkiss, T.; Rosing, T.

    2007-02-26

    This report has been developed based on information exchanges at a 2.5-day workshop on energy harvesting for embedded structural health monitoring (SHM) sensing systems that was held June 28-30, 2005, at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The workshop was hosted by the LANL/UCSD Engineering Institute (EI). This Institute is an education- and research-focused collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), Jacobs School of Engineering. A Statistical Pattern Recognition paradigm for SHM is first presented and the concept of energy harvesting for embedded sensing systems is addressed with respect to the data acquisition portion of this paradigm. Next, various existing and emerging sensing modalities used for SHM and their respective power requirements are summarized, followed by a discussion of SHM sensor network paradigms, power requirements for these networks and power optimization strategies. Various approaches to energy harvesting and energy storage are discussed and limitations associated with the current technology are addressed. This discussion also addresses current energy harvesting applications and system integration issues. The report concludes by defining some future research directions and possible technology demonstrations that are aimed at transitioning the concept of energy harvesting for embedded SHM sensing systems from laboratory research to field-deployed engineering prototypes.

  15. Human Mobility Monitoring in Very Low Resolution Visual Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyan Bo Bo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an automated system for monitoring mobility patterns using a network of very low resolution visual sensors (30 × 30 pixels. The use of very low resolution sensors reduces privacy concern, cost, computation requirement and power consumption. The core of our proposed system is a robust people tracker that uses low resolution videos provided by the visual sensor network. The distributed processing architecture of our tracking system allows all image processing tasks to be done on the digital signal controller in each visual sensor. In this paper, we experimentally show that reliable tracking of people is possible using very low resolution imagery. We also compare the performance of our tracker against a state-of-the-art tracking method and show that our method outperforms. Moreover, the mobility statistics of tracks such as total distance traveled and average speed derived from trajectories are compared with those derived from ground truth given by Ultra-Wide Band sensors. The results of this comparison show that the trajectories from our system are accurate enough to obtain useful mobility statistics.

  16. Wireless Sensor Network Deployment for Monitoring Wildlife Passages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Vicente López-Bao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are being deployed in very diverse application scenarios, including rural and forest environments. In these particular contexts, specimen protection and conservation is a challenge, especially in natural reserves, dangerous locations or hot spots of these reserves (i.e., roads, railways, and other civil infrastructures. This paper proposes and studies a WSN based system for generic target (animal tracking in the surrounding area of wildlife passages built to establish safe ways for animals to cross transportation infrastructures. In addition, it allows target identification through the use of video sensors connected to strategically deployed nodes. This deployment is designed on the basis of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, but it increases the lifetime of the nodes through an appropriate scheduling. The system has been evaluated for the particular scenario of wildlife monitoring in passages across roads. For this purpose, different schemes have been simulated in order to find the most appropriate network operational parameters. Moreover, a novel prototype, provided with motion detector sensors, has also been developed and its design feasibility demonstrated. Original software modules providing new functionalities have been implemented and included in this prototype. Finally, main performance evaluation results of the whole system are presented and discussed in depth.

  17. Low-power hybrid wireless network for monitoring infant incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D I; Shin, K H; Kim, I K; Park, K S; Lee, T S; Kim, S I; Lim, K S; Huh, S J

    2005-10-01

    We have created a pilot wireless network for the convenient monitoring of temperature and humidity of infant incubators. This system combines infrared and radio frequency (RF) communication in order to minimize the power consumption of slave devices, and we therefore call it a hybrid wireless network. The slave module installed in the infant incubator receives the calling signal from the host with an infrared receiver, and sends temperature and humidity data to the host with an RF transmitter. The power consumption of the host system is not critical, and hence it uses the maximum power of infrared transmission and continuously operating RF receiver. In our test implementation, we included four slave devices. The PC calls each slave device every second and then waits for 6 s, resulting in a total scan period of 10 s. Slave devices receive the calling signals and transmit three data values (temperature, moisture, and skin temperature); their power demand is 1 mW, and can run for about 1000 h on four AA-size nickel-hydride batteries.

  18. Elemental and morphological analyses of filter tape deposits from a beta attenuation monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, John G.; Chow, Judith C.; Chen, L.-W. Antony; Kohl, Steven D.; Casuccio, Gary S.; Lersch, Traci L.; Langston, Rodney

    2012-03-01

    An hourly average PM 10 concentration of 1402 μg m -3 was registered at 1400 Pacific Standard Time (PST), 1/11/2007, on the beta attenuation monitor (BAM) at a North Las Vegas, Nevada sampling site. The high PM 10 concentration at ~ 1245-~1331 PST was a microscale event, limited strictly to the PM 10 sampler; it did not affect the adjacent PM 2.5 concentrations. A method was developed for retrospective compositional analysis of BAM glass-fiber filter tape sample deposits. Sample punches were submitted for optical examination, followed by elemental and morphological analyses with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses, respectively. Geological samples surrounding the sampling site were acquired to establish source profiles and identify source markers. Although blank levels for many elements were high on the glass-fiber filter tape from the BAM, they were consistent enough to allow background subtraction from the deposit concentrations for most chemical components. Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model source apportionment for the event closely matched the paved road dust sample collected adjacent to the sampling site. It is likely that this high mass event was the result of environmental vandalism. This study demonstrates the feasibility of analyzing BAM filter tape deposits for source attribution, especially for short-duration fugitive dust events. Filter tapes should be time-stamped and immediately retained after an event for future analysis.

  19. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  20. Integrated sensor network for monitoring steel corrosion in concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique Ramón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the main triggering factors affecting the service life and durability of structures. Several methods are used for corrosion studies but electrochemical techniques are the most commonly applied. Corrosion processes monitoring and control by means of non-destructive techniques, such as the implementation of embedded sensors, has been the target of many works.  It is possible to obtain relevant information of structural corrosion processes in real time. This document describes a system including specific equipment and which allows obtaining relevant information about these corrosion processes. This system is formed by a sensor network. There are several types of electrodes, which are distributed throughout the structure under study and a specific equipment developed by the research group, which is used to determine pertinent parameters such as the corrosion potential (Ecorr and the corrosion density (icorr by applying sequences of potentiostatic pulses. The system allows to reliably determine the corrosion rate in different areas of the structure. The sensor, due to its configuration, provides information of a specific area of the structure, but on the other hand it is involved in the galvanic events that can occur along the structure by differential aeration, galvanic cells, etc. because the sensor is not isolated from the structure.  This system also procures information of buried and submerged elements. Besides, it is possible to obtain information related to temperature, concrete resistance. The system includes specific potentiometric sensors to monitor chloride access and carbonatation processes.

  1. Impacts of nitrogen deposition on vascular plants in Britain: an analysis of two national observation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Henrys

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of Great Britain currently have nitrogen (N deposition at rates which exceed the thresholds above which there is risk of damage to sensitive components of the ecosystem (critical loads. Previous studies have focussed primarily on the relationship of species richness to nitrogen, whereas here we look at individual species. We used data from two national observation networks over Great Britain to examine the response of individual vascular plant species to N in acid grasslands, calcareous grasslands and heathlands. Presence absence records of individual species, along with mean Ellenberg N scores, within 10 km hectads were modelled against N deposition whilst at the same time controlling for the effects of climate, land use and sulphur deposition using generalised additive models. Ellenberg N showed a significant increase with increasing N deposition in almost all habitats across both surveys indicating increased fertility. Many individual species showed strong relationships with N deposition and clear negative trends in species prevalence to increasing nitrogen were found in all habitats. A number of these species were either habitat dominants or possessed traits known to be influential in controlling ecosystem function. Many community dominants showing significant negative relationships with N deposition highlight a potentially significant loss of function. Some species that showed negative relationships to N showed signs of decline at low levels, far below the current critical load levels. Some species also showed continuous changes as N deposition levels rose above the current critical load values. This work contributes to the growing evidence base suggesting species level impacts at low N deposition values.

  2. Atmospheric mercury concentrations observed at ground-based monitoring sites globally distributed in the framework of the GMOS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola; Bencardino, Mariantonia; D'Amore, Francesco; Carbone, Francesco; Cinnirella, Sergio; Mannarino, Valentino; Landis, Matthew; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Weigelt, Andreas; Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Labuschagne, Casper; Martin, Lynwill; Munthe, John; Wängberg, Ingvar; Artaxo, Paulo; Morais, Fernando; Barbosa, Henrique de Melo Jorge; Brito, Joel; Cairns, Warren; Barbante, Carlo; Diéguez, María del Carmen; Garcia, Patricia Elizabeth; Dommergue, Aurélien; Angot, Helene; Magand, Olivier; Skov, Henrik; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Read, Katie Alana; Mendes Neves, Luis; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; Sena, Fabrizio; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Obolkin, Vladimir; Wip, Dennis; Feng, Xin Bin; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Xuewu; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Cossa, Daniel; Knoery, Joël; Marusczak, Nicolas; Nerentorp, Michelle; Norstrom, Claus

    2016-09-01

    Long-term monitoring of data of ambient mercury (Hg) on a global scale to assess its emission, transport, atmospheric chemistry, and deposition processes is vital to understanding the impact of Hg pollution on the environment. The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project was funded by the European Commission (gmos.eu" target="_blank">http://www.gmos.eu) and started in November 2010 with the overall goal to develop a coordinated global observing system to monitor Hg on a global scale, including a large network of ground-based monitoring stations, ad hoc periodic oceanographic cruises and measurement flights in the lower and upper troposphere as well as in the lower stratosphere. To date, more than 40 ground-based monitoring sites constitute the global network covering many regions where little to no observational data were available before GMOS. This work presents atmospheric Hg concentrations recorded worldwide in the framework of the GMOS project (2010-2015), analyzing Hg measurement results in terms of temporal trends, seasonality and comparability within the network. Major findings highlighted in this paper include a clear gradient of Hg concentrations between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, confirming that the gradient observed is mostly driven by local and regional sources, which can be anthropogenic, natural or a combination of both.

  3. Extending permanent volcano monitoring networks into Iceland's ice caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Bergsson, Bergur H.; Kjartansson, Vilhjálmur; Jónsson, Thorsteinn; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Roberts, Matthew J.; Jóhannesson, Tómas; Pálsson, Finnur; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Erlendsson, Pálmi; Ingvarsson, Thorgils; Pálssson, Sighvatur K.

    2015-04-01

    The goals of the FUTUREVOLC project are the establishment of a volcano Supersite in Iceland to enable access to volcanological data from the country's many volcanoes and the development of a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. However, the location of some of Iceland's most active volcanoes inside the country's largest ice cap, Vatnajökull, makes these goals difficult to achieve as it hinders access and proper monitoring of seismic and deformation signals from the volcanoes. To overcome these obstacles, one of the developments in the project involves experimenting with extending the permanent real-time networks into the ice cap, including installation of stations in the glacier ice. At the onset of the project, only one permanent seismic and GPS site existed within Vatnajökull, on the caldera rim of the Grímsvötn volcano. Two years into the project both seismic and GPS stations have been successfully installed and operated inside the glacier; on rock outcrops as well as on the glacier surface. The specific problems to overcome are (i) harsh weather conditions requiring sturdy and resilient equipment and site installations, (ii) darkness during winter months shutting down power generation for several weeks, (iii) high snow accumulation burying the instruments, solar panels and communication and GPS antennae, and in some locations (iv) extreme icing conditions blocking transmission signals and connection to GPS satellites, as well as excluding the possibility of power generation by wind generators. In 2013, two permanent seismic stations and one GPS station were installed on rock outcrops within the ice cap in locations with 3G connections and powered by solar panels and enough battery storage to sustain operation during the darkest winter months. These sites have successfully operated for over a year with mostly regular maintenance requirements, transmitting data in real-time to IMO for analysis. Preparations for two permanent seismic

  4. Study on remote monitoring system for landslide hazard based on Wireless Sensor Network and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Yang; TAO Zhi-gang; WANG Chang-jun; XIE Xing

    2011-01-01

    Based on Beidou satellite communication platform,sliding force remote monitoring and warning system was widely used in Lingbao Luoshan gold ore,which had achieved remarkable social and economical benefits.However,there is one monitoring point at every 1 000 m2,and their distribution is so discrete that it will no doubt increase construction and operation cost if every monitoring point was installed a Beidou subscriber machine.Therefore,based on Zigbee wireless sensor network technology,network structure and the nodes,embed wireless sensor node in remote monitoring and warning system,a base platform of local wireless sensor network is formed,and it can combine punctiform monitoring information with planar network and transmit concentrated information through Beidou satellite terminal machine; as a result,this largely expands the transmission distance of monitoring data.

  5. Modeling and monitoring of pipelines and networks advanced tools for automatic monitoring and supervision of pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lizeth

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the analysis and design of advanced techniques for on-line automatic computational monitoring of pipelines and pipe networks. It discusses how to improve the systems’ security considering mathematical models of the flow, historical flow rate and pressure data, with the main goal of reducing the number of sensors installed along a pipeline. The techniques presented in the book have been implemented in digital systems to enhance the abilities of the pipeline network’s operators in recognizing anomalies. A real leak scenario in a Mexican water pipeline is used to illustrate the benefits of these techniques in locating the position of a leak. Intended for an interdisciplinary audience, the book addresses researchers and professionals in the areas of mechanical, civil and control engineering. It covers topics on fluid mechanics, instrumentation, automatic control, signal processing, computing, construction and diagnostic technologies.

  6. GuMNet - Guadarrama Monitoring Network. Installation and set up of a high altitude monitoring network, north of Madrid. Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo

    2015-04-01

    An observational monitoring network in the Guadarrama Mountains is due to be operational at the end of 2015. This network integrates atmospheric measurements as well as subsurface observations in a high mountain climate, located up to 2.400 m.a.s.l. The data provided by GuMNet will help to improve the characterization of microclimate in high mountain areas, as well as land-atmosphere interations. The network information aims at meeting the needs of accuracy to be used for biological, agricultural, hydrological, meteorological and climatic investigations in this area. This initiative is supported and developed by research groups integrating the GuMNet Consortiuma from the Complutense and Polytechnical Universities of Madrid (UCM and UPM), the Energetic Environmental and Technological Research Centre (CIEMAT), the Spanish National Meteorological Agency (AEMET), and the National Park Sierra de Guadarrama (PNSG). The starting setup includes seven meteorological stations compatible with WMO standards, to be installed in the central area of the massif. Including a four-component net radiation sensor, an ultrasonic snow height, a pluviometer specialized for snow capture, air temperature and humidity devices and wind speed/direction sensor. Along with these atmospheric measurements, each station will include a set of subsurface measurements of temperature in shallow boreholes ( 20 m depth ) and temperature and humidity in trenches up to 1 m depth. These compatible WMO stations will be complemented by a station specialized in eddy covariance measuremets with CO2 fluxes at low altitude pastureland near Madrid. Another portable station is available to develop ad hoc comparison studies. This setup is embedded in a broader network of meteorological stations run partly by AEMET and partly by the PNSG. Most of the AEMET stations are distributed over lower altitudes, and will provide a very reliable boundary information for the atmosphere state around the Sierra. In the same way

  7. Software Defined Network Monitoring Scheme Using Spectral Graph Theory and Phantom Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Communication Systems, 2013. 98 [11] S. Huang and J. Griffioen, “Network hypervisors: Managing the emerging SDN chaos ,” in Proc. of 22nd International...NETWORK MONITORING SCHEME USING SPECTRAL GRAPH THEORY AND PHANTOM NODES by Jamie L. Johnson September 2014 Thesis Co-Advisors: Murali...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORK MONITORING SCHEME USING SPECTRAL GRAPH THEORY AND PHANTOM

  8. Biodiversity monitoring in Europe: the EU FP7 EBONE project. European biodiversity observation NEtwork

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lück-Vogel, Melanie

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available submission Presentation Poster presentation A) Title Biodiversity Monitoring in Europe: The EU FP7 EBONE project European Biodiversity Observation NEtwork B) Short title EBONE - European Biodiversity Observation NEtwork C) Author(s) Vogel, M. (1..., South Africa F) Biodiversity Monitoring in Europe: The EU FP7 EBONE project European Biodiversity Observation NEtwork On April 1st, 2008 the EU FP7 project EBONE (http://www.ebone.wur.nl/) was launched. The aim of the project...

  9. In-situ Monitoring and Defect Detection for Laser Metal Deposition by Using Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Ulf; Gruber, Daniel; Hentschel, Oliver; Sukowski, Frank; Grulich, Tobias; Seifert, Lars

    Aim of the presented approach is the early detection of defects (mainly material inhomogeneities like voids, delaminations, kissing bonds) occuring during the additive Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process. Basis of the approach is the evaluation of the surface temperature gradient within the welding spot using a high speed thermographic sensor. Our contribution covers the following aspects: Estimation of the expected defect contrast by means of a simulation study Second point Experimental setup and performed experiments Achieved results on different welding parameters and mock-up defects together with the associated image processing chain First experiments showed that a set of process parameters can be monitored through the temperature signature of the welding spot. Also, the available defects have been detected down to a diameter of 0.5 mm. The presented work has been carried out within the research project 'ForNextGen' funded by the Bavarian Research Foundation and is part of the work package 6 (Non destructive testing).

  10. Infrasonic Monitoring Network on the Big Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston; Garces, Milton; Cooper, Jennifer; Badger, Nickles; Perttu, Anna; Williams, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) with the participation of the University of Hawaii Infrasound Lab (ISLA) installed three new permanent infrasound arrays on the south half of the Island of Hawaii. Together with three existing permanent arrays maintained by ISLA, the current infrasound network around Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes is one of the most advanced of any volcano in the world. Open-vent volcanoes such as Kīlauea are particularly good infrasound emitters as lava spattering and unsteady gas release is common. The network was designed with two main goals in mind: 1) to monitor and study the infrasound sources associated with the ongoing Pu`u `Ō`ō and Halema'u'mau eruption, and 2) to detect in near real-time new eruptions at Mauna Loa or Kīlauea volcanoes. Each HVO array consists of 4 sensors, which form an equilateral triangle ~100 m on a side surrounding a central sensor. Three other permanent arrays maintained by ISLA (I59US, MENE, KHLU) have been operational since 2000, 2006, and 2009, respectively, and consist of a combination of Chaparral 25 and 50 sensors. Each infrasound instrument within the HVO arrays is built around an low- cost AllSensor MEMS sensor, which has higher noise characteristics than a Chaparral 25, but similar frequency response. ISLA also operates stations on Maui and Kauai that provide --statewide coverage. Since the full network has been established, we have recorded several infrasound signals including infrasonic tremor from Halema`uma`u, collapses from the craters of Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `Ō`ō, and other natural and anthropogenic infrasound from diverse sources on- island, offshore, and aloft. Future developments will include real-time detection, location, and identification of infrasonic signals for eruption notification. We hope to increase public awareness of volcanic infrasound by posting real-time locations on an interactive display, similar to how seismicity is currently reported. MENE data is presently

  11. Data Processing Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks får Structural Health Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Danna, Nigatu Mitiku; Mekonnen, Esayas Getachew

    2012-01-01

    The gradual deterioration and failure of old buildings, bridges and other civil engineering structures invoked the need for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems to develop a means to monitor the health of structures. Dozens of sensing, processing and monitoring mechanisms have been implemented and widely deployed with wired sensors. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), on the other hand, are networks of large numbers of low cost wireless sensor nodes that communicate through a wireless medi...

  12. Reliability Analysis of Distributed Grid-connected Photovoltaic System Monitoring Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of distributed grid-connected Photovoltaic systems have brought new challenges to the dispatching of power network. Real-time monitoring the PV system can efficiently help improve the ability of power network to accept and control the distributed PV systems, and thus mitigate the impulse on the power network imposed by the uncertainty of its power output. To study the reliability of distributed PV monitoring network, it is of great significance to look for a method to build a highly reliable monitoring system, analyze the weak links and key nodes of its monitoring performance in improving the performance of the monitoring network. Firstly a reliability model of PV system was constructed based on WSN technology. Then, in view of the dynamic characteristics of the network’s reliability, fault tree analysis was used to judge any possible reasons that cause the failure of the network and logical relationship between them. Finally, the reliability of the monitoring network was analyzed to figure out the weak links and key nodes. This paper provides guidance to build a stable and reliable monitoring network of a distributed PV system.

  13. Use of energy deposition spectrometer Liulin for individual monitoring of aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploc, O; Pachnerová Brabcová, K; Spurny, F; Malušek, A; Dachev, T

    2011-03-01

    Silicon energy deposition spectrometer Liulin was primarily developed for cosmic radiation monitoring onboard spacecrafts. Nowadays, Liulin type detectors are also used to characterise radiation field on board aircraft, at alpine observatories and behind the shielding of heavy ion accelerators. In this work, experiments and calibrations performed in these radiation fields are presented and the method developed for calculation of ambient dose equivalent H*(10) on board aircraft is described. Since 2001, a simple method employing the energy deposition spectra had been used to determine H*(10) on board aircraft but, in 2004, it became clear that the resulting values were strongly biased at locations close to Earth's equator. An improved method for the determination of H*(10) on board aircraft using the Liulin detector was developed. It took into account the composition of the radiation field via the ratio of absorbed doses D(low) and D(neut) reflecting the contributions from low-LET particles and neutrons, respectively. It resulted in much better agreement with the EPCARD computer code for all aircraft locations; relative differences were within 11 % for low-LET and 20 % for neutron components of H*(10).

  14. Sensor Network Infrastructure for a Home Care Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Palumbo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the sensor network infrastructure for a home care system that allows long-term monitoring of physiological data and everyday activities. The aim of the proposed system is to allow the elderly to live longer in their home without compromising safety and ensuring the detection of health problems. The system offers the possibility of a virtual visit via a teleoperated robot. During the visit, physiological data and activities occurring during a period of time can be discussed. These data are collected from physiological sensors (e.g., temperature, blood pressure, glucose and environmental sensors (e.g., motion, bed/chair occupancy, electrical usage. The system can also give alarms if sudden problems occur, like a fall, and warnings based on more long-term trends, such as the deterioration of health being detected. It has been implemented and tested in a test environment and has been deployed in six real homes for a year-long evaluation. The key contribution of the paper is the presentation of an implemented system for ambient assisted living (AAL tested in a real environment, combining the acquisition of sensor data, a flexible and adaptable middleware compliant with the OSGistandard and a context recognition application. The system has been developed in a European project called GiraffPlus.

  15. Wireless Sensor Network for Landslide Monitoring in Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Z. Kotta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Landslides in many regions constitute serious hazards that cause substantial life and financial losses. To overcome and reduce the damages, efforts to monitor landslides are developed. One such technology utilizes a wireless sensor network (WSN. Results obtained from studies conducted in the Ikanfoti village, Kupang District, Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT Province (S 10o16’ 21.9” and E 123o40’59.8” as pilot project, give result that the application of WSN can be applied properly. We detect and measure vibrations caused by landslides by vibration sensor (accelerometer on Micaz devices. The results of this study indicate that changes in accelerometer values ranging from 0.2 g (gravity to 0.49 g of either the X or Y of accelerometer indicate that soil begins to move but not significantly. Value above 0.5 g is a value that indicating a significant change of ground motion. The value of 1 g and above of ground motion indicates a very strong activity and should be alarmed. It is expected that this research provides the foundation for the application of WSN in various areas in NTT Province and Indonesia in general, for establishing thorough and reliable early warning system (EWS.

  16. Development of wireless sensor network for landslide monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadi; Puranto, Prabowo; Adinanta, Hendra; Tohari, Adrin; Priambodo, Purnomo S.

    2017-05-01

    A wireless sensor network has been developed to monitor soil movement of some observed areas periodically. The system consists of four nodes and one gateway which installed on a scope area of 0.2 Km2. Each of nodehastwo types of sensor,an inclinometer and an extensometer. An inclinometer sensor is used to measure the tilt of a structure while anextensometer sensor is used to measure the displacement of soil movement. Each of nodeisalso supported by awireless communication device, a solar power supply unit, and a microcontroller unit called sensor module. In this system, there is also gateway module as a main communication system consistinga wireless communication device, power supply unit, and rain gauge to measure the rainfall intensity of the observed area. Each sensor of inclinometer and extensometer isconnected to the sensor module in wiring system but sensor module iscommunicating with gateway in a wireless system. Those four nodes are alsoconnectedeach other in a wireless system collecting the data from inclinometer and extensometer sensors. Module Gateway istransmitting the instruction code to each sensor module one by one and collecting the data from them. Gateway module is an important part to communicate with not only sensor modules but also to the server. This wireless system wasdesigned toreducethe electric consumption powered by 80 WP solar panel and 55Ah battery. This system has been implemented in Pangalengan, Bandung, which has high intensity of rainfall and it can be seen on the website.

  17. CForBio: a network monitoring Chinese forest biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Feng; Xiangcheng Mi; Hui Yan; Frank Yonghong Li; Jens-Christian Svenning; Keping Ma

    2016-01-01

    China harbors a rich variety of forest types and forest-associated biodiversity,linked to both historical and contemporary environmental factors.However,being a country with a large population and rapid economic development,its diverse forest is facing unprecedent challenges.The Chinese Forest Biodiversity Network (CForBio) was initiated 12 years ago to study the maintenance of biodiversity in China's forest ecosystems.In this review,we first summarize research progress in CForBio,and then give suggestions for future research.In the past 12 years,the research based on CForBio mainly focused on local ecological factors,such as environment filtering,biotic interactions and small-scale dispersal limitation.We suggest that future studies in CForBio should (1) continue research on trees,but expand more on insects,birds,mammals,microbes and other organism groups;(2)investigate the effects of widespread defaunation on forest biodiversity,structure and functioning;(3) evaluate the diverse effects of climate change on forest composition,structure and functioning;(4) include new technologies,such as remote sensing,to better monitor and study forest biodiversity change and maintenance.

  18. Experiment of Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Sik Kim

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently the mobile wireless network has been drastically enhanced and one of the most efficient ways to realize the ubiquitous network will be to develop the converged network by integrating the mobile wireless network with other IP fixed network like NGN (Next Generation Network. So in this paper the term of the wireless ubiquitous network is used to describe this approach. In this paper, first, the wireless ubiquitous network architecture is described based on IMS which has been standardized by 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Program. Next, the field data collection system to match the satellite data using location information is proposed based on the concept of the wireless ubiquitous network architecture. The purpose of the proposed system is to provide more accurate analyzing method with the researchers in the remote sensing area.

  19. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  20. Competition between surface relaxation and ballistic deposition models in scale free networks

    CERN Document Server

    La Rocca, Cristian E; Braunstein, Lidia A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the scaling behavior of the fluctuations in the steady state $W_S$ with the system size $N$ for a surface growth process given by the competition between the surface relaxation (SRM) and the Ballistic Deposition (BD) models on degree uncorrelated Scale Free networks (SF), characterized by a degree distribution $P(k)\\sim k^{-\\lambda}$, where $k$ is the degree of a node. It is known that the fluctuations of the SRM model above the critical dimension ($d_c=2$) scales logarithmically with $N$ on euclidean lattices. However, Pastore y Piontti {\\it et. al.} [A. L. Pastore y Piontti {\\it et. al.}, Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 76}, 046117 (2007)] found that the fluctuations of the SRM model in SF networks scale logarithmically with $N$ for $\\lambda <3$ and as a constant for $\\lambda \\geq 3$. In this letter we found that for a pure ballistic deposition model on SF networks $W_S$ scales as a power law with an exponent that depends on $\\lambda$. On the other hand when both processes are in competition, we...

  1. Humidity Sensitivity of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks Deposited by Dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Cui

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the humidity sensitivity of deposited multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT networks using ac dielectrophoresis (DEP between interdigitated electrodes (IDEs. MWCNTs dispersed in ethanol were trapped and enriched between IDEs on a Si/SiO2 substrate under a positive DEP force. After the DEP process, the ethanol was evaporated and the MWCNT network on a substrate with IDEs was put into a furnace for repeated thermal annealing. It was found that the resistance stability of the network was effectively improved through thermal annealing. The humidity sensitivity was obtained by measuring the resistance of the MWCNT network with different relative humidity at room temperature. The experimental results show the resistance increases linearly with increasing the relative humidity from 25% to 95% RH with a sensitivity of 0.5%/%RH. The MWCNT networks have a reversible humidity sensing capacity with response time and recovery time of about 3 s and 25 s, respectively. The resistance is dependent on temperature with a negative coefficient of about -0.33%/K in a temperature range from 293 K to 393 K.

  2. Foliar nutrients in Italian forests: results from the 1995-2009 monitoring network sites CONECOFOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Cinti B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrients in Italian forests: results from the 1995-2009 monitoring network sites CONECOFOR. In 1995, the Italian Forest Service (CFS established the National Network for Forest Ecosystem Monitoring (CONECOFOR with the aim to study the ecological interactions among structural and functional components of forest stands. In the 31 permanent plots of the CONECOFOR Network, surveys are carried out including vegetation, trees crown condition, chemistry of leaves and soils, tree growth, atmospheric deposition, climate, microclimate, ozone and biodiversity. These surveys are carried out by CFS in collaboration with several scientific institutions. In such context, IBAF/CNR is specifically involved in the investigation of foliage chemical content. The foliar nutritional status was analyzed in 25 sites, taking as a reference the values published by the ICP-Forests and those published in the literature. The study involved 7 forest species (Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus and Picea abies investigating the concentrations of the major macronutrients as nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg, sulfur (S and calcium (Ca and the N/P ratio. In beech, N, S and K were found in quite high concentrations, though without showing imbalances due to concentration excesses. Ca and Mg are present in very high concentrations, highlighting the possibility of imbalances, especially in relation to the other nutrients. For these two nutrients, spruce shows substantially balanced conditions as also for N/P ratio. For deciduous Oaks nutrients arewithin the parameters of normality, with the exception of Ca. This has been observed in 4 out of the 6 studied sites, with potential indication of nutritional imbalances related to Calcium. Nutrient concentrations in Holm oak are within the average of published data, except for Ca and Mg of site TOS-1, the former being slightly low, the latter being unusually high

  3. Connection with seismic networks and construction of real time earthquake monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Heon Cheol; Lee, H. I.; Shin, I. C.; Lim, I. S.; Park, J. H.; Lee, B. K.; Whee, K. H.; Cho, C. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    It is natural to use the nuclear power plant seismic network which have been operated by KEPRI(Korea Electric Power Research Institute) and local seismic network by KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Material). The real time earthquake monitoring system is composed with monitoring module and data base module. Data base module plays role of seismic data storage and classification and the other, monitoring module represents the status of acceleration in the nuclear power plant area. This research placed the target on the first, networking the KIN's seismic monitoring system with KIGAM and KEPRI seismic network and the second, construction the KIN's Independent earthquake monitoring system.

  4. Multiobjective Network Optimization for Soil Monitoring of the Loess Hilly Region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil monitoring network plays an important role in detecting the spatial distribution of soil attributes and facilitates sustainable land-use decision making. Reduced costs, higher speed, greater scope, and a loss of accuracy are necessary to design a regional monitoring network effectively. In this paper, we present a stochastic optimization design method for regional soil carbon and water content monitoring networks with a minimum sample size based on a modified particle swarm optimization algorithm equipped with multiobjective optimization technique. Our effort is to reconcile the conflicts between various objectives, that is, kriging variance, survey budget, spatial accessibility, spatial interval, and the amount of monitoring sites. We applied the method to optimize the soil monitoring networks in a semiarid loess hilly area located in northwest China. The results reveal that the proposed method is both effective and robust and outperforms the standard binary particle swarm optimization and spatial simulated annealing algorithm.

  5. Recent development of infrasound monitoring network in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, Daniela; Popa, Mihaela; Ionescu, Constantin

    2017-04-01

    The second half of 2016 was marked at National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) by a significant development of infrasound monitoring infrastructure in Romania. In addition to IPLOR, the 6-element acoustic array installed at Plostina, in the central part of Romania, since 2009, two other four-element arrays were deployed. The first one, BURARI infrasound research array, was deployed in late July 2016, under a joint effort of AFTAC, USA and NIEP, in the northern part of Romania, in Bucovina region. The sites, placed in vicinity of the central elements of BURAR seismic array (over 1.2 km aperture), are equipped with Chaparral Physics Model 21 microbarometers and Reftek RT 130 data loggers. The data, used mainly for research purposes within the scientific collaboration project between NIEP and AFTAC, are available to scientific community. The second one is a PTS portable infrasound array (I67RO) deployed for one year, starting with the end of September 2016, within a collaboration project between NIEP and PTS of the Preparatory Commission for CTBTO. This array is located in the western part of Romania, at Marisel, Cluj County, covering a 0.9 km aperture and being equipped with CEA/DAM MB2005 microbarometers and Reftek RT 130 data loggers. This joint experiment aims to contribute both to advanced understanding of infrasound sources in Central-Europe and to ARISE design study project, as an expansion of the spatial coverage of the European infrasound network. The data recorded by the three infrasound arrays deployed in Romania, during a same time interval (October - December 2016) were processed into detection arrival bulletins applying CEA/DASE PMCC algorithm embedded in DTK-GPMCC (extended CTBTO NDC-in-a-box) and WinPMCC software applications. The results were plotted and analyzed using DTK-DIVA software (extended CTBTO NDC-in-a-box), in order to assess detectability of each station, as well as the capacity of fusing detections into support of infrasound monitoring

  6. The Monitoring of Red Tides Based on Modular Neural Networks Using Airborne Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Guangrong; SUN Jie; ZHAO Wencang; ZHANG Hande

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a red tide monitoring method based on clustering and modular neural networks. To obtain the features of red tide from a mass of aerial remote sensing hyperspectral data, first the Log Residual Correction (LRC) is used to normalize the data, and then clustering analysis is adopted to select and form the training samples for the neural networks. For rapid monitoring, the discriminator is composed of modular neural networks, whose structure and learning parameters are determined by an Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA). The experiments showed that this method can monitor red tide rapidly and effectively.

  7. Journal Article: EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) in June of 1998, and operated it until November of 2004. The objective of NDAMN was to determine background air concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). NDAMN started with 10 sampling sites, adding more over time until the final count of 34 sites was reached by the beginning of 2003. Samples were taken quarterly, and the final sample count was 685. All samples were measured for 17 PCDD/PCDF congeners, 8 PCDD/PCDF homologue groups, and 7 dl-PCBs (note: 5 additional dl-PCBs were added for samples starting in the summer of 2002; 317 samples had measurements of 12 dl-PCBs). The overall average total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in the United States was 11.2 fg TEQ m−3 with dl-PCBs contributing 0.8 fg TEQ m−3 (7%) to this total. The archetype dioxin and furan background air congener profile was seen in the survey averages and in most individual samples. This archetype profile is characterized by low and similar concentrations for tetra – through hexa PCDD/PCDF congeners, with elevations in four congeners – a hepta dioxin and furan congener, and both octa congeners. Sites were generally categorized as urban (4 sites), rural (23 sites), or remote (7 sites). The average TEQ concentrations over all sites and samples within these cat

  8. Modelling the long-term soil response to atmospheric deposition at intensively monitored forest plots in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinds, G.J.; Posch, M.; Vries, de W.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic soil chemistry model SMART was applied to 121 intensive forest monitoring plots (mainly located in western and northern Europe) for which both element input (deposition) and element concentrations in the soil solution were available. After calibration of poorly known parameters, the mode

  9. Designing optimal greenhouse gas monitoring networks for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehn, T.; Law, R. M.; Rayner, P. J.; Roff, G.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric transport inversion is commonly used to infer greenhouse gas (GHG) flux estimates from concentration measurements. The optimal location of ground-based observing stations that supply these measurements can be determined by network design. Here, we use a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to derive optimal GHG observing networks for Australia. This extends the network design for carbon dioxide (CO2) performed by Ziehn et al. (2014) to also minimise the uncertainty on the flux estimates for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), both individually and in a combined network using multiple objectives. Optimal networks are generated by adding up to five new stations to the base network, which is defined as two existing stations, Cape Grim and Gunn Point, in southern and northern Australia respectively. The individual networks for CO2, CH4 and N2O and the combined observing network show large similarities because the flux uncertainties for each GHG are dominated by regions of biologically productive land. There is little penalty, in terms of flux uncertainty reduction, for the combined network compared to individually designed networks. The location of the stations in the combined network is sensitive to variations in the assumed data uncertainty across locations. A simple assessment of economic costs has been included in our network design approach, considering both establishment and maintenance costs. Our results suggest that, while site logistics change the optimal network, there is only a small impact on the flux uncertainty reductions achieved with increasing network size.

  10. Designing optimal greenhouse gas monitoring networks for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ziehn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric transport inversion is commonly used to infer greenhouse gas (GHG flux estimates from concentration measurements. The optimal location of ground based observing stations that supply these measurements can be determined by network design. Here, we use a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to derive optimal GHG observing networks for Australia. This extends the network design for carbon dioxide (CO2 performed by Ziehn et al. (2014 to also minimize the uncertainty on the flux estimates for methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, both individually and in a combined network using multiple objectives. Optimal networks are generated by adding up to 5 new stations to the base network, which is defined as two existing stations, Cape Grim and Gunn Point, in southern and northern Australia respectively. The individual networks for CO2, CH4 and N2O and the combined observing network show large similarities because the flux uncertainties for each GHG are dominated by regions of biologically productive land. There is little penalty, in terms of flux uncertainty reduction, for the combined network compared to individually designed networks. The location of the stations in the combined network is sensitive to variations in the assumed data uncertainty across locations. A simple assessment of economic costs has been included in our network design approach, considering both establishment and maintenance costs. Our results suggest that while site logistics change the optimal network, there is only a small impact on the flux uncertainty reductions achieved with increasing network size.

  11. Electrochemical deposition of Te adlayers onto 3D networks of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes de Oca, Maria G. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantocks Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Fermin, David J., E-mail: David.Fermin@bristol.ac.u [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantocks Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    The controlled electrochemical deposition of atomic layers of Te onto 3D assemblies of Au nanoparticles in acid solution is reported for the first time. Citrated stabilized Au particles of 19.3 {+-} 1.2 nm diameter were assembled into two- and three-dimensional networks via electrostatic layer-by-layer adsorption employing poly-L-lysine (PLL) on In-doped SnO{sub 2} (ITO) electrodes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical measurements showed that the 3D assemblies consist of an open network of electrically interconnected nanoparticles. Electrochemical studies in the presence of TeO{sub 2} show two distinct features associated with one and two atomic adlayers of Te selectively deposited onto the Au nanocrystals. Detailed analysis of the electrochemical responses as a function of the surface corrugation showed that the average Te coverage on a single Au nanoparticle is close to those observed on extended Au surfaces. The results demonstrate that the surface composition of each individual particle in the 3D assembly can be electrochemically modified at the atomic level. The implications of these findings for the design of electrocatalytically active ultrathin composites are briefly discussed.

  12. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary: Sanctuary Integrated Monitoring Network (SIMoN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sanctuary Integrated Monitoring Network (SIMoN) is an integrated, long-term program that takes an ecosystem approach to identify and understand changes to the...

  13. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, July--September 1993: Volume 13, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1993-11-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facilities throughout the country for the third quarter of 1993.

  14. Monitoring crop cycles by SAR using a neural network trained by a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Frate, F.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Guerriero, L.; Strozzi, T.; Wegmüller, U.; Cookmartin, G.; Quegan, S.

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm, based on an electromagnetic model and a neural network, aimed at monitoring the multitemporal evolution of wheat fields, is described. Three different sites are used to validate the model, provide reference ground data, and test the algorithm.

  15. Albemarle Sound demonstration study of the national monitoring network for US coastal waters and their tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Moorman; Sharon Fitzgerald; Keith Loftin; Elizabeth Fensin

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) is implementing a demonstration project in the Albemarle Sound for the National Monitoring Network for U.S. coastal waters and their tributaries. The goal of the National Monitoring Network is to provide information about the health of our oceans and coastal ecosystems and inland influences on coastal waters for improved resource...

  16. Remote Multimedia Monitoring System Based on Embedded Web Server for Networked Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEDeqiang; YANGYu; 等

    2002-01-01

    A new-style remote monitoring system is propsed.which is based on enterprises' embedded wed servers and can be widely used in enterprises' networked manufactureing systems.The principle and characteristics of remote monitoring system based on embedded web server are analyzed.Such a kind of system for networked manufacturing is designed ,and it proves efficient and feasible in promoting communication among enterprises,improving designing and scheduling,decreasing facility failure and reducing product cost.

  17. [Design and application of user managing system of cardiac remote monitoring network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shouqiang; Zhang, Jianmin; Yuan, Feng; Gao, Haiqing

    2007-12-01

    According to inpatient records, data managing demand of cardiac remote monitoring network and computer, this software was designed with relative database ACCESS. Its interface, operational button and menu were designed in VBA language assistantly. Its design included collective design, amity, practicability and compatibility. Its function consisted of registering, inquiring, statisticing and printing, et al. It could be used to manage users effectively and could be helpful to exerting important action of cardiac remote monitoring network in preventing cardiac-vascular emergency ulteriorly.

  18. Investigations of high mobility single crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond for radiotherapy photon beam monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromson, D.; Descamps, C.; Tranchant, N.; Bergonzo, P.; Nesladek, M.; Isambert, A.

    2008-03-01

    The intrinsic properties of diamond make this material theoretically very suitable for applications in medical physics. Until now ionization chambers have been fabricated from natural stones and are commercialized by PTW, but their fairly high costs and long delivery times have often limited their use in hospital. The properties of commercialized intrinsic polycrystalline diamond were investigated in the past by many groups. The results were not completely satisfactory due to the nature of the polycrystalline material itself. In contrast, the recent progresses in the growth of high mobility single crystal synthetic diamonds prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique offer new alternatives. In the framework of the MAESTRO project (Methods and Advanced Treatments and Simulations for Radio Oncology), the CEA-LIST is studying the potentialities of synthetic diamond for new techniques of irradiation such as intensity modulated radiation therapy. In this paper, we present the growth and characteristics of single crystal diamond prepared at CEA-LIST in the framework of the NoRHDia project (Novel Radiation Hard CVD Diamond Detector for Hadrons Physics), as well as the investigations of high mobility single crystal CVD diamond for radiotherapy photon beam monitoring: dosimetric analysis performed with the single crystal diamond detector in terms of stability and repeatability of the response signal, signal to noise ratio, response speed, linearity of the signal versus the absorbed dose, and dose rate. The measurements performed with photon beams using radiotherapy facilities demonstrate that single crystal CVD diamond is a good alternative for air ionization chambers for beam quality control.

  19. Plan for a groundwater monitoring network in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shiang-Kueen

    In Taiwan, rapid economic growth, rising standards of living, and an altered societal structure have in recent years put severe demands on water supplies. Because of its stable quantity and quality, groundwater has long been a reliable source of water for domestic, agricultural, and industrial users, but the establishment of a management program that integrates groundwater and surface-water use has been hampered by the lack of groundwater data. In 1992, the Department of Water Resources (DWR) initiated a program entitled "Groundwater Monitoring Network Plan in Taiwan." Under this program, basic groundwater data, including water-level and water-quality data, are being collected, and a reliable database is being established for the purpose of managing total water resources. This paper introduces the goals, implementation stages, and scope of that plan. The plan calls for constructing 517 hydrogeologic survey stations and 990 groundwater monitoring wells within 17 years. Under this program, water-level fluctuations are continuously monitored, whereas water-quality samples are taken for analysis only at the initial drilling stage and, subsequently, at the time when a monitoring well is being serviced. In 1996, the DWR and the Water Resources Planning Commission were merged to form today's Water Resources Bureau. Résumé A Taïwan, l'expansion économique rapide, l'amélioration des conditions de vie et la transformation de la structure sociale ont provoqué, ces dernières années, une très forte demande en eau. Du fait de sa constance en qualité et en quantité, l'eau souterraine a longtemps été considérée comme une ressource en eau sûre pour les usages domestiques, agricoles et industriels. Mais la mise en place d'un programme de gestion intégrant les utilisations d'eaux souterraines et de surface a été gênée par l'absence de données sur les eaux souterraines. En 1992, le Département des Ressources en Eau a lancé le programme "Plan pour un réseau de

  20. Complex network theory, streamflow, and hydrometric monitoring system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, M. J.; Fleming, S. W.

    2015-07-01

    Network theory is applied to an array of streamflow gauges located in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia (BC) and Yukon, Canada. The goal of the analysis is to assess whether insights from this branch of mathematical graph theory can be meaningfully applied to hydrometric data, and, more specifically, whether it may help guide decisions concerning stream gauge placement so that the full complexity of the regional hydrology is efficiently captured. The streamflow data, when represented as a complex network, have a global clustering coefficient and average shortest path length consistent with small-world networks, which are a class of stable and efficient networks common in nature, but the observed degree distribution did not clearly indicate a scale-free network. Stability helps ensure that the network is robust to the loss of nodes; in the context of a streamflow network, stability is interpreted as insensitivity to station removal at random. Community structure is also evident in the streamflow network. A network theoretic community detection algorithm identified separate communities, each of which appears to be defined by the combination of its median seasonal flow regime (pluvial, nival, hybrid, or glacial, which in this region in turn mainly reflects basin elevation) and geographic proximity to other communities (reflecting shared or different daily meteorological forcing). Furthermore, betweenness analyses suggest a handful of key stations which serve as bridges between communities and might be highly valued. We propose that an idealized sampling network should sample high-betweenness stations, small-membership communities which are by definition rare or undersampled relative to other communities, and index stations having large numbers of intracommunity links, while retaining some degree of redundancy to maintain network robustness.

  1. The Distributed Network Monitoring Model with Bounded Delay Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-hui; YIN Jian-ping; LU Xi-cheng; CAI Zhi-ping; ZHAO Jian-min

    2004-01-01

    We address the problem of optimizing a distributed monitoring system and the goal of the optimization is to reduce the cost of deployment of the monitoring infrastructure by identifying a minimum aggregating set subject to delay constraint on the aggregating path. We show that this problem is NP-hard and propose approximation algorithm proving the approximation ratio with ln m+1, where is the number of monitoring nodes. At last we extend our modal with more constraint of bounded delay variation.

  2. Groundwater Monitoring Network Design Using a Space-Filling/ Bias-Reduction Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, T.; Singh, A.; Kelley, V.; Deeds, N.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater monitoring network design is one of the primary goals of groundwater management. In this study, a heuristic method for selecting wells to monitor groundwater flow is developed. The approach selects wells to a) maximize spread within the monitoring area (space-filling objective), b) reduce bias in estimate of groundwater level (drawdown objective) by selecting pairs of well proximal and distant from pumping areas. By selecting pairs of monitoring wells, this method is able to capture the largest and smallest drawdown in the study area while ensuring the newly added monitoring wells are at the greatest distance from existing monitoring wells. One of the advantages of this method is that it does not require water level information, obtained either from field measurements or groundwater model runs, which might be unavailable at the time of the monitoring network design; instead, this method utilizes pumping rates and locations thus can take future planning into consideration. If water level data is available then that may be included by considering it in the drawdown objective. A FORTRAN code is developed to implement this method. By changing the weighting factors, users have the flexibility on deciding the importance of pumping and spatial information to their network designs. The method has been successfully applied to monitoring network design in Upper Trinity County Groundwater Conservation District in Texas. Monitoring wells were selected from thousands of existing wells and added to the current monitoring network. The results support the decision maker on the number and distribution of a new groundwater network using existing wells. The study can be extended to improve the application of desired future condition (DFC) for Groundwater Conservation Districts in Texas.

  3. Complex networks, streamflow, and hydrometric monitoring system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, M.; Fleming, S.

    2014-12-01

    Network theory is applied to an array of streamflow gauges located in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and Yukon, Canada. The goal of the analysis is to assess whether insights from this branch of mathematical graph theory can be meaningfully applied to hydrometric data, and more specifically, whether it may help guide decisions concerning stream gauge placement so that the full complexity of the regional hydrology is efficiently captured. The streamflow data, when represented as a complex network, has a global clustering coefficient and average shortest path length consistent with small-world networks, which are a class of stable and efficient networks common in nature, but the results did not clearly suggest a scale-free network. Stability helps ensure that the network is robust to the loss of nodes; in the context of a streamflow network, stability is interpreted as insensitivity to station removal at random. Community structure is also evident in the streamflow network. A community detection algorithm identified 10 separate communities, each of which appears to be defined by the combination of its median seasonal flow regime (pluvial, nival, hybrid, or glacial, which in this region in turn mainly reflects basin elevation) and geographic proximity to other communities (reflecting shared or different daily meteorological forcing). Betweenness analyses additionally suggest a handful of key stations which serve as bridges between communities and might therefore be highly valued. We propose that an idealized sampling network should sample high-betweenness stations, as well as small-membership communities which are by definition rare or undersampled relative to other communities, while retaining some degree of redundancy to maintain network robustness.

  4. Complex networks, streamflow, and hydrometric monitoring system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Halverson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Network theory is applied to an array of streamflow gauges located in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and Yukon, Canada. The goal of the analysis is to assess whether insights from this branch of mathematical graph theory can be meaningfully applied to hydrometric data, and more specifically, whether it may help guide decisions concerning stream gauge placement so that the full complexity of the regional hydrology is efficiently captured. The streamflow data, when represented as a complex network, has a global clustering coefficient and average shortest path length consistent with small-world networks, which are a class of stable and efficient networks common in nature, but the results did not clearly suggest a scale-free network. Stability helps ensure that the network is robust to the loss of nodes; in the context of a streamflow network, stability is interpreted as insensitivity to station removal at random. Community structure is also evident in the streamflow network. A community detection algorithm identified 10 separate communities, each of which appears to be defined by the combination of its median seasonal flow regime (pluvial, nival, hybrid, or glacial, which in this region in turn mainly reflects basin elevation and geographic proximity to other communities (reflecting shared or different daily meteorological forcing. Betweenness analyses additionally suggest a handful of key stations which serve as bridges between communities and might therefore be highly valued. We propose that an idealized sampling network should sample high-betweenness stations, as well as small-membership communities which are by definition rare or undersampled relative to other communities, while retaining some degree of redundancy to maintain network robustness.

  5. Provincial soil-quality monitoring networks in the Netherlands as an instrument for environmental protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busink, E.R.V.; Postma, S.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1991, several provinces in the Netherlands have put much effort in establishing soil-quality monitoring networks. The purpose of these networks is to provide insight in the trends in (geochemical) soil quality, on which new policies for environmental protection can be based, such as restrictio

  6. Structural health monitoring with a wireless vibration sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Sas, P; Schiphorst, F.B.A.; Jonckheere, S.; Moens, D.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced maintenance strategies for infrastructure assets such as bridges or off shore wind turbines require actual and reliable information of the maintenance status. Structural health monitoring based on vibration sensing can help in supplying the input needed for structural health monitoring appl

  7. Structural health monitoring with a wireless vibration sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Sas, P; Schiphorst, F.B.A.; Jonckheere, S.; Moens, D.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced maintenance strategies for infrastructure assets such as bridges or off shore wind turbines require actual and reliable information of the maintenance status. Structural health monitoring based on vibration sensing can help in supplying the input needed for structural health monitoring

  8. Structural health monitoring with a wireless vibration sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Schiphorst, F.B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced maintenance strategies for infrastructure assets such as bridges or off shore wind turbines require actual and reliable information of the maintenance status. Structural health monitoring based on vibration sensing can help in supplying the input needed for structural health monitoring appl

  9. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  11. QoS-aware precautionary performance monitoring for PCE-based coherent optical OFDM networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueming Lu; Lianxing Hou

    2012-01-01

    A quality-of-service (QoS) aware scheme,called precautionary performance monitoring,is proposed to solve the optical impairments and congestion control in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (CO-OFDM) networks.The centralized path computation element (PCE) extensions based on the QoS level are applied to optical performance monitoring in this letter.

  12. Wireless sensor network for helicopter rotor blade vibration monitoring: Requirements definition and technological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Das, Kallol; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Havinga, Paul; Basu, Biswajit

    2013-01-01

    The main rotor accounts for the largest vibration source for a helicopter fuselage and its components. However, accurate blade monitoring has been limited due to the practical restrictions on instrumenting rotating blades. The use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for real time vibration monitoring

  13. Operation and performance of a National Monitoring Network for Radioactivity in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandhoff, P.N.; Bourgondiën, van M.J.; Onstenk, C.G.M.; Vos van Avezathe, A.; Peters, R.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the EU-mandated nationwide monitoring programme and emergency response plan for radioactivity in food is implemented by RIKILT (the Dutch institute for food safety) by means of the National Monitoring Network for Radioactivity in Food (LMRV). The LMRV consists of 48 individual

  14. A motivational health companion in the home as part of an intelligent health monitoring sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, V.; Wildvuur, S.; Kröse, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes our work in progress to develop a personal monitoring system that can monitor the physical and emotional condition of a patient by using contextual information from a sensor network, provide the patient with feedback concerning their health status and motivate the patient to ado

  15. Real-time automatic interpolation of ambient gamma dose rates from the Dutch radioactivity monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, P.H.; Pebesma, E.J.; Twenhöfel, C.J.W.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Detection of radiological accidents and monitoring the spread of the contamination is of great importance. Following the Chernobyl accident many European countries have installed monitoring networks to perform this task. Real-time availability of automatically interpolated maps showing the spread of

  16. Monitoring of traffic noise in an urban area using a wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Graafland, F.

    2014-01-01

    Developments in systems for monitoring environmental noise have made it possible to monitor the acoustic situation within large urban areas. The developments in hardware size and costs, combined with the developments in wireless communication allow to deploy networks with many acoustic sensors witho

  17. Operation and performance of a National Monitoring Network for Radioactivity in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandhoff, P.N.; Bourgondiën, van M.J.; Onstenk, C.G.M.; Vos van Avezathe, A.; Peters, R.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the EU-mandated nationwide monitoring programme and emergency response plan for radioactivity in food is implemented by RIKILT (the Dutch institute for food safety) by means of the National Monitoring Network for Radioactivity in Food (LMRV). The LMRV consists of 48 individual

  18. Sensor Networks Hierarchical Optimization Model for Security Monitoring in High-Speed Railway Transport Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the sensor networks hierarchical optimization problem in high-speed railway transport hub (HRTH. The sensor networks are optimized from three hierarchies which are key area sensors optimization, passenger line sensors optimization, and whole area sensors optimization. Case study on a specific HRTH in China showed that the hierarchical optimization method is effective to optimize the sensor networks for security monitoring in HRTH.

  19. Synthesize, optimize, analyze, repeat (SOAR): Application of neural network tools to ECG patient monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrous, R.; Towell, G.; Glassman, M.S. [Siemens Corporate Research, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Results are reported from the application of tools for synthesizing, optimizing and analyzing neural networks to an ECG Patient Monitoring task. A neural network was synthesized from a rule-based classifier and optimized over a set of normal and abnormal heartbeats. The classification error rate on a separate and larger test set was reduced by a factor of 2. When the network was analyzed and reduced in size by a factor of 40%, the same level of performance was maintained.

  20. Parametric study of self-forming ZnO Nanowall network with honeycomb structure by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    El Zein, B.

    2014-02-01

    The successful synthesis of catalyst free zinc oxide (ZnO) Nanowall networks with honeycomb like structure by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is demonstrated in this paper. The synthesis was conducted directly on Silicon (Si) (1 0 0) and Glass-ITO substrates without the intermediate of metal catalyst, template or chemical etching. Kinetic of growth and effects of gas pressure and substrate temperature were studied by depositing ZnO films on P type Si (1 0 0) substrates with different deposition parameters. The optimized growth parameters were found as: 10 mTorr oxygen pressure, 600 C substrate temperature, and deposition duration equal or higher than 10 min. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were used to investigate structural, microstructural and optical properties of ZnO Nanowall networks produced. They exhibit a non-uniform size high quality honeycomb structure with low deep level defects. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Application network for monitoring of green house gas emission from lithosphere in Khibina territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavin, Alex; Nivin, Valentin; Litvinov, Artur; Chesalova, Elena; Baskov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    The aim of project is to estimate the contribution of lithospheric flue gas emission of gases CH4, CO2, H2 in the general composition of atmospheric pollution of Arctic zone. The main task is organization of the ecological monitoring in the area of exploitation of large apatite and rare earth ore deposit from Khibine massive on the base of modern WSN (wireless sensor network) technologies. Application network consist from sensors of gas H2, CH4, CO2, complex autonomous equipment for measurement temperature, pressure, humidity and network of telecommunications (used ZigBee protocol). Our project offer technical decisions for experimentally-methodical monitoring network on the base of WSN and the high-sensitive sensors of hydrogen and methane, software and electronic equipment with a transmitter network. This work is the first project in Russia. The advantages of this technology is autonomous work (to several months and more), high-frequency programmable measurement of gas sensor, low cost (on one node of network), possibility to connect to one node of supervision a several types of sensors. And as a result is complex monitoring of environment. It has long been known that the pollution in Arctic Khibine and Lovosero region contains unusually high levels of hydrocarbon gases (HCG) [Petersilie,1964]. The presence of these gases has a number of practical implications and it is therefore important to understand their source and distribution. Among alkaline intrusive complexes with high (for magmatic rocks) concentrations of hydrocarbon and hydrogen- hydrocarbon gases occluded as fluid inclusions in minerals. The Khibina and Lovozero massives are well known, as region of spontaneous emissions of these gases from lithosphere [Khitarov et al., 1979; Ikorskii et al., 1992; Beeskow 2007; Nivin 2005, 2009]. The presence of the HCG, however, raises a number of questions and possibilities. It is unclear how homogeneously the HCG are distributed through the complex? What is the

  2. Design and validation of wireless acceleration sensor network for structural health monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yan; Ou Jinping

    2006-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is proposed to monitor the acceleration of structures for the purpose of structural health monitoring of civil engineering structures. Using commercially available parts, several modules are constructed and integrated into complete wireless sensors and base stations. The communication protocol is designed and the fusion arithmetic of the temperature and acceleration is embedded in the wireless sensor node so that the measured acceleration values are more accurate. Measures are adopted to finish energy optimization, which is an important issue for a wireless sensor network. The test is performed on an offshore platform model, and the experimental results are given to show the feasibility of the designed wireless sensor network.

  3. A system for ubiquitous health monitoring in the bedroom via a Bluetooth network and wireless LAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J M; Choi, B H; Seo, J W; Sohn, R H; Ryu, M S; Yi, W; Park, K S

    2004-01-01

    Advances in information technology have enabled ubiquitous health monitoring at home, which is particularly useful for patients, who have to live alone. We have focused on the automatic and unobtrusive measurement of biomedical signals and activities of patients. We have constructed wireless communication networks in order to transfer data. The networks consist of Bluetooth and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). In this paper, we present the concept of a ubiquitous-Bedroom (u-Bedroom) which is a part of a ubiquitous-House (u-House) and we present our systems for ubiquitous health monitoring.

  4. High Accuracy Human Activity Monitoring using Neural network

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Annapurna; Chung, Wan-Young

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the designing of a neural network for the classification of Human activity. A Triaxial accelerometer sensor, housed in a chest worn sensor unit, has been used for capturing the acceleration of the movements associated. All the three axis acceleration data were collected at a base station PC via a CC2420 2.4GHz ISM band radio (zigbee wireless compliant), processed and classified using MATLAB. A neural network approach for classification was used with an eye on theoretical and empirical facts. The work shows a detailed description of the designing steps for the classification of human body acceleration data. A 4-layer back propagation neural network, with Levenberg-marquardt algorithm for training, showed best performance among the other neural network training algorithms.

  5. Pacific Island Network Marine Fish Monitoring Dataset - Transects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic marine community in the Pacific Island Network (PACN) is a complex ecologic system and a diverse taxonomic environment, including algae and corals and...

  6. Monitoring industrial facilities using principles of integration of fiber classifier and local sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotaev, Valery V.; Denisov, Victor M.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Serikova, Mariya G.; Timofeev, Andrey V.

    2015-05-01

    The paper deals with the creation of integrated monitoring systems. They combine fiber-optic classifiers and local sensor networks. These systems allow for the monitoring of complex industrial objects. Together with adjacent natural objects, they form the so-called geotechnical systems. An integrated monitoring system may include one or more spatially continuous fiber-optic classifiers based on optic fiber and one or more arrays of discrete measurement sensors, which are usually combined in sensor networks. Fiber-optic classifiers are already widely used for the control of hazardous extended objects (oil and gas pipelines, railways, high-rise buildings, etc.). To monitor local objects, discrete measurement sensors are generally used (temperature, pressure, inclinometers, strain gauges, accelerometers, sensors measuring the composition of impurities in the air, and many others). However, monitoring complex geotechnical systems require a simultaneous use of continuous spatially distributed sensors based on fiber-optic cable and connected local discrete sensors networks. In fact, we are talking about integration of the two monitoring methods. This combination provides an additional way to create intelligent monitoring systems. Modes of operation of intelligent systems can automatically adapt to changing environmental conditions. For this purpose, context data received from one sensor (e.g., optical channel) may be used to change modes of work of other sensors within the same monitoring system. This work also presents experimental results of the prototype of the integrated monitoring system.

  7. Speech Quality Monitoring in Czech National Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rozhon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with techniques of measuring and assessment of the voice transmitted in IP networks and describes design of quality measurement, which can be used for Cisco Gateways. Cisco gateways send Calculated Planning Impairment Factor in every CDR (Call Detail Record. Our design is based on collection of CDR's, their storing into SQL database and their visualization through web page. This design was implemented and successfully tested in CESNET network.

  8. Ant colony optimization and neural networks applied to nuclear power plant monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gean Ribeiro dos; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Pereira, Iraci Martinez, E-mail: gean@usp.br, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br, E-mail: martinez@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    A recurring challenge in production processes is the development of monitoring and diagnosis systems. Those systems help on detecting unexpected changes and interruptions, preventing losses and mitigating risks. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been extensively used in creating monitoring systems. Usually the ANNs created to solve this kind of problem are created by taking into account only parameters as the number of inputs, outputs, and hidden layers. The result networks are generally fully connected and have no improvements in its topology. This work intends to use an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to create a tuned neural network. The ACO search algorithm will use Back Error Propagation (BP) to optimize the network topology by suggesting the best neuron connections. The result ANN will be applied to monitoring the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN. (author)

  9. Analysis and Distribution of the Rainfall Monitoring Network in a Brazilian Pantanal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Ferreira Cristaldo

    Full Text Available Abstract To better understand drought and flood dynamics in the Pantanal is crucial an adequate hydrometeorological monitoring network. However, few studies have investigated whether the current monitoring systems are suitable in this region. Here, we analyzed the hydrometeorological monitoring network of the Aquidauana region, composed of pluviometric, meteorological and fluviatile gauging stations. We obtained data of all hydrometeorological gauges available in this region to compare with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO recommendation. We found that although the number of stations in operation is satisfactory when compared with that established by the WMO, the network is not satisfactory in the operating stations because of lack of maintenance, thus creating a need for additional stations. This fact was also observed when analyzing the meteorological network. Using remote sensing data may be possible to fill these data gap. However, to improve the knowledge on hydrological processes in this region is still necessary to install additional ground-based stations.

  10. Efficient Collaborative Application Monitoring Scheme for Mobile Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Altshuler, Yaniv; Elovici, Yuval

    2010-01-01

    New operating systems for mobile devices allow their users to download millions of applications created by various individual programmers, some of which may be malicious or flawed. In order to detect that an application is malicious, monitoring its operation in a real environment for a significant period of time is often required. Mobile devices have limited computation and power resources and thus are limited in their monitoring capabilities. In this paper we propose an efficient collaborative monitoring scheme that harnesses the collective resources of many mobile devices, "vaccinating" them against potentially unsafe applications. We suggest a new local information flooding algorithm called "TTL Probabilistic Propagation" (TPP). The algorithm periodically monitors one or more application and reports its conclusions to a small number of other mobile devices, who then propagate this information onwards. The algorithm is analyzed, and is shown to outperform existing state of the art information propagation al...

  11. Southeast Region FY 2011 Inventory and Monitoring Network Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report for Region 4 discusses the goals and objectives of the Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) program for fiscal year 2011. The introduction discusses...

  12. Role of monitoring network in the control management of air quality. An industrial case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbo, G. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Merceology; Fabiano, B.; Ferraiolo, A.; Solisio, C.; Ruaro, R.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality control by a system of monitoring station is indispensable for the environmental protection. Moreover, a monitoring network have not to be only a mere data collection a good air quality control is possible only if the network management allows to prevent unacceptable pollutants level. In other terms, elaboration and interpretation data are fundamental in order to make monitoring system really able for regulations of corrective measures as, for example, the reduction of local emissions. The case of monitoring network run from the Industrial Society CIPA of Siracusa (Italy) is discussed. The management of the data obtained from a continuous survey allows to keep pollutants level below the current limits set down by the Italian law. Furthermore, elaboration of the data allows useful evaluations about atmospheric dispersion phenomena. (author)

  13. NRC TLD direct radiation monitoring network: Progress report, July--September 1997. Volume 17, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1998-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network is operated by the NRC in cooperation with participating states to provide continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. Ambient radiation levels result from naturally occurring radionuclides present in the soil, cosmic radiation constantly bombarding the earth from outer space, and the contribution, if any, from the monitored facilities and other man-made sources. The Network is intended to measure radiation levels during routine facility operations and to establish background radiation levels used to assess the radiological impact of an unusual condition, such as an accident. This report presents the radiation levels measured around all facilities in the Network for the third quarter of 1996. A complete listing of the site facilities monitored is included. In some instances, two power reactor facilities are monitored by the same set of dosimeters (e.g., Kewaunee and Point Beach).

  14. QoS-based management of biomedical wireless sensor networks for patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Carlos; Miranda, Francisco; Ricardo, Manuel; Mendes, Paulo Mateus

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical wireless sensor networks are a key technology to support the development of new applications and services targeting patient monitoring, in particular, regarding data collection for medical diagnosis and continuous health assessment. However, due to the critical nature of medical applications, such networks have to satisfy demanding quality of service requirements, while guaranteeing high levels of confidence and reliability. Such goals are influenced by several factors, where the network topology, the limited throughput, and the characteristics and dynamics of the surrounding environment are of major importance. Harsh environments, as hospital facilities, can compromise the radio frequency communications and, consequently, the network's ability to provide the quality of service required by medical applications. Furthermore, the impact of such environments on the network's performance is hard to manage due to its random and unpredictable nature. Consequently, network planning and management, in general or step-down hospital units, is a very hard task. In such context, this work presents a quality of service based management tool to help healthcare professionals supervising the network's performance and to assist them managing the admission of new sensor nodes (i.e., patients to be monitored) to the biomedical wireless sensor network. The proposed solution proves to be a valuable tool both, to detect and classify potential harmful variations in the quality of service provided by the network, avoiding its degradation to levels where the biomedical signs would be useless; and to manage the admission of new patients to the network.

  15. Prospects for the Development and Application of the Earthquake Monitoring Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xing; Li Shanyou; Li Zuning; Kang Lanchi; Li Jun

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy in China, the seismic network has been changing rapidly, in that the capability of instruments, technological systems and network density are approaching those of developed countries and a large quantity of observation data has been accumulated. How to apply these resources to economic construction and public safety has become an important issue worth studying. In order to improve earthquake prediction and earthquake emergency response, it is suggested in this paper that extracting valuable precursor information, improving earthquake rapid reporting ability and extending rapid intensity reporting function are key issues. Integrating network resources, building unified standards and a multifunction seismic monitoring network are preconditions of establishing a public safety service platform and earthquake observation resources will contribute significantly to the fields of engineering, ocean, meteorology, and environmental protection. Thus, the future directions of the development of the seismic network are exploring monitoring resources, enhancing independent innovation, constructing a technological platform and enlarging the service field.

  16. Design of a perfluorocarbon tracer based monitoring network to support monitoring verification and accounting of sequestered CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, T.; Sullivan, T.

    2013-05-01

    The levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have been growing since the beginning of the industrial revolution. The current level is 391 ppm. If there are no efforts to mitigate CO2 emissions, the levels will rise to 750 ppm by 2100. Geologic carbon sequestration is one strategy that may be used to begin to reduce emissions. Sequestration will not be effective unless reservoir leak rates are significantly less than 1%. There must be rigorous monitoring protocols in place to ensure sequestration projects meet regulatory and environmental goals. Monitoring for CO2 leakage directly is difficult because of the large background levels and variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Using tracers to tag the sequestered CO2 can mitigate some of the difficulties of direct measurement but a tracer monitoring network and the levels of tagging need to be carefully designed. Simple diffusion and dispersion models are used to predict the surface and atmospheric concentrations that would be seen by a network monitoring a sequestration site. Levels of tracer necessary to detect leaks from 0.01 to 1% are presented and suggestions for effective monitoring and protection of global tracer utility are presented.

  17. Design of a perfluorocarbon tracer based monitoring network to support monitoring verification and accounting of sequestered CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan T.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have been growing since the beginning of the industrial revolution. The current level is 391 ppm. If there are no efforts to mitigate CO2 emissions, the levels will rise to 750 ppm by 2100. Geologic carbon sequestration is one strategy that may be used to begin to reduce emissions. Sequestration will not be effective unless reservoir leak rates are significantly less than 1%. There must be rigorous monitoring protocols in place to ensure sequestration projects meet regulatory and environmental goals. Monitoring for CO2 leakage directly is difficult because of the large background levels and variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Using tracers to tag the sequestered CO2 can mitigate some of the difficulties of direct measurement but a tracer monitoring network and the levels of tagging need to be carefully designed. Simple diffusion and dispersion models are used to predict the surface and atmospheric concentrations that would be seen by a network monitoring a sequestration site. Levels of tracer necessary to detect leaks from 0.01 to 1% are presented and suggestions for effective monitoring and protection of global tracer utility are presented.

  18. An Integrated Environment Monitoring System for Underground Coal Mines—Wireless Sensor Network Subsystem with Multi-Parameter Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected.

  19. Monitoring and control systems for low voltage networks; Sistemas de monitoramento e controle para circuitos reticulados de BT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Douglas Alexandre de Andrade; Silva, Humberto A.P.; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baesso [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Pereira, Sergio Luiz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas (PEA); Araujo Filho, Edival Demetrio de [Companhia Energetica de Brasilia (CEB), DF (Brazil)

    2005-09-15

    This paper approaches a solution presented to CEB (Companhia Energetica de Brasilia), oriented to the economic viability of a monitoring system to the CEB low voltage distribution network through the use of a joint platform network protector/monitoring. The project include the reliability and safety standards, making available monitoring data of the transformers and/or feeders and energy quality.

  20. Photocatalytic evaluation of self-assembled porous network structure of ferric oxide film fabricated by dry deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yunchan; Kim, Hyungsub; Lee, Geon-Yong; Pawar, Rajendra C.; Lee, Jai-Sung; Lee, Caroline Sunyong, E-mail: sunyonglee@hanyang.ac.kr

    2016-09-15

    Ferric oxide powder in the alpha phase (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was deposited on an aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrate by a nanoparticle deposition system using the dry deposition method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) images confirmed that the phase of the deposited α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} did not change. The deposited α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was characterized in terms of its microstructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A porous network microstructure formed when small agglomerates of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (SAF) were deposited. The deposition and formation mechanism of the microstructure were investigated using SEM and three-dimensional (3D) profile analysis. First, a dense coating layer formed when the film was thinner than the particle size. After that, as the film thickness increased to over 5 μm, the porous network structure formed by excavating the surface of the coating layer as it was bombarded by particles. Rhodamine B (RhB) was degraded after 6 h of exposure to the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating layer with SAF, which has good photocatalytic activity and a high porous network structure. The kinetic rate constants of the SAF and large agglomerates of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (LAF) were calculated to be 0.197(h{sup −1}) and 0.128(h{sup −1}), respectively, based on the absorbance results. Using linear sweep voltammetry, we confirmed that the photoelectric effect occurred in the coating layer by measuring the resulting current under illuminated and dark conditions. - Graphical abstract: Self-assembled porous photocatalytic film fabricated by dry deposition method for water purification. - Highlights: • Different sizes of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} agglomerates were used to form porous network structure. • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} agglomerate particles were deposited using solvent-free process. • Self-assembled porous network microstructure formed better with small agglomerates of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Fabricated porous network structure showed its potential to be used

  1. Using Wireless Sensor Networks to Achieve Intelligent Monitoring for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghai Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR can incorporate wireless sensor network (WSN technology to improve safety and economic competitiveness. WSN has great potential in monitoring the equipment and processes within nuclear power plants (NPPs. This technology not only reduces the cost of regular monitoring but also enables intelligent monitoring. In intelligent monitoring, large sets of heterogeneous data collected by the WSN can be used to optimize the operation and maintenance of the HTGR. In this paper, WSN-based intelligent monitoring schemes that are specific for applications of HTGR are proposed. Three major concerns regarding wireless technology in HTGR are addressed: wireless devices interference, cybersecurity of wireless networks, and wireless standards selected for wireless platform. To process nonlinear and non-Gaussian data obtained by WSN for fault diagnosis, novel algorithms combining Kernel Entropy Component Analysis (KECA and support vector machine (SVM are developed.

  2. Performance assessment of air quality monitoring networks using principal component analysis and cluster analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Zhen [Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong (China); He, Hong-Di [Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong (China); Logistics Research Center, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai (China); Dong, Li-yun [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai (China)

    2011-03-15

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of two statistical methods, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, for the management of air quality monitoring network of Hong Kong and the reduction of associated expenses. The specific objectives include: (i) to identify city areas with similar air pollution behavior; and (ii) to locate emission sources. The statistical methods were applied to the mass concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), respirable suspended particulates (RSP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), collected in monitoring network of Hong Kong from January 2001 to December 2007. The results demonstrate that, for each pollutant, the monitoring stations are grouped into different classes based on their air pollution behaviors. The monitoring stations located in nearby area are characterized by the same specific air pollution characteristics and suggested with an effective management of air quality monitoring system. The redundant equipments should be transferred to other monitoring stations for allowing further enlargement of the monitored area. Additionally, the existence of different air pollution behaviors in the monitoring network is explained by the variability of wind directions across the region. The results imply that the air quality problem in Hong Kong is not only a local problem mainly from street-level pollutions, but also a region problem from the Pearl River Delta region. (author)

  3. Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks in Marine Environment Monitoring: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobao Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of society and the economy, an increasing number of human activities have gradually destroyed the marine environment. Marine environment monitoring is a vital problem and has increasingly attracted a great deal of research and development attention. During the past decade, various marine environment monitoring systems have been developed. The traditional marine environment monitoring system using an oceanographic research vessel is expensive and time-consuming and has a low resolution both in time and space. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have recently been considered as potentially promising alternatives for monitoring marine environments since they have a number of advantages such as unmanned operation, easy deployment, real-time monitoring, and relatively low cost. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of marine environment monitoring using wireless sensor networks. It first describes application areas, a common architecture of WSN-based oceanographic monitoring systems, a general architecture of an oceanographic sensor node, sensing parameters and sensors, and wireless communication technologies. Then, it presents a detailed review of some related projects, systems, techniques, approaches and algorithms. It also discusses challenges and opportunities in the research, development, and deployment of wireless sensor networks for marine environment monitoring.

  4. Applications of wireless sensor networks in marine environment monitoring: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guobao; Shen, Weiming; Wang, Xianbin

    2014-09-11

    With the rapid development of society and the economy, an increasing number of human activities have gradually destroyed the marine environment. Marine environment monitoring is a vital problem and has increasingly attracted a great deal of research and development attention. During the past decade, various marine environment monitoring systems have been developed. The traditional marine environment monitoring system using an oceanographic research vessel is expensive and time-consuming and has a low resolution both in time and space. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have recently been considered as potentially promising alternatives for monitoring marine environments since they have a number of advantages such as unmanned operation, easy deployment, real-time monitoring, and relatively low cost. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of marine environment monitoring using wireless sensor networks. It first describes application areas, a common architecture of WSN-based oceanographic monitoring systems, a general architecture of an oceanographic sensor node, sensing parameters and sensors, and wireless communication technologies. Then, it presents a detailed review of some related projects, systems, techniques, approaches and algorithms. It also discusses challenges and opportunities in the research, development, and deployment of wireless sensor networks for marine environment monitoring.

  5. An Implementation of Traffic Monitoring for UNIX Network Performance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    plttsr->network-node~network-node~plttsr); new_node,_recjpltlsr->trafflc_info nr-rewremc..plttsr, * new-node_rec~plutsr->next;=NULL; if (head- nodej -ec...plttsr); free(new nodejrec~plttsr); free(cur _node__rec..plttsr); displayjlong-term-statisticsý-report(head_node-rec-dltsr.tail- nodej -ec~dltsr) long~ern...NULL) head- nodej - ec..pltutrrnew node-rec-plttrrn tail-node-re4cplttri-new node-rec-plttrr else tail-node-rec-plttr->next=new node_rec-plttrrn 265

  6. GLRT Based Anomaly Detection for Sensor Network Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-12-07

    Proper operation of antenna arrays requires continuously monitoring their performances. When a fault occurs in an antenna array, the radiation pattern changes and can significantly deviate from the desired design performance specifications. In this paper, the problem of fault detection in linear antenna arrays is addressed within a statistical framework. Specifically, a statistical fault detection method based on the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) principle is utilized for detecting potential faults in linear antenna arrays. The proposed method relies on detecting deviations in the radiation pattern of the monitored array with respect to a reference (fault-free) one. To assess the abilities of the GLR based fault detection method, three case studies involving different types of faults have been performed. The simulation results clearly illustrate the effectiveness of the GLR-based fault detection method in monitoring the performance of linear antenna arrays.

  7. Design of water quality monitoring networks with two information scenarios in tropical Andean basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Juan Carlos; Vélez, Jorge Julián; Zambrano, Jeannette; Londoño, Adela

    2017-04-21

    Design and redesign of water quality monitoring networks were evaluated for two similarly sized watersheds in the tropical Andes via optimization techniques using geographic information system technology (GIS) and a matter-element analysis of 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and total suspended solids (TSS). This resulted in a flexible, objectively based design for a 1128-km(2) watershed without prior water quality data (La Miel River), and a network redesign of a 1052-km(2) watershed with historical water quality monitoring (Chinchiná River). Monitoring design for the undocumented basin incorporated mathematical expressions for physical, anthropological, and historical factors-and was based on clear objectives for diagnosis and intervention of water pollution. Network redesign identified network redundancy, which resulted in a 64% reduction in the number of water quality monitoring stations along the channel, and a 78% reduction of stations throughout the basin. Most tropical drainage basins throughout the world have little to no prior water quality data. But even in well-studied drainage basins like the Chinchiná River, which is among the most thoroughly studied basins in Colombia, redesign of historical and existing monitoring networks will become a standard tool to advance the restoration of polluted surface waters, not only in Colombia, but also throughout the world.

  8. Dynamic groundwater monitoring networks: a manageable method for reviewing sampling frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau-Fournier, Magali F; Daughney, Christopher J

    2012-12-01

    Optimization of a water quality network through a change in sampling frequency is the only way to increase cost-efficiency without any reduction in the robustness of the data. Existing techniques define optimal sampling frequency based on analysis of historical data from the monitoring network under investigation. Their application to a large network comprised of many sites and many monitored parameters is both technical and challenging. This paper presents a simple non-parametric method for reviewing sampling frequency that is consistent with highly censored environmental data and oriented towards reduction of sampling frequency as a cost-saving measure. Based on simple descriptive statistics, the method is applicable to large networks with long time series and many monitored parameters. The method also provides metrics for interpretation of newly collected data, which enables identification of sites for which a future change in sampling frequency may be necessary, ensuring that the monitoring network is both current and adaptive. Application of this method to the New Zealand National Groundwater Monitoring Programme indicates that reduction of sampling frequency at any site would result in a significant loss of information. This paper also discusses the potential for reducing analysis frequency as an alternative to reduction of sampling frequency.

  9. Wireless Industrial Monitoring and Control Networks: The Journey So Far and the Road Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Havinga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While traditional wired communication technologies have played a crucial role in industrial monitoring and control networks over the past few decades, they are increasingly proving to be inadequate to meet the highly dynamic and stringent demands of today’s industrial applications, primarily due to the very rigid nature of wired infrastructures. Wireless technology, however, through its increased pervasiveness, has the potential to revolutionize the industry, not only by mitigating the problems faced by wired solutions, but also by introducing a completely new class of applications. While present day wireless technologies made some preliminary inroads in the monitoring domain, they still have severe limitations especially when real-time, reliable distributed control operations are concerned. This article provides the reader with an overview of existing wireless technologies commonly used in the monitoring and control industry. It highlights the pros and cons of each technology and assesses the degree to which each technology is able to meet the stringent demands of industrial monitoring and control networks. Additionally, it summarizes mechanisms proposed by academia, especially serving critical applications by addressing the real-time and reliability requirements of industrial process automation. The article also describes certain key research problems from the physical layer communication for sensor networks and the wireless networking perspective that have yet to be addressed to allow the successful use of wireless technologies in industrial monitoring and control networks.

  10. Progresses in Key Technologies of China's Multimedia and Monitoring Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Sponsored by 3 funds from NSFC,the project team led by Prof.Ruimin Hu,the director of National Engineering Research Center for Multimedia Software,has explored their research in voice/video compressed coding,dynamic coding translation and format translation (between different coding protocols),as well as Qos mechanism in heterogenic network environment.

  11. Acoustic monitoring of terrorist intrusion in a drinking water network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Sheldon-Robert, M.K.; Vloerbergh, I.N.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2009-01-01

    In collaboration with Kiwa Water Research, TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) has investigated the possibilities to detect and classify aberrant sounds in water networks, using acoustic sensors. Amongst the sources of such sounds are pumps, drills, mechanical impacts, whi

  12. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network, 2002-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Burke, Kevin P.

    2005-01-01

    Six external quality-assurance programs were operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) External Quality-Assurance (QA) Project for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) from 2002 through 2003. Each program measured specific components of the overall error inherent in NADP/NTN wet-deposition measurements. The intersite-comparison program assessed the variability and bias of pH and specific conductance determinations made by NADP/NTN site operators twice per year with respect to accuracy goals. The percentage of site operators that met the pH accuracy goals decreased from 92.0 percent in spring 2002 to 86.3 percent in spring 2003. In these same four intersite-comparison studies, the percentage of site operators that met the accuracy goals for specific conductance ranged from 94.4 to 97.5 percent. The blind-audit program and the sample-handling evaluation (SHE) program evaluated the effects of routine sample handling, processing, and shipping on the chemistry of weekly NADP/NTN samples. The blind-audit program data indicated that the variability introduced by sample handling might be environmentally significant to data users for sodium, potassium, chloride, and hydrogen ion concentrations during 2002. In 2003, the blind-audit program was modified and replaced by the SHE program. The SHE program was designed to control the effects of laboratory-analysis variability. The 2003 SHE data had less overall variability than the 2002 blind-audit data. The SHE data indicated that sample handling buffers the pH of the precipitation samples and, in turn, results in slightly lower conductivity. Otherwise, the SHE data provided error estimates that were not environmentally significant to data users. The field-audit program was designed to evaluate the effects of onsite exposure, sample handling, and shipping on the chemistry of NADP/NTN precipitation samples. Field-audit results indicated that exposure of NADP/NTN wet-deposition samples

  13. On-line monitoring of polymer deposition for tailoring the waveguide characteristics of love-wave biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Florian; Länge, Kerstin; Barié, Nicole; Kondoh, Jun; Rapp, Michael

    2004-03-16

    The Love-wave sensor is an acoustic sensing device which is particularly suitable for sensing in a liquid environment. The superior characteristics of the device are achieved by the use of an acoustic waveguide, consisting of a thin layer deposited on the surface of the substrate material. The exact thickness and material properties of the layer will not only determine sensitivity and sensing performance of the resulting device but can also be adjusted to generate higher-order Love modes. Thus, to obtain a sensing device with the desired specifications, precise control over the process of waveguide deposition is required. This has been realized by implementation of a vapor deposition polymerization system where the transmission curve (amplitude vs frequency) of one of the sensing devices is continuously monitored during deposition. As soon as the desired device specifications are reached, the deposition can be interrupted immediately. From the recorded transmission curves, information about the sensitivity of the device can be deduced, and the formation of higher-order Love modes can be visualized. The system has been used to produce biosensors based on various Love modes. It is shown that sensors operated on higher-order Love modes have a high mass sensitivity which, together with their excellent shielding properties, makes them advantageous for biosensing in conducting buffer solutions.

  14. Current state and temporal evolution of the chemical composition of atmospheric depositions in forest areas of the CONECOFOR network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetto A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Current state and temporal evolution of the chemical composition of atmospheric depositions in forest areas of the CONECOFOR network. Since 1997, atmospheric deposition was sampled and analyzed in the permanent plots of the Italian network for the evaluation of forest health (CONECOFOR, under the coordination of the Italian Forest Service. This paper presents the results of the activity carried out in 2009, when the EU-funded LIFE+ “FutMon” project allowed to extend the sampling network to 22 sites. Long-term trends will also be evaluated for the sampling sites with the longest time series. The sampling of open field bulk deposition was performed in a clearance close to the CONECOFOR permanent plots, while throughfall deposition and stemflow (in beech stand, only were sampled in the plot. Deposition samples were collected weekly and sent to the laboratories, where they were analyzed for pH, conductivity, major ions, and total carbon and nitrogen. Most measured variables showed a strong geographical gradient. For example, nitrogen deposition was relatively high in the Po plain (where the emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia are the highest and surrounding hills, reaching 10-20 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the open field and 13-25 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the throughfall. Sulphate deposition also showed a marked geographical gradient. Deposition of marine aerosol also had an important impact on the chemical composition of atmospheric deposition in Italy, together with the episodic deposition of Saharan dust, which showed a marked gradient, with highest values in the southernmost plots. Trend analysis was carried out on 10 sites running since the beginning of the program. A general negative trend in sulphate concentration was detected, paralleled in most plots by a positive trend in deposition pH, in good agreement with the strong reduction in the emission of sulphur dioxide recorded in the last decades. Nitrogen concentration also showed a significant decrease

  15. Analysis of the Pyroclastic Flow Deposits of Mount Sinabung and Merapi Using Landsat Imagery and the Artificial Neural Networks Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Riza Kadavi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions cause pyroclastic flows, which can destroy plantations and settlements. We used image data from Landsat 7 Bands 7, 4 and 2 and Landsat 8 Bands 7, 5 and 3 to observe and analyze the distribution of pyroclastic flow deposits for two volcanos, Mount Sinabung and Merapi, over a period of 10 years (2001–2017. The satellite data are used in conjunction with an artificial neural network method to produce maps of pyroclastic precipitation for Landsat 7 and 8, then we calculated the pyroclastic precipitation area using an artificial neural network method after dividing the images into four classes based on color. Red, green, blue and yellow were used to indicate pyroclastic deposits, vegetation and forest, water and cloud, and farmland, respectively. The area affected by a volcanic eruption was deduced from the neural network processing, including calculating the area of pyroclastic deposits. The main differences between the pyroclastic flow deposits of Mount Sinabung and Mount Merapi are: the sediment deposits of the pyroclastic flows of Mount Sinabung tend to widen, whereas those of Merapi elongated; the direction of pyroclastic flow differed; and the area affected by an eruption was greater for Mount Merapi than Mount Sinabung because the VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index during the last 10 years of Mount Merapi was larger than Mount Sinabung.

  16. Wildlife conservation and rail track monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2014-01-01

    n this paper we put forward an approach, first of its kind, to collectively address conservation of elephants by preventing their death being overrun by trains and monitoring the integrity of the rail track. It utilizes a unique method for deterring the elephants using infrasonic sound from...

  17. Enhanced Multi-Objective Optimization of Groundwater Monitoring Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bode, Felix; Binning, Philip John; Nowak, Wolfgang

    Drinking-water well catchments include many sources for potential contaminations like gas stations or agriculture. Finding optimal positions of monitoring wells for such purposes is challenging because there are various parameters (and their uncertainties) that influence the reliability and optim...

  18. Implementation of an energy-efficient scheduling scheme based on pipeline flux leak monitoring networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Peng; YAO JiangHe; PEI JiuLing

    2009-01-01

    Flow against pipeline leakage and the pipe network sudden burst pipe to pipeline leakage flow for the application objects,an energy-efficient real-time scheduling scheme is designed extensively used in pipeline leak monitoring.The proposed scheme can adaptively adjust the network rate in real-time and reduce the cell loss rate,so that it can efficiently avoid the traffic congestion.The recent evolution of wireless sensor networks has yielded a demand to improve energy-efficient scheduling algorithms and energy-efficient medium access protocols.This paper proposes an energy-efficient real-time scheduling scheme that reduces power consumption and network errors on pipeline flux leak monitoring networks.The proposed scheme is based on a dynamic modulation scaling scheme which can scale the number of bits per symbol and a switching scheme which can swap the polling schedule between channels.Built on top of EDF scheduling policy,the proposed scheme enhances the power performance without violating the constraints of real-time streams.The simulation results show that the proposed scheme enhances fault-tolerance and reduces power consumption.Furthermore,that Network congestion avoidance strategy with an energy-efficient real-time scheduling scheme can efficiently improve the bandwidth utilization,TCP friendliness and reduce the packet drop rate in pipeline flux leak monitoring networks.

  19. Design of a monitoring network over France in case of a radiological accidental release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Rachid; Bocquet, Marc; Vercauteren, Nikki; Isnard, Olivier

    The Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (France) is planning the set-up of an automatic nuclear aerosol monitoring network over the French territory. Each of the stations will be able to automatically sample the air aerosol content and provide activity concentration measurements on several radionuclides. This should help monitor the French and neighbouring countries nuclear power plants set. It would help evaluate the impact of a radiological incident occurring at one of these nuclear facilities. This paper is devoted to the spatial design of such a network. Here, any potential network is judged on its ability to extrapolate activity concentrations measured on the network stations over the whole domain. The performance of a network is quantitatively assessed through a cost function that measures the discrepancy between the extrapolation and the true concentration fields. These true fields are obtained through the computation of a database of dispersion accidents over one year of meteorology and originating from 20 French nuclear sites. A close to optimal network is then looked for using a simulated annealing optimisation. The results emphasise the importance of the cost function in the design of a network aimed at monitoring an accidental dispersion. Several choices of norm used in the cost function are studied and give way to different designs. The influence of the number of stations is discussed. A comparison with a purely geometric approach which does not involve simulations with a chemistry-transport model is performed.

  20. The Relationship Between Attachment Styles, Self-Monitoring and Cybercrime in Social Network Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoobi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The anonymity in the cyberspace environment, as well as the rapid advent of and improvements to online activities has increased cybercrime. Objectives The aim of this paper was to survey the relationship between attachment styles, self-monitoring and cybercrime in social network users. Patients and Methods The Collins and Read Adult Attachment Scale, and the Snyder self-monitoring and cybercrime scales were sent to 500 social network users. Of these, 203 users (103 men and 100 women filled out the questionnaires. Results The results showed that women achieved higher scores in self-monitoring and the anxious attachment style, and men achieved higher scores in cybercrime and the anxious attachment style. There was a negative correlation between self-monitoring and cybercrime, and the anxious attachment style had a positive correlation with cybercrime and a negative correlation with self-monitoring. The secure attachment style had a positive correlation with self-monitoring and a negative correlation with cybercrime. The dependent attachment style had a positive correlation with self-monitoring and a negative correlation with cybercrime. All correlations were significant. Conclusions Attachment styles have significant relationships with both self-monitoring and cybercrime. Self-monitoring and attachment styles are significant predictors of cybercrimes.

  1. The Routing Algorithm Based on Fuzzy Logic Applied to the Individual Physiological Monitoring Wearable Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Jiang; Yun Liu; Fuxing Song; Ronghao Du; Mengsen Huang

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the research of individual wearable physiological monitoring wireless sensor network is in the primary stage. The monitor of physiology and geographical position used in wearable wireless sensor network requires performances such as real time, reliability, and energy balance. According to these requirements, this paper introduces a design of individual wearable wireless sensor network monitoring system; what is more important, based on this background, this paper improves the...

  2. A Cognitive Approach to Network Monitoring in Heterogeneous Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract— Introducing intelligence by means of cognition for managing, protecting, processing, and delivering of information in mobile communication systems is the way towards ubiquitous, converged and secure communications. In this context, this paper introduces the concept of quality of informa......Abstract— Introducing intelligence by means of cognition for managing, protecting, processing, and delivering of information in mobile communication systems is the way towards ubiquitous, converged and secure communications. In this context, this paper introduces the concept of quality...... is an improved network performance in terms of maximized throughput and faster accessibility to services, minimized transport delay, improved network coverage and simplified security management. This is achieved by introducing an intelligent functionality that entails the use of cognitive learning algorithms...

  3. Circular sensing networks for guided waves based structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandowski, T.; Malinowski, P. H.; Ostachowicz, W. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, results of damage localization performed for four sensing network configurations are compared. Process of damage localization is based on guided waves propagation phenomenon. Guided waves are excited using piezoelectric transducer and received by scanning laser vibrometer. Different excitation frequencies are also investigated. In experimental investigations two types of piezoelectric transducers are used as guided waves exciters. Frequency-magnitude characteristics of symmetric and antisymmetric modes are created for both types of transducers. These characteristics allow a choice of an excitation frequency for efficient generation of selected wave mode. The amplitude of second mode in this case has negligibly small value. Finally, sensing networks in the form of circle with three different diameters are realized based on piezoelectric transducers. Damage localization algorithm is prepared in MATLAB® environment as well as in C++.

  4. Network Monitoring and Diagnosis Based on Available Bandwidth Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    encouragements helped me pass those tough early days in the US. I would also like to thank my officemates Julio Lopez and Rajesh Balan, both system experts. With...tradeoffs of structured overlays in a dynamic non-transitive network. In MIT 6.829 Fall 2003 class project, December 2003. [52] Ramesh Govindan and Vern ...using packet quartets. In ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Workshop 2002, 2002. [92] Vern Paxson. Measurements and Analysis of End-to-End Internet

  5. Topological clustering as a tool for planning water quality monitoring in water distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstein, Jonas Kjeld; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Topological clustering was explored as a tool for water supply utilities in preparation of monitoring and contamination contingency plans. A complex water distribution network model of Copenhagen, Denmark, was simplified by topological clustering into recognizable water movement patterns to: (1......) identify steady clusters for a part of the network where an actual contamination has occurred; (2) analyze this event by the use of mesh diagrams; and (3) analyze the use of mesh diagrams as a decision support tool for planning water quality monitoring. Initially, the network model was divided...... into strongly and weakly connected clusters for selected time periods and mesh diagrams were used for analysing cluster connections in the Nørrebro district. Here, areas of particular interest for water quality monitoring were identified by including user-information about consumption rates and consumers...

  6. IPSN monitoring capabilities and information networks in accidental situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, D.; Robeau, D.

    1992-12-31

    In 1989, a Radiological Transmission and Early Warning System (SYTAR) came into being in order to harmonize radioactivity surveillance methodologies and furthermore to trigger off an alert throughout the networks whenever an unusual degree of radioactivity is detected. SYTAR is a remote permanent system linking up a national electronic access and the radiation protection services of nuclear facilities located on the mainland. The structure of the network are particularly presented in the framework of a drill organized on october 1991 in the south-east of France. During this drill, an accident was simulated on a ghost nuclear power plant located in the Cadarache Nuclear Center. A large number of samples were taken from filtered aerosols, soils, grass, milk, vegetables, food stuff; they were contaminated with Caesium 137 and Iodine 131 before to be sent to laboratories for measurements. The results of measurements were transmitted to the actors of the drill using SYTAR network. They permit to determine the exclusion area, the radiological impacts and counter-measures. (author).

  7. CMOS: Efficient Clustered Data Monitoring in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ki Min

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiny and smart sensors enable applications that access a network of hundreds or thousands of sensors. Thus, recently, many researchers have paid attention to wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The limitation of energy is critical since most sensors are battery-powered and it is very difficult to replace batteries in cases that sensor networks are utilized outdoors. Data transmission between sensor nodes needs more energy than computation in a sensor node. In order to reduce the energy consumption of sensors, we present an approximate data gathering technique, called CMOS, based on the Kalman filter. The goal of CMOS is to efficiently obtain the sensor readings within a certain error bound. In our approach, spatially close sensors are grouped as a cluster. Since a cluster header generates approximate readings of member nodes, a user query can be answered efficiently using the cluster headers. In addition, we suggest an energy efficient clustering method to distribute the energy consumption of cluster headers. Our simulation results with synthetic data demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of our proposed technique.

  8. The development of wireless sensor network for ECG monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun-Liang; Liu, Hsien-Chieh; Tai, Yu-Ting; Wu, Hsin-Hsien; Hsu, Shuo-Jen; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chen, You-Yin

    2006-01-01

    The main problem we want to solve contains two subjects: The first one is the patient's pressure due to wired physiological signal estimation. With wireless sensor network technique, patients only need to carry a few small nodes, and then the physiological signal can be transmitted in the air. The other subject of the vital problem is that some protocols, like Bluetooth, provide a peer to peer wireless communication technique, but such peer to peer network may need a complex algorithm to find the best data transmission path. In this study, we use the hierarchy routing as network topology that three-layer architecture contains PAN coordinator, router and device. The study focuses on implementation of a prototype electrocardiography (ECG) system which replaces wired connections between sensor points and a central node with wireless links. Successful implementation of the final system would be of benefit to all involved in the use of ECG as access to and movement of the patient would not be impeded by the physical constraints imposed by the cables. Most aspects of the design would also be portable to other sensor applications, making the work relevant to a vast range of systems where movement of sensors is desirable and constrained by hard-wired links.

  9. Optimizing streamflow monitoring networks using joint permutation entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosic, Tatijana; Stosic, Borko; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-09-01

    Using joint permutation entropy we address the issue of minimizing the cost of monitoring, while minimizing redundancy of the information content, of daily streamflow data recorded during the period 1989-2016 at twelve gauging stations on Brazos River, Texas, USA. While the conventional entropy measures take into account only the probability of occurrence of a given set of events, permutation entropy also takes into account local ordering of the sequential values, thus enriching the analysis. We find that the best cost efficiency is achieved by performing weekly measurements, in comparison with which daily measurements exhibit information redundancy, and monthly measurements imply information loss. We also find that the cumulative information redundancy of the twelve considered stations is over 10% for the observed period, and that the number of monitoring stations can be reduced by half bringing the cumulative redundancy level to less than 1%.

  10. Spatiotemporal Variability in Potential Evapotranspiration across an Urban Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G. R.; Long, M. R.; Fipps, G.; Swanson, C.; Traore, S.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration in urban and peri-urban environments is difficult to measure and predict. Barriers to accurate assessment include: the wide range of microclimates caused by urban canyons, heat islands, and park cooling; limited instrument fetch; and the patchwork of native soils, engineered soils, and hardscape. These issues combine to make an accurate assessment of the urban water balance difficult, as evapotranspiration calculations require accurate meteorological data. This study examines nearly three years of data collected by a network of 18 weather stations in Dallas, Texas, designed to measure potential evapotranspiration (ETo) in support of the WaterMyYard conservation program (http://WaterMyYard.org). Variability amongst stations peaked during the summer irrigation months, with a maximum standard deviation of 0.3 mm/hr and 4 mm/d. However, we found a significant degree of information overlap in the network. Most stations had a high correlation (>0.75) with at least one other station in the network, and many had a high correlation with at least 10 others. Correlation strength between station ETo measurements did not necessarily decrease with Euclidean distance, as expected, but was more closely related to differences in station elevation and longitude. Stations that had low correlations with others in the network typically had siting and fetch issues. ETo showed a strong temporal persistence; average station autocorrelation was 0.79 at a 1-hour lag and 0.70 at a 24-hour lag. To supplement the larger-scale network data, we deployed a mobile, vehicle-mounted weather station to quantify deviations present in the atmospheric drivers of evapotranspiration: temperature, humidity, wind, and solar radiation. Data were collected at mid-day during the irrigation season. We found differences in mobile and station ETo predictions up to 0.2 mm/hr, primarily driven by wind speed variations. These results suggest that ETo variation at the neighborhood to municipality

  11. Network analytical tool for monitoring global food safety highlights China

    OpenAIRE

    Nepusz, Tamás; Petroczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Beijing Declaration on food safety and security was signed by over fifty countries with the aim of developing comprehensive programs for monitoring food safety and security on behalf of their citizens. Currently, comprehensive systems for food safety and security are absent in many countries, and the systems that are in place have been developed on different principles allowing poor opportunities for integration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a user-friendl...

  12. Bayesian Computational Sensor Networks for Aircraft Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-02

    emissions as well as delamination-dominated and fiber-dominated damage. The three frequency regions identified were 10 - 100 kHz, 100 - 250 kHz, and 250...the RD patterns can be used for Bayesian model accuracy assessment of the difference between a uniform grid layout of the nodes versus an irregular... grid due to error in node placement. SLAMBOT: Structural Health Monitoring Robot using Lamb Waves We developed the combination of a mobile robot and

  13. Condition monitoring of oil-impregnated paper bushings using extension neural network, Gaussian mixture and hidden Markov models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Miya, WS

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparison between Extension Neural Network (ENN), Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Hidden Markov model (HMM) is conducted for bushing condition monitoring. The monitoring process is a two-stage implementation of a classification...

  14. Selective Cluster-Based Temperature Monitoring System for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sudhanshu Tyagi; Sudeep Tanwar; Sumit Kumar Gupta; Neeraj Kumar; Joel JPC Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a revolution in ICT, and this has led to the evolution of wireless sensor networks (WSN), in particular, wireless body area networks. Such networks comprise a specialized collection of sensor nodes (SNs) that may be deployed randomly in a body area network to collect data from the human body. In a health monitoring system, it may be es-sential to maintain constant environmental conditions within a specific area in the hospital. In this paper, we propose a tempera-ture-monitoring system and describe a case study of a health-monitoring system for patents critically ill with the same disease and in the same environment. We propose Enhanced LEACH Selective Cluster (E-LEACH-SC) routing protocol for monitoring the tem-perature of an area in a hospital. We modified existing Selective Cluster LEACH protocol by using a fixed-distance-based thresh-old to divide the coverage region in two subregions. Direct data transmission and selective cluster-based data transmission ap-proaches were used to provide short-range and long-distance coverage for the collection of data from the body of ill patients. Ex-tensive simulations were run by varying the ratio of node densities of the two subregions in the health-monitoring system. Last Node Alive (LNA), which is a measure of network lifespan, was the parameter for evaluating the performance of the proposed scheme. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly increases network lifespan compared with traditional LEACH and LEACH-SC protocols, which by themselves improve the overall performance of the health-monitoring system.

  15. A Wearable Wireless Sensor Network for Indoor Smart Environment Monitoring in Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, Diego; Medrano, Nicolás; Calvo, Belén; Pérez, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a wearable wireless sensor network aimed at monitoring harmful gases in industrial environments. The proposed solution is based on a customized wearable sensor node using a low-power low-rate wireless personal area network (LR-WPAN) communications protocol, which as a first approach measures CO2 concentration, and employs different low power strategies for appropriate energy handling which is essential to achieving long battery life. These wearables nodes are connected to a deployed static network and a web-based application allows data storage, remote control and monitoring of the complete network. Therefore, a complete and versatile remote web application with a locally implemented decision-making system is accomplished, which allows early detection of hazardous situations for exposed workers. PMID:28216556

  16. Study of Fuzzy Neural Networks Model for System Condition Monitoring of AUV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-jia; ZHANG Ming-jun

    2002-01-01

    A structure equivalent model of fuzzy-neural networks for system condition monitoring is proposed, whose outputs are the condition or the degree of fault occurring in some parts of the system. This network is composed of six layers of neurons,which represent the membership functions, fuzzy rules and outputs respectively. The structure parameters and weights are obtained by processing off-line learning, and the fuzzy rules are derived from the experience. The results of the computer simulation for the autonomous underwater vehicle condition monitoring based on this fuzzy-neural networks show that the network is efficient and feasible in gaining the condition information or the degree of fault of the two main propellers.

  17. A Wearable Wireless Sensor Network for Indoor Smart Environment Monitoring in Safety Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Antolín

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of a wearable wireless sensor network aimed at monitoring harmful gases in industrial environments. The proposed solution is based on a customized wearable sensor node using a low-power low-rate wireless personal area network (LR-WPAN communications protocol, which as a first approach measures CO2 concentration, and employs different low power strategies for appropriate energy handling which is essential to achieving long battery life. These wearables nodes are connected to a deployed static network and a web-based application allows data storage, remote control and monitoring of the complete network. Therefore, a complete and versatile remote web application with a locally implemented decision-making system is accomplished, which allows early detection of hazardous situations for exposed workers.

  18. A Wearable Wireless Sensor Network for Indoor Smart Environment Monitoring in Safety Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, Diego; Medrano, Nicolás; Calvo, Belén; Pérez, Francisco

    2017-02-14

    This paper presents the implementation of a wearable wireless sensor network aimed at monitoring harmful gases in industrial environments. The proposed solution is based on a customized wearable sensor node using a low-power low-rate wireless personal area network (LR-WPAN) communications protocol, which as a first approach measures CO₂ concentration, and employs different low power strategies for appropriate energy handling which is essential to achieving long battery life. These wearables nodes are connected to a deployed static network and a web-based application allows data storage, remote control and monitoring of the complete network. Therefore, a complete and versatile remote web application with a locally implemented decision-making system is accomplished, which allows early detection of hazardous situations for exposed workers.

  19. NEMS/CMOS sensor for monitoring deposition rates in stencil lithography

    OpenAIRE

    Sansa, Marc; Arcamone, Julien; Verd, Jaume; Uranga, Arantxa; Abadal, Gabriel; Núria, Barniol; Savu, Veronica; van den Boogaart, Marc; Brugger, Jürgen; Perez-Murano, Francesc

    2009-01-01

    A nanoelectromechanical mass sensor is used to characterize material deposition rates in stencil lithography. The material flux through micron size apertures is mapped with high spatial (below 1 μm) and deposition rate (below 10 pm/s) resolutions by displacing the stencil apertures over the sensor. The sensor is based on a resonating metallic beam (with submicron size width and thickness) monolithically integrated with a CMOS circuit, resulting in a CMOS/NEMS self-oscillator. The sensor is us...

  20. The role of SANSA's geomagnetic observation network in space weather monitoring: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, P. B.; Cilliers, P. J.; Sutcliffe, P. R.

    2015-10-01

    Geomagnetic observations play a crucial role in the monitoring of space weather events. In a modern society relying on the efficient functioning of its technology network such observations are important in order to determine the potential hazard for activities and infrastructure. Until recently, it was the perception that geomagnetic storms had no or very little adverse effect on radio communication and electric power infrastructure at middle- and low-latitude regions like southern Africa. The 2003 Halloween storm changed this perception. In this paper we discuss the role of the geomagnetic observation network operated by the South African National Space Agency (SANSA) in space weather monitoring. The primary objective is to describe the geomagnetic data sets available to characterize and monitor the various types of solar-driven disturbances, with the aim to better understand the physics of these processes in the near-Earth space environment and to provide relevant space weather monitoring and prediction.

  1. The World Neutron Monitor Network as a tool for the study of solar neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Usoskin

    Full Text Available The use of the World Neutron Monitor Network to detect high-energy solar neutrons is discussed in detail. It is shown that the existing network can be used for the routine detection of intense sporadic solar-neutron events whenever they occur. A technique is suggested involving the weighted summation of responses of separate monitors to solar neutrons. It is demonstrated that the use of this method improves the significance of solar-neutron event detection. Different results of the simulation of the neutron-monitor sensitivity to solar neutrons have been tested with respect to their application for practical use. It is shown that the total number of neutrons with energy above 300 MeV injected from the Sun during a solar flare can be estimated directly from the time-integrated neutron-monitor response to solar neutrons without any model assumptions. The estimation technique has been developed.

  2. Developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support integrated coastal management in a multiuser nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim Vugteveen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate the necessary conceptual and strategic elements for developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support Integrated Coastal Management (ICM in a multiuser nature reserve in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. We discuss quality criteria and enabling actions essential to accomplish and sustain monitoring excellence to support ICM. The Wadden Sea Long-Term Ecosystem Research project (WaLTER was initiated to develop an adaptive monitoring network and online data portal to better understand and support ICM in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. Our comprehensive approach integrates ecological and socioeconomic data and links research-driven and policy-driven monitoring for system analysis using indicators of pressures, state, benefits, and responses. The approach and concepts we elaborated are transferable to other coastal regions to accomplish ICM in complex social-ecological systems in which scientists, multisectoral stakeholders, resource managers, and governmental representatives seek to balance long-term ecological, economic, and social objectives within natural limits.

  3. Condition monitoring of planetary gearbox by hardware implementation of artificial neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabrowski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    -stationary conditions and are exposed to extreme events. Also bucket-wheel excavators are equipped with high-power gearboxes that are exposed to shocks. Continuous monitoring of their condition is crucial in view of early failures, and to ensure safety of exploitation. Artificial neural networks allow for a quick...... environmental conditions. In this paper, a hardware implementation of an artificial neural network designed for condition monitoring of a planetary gearbox is presented. The implementation was done on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). It is characterized by much higher efficiency and stability than...

  4. Gradas-EVU - an interactive graphical information and documentation system for monitoring complex medium voltage networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oexl, W.

    1985-02-18

    The interactive graphical information system Gradas-EVU was developed for monitoring and readjusting complex medium voltage networks. The entire system comprises three process computer-controlled work consoles which, for synchronization of the data base, to increase power during high load periods and for breakdown safety, are linked up ringwise. All consoles are on an equal basis in terms of input capacity and in normal operation they display the identical information status. Two of the units are operated exclusively on alert for monitoring and readjusting the network. The third unit possesses additional peripherals and is used as a multi-purpose system.

  5. Coded-subcarrier-aided chromatic dispersion monitoring scheme for flexible optical OFDM networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Kam-Hon; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2014-08-11

    A simple coded-subcarrier aided scheme is proposed to perform chromatic dispersion monitoring in flexible optical OFDM networks. A pair of coded label subcarriers is added to both edges of the optical OFDM signal spectrum at the edge transmitter node. Upon reception at any intermediate or the receiver node, chromatic dispersion estimation is performed, via simple direct detection, followed by electronic correlation procedures with the designated code sequences. The feasibility and the performance of the proposed scheme have been experimentally characterized. It provides a cost-effective monitoring solution for the optical OFDM signals across intermediate nodes in flexible OFDM networks.

  6. Water quality monitoring protocol for wadeable streams and rivers in the Northern Great Plains Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcia H. Wilson,; Rowe, Barbara L.; Robert A. Gitzen,; Stephen K. Wilson,; Kara J. Paintner-Green,

    2014-01-01

    Preserving the national parks unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations is a fundamental purpose of the National Park Service (NPS). To address growing concerns regarding the overall physical, chemical, and biological elements and processes of park ecosystems, the NPS implemented science-based management through “Vital Signs” monitoring in 270 national parks (NPS 2007). The Northern Great Plains Network (NGPN) is among the 32 National Park Service Networks participating in this monitoring effort. The NGPN will develop protocols over the next several years to determine the overall health or condition of resources within 13 parks located in Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming.

  7. Intercontinental Multi-Domain Monitoring for the LHC Optical Private Network

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently running at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. Physicists are using LHC to recreate the conditions just after the Big Bang, by colliding two beams of particles and heavy ions head-on at very high energy. The project is expected to generate 27 TB of raw data per day, plus 10 TB of "event summary data". This data is sent out from CERN to eleven Tier 1 academic institutions in Europe, Asia, and North America using a multi-gigabits Optical Private Network (OPN), the LHCOPN. Network monitoring on such complex network architecture to ensure robust and reliable operation is of crucial importance. The chosen approach for monitoring the OPN is based on the perfSONAR MDM framework (http://perfsonar.geant.net), which is designed for multi-domain monitoring environments. perfSONAR (www.perfsonar.net) is an infrastructure for performance monitoring data exchange between networks, making it easier to solve performance problems occurring between network measurement points interconne...

  8. Defensive Rekeying Strategies for Physical-Layer-Monitored Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Benjamin; Mullins, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Part 2: Control Systems Security; International audience; ZigBee networks are integrating rapidly into critical infrastructures such as the smart grid and public health centers. Numerous ZigBee-based smart meters have been installed in metropolitan areas and hospitals commonly employ ZigBee technology for patient and equipment monitoring. The associated ZigBee networks transport sensitive information and must be secured against exfiltration and denial-of-service attacks. Indeed, novel tools t...

  9. A New Mechanism for Network Monitoring and Shielding in Wireless LAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiujun Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless LAN (WLAN technology is developing rapidly with the help of wireless communication technology and social demand. During the development of WLAN, the security is more and more important, and wireless monitoring and shielding are of prime importance for network security. In this paper, we have explored various security issues of IEEE 802.11 based wireless network and analyzed numerous problems in implementing the wireless monitoring and shielding system. We identify the challenges which monitoring and shielding system needs to be aware of, and then provide a feasible mechanism to avoid those challenges. We implemented an actual wireless LAN monitoring and shielding system on Maemo operating system to monitor wireless network data stream efficiently and solve the security problems of mobile users. More importantly, the system analyzes wireless network protocols efficiently and flexibly, reveals rich information of the IEEE 802.11 protocol such as traffic distribution and different IP connections, and graphically displays later. Moreover, the system running results show that the system has the capability to work stably, and accurately and analyze the wireless protocols efficiently.

  10. Structural Health Monitoring Using Neural Network Based Vibrational System Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Sofge, Donald A

    2007-01-01

    Composite fabrication technologies now provide the means for producing high-strength, low-weight panels, plates, spars and other structural components which use embedded fiber optic sensors and piezoelectric transducers. These materials, often referred to as smart structures, make it possible to sense internal characteristics, such as delaminations or structural degradation. In this effort we use neural network based techniques for modeling and analyzing dynamic structural information for recognizing structural defects. This yields an adaptable system which gives a measure of structural integrity for composite structures.

  11. Experimental FSO network availability estimation using interactive fog condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turán, Ján.; Ovseník, Łuboš

    2016-12-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) is a license free Line of Sight (LOS) telecommunication technology which offers full duplex connectivity. FSO uses infrared beams of light to provide optical broadband connection and it can be installed literally in a few hours. Data rates go through from several hundreds of Mb/s to several Gb/s and range is from several 100 m up to several km. FSO link advantages: Easy connection establishment, License free communication, No excavation are needed, Highly secure and safe, Allows through window connectivity and single customer service and Compliments fiber by accelerating the first and last mile. FSO link disadvantages: Transmission media is air, Weather and climate dependence, Attenuation due to rain, snow and fog, Scattering of laser beam, Absorption of laser beam, Building motion and Air pollution. In this paper FSO availability evaluation is based on long term measured data from Fog sensor developed and installed at TUKE experimental FSO network in TUKE campus, Košice, Slovakia. Our FSO experimental network has three links with different physical distances between each FSO heads. Weather conditions have a tremendous impact on FSO operation in terms of FSO availability. FSO link availability is the percentage of time over a year that the FSO link will be operational. It is necessary to evaluate the climate and weather at the actual geographical location where FSO link is going to be mounted. It is important to determine the impact of a light scattering, absorption, turbulence and receiving optical power at the particular FSO link. Visibility has one of the most critical influences on the quality of an FSO optical transmission channel. FSO link availability is usually estimated using visibility information collected from nearby airport weather stations. Raw data from fog sensor (Fog Density, Relative Humidity, Temperature measured at each ms) are collected and processed by FSO Simulator software package developed at our Department. Based

  12. Global Ionospheric Perturbations Monitored by the Worldwide GPS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. M.; Mannucci, A. T.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Pi, X. Q.

    1996-01-01

    Based on the delays of these (Global Positioning System-GPS)signals, we have generated high resolution global ionospheric TEC (Total Electronic Changes) maps at 15-minute intervals. Using a differential method comparing storm time maps with quiet time maps, we find that the ionopshere during this time storm has increased significantly (the percentage change relative to quiet times is greater than 150 percent) ...These preliminary results (those mentioned above plus other in the paper)indicate that the differential maping method, which is based on GPS network measurements appears to be a useful tool for studying the global pattern and evolution process of the entire ionospheric perturbation.

  13. LANDMON a new integrated system for the management of landslide monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesniak, Aleksandra; Giordan, Daniele; Allasia, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Over the last decades, technological development has strongly increased the number of instruments that can be used to monitor landslide phenomena. Robotized Total Stations, GB-InSAR and GPS are only few examples of the devices that can be adapted to monitor the topographic changes due to mass movements. They are often organized in a complex network, aimed at controlling physical parameters related to the evolution of landslide activity. The level of complexity of these monitoring networks increases with the number of new available monitoring devices and this could generate a paradox: the source of data is so numerous and difficult to interpret that a full understanding of the phenomenon could be hampered. The Geohazard Monitoring Group (GMG) of Italian National Research Council (CNR) has a long experience in landslide monitoring. Over the years, GMG has developed a multidisciplinary approach for landslide management strategy called LANDMON (LANDslide MOnitoring Network). It is an automatic hybrid system focused not only on capturing and elaborating data from monitored site but also on web applications and on publishing bulletins aimed to disseminate monitoring results and to support decision makers. LANDMON is currently active in many landslide sites distributed in several areas in Italy and in Europe. LANDMON is derived from the previously developed systems like ADVICE (ADVanced dIsplaCement monitoring system for Early warning) and 3DA (three-dimensional Displacement Analysis). These systems are aimed to collect and to process monitoring dataset, to manage early warning application based on pre-defined thresholds, and to publish three-dimensional displacement maps in near real time. In addition, LANDMON integrates several new features, such as WebGIS application, modelling using inverse velocity method, and management of webcam monitoring system, meteorological parameters and borehole inclinometric data. Moreover, LANDMON is a communication strategy that focuses

  14. Controlling and Monitoring of Electric Feeders Using GSM Network Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMED Afaz Uddin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of computer interfaced controlling devices is increasingly rapidly in modern age. Analogous wired systems are substituted by computer interfaced system alternatives in growingnumber of industries. Such control systems had been developed with complex and critical high-end stuffs. In this paper, we developed an automated system that controls the switching of electric feeder power supply featuring the existing GSM technology. The target is tooperate the device according to a preset sequence of on-off mode for three feeders after a particular time interval and to monitor the running condition. The device sends short message updating the status of every action. It also warns the consumers about load shedding using GSM module via sending message. Controlling the gate pulse of a MOSFET that operates the relay, it executes on-off operation of the circuit breaker of the respective feeders. Since GSM technology is used worldwide for communication, third world countries that are still struggling to meet the power demand can use this technology to operate and monitor the condition of power distribution. To operate the GSM device, AT command of GSM location operation for SIM900 is used. This paper targets to improve the power distribution system in developing countries like India, Bangladesh, Nepal where powercrisis and load shedding is quite a common phenomenon.

  15. Tools for Distributed Monitoring of the Campus Network with Low Latency Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AndreyBobyshev

    2001-01-01

    In addition to deployment of the commercial management products,a number of public and self developed tools are successfully used at Fermilab for monitoring of the campus network.A suite of tools consisting of several programs running in a distributed environment to measure network parameters such as average round-trip time.traffic,throughput,error rate,DNS responses and others from different locations in the network is used.The system maintains a central archive of data,makes analysis and graphical representation available via a web-based interface.The developed tools are based on integration with well known public software RRD,Cricket fping,iperf.

  16. Subsidence monitoring network: an Italian example aimed at a sustainable hydrocarbon E&P activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacome, M. C.; Miandro, R.; Vettorel, M.; Roncari, G.

    2015-11-01

    According to the Italian law in order to start-up any new hydrocarbon exploitation activity, an Environmental Impact Assessment study has to be presented, including a monitoring plan, addressed to foresee, measure and analyze in real time any possible impact of the project on the coastal areas and on those ones in the close inland located. The occurrence of subsidence, that could partly be related to hydrocarbon production, both on-shore and off-shore, can generate great concern in those areas where its occurrence may have impacts on the local environment. ENI, following the international scientific community recommendations on the matter, since the beginning of 90's years, implemented a cutting-edge monitoring network, with the aim to prevent, mitigate and control geodynamics phenomena generated in the activity areas, with a particular attention to conservation and protection of environmental and territorial equilibrium, taking care of what is known as "sustainable development". The current ENI implemented monitoring surveys can be divided as: - Shallow monitoring: spirit levelling surveys, continuous GPS surveys in permanent stations, SAR surveys, assestimeter subsurface compaction monitoring, ground water level monitoring, LiDAR surveys, bathymetrical surveys. - Deep monitoring: reservoir deep compaction trough radioactive markers, reservoir static (bottom hole) pressure monitoring. All the information, gathered through the monitoring network, allow: 1. to verify if the produced subsidence is evolving accordingly with the simulated forecast. 2. to provide data to revise and adjust the prediction compaction models 3. to put in place the remedial actions if the impact exceeds the threshold magnitude originally agreed among the involved parties. ENI monitoring plan to measure and monitor the subsidence process, during field production and also after the field closure, is therefore intended to support a sustainable field development and an acceptable exploitation

  17. A Novel Smart Routing Protocol for Remote Health Monitoring in Medical Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. P. Sundararajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a Medical Wireless Network (MWN, sensors constantly monitor patient's physiological condition and movement. Inter-MWN communications are set up between the Patient Server and one or more Centralized Coordinators. However, MWNs require protocols with little energy consumption and the self-organizing attribute perceived in ad-hoc networks. The proposed Smart Routing Protocol (SRP selects only the nodes with a higher residual energy and lower traffic density for routing. This approach enhances cooperation among the nodes of a Mobile Ad Hoc Network. Consequently, SRP produces better results than the existing protocols, namely Conditional Min-Max Battery Cost Routing, Min-Max Battery Cost Routing and AdHoc On-demand Distance Vector in terms of network parameters. The performance of the erstwhile schemes for routing protocols is evaluated using the network simulator Qualnet v 4.5.

  18. A novel Smart Routing Protocol for remote health monitoring in Medical Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, T V P; Sumithra, M G; Maheswar, R

    2014-01-01

    In a Medical Wireless Network (MWN), sensors constantly monitor patient's physiological condition and movement. Inter-MWN communications are set up between the Patient Server and one or more Centralized Coordinators. However, MWNs require protocols with little energy consumption and the self-organizing attribute perceived in ad-hoc networks. The proposed Smart Routing Protocol (SRP) selects only the nodes with a higher residual energy and lower traffic density for routing. This approach enhances cooperation among the nodes of a Mobile Ad Hoc Network. Consequently, SRP produces better results than the existing protocols, namely Conditional Min-Max Battery Cost Routing, Min-Max Battery Cost Routing and AdHoc On-demand Distance Vector in terms of network parameters. The performance of the erstwhile schemes for routing protocols is evaluated using the network simulator Qualnet v 4.5.

  19. A comprehensive network of measuring stations to monitor climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hari, P. (Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Andreae, M. (Biogeochemistry Dept., Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)); Kabat, P. (Wageningen Univ. and Research Centre (Netherlands)); Kulmala, M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    The atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and temperature have been rather stable at the time scale of millennia, although rather large variations have occurred during longer periods. The extensive use of fossil fuels and destruction of forests have recently increased the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Temperature and circulation of water on the globe are reacting to the increase in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. Mankind urgently needs knowledge on the present climate change and on its effects on living nature. We propose that a network of comprehensive measuring stations should be constructed, utilizing modern technology to provide documentation of the climate change and data for research related to it. To be able to cover spatial and temporal variations, a hierarchy of stations is needed. (orig.)

  20. Redefining Sovereignty, Consolidating a Network: Monitoring the 1990 Nicaraguan Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Santa-Cruz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available National elections are now international events­and international election monitoring (IEM an institutionalized practice in world politics that has partially redefined state sovereignty. This work is about a foundational case in the process of IEM's normalization: the 1990 Nicaraguan elections. For the first time ever, the United Nations, the Organization of American States, and a myriad of non-governmental organizations monitored an electoral process in a sovereign country. I consider the Nicaraguan experience in light of the wider normative structure of the Western Hemisphere, which I argue, played an important role both in it and in IEM's eventual normalizationLos procesos electorales son hoy en día eventos internacionales y la observación internacional de elecciones (OIE una práctica institucionalizada en la política mundial que ha redefinido parcialmente el concepto de soberanía estatal. Este trabajo trata de un caso fundacional en el proceso de normalización de la OIE: las elecciones nicaragüenses de 1990. Por primera vez en la historia, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas, la Organización de Estados Americanos, y una miríada de organizaciones no gubernamentales monitorearon un proceso electoral conjuntamente en un Estado soberano. Este trabajo analiza el caso nicaragüense a la luz de la estructura normativa del hemisferio occidental, la cual, como se argumenta, jugó un papel importante tanto en él como en la eventual normalización de la OIE

  1. Hogthrob: Towards a Sensor Network Infrastructure for Sow Monitoring (wireless sensor network special day)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Leopold, Martin; Madsen, K

    2006-01-01

    We aim at developing a next-generation system for sow monitoring. Today, farmers use RFID based solutions with an ear tag on the sows and a reader located inside the feeding station. This does not allow the farmers to locate a sow in a large pen, or to monitor the life cycle of the sow (detect heat...

  2. The ripple effect of personality on social structure: self-monitoring origins of network brokerage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hongseok; Kilduff, Martin

    2008-09-01

    Despite growing interest in social network brokerage, its psychological antecedents have been neglected. One possibility is that brokerage relates to self-monitoring personality orientation. High self-monitors, relative to low self-monitors, in adapting their self-presentations to the demands of different groups, may occupy positions as brokers between disconnected social worlds. For 162 Korean expatriate entrepreneurs in a Canadian urban area, the results showed that those high in self-monitoring tended to occupy direct brokerage roles within the Korean community--in terms of their direct acquaintances being unconnected with each other. Those high in self-monitoring also tended to occupy indirect brokerage roles--in terms of the acquaintances of their acquaintances being unconnected with each other. Finally, for recent arrivals, those high in self-monitoring tended to establish ties to a wider range of important non-Korean position holders outside the community. These results (which controlled for strongly significant effects of network size on individuals' brokerage within the community) suggest a ripple effect of self-monitoring on social structure and contribute to a clearer understanding of how personality relates to brokerage at different levels.

  3. Design Framework for Vibration Monitoring Systems for Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; Tinga, Tiedo; Chang, F.-K

    2013-01-01

    The pursue of methods for supporting Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has been an important driver for the technological innovation in several engineering fields such as wireless communication, sensing and power harvesting. However, despite of the innovative and scientific value of these advances,

  4. Building Capacity for Earthquake Monitoring: Linking Regional Networks with the Global Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.

    2006-12-01

    Installing or upgrading a seismic monitoring network is often among the mitigation efforts after earthquake disasters, and this is happening in response to the events both in Sumatra during December 2004 and in Pakistan during October 2005. These networks can yield improved hazard assessment, more resilient buildings where they are most needed, and emergency relief directed more quickly to the worst hit areas after the next large earthquake. Several commercial organizations are well prepared for the fleeting opportunity to provide the instruments that comprise a seismic network, including sensors, data loggers, telemetry stations, and the computers and software required for the network center. But seismic monitoring requires more than hardware and software, no matter how advanced. A well-trained staff is required to select appropriate and mutually compatible components, install and maintain telemetered stations, manage and archive data, and perform the analyses that actually yield the intended benefits. Monitoring is more effective when network operators cooperate with a larger community through free and open exchange of data, sharing information about working practices, and international collaboration in research. As an academic consortium, a facility operator and a founding member of the International Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks, IRIS has access to a broad range of expertise with the skills that are required to help design, install, and operate a seismic network and earthquake analysis center, and stimulate the core training for the professional teams required to establish and maintain these facilities. But delivering expertise quickly when and where it is unexpectedly in demand requires advance planning and coordination in order to respond to the needs of organizations that are building a seismic network, either with tight time constraints imposed by the budget cycles of aid agencies following a disastrous earthquake, or as part of more informed

  5. The Wireless Environment Monitoring Alarm System Based on Self-organizing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Huawei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under complicated conditions, it is necessary for environmental monitoring to design a wireless monitoring alarm system which can replace the wired system or as a supplement. The system discussed here bases on ARM7 microprocessor named LPC1114 and transceiver module named CC2530. With ZigBee, CSM/GPRS, this system uses multiple sensors to self-organized form a data acquisition and monitoring network system with variety of sensors fusion in the region. The system has some characteristics such as quick, convenient and accurate. Combining with the GSM SMS or GPRS alarm, the system can accurately and reliably monitor temperature, humidity and other environmental factors, and realize remote monitoring in large area and the complicated environment. Thus, this system has high practical value.

  6. Condition Monitoring for DC-link Capacitors Based on Artificial Neural Network Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Hammam Abdelaal Hammam; Wang, Huai; Gadalla, Brwene Salah Abdelkarim

    2015-01-01

    In power electronic systems, capacitor is one of the reliability critical components . Recently, the condition monitoring of capacitors to estimate their health status have been attracted by the academic research. Industry applications require more reliable power electronics products...... with preventive maintenance. However, the existing capacitor condition monitoring methods suffer from either increased hardware cost or low estimation accuracy, being the challenges to be adopted in industry applications. New development in condition monitoring technology with software solutions without extra...... hardware will reduce the cost, and therefore could be more promising for industry applications. A condition monitoring method based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm is therefore proposed in this paper. The implementation of the ANN to the DC-link capacitor condition monitoring in a back...

  7. Real time network traffic monitoring for wireless local area networks based on compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza

    2017-05-01

    A wireless local area network (WLAN) is an important type of wireless networks which connotes different wireless nodes in a local area network. WLANs suffer from important problems such as network load balancing, large amount of energy, and load of sampling. This paper presents a new networking traffic approach based on Compressed Sensing (CS) for improving the quality of WLANs. The proposed architecture allows reducing Data Delay Probability (DDP) to 15%, which is a good record for WLANs. The proposed architecture is increased Data Throughput (DT) to 22 % and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio to 17 %, which provide a good background for establishing high qualified local area networks. This architecture enables continuous data acquisition and compression of WLAN's signals that are suitable for a variety of other wireless networking applications. At the transmitter side of each wireless node, an analog-CS framework is applied at the sensing step before analog to digital converter in order to generate the compressed version of the input signal. At the receiver side of wireless node, a reconstruction algorithm is applied in order to reconstruct the original signals from the compressed signals with high probability and enough accuracy. The proposed algorithm out-performs existing algorithms by achieving a good level of Quality of Service (QoS). This ability allows reducing 15 % of Bit Error Rate (BER) at each wireless node.

  8. U.S. EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network: Analytical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), furans (CDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at rural and non-impacted locatio...

  9. Journal Article: EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn): Design, Implementation, and Final Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) in June of 1998, and operated it until November of 2004. The objective of NDAMN was to determine background air concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (...

  10. Monitoring Scientific Developments from a Dynamic Perspective: Self-Organized Structuring To Map Neural Network Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyons, E. C. M.; van Raan, A. F. J.

    1998-01-01

    Using bibliometric mapping techniques, authors developed a methodology of self-organized structuring of scientific fields which was applied to neural network research. Explores the evolution of a data generated field structure by monitoring the interrelationships between subfields, the internal structure of subfields, and the dynamic features of…

  11. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of numerous sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement existing monitoring networks and ...

  12. Wireless industrial monitoring and control networks: the journey so far and the road ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zand, Pouria; Chatterjea, Supriyo; Das, Kallol; Havinga, Paul

    2012-01-01

    While traditional wired communication technologies have played a crucial role in industrial monitoring and control networks over the past few decades, they are increasingly proving to be inadequate to meet the highly dynamic and stringent demands of today’s industrial applications, primarily due to

  13. Autonomous smart sensor network for full-scale structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Jennifer A.; Mechitov, Kirill A.; Spencer, B. F., Jr.; Agha, Gul A.

    2010-04-01

    The demands of aging infrastructure require effective methods for structural monitoring and maintenance. Wireless smart sensor networks offer the ability to enhance structural health monitoring (SHM) practices through the utilization of onboard computation to achieve distributed data management. Such an approach is scalable to the large number of sensor nodes required for high-fidelity modal analysis and damage detection. While smart sensor technology is not new, the number of full-scale SHM applications has been limited. This slow progress is due, in part, to the complex network management issues that arise when moving from a laboratory setting to a full-scale monitoring implementation. This paper presents flexible network management software that enables continuous and autonomous operation of wireless smart sensor networks for full-scale SHM applications. The software components combine sleep/wake cycling for enhanced power management with threshold detection for triggering network wide tasks, such as synchronized sensing or decentralized modal analysis, during periods of critical structural response.

  14. A data fusion-based methodology for optimal redesign of groundwater monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Marjan; Kerachian, Reza

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a new data fusion-based methodology is presented for spatio-temporal (S-T) redesigning of Groundwater Level Monitoring Networks (GLMNs). The kriged maps of three different criteria (i.e. marginal entropy of water table levels, estimation error variances of mean values of water table levels, and estimation values of long-term changes in water level) are combined for determining monitoring sub-areas of high and low priorities in order to consider different spatial patterns for each sub-area. The best spatial sampling scheme is selected by applying a new method, in which a regular hexagonal gridding pattern and the Thiessen polygon approach are respectively utilized in sub-areas of high and low monitoring priorities. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and a S-T kriging models are used to simulate water level fluctuations. To improve the accuracy of the predictions, results of the ANN and S-T kriging models are combined using a data fusion technique. The concept of Value of Information (VOI) is utilized to determine two stations with maximum information values in both sub-areas with high and low monitoring priorities. The observed groundwater level data of these two stations are considered for the power of trend detection, estimating periodic fluctuations and mean values of the stationary components, which are used for determining non-uniform sampling frequencies for sub-areas. The proposed methodology is applied to the Dehgolan plain in northwestern Iran. The results show that a new sampling configuration with 35 and 7 monitoring stations and sampling intervals of 20 and 32 days, respectively in sub-areas with high and low monitoring priorities, leads to a more efficient monitoring network than the existing one containing 52 monitoring stations and monthly temporal sampling.

  15. Impact of acid atmosphere deposition on soils : field monitoring and aluminum chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acid atmospheric deposition on concentrations and transfer of major solutes in acid, sandy soils was studied. Emphasis was given to mobilization and transport of potentially toxic aluminum. Data on solute concentrations and fluxes in meteoric water as well as soil solutions

  16. Impact of acid atmospheric deposition on soils: Field monitoring and aluminium chemistry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acid atmospheric deposition on concentrations and transfer of major solutes in acid, sandy soils was studied. Emphasis was given to mobilization and transport of potentially toxic aluminum. Data on solute concentrations and fluxes in meteoric water as well as soil solutions were obtain

  17. Integrating volcanic gas monitoring with other geophysical networks in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Melissa A.

    2017-04-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office/Icelandic Volcano Observatory is rapidly developing and improving the use of gas measurements as a tool for pre- and syn-eruptive monitoring within Iceland. Observations of deformation, seismicity, hydrological properties, and gas emissions, united within an integrated approach, can provide improved understanding of subsurface magma movements. This is critical to evaluate signals prior to and during volcanic eruptions, issue timely eruption warnings, forecast eruption behavior, and assess volcanic hazards. Gas measurements in Iceland need to be processed to account for the high degree of gas composition alteration due to interaction with external water and rocks. Deeply-sourced magmatic gases undergo reactions and modifications as they move to the surface that exercise a strong control on the composition of surface emissions. These modifications are particularly strong at ice-capped volcanoes where most surface gases are dissolved in glacial meltwater. Models are used to project backwards from surface gas measurements to what the magmatic gas composition was prior to upward migration. After the pristine magma gas composition has been determined, it is used together with fluid compositions measured in mineral hosted melt inclusions to calculate magmatic properties to understand magma storage and migration and to discern if there have been changes in the volcanic system. The properties derived from surface gas measurements can be used as input to models interpreting deformation and seismic observations, and can be used as an additional, independent observation when interpreting hydrological and seismic changes. An integrated approach aids with determining whether observed hydro/geological changes can be due to the presence of shallow magma. Constraints on parameters such as magma gas content, viscosity and compressibility can be provided by the approach described above, which can be utilized syn-eruptively to help explain

  18. IDMA-Based Compressed Sensing for Ocean Monitoring Information Acquisition with Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongliang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocean monitoring sensor network is a typically energy-limited and bandwidth-limited system, and the technical bottleneck of which is the asymmetry between the demand for large-scale and high-resolution information acquisition and the limited network resources. The newly arising compressed sensing theory provides a chance for breaking through the bottleneck. In view of this and considering the potential advantages of the emerging interleave-division multiple access (IDMA technology in underwater channels, this paper proposes an IDMA-based compressed sensing scheme in underwater sensor networks with applications to environmental monitoring information acquisition. Exploiting the sparse property of the monitored objects, only a subset of sensors is required to measure and transmit the measurements to the monitoring center for accurate information reconstruction, reducing the requirements for channel bandwidth and energy consumption significantly. Furthermore, with the aid of the semianalytical technique of IDMA, the optimal sensing probability of each sensor is determined to minimize the reconstruction error of the information map. Simulation results with real oceanic monitoring data validate the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  19. Entropy based groundwater monitoring network design considering spatial distribution of annual recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, James M.; Coulibaly, Paulin; Guo, Yiping

    2016-10-01

    This study explores the inclusion of a groundwater recharge based design objective and the impact it has on the design of optimum groundwater monitoring networks. The study was conducted in the Hamilton, Halton, and Credit Valley regions of Ontario, Canada, in which the existing Ontario Provincial Groundwater Monitoring Network was augmented with additional monitoring wells. The Dual Entropy-Multiobjective Optimization (DEMO) model was used in these analyses. The value of using this design objective is rooted in the information contained within the estimated recharge. Recharge requires knowledge of climate, geomorphology, and geology of the area, thus using this objective function can help account for these physical characteristics. Two sources of groundwater recharge data were examined and compared, the first was calculated using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), and the second was an aggregation of recharge found using both the PRMS and Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSP-F). The entropy functions are used to identify optimal trade-offs between the maximum information content and the minimum shared information between the monitoring wells. The recharge objective will help to quantify hydrological characteristics of the vadose zone, and thus provide more information to the optimization algorithm. Results show that by including recharge as a design objective, the spatial coverage of the monitoring network can be improved. The study also highlights the flexibility of DEMO and its ability to incorporate additional design objectives such as the groundwater recharge.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSOR NETWORK TEST BED FOR ISD MATERIALS AND STRUCUTRAL CONDITION MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeigler, K.; Ferguson, B.; Karapatakis, D.; Herbst, C.; Stripling, C.

    2011-07-06

    The P Reactor at the Savannah River Site is one of the first reactor facilities in the US DOE complex that has been placed in its end state through in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. To evaluate the feasibility and utility of remote sensors to provide verification of ISD system conditions and performance characteristics, an ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The test bed addresses the DOE-EM Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of: (1) Groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring; (2) Strain gauges for crack growth monitoring; (3) Tiltmeters for settlement monitoring; and (4) A communication system for data collection. Preliminary baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment.

  1. Wireless Sensor Network based Fire Monitoring and Extinguishing System in Real Time Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Narendra Reddy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Firefighting is one of the most dangerous professions in which people are employed. The dangers associated are the result of a number of factors such as lack of information regarding the location, size and spread of the fire. The use of wireless sensor networks may be one way of reducing the risks faced by the firefighters and assist in the process of rapid extinguishment of the fire. The standards, such as IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee, stimulated the development of numerous commercial products. Moving from early research in military applications, sensor networks now are widely deployed in diverse applications including home automation, building automation, and others. This paper mainly presents the design and the implementation of wireless sensor network based fire monitoring and extinguishing system. Fire monitoring system continuously monitors the surroundings and keeps a track of the temperature recorded and the intruders detected, performed by monitoring node. Fire extinguishing system switches the extinguisher as soon as it detects the fire or when the temperature crosses a certain threshold level, performed by extinguishing node. Results indicate that the overall performance of the proposed approach is very good. The usage of zigbee monitored fire extinguishers in a hospital building has been demonstrated.

  2. Biomagnetic monitoring of heavy metals contamination in deposited atmospheric dust, a case study from Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Samira; Khademi, Hossein; Cano, Angel Faz; Acosta, Jose A

    2016-05-15

    Tree leaves are considered as one of the best biogenic dust collectors due to their ability to trap and retain particulate matter on their surfaces. In this study, the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and the concentration of selected heavy metals of plane tree (Platanus orientalis L.) leaves and deposited atmospheric dust, sampled by an indirect and a direct method, respectively, were determined to investigate the relationships between leaf magnetic parameters and the concentration of heavy metals in deposited atmospheric dust. The objective was to develop a biomagnetic method as an alternative to the common ones used for determining atmospheric heavy metal contaminations. Plane tree leaves were monthly sampled on the 19th of May to November, 2012 (T1-T7), for seven months from 21 different sites in the city of Isfahan, central Iran. Deposited atmospheric dust samples were also collected using flat glass surfaces from the same sites on the same dates, except for T1. MS (χlf, χhf) values in washed (WL) and unwashed leaves (UL) as well as Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in UL and deposited atmospheric dust samples were determined. The results showed that the MS content with a biogenic source was low with almost no significant change during the sampling period, while an increasing trend was observed in the MS content of UL samples due to the deposition of heavy metals and magnetic particles on leaf surfaces throughout the plant growth. The latter type of MS content could be reduced through washing off by rain. Most heavy metals examined, as well as the Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) in UL, showed statistically significant correlations with MS values. The correlation between heavy metals content in atmospheric dust deposited on glass surfaces and leaf MS values was significant for Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn. Moreover, the similarity observed between the spatial distribution maps of leaf MS and deposited atmospheric dust PLI provided convincing evidence regarding

  3. Designing of Wireless Sensor Network Nodes to Detect Vibrational changes for Structural Health Monitoring Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Raju

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Structural Health Monitoring (SHM for building applications using wireless sensor networks is gaining a lot of interest now a day. The low power consumption, low cost and extendable network is a great challenge for designing and monitoring the building applications. Zigbee based on IEEE 802.15.4 characteristics are best suitable for SHM applications. In this paper Zigbee node is transferring the sensor data from sensor to the processing computer. A network has been designed with the coordinator and end device. End device will collect the data from the sensor and send the sensor data to the coordinator, through the coordinator data will be displayed by the processing computer. The prototype works as milestone for achieving the goal of transferring the sensor data with low power consumption.

  4. Classification of Infrared Monitor Images of Coal Using an Feature Texture Statistics and Improved BP Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It is very important to accurately recognize and locate pulverized and block coal seen in a coal mine's infrared image monitoring system.Infrared monitor images of pulverized and block coal were sampled in the roadway of a coal mine.Texture statistics from the grey level dependence matrix were selected as the criterion for classification.The distributions of the texture statistics were calculated and analysed.A normalizing function was added to the front end of the BP network with one hidden layer.An additional classification layer is joined behind the linear layer.The recognition of pulverized from block coal images was tested using the improved BP network.The results of the experiment show that texture variables from the grey level dependence matrix can act as recognizable features of the image.The innovative improved BP network can then recognize the pulverized and block coal images.

  5. A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural monitoring applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Stuart G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Figueiredo, Eloi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flynn, Eric B [UCSD; Mascarenas, David L [UCSD; Todd, Michael D [UCSD

    2008-01-01

    A new wireless sensing network paradigm is presented for structural monitoring applications. In this approach, both power and data interrogation commands are conveyed via a mobile agent that is sent to sensor nodes to perform intended interrogations, which can alleviate several limitations of the traditional sensing networks. Furthermore, the mobile agent provides computational power to make near real-time assessments on the structural conditions. This paper will discuss such prototype systems, which are used to interrogate impedance-based sensors for structural health monitoring applications. Our wireless sensor node is specifically designed to accept various energy sources, including wireless energy transmission, and to be wirelessly triggered on an as-needed basis by the mobile agent or other sensor nodes. The capabilities of this proposed sensing network paradigm are demonstrated in the laboratory and the field.

  6. A Model for Field Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) within the Domain of Microclimate Habitat Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) represent a class of miniaturized information systems designed to monitor physical environments. These smart monitoring systems form collaborative networks utilizing autonomous sensing, data-collection, and processing to provide real-time analytics of observed environments. As a fundamental research area in…

  7. Low power wireless sensor networks for infrastructure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaed, Mohammad Hassan; Ghahramani, Mohammad Mahdi; Chen, Gregory; Fojtik, Matthew; Blaauw, David; Flynn, Michael P.; Sylvester, Dennis

    2012-04-01

    Sensors with long lifetimes are ideal for infrastructure monitoring. Miniaturized sensor systems are only capable of storing small amounts of energy. Prior work has increased sensor lifetime through the reduction of supply voltage , necessitating voltage conversion from storage elements such as batteries. Sensor lifetime can be further extended by harvesting from solar, vibrational, or thermal energy. Since harvested energy is sporadic, it must be detected and stored. Harvesting sources do not provide voltage levels suitable for secondary power sources, necessitating DC-DC upconversion. We demonstrate a 8.75mm3 sensor system with a near-threshold ARM microcontroller, custom 3.3fW/bit SRAM, two 1mm2 solar cells, a thin-film Li-ion battery, and integrated power management unit. The 7.7μW system enters a 550pW data-retentive sleep state between measurements and harvests solar energy to enable energy autonomy. Our receiver and transmitter architectures benefit from a design strategy that employs mixed signal and digital circuit schemes that perform well in advanced CMOS integrated circuit technologies. A prototype transmitter implemented in 0.13μm CMOS satisfies the requirements for Zigbee, but consumes far less power consumption than state-of-the-art commercial devices.

  8. Auto GC system for enhanced ozone monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, I.; Tipler, A. [Perkin-Elmer Corp., Norwalk, CT (United States); Broadway, G. [Perkin-Elmer Ltd., Beaconsfield (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    A Perkin-Elmer Model ATD-400 Thermal Desorption System was specially adapted for the collection of whole-air samples. The C{sub 2} to n-C{sub 10} hydrocarbons were trapped using Peltier cooling on Carbotrap/Carbosieve adsorbents at {minus}30 C. A Deans switch allowed the C{sub 2} to C{sub 6} fraction to be separated using a porous layer open tubular column while a methyl silicone column separated the C{sub 6} to C{sub 10} fraction. No cryogen was used in the collection or analysis. Ozone precursor concentrations were detected at the 0.1 ppbV level. Area repeatability was less than 10%, with retention time precision over 100 hours of approximately 1% RSD for most compounds. Remote communications allowed chromatography to be monitored and files to be downloaded to a central office. Data in .CSV format was directly assimilated by spreadsheet software for diurnal inspection and customized reporting. Data were achieved using external Bernoulli disks.

  9. Development of integrated marine monitoring network on southern coastline of Caspian sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafi-Jilani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of water surfaces through permanent measurement of hydrodynamic and meteorological data is one of the main requirements in safe and sustainable water management. The Caspian Sea, the major surface water body in Iran, significantly affects more than 600 km of urban and industrial coastline. In the present work, an integrated marine monitoring network for the entire southern coastline of the Caspian Sea was developed. The main design concerns centered on the network measuring components and data recording, checking, filtering, gap recognition, and transferring systems. Four coastal monitoring stations were assigned, along with two regional collecting stations and one central data station for gathering, checking and delivering recorded data at different access levels. Applicable guidelines on selection of measuring devices for both shallow and deep water zones are presented herein.

  10. Monitoring communication outbreaks among an unknown team of actors in dynamic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sparks, Ross

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the detection of communication outbreaks among a small team of actors in time-varying networks. We propose monitoring plans for known and unknown teams based on generalizations of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) statistic. For unknown teams, we propose an efficient neighborhood-based search to estimate a collection of candidate teams. This procedure dramatically reduces the computational complexity of an exhaustive search. Our procedure consists of two steps: communication counts between actors are first smoothed using a multivariate EWMA strategy. Densely connected teams are identified as candidates using a neighborhood search approach. These candidate teams are then monitored using a surveillance plan derived from a generalized EWMA statistic. Monitoring plans are established for collaborative teams, teams with a dominant leader, as well as for global outbreaks. We consider weighted heterogeneous dynamic networks, where the expected communication count between each p...

  11. The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Based Coal Ash Impoundments Safety Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, E. J.; Nieto, A.; Zhang, X. K.

    2017-01-01

    Coal ash impoundments are inevitable production of the coal-fired power plants. All coal ash impoundments in North Carolina USA that tested for groundwater contamination are leaking toxic heavy metals and other pollutants. Coal ash impoundments are toxic sources of dangerous pollutants that pose a danger to human and environmental health if the toxins spread to adjacent surface waters and drinking water wells. Coal ash impoundments failures accidents resulted in serious water contamination along with toxic heavy metals. To improve the design and stability of coal ash impoundments, the Development of a Coal Ash Impoundment Safety Monitoring System (CAISM) was proposed based on the implementation of a wireless sensor network (WSN) with the ability to monitor the stability of coal ash impoundments, water level, and saturation levels on-demand and remotely. The monitoring system based on a robust Ad-hoc network could be adapted to different safety conditions.

  12. Network security monitoring and anomaly detection in industrial control system networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mantere, M. (Matti)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Industrial control system (ICS) networks used to be isolated environments, typically separated by physical air gaps from the wider area networks. This situation has been changing and the change has brought with it new cybersecurity issues. The process has also exacerbated existing problems that were previously less exposed due to the systems’ relative isolation. This process of increasing connectivity between devices, systems and persons can be seen as part of a paradigm shift ca...

  13. Power analysis and trend detection for water quality monitoring data. An application for the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Manlove, Kezia; Hollimon, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    An important consideration for long term monitoring programs is determining the required sampling effort to detect trends in specific ecological indicators of interest. To enhance the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network’s water resources protocol(s) (O’Ney 2006 and O’Ney et al. 2009 [under review]), we developed a set of tools to: (1) determine the statistical power for detecting trends of varying magnitude in a specified water quality parameter over different lengths of sampling (years) and different within-year collection frequencies (monthly or seasonal sampling) at particular locations using historical data, and (2) perform periodic trend analyses for water quality parameters while addressing seasonality and flow weighting. A power analysis for trend detection is a statistical procedure used to estimate the probability of rejecting the hypothesis of no trend when in fact there is a trend, within a specific modeling framework. In this report, we base our power estimates on using the seasonal Kendall test (Helsel and Hirsch 2002) for detecting trend in water quality parameters measured at fixed locations over multiple years. We also present procedures (R-scripts) for conducting a periodic trend analysis using the seasonal Kendall test with and without flow adjustment. This report provides the R-scripts developed for power and trend analysis, tutorials, and the associated tables and graphs. The purpose of this report is to provide practical information for monitoring network staff on how to use these statistical tools for water quality monitoring data sets.

  14. Putting Man in the Machine: Exploiting Expertise to Enhance Multiobjective Design of Water Supply Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, F.; Nowak, W.; Reed, P. M.; Reuschen, S.

    2016-12-01

    Drinking-water well catchments need effective early-warning monitoring networks. Groundwater water supply wells in complex urban environments are in close proximity to a myriad of potential industrial pollutant sources that could irreversibly damage their source aquifers. These urban environments pose fiscal and physical challenges to designing monitoring networks. Ideal early-warning monitoring networks would satisfy three objectives: to detect (1) all potential contaminations within the catchment (2) as early as possible before they reach the pumping wells, (3) while minimizing costs. Obviously, the ideal case is nonexistent, so we search for tradeoffs using multiobjective optimization. The challenge of this optimization problem is the high number of potential monitoring-well positions (the search space) and the non-linearity of the underlying groundwater flow-and-transport problem. This study evaluates (1) different ways to effectively restrict the search space in an efficient way, with and without expert knowledge, (2) different methods to represent the search space during the optimization and (3) the influence of incremental increases in uncertainty in the system. Conductivity, regional flow direction and potential source locations are explored as key uncertainties. We show the need and the benefit of our methods by comparing optimized monitoring networks for different uncertainty levels with networks that seek to effectively exploit expert knowledge. The study's main contributions are the different approaches restricting and representing the search space. The restriction algorithms are based on a point-wise comparison of decision elements of the search space. The representation of the search space can be either binary or continuous. For both cases, the search space must be adjusted properly. Our results show the benefits and drawbacks of binary versus continuous search space representations and the high potential of automated search space restriction

  15. Deploying Monitoring Trails for Fault Localization in All- Optical Networks and Radio-over-Fiber Passive Optical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamoun, Khaled Mohamed

    Fault localization is the process of realizing the true source of a failure from a set of collected failure notifications. Isolating failure recovery within the network optical domain is necessary to resolve alarm storm problems. The introduction of the monitoring trail (m-trail) has been proven to deliver better performance by employing monitoring resources in a form of optical trails - a monitoring framework that generalizes all the previously reported counterparts. In this dissertation, the m-trail design is explored and a focus is given to the analysis on using m-trails with established lightpaths to achieve fault localization. This process saves network resources by reducing the number of the m-trails required for fault localization and therefore the number of wavelengths used in the network. A novel approach based on Geographic Midpoint Technique, an adapted version of the Chinese Postman's Problem (CPP) solution and an adapted version of the Traveling Salesman's Problem (TSP) solution algorithms is introduced. The desirable features of network architectures and the enabling of innovative technologies for delivering future millimeter-waveband (mm-WB) Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) systems for wireless services integrated in a Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) is proposed in this dissertation. For the conceptual illustration, a DWDM RoF system with channel spacing of 12.5 GHz is considered. The mm-WB Radio Frequency (RF) signal is obtained at each Optical Network Unit (ONU) by simultaneously using optical heterodyning photo detection between two optical carriers. The generated RF modulated signal has a frequency of 12.5 GHz. This RoF system is easy, cost-effective, resistant to laser phase noise and also reduces maintenance needs, in principle. A revision of related RoF network proposals and experiments is also included. A number of models for Passive Optical Networks (PON)/ RoF-PON that combine both innovative and existing ideas along with a number of

  16. A Survey of Wireless Sensor Network Based Air Pollution Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wei Ying; Lo, Kin Ming; Mak, Terrence; Leung, Kwong Sak; Leung, Yee; Meng, Mei Ling

    2015-12-12

    The air quality in urban areas is a major concern in modern cities due to significant impacts of air pollution on public health, global environment, and worldwide economy. Recent studies reveal the importance of micro-level pollution information, including human personal exposure and acute exposure to air pollutants. A real-time system with high spatio-temporal resolution is essential because of the limited data availability and non-scalability of conventional air pollution monitoring systems. Currently, researchers focus on the concept of The Next Generation Air Pollution Monitoring System (TNGAPMS) and have achieved significant breakthroughs by utilizing the advance sensing technologies, MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). However, there exist potential problems of these newly proposed systems, namely the lack of 3D data acquisition ability and the flexibility of the sensor network. In this paper, we classify the existing works into three categories as Static Sensor Network (SSN), Community Sensor Network (CSN) and Vehicle Sensor Network (VSN) based on the carriers of the sensors. Comprehensive reviews and comparisons among these three types of sensor networks were also performed. Last but not least, we discuss the limitations of the existing works and conclude the objectives that we want to achieve in future systems.

  17. SecMAS: Security Enhanced Monitoring and Analysis Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring, control, and security guarantee for the communication in the wireless sensor networks (WSNs are currently treated as three independent issues and addressed separately through specialized tools. However, most cases of WSNs applications requires the network administrator change the network configuration in a very short time to response to the change of observed phenomenon with security guarantee. To meet this requirement, we propose a security enhanced monitoring and control platform named SecMAS for WSNs, which provides the real-time visualization about network states and online reconfiguration of the network properties and behaviours in a resource-efficient way. Besides, basic cryptographic primitives and part of the anomaly detection functionalities are implemented in SecMAS to enabling the secure communication in WSNs. Furthermore, we conduct experiments to evaluate the performance of SecMAS in terms of the latency, throughput, communication overhead, and the security capacity. The experimental results demonstrate that the SecMAS system achieves stable, efficient and secure data collection with lightweight quick-response network control.

  18. An intelligent wireless sensor network applied research on dynamic physiological data monitoring of athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Wu, Fei-qing; Li, Lin-gong

    2008-12-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) monitoring system was designed, because of the big labour, time-consumption, and non-real-time monitoring of the true physiological data of athlete for wire communication, which were very important for their coach. The coach, who obtained the first material, can know the physiological sports status of althletes according to these data, can intervene on them and formulate a scientific training plan. The system has the characteristic of a random layout, arbitrary additions and combined network nodes. The performance of the system for 24 athletes who were trained has been tested in the system improved LEACH-c protocol and a threshold sensitive energy efficient protocol has been applied. The experimental results showed that, while the interval time of the contact was more than 15 seconds, the network packet loss rate was less than 3 percent. The operation of the network can be considered to be relatively stable. During the test, the MAC network capacity obtained by the actual tests in the implicit terminal mode was three packets per second. Considering the costs of a node sending routing maintenance packet, a network capacity of 2 was reasonable. Based on the performance of the system for testing, the results showed that the system was stable and reliable

  19. Deposition, diffusion, and aggregation on small-world networks: a model for nanostructure growth on the defective substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao Zhigang [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zou Xianwu [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: xwzou@whu.edu.cn; Tan Zhijie [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Huang Shengyou [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jin Zhunzhi [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2004-10-11

    Deposition, diffusion, and aggregation (DDA) on a two-dimensional small-world network have been investigated by computer simulations. This model is characterized by two parameters: the clustering exponent {alpha} and long-range connection rate {phi}. The results show that as {alpha} and {phi} vary there exists a continuous crossover in the fractal dimension Df from 1.65 to 2, which corresponds to the crossover from the DDA pattern to dense one. The change of the aggregation pattern results from the long-range connection in the network, which reduces the effect of screening during the aggregation. With primitive analysis, we obtain the expressions of the fractal dimension Df and the crossover point {alpha}c. These results may be useful to describe the vapor deposition, molecular-beam epitaxy, and similar experiments on defective substrates.

  20. Sequential Optimal Monitoring Network Design using Iterative Kriging for Identification of Unknown Groundwater Pollution Sources Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, O.; Datta, B.

    2011-12-01

    Identification of unknown groundwater pollution source characteristics, in terms of location, magnitude and activity duration is important for designing an effective pollution remediation strategy. Precise source characterization also becomes very important to ascertain liability, and to recover the cost of remediation from parties responsible for the groundwater pollution. Due to the uncertainties in accurately predicting the aquifer response to source flux injection, generally encountered sparsity of concentration observation data in the field, and the non uniqueness in the aquifer response to the subjected hydraulic and chemical stresses, groundwater pollution source characterization remains a challenging task. A scientifically designed pollutant concentration monitoring network becomes imperative for accurate pollutant source characterization. The efficiency of the unknown source locations identification process is largely determined by locations of monitoring wells where the pollutant concentration is observed. The proposed method combines spatial interpolation of concentration measurements and Simulated Annealing as optimization algorithm to find the optimum locations for monitoring wells. Initially, the observed concentration data at few sparsely and arbitrarily distributed wells are used to interpolate the concentration data for the aquifer study area. The concentration information is passed to the optimization algorithm (decision model) as concentration gradient which in turn finds the optimum locations for implementing the next sequence of monitoring wells. Concentration measurement data from these designed monitoring wells and already implemented monitoring network are iteratively used as feedback information for potential groundwater pollution source locations identification. The potential applicability of the developed methodology is demonstrated for an illustrative study area.

  1. Recent Nitrogen Deposition In Poland Monitored With The Moss Pleurozium Schreberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta Paweł

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen was determined for Poland by moss biomonitoring. Nitrogen content was measured in the moss Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid. Mitt. sampled in 2010 from 320 sites evenly distributed throughout the country. Mosses (green parts contained an average 1.56% nitrogen. The result places Poland among the European countries most polluted by airborne nitrogen. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found in mosses from the central and southern parts of the country, and the lowest in samples from some eastern and northern regions. Multiple regression showed that this variability was due mostly to nitrogen emissions from agricultural and industrial areas (moss nitrogen was positively associated with the consumption of mineral nitrogen fertilizers and the magnitude of particulate pollution. Some details of the spatial variability of the nitrogen data indicate that local and regional point sources of pollution (e.g., chemical plants played an important role in shaping the nitrogen deposition pattern

  2. Multicriteria relocation analysis of an off-site radioactive monitoring network for a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Ning, Shu-Kuang; Chen, Jen-Chang

    2006-08-01

    Due to increasing environmental consciousness in most countries, every utility that owns a commercial nuclear power plant has been required to have both an on-site and off-site emergency response plan since the 1980s. A radiation monitoring network, viewed as part of the emergency response plan, can provide information regarding the radiation dosage emitted from a nuclear power plant in a regular operational period and/or abnormal measurements in an emergency event. Such monitoring information might help field operators and decision-makers to provide accurate responses or make decisions to protect the public health and safety. This study aims to conduct an integrated simulation and optimization analysis looking for the relocation strategy of a long-term regular off-site monitoring network at a nuclear power plant. The planning goal is to downsize the current monitoring network but maintain its monitoring capacity as much as possible. The monitoring sensors considered in this study include the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) and air sampling system (AP) simultaneously. It is designed for detecting the radionuclide accumulative concentration, the frequency of violation, and the possible population affected by a long-term impact in the surrounding area regularly while it can also be used in an accidental release event. With the aid of the calibrated Industrial Source Complex-Plume Rise Model Enhancements (ISC-PRIME) simulation model to track down the possible radionuclide diffusion, dispersion, transport, and transformation process in the atmospheric environment, a multiobjective evaluation process can be applied to achieve the screening of monitoring stations for the nuclear power plant located at Hengchun Peninsula, South Taiwan. To account for multiple objectives, this study calculated preference weights to linearly combine objective functions leading to decision-making with exposure assessment in an optimization context. Final suggestions should be useful for

  3. Atomic layer deposition on porous powders with in situ gravimetric monitoring in a modular fixed bed reactor setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strempel, V. E.; Naumann d'Alnoncourt, R.; Driess, M.; Rosowski, F.

    2017-07-01

    A modular setup for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on high-surface powder substrates in fixed bed reactors with a gravimetric in situ monitoring was developed. The design and operation are described in detail. An integrated magnetically suspended balance records mass changes during ALD. The highly versatile setup consists of three modular main units: a dosing unit, a reactor unit, and a downstream unit. The reactor unit includes the balance, a large fixed bed reactor, and a quartz crystal microbalance. The dosing unit is equipped with a complex manifold to deliver gases and gaseous reagents including three different ALD precursors, five oxidizing or reducing agents, and two purge gas lines. The system employs reactor temperatures and pressures in the range of 25-600 °C and 10-3 to 1 bar, respectively. Typically, powder batches between 100 mg and 50 g can be coated. The capabilities of the setup are demonstrated by coating mesoporous SiO2 powder with a thin AlOx (submono) layer using three cycles with trimethylaluminium and H2O. The self-limiting nature of the deposition has been verified with the in situ gravimetric monitoring and full saturation curves are presented. The process parameters were used for a scale-up in a large fixed bed reactor. The samples were analyzed with established analytics such as X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

  4. Satellite-derived mineral mapping and monitoring of weathering, deposition and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudahy, Thomas; Caccetta, Mike; Thomas, Matilda; Hewson, Robert; Abrams, Michael; Kato, Masatane; Kashimura, Osamu; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Collings, Simon; Laukamp, Carsten; Ong, Cindy; Lau, Ian; Rodger, Andrew; Chia, Joanne; Warren, Peter; Woodcock, Robert; Fraser, Ryan; Rankine, Terry; Vote, Josh; de Caritat, Patrice; English, Pauline; Meyer, Dave; Doescher, Chris; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Mitchell, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The Earth’s surface comprises minerals diagnostic of weathering, deposition and erosion. The first continental-scale mineral maps generated from an imaging satellite with spectral bands designed to measure clays, quartz and other minerals were released in 2012 for Australia. Here we show how these satellite mineral maps improve our understanding of weathering, erosional and depositional processes in the context of changing weather, climate and tectonics. The clay composition map shows how kaolinite has developed over tectonically stable continental crust in response to deep weathering during northwardly migrating tropical conditions from 45 to 10 Ma. The same clay composition map, in combination with one sensitive to water content, enables the discrimination of illite from montmorillonite clays that typically develop in large depositional environments over thin (sinking) continental crust such as the Lake Eyre Basin. Cutting across these clay patterns are sandy deserts that developed <10 Ma and are well mapped using another satellite product sensitive to the particle size of silicate minerals. This product can also be used to measure temporal gains/losses of surface clay caused by periodic wind erosion (dust) and rainfall inundation (flood) events. The accuracy and information content of these satellite mineral maps are validated using published data. PMID:27025192

  5. Satellite-derived mineral mapping and monitoring of weathering, deposition and erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudahy, Thomas; Caccetta, Mike; Thomas, Matilda; Hewson, Robert; Abrams, Michael; Kato, Masatane; Kashimura, Osamu; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Collings, Simon; Laukamp, Carsten; Ong, Cindy; Lau, Ian; Rodger, Andrew; Chia, Joanne; Warren, Peter; Woodcock, Robert; Fraser, Ryan; Rankine, Terry; Vote, Josh; de Caritat, Patrice; English, Pauline; Meyer, Dave; Doescher, Chris; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Mitchell, Ross

    2016-03-30

    The Earth's surface comprises minerals diagnostic of weathering, deposition and erosion. The first continental-scale mineral maps generated from an imaging satellite with spectral bands designed to measure clays, quartz and other minerals were released in 2012 for Australia. Here we show how these satellite mineral maps improve our understanding of weathering, erosional and depositional processes in the context of changing weather, climate and tectonics. The clay composition map shows how kaolinite has developed over tectonically stable continental crust in response to deep weathering during northwardly migrating tropical conditions from 45 to 10 Ma. The same clay composition map, in combination with one sensitive to water content, enables the discrimination of illite from montmorillonite clays that typically develop in large depositional environments over thin (sinking) continental crust such as the Lake Eyre Basin. Cutting across these clay patterns are sandy deserts that developed <10 Ma and are well mapped using another satellite product sensitive to the particle size of silicate minerals. This product can also be used to measure temporal gains/losses of surface clay caused by periodic wind erosion (dust) and rainfall inundation (flood) events. The accuracy and information content of these satellite mineral maps are validated using published data.

  6. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on silver-nanoparticle-coated carbon-nanotube networks fabricated by electrophoretic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anirban; Wang, Hao; Daniels-Race, Theda

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the efficiency of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) based porous substrates has been investigated for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. The fabrication of uniform thin coatings of carbon nanotubes is accomplished by Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) on organosilane functionalized silicon substrates. The deposition process exemplifies a fast, reproducible and single-step room temperature coating strategy to fabricate horizontally aligned porous CNT network. Surfactant stabilized AgNPs were deposited on the CNT networks by immersion coating. The acquired Raman spectra of Rhodamine6G (R6G) analyte examined on the fabricated Ag-CNT-Si substrates exhibited enhanced signal intensity values when compared to SERS-active planar AgNP-Si substrates. An overall enhancement factor of ˜109 was achieved for the tested analyte which enables pushing the limit of detection to 1 × 10-12 M (1 pM). The enhancement can be attributed to the large surface area offered by the AgNP-CNT porous network, which is expected to increase the number of effective "hot spots" for the SERS effect.

  7. APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR PREDICTION OF AIR POLLUTION LEVELS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pawul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of attention was paid to the improvement of methods which are used to air quality forecasting. Artificial neural networks can be applied to model these problems. Their advantage is that they can solve the problem in the conditions of incomplete information, without the knowledge of the analytical relationship between the input and output data. In this paper we applied artificial neural networks to predict the PM 10 concentrations as factors determining the occurrence of smog phenomena. To create these networks we used meteorological data and concentrations of PM 10. The data were recorded in 2014 and 2015 at three measuring stations operating in Krakow under the State Environmental Monitoring. The best results were obtained by three-layer perceptron with back-propagation algorithm. The neural networks received a good fit in all cases.

  8. Local seismic network for monitoring of a potential nuclear power plant area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiira, Timo; Uski, Marja; Kortström, Jari; Kaisko, Outi; Korja, Annakaisa

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a plan for seismic monitoring of a region around a potential nuclear power plant. Seismic monitoring is needed to evaluate seismic risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency has set guidelines on seismic hazard evaluation and monitoring of such areas. According to these guidelines, we have made a plan for a local network of seismic stations to collect data for seismic source characterization and seismotectonic interpretations, as well as to monitor seismic activity and natural hazards. The detection and location capability of the network were simulated using different station configurations by computing spatial azimuthal coverages and detection threshold magnitudes. Background noise conditions around Pyhäjoki were analyzed by comparing data from different stations. The annual number of microearthquakes that should be detected with a dense local network centered around Pyhäjoki was estimated. The network should be dense enough to fulfill the requirements of azimuthal coverage better than 180° and automatic event location capability down to ML ˜ 0 within a distance of 25 km from the site. A network of 10 stations should be enough to reach these goals. With this setup, the detection threshold magnitudes are estimated to be ML = -0.1 and ML = 0.1 within a radius of 25 and 50 km from Pyhäjoki, respectively. The annual number of earthquakes detected by the network is estimated to be 2 (ML ≥ ˜ -0.1) within 25 km radius and 5 (ML ≥ ˜-0.1 to ˜0.1) within 50 km radius. The location accuracy within 25 km radius is estimated to be 1-2 and 4 km for horizontal coordinates and depth, respectively. Thus, the network is dense enough to map out capable faults with horizontal accuracy of 1-2 km within 25 km radius of the site. The estimation is based on the location accuracies of five existing networks in northern Europe. Local factors, such as seismic noise sources, geology and infrastructure might limit the station configuration and detection and

  9. An Operational In Situ Soil Moisture & Soil Temperature Monitoring Network for West Wales, UK: The WSMN Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. Petropoulos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a soil moisture dataset that has been collecting ground measurements of soil moisture, soil temperature and related parameters for west Wales, United Kingdom. Already acquired in situ data have been archived to the autonomous Wales Soil Moisture Network (WSMN since its foundation in July 2011. The sites from which measurements are being collected represent a range of conditions typical of the Welsh environment, with climate ranging from oceanic to temperate and a range of the most typical land use/cover types found in Wales. At present, WSMN consists of a total of nine monitoring sites across the area with a concentration of sites in three sub-areas around the region of Aberystwyth located in Mid-Wales. The dataset of composed of 0–5 (or 0–10 cm soil moisture, soil temperature, precipitation, and other ancillary data. WSMN data are provided openly to the public via the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN platform. At present, WSMN is also rapidly expanding thanks to funding obtained recently which allows more monitoring sites to be added to the network to the wider community interested in using its data.

  10. SeaDataNet network services monitoring: Definition and Implementation of Service availability index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykiardopoulos, Angelos; Mpalopoulou, Stavroula; Vavilis, Panagiotis; Pantazi, Maria; Iona, Sissy

    2014-05-01

    SeaDataNet (SDN) is a standardized system for managing large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the automatic observation systems. The SeaDataNet network is constituted of national oceanographic data centres of 35 countries, active in data collection. SeaDataNetII project's objective is to upgrade the present SeaDataNet infrastructure into an operationally robust and state-of-the-art infrastructure; therefore Network Monitoring is a step to this direction. The term Network Monitoring describes the use of system that constantly monitors a computer network for slow or failing components and that notifies the network administrator in case of outages. Network monitoring is crucial when implementing widely distributed systems over the Internet and in real-time systems as it detects malfunctions that may occur and notifies the system administrator who can immediately respond and correct the problem. In the framework of SeaDataNet II project a monitoring system was developed in order to monitor the SeaDataNet components. The core system is based on Nagios software. Some plug-ins were developed to support SeaDataNet modules. On the top of Nagios Engine a web portal was developed in order to give access to local administrators of SeaDataNet components, to view detailed logs of their own service(s). Currently the system monitors 35 SeaDataNet Download Managers, 9 SeaDataNet Services, 25 GeoSeas Download Managers and 23 UBSS Download Managers . Taking advantage of the continuous monitoring of SeaDataNet system components a total availability index will be implemented. The term availability can be defined as the ability of a functional unit to be in a state to perform a required function under given conditions at a given instant of time or over a given time interval, assuming that the required external resources are provided. Availability measures can be considered as a are very important benefit becauseT - The availability trends that can be

  11. Model Based Optimal Sensor Network Design for Condition Monitoring in an IGCC Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajeeva; Kumar, Aditya; Dai, Dan; Seenumani, Gayathri; Down, John; Lopez, Rodrigo

    2012-12-31

    This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a general model-based sensor network design methodology and tools to address key issues in the design of an optimal sensor network configuration: the type, location and number of sensors used in a network, for online condition monitoring. In particular, the focus in this work is to develop software tools for optimal sensor placement (OSP) and use these tools to design optimal sensor network configuration for online condition monitoring of gasifier refractory wear and radiant syngas cooler (RSC) fouling. The methodology developed will be applicable to sensing system design for online condition monitoring for broad range of applications. The overall approach consists of (i) defining condition monitoring requirement in terms of OSP and mapping these requirements in mathematical terms for OSP algorithm, (ii) analyzing trade-off of alternate OSP algorithms, down selecting the most relevant ones and developing them for IGCC applications (iii) enhancing the gasifier and RSC models as required by OSP algorithms, (iv) applying the developed OSP algorithm to design the optimal sensor network required for the condition monitoring of an IGCC gasifier refractory and RSC fouling. Two key requirements for OSP for condition monitoring are desired precision for the monitoring variables (e.g. refractory wear) and reliability of the proposed sensor network in the presence of expected sensor failures. The OSP problem is naturally posed within a Kalman filtering approach as an integer programming problem where the key requirements of precision and reliability are imposed as constraints. The optimization is performed over the overall network cost. Based on extensive literature survey two formulations were identified as being relevant to OSP for condition monitoring; one based on LMI formulation and the other being standard INLP formulation. Various algorithms to solve

  12. Concept of Complex Environmental Monitoring Network - Vardzia Rock Cut City Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashvili, Mikheil; Vacheishvili, Nikoloz; Margottini, Claudio; Basilaia, Giorgi; Chkhaidze, Davit; Kvavadze, Davit; Spizzichino, Daniele; Boscagli, Franceso; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Adikashvili, Luka; Navrozashvili, Levan

    2016-04-01

    Vardzia represents an unique cultural heritage monument - rock cut city, which unites architectural monument and Natural-Geological complex. Such monuments are particularly vulnerable and their restoration and conservation requires complex approach. It is curved in various layers of volcanic tuffs and covers several hectares of area, with chronologically different segments of construction. This monument, as many similar monuments worldwide, is subjected to slow but permanent process of destruction, expressed in following factors: surface weathering of rock, active tectonics (aseismic displacement along the active faults and earthquakes), interaction between lithologically different rock layers, existence of major cracks and associated complex block structure, surface rainwater runoff and infiltrated ground water, temperature variations, etc. During its lifetime, Vardzia was heavily damaged by Historical Earthquake of 1283 and only partly restored afterwards. The technological progress together with the increased knowledge about ongoing environmental processes, established the common understanding that the complex monitoring of the environment represents the essential component for resolving such a principal issues, as: Proper management and prevention of natural disasters; Modeling of environmental processes, their short and long term prognosis; Monitoring of macro and micro climate; Safe functioning and preservation of important constructions. Research Center of Cultural Heritage and Environment of Ilia State University in cooperation with Experts from ISPRA, with the funding from the State agency of Cultural Heritage, has developed a concept of Vardzia complex monitoring network. Concept of the network includes: monitoring local meteorological conditions (meteorological station), monitoring microclimate in caves (temperature and humidity in the air and rock), monitoring microtremors and ambient seismic noise in Vardzia (local strong motion network), monitoring

  13. A Distributed Multiagent System Architecture for Body Area Networks Applied to Healthcare Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laza, Rosalía; Pereira, António

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the area of health monitoring has grown significantly, attracting the attention of both academia and commercial sectors. At the same time, the availability of new biomedical sensors and suitable network protocols has led to the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks, the so-called wireless body area networks. Nowadays, these networks are routinely used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment of people, but the large volume of data generated in different locations represents a major obstacle for the appropriate design, development, and deployment of more elaborated intelligent systems. In this context, we present an open and distributed architecture based on a multiagent system for recognizing human movements, identifying human postures, and detecting harmful activities. The proposed system evolved from a single node for fall detection to a multisensor hardware solution capable of identifying unhampered falls and analyzing the users' movement. The experiments carried out contemplate two different scenarios and demonstrate the accuracy of our proposal as a real distributed movement monitoring and accident detection system. Moreover, we also characterize its performance, enabling future analyses and comparisons with similar approaches. PMID:25874202

  14. Robot Assisted Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring and Detection of Explosives in Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Freeman,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, remote environment monitoring has been significantly improved with wireless sensor networking technology. This paper presents the real time streaming of an indoor environment using a wireless sensor network and a set of self-navigating robots. Mobile robots with mounted sensors will autonomously navigate through an indoor area with unknown obstacles. The robots will be able toavoid obstacles and move around the region. The robots sense the environmental parameters of the region, and send that data to the remote monitoring terminals using an underlying wireless sensornetwork. This design is applicable to networks where some of the sensors may not have sufficient range to sense data more accurately and closer monitoring is required. Effective path planning for the mobile robot is achieved by combining a map of the area, the sensor readings and the radio strength of the sensor network. Email alerts can be sent to officials if the sensed data goes above a predefined threshold level, thus successfully detecting the presence of explosives in a given area. This system streams the data in realtimeto the Internet making it possible for authorized personnel to view the status of the environment online.

  15. Research and Practice on the Crustal Deformation Mobile Monitoring Network Layout in the Hydropower Station Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Hong; Liu Tianhai; Zhang Jincheng; Zhang Chengqiang; Yu Haisheng; Sun Baicheng; Yang Huaining; Du Xiaoxia

    2010-01-01

    According to the construction project of the crustal deformation mobile monitoring network in the cascade hydropower stations built in the lower reaches of Jinsha River,this paper analyzes the design ideas and layout principles of crustal deformation mobile monitoring used in the monitoring of reservoir induced earthquakes.This paper introduces three types of monitoring networks used in the Xiluodu reservoir and Xiangjiaba reservoir,as well as the work already undertaken,in order to provide a kind of reference for the reiated engineering construction and comprehensive monitoring of reservoir induced earthquakes.

  16. Study on Wireless Network Communication in Stage Hydraulic Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel stage hydraulic monitoring system based on Internet of Things (IoT is proposed in this paper. Compared with the traditional wired system, the proposed system is a flexible working method and can save the cost. Furthermore, it has the low power consumption, high safety, and large scale network. The real-time pressure and flow data can be collected by using the nodes in ZigBee network. The fault detection and diagnosis process was used in this study, which was facilitated by measuring pressure of flow. When the monitored data exceeds the normal range, some failure may occur in the stage hydraulic system. If any failure occurs in the circuit, the maintainers can be informed immediately, which can greatly improve maintenance efficiency, ensuring the failure to be eliminated in time. Meanwhile, we can take advantage of wireless sensor network (WSN to connect the multiple loops and then monitor the loops by using ZigBee technology, which greatly improves the efficiency of monitoring.

  17. A Design of Wireless Sensor Networks for a Power Quality Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanggil Kang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Power grids deal with the business of generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. Recently, interest in power quality in electrical distribution systems has increased rapidly. In Korea, the communication network to deliver voltage, current, and temperature measurements gathered from pole transformers to remote monitoring centers employs cellular mobile technology. Due to high cost of the cellular mobile technology, power quality monitoring measurements are limited and data gathering intervals are large. This causes difficulties in providing the power quality monitoring service. To alleviate the problems, in this paper we present a communication infrastructure to provide low cost, reliable data delivery. The communication infrastructure consists of wired connections between substations and monitoring centers, and wireless connections between pole transformers and substations. For the wireless connection, we employ a wireless sensor network and design its corresponding data forwarding protocol to improve the quality of data delivery. For the design, we adopt a tree-based data forwarding protocol in order to customize the distribution pattern of the power quality information. We verify the performance of the proposed data forwarding protocol quantitatively using the NS-2 network simulator.

  18. Gastric bypass patients' goal-strategy-monitoring networks for long-term dietary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Amanda; Bisogni, Carole A

    2014-10-01

    Following gastric bypass surgery, patients must make dramatic dietary changes, but little is known about patients' perspectives on long-term dietary management after this surgery. This grounded theory, qualitative study sought to advance conceptual understanding of food choice by examining how gastric bypass patients constructed personal food systems to guide food and eating behaviors 12 months post-surgery. Two in-depth interviews were conducted with each of 16 adults, purposively sampled from bariatric support groups. Using constant comparative analysis of verbatim interview transcripts, researchers identified participants' goal-strategy-monitoring networks representing how participants used specific food and eating behaviors towards their main goals of: Weight Management, Overall Health, Avoiding Negative Reactions to Eating, and Integrating Dietary Changes with Daily Life. Linked to each main goal was a hierarchy of intermediary goals, strategies, and tactics. Participants used monitoring behaviors to assess strategy effectiveness towards goal achievement. Individuals' Weight Management networks were compared to uncover similarities and differences among strategy use and monitoring methods among those who maintained weight loss and those who regained weight. The complex, multilevel goal-strategy-monitoring networks identified illustrate the "work" involved in constructing new personal food systems after surgery, as well as advance understanding of strategies as a component of people's personal food systems. These findings provide researchers and practitioners with insight into the long-term dietary issues that gastric bypass patients face and a potential method for representing how people relate deliberate dietary behaviors to their goals.

  19. Energy Efficient Monitoring for Intrusion Detection in Battery-Powered Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hassanzadeh, Amin

    2011-07-18

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) are easy-to-deploy, low cost solutions for providing networking and internet services in environments with no network infrastructure, e.g., disaster areas and battlefields. Since electric power is not readily available in such environments battery-powered mesh routers, operating in an energy efficient manner, are required. To the best of our knowledge, the impact of energy efficient solutions, e.g., involving duty-cycling, on WMN intrusion detection systems, which require continuous monitoring, remains an open research problem. In this paper we propose that carefully chosen monitoring mesh nodes ensure continuous and complete detection coverage, while allowing non-monitoring mesh nodes to save energy through duty-cycling. We formulate the monitoring node selection problem as an optimization problem and propose distributed and centralized solutions for it, with different tradeoffs. Through extensive simulations and a proof-of-concept hardware/software implementation we demonstrate that our solutions extend the WMN lifetime by 8%, while ensuring, at the minimum, a 97% intrusion detection rate.

  20. A Survey on Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks for Bicycle Performance Monitoring Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Kamel Gharghan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have greatly advanced in the past few decades and are now widely used, especially for remote monitoring; the list of potential uses seems endless. Three types of wireless sensor technologies (Bluetooth, ZigBee, and ANT have been used to monitor the biomechanical and physiological activities of bicycles and cyclists, respectively. However, the wireless monitoring of these activities has faced some challenges. The aim of this paper is to highlight various methodologies for monitoring cycling to provide an effective and efficient way to overcome the various challenges and limitations of sports cycling using wireless sensor interfaces. Several design criteria were reviewed and compared with different solutions for the implementation of current WSN research, such as low power consumption, long distance communications, small size, and light weight. Conclusions were drawn after observing the example of an advanced and adaptive network technology (ANT network highlighting reduced power consumption and prolonged battery life. The power saving achieved in the slave node was 88–95% compared to the similar ANT protocol used in the medical rehabilitation.

  1. PM2.5 monitoring system based on ZigBee wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lukai; Li, Xiangshun; Gu, Weiying

    2017-06-01

    In the view of the haze problem, aiming at improving the deficiency of the traditional PM2.5 monitoring methods, such as the insufficient real-time monitoring, limited transmission distance, high cost and the difficulty to maintain, the atmosphere PM2.5 monitoring system based on ZigBee technology is designed. The system combines the advantages of ZigBee’s low cost, low power consumption, high reliability and GPRS/Internet’s capability of remote transmission of data. Furthermore, it adopts TI’s Z-Stack protocol stack, and selects CC2530 chip and TI’s MSP430 microcontroller as the core, which establishes the air pollution monitoring network that is helpful for the early prediction of major air pollution disasters.

  2. Monitoring architectural heritage by wireless sensors networks: San Gimignano--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecocci, Alessandro; Abrardo, Andrea

    2014-01-03

    This paper describes a wireless sensor network (WSN) used to monitor the health state of architectural heritage in real-time. The WSN has been deployed and tested on the "Rognosa" tower in the medieval village of San Gimignano, Tuscany, Italy. This technology, being non-invasive, mimetic, and long lasting, is particularly well suited for long term monitoring and on-line diagnosis of the conservation state of heritage buildings. The proposed monitoring system comprises radio-equipped nodes linked to suitable sensors capable of monitoring crucial parameters like: temperature, humidity, masonry cracks, pouring rain, and visual light. The access to data is granted by a user interface for remote control. The WSN can autonomously send remote alarms when predefined thresholds are reached.

  3. Monitoring Architectural Heritage by Wireless Sensors Networks: San Gimignano — A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecocci, Alessandro; Abrardo, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a wireless sensor network (WSN) used to monitor the health state of architectural heritage in real-time. The WSN has been deployed and tested on the “Rognosa” tower in the medieval village of San Gimignano, Tuscany, Italy. This technology, being non-invasive, mimetic, and long lasting, is particularly well suited for long term monitoring and on-line diagnosis of the conservation state of heritage buildings. The proposed monitoring system comprises radio-equipped nodes linked to suitable sensors capable of monitoring crucial parameters like: temperature, humidity, masonry cracks, pouring rain, and visual light. The access to data is granted by a user interface for remote control. The WSN can autonomously send remote alarms when predefined thresholds are reached. PMID:24394600

  4. A Review on Modeling and Monitoring of Dust Dry Deposition%粉尘干沉降研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卓群; 张洁; 黄宁; 邵亚平; 郑晓静

    2011-01-01

    粉尘在地球系统中的循环是一个受到广泛关注的研究领域,而粉尘干沉降是该循环中的关键一环.从粉尘干沉降的基本特征入手,分析粉尘在大气边界层中的运动规律和地表收集粉尘的物理过程;结合颗粒性质,地表特征以及流场条件等因素,对粉尘干沉降的研究工作进行了简要的回顾;分析并比较了现有的粉尘干沉降方案和实验结果,对影响粉尘干沉降过程的主要因素进行了讨论.通过对已有工作的总结和分析,指出了粉尘干沉降研究中存在的主要问题及其发展趋势.%Dust dry deposition is a key component of the dust cycle in the earth system. In this review paper, we first outline the basic characteristics of dust motion in the atmospheric boundary layer and the dust collection processes at the surface. The effect of the physical features of the surface on the efficiency of dust collection is discussed. The dust dry deposition schemes are reviewed, considering dust property, surface character and wind field conditions. A summary of dry deposition schemes, measurements and model-measurement comparisons is then presented. The remaining challenges in dry deposition modeling and monitoring are discussed.

  5. Development of the Nation-Wide Dosimetric Monitoring Network in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumak, V.; Boguslavskaya, A.; Musijachenko, A.

    2004-07-01

    Development of the nation-wide network for monitoring and registration of individual doses is being in progress in Ukraine. The need for urgent action is caused by the fact, that despite wide use of nuclear energy and radiation sources in industry and medicine, there is no centralized dose accounting system in Ukraine, existing dosimetry services operate obsolete manual TLD readers and no methodological unity is observed by the dosimetry services. Presently the mixed dosimetric monitoring is practiced in Ukraine. Nuclear power plants and some major nuclear facilities have their own dosimetry services responsible for dosimetric monitoring of workers. Rest of occupationally exposed persons is monitored by territorial dosimetry laboratories affiliated to sanitary and epidemiology supervision bodies. In total these services cover about 38,000 occupationally exposed workers, including 5,500 in medicine, 16,400 employees of five nuclear power plants and about 16,000 workers dealing with other sources of occupational exposure (industry, research, military). It is prescribed by the governmental decree that three-level united state system assigned to covering all aspects of efficient dosimetric monitoring should be established. The tasks of the system, in particular, are: securing methodical unity of individual dosimetric monitoring; scientific and methodological guidance of individual dosimetric control; procurement of common technical policy regarding nomenclature and operation of instrumentation; implementation of quality assurance programs; development and support of information infrastructure for logging, storage and access to data on individual dosimetric monitoring, in particular - keeping the national registry of individual doses; training and certification of personnel engaged in the system of individual dosimetric monitoring. In its development, the national system will be guided by international experience and will be established according to the best practices

  6. Bushfire Disaster Monitoring System Using Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jin Kang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some applications, including disaster monitoring and recovery networks, use low-power wide-area networks (LPWAN. LPWAN sensors capture data bits and transmit them to public carrier networks (e.g., cellular networks via dedicated gateways. One of the challenges encountered in disaster management scenarios revolves around the carry/forward sensed data and geographical location information dissemination to the disaster relief operatives (disaster relief agency; DRA to identify, characterise, and prioritise the affected areas. There are network topology options to reach its destination, including cellular, circuit switched, and peer-to-peer networks. In the context of natural disaster prediction, it is vital to access geographical location data as well as the timestamp. This paper proposes the usage of Pseudo A Number (PAN, that is, the calling party address, which is used by every network to include the location information instead of the actual calling party address of the gateway in LPWAN. This PAN information can be further analysed by the DRA to identify the affected areas and predict the complications of the disaster impacts in addition to the past history of damages. This paper aims to propose a solution that can predict disaster proceedings based on propagation and the velocity of impact using vector calculation of the location data and the timestamp, which are transmitted by sensors through the PAN of the gateway in LPWAN.

  7. An agronomic field-scale sensor network for monitoring soil water and temperature variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. J.; Gasch, C.; Brooks, E. S.; Huggins, D. R.; Campbell, C. S.; Cobos, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental sensor networks have been deployed in a variety of contexts to monitor plant, air, water and soil properties. To date, there have been relatively few such networks deployed to monitor dynamic soil properties in cropped fields. Here we report on experience with a distributed soil sensor network that has been deployed for seven years in a research farm with ongoing agronomic field operations. The Washington State University R. J. Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF), Pullman, WA, USA has recently been designated a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) site. In 2007, 12 geo-referenced locations at CAF were instrumented, then in 2009 this network was expended to 42 locations distributed across the 37-ha farm. At each of this locations, Decagon 5TE probes (Decagon Devices Inc., Pullman, WA, USA) were installed at five depths (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 cm), with temperature and volumetric soil moisture content recorded hourly. Initially, data loggers were wirelessly connected to a data station that could be accessed through a cell connection, but due to the logistics of agronomic field operations, we later buried the dataloggers at each site and now periodically download data via local radio transmission. In this presentation, we share our experience with the installation, maintenance, calibration and data processing associated with an agronomic soil monitoring network. We also present highlights of data derived from this network, including seasonal fluctuations of soil temperature and volumetric water content at each depth, and how these measurements are influenced by crop type, soil properties, landscape position, and precipitation events.

  8. Analysis and evolution of air quality monitoring networks using combined statistical information indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Osses

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present combined statistical indexes for evaluating air quality monitoring networks based on concepts derived from the information theory and Kullback–Liebler divergence. More precisely, we introduce: (1 the standard measure of complementary mutual information or ‘specificity’ index; (2 a new measure of information gain or ‘representativity’ index; (3 the information gaps associated with the evolution of a network and (4 the normalised information distance used in clustering analysis. All these information concepts are illustrated by applying them to 14 yr of data collected by the air quality monitoring network in Santiago de Chile (33.5 S, 70.5 W, 500 m a.s.l.. We find that downtown stations, located in a relatively flat area of the Santiago basin, generally show high ‘representativity’ and low ‘specificity’, whereas the contrary is found for a station located in a canyon to the east of the basin, consistently with known emission and circulation patterns of Santiago. We also show interesting applications of information gain to the analysis of the evolution of a network, where the choice of background information is also discussed, and of mutual information distance to the classifications of stations. Our analyses show that information as those presented here should of course be used in a complementary way when addressing the analysis of an air quality network for planning and evaluation purposes.

  9. Reliability Analysis of Aircraft Condition Monitoring Network Using an Enhanced BDD Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Changxiao; CHEN Yao; WANG Hailiang; XIONG Huagang

    2012-01-01

    The aircraft condition monitoring network is responsible for collecting the status of each component in aircraft.The reliability of this network has a significant effect on safety of the aircraft.The aircraft condition monitoring network works in a real-time manner that all the data should be transmitted within the deadline to ensure that the control center makes proper decision in time.Only the connectedness between the source node and destination cannot guarantee the data to be transmitted in time.In this paper,we take the time deadline into account and build the task-based reliability model.The binary decision diagram (BDD),which has the merit of efficiency in computing and storage space,is introduced when calculating the reliability of the network and addressing the essential variable.A case is analyzed using the algorithm proposed in this paper.The experimental results show that our method is efficient and proper for the reliability analysis of the real-time network.

  10. Geophysical monitoring of a complex geologic framework: the multi-disciplinary sensor networks in Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, M.; Di Prima, S.; Mattia, M.; Patanè, D.; Rossi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Since 2004 the Osservatorio Etneo INGV has begun a new approach to the geophysical monitoring of volcanic and seismic areas of Sicily (Italy) where the core is a new type of remote infrastructure able to efficiently accommodate different kinds of sensor. In particular our multi-parametric network is mainly focused on the monitoring of different geophysical parameters (seismic ground velocity and acceleration, infrasound and ground deformation GPS).The whole seismic network consists of 66 broad band digital stations, 19 analog stations, 13 accelerometric stations and 12 infrasonic stations, for a total of 110 stations while the Continuous GPS network consist of 80 stations. Every station is equipped with solar panels in order to satisfy the power requirements of the instruments and with satellite-based communication systems. In this work we show both the technical solutions of this integrated network and its main advantages, if compared with older kinds of remote stations. Moreover we show some examples of the more interesting scientific results achieved thank to this technologically advanced network.

  11. Real-time condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in switched reluctance motors with Kohonen neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali UYSAL; Raif BAYIR

    2013-01-01

    The faults in switched reluctance motors (SRMs) were detected and diagnosed in real time with the Kohonen neural network. When a fault happens, both financial losses and undesired situations may occur. For these reasons, it is important to detect the incipient faults of SRMs and to diagnose which faults have occurred. In this study, a test rig was realized to determine the healthy and faulty conditions of SRMs. A data set for the Kohonen neural network was created with implemented measurements. A graphical user interface (GUI) was created in Matlab to test the performance of the Kohonen artificial neural network in real time. The data of the SRM was transferred to this software with a data acquisition card. The condition of the motor was monitored by marking the data measured in real time on the weight position graph of the Kohonen neural network. This test rig is capable of real-time monitoring of the condition of SRMs, which are used with intermittent or continuous operation, and is capable of de-tecting and diagnosing the faults that may occur in the motor. The Kohonen neural network used for detection and diagnosis of faults of the SRM in real time with Matlab GUI was embedded in an STM32 processor. A prototype with the STM32 processor was developed to detect and diagnose the faults of SRMs independent of computers.

  12. Monitoring of the morphologic reconstruction of deposited ablation products in laser irradiation of silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and IR spectroscopy, it was established that, in the regime of continuous laser irradiation of silicon at P = 170 W in different gaseous atmospheres with an oxygen impurity, SiOx composite films with a complex morphology form. The main components of ablation products are clusters that form during flight of ablation products and as a result of separation of SiOx-clusters from the zone of the irradiation channel. The roughness and density of the films depend on the heating temperature of the target surface and the type of deposited clusters.

  13. The new Athens center on data processing from the neutron monitor network in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavromichalaki

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The ground-based neutron monitors (NMs record galactic and solar relativistic cosmic rays which can play a useful key role in space weather forecasting, as a result of their interaction with interplanetary disturbances. The Earth's-based neutron monitor network has been used in order to produce a real-time prediction of space weather phenomena. Therefore, the Athens Neutron Monitor Data Processing Center (ANMODAP takes advantage of this unique multi-directional device to solve problems concerning the diagnosis and forecasting of space weather. At this moment there has been a multi-sided use of neutron monitors. On the one hand, a preliminary alert for ground level enhancements (GLEs may be provided due to relativistic solar particles and can be registered around 20 to 30 min before the arrival of the main part of lower energy particles responsible for radiation hazard. To make a more reliable prognosis of these events, real time data from channels of lower energy particles and X-ray intensity from the GOES satellite are involved in the analysis. The other possibility is to search in real time for predictors of geomagnetic storms when they occur simultaneously with Forbush effects, using hourly, on-line accessible neutron monitor data from the worldwide network and applying a special method of processing. This chance of prognosis is only being elaborated and considered here as one of the possible uses of the Neutron Monitor Network for forecasting the arrival of interplanetary disturbance to the Earth. The achievements, the processes and the future results, are discussed in this work.

  14. Monitoring and classifying animal behavior using ZigBee-based mobile ad hoc wireless sensor networks and artificial neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare is an issue of great importance in modern food production systems. Because animal behavior provides reliable information about animal health and welfare, recent research has aimed at designing monitoring systems capable of measuring behavioral parameters and transforming them...... into their corresponding behavioral modes. However, network unreliability and high-energy consumption have limited the applicability of those systems. In this study, a 2.4-GHz ZigBee-based mobile ad hoc wireless sensor network (MANET) that is able to overcome those problems is presented. The designed MANET showed high...... communication reliability, low energy consumption and low packet loss rate (14.8%) due to the deployment of modern communication protocols (e.g. multi-hop communication and handshaking protocol). The measured behavioral parameters were transformed into the corresponding behavioral modes using a multilayer...

  15. Two States CBR Modeling of Data Source in Dynamic Traffic Monitoring Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Real traffic information was analyzed in the statistical characteristics and approximated as a Gaussian time series. A data source model, called two states constant bit rate (TSCBR), was proposed in dynamic traffic monitoring sensor networks. Analysis of autocorrelation of the models shows that the proposed TSCBR model matches with the statistical characteristics of real data source closely. To further verify the validity of the TSCBR data source model, the performance metrics of power consumption and network lifetime was studied in the evaluation of sensor media access control (SMAC) algorithm. The simulation results show that compared with traditional data source models, TSCBR model can significantly improve accuracy of the algorithm evaluation.

  16. Study on Wireless Network Communication in Stage Hydraulic Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A novel stage hydraulic monitoring system based on Internet of Things (IoT) is proposed in this paper. Compared with the traditional wired system, the proposed system is a flexible working method and can save the cost. Furthermore, it has the low power consumption, high safety, and large scale network. The real-time pressure and flow data can be collected by using the nodes in ZigBee network. The fault detection and diagnosis process was used in this study, which was facilitated by measuring ...

  17. Reliable Communication in Wireless Body Area Sensor Network for Health Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Bahanfar, Saeid; Kousha, Helia; Babaie, Shahram

    2011-01-01

    Now days, interests in the application of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) have grown considerably. A number of tiny wireless sensors, strategically placed on the human body, create a wireless body area network that can monitor various vital signs, providing real-time feedback to the user and medical personnel. This communication needs to be energy efficient and highly reliable while keeping delays low. In this paper we present hardware and software architecture for BAN and also we offer reliable communication and data aggregation.

  18. Development of a wireless sensor network for individual monitoring of panels in a photovoltaic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Miguel J; Pernía, Alberto M; Nuño, Fernando; Díaz, Juan; Villegas, Pedro J

    2014-01-30

    With photovoltaic (PV) systems proliferating in the last few years due to the high prices of fossil fuels and pollution issues, among others, it is extremely important to monitor the efficiency of these plants and optimize the energy production process. This will also result in improvements related to the maintenance and security of the installation. In order to do so, the main parameters in the plant must be continuously monitored so that the appropriate actions can be carried out. This monitoring should not only be carried out at a global level, but also at panel-level, so that a better understanding of what is actually happening in the PV plant can be obtained. This paper presents a system based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) that includes all the components required for such monitoring as well as a power supply obtaining the energy required by the sensors from the photovoltaic panels. The system proposed succeeds in identifying all the nodes in the network and provides real-time monitoring while tracking efficiency, features, failures and weaknesses from a single cell up to the whole infrastructure. Thus, the decision-making process is simplified, which contributes to reducing failures, wastes and, consequently, costs.

  19. SIMAC: development and implementation of a coral reef monitoring network in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto

    2010-05-01

    Significant coral reef decline has been observed in Colombia during the last three decades. However, due to the lack of monitoring activities, most of the information about health and changes was fragmentary or inadequate. To develop an expanded nation-wide reef-monitoring program, in 1998 INVEMAR (Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras: "Colombian Institute of Marine and Coastal Research") designed and implemented SIMAC (Sistema Nacional de Monitorco de Arrecifes Coralinos en Colombia: "National Monitoring System of Coral Reefs in Colombia") with the participation of other institutions. By the end of 2003 the SIMAC network reached more than twice its initial size, covering ten reef areas (seven in the Caribbean and three in the Pacific), 63 reef sites and 263 permanent transects. SIMAC monitoring continued without interruption until 2008 and should persist in the long-term. The SIMAC has a large database and consists basically of water quality measurements (temperature, salinity, turbidity) and a yearly estimation of benthic reef cover, coral disease prevalence, gorgonian density, abundance of important mobile invertebrates, fish diversity and abundance of important fish species. A methods manual is available in the Internet. Data and results of SIMAC have been widely circulated through a summary report published annually since 2000 for the Colombian environmental agencies and the general public, as well as numerous national and international scientific papers and presentations at meetings. SIMAC information has contributed to support regional and global reef monitoring networks and databases (i.e. CARICOMP, GCRMN, ReefBase).

  20. Development of a Wireless Sensor Network for Individual Monitoring of Panels in a Photovoltaic Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J. Prieto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With photovoltaic (PV systems proliferating in the last few years due to the high prices of fossil fuels and pollution issues, among others, it is extremely important to monitor the efficiency of these plants and optimize the energy production process. This will also result in improvements related to the maintenance and security of the installation. In order to do so, the main parameters in the plant must be continuously monitored so that the appropriate actions can be carried out. This monitoring should not only be carried out at a global level, but also at panel-level, so that a better understanding of what is actually happening in the PV plant can be obtained. This paper presents a system based on a wireless sensor network (WSN that includes all the components required for such monitoring as well as a power supply obtaining the energy required by the sensors from the photovoltaic panels. The system proposed succeeds in identifying all the nodes in the network and provides real-time monitoring while tracking efficiency, features, failures and weaknesses from a single cell up to the whole infrastructure. Thus, the decision-making process is simplified, which contributes to reducing failures, wastes and, consequently, costs.

  1. Optimal design of hydrometric monitoring networks with dynamic components based on Information Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Leonardo; Chacon, Juan; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    The EC-FP7 WeSenseIt project proposes the development of a Citizen Observatory of Water, aiming at enhancing environmental monitoring and forecasting with the help of citizens equipped with low-cost sensors and personal devices such as smartphones and smart umbrellas. In this regard, Citizen Observatories may complement the limited data availability in terms of spatial and temporal density, which is of interest, among other areas, to improve hydraulic and hydrological models. At this point, the following question arises: how can citizens, who are part of a citizen observatory, be optimally guided so that the data they collect and send is useful to improve modelling and water management? This research proposes a new methodology to identify the optimal location and timing of potential observations coming from moving sensors of hydrological variables. The methodology is based on Information Theory, which has been widely used in hydrometric monitoring design [1-4]. In particular, the concepts of Joint Entropy, as a measure of the amount of information that is contained in a set of random variables, which, in our case, correspond to the time series of hydrological variables captured at given locations in a catchment. The methodology presented is a step forward in the state of the art because it solves the multiobjective optimisation problem of getting simultaneously the minimum number of informative and non-redundant sensors needed for a given time, so that the best configuration of monitoring sites is found at every particular moment in time. To this end, the existing algorithms have been improved to make them efficient. The method is applied to cases in The Netherlands, UK and Italy and proves to have a great potential to complement the existing in-situ monitoring networks. [1] Alfonso, L., A. Lobbrecht, and R. Price (2010a), Information theory-based approach for location of monitoring water level gauges in polders, Water Resour. Res., 46(3), W03528 [2] Alfonso, L., A

  2. METHOD OF ESTIMATION FREQUENCY PROPERTIES OF THE PREINSULATED PIPES FOR MONITORING THE STATUS OF HEATING NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Taletskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed approximate method for the preliminary assessment of the frequency properties unadapted guiding system for monitoring the status of the organization of preinsulated pipes. Guide system elements  formed  tubes  placed  in  a  lossy  medium  (soil.  A  theoretical  analysis  shows  the  frequency dependence of the propagation constant components: the damping coefficient and the phase coefficient, take advantage of these characteristics of the system for monitoring the status heating networks.

  3. Monitoring the US ATLAS Network Infrastructure with perfSONAR-PS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Shawn; Lake, Andrew; Laurens, Philippe; Severini, Horst; Wlodek, Tomasz; Wolff, Stephen; Zurawski, Jason

    2012-12-01

    Global scientific collaborations, such as ATLAS, continue to push the network requirements envelope. Data movement in this collaboration is routinely including the regular exchange of petabytes of datasets between the collection and analysis facilities in the coming years. These requirements place a high emphasis on networks functioning at peak efficiency and availability; the lack thereof could mean critical delays in the overall scientific progress of distributed data-intensive experiments like ATLAS. Network operations staff routinely must deal with problems deep in the infrastructure; this may be as benign as replacing a failing piece of equipment, or as complex as dealing with a multi-domain path that is experiencing data loss. In either case, it is crucial that effective monitoring and performance analysis tools are available to ease the burden of management. We will report on our experiences deploying and using the perfSONAR-PS Performance Toolkit at ATLAS sites in the United States. This software creates a dedicated monitoring server, capable of collecting and performing a wide range of passive and active network measurements. Each independent instance is managed locally, but able to federate on a global scale; enabling a full view of the network infrastructure that spans domain boundaries. This information, available through web service interfaces, can easily be retrieved to create customized applications. The US ATLAS collaboration has developed a centralized “dashboard” offering network administrators, users, and decision makers the ability to see the performance of the network at a glance. The dashboard framework includes the ability to notify users (alarm) when problems are found, thus allowing rapid response to potential problems and making perfSONAR-PS crucial to the operation of our distributed computing infrastructure.

  4. Rocky Mountain snowpack chemistry network; history, methods, and the importance of monitoring mountain ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, George P.; Turk, John T.; Mast, M. Alisa; Clow, David W.; Campbell, Donald H.; Bailey, Zelda C.

    2002-01-01

    Because regional-scale atmospheric deposition data in the Rocky Mountains are sparse, a program was designed by the U.S. Geological Survey to more thoroughly determine the quality of precipitation and to identify sources of atmospherically deposited pollution in a network of high-elevation sites. Depth-integrated samples of seasonal snowpacks at 52 sampling sites, in a network from New Mexico to Montana, were collected and analyzed each year since 1993. The results of the first 5 years (1993?97) of the program are discussed in this report. Spatial patterns in regional data have emerged from the geographically distributed chemical concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate that clearly indicate that concentrations of these acid precursors in less developed areas of the region are lower than concentrations in the heavily developed areas. Snowpacks in northern Colorado that lie adjacent to both the highly developed Denver metropolitan area to the east and coal-fired powerplants to the west had the highest overall concentrations of nitrate and sulfate in the network. Ammonium concentrations were highest in northwestern Wyoming and southern Montana.

  5. The use of a wireless sensor network to monitor the spectrum in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malon, Krzysztof; Skokowski, Paweł; Łopatka, Jerzy

    2017-04-01

    Wireless sensor networks are a tool increasingly used to monitor various environmental parameters. They can also be used for monitoring the electromagnetic spectrum. Wireless sensors, due to their small size, typically have simplified radio receivers with reduced sensitivity and use small antennas. As a result, their effective performance area is similarly limited. This is especially important in urban areas where there are various kinds of adverse propagation phenomena related to area coverage. The aim of the article is to present the phenomena in the wireless sensor networks and propose criteria and methods to optimize their deployment to ensure maximizing the probability of detection of emissions, minimization of unmonitored areas and to provide the necessary hardware redundancy in the priority areas.

  6. On the relevance of efficient, integrated computer and network monitoring in HEP distributed online environment

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, D F; Delgado, V; Albert, J N; Bellas, N; Javello, J; Miere, Y; Ruffinoni, D; Smith, G

    1996-01-01

    Large Scientific Equipments are controlled by Computer System whose complexity is growing driven, on the one hand by the volume and variety of the information, its distributed nature, thhe sophistication of its trearment and, on the over hand by the fast evolution of the computer and network market. Some people call them generically Large-Scale Distributed Data Intensive Information Systems or Distributed Computer Control Systems (DCCS) for those systems dealing more with real time control. Taking advantage of (or forced by) the distributed architecture, the tasks are more and more often implemented as Client-Server applications. In this frame- work the monitoring of the computer nodes, the communications network and the applications becomes of primary importance for ensuring the safe running and guaranteed performance of the system. With the future generation of HEP experiments, such as those at the LHC in view, it is to integrate the various functions of DCCS monitoring into one general purpose Multi-layer ...

  7. On the Relevancy of Efficient, Integrated Computer and Network Monitoring in HEP Distributed Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, D.; Gavillet, Ph.; Delgado, V.; Albert, J. N.; Bellas, N.; Javello, J.; Miere, Y.; Ruffinoni, D.; Smith, G.

    Large Scientific Equipments are controlled by Computer Systems whose complexity is growing driven, on the one hand by the volume and variety of the information, its distributed nature, the sophistication of its treatment and, on the other hand by the fast evolution of the computer and network market. Some people call them genetically Large-Scale Distributed Data Intensive Information Systems or Distributed Computer Control Systems (DCCS) for those systems dealing more with real time control. Taking advantage of (or forced by) the distributed architecture, the tasks are more and more often implemented as Client-Server applications. In this framework the monitoring of the computer nodes, the communications network and the applications becomes of primary importance for ensuring the safe running and guaranteed performance of the system. With the future generation of HEP experiments, such as those at the LHC in view, it is proposed to integrate the various functions of DCCS monitoring into one general purpose Multi-layer System.

  8. Bluetooth-based sensor networks for remotely monitoring the physiological signals of a patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Xiao, Hannan

    2009-11-01

    Integrating intelligent medical microsensors into a wireless communication network makes it possible to remotely collect physiological signals of a patient, release the patient from being tethered to monitoring medical instrumentations, and facilitate the patient's early hospital discharge. This can further improve life quality by providing continuous observation without the need of disrupting the patient's normal life, thus reducing the risk of infection significantly, and decreasing the cost of the hospital and the patient. This paper discusses the implementation issues, and describes the overall system architecture of our developed Bluetooth sensor network for patient monitoring and the corresponding heart activity sensors. It also presents our approach to developing the intelligent physiological sensor nodes involving integration of Bluetooth radio technology, hardware and software organization, and our solutions for onboard signal processing.

  9. Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems Using Robust Self-Organizing Optical Fiber Sensing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance

    2013-01-01

    The general aim of this work is to develop and demonstrate a prototype structural health monitoring system for thermal protection systems that incorporates piezoelectric acoustic emission (AE) sensors to detect the occurrence and location of damaging impacts, and an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network to evaluate the effect of detected damage on the thermal conductivity of the TPS material. Following detection of an impact, the TPS would be exposed to a heat source, possibly the sun, and the temperature distribution on the inner surface in the vicinity of the impact measured by the FBG network. A similar procedure could also be carried out as a screening test immediately prior to re-entry. The implications of any detected anomalies in the measured temperature distribution will be evaluated for their significance in relation to the performance of the TPS during re-entry. Such a robust TPS health monitoring system would ensure overall crew safety throughout the mission, especially during reentry

  10. Geostatistics-based groundwater-level monitoring network design and its application to the Upper Floridan aquifer, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shirish; Motz, Louis H; Pathak, Chandra; Kuebler, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A geostatistical method was applied to optimize an existing groundwater-level monitoring network in the Upper Floridan aquifer for the South Florida Water Management District in the southeastern United States. Analyses were performed to determine suitable numbers and locations of monitoring wells that will provide equivalent or better quality groundwater-level data compared to an existing monitoring network. Ambient, unadjusted groundwater heads were expressed as salinity-adjusted heads based on the density of freshwater, well screen elevations, and temperature-dependent saline groundwater density. The optimization of the numbers and locations of monitoring wells is based on a pre-defined groundwater-level prediction error. The newly developed network combines an existing network with the addition of new wells that will result in a spatial distribution of groundwater monitoring wells that better defines the regional potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the study area. The network yields groundwater-level predictions that differ significantly from those produced using the existing network. The newly designed network will reduce the mean prediction standard error by 43% compared to the existing network. The adoption of a hexagonal grid network for the South Florida Water Management District is recommended to achieve both a uniform level of information about groundwater levels and the minimum required accuracy. It is customary to install more monitoring wells for observing groundwater levels and groundwater quality as groundwater development progresses. However, budget constraints often force water managers to implement cost-effective monitoring networks. In this regard, this study provides guidelines to water managers concerned with groundwater planning and monitoring.

  11. Trends in air concentration and deposition at background monitoring sites in Sweden - major inorganic compounds, heavy metals and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindbom, K.; Svensson, Annika; Sjoeberg, K.; Pihl Karlsson, G.

    2001-09-01

    This report describes concentrations in air of sulphur compounds, soot, nitrogen compounds and ozone in Sweden between 1985-1998. Time trends of concentration in precipitation and deposition of sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity, base cations and chloride in six different regions covering Sweden are evaluated during the period 1983-1998. Trends of heavy metals in precipitation have been analysed for the period 1983-1998 and the change in heavy metal concentration, 1975-1995, in mosses is described. Data used in the trend analyses originates from measurements performed at six Swedish EMEP stations and from approximately 25 stations within the national Precipitation Chemistry Network. Two different statistical methods, linear regression and the non-parametric Mann Kendall test, have been used to evaluate changes in annual mean values. Time trends of concentration of sulphur dioxide, particulate sulphate, soot, nitrogen dioxide, total nitrate and total ammonium in air show highly significant decreasing trends, except for soot at one station in northern Sweden. Concentrations of ozone have a strong seasonal variation with a peak occurring in spring every year. However, annual ozone concentrations show no obvious trends in spite of decreasing emissions of the precursors NOx and VOC. A slight indication of a decreasing trend in the number of ozone episodes might be seen from 1990 to 1998. Sulphate concentrations in precipitation and deposition show strongly significant decreasing trends in the whole country. Concentrations and deposition of nitrate and ammonium have been decreasing in all areas except for nitrate at stations in south-west and north-west Sweden and ammonium in south-west Sweden. Acidity has decreased in all areas since 1989, resulting in increasing pH values in Sweden. The interannual variations of concentration and deposition of base cations and chloride are large and few general trends can be seen during 1983-1997. Time trends of four heavy metals in

  12. Kriging direct and indirect estimates of sulfate deposition: A comparison. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reams, G.A.; Huso, M.M.P.; Vong, R.J.; McCollum, J.M.

    1997-08-01

    Due to logistical and cost constraints, acidic deposition is rarely measured at forest research or sampling locations. A crucial first step to assessing the effects of acid rain on forests is an accurate estimate of acidic deposition at forest sample sites. The authors examine two methods (direct and indirect) for estimating sulfate deposition at atmospherically unmonitored forest sites. The direct method only uses directly measured deposition data, while the indirect method additionally incorporates precipitation measurements from a spatially denser network of monitoring sites. Sulfate deposition values were estimated by point kriging using both the direct and indirect methods. By using the supplemental data from the precipitation monitoring network, estimates of sulfate deposition improved substantially, particularly at sites that are relatively isolated to the acid deposition monitoring network. Cross-validated procedures indicate that by using the indirect method, a reduction of approximately 20 to 25 percent in the predicted error sum of squares occurred.

  13. Large networks of artificial radar reflectors to monitor land subsidence in natural lowlying coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Luigi; Strozzi, Tazio; Teatini, Pietro

    2014-05-01

    Deltas, lagoons, estuaries are generally much prone to land subsidence. They are also very sensitive to land lowering due to their small elevation with respect to the mean sea level, also in view of the expected eustatic sea rise due to climate changes. Land subsidence can be presently monitored with an impressive accuracy by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) on the large megacities that are often located on lowlying coastlands, e.g., Shanghai (China) on the Yangtze River delta, Dhaka (Bangladesh) on the Gange River delta, New Orleans (Louisiana) on the Mississippi river delta. Conversely, the land movements of the portions of these transitional coastlands where natural environments still persist are very challenging to be measured. The lack of anthropogenic structures strongly limits the use of PSI and the difficult accessibility caused by the presence of marshlands, tidal marshes, channels, and ponds yield traditional methodologies, such as levelling and GPS, both time-consuming and costly. In this contribution we present a unique experimental study aimed at using a large network of artificial radar reflectors to measure land subsidence in natural coastal areas. The test site is the 60-km long, 10-15 km wide lagoon of Venice, Italy, where previous PSI investigations revealed the lack of radar reflectors in large portions of the northern and southern lagoon basins (e.g., Teatini et al., 2011). A network of 57 trihedral corner reflectors (TCRs) were established between the end of 2006 and the beginning of 2007 and monitored by ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X acquisitions covering the time period from 2007 to 2011 (Strozzi et al., 2012). The application has provided general important insights on the possibility of controlling land subsidence using this approach. For example: (i) relatively small-size (from 0.5 to 1.0 m edge length) and cheap (few hundred euros) TCRs suffice to be clearly detectable from the radar sensors because of the low backscattering

  14. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S. [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1993-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Data analytics methodology for monitoring quality sensors and events in the Barcelona drinking water network

    OpenAIRE

    García Valverde, Diego; Creus Rodriguez, Ramon; Minoves Ruiz, Meritxell; Pardo, Xavier; Quevedo Casín, Joseba Jokin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç

    2017-01-01

    Water quality management is a key area to guarantee drinking water safety to users. This task is based on disinfection techniques, such as chlorination, applied to the drinking water network to prevent the growth of microorganisms present in the water. The continuous monitoring of water quality parameters is fundamental to assess the sanitary conditions of the drinking water and to detect unexpected events. The whole process is based on the assumption that the information retrieved from quali...

  16. Long term country-wide rainfall monitoring employing cellular communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2013-04-01

    Accurate rainfall observations with high spatial and temporal resolutions are needed for hydrological applications, agriculture, meteorology, and climate monitoring. However, the majority of the land surface of the earth lacks accurate rainfall information and the number of rain gauges is even severely declining in Europe, South-America, and Africa. This calls for alternative sources of rainfall information. Various studies have shown that microwave links from operational cellular telecommunication networks may be employed for rainfall monitoring. Such networks cover 20% of the land surface of the earth and have a high density, especially in urban areas. The basic principle of rainfall monitoring using microwave links is as follows. Rainfall attenuates the electromagnetic signals transmitted from one telephone tower to another. By measuring the received power at one end of a microwave link as a function of time, the path-integrated attenuation due to rainfall can be calculated. Previous studies have shown that average rainfall intensities over the length of a link can be derived from the path-integrated attenuation. This is particularly interesting for those countries where few surface rainfall observations are available. Here we present preliminary results of long term country-wide rainfall monitoring employing cellular communication networks. A dataset from a commercial microwave link network over the Netherlands is analyzed, containing data from an unprecedented number of links (~ 2000) covering the land surface of the Netherlands (35500 square kilometres). This dataset spans from January 2011 through October 2012. Daily rainfall maps (1 km spatial resolution) are derived from the microwave link data and compared to maps from a gauge-adjusted radar dataset. The performance of the rainfall retrieval algorithm will be investigated, particularly a possible seasonal dependence.

  17. Laser-assisted nanomaterial deposition, nanomanufacturing, in situ monitoring and associated apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Hwang, David J; Minor, Andrew M

    2013-11-12

    Laser-assisted apparatus and methods for performing nanoscale material processing, including nanodeposition of materials, can be controlled very precisely to yield both simple and complex structures with sizes less than 100 nm. Optical or thermal energy in the near field of a photon (laser) pulse is used to fabricate submicron and nanometer structures on a substrate. A wide variety of laser material processing techniques can be adapted for use including, subtractive (e.g., ablation, machining or chemical etching), additive (e.g., chemical vapor deposition, selective self-assembly), and modification (e.g., phase transformation, doping) processes. Additionally, the apparatus can be integrated into imaging instruments, such as SEM and TEM, to allow for real-time imaging of the material processing.

  18. LOW VOLTAGE NETWORKS INSULATION MONITORING WITH TWO AND THREE VOLTMETER READOUTS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Olszowiec

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the paper there are described methods of two and three voltmeter readouts for insulation resistance periodic measurement in live DC and AC/DC IT networks. A new measuring method for AC/DC networks is proposed. Application of a novel algorithm for shortening of measurement cycle is explained. Methodology. All methods of two and three voltmeter readouts consist in connection of a resistor and measurement of mean value of network’s fixed point-to-ground voltages. Results. A new algorithm implemented in KDZ-3 device enables determination of steady-state voltage of a DC network’s pole much faster than in other exploited systems. Originality. In author’s modification of two voltmeter readouts method, line-to-ground voltage mean value is measured at AC side of AC/DC network. This innovation has not been applied for implementation of periodic insulation monitoring in AC/DC IT networks yet. Practical value. The use of author’s innovation will allow to execute measurements at AC side of AC/DC IT networks which might be necessary if rectifier’s output circuits are unavailable. Shortening of measurement cycle duration of two or three voltmeter readouts method’s is of great importance in networks with high capacitance.

  19. Optimal Fair Scheduling in S-TDMA Sensor Networks for Monitoring River Plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel-Angel Luque-Nieto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs are a promising technology to provide oceanographers with environmental data in real time. Suitable network topologies to monitor estuaries are formed by strings coming together to a sink node. This network may be understood as an oriented graph. A number of MAC techniques can be used in UWSNs, but Spatial-TDMA is preferred for fixed networks. In this paper, a scheduling procedure to obtain the optimal fair frame is presented, under ideal conditions of synchronization and transmission errors. The main objective is to find the theoretical maximum throughput by overlapping the transmissions of the nodes while keeping a balanced received data rate from each sensor, regardless of its location in the network. The procedure searches for all cliques of the compatibility matrix of the network graph and solves a Multiple-Vector Bin Packing (MVBP problem. This work addresses the optimization problem and provides analytical and numerical results for both the minimum frame length and the maximum achievable throughput.

  20. Evolution of a residue laboratory network and the management tools for monitoring its performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, E S; Conceição, E S; Mauricio, A De Q

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005 the National Residue & Contaminants Control Plan (NRCCP) in Brazil has been considerably enhanced, increasing the number of samples, substances and species monitored, and also the analytical detection capability. The Brazilian laboratory network was forced to improve its quality standards in order to comply with the NRCP's own evolution. Many aspects such as the limits of quantification (LOQs), the quality management systems within the laboratories and appropriate method validation are in continuous improvement, generating new scenarios and demands. Thus, efficient management mechanisms for monitoring network performance and its adherence to the established goals and guidelines are required. Performance indicators associated to computerised information systems arise as a powerful tool to monitor the laboratories' activity, making use of different parameters to describe this activity on a day-to-day basis. One of these parameters is related to turnaround times, and this factor is highly affected by the way each laboratory organises its management system, as well as the regulatory requirements. In this paper a global view is presented of the turnaround times related to the type of analysis, laboratory, number of samples per year, type of matrix, country region and period of the year, all these data being collected from a computerised system called SISRES. This information gives a solid background to management measures aiming at the improvement of the service offered by the laboratory network.

  1. A Distributed Approach to Continuous Monitoring of Constrained k-Nearest Neighbor Queries in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Ju Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given two positive parameters k and r, a constrained k-nearest neighbor (CkNN query returns the k closest objects within a network distance r of the query location in road networks. In terms of the scalability of monitoring these CkNN queries, existing solutions based on central processing at a server suffer from a sudden and sharp rise in server load as well as messaging cost as the number of queries increases. In this paper, we propose a distributed and scalable scheme called DAEMON for the continuous monitoring of CkNN queries in road networks. Our query processing is distributed among clients (query objects and server. Specifically, the server evaluates CkNN queries issued at intersections of road segments, retrieves the objects on the road segments between neighboring intersections, and sends responses to the query objects. Finally, each client makes its own query result using this server response. As a result, our distributed scheme achieves close-to-optimal communication costs and scales well to large numbers of monitoring queries. Exhaustive experimental results demonstrate that our scheme substantially outperforms its competitor in terms of query processing time and messaging cost.

  2. Using LSTM recurrent neural networks for monitoring the LHC superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgosz, Maciej; Skoczeń, Andrzej; Mertik, Matej

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting LHC magnets are coupled with an electronic monitoring system which records and analyzes voltage time series reflecting their performance. A currently used system is based on a range of preprogrammed triggers which launches protection procedures when a misbehavior of the magnets is detected. All the procedures used in the protection equipment were designed and implemented according to known working scenarios of the system and are updated and monitored by human operators. This paper proposes a novel approach to monitoring and fault protection of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets which employs state-of-the-art Deep Learning algorithms. Consequently, the authors of the paper decided to examine the performance of LSTM recurrent neural networks for modeling of voltage time series of the magnets. In order to address this challenging task different network architectures and hyper-parameters were used to achieve the best possible performance of the solution. The regression results were measured in terms of RMSE for different number of future steps and history length taken into account for the prediction. The best result of RMSE = 0 . 00104 was obtained for a network of 128 LSTM cells within the internal layer and 16 steps history buffer.

  3. Searchlight Correlation Detectors: Optimal Seismic Monitoring Using Regional and Global Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Kværna, Tormod; Näsholm, Sven Peter

    2015-04-01

    The sensitivity of correlation detectors increases greatly when the outputs from multiple seismic traces are considered. For single-array monitoring, a zero-offset stack of individual correlation traces will provide significant noise suppression and enhanced sensitivity for a source region surrounding the hypocenter of the master event. The extent of this region is limited only by the decrease in waveform similarity with increasing hypocenter separation. When a regional or global network of arrays and/or 3-component stations is employed, the zero-offset approach is only optimal when the master and detected events are co-located exactly. In many monitoring situations, including nuclear test sites and geothermal fields, events may be separated by up to many hundreds of meters while still retaining sufficient waveform similarity for correlation detection on single channels. However, the traveltime differences resulting from the hypocenter separation may result in significant beam loss on the zero-offset stack and a deployment of many beams for different hypothetical source locations in geographical space is required. The beam deployment necessary for optimal performance of the correlation detectors is determined by an empirical network response function which is most easily evaluated using the auto-correlation functions of the waveform templates from the master event. The correlation detector beam deployments for providing optimal network sensitivity for the North Korea nuclear test site are demonstrated for both regional and teleseismic monitoring configurations.

  4. A Data Acquisition Protocol for a Reactive Wireless Sensor Network Monitoring Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femi A. Aderohunmu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Limiting energy consumption is one of the primary aims for most real-world deployments of wireless sensor networks. Unfortunately, attempts to optimize energy efficiency are often in conflict with the demand for network reactiveness to transmit urgent messages. In this article, we propose SWIFTNET: a reactive data acquisition scheme. It is built on the synergies arising from a combination of the data reduction methods and energy-efficient data compression schemes. Particularly, it combines compressed sensing, data prediction and adaptive sampling strategies. We show how this approach dramatically reduces the amount of unnecessary data transmission in the deployment for environmental monitoring and surveillance networks. SWIFTNET targets any monitoring applications that require high reactiveness with aggressive data collection and transmission. To test the performance of this method, we present a real-world testbed for a wildfire monitoring as a use-case. The results from our in-house deployment testbed of 15 nodes have proven to be favorable. On average, over 50% communication reduction when compared with a default adaptive prediction method is achieved without any loss in accuracy. In addition, SWIFTNET is able to guarantee reactiveness by adjusting the sampling interval from 5 min up to 15 s in our application domain.

  5. Scaling-up camera traps: monitoring the planet's biodiversity with networks of remote sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenweg, Robin; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kays, Roland; Ahumada, Jorge A.; Fisher, Jason T.; Burton, Cole; Townsend, Susan E.; Carbone, Chris; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus; Whittington, Jesse; Brodie, Jedediah; Royle, Andy; Switalski, Adam; Clevenger, Anthony P.; Heim, Nicole; Rich, Lindsey N.

    2017-01-01

    Countries committed to implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2011–2020 strategic plan need effective tools to monitor global trends in biodiversity. Remote cameras are a rapidly growing technology that has great potential to transform global monitoring for terrestrial biodiversity and can be an important contributor to the call for measuring Essential Biodiversity Variables. Recent advances in camera technology and methods enable researchers to estimate changes in abundance and distribution for entire communities of animals and to identify global drivers of biodiversity trends. We suggest that interconnected networks of remote cameras will soon monitor biodiversity at a global scale, help answer pressing ecological questions, and guide conservation policy. This global network will require greater collaboration among remote-camera studies and citizen scientists, including standardized metadata, shared protocols, and security measures to protect records about sensitive species. With modest investment in infrastructure, and continued innovation, synthesis, and collaboration, we envision a global network of remote cameras that not only provides real-time biodiversity data but also serves to connect people with nature.

  6. Landbird Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Rodney B.; Wilkerson, Robert L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kuntz, Robert C.; Boetsch, John R.; Schaberl, James P.; Happe, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    This protocol narrative outlines the rationale, sampling design and methods for monitoring landbirds in the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) during the breeding season. The NCCN, one of 32 networks of parks in the National Park System, comprises seven national park units in the Pacific Northwest, including three large, mountainous, natural area parks (Mount Rainier [MORA] and Olympic [OLYM] National Parks, North Cascades National Park Service Complex [NOCA]), and four small historic cultural parks (Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve [EBLA], Lewis and Clark National Historical Park [LEWI], Fort Vancouver National Historical Park [FOVA], and San Juan Island National Historical Park [SAJH]). The protocol reflects decisions made by the NCCN avian monitoring group, which includes NPS representatives from each of the large parks in the Network as well as personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center (USGS-FRESC) Olympic Field Station, and The Institute for Bird Populations, at meetings held between 2000 (Siegel and Kuntz, 2000) and 2005. The protocol narrative describes the monitoring program in relatively broad terms, and its structure and content adhere to the outline and recommendations developed by Oakley and others (2003) and adopted by NPS. Finer details of the methodology are addressed in a set of standard operating procedures (SOPs) that accompany the protocol narrative. We also provide appendixes containing additional supporting materials that do not clearly belong in either the protocol narrative or the standard operating procedures.

  7. Conformal organic-inorganic hybrid network polymer thin films by molecular layer deposition using trimethylaluminum and glycidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bo; Peng, Qing; Parsons, Gregory N

    2011-05-19

    Growing interest in nanoscale organic-inorganic hybrid network polymer materials is driving exploration of new bulk and thin film synthesis reaction mechanisms. Molecular layer deposition (MLD) is a vapor-phase deposition process, based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) which proceeds by exposing a surface to an alternating sequence of two or more reactant species, where each surface half-reaction goes to completion before the next reactant exposure. This work describes film growth using trimethyl aluminum and heterobifunctional glycidol at moderate temperatures (90-150 °C), producing a relatively stable organic-inorganic network polymer of the form (-Al-O-(C(4)H(8))-O-)(n). Film growth rate and in situ reaction analysis indicate that film growth does not initially follow a steady-state rate, but increases rapidly during early film growth. The mechanism is consistent with subsurface species transport and trapping, previously documented during MLD and ALD on polymers. A water exposure step after the TMA produces a more linear growth rate, likely by blocking TMA subsurface diffusion. Uniform and conformal films are formed on complex nonplanar substrates. Upon postdeposition annealing, films transform into microporous metal oxides with ∼5 Å pore size and surface area as high as ∼327 m(2)/g, and the resulting structures duplicate the shape of the original substrate. These hybrid films and porous materials could find uses in several research fields including gas separations and diffusion barriers, biomedical scaffolds, high surface area coatings, and others.

  8. CTFS/ForestGEO: A global network to monitor forest interactions with a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Muller-Landau, H.; McMahon, S.; Davies, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Forests are an influential component of the global carbon cycle and strongly influence Earth's climate. Climate change is altering the dynamics of forests globally, which may result in significant climate feedbacks. Forest responses to climate change entail both short-term ecophysiological responses and longer-term directional shifts in community composition. These short- and long-term responses of forest communities to climate change may be better understood through long-term monitoring of large forest plots globally using standardized methodology. Here, we describe a global network of forest research plots (CTFS/ForestGEO) of utility for understanding forest responses to climate change and consequent feedbacks to the climate system. CTFS/ForestGEO is an international network consisting of 51 sites ranging in size from 2-150 ha (median size: 25 ha) and spanning from 25°S to 52°N latitude. At each site, every individual > 1cm DBH is mapped and identified, and recruitment, growth, and mortality are monitored every 5 years. Additional measurements include aboveground productivity, carbon stocks, soil nutrients, plant functional traits, arthropod and vertebrates monitoring, DNA barcoding, airborne and ground-based LiDAR, micrometeorology, and weather monitoring. Data from this network are useful for understanding how forest ecosystem structure and function respond to spatial and temporal variation in abiotic drivers, parameterizing and evaluating ecosystem and earth system models, aligning airborne and ground-based measurements, and identifying directional changes in forest productivity and composition. For instance, CTFS/ForestGEO data have revealed that solar radiation and night-time temperature are important drivers of aboveground productivity in moist tropical forests; that tropical forests are mixed in terms of productivity and biomass trends over the past couple decades; and that the composition of Panamanian forests has shifted towards more drought

  9. The community seismic network and quake-catcher network: enabling structural health monitoring through instrumentation by community participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Monica D.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Cheng, Ming-Hei

    2013-04-01

    A new type of seismic network is in development that takes advantage of community volunteers to install low-cost accelerometers in houses and buildings. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network are examples of this, in which observational-based structural monitoring is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about one hundred accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or wifi. In the case of the Community Seismic Network, the sensors report both continuous data and anomalies in local acceleration to a cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and an associated plug-in to matlab with recorded shaking data. When data are available from only one to a very limited number of accelerometers in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records are used to identify the first set of horizontal vibrational frequencies. These frequencies are then used to compute the response on every floor of the building, constrained by the observed data. These tools are resulting in networking standards that will enable data sharing among entire communities, facility managers, and emergency response groups.

  10. Hydrological monitoring of a natural slope covered with loose granular pyroclastic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Emilia; Greco, Roberto; Guida, Andrea; Olivares, Lucio; Picarelli, Luciano

    2010-05-01

    Mountainous areas of Northern Campania, Southern Italy, are characterised by steep slopes covered with loose volcanic ashes, with very high porosity (ranging between 0.70 and 0.75), laying above a calcareous bedrock. Slope inclination is often larger than internal friction angle of such ashes (around 38°), thus equilibrium is assured by the contribution of apparent cohesion due to soil suction in unsaturated conditions. That is why, during intense and persistent rainfall events, when soil approaches saturation and consequently suction decreases, shallow landslides are frequently triggered. The physical characteristics of involved soils are such that landslides often evolve in form of debris flows, which cause huge damages to buildings and infrastructures and, in some cases, even casualties. Field hydrological monitoring is essential to develop reliable models of slope response to rainfall infiltration, allowing to define triggering conditions of landslides. An automatic monitoring station has been recently installed at the slope of Cervinara, 30 km East of Naples, where a catastrophic landslide occurred in December 1999. The station consists of a tipping bucket rain gauge, with a sensitivity to rainfall height of 0.2mm; four jet fill tensiometers, for the measurement of soil suction at the depths of 10cm, 40cm, 120cm and 160cm below ground surface; four time domain reflectometry probes of various lengths, connected through a multiplexer to a reflectometer, for the measurement of water content profile from ground surface up to a depth of 160cm. All the sensors are connected to a datalogger for the automatic acquisition at hourly frequency of experimental data. Acquired data are then stored into a magnetic memory which is periodically downloaded into a PC. The entire station is operated by a lithium battery connected to a solar panel. The first collected experimental data confirm the usefulness of simultaneous monitoring, at high temporal resolution, of rainfall

  11. Environmental networks for large-scale monitoring of Earth and atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurodimou, Olga; Kolios, Stavros; Konstantaras, Antonios; Georgoulas, George; Stylios, Chrysostomos

    2013-04-01

    Installation and operation of instrument/sensor networks are proven fundamental in the monitoring of the physical environment from local to global scale. The advances in electronics, wireless communications and informatics has led to the development of a huge number of networks at different spatial scales that measure, collect and store a wide range of environmental parameters. These networks have been gradually evolved into integrated information systems that provide real time monitoring, forecasts and different products from the initial collected datasets. Instrument/sensor networks have nowadays become important solutions for environmental monitoring, comprising a basic component of fully automated systems developing worldwide that contribute in the efforts for a sustainable Earth's environment (e.g. Hart et al., 2006, Othman et al., 2012). They are also used as a source of data for models parameterization and as verification tools for accuracy assessment techniques of the satellite imagery. Environmental networks can be incorporated into decision support systems (e.g Rizzi et al., 2012) providing informational background along with data from satellites for decision making, manage problems, suggest solutions and best practices for a sustainable management of the environment. This is a comparative study aiming to examine and highlight the significant role of existing instrument/sensor networks for large-scale monitoring of environmental issues, especially atmospheric and marine environment as well as weather and climate. We provide characteristic examples of integrated systems based on large scale instrument/sensor networks along with other sources of data (like satellite datasets) as informational background to measure, identify, monitor, analyze and forecast a vast series of atmospheric parameters (like CO2, O3, particle matter and solar irradiance), weather, climate and their impacts (e.g., cloud systems, lightnings, rainfall, air and surface temperature

  12. Monitoring the accumulated water soluble airborne compounds deposited on surfaces of showcases and walls in museums, archives and historical buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Lilian; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; Svensmark, Bo

    2017-01-01

    to implement by curators and conservators, who can the send the flush water to specialized laboratories. Brief summary: A new methodology capable of monitoring the accumulated airborne deposits on surfaces in showcases and historic buildings is presented and tested. The method is cheap and is easy to implement...... themselves. This might make the compounds seem absent from analyses of indoor air samples. Context and purpose of the study: A new method of detecting water soluble pollutants without taking samples from the interior walls or from the CH objects themselves has been developed. The method involves sampling...... the pollutants accumulated on a surface near the CH object, e.g. a nearby wall or an interior glass surface of a showcase. The samples were obtained by gently flushing the surface with deionised water to collect the ions readily removed from the surface. The method was tested on a variety of surfaces. Results...

  13. Artificial Neural Networks Applications: from Aircraft Design Optimization to Orbiting Spacecraft On-board Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the recent applications of artificial neural networks taken from various works performed by the authors over the last four years at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This paper focuses mainly on two areas. First, artificial neural networks application in design and optimization of aircraft/engine propulsion systems to shorten the overall design cycle. Out of that specific application, a generic design tool was developed, which can be used for most design optimization process. Second, artificial neural networks application in monitoring the microgravity quality onboard the International Space Station, using on-board accelerometers for data acquisition. These two different applications are reviewed in this paper to show the broad applicability of artificial intelligence in various disciplines. The intent of this paper is not to give in-depth details of these two applications, but to show the need to combine different artificial intelligence techniques or algorithms in order to design an optimized or versatile system.

  14. Robust control tools for traffic monitoring in TCP/AQM networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ariba, Yassine; Rahme, Sandy; Labit, Yann

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have considered control theory tools for traffic control in communication networks, as for example the congestion control issue in IP (Internet Protocol) routers. In this paper, we propose to design a linear observer for time-delay systems to address the traffic monitoring issue in TCP/AQM (Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management) networks. Due to several propagation delays and the queueing delay, the set TCP/AQM is modeled as a multiple delayed system of a particular form. Hence, appropriate robust control tools as quadratic separation are adopted to construct a delay dependent observer for TCP flows estimation. Note that, the developed mechanism enables also the anomaly detection issue for a class of DoS (Denial of Service) attacks. At last, simulations via the network simulator NS-2 and an emulation experiment validate the proposed methodology.

  15. Monitoring the US ATLAS Network Infrastructure with perfSONAR-PS

    CERN Document Server

    McKee, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Laurens, P; Severini, H; Wlodek, T; Wolff, S; Zurawski, J

    2012-01-01

    Global scientific collaborations, such as ATLAS, continue to push the network requirements envelope. Data movement in this collaboration is routinely including the regular exchange of petabytes of datasets between the collection and analysis facilities in the coming years. These requirements place a high emphasis on networks functioning at peak efficiency and availability; the lack thereof could mean critical delays in the overall scientific progress of distributed data-intensive experiments like ATLAS. Network operations staff routinely must deal with problems deep in the infrastructure; this may be as benign as replacing a failing piece of equipment, or as complex as dealing with a multidomain path that is experiencing data loss. In either case, it is crucial that effective monitoring and performance analysis tools are available to ease the burden of management. We will report on our experiences deploying and using the perfSONAR-PS Performance Toolkit[8] at ATLAS sites in the United States. This software cr...

  16. Monitoring Anthropogenic Ocean Sound from Shipping Using an Acoustic Sensor Network and a Compressive Sensing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter; Philip, Rachel; Robinson, Stephen; Wang, Lian

    2016-03-22

    Monitoring ocean acoustic noise has been the subject of considerable recent study, motivated by the desire to assess the impact of anthropogenic noise on marine life. A combination of measuring ocean sound using an acoustic sensor network and modelling sources of sound and sound propagation has been proposed as an approach to estimating the acoustic noise map within a region of interest. However, strategies for developing a monitoring network are not well established. In this paper, considerations for designing a network are investigated using a simulated scenario based on the measurement of sound from ships in a shipping lane. Using models for the sources of the sound and for sound propagation, a noise map is calculated and measurements of the noise map by a sensor network within the region of interest are simulated. A compressive sensing algorithm, which exploits the sparsity of the representation of the noise map in terms of the sources, is used to estimate the locations and levels of the sources and thence the entire noise map within the region of interest. It is shown that although the spatial resolution to which the sound sources can be identified is generally limited, estimates of aggregated measures of the noise map can be obtained that are more reliable compared with those provided by other approaches.

  17. Oilwell Monitoring and Control based on Wireless Sensor Networks using ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Viknesh Velavan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing oil-pumping unit (OPU system has a high power consuming process. It has the incapability of OPU’s structural health monitoring. A sensor network based intelligent control is proposed for power economy and efficient oilwell health monitoring using wireless sensor network. The proposed system consists of three-level sensors: First level sensors (FLS – designed with a temperature sensor, a voltage sensor, a current sensor, level sensor, gas sensor and a pressure sensor used for oilwell data sensing. Intelligent sensors (IS - designed mainly for an oilwell’s data elementary processing, main fault alarm indication, typical storage/indication, data/status transmission up to the third level sensor (TLS, data/status transmission between IS, and command transmission down to the OPU motor. Third level sensors (TLS - Software-defined (SD control centres with an embedded database. The TLS are designed for hundreds of oilwell’s data storage/management, data processing malfunction detection, malfunction alarm/indication; stroke-adjustment command transmission down to a specific IS for power economy and the malfunction report to the maintenance staff. Timer, Keyboard, A/D, communicationinterruptions are controlled by intelligent sensor. Delay aware data collection network structure is used for power economy and to reduce time delay in wireless sensor networks.

  18. Earthquake Monitoring: SeisComp3 at the Swiss National Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, J. F.; Diehl, T.; Cauzzi, C.; Kaestli, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has an ongoing responsibility to improve the seismicity monitoring capability for Switzerland. This is a crucial issue for a country with low background seismicity but where a large M6+ earthquake is expected in the next decades. With over 30 stations with spacing of ~25km, the SED operates one of the densest broadband networks in the world, which is complimented by ~ 50 realtime strong motion stations. The strong motion network is expected to grow with an additional ~80 stations over the next few years. Furthermore, the backbone of the network is complemented by broadband data from surrounding countries and temporary sub-networks for local monitoring of microseismicity (e.g. at geothermal sites). The variety of seismic monitoring responsibilities as well as the anticipated densifications of our network demands highly flexible processing software. We are transitioning all software to the SeisComP3 (SC3) framework. SC3 is a fully featured automated real-time earthquake monitoring software developed by GeoForschungZentrum Potsdam in collaboration with commercial partner, gempa GmbH. It is in its core open source, and becoming a community standard software for earthquake detection and waveform processing for regional and global networks across the globe. SC3 was originally developed for regional and global rapid monitoring of potentially tsunamagenic earthquakes. In order to fulfill the requirements of a local network recording moderate seismicity, SED has tuned configurations and added several modules. In this contribution, we present our SC3 implementation strategy, focusing on the detection and identification of seismicity on different scales. We operate several parallel processing "pipelines" to detect and locate local, regional and global seismicity. Additional pipelines with lower detection thresholds can be defined to monitor seismicity within dense subnets of the network. To be consistent with existing processing

  19. A Novel Solitude Conserving Location Monitoring Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravallika. K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Observing individual locations with a capable untrusted server impose secrecy threats to the monitored individuals. In this paper we propose “A Novel Solitude Conserving Location Monitoring approach for Wireless Sensor networks”. We design two approaches to study nondescript locations in-network approaches, namely quality-aware and resource-aware approaches, that aims to enable the system to give high end quality location monitoring services for end users, while conserving personal location privacy. Both approaches are worked based on k-anonymity solitude (i.e.,an object is indistinguishable among k objects, to enable highly trusted sensor nodes to provide the collective location data of monitored objects for our system. Each collective location is in a form of a observed area X along with the number of monitored objects reside in X. The resource-aware approach objective to optimize the computational and communication value, while quality-aware approach aims to increase the reliability of the collective location data by reducing their observing areas. We use spatial histogram methodology to estimates the distribution of observing objects based on the gathered collective location data. We evaluated these two approaches through simulated experiments. The simulation results shows that these approaches gives high quality location observing services for end users and assure the location secrecy of the monitored objects.

  20. Development and set-up of a portable device to monitor airway exhalation and deposition of particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; De Palma, Giuseppe; Longo, Sonia; Acampa, Olga; Poli, Diana; Manini, Paola; Apostoli, Pietro; Franchini, Innocente; Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and monitor airway exhalation and deposition of particulate matter (PM). After standardizing inspiratory/expiratory flow and volumes, a novel device was tested on a group of 20 volunteers and in a field study on workers exposed to cristobalite. Both male and female subjects showed a higher percentage of deposition in the 0.5 microm channel than in the 0.3 microm channel on a laser particle counter, but it was higher in the males because of their higher exhaled lung volumes. The device was tested on a wider range of particles (0.3-0.5-1.0-2.5 microm) in the cristobalite productive division. The device has low intrasubject variability and good reproducibility, with geometric mean of %CV < 5%. Such a measure can be used to assess individual susceptibility to PM, making repeated measures in different environments, and examining the persistence of particles in the airways after a period in polluted environments.