WorldWideScience

Sample records for deposited ultra-thin ta-c

  1. MCrA1Y/TaC Metal Matrix Composite Coatings Produced by Electrospark Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yujiang XIE; Yanhong YANG; Mingsheng WANG; Jian HOU

    2013-01-01

    MCrAlY/TaC metal matrix composite coatings with 10,20 and 30 wt.% TaC have been successfully produced by electrospark deposition (ESD).The effects of TaC content on microstructure,hardness and oxidation behavior of the composite coatings were studied.The results showed that the composite coatings were composed of superfine γ columnar dendrite and large TaC particles dispersedly distributed.The hardness was enhanced but oxidation resistance of the composite coatings was reduced with increasing TaC contents.

  2. Properties of Ultra-Thin Hafnium Oxide and Interfacial Layer Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taeho Lee; Young-Bae Kim; Kyung-Il Hong; Duck-Kyun Choi; Jinho Ahn

    2004-01-01

    Ultra-thin hafnium-oxide gate dielectric films deposited by atomic layer deposition technique using HfCl4 and H2O precursor on a hydrogen-terminated Si substrate were investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the interface layer is Hf-silicate rather than phase separated Hf-silicide and silicon oxide structure. The Hf-silicate interfacial layer partially changes into SiOx after high temperature annealing, resulting in a complex HfO2-silicate-SiOx dielectric structure. Electrical measurements confirms that HfO2 on Si is stable up to 700 ℃ for 30 s under N2 ambient.

  3. Ultra-thin Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Crovetto, Andrea; Yan, Chang

    2017-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of a 5.2% efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cell made by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) featuring an ultra-thin absorber layer (less than 450 nm). Solutions to the issues of reproducibility and micro-particulate ejection often encountered with PLD are proposed. At the ......We report on the fabrication of a 5.2% efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cell made by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) featuring an ultra-thin absorber layer (less than 450 nm). Solutions to the issues of reproducibility and micro-particulate ejection often encountered with PLD are proposed....... At the optimal laser fluence, amorphous CZTS precursors with optimal stoichiometry for solar cells are deposited from a single target. Such precursors do not result in detectable segregation of secondary phases after the subsequent annealing step. In the analysis of the solar cell device, we focus on the effects...

  4. Surface Acoustic Wave Monitor for Deposition and Analysis of Ultra-Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) based thin film deposition monitor device and system for monitoring the deposition of ultra-thin films and nanomaterials and the analysis thereof is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include differential delay line device designs, and which can optionally have integral reference devices fabricated on the same substrate as the sensing device, or on a separate device in thermal contact with the film monitoring/analysis device, in order to provide inherently temperature compensated measurements. These deposition monitor and analysis devices can include inherent temperature compensation, higher sensitivity to surface interactions than quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) devices, and the ability to operate at extreme temperatures.

  5. Nanodiamond embedded ta-C composite film by pulsed filtered vacuum arc deposition from a single target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ajai; Etula, Jarkko; Ge, Yanling; Liu, Xuwen; Koskinen, Jari

    2016-11-01

    Detonation Nanodiamonds (DNDs) are known to have sp3 core, sp2 shell, small size (few nm) and are gaining importance as multi-functional nanoparticles. Diverse methods have been used to form composites, containing detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) embedded in conductive and dielectric matrices for various applications. Here we show a method, wherein DND-ta-C composite film, consisting of DNDs embedded in ta-C matrix have been co-deposited from the same cathode by pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc method. Transmission Electron Microscope analysis of these films revel the presence of DNDs embedded in the matrix of amorphous carbon. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the presence of DNDs does not adversely affect the sp3 content of DND-ta-C composite film compared to ta-C film of same thickness. Nanoindentation and nanowear tests indicate that DND-ta-C composite films possess improved mechanical properties in comparison to ta-C films of similar thickness.

  6. Surface structure characterization of ultra-thin films of Au deposited on Pd(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancotti, A.; de Siervo, A.; Nascente, P. A. P.; Landers, R.

    2016-06-01

    Ultra-thin films of Au were deposited on the Pd(111) surface and then characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) generated by synchrotron radiation. The Au films were deposited at room temperature (300 K) and subsequently annealed at 400 °C (673 K) and 610 °C (883 K). XPD analyses indicated that the gold films were 7 and 6 ML thick, for the annealing temperatures of 400 °C and 610 °C, respectively. The film interlayer distances exhibited an oscillatory behavior, with a 5% contraction between the top and the second layers, a 3% expansion between the second and the third layers, for the film annealed at 400 °C, and a 2% expansion in the interlayer distance between the top and the second layers and a 4% contraction between the second and the third layers, for the film annealed at 610 °C. For both annealing temperatures, the interlayer distances between the third and the fourth layers and between the fourth and the fifth layers exhibited a 1% expansion and a 2% contraction. For the film annealed at 610 °C, XPD results revealed that the Pd(111) surface was covered by Au islands, with some bare patches exposed.

  7. Density changes with substrate negative bias for ta-C films deposited by filter cathode vacuum arc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Man-lin; ZHU Jia-qi; HAN Jie-cai; MENG Song-he

    2004-01-01

    Specular X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements were used to study the density and cross-section information of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films deposited by filter cathode vacuum arc(FCVA) system at different substrate bias. According to the correlation between density and substrate negative bias, it is found that the value of density reaches a maximum at -80 V bias. As the substrate bias increases or decreases, the density tends to lower gradually. Based on the density of diamond and graphite, sp3 bonding ratio of ta-C films was obtained from their corresponding density according to a simple equation between the two. And a similar parabolic variation was observed for ta-C films with the sp3 content changes with substrate negative bias. The mechanical properties such as hardness and elastic modulus were also measured and compared with the corresponding density for ta-C films. From the distribution of data points, a linear proportional correlation between them was found, which shows that the density is a critical parameter to characterize the structure variation for ta-C films.

  8. Process parameters for fast production of ultra-thin polymer film with electrospray deposition under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, Ivo B; Kobayashi, Kei; Yamada, Hirofumi; Matsushige, Kazumi

    2009-11-15

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) films between 60 and 120nm have been prepared with electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) in 25-45s. The films are robust and exhibit a strong adhesion to the substrate surface. The important electrospray parameters for ultra-thin film formation are droplet size, initial polymer concentration, shear rate at impact, and volume flux. The latter can be understood as a measure for the solvent balance between deposition and evaporation; it affects overall film quality. The droplet size determines the minimum film thickness at which continuous film forms without voids. Polymer concentration affects thin-film smoothness and below a fixed concentration threshold, films cease to appear. For the very first droplets, wetting behavior on the substrate is most important. Subsequently, shear rate determines how voids are filled up and it determines final film smoothness. In addition to the electrospray conditions, substrates that favor wetting and have a capability to conduct charges away from the surface contribute to the formation of well-defined, ultra-thin films.

  9. Ultra-thin atomic-layer deposited alumina incorporating silica sol makes ultra-durable antireflection coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Lan, Pinjun; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Xianpeng; Yang, Ye; Tan, Ruiqin; Jylhä, Olli; Lu, Yuehui

    2012-11-01

    We propose a strategy to make soda-lime glass maintain both high transparency and long-term durability in stringent high temperature and humid environments. Experiments reveal that the double-layered coatings with 110-nm-thick SiO2 and ultra-thin 25-nm- or 50-nm-thick Al2O3 layers, prepared by sol-gel dip coating and atomic layer deposition (ALD), respectively, exhibit the improvement of 5.88-6.32% in Tave (the average transmittance from the wavelength of 400-700 nm), as compared with that of the bare glass. On the other hand, the highly accelerated temperature and humidity stress test (HAST) confirms that both samples can sustain the 180 h test without any proven transmittance degradation, while the normalized Tave of the bare glass drastically drops to 43.1% of the initial value after the 108 h HAST. It implies that the ultra-thin Al2O3 films prepared by ALD, followed by dip-coated low-index layers such as SiO2 or nanostructured layer, can achieve both higher average transmittance and better durability, which would be of significance for the applications of ALD and dip coating techniques in the fields of consumer electronics, architecture with glass facades, and photovoltaics.

  10. Surface morphology and structure of ultra-thin magnesium oxide grown on (100) silicon by atomic layer deposition oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochdi, N., E-mail: rochdi.nabil@gmail.com [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille (CINaM), CNRS UPR 3118, Aix-Marseille Universite, Case 913, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France); Liudvikouskaya, K. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, P. Browka 6, 220013 Minsk (Belarus); Descoins, M.; Raissi, M.; Coudreau, C.; Lazzari, J.-L. [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille (CINaM), CNRS UPR 3118, Aix-Marseille Universite, Case 913, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France); Oughaddou, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DSM-IRAMIS-SPCSI, Bat. 462, Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, LAMAp, 95000 Cergy-Pontoise cedex (France); D' Avitaya, F. Arnaud [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille (CINaM), CNRS UPR 3118, Aix-Marseille Universite, Case 913, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France)

    2011-07-29

    Ultra-thin magnesium oxide layers were elaborated by atomic layer deposition and oxidation process on silicon (100) starting from (2 x 1) thermally-reconstructed or hydrogen-terminated Si surfaces. Low-energy electron diffraction experiments show (2 x 3) and (3 x 3) reconstructions while depositing a magnesium monolayer on Si clean surfaces, and a 3-dimentional growth of the oxide as confirmed by ex-situ atomic force microscopy. For hydrogen-terminated or clean surfaces previously physisorbed by oxygen, uniform cobalt/magnesium-oxide/silicon stacks of layers are observed by transmission electron microscopy. Annealing above 150 deg. C leads to MgO dissolution and formation of an interfacial complex compound by inter-diffusion of Si and Co.

  11. Ultra thin films of gadolinium deposited by evaporation in ultra high vacuum conditions: Composition, growth and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Sancho, O.A.; Castro-Gonzalez, D.; Araya-Pochet, J.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Pedro, San Jose (Costa Rica); Escuela de Fisica, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Pedro, San Jose (Costa Rica); Vargas-Castro, W.E., E-mail: william.vargascastro@ucr.ac.cr [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Pedro, San Jose (Costa Rica); Escuela de Fisica, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Pedro, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2011-02-01

    Ultra-thin gadolinium films with thicknesses between 8 and 101 A were deposited on AT-cut crystalline quartz substrates under ultra high vacuum conditions, and subsequently subjected to composition and morphologic characterization through X-ray photo-spectroscopy analysis and atomic force microscopy. Oxygen contamination is found on the samples, and its amount is estimated in terms of the thickness of an oxygen layer over the gadolinium films after subtracting the contribution to the XPS spectra of the underlying background. Atomic force microscope pictures provide evidence of having metal island films, with two growing regimes: the Volmer-Weber mode for the thinner films considered and the Stranski-Krastanov growing mode for the thicker ones. From evaluation of the sticking coefficient, the shape of the islands is approximated in terms of oblate spheroid caps and variation of the contact angle with film mass thickness is reported.

  12. Ultra-thin SiN{sub x} in superlattice via nitridation of a-Si in-situ hot wire chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dharmendra Kumar; Solanki, Chetan Singh; Balasubramaniam, K.R., E-mail: bala.kavaipatti@gmail.com

    2014-08-28

    The fabrication of ultra-thin SiN{sub x} (< 2 nm) is a necessary step in third generation photovoltaics, memory, or light-emitting diode applications. Using the low temperature, cheap, scaleable synthesis technique of hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) for this purpose poses many challenges. Here, an approach of fabricating ultra thin SiN{sub x} of thickness ∼ 1.9 nm in a superlattice (SL) structure via nitridation of a-Si layers in-situ HWCVD at 250 °C is reported. Quantum well SL and quantum dot (QD) SL films are realized, wherein SiN{sub x} layers are formed by nitriding a-Si. Both these films investigated by Raman spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, reveal the formation of ultra-thin SiN{sub x} in a SL structure with a-Si, accompanied by sharp interfaces. In addition, annealing of the SL structures, results in QDs of crystalline Si in the a-Si layers, maintaining the SiN{sub x} layer as well as the sharp interface between the SiN{sub x} and a-Si layers of the as-deposited SL structure. - Highlights: • Ultra thin SiN{sub x} is fabricated by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. • SiN{sub x} layer of thickness ∼ 1.9 nm is formed via nitridation of a-Si layer at 250 °C. • Ultra thin SiN{sub x} layers are realized in superlattice films of quantum wells and quantum dots.

  13. Effect of Trimethyl Aluminium Surface Pretreatment on Atomic Layer Deposition Al2O3 Ultra-Thin Film on Si Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Min; LU Hong-Liang; DING Shi-Jin; SUN Liang; ZHANG Wei; WANG Li-Kang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ultra-thin Al2O3 dielectric films have been deposited on Si substrates by using trimethyl aluminium (TMA)and water as precursors in an atomic layer deposition (ALD) system. Growth of the interfacial layer between ultra-thin Al2O3 and the Si substrate is effectively suppressed by a long-time TMA surface pretreatment of the Si substrate prior to Al2O3 atomic layer deposition. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the thickness of the interfacial layer is reduced to be 0.5nm for the sample with TMA pretreatment lasting 3600s. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that the Al2O3 film deposited on the TMApretreated Si surface exhibits very good thermal stability. However, a hysteresis of about 50mV is observed in the C-V curve of the samples with the TMA pretreatment.

  14. Breakthrough to Non-Vacuum Deposition of Single-Crystal, Ultra-Thin, Homogeneous Nanoparticle Layers: A Better Alternative to Chemical Bath Deposition and Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kuang Liao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most thin-film techniques require a multiple vacuum process, and cannot produce high-coverage continuous thin films with the thickness of a few nanometers on rough surfaces. We present a new ”paradigm shift” non-vacuum process to deposit high-quality, ultra-thin, single-crystal layers of coalesced sulfide nanoparticles (NPs with controllable thickness down to a few nanometers, based on thermal decomposition. This provides high-coverage, homogeneous thickness, and large-area deposition over a rough surface, with little material loss or liquid chemical waste, and deposition rates of 10 nm/min. This technique can potentially replace conventional thin-film deposition methods, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD and chemical bath deposition (CBD as used by the Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS thin-film solar cell industry for decades. We demonstrate 32% improvement of CIGS thin-film solar cell efficiency in comparison to reference devices prepared by conventional CBD deposition method by depositing the ZnS NPs buffer layer using the new process. The new ZnS NPs layer allows reduction of an intrinsic ZnO layer, which can lead to severe shunt leakage in case of a CBD buffer layer. This leads to a 65% relative efficiency increase.

  15. TEM of ultra-thin DyBCO films deposited on TiO2 terminated SrTiO3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bals, S.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Blank, David H.A.; van Tendeloo, G.

    2001-01-01

    Using pulsed laser deposition ultra-thin DyBa2Cu3O7–x films were deposited on a single terminated (0 0 1) SrTiO3 substrate. The initial growth was studied by high-resolution electron microscopy. Two different types of interface arrangements occur and were determined as: bulk–SrO–TiO2–BaO–CuO–BaO–CuO

  16. Effect of processing parameters on microstructure of MoS2 ultra-thin films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MoS2 ultra-thin layers are synthesized using a chemical vapor deposition method based on the sulfurization of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3. The ultra-thin layers are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM. Based on our experimental results, all the processing parameters, such as the tilt angle of substrate, applied voltage, heating time and the weight of source materials have effect on the microstructures of the layers. In this paper, the effects of such processing parameters on the crystal structures and morphologies of the as-grown layers are studied. It is found that the film obtained with the tilt angle of 0.06° is more uniform. A larger applied voltage is preferred to the growth of MoS2 thin films at a certain heating time. In order to obtain the ultra-thin layers of MoS2, the weight of 0.003 g of source materials is preferred. Under our optimal experimental conditions, the surface of the film is smooth and composed of many uniformly distributed and aggregated particles, and the ultra-thin MoS2 atomic layers (1∼10 layers covers an area of more than 2 mm×2 mm.

  17. Atomic layer deposition assisted pattern transfer technology for ultra-thin block copolymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wenhui; Luo, Jun; Meng, Lingkuan; Li, Junjie; Xiang, Jinjuan; Li, Junfeng; Wang, Wenwu; Chen, Dapeng; Ye, Tianchun; Zhao, Chao

    2016-08-31

    As an emerging developing technique for next-generation lithography, directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymer (BCP) has attracted numerous attention and has been a potential alternative to supplement the intrinsic limitations of conventional photolithography. In this work, the self-assembling properties of a lamellar diblock copolymer poly(styrene-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA, 22k-b-22k, L{sub 0} = 25 nm) on Si substrate and an atomic layer deposition (ALD)-assisted pattern transfer technology for the application of DSA beyond 16/14 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology nodes, were investigated. Firstly, two key processing parameters of DSA, i.e. annealing temperatures and durations of BCP films, were optimized to achieve low defect density and high productivity. After phase separation of BCP films, self-assembling patterns of low defect density should be transferred to the substrate. However, due to the nano-scale thickness and the weak resistance of BCP films to dry etching, it is nearly impossible to transfer the BCP patterns directly to the substrate. Therefore, an ALD-based technology was explored in this work, in which deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} selectively reacts with PMMA blocks thus hardening the PMMA patterns. After removing PS blocks by plasma etching, hardened PMMA patterns were left and transferred to underneath SiO{sub 2} hard mask layer. Using this patterned hard mask, nanowire array of 25 nm pitch were realized on Si substrate. From this work, a high-throughput DSA baseline flow and related ALD-assisted pattern transfer technique were developed and proved to have good capability with the mainstream CMOS technology. - Highlights: • Optimization on self-assembly process for high productivity and low defectivity • Enhancement of etching ratio and resistance by atomic layer deposition (ALD) • A hard mask was used for pattern quality improvement and contamination control.

  18. Optical bandgap of ultra-thin amorphous silicon films deposited on crystalline silicon by PECVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Abdulraheem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An optical study based on spectroscopic ellipsometry, performed on ultrathin hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H layers, is presented in this work. Ultrathin layers of intrinsic amorphous silicon have been deposited on n-type mono-crystalline silicon (c-Si wafers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. The layer thicknesses along with their optical properties –including their refractive index and optical loss- were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE in a wavelength range from 250 nm to 850 nm. The data was fitted to a Tauc-Lorentz optical model and the fitting parameters were extracted and used to compute the refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical bandgap. Furthermore, the a-Si:H film grown on silicon was etched at a controlled rate using a TMAH solution prepared at room temperature. The optical properties along with the Tauc-Lorentz fitting parameters were extracted from the model as the film thickness was reduced. The etch rate for ultrathin a-Si:H layers in TMAH at room temperature was found to slow down drastically as the c-Si interface is approached. From the Tauc-Lorentz parameters obtained from SE, it was found that the a-Si film exhibited properties that evolved with thickness suggesting that the deposited film is non-homogeneous across its depth. It was also found that the degree of crystallinity and optical (Tauc bandgap increased as the layers were reduced in thickness and coming closer to the c-Si substrate interface, suggesting the presence of nano-structured clusters mixed into the amorphous phase for the region close to the crystalline silicon substrate. Further results from Atomic Force Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed the presence of an interfacial transitional layer between the amorphous film and the underlying substrate showing silicon nano-crystalline enclosures that can lead to quantum confinement effects. Quantum confinement is suggested to be the cause

  19. Optical bandgap of ultra-thin amorphous silicon films deposited on crystalline silicon by PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulraheem, Yaser, E-mail: yaser.abdulraheem@kuniv.edu.kw [Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait University. P.O. Box 5969, 13060 Safat (Kuwait); Gordon, Ivan; Bearda, Twan; Meddeb, Hosny; Poortmans, Jozef [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001, Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-05-15

    An optical study based on spectroscopic ellipsometry, performed on ultrathin hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layers, is presented in this work. Ultrathin layers of intrinsic amorphous silicon have been deposited on n-type mono-crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The layer thicknesses along with their optical properties –including their refractive index and optical loss- were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in a wavelength range from 250 nm to 850 nm. The data was fitted to a Tauc-Lorentz optical model and the fitting parameters were extracted and used to compute the refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical bandgap. Furthermore, the a-Si:H film grown on silicon was etched at a controlled rate using a TMAH solution prepared at room temperature. The optical properties along with the Tauc-Lorentz fitting parameters were extracted from the model as the film thickness was reduced. The etch rate for ultrathin a-Si:H layers in TMAH at room temperature was found to slow down drastically as the c-Si interface is approached. From the Tauc-Lorentz parameters obtained from SE, it was found that the a-Si film exhibited properties that evolved with thickness suggesting that the deposited film is non-homogeneous across its depth. It was also found that the degree of crystallinity and optical (Tauc) bandgap increased as the layers were reduced in thickness and coming closer to the c-Si substrate interface, suggesting the presence of nano-structured clusters mixed into the amorphous phase for the region close to the crystalline silicon substrate. Further results from Atomic Force Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed the presence of an interfacial transitional layer between the amorphous film and the underlying substrate showing silicon nano-crystalline enclosures that can lead to quantum confinement effects. Quantum confinement is suggested to be the cause of the observed

  20. Investigation of defects in ultra-thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on pure copper by the atomic layer deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, M.L.; Wang, L.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, H.C., E-mail: hclinntu@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, M.J., E-mail: mjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, K.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Some residual OH ligands originating from incomplete reaction between TMA and surface species of OH* during ALD process induce the defects in deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. Three possible types of defects are suggested. The analytic results indicate the defects are Type-I and/or Type-II but do not directly expose the substrate, like pinholes (Type-III). - Highlights: • Oxidation trials were conducted to investigate the defects in ultra-thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited ALD technique on pure copper. • The residual OH ligands in the deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films induce looser micro-structure which has worse oxidation resistance. • Superficial contamination particles on substrate surface are confirmed to be one of nucleation sites of the defects. - Abstract: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films with various thicknesses were deposited by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique on pure copper at temperatures of 100–200 °C. Oxidation trials were conducted in air at 200 °C to investigate the defects in these films. The analytic results show that the defects have a looser micro-structure compared to their surroundings, but do not directly expose the substrate, like pinholes. The film's crystallinity, mechanical properties and oxidation resistance could also be affected by these defects. Superficial contamination particles on the substrate surface are confirmed to be nucleation sites of the defects. A model for the mechanism of defect formation is proposed in this study.

  1. Influence of Oxygen Concentration on the Performance of Ultra-Thin RF Magnetron Sputter Deposited Indium Tin Oxide Films as a Top Electrode for Photovoltaic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity for substantial efficiency enhancements of thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H solar photovoltaic (PV cells using plasmonic absorbers requires ultra-thin transparent conducting oxide top electrodes with low resistivity and high transmittances in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fabricating ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO films (sub-50 nm using conventional methods has presented a number of challenges; however, a novel method involving chemical shaving of thicker (greater than 80 nm RF sputter deposited high-quality ITO films has been demonstrated. This study investigates the effect of oxygen concentration on the etch rates of RF sputter deposited ITO films to provide a detailed understanding of the interaction of all critical experimental parameters to help create even thinner layers to allow for more finely tune plasmonic resonances. ITO films were deposited on silicon substrates with a 98-nm, thermally grown oxide using RF magnetron sputtering with oxygen concentrations of 0, 0.4 and 1.0 sccm and annealed at 300 °C air ambient. Then the films were etched using a combination of water and hydrochloric and nitric acids for 1, 3, 5 and 8 min at room temperature. In-between each etching process cycle, the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, 4-point probe (electrical conductivity, and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. All the films were polycrystalline in nature and highly oriented along the (222 reflection. Ultra-thin ITO films with record low resistivity values (as low as 5.83 × 10−4 Ω·cm were obtained and high optical transparency is exhibited in the 300–1000 nm wavelength region for all the ITO films. The etch rate, preferred crystal lattice growth plane, d-spacing and lattice distortion were also observed to be highly dependent on the nature of growth environment for RF sputter deposited ITO films. The structural, electrical

  2. Modification of metal–InGaAs Schottky barrier behaviour by atomic layer deposition of ultra-thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Lalit [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Gupta, Suman; Jaiswal, Piyush; Bhat, Navakanta; Shivashankar, S.A. [Centre for Nano Science and Engineering (CeNSE), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Hughes, G. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2015-08-31

    The effect of inserting ultra-thin atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric layers (1 nm and 2 nm thick) on the Schottky barrier behaviour for high (Pt) and low (Al) work function metals on n- and p-doped InGaAs substrates has been investigated. Rectifying behaviour was observed for the p-type substrates (both native oxide and sulphur passivated) for both the Al/p-InGaAs and Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-InGaAs contacts. The Pt contacts directly deposited on p-InGaAs displayed evidence of limited rectification which increased with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayer thickness. Ohmic contacts were formed for both metals on n-InGaAs in the absence of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayer, regardless of surface passivation. However, limited rectifying behaviour was observed for both metals on the 2 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/n-InGaAs samples for the sulphur passivated InGaAs surface, indicating the importance of both surface passivation and the presence of an ultra-thin dielectric interlayer on the current–voltage characteristics displayed by these devices. - Highlights: • Investigation of the modification of metal–InGaAs Schottky barrier (SB) behaviour • Improving metal–InGaAs interface by sulphur passivation and ultrathin interlayer • Examine the effect of low work function and high work function metals on SB • Different SB behaviours observed on both n-type InGaAs and p-type InGaAs • Metal/n-InGaAs interface is more strongly pinned than the metal/p-InGaAs interface.

  3. Deposition of ultra thin CuInS₂ absorber layers by ALD for thin film solar cells at low temperature (down to 150 °C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nathanaelle; Bouttemy, Muriel; Genevée, Pascal; Lincot, Daniel; Donsanti, Frédérique

    2015-02-01

    Two new processes for the atomic layer deposition of copper indium sulfide (CuInS₂) based on the use of two different sets of precursors are reported. Metal chloride precursors (CuCl, InCl₃) in combination with H2S imply relatively high deposition temperature (Tdep = 380 °C), and due to exchange reactions, CuInS₂ stoechiometry was only achieved by depositing In₂S3 layers on a CuxS film. However, the use of acac- metal precursors (Cu(acac)₂, In(acac)₃) allows the direct deposition of CuInS₂ at temperature as low as 150 °C, involving in situ copper-reduction, exchange reaction and diffusion processes. The morphology, crystallographic structure, chemical composition and optical band gap of thin films were investigated using scanning electronic microscope, x-ray diffraction under grazing incidence conditions, x-ray fluorescence, energy dispersive spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. Films were implemented as ultra-thin absorbers in a typical CIS-solar cell architecture and allowed conversion efficiencies up to 2.8%.

  4. Deposition of ultra thin CuInS2 absorber layers by ALD for thin film solar cells at low temperature (down to 150 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nathanaelle; Bouttemy, Muriel; Genevée, Pascal; Lincot, Daniel; Donsanti, Frédérique

    2015-02-01

    Two new processes for the atomic layer deposition of copper indium sulfide (CuInS2) based on the use of two different sets of precursors are reported. Metal chloride precursors (CuCl, InCl3) in combination with H2S imply relatively high deposition temperature (Tdep = 380 °C), and due to exchange reactions, CuInS2 stoechiometry was only achieved by depositing In2S3 layers on a CuxS film. However, the use of acac- metal precursors (Cu(acac)2, In(acac)3) allows the direct deposition of CuInS2 at temperature as low as 150 °C, involving in situ copper-reduction, exchange reaction and diffusion processes. The morphology, crystallographic structure, chemical composition and optical band gap of thin films were investigated using scanning electronic microscope, x-ray diffraction under grazing incidence conditions, x-ray fluorescence, energy dispersive spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. Films were implemented as ultra-thin absorbers in a typical CIS-solar cell architecture and allowed conversion efficiencies up to 2.8%.

  5. Ultra-thin multilayer capacitors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, Timothy Jerome; Monson, Todd C.

    2009-06-01

    The fabrication of ultra-thin lanthanum-doped lead zirconium titanate (PLZT) multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) using a high-power pulsed ion beam was studied. The deposition experiments were conducted on the RHEPP-1 facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of this work was to increase the energy density of ceramic capacitors through the formation of a multilayer device with excellent materials properties, dielectric constant, and standoff voltage. For successful device construction, there are a number of challenging requirements including achieving correct stoichiometric and crystallographic composition of the deposited PLZT, as well as the creation of a defect free homogenous film. This report details some success in satisfying these requirements, although 900 C temperatures were necessary for PLZT perovskite phase formation. These temperatures were applied to a previously deposited multi-layer film which was then post-annealed to this temperature. The film exhibited mechanical distress attributable to differences in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the various layers. This caused significant defects in the deposited films that led to shorts across devices. A follow-on single layer deposition without post-anneal produced smooth layers with good interface behavior, but without the perovskite phase formation. These issues will need to be addressed in order for ion beam deposited MLCCs to become a viable technology. It is possible that future in-situ heating during deposition may address both the CTE issue, and result in lowered processing temperatures, which in turn could raise the probability of successful MLCC formation.

  6. UV light induced insulator-metal transition in ultra-thin ZnO/TiOx stacked layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, D.; Misra, P.; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, atomic layer deposition has been used to grow a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1-7) of ZnO/TiOx layers on (0001) sapphire substrates. The effects of defect states mediated chemisorption of O2 and/OH groups on the electrical properties of these films have been investigated by illuminating the samples under UV light inside a high vacuum optical cryostat. The ultra-thin film having one stacked layer (n = 1) did not show any change in its electrical resistance upon UV light exposure. On the contrary, marginal drop in the electrical resistivity was measured for the samples with n ≥ 3. Most surprisingly, the sample with n = 2 (thickness ˜ 12 nm) showed an insulator to metal transition upon UV light exposure. The temperature dependent electrical resistivity measurement on the as grown film (n = 2) showed insulating behaviour, i.e., diverging resistivity on extrapolation to T→ 0 K. However, upon UV light exposure, it transformed to a metallic state, i.e., finite resistivity at T → 0 K. Such an insulator-metal transition plausibly arises due to the de-trapping of conduction electrons from the surface defect sites which resulted in an upward shift of the Fermi level above the mobility edge. The low-temperature electron transport properties on the insulating film (n = 2) were investigated by a combined study of zero field electrical resistivity ρ(T) and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. The observed negative MR was found to be in good agreement with the magnetic field induced suppression of quantum interference between forward-going paths of tunnelling electrons. Both ρ(T) and MR measurements provided strong evidence for the Efros-Shklovskii type variable range hopping conduction in the low-temperature (≤40 K) regime. Such studies on electron transport in ultra-thin n-type doped ZnO films are crucial to achieve optimum functionality with long term reliability of ZnO based transparent

  7. Optical and Structural Properties of Ultra-thin Gold Films

    CERN Document Server

    Kossoy, Anna; Simakov, Denis; Leosson, Kristjan; Kéna-Cohen, Stéphane; Maier, Stefan A

    2014-01-01

    Realizing laterally continuous ultra-thin gold films on transparent substrates is a challenge of significant technological importance. In the present work, formation of ultra-thin gold films on fused silica is studied, demonstrating how suppression of island formation and reduction of plasmonic absorption can be achieved by treating substrates with (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane prior to deposition. Void-free fi lms with deposition thickness as low as 5.4 nm are realized and remain structurally stable at room temperature. Based on detailed structural analysis of the fi lms by specular and diffuse X-ray reflectivity measurements, it is shown that optical transmission properties of continuous ultra-thin films can be accounted for using the bulk dielectric function of gold. However, it is important to take into account the non-abrupt transition zone between the metal and the surrounding dielectrics, which extends through several lattice constants for the laterally continuous ultra-thin films (film thickness...

  8. Microstructural Comparisons of Ultra-Thin Cu Films Deposited by Ion-Beam and dc-Magnetron Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, W.

    2004-11-04

    We report and contrast both the electrical resistance and the microstructure of copper thin films deposited in an oxygen containing atmosphere by ion-beam and dc-magnetron sputtering. For films with thicknesses 5 nm or less, the resistivity of the Cu films is minimized at oxygen concentrations ranging from 0.2% to 1% for dc-magnetron sputtering and 6% to 10% for ion beam sputtering. Films sputtered under both conditions show a similar decrease of interface roughness with increasing oxygen concentration, although the magnetron deposited films are smoother. The dc-magnetron produced films have higher resistivity, have smaller Cu grains, and contain a higher concentration of cuprous oxide particles. We discuss the mechanisms leading to the grain refinement and the consequent reduced resistivity in both types of films.

  9. Preparation and characterization of ultra-thin films containing Au and Ag nanoparticles using layer-by-layer deposition technique

    OpenAIRE

    Cönger, Can Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Engineering and Sciences of Bilkent University, 2009. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2009. Includes bibliographical references leaves 69-77. The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte and polyelectrolyte/metal nanoparticle films by using X-ray Photoelectron (XPS) and Optical Spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Within this purpose, in the first part of the study, laye...

  10. Combination of nitrogen mediated crystallisation with post-deposition annealing—Towards ultra-thin ZnO:Al contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muydinov, R., E-mail: ruslan.muydinov@tu-berlin.de [Technical University Berlin, Institute for Semiconducting- and High-Frequency Technologies, Einsteinufer 25, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Ruske, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Silicon Photovoltaics, Kekuléstraße 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Neubert, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, PVcomB, Schwarzschildstraße 3, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Steigert, A.; Klaus, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Heterogeneous Material Systems, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Selve, S. [Technical University Berlin, ZELMI, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Köppel, G. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute Nanostructured Silicon for Photonic and Photovoltaic Implementations Kekuléstraße 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Szyszka, B. [Technical University Berlin, Institute for Semiconducting- and High-Frequency Technologies, Einsteinufer 25, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-08-31

    In order to improve the performance of doped zinc oxide thin films, the combination of a seed layer approach based on Nitrogen Mediated Crystallisation (NMC) with the post-deposition annealing of functional ZnO:Al films under a protective a-Si:H capping layer was applied in this work. The seed layers were prepared by magnetron sputtering and the effects of deposition parameters like power density, pressure and nitrogen content in the sputtering gas are reported. Optimised NMC seed layers were covered by ZnO:Al layers whose electrical transport properties have been investigated. Combination of these two approaches allowed decreasing resistivity to ≤ 350 μΩ cm and increasing charge-carrier mobility up to > 60 cm{sup 2}/V s for 230–280 nm thick films. Apparently, NMC-seed layer assists better relative crystallites' orientation, i.e. better out-of-plane texture, whereas the applied annealing helps to release the residual stresses in the film and decreases the concentration of scattering defects in ZnO:Al layers. - Highlights: • NMC was combined with the post-deposition annealing of ZnO:Al films under Si:H cap. • Both approaches work additively resulting in better Hall-mobility of electrons (μ{sub e}). • ZnO:Al films on glass are under measurable compressive stresses (~ 1 GPa). • Each of the both approaches allows decreasing compressive stresses in ZnO:Al films. • Very thin (250–280 nm) ZnO:Al films were obtained with μ{sub e} of more than 60 cm{sup 2}/Vs.

  11. GaN MOS-HEMT Using Ultra-Thin Al2O3 Dielectric Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Yuan-Zheng; HAO Yue; FENG Qian; ZHANG Jin-Cheng; MA Xiao-Hua; NI Jin-Yu

    2007-01-01

    @@ We report a GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) with atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 gate dielectric. Based on the previous work [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 (2005) 063501] of Ye et al. By decreeing the thickness of the gate oxide to 3.5nm and optimizing the device fabrication process, the device with maximum transconductance of 150mS/mm is produced and discussed in comparison with the result of 100mS/mm of Ye et al. The corresponding drain current density in the 0.8-μm-gate-length MOS-HEMT is 800mA/mm at the gate bias of 3.0 V. The gate leakage is two orders of magnitude lower than that of the conventional AlGaN/GaN HEMT. The excellent characteristics of this novel MOS-HEMT device structure with ALD Al2O3 gate dielectric are presented.

  12. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tiginyanu, Ion

    2011-01-01

    Gives a comprehensive account of the developments of nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. This book covers the fundamentals, processes of deposition and characterisation of nanocoatings, as well as the applications. It is suitable for the glass and glazing, automotive, electronics, aerospace, construction and biomedical industries in particular.$bCoatings are used for a wide range of applications, from anti-fogging coatings for glass through to corrosion control in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films provides an up-to-date review of the fundamentals, processes of deposition, characterisation and applications of nanocoatings. Part one covers technologies used in the creation and analysis of thin films, including chapters on current and advanced coating technologies in industry, nanostructured thin films from amphiphilic molecules, chemical and physical vapour deposition methods and methods for analysing nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. Part two focuses on the applications...

  13. Ultra Thin Quantum Well Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr Saeid Ghamaty

    2012-08-16

    This project has enabled Hi-Z technology Inc. (Hi-Z) to understand how to improve the thermoelectric properties of Si/SiGe Quantum Well Thermoelectric Materials. The research that was completed under this project has enabled Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) to satisfy the project goal to understand how to improve thermoelectric conversion efficiency and reduce costs by fabricating ultra thin Si/SiGe quantum well (QW) materials and measuring their properties. In addition, Hi-Z gained critical new understanding on how thin film fabrication increases the silicon substrate's electrical conductivity, which is important new knowledge to develop critical material fabrication parameters. QW materials are constructed with alternate layers of an electrical conductor, SiGe and an electrical insulator, Si. Film thicknesses were varied, ranging from 2nm to 10nm where 10 nm was the original film thickness prior to this work. The optimum performance was determined at a Si and SiGe thickness of 4nm for an electrical current and heat flow parallel to the films, which was an important conclusion of this work. Essential new information was obtained on how the Si substrate electrical conductivity increases by up to an order of magnitude upon deposition of QW films. Test measurements and calculations are accurate and include both the quantum well and the substrate. The large increase in substrate electrical conductivity means that a larger portion of the electrical current passes through the substrate. The silicon substrate's increased electrical conductivity is due to inherent impurities and thermal donors which are activated during both molecular beam epitaxy and sputtering deposition of QW materials. Hi-Z's forward looking cost estimations based on future high performance QW modules, in which the best Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are taken from separate samples predict that the electricity cost produced with a QW module could be achieved at <$0.35/W

  14. Ultra-thin chip technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips are the "smart skin" of a conventional silicon chip. This book shows how very thin and flexible chips can be fabricated and used in many new applications in microelectronics, microsystems, biomedical and other fields. It provides a comprehensive reference to the fabrication technology, post processing, characterization and the applications of ultra-thin chips.

  15. Fabrication and Characteristics of AIInN/A1N/GaN MOS-HEMTs with Ultra-Thin Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Gate Dielectric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wei; BI Zhi-Wei; LIANG Xiao-Zhen; ZHANG Jin-Feng; KUANG Xian-Wei; ZHANG Jin-Cheng; XUE Jun-Shuai; HAO Yao; MA Xiao-Hua; WANG Chong; LIU Hong-Xia; XU Sheng-Rui; YANG Lin-An

    2010-01-01

    @@ Al0.85In0.15N/AlN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors(MOS-HEMTs)employing a 3-nm ultra-thin atomic-layer deposited(ALD)Al2O3 gate dielectric layer are reported.Devices with 0.6μm gate lengths exhibit an improved maximum drain current density of 1227mA/mm at a gate bias of 3 V,a peak transconductance of 328 mS/mm,a cutoff frequency fT of 16 GHz,a maximum frequency of oscillation fmax of45 GHz,as well as significant gate leakage suppression in both reverse and forward directions,compared with the conventional Al0.85In0.15N/AlN/GaN HEMT.Negligible C-V hysteresis,together with a smaller pinch-off voltage shift,is observed,demonstrating few bulk traps in the dielectric and high quality of the Al2O3/AlInN interface.It is most notable that not only the transconductance profile of the MOS-HEMT is almost the same as that of the conventional HEMT with a negative shift,but also the peak transconductance of the MOS-HEMT is increased slightly.It is an exciting improvement in the transconductance performance.

  16. Ge interface engineering using ultra-thin La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films: A study into the effect of deposition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrovic, I. Z., E-mail: ivona@liverpool.ac.uk; Weerakkody, A. D.; Sedghi, N.; Hall, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Althobaiti, M.; Dhanak, V. R.; Linhart, W. M.; Veal, T. D. [Department of Physics and Stephenson Institute for Renewable Energy, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZF (United Kingdom); Chalker, P. R. [Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Tsoutsou, D.; Dimoulas, A. [NCSR Demokritos, MBE Laboratory, Institute of Materials Science, 153 10 Athens (Greece)

    2014-03-21

    A study into the optimal deposition temperature for ultra-thin La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge gate stacks has been conducted in this paper with the aim to tailor the interfacial layer for effective passivation of the Ge interface. A detailed comparison between the two lanthanide oxides (La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in terms of band line-up, interfacial features, and reactivity to Ge using medium energy ion scattering, vacuum ultra-violet variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VUV-VASE), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction is shown. La{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been found to be more reactive to Ge than Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, forming LaGeO{sub x} and a Ge sub-oxide at the interface for all deposition temperature studied, in the range from 44 °C to 400 °C. In contrast, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge deposited at 400 °C allows for an ultra-thin GeO{sub 2} layer at the interface, which can be eliminated during annealing at temperatures higher than 525 °C leaving a pristine YGeO{sub x}/Ge interface. The Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge gate stack deposited at lower temperature shows a sub-band gap absorption feature fitted to an Urbach tail of energy 1.1 eV. The latter correlates to a sub-stoichiometric germanium oxide layer at the interface. The optical band gap for the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge stacks has been estimated to be 5.7 ± 0.1 eV from Tauc-Lorentz modelling of VUV-VASE experimental data. For the optimal deposition temperature (400 °C), the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge stack exhibits a higher conduction band offset (>2.3 eV) than the La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge (∼2 eV), has a larger band gap (by about 0.3 eV), a germanium sub-oxide free interface, and leakage current (∼10{sup −7} A/cm{sup 2} at 1 V) five orders of magnitude lower than the respective La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge stack. Our study strongly points to the superiority of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ge system for germanium interface engineering to achieve high performance Ge

  17. Ultra-thin Metal and Dielectric Layers for Nanophotonic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Leandro, Lorenzo; Malureanu, Radu;

    2015-01-01

    In our talk we first give an overview of the various thin films used in the field of nanophotonics. Then we describe our own activity in fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin films of high quality. We particularly focus on uniform gold layers having thicknesses down to 6 nm fabricated by......-beam deposition on dielectric substrates and Al-oxides/Ti-oxides multilayers prepared by atomic layer deposition in high aspect ratio trenches. In the latter case we show more than 1:20 aspect ratio structures can be achieved....

  18. Towards a uniform and large-scale deposition of MoS2 nanosheets via sulfurization of ultra-thin Mo-based solid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelista, Silvia; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Martella, Christian; Alia, Mario; Longo, Massimo; Lamperti, Alessio; Mantovan, Roberto; Basset, Francesco Basso; Pezzoli, Fabio; Molle, Alessandro

    2016-04-29

    Large-scale integration of MoS2 in electronic devices requires the development of reliable and cost-effective deposition processes, leading to uniform MoS2 layers on a wafer scale. Here we report on the detailed study of the heterogeneous vapor-solid reaction between a pre-deposited molybdenum solid film and sulfur vapor, thus resulting in a controlled growth of MoS2 films onto SiO2/Si substrates with a tunable thickness and cm(2)-scale uniformity. Based on Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence, we show that the degree of crystallinity in the MoS2 layers is dictated by the deposition temperature and thickness. In particular, the MoS2 structural disorder observed at low temperature (structure at high temperature (1000 °C) and high thickness (four layers). From an atomic force microscopy investigation prior to and after sulfurization, this parametrical dependence is associated with the inherent granularity of the MoS2 nanosheet that is inherited by the pristine morphology of the pre-deposited Mo film. This work paves the way to a closer control of the synthesis of wafer-scale and atomically thin MoS2, potentially extendable to other transition metal dichalcogenides and hence targeting massive and high-volume production for electronic device manufacturing.

  19. Electroless copper on refractory and noble metal substrates with an ultra-thin plasma-assisted atomic layer deposited palladium layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Soon [Thin Film Technology Lab, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Il [Thin Film Technology Lab, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561756 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Joong-Hee [Thin Film Technology Lab, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561756 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyung-Kee [Thin Film Technology Lab, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561756 (Korea, Republic of); Dar, M.A. [Thin Film Technology Lab, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyung-Shik [Thin Film Technology Lab, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561756 (Korea, Republic of); Ten Eyck, Gregory A. [Department of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Lu, Toh-Ming [Department of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Senkevich, Jay J. [Brewer Science Inc., Rolla, MO 65401 (United States)]. E-mail: jsenkevich@brewerscience.com

    2006-02-25

    Electroless Cu was investigated on refractory metal, W and TaN {sub X}, and Ir noble metal substrates with a plasma-assisted atomic layer deposited palladium layer for the potential back-end-of-the-line (BEOL) metallization of advanced integrated devices. The sodium and potassium-free Cu electroless bath consisted of: ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a chelating agent, glyoxylic acid as a reducing agent, and additional chemicals such as polyethylene glycol, 2,2'-dipyridine and RE-610 as surfactant, stabilizer and wetting agent respectively. The growth and chemical characterization of the Cu films was carried out with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Group VIII metals such as Pt, Pd, etc., are stable in the electroless bath and catalytic towards the oxidation of glyoxylic acid and therefore work well for the electroless deposition of Cu. From RBS analysis, the amount of carbon and oxygen in Cu films were less than 1-3%. The Cu films were electroless deposited at 45-50 deg. C on patterned tantalum nitride with plasma-assisted atomic layer deposited (PA-ALD) Pd as a catalytic layer. Electroless Cu trench fill was successful with ultrasonic vibration, RE-610, and lowering the temperature to 45-50 deg. C on TaN {sub X} with the PA-ALD Pd catalytic layer.

  20. Chemical bath deposition route for the synthesis of ultra-thin CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Sánchez, Y.; Neuschitzer, M.; Xie, H.; Insignares-Cuello, C.; Izquierdo-Roca, V. [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, 08930 Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain); Peña, Y. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Saucedo, E., E-mail: esaucedo@irec.cat [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, 08930 Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} (CISSe) photovoltaic grade thin films are usually grown by expensive vacuum based methods or chemical routes that require highly toxic precursors. In this work, we present the synthesis of CISSe absorbers by a simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) route. In the first step, In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2−x}S stack was deposited as a precursor by CBD on Mo-coated soda lime glass substrates, using respectively thioacetamide and N,N′-dimethylthiourea as S source. Then the CISSe thin films were synthesized by the precursor's selenization at 450 °C. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tetragonal chalcopyrite structure of CISSe was identified by XRD and Raman, confirming that the major part of S was replaced by Se. SEM images show a compact and homogeneous film and by cross-section the thickness was estimated to be around 700 nm. Solar cells prepared with these absorbers exhibit an open circuit voltage of 369 mV, a short circuit current density of 13.7 mA/cm{sup 2}, a fill factor of 45% and an efficiency of 2.3%. - Highlights: • Deposition of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2−x}S multi-stacks by chemical bath deposition • Synthesis of CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} via a two stage process • Demonstration of the viability of this low cost method to produce photovoltaic grade CuIn(S,Se){sub 2}.

  1. Effect of substrate temperature on the arrangement of ultra-thin TiO{sub 2} films grown by a dc-magnetron sputtering deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukauskas, Virginijus, E-mail: virgis@pfi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Goštauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Kaciulis, Saulius; Mezzi, Alessio [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, ISMN-CNR, P.O. Box 10, I-00015 Monterotondo Stazione, Roma (Italy); Mironas, Audružis; Niaura, Gediminas; Rudzikas, Matas; Šimkienė, Irena; Šetkus, Arūnas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Goštauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2015-06-30

    TiO{sub 2} films with a thickness between 3 and 10 nm are obtained by a dc-magnetron sputtering deposition in the reactive gas atmosphere and the properties of the films are investigated by the Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy. An influence of the deposition temperature and the post-growth annealing on the properties of the films is studied at the temperatures from 375 to 650 K. It is experimentally demonstrated that the crystalline structure can be identified by the Raman spectroscopy in the films with the thickness higher than 9 nm and annealed in the oxygen rich atmosphere for at least 2 h at about 630 K. It is proved that the changes in the film structure are not related to the changes in the chemical composition, the Ti state, and the stoichiometry of the films. Basing on the fractal analysis of topographical images, it is shown that the structural changes can be associated with the changes in the fractal dimension. These changes can be a quantitative characteristic of the structure for the films thinner than 10 nm. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} films (< 10 nm) with crystalline anatase and amorphous grains were investigated. • Amounts of the crystalline and amorphous grains depend on the substrate temperature. • Fractal dimension is used as an indicator of a crystalline–amorphous grain mixture.

  2. Ultra-thin Oxide Films on SiO2: An STM Study of Their Thermal Stability in the Presence of Au Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The annealing of Au particles deposited onto the ultrathin layers of SiO2 on Si(111 ) has been studied in realtime with a high temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy. Annealing did not create significant changes to themorphology of the surface until the surface was heated up to more than 920 K when the gold particles started todisplay a preference for the step edge. Further heating caused the decomposition of the oxide layer with the for-mation of voids on the surface in the surface step edge area. Comparison between the gold assisted oxide decom-position and pure oxide decomposition indicates that the two decomposition routes proceed with different mecha-nisms.

  3. Structural study of vapour phase deposited 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylicacid diimide: Comparison between single crystal and ultra thin films grown on Pt(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillermet, O. [Universite de la Mediterranee, Aix-Marseille II, CRMC-N, UPR CNRS 7251, Campus de Luminy, case 913, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Mossoyan-Deneux, M. [Universite de Provence, Aix-Marseille I, L2MP, UMR CNRS 6137, Faculte des Sciences de St Jerome, F-13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Giorgi, M. [Service Commun de Cristallochimie, Universite Paul Cezanne, Aix-marseille III, Faculte des Sciences de St Jerome, F-13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Glachant, A. [Universite de la Mediterranee, Aix-Marseille II, CRMC-N, UPR CNRS 7251, Campus de Luminy, case 913, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)]. E-mail: glachant@crmcn.univ-mrs.fr; Mossoyan, J.C. [Universite de Provence, Aix-Marseille I, L2MP, UMR CNRS 6137, Faculte des Sciences de St Jerome, F-13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2006-08-30

    Structural properties of a single crystal and of a thin film of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-acid-diimide are compared. The two samples are both obtained from the vapour phase, the latter being deposited at room temperature, in an ultrahigh vacuum environment, on a clean Pt(100) substrate. In the single crystal we have pointed out interactions between adjacent molecules by overlapping of the {pi} systems in the stacks and by hydrogen bonds between neighbouring stacks. The various surface unit cells of the nanocrystals from the film, identified by means of scanning tunnelling microscopy, are not comparable to those expected from the X-ray diffraction study of the single crystal and to those already published for other substrates. This fact clearly highlights the role played by the type of substrate chosen and/or the substrate-molecule interaction that affects the stacking and crystallinity of the growing crystal on top.

  4. Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavement research in south Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Perrie, BD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavements (UTCRCP), in literature also referred to as Ultra Thin Reinforced High Performance Concrete (UTHRHPC), have been used in Europe successfully as a rehabilitation measure on steel bridge decks...

  5. Ultra-thin films for plasmonics: a technology overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-thin films with low surface roughness that support surface plasmon-polaritons in the infra-red and visible ranges are needed in order to improve the performance of devices based on the manipulation of plasmon propagation. Increasing amount of efforts is made in order not only to improve...... the quality of the deposited layers but also to diminish their thickness and to find new materials that could be used in this field. In this review, we consider various thin films used in the field of plasmonics and metamaterials in the visible and IR range. We focus our presentation on technological issues...

  6. Electrospinning of ultra-thin polymer fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, C.R.; Bergshoef, M.M.; Martin i Batlle, C.; Schönherr, H.; Vancso, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The electrospinning technique was used to spin ultra-thin fibers from several polymer/solvent systems. The diameter of the electrospun fibers ranged from 16 nm to 2 μm. The morphology of these fibers was investigated with an atomic force microscope (AFM) and an optical microscope. Polyethylene oxide

  7. Ultra-thin resistive switching oxide layers self-assembled by field-induced oxygen migration (FIOM) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangik; Hwang, Inrok; Oh, Sungtaek; Hong, Sahwan; Kim, Yeonsoo; Nam, Yoonseung; Lee, Keundong; Yoon, Chansoo; Kim, Wondong; Park, Bae Ho

    2014-11-03

    High-performance ultra-thin oxide layers are required for various next-generation electronic and optical devices. In particular, ultra-thin resistive switching (RS) oxide layers are expected to become fundamental building blocks of three-dimensional high-density non-volatile memory devices. Until now, special deposition techniques have been introduced for realization of high-quality ultra-thin oxide layers. Here, we report that ultra-thin oxide layers with reliable RS behavior can be self-assembled by field-induced oxygen migration (FIOM) at the interface of an oxide-conductor/oxide-insulator or oxide-conductor/metal. The formation via FIOM of an ultra-thin oxide layer with a thickness of approximately 2-5 nm and 2.5% excess oxygen content is demonstrated using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profile. The observed RS behavior, such as the polarity dependent forming process, can be attributed to the formation of an ultra-thin oxide layer. In general, as oxygen ions are mobile in many oxide-conductors, FIOM can be used for the formation of ultra-thin oxide layers with desired properties at the interfaces or surfaces of oxide-conductors in high-performance oxide-based devices.

  8. Study of neural cells on organic semiconductor ultra thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bystrenova, Eva; Tonazzini, Ilaria; Stoliar, Pablo; Greco, Pierpaolo; Lazar, Adina; Dutta, Soumya; Dionigi, Chiara; Cacace, Marcello; Biscarini, Fabio [ISMN-CNR, Bologna (Italy); Jelitai, Marta; Madarasz, Emilia [IEM- HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Huth, Martin; Nickel, Bert [LMU, Munich (Germany); Martini, Claudia [Dept. PNPB, Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    Many technological advances are currently being developed for nano-fabrication, offering the ability to create and control patterns of soft materials. We report the deposition of cells on organic semiconductor ultra-thin films. This is a first step towards the development of active bio/non bio systems for electrical transduction. Thin films of pentacene, whose thickness was systematically varied, were grown by high vacuum sublimation. We report adhesion, growth, and differentiation of human astroglial cells and mouse neural stem cells on an organic semiconductor. Viability of astroglial cells in time was measured as a function of the roughness and the characteristic morphology of ultra thin organic film, as well as the features of the patterned molecules. Optical fluorescence microscope coupled to atomic force microscope was used to monitor the presence, density and shape of deposited cells. Neural stem cells remain viable, differentiate by retinoic acid and form dense neuronal networks. We have shown the possibility to integrate living neural cells on organic semiconductor thin films.

  9. DNA adsorption measured with ultra-thin film organic field effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoliar, P.; Bystrenova, E.; Quiroga, S.D.; Annibale, P.; Facchini, M.; Spijkman, M.; Setayesh, S.; Leeuw, D. de; Biscarini, F.

    2009-01-01

    Organic ultra-thin film field effect transistors (FET) are operated as label-free sensors of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) adsorption. Linearized plasmid DNA molecules (4361 base pairs) are deposited froma solution on two monolayers thick pentacene FET. The amount of adsorbed DNA is measured by AFM an

  10. Ultra-thin plasma radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Peter S.

    2017-01-24

    A position-sensitive ionizing-radiation counting detector includes a radiation detector gas chamber having at least one ultra-thin chamber window and an ultra-thin first substrate contained within the gas chamber. The detector further includes a second substrate generally parallel to and coupled to the first substrate and defining a gas gap between the first substrate and the second substrate. The detector further includes a discharge gas between the substrates and contained within the gas chamber, where the discharge gas is free to circulate within the gas chamber and between the first and second substrates at a given gas pressure. The detector further includes a first electrode coupled to one of the substrates and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first electrode. The detector further includes a first discharge event detector coupled to at least one of the electrodes for detecting a gas discharge counting event in the electrode.

  11. Ultra-thin titanium nanolayers for plasmon-assisted enhancement of bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsun Su, Yen; Hsu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chung-Chien; Tu, Sheng-Lung; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2013-08-01

    Ultra-thin titanium films were deposited via ultra-high vacuum ion beam sputter deposition. Since the asymmetric electric field of the metal foil plane matches the B-band absorption of chlorophyll a, the ultra-thin titanium nanolayers were able to generate surface plasmon resonance, thus enhancing the photoluminescence of chlorophyll a. Because the density of the states of plasmon resonance increases, the enhancement of photoluminescence also rises. Due to the biocompatibility and inexpensiveness of titanium, it can be utilized to enhance the bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices, bio-laser, and biophotonics.

  12. Ultra-thin titanium nanolayers for plasmon-assisted enhancement of bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsun Su, Yen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chung-Chien [Science and Technology of Accelerator Light Source, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Tu, Sheng-Lung; Shen, Yun-Hwei [Department of Resource Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2013-08-05

    Ultra-thin titanium films were deposited via ultra-high vacuum ion beam sputter deposition. Since the asymmetric electric field of the metal foil plane matches the B-band absorption of chlorophyll a, the ultra-thin titanium nanolayers were able to generate surface plasmon resonance, thus enhancing the photoluminescence of chlorophyll a. Because the density of the states of plasmon resonance increases, the enhancement of photoluminescence also rises. Due to the biocompatibility and inexpensiveness of titanium, it can be utilized to enhance the bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices, bio-laser, and biophotonics.

  13. Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga) Se-2 solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vermang, Bart; Timo Watjen, Jorn; Fjallstrom, Viktor; Rostvall, Fredrik; Edoff, Marika; Gunnarsson, Rickard; Pilch, Iris; Helmersson, Ulf; Kotipalli, Ratan; Henry, Frederic; Flandre, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Al2O3 rear surface passivated ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) solar cells with Mo nano-particles (NPs) as local rear contacts are developed to demonstrate their potential to improve optical confinement in ultra-thin CIGS solar cells. The CIGS absorber layer is 380 nm thick and the Mo NPs are deposited uniformly by an up-scalable technique and have typical diameters of 150 to 200 nm. The Al2O3 layer passivates the CIGS rear surface between the Mo NPs, while the rear CIGS interface in contact w...

  14. The strength limits of ultra-thin copper films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiederhirn, Guillaume

    2007-07-02

    Elucidating size effects in ultra-thin films is essential to ensure the performance and reliability of MEMS and electronic devices. In this dissertation, the influence of a capping layer on the mechanical behavior of copper (Cu) films was analyzed. Passivation is expected to shut down surface diffusion and thus to alter the contributions of dislocation- and diffusion-based plasticity in thin films. Experiments were carried out on 25 nm to 2 {mu}m thick Cu films magnetron-sputtered onto amorphous-silicon nitride coated silicon (111) substrates. These films were capped with 10 nm of aluminum oxide or silicon nitride passivation without breaking vacuum either directly after Cu deposition or after a 500 C anneal. The evolution of thermal stresses in these films was investigated mainly by the substrate curvature method between -160 C and 500 C. Negligible differences were detected for the silicon nitride vs. the aluminum oxide passivated Cu films. The processing parameters associated with the passivation deposition also had no noticeable effect on the stress-temperature behavior of the Cu. However, the thermomechanical behavior of passivated Cu films strongly depended on the Cu film thickness. For films in the micrometer range, the influence of the passivation layer was not significant, which suggests that the Cu deformed mainly by dislocation plasticity. However, diffusional creep plays an increasing role with decreasing film thickness since it becomes increasingly difficult to nucleate dislocations in smaller grains. Size effects were investigated by plotting the stress at room temperature after thermal cycling as a function of the inverse film thickness. Between 2 {mu}m and 200 nm, the room temperature stress was inversely proportional to the film thickness. The passivation exerted a strong effect on Cu films thinner than 100 nm by effectively shutting down surface diffusion mechanisms. Since dislocation processes were also shut off in these ultra-thin films, they

  15. Microstructure characteristic and formation mechanism of crackfree TaC coating on C/C composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-dong; XIONG Xiang; HUANG Bai-yun

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure characteristic and formation mechanism of the crackfree and ablation-resistant TaC coating deposited on the C/C composite by Chemical Vapour Deposition(CVD) were investigated, using the reaction system of TaCl5-C3H6-H2-Ar. The results show that the nanosized pore structure formed in the TaC coating interior during CVD process is the main factor to reduce the hardness, elastic modulus, linear expansibility and inner thermal stress. Then crackfree coatings can be prepared and their thermal shock resistance can be enhanced. To obtain the dense and homogeneous matrix surface is necessary for the crackfree and low stress coating. The TaC coating structure that distributes from the dense matrix towards loose coating surface will result in the thick crackfree coating with good thermal shock resistance.

  16. Raman and XPS study on Ta-C films synthesized by FCVAD

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Guang Fu; Zhang Hui Xing; Liu Yu Long

    2001-01-01

    Ta-C films are synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition method. The results of Raman and XPS show that the sp sup 3 content of the films synthesized at the substrate bias of 80 to 100 V can reach 80%, and there is a low sp sup 3 content layer on the surface of these films

  17. Ultra-Thin Coatings Beautify Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The craftsmen in the Roman Empire who constructed the Lycurgus Cup 17 centuries ago probably didn't think their artifact would survive for nearly 2,000 years as a prized possession. And they certainly couldn't have known that the technology they used to make it would eventually become an important part of space exploration. Carved from one solid mass, the cup is one of the few complete glass objects from that period, and the only one made from dichroic glass. Meaning "two-colored" in Greek, dichroic glass was originally created by adding trace amounts of gold and silver to a large volume of glass melt. The resulting medium partially reflects the light passing through it, causing an observer to see different colors depending on the direction of the light source. The Lycurgus Cup, for example, is famous for appearing green in daylight and red when lit at night, symbolic of the ripening grapes used to fill it with wine. NASA revitalized the production of dichroic glass in the 1950s and 1960s as a means of protecting its astronauts. Ordinary clear substances cannot protect human vision from the harsh rays of unfiltered sunlight, and everything from the human body to spacecraft sensors and computers are at risk if left unprotected from the radiation that permeates space. The microscopic amounts of metal present in dichroic glass make it an effective barrier against such harmful radiation. While the ancient manufacturing technique called for adding metals to glass melt, NASA developed a process in which metals are vaporized by electron beams in a vacuum chamber and then applied directly to surfaces in an ultra-thin film. The vapor condenses in the form of crystal structures, and the process is repeated for up to several dozen coatings. The resulting material, still only about 30 millionths of an inch thick, is sufficient to reflect radiation even while the glass, or polycarbonate, as in the case of space suit helmets, remains transparent to the human eye.

  18. Ultra thin films of nanocrystalline Ge studied by AFM and interference enhanced Raman scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Balaji; S Mohan; D V S Muthu; A K Sood

    2003-10-01

    Initial growth stages of the ultra thin films of germanium (Ge) prepared by ion beam sputter deposition have been studied using atomic force microscope (AFM) and interference enhanced Raman scattering. The growth of the films follows Volmer-Weber growth mechanism. Analysis of the AFM images shows that Ostwald ripening of the grains occurs as the thickness of the film increases. Raman spectra of the Ge films reveal phonon confinement along the growth direction and show that the misfit strain is relieved for film thickness greater than 4 nm.

  19. Band Offset Measurements on Ultra-Thin (100) SOI MOSFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, J.P.J.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; Smit, G.D.J.; Hoang, T.; Holleman, J.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    This work shows experimental evidence of structural quantum confinement showing up in the electrical device characteristics through a widening of the band gap. In this work, subthreshold currents in long channel ultra-thin SOI MOSFETs with (100) crystal orientation have been analyzed for various tem

  20. Ultra-thin films for plasmonics: a technology overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-thin films with low surface roughness that support surface plasmon-polaritons in the infra-red and visible ranges are needed in order to improve the performance of devices based on the manipulation of plasmon propagation. Increasing amount of efforts is made in order not only to improve the...

  1. Ultra-thin films with highly absorbent porous media fine-tunable for coloration and enhanced color purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Jin; Lim, Jin Ha; Lee, Gil Ju; Jang, Kyung-In; Song, Young Min

    2017-03-02

    We demonstrate ultra-thin, fine-tunable optical coatings with enhanced color purity based on highly absorbent porous media on a metal substrate. We show that the color range provided by these ultra-thin film coatings can be extended by making the absorptive dielectric layer porous. Oblique angle deposition (OAD) of a thin (10-25 nm) germanium (Ge) film by e-beam evaporation onto a thick gold substrate yields controlled porosity. Reflectance spectra and color representations from both calculations and experiments verify the enhancement of resonance tunability and color purity in the nano-tailored coatings. Angle independent reflection properties, and the applicability of such porous Ge on various metal substrates, indicate the strength of these concepts.

  2. Towards bio-silicon interfaces: formation of an ultra-thin self-hydrated artificial membrane composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and chitosan deposited in high vacuum from the gas-phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, María J; Cisternas, Marcelo A; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E; Perez-Acle, Tomas; Seifert, Birger; Busch, Mark; Huber, Patrick; Volkmann, Ulrich G

    2014-09-14

    The recent combination of nanoscale developments with biological molecules for biotechnological research has opened a wide field related to the area of biosensors. In the last years, device manufacturing for medical applications adapted the so-called bottom-up approach, from nanostructures to larger devices. Preparation and characterization of artificial biological membranes is a necessary step for the formation of nano-devices or sensors. In this paper, we describe the formation and characterization of a phospholipid bilayer (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC) on a mattress of a polysaccharide (Chitosan) that keeps the membrane hydrated. The deposition of Chitosan (~25 Å) and DPPC (~60 Å) was performed from the gas phase in high vacuum onto a substrate of Si(100) covered with its native oxide layer. The layer thickness was controlled in situ using Very High Resolution Ellipsometry (VHRE). Raman spectroscopy studies show that neither Chitosan nor DPPC molecules decompose during evaporation. With VHRE and Atomic Force Microscopy we have been able to detect phase transitions in the membrane. The presence of the Chitosan interlayer as a water reservoir is essential for both DPPC bilayer formation and stability, favoring the appearance of phase transitions. Our experiments show that the proposed sample preparation from the gas phase is reproducible and provides a natural environment for the DPPC bilayer. In future work, different Chitosan thicknesses should be studied to achieve a complete and homogeneous interlayer.

  3. Towards bio-silicon interfaces: Formation of an ultra-thin self-hydrated artificial membrane composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and chitosan deposited in high vacuum from the gas-phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retamal, María J., E-mail: moretama@uc.cl; Cisternas, Marcelo A.; Seifert, Birger; Volkmann, Ulrich G. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Centro de Investigación en Nanotecnología y Materiales Avanzados (CIEN-UC), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E.; Perez-Acle, Tomas [Computational Biology Lab (DLab), Fundación Ciencia y Vida, Av. Zañartu 1482, Santiago (Chile); Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencias de Valparaiso (CINV), Universidad de Valparaiso, Pasaje Harrington 287, Valparaiso (Chile); Busch, Mark; Huber, Patrick [Institute of Materials Physics and Technology, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), D-21073 Hamburg-Harburg (Germany)

    2014-09-14

    The recent combination of nanoscale developments with biological molecules for biotechnological research has opened a wide field related to the area of biosensors. In the last years, device manufacturing for medical applications adapted the so-called bottom-up approach, from nanostructures to larger devices. Preparation and characterization of artificial biological membranes is a necessary step for the formation of nano-devices or sensors. In this paper, we describe the formation and characterization of a phospholipid bilayer (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC) on a mattress of a polysaccharide (Chitosan) that keeps the membrane hydrated. The deposition of Chitosan (∼25 Å) and DPPC (∼60 Å) was performed from the gas phase in high vacuum onto a substrate of Si(100) covered with its native oxide layer. The layer thickness was controlled in situ using Very High Resolution Ellipsometry (VHRE). Raman spectroscopy studies show that neither Chitosan nor DPPC molecules decompose during evaporation. With VHRE and Atomic Force Microscopy we have been able to detect phase transitions in the membrane. The presence of the Chitosan interlayer as a water reservoir is essential for both DPPC bilayer formation and stability, favoring the appearance of phase transitions. Our experiments show that the proposed sample preparation from the gas phase is reproducible and provides a natural environment for the DPPC bilayer. In future work, different Chitosan thicknesses should be studied to achieve a complete and homogeneous interlayer.

  4. Towards bio-silicon interfaces: Formation of an ultra-thin self-hydrated artificial membrane composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and chitosan deposited in high vacuum from the gas-phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, María J.; Cisternas, Marcelo A.; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E.; Perez-Acle, Tomas; Seifert, Birger; Busch, Mark; Huber, Patrick; Volkmann, Ulrich G.

    2014-09-01

    The recent combination of nanoscale developments with biological molecules for biotechnological research has opened a wide field related to the area of biosensors. In the last years, device manufacturing for medical applications adapted the so-called bottom-up approach, from nanostructures to larger devices. Preparation and characterization of artificial biological membranes is a necessary step for the formation of nano-devices or sensors. In this paper, we describe the formation and characterization of a phospholipid bilayer (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC) on a mattress of a polysaccharide (Chitosan) that keeps the membrane hydrated. The deposition of Chitosan (˜25 Å) and DPPC (˜60 Å) was performed from the gas phase in high vacuum onto a substrate of Si(100) covered with its native oxide layer. The layer thickness was controlled in situ using Very High Resolution Ellipsometry (VHRE). Raman spectroscopy studies show that neither Chitosan nor DPPC molecules decompose during evaporation. With VHRE and Atomic Force Microscopy we have been able to detect phase transitions in the membrane. The presence of the Chitosan interlayer as a water reservoir is essential for both DPPC bilayer formation and stability, favoring the appearance of phase transitions. Our experiments show that the proposed sample preparation from the gas phase is reproducible and provides a natural environment for the DPPC bilayer. In future work, different Chitosan thicknesses should be studied to achieve a complete and homogeneous interlayer.

  5. Ultra-Thin Metal Films for Enhanced Solar Absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, N; Teng, M; Cryan, M J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents modelled results for optical absorption in ultra-thin films of nickel, gold and silver over the solar spectrum. It is found in the case of nickel there is an optimum thickness for maximum solar absorption around 10-13nm. This effect is not observed for gold or silver. It is postulated that this is an interference effect occurring due the particular real and imaginary refractive profile of nickel across the solar spectrum.

  6. Weakly nonlinear stability of ultra-thin slipping films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guohui

    2005-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear theory is presented to study the effects of slippage on the stability of the ultra-thin polymer films.The nonlinear mathematical model is constructed for perturbations of small finite amplitude based on hydrodynamic equations with the long wave approximation. Results reveal that the nonlinearity always accelerates the rupture of the films. The influences of the slip length, film thickness, and initial amplitude of perturbations on the rupture of the films are investigated.

  7. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazek El-Atab

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO2 layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD steps. A threshold voltage (Vt shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V Vt shift, the memory with CrO2 layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO2 layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  8. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar [Institute Center for Microsystems – iMicro, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Okyay, Ali K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-11-15

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  9. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Okyay, Ali K.; Nayfeh, Ammar

    2013-11-01

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO2 layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (Vt) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V Vt shift, the memory with CrO2 layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO2 layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  10. Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermang, Bart, E-mail: Bart.Vermang@angstrom.uu.se [Ångström Solar Center, University of Uppsala, Uppsala 75121 (Sweden); ESAT-KU Leuven, University of Leuven, Leuven 3001 (Belgium); Wätjen, Jörn Timo; Fjällström, Viktor; Rostvall, Fredrik; Edoff, Marika [Ångström Solar Center, University of Uppsala, Uppsala 75121 (Sweden); Gunnarsson, Rickard; Pilch, Iris; Helmersson, Ulf [Plasma & Coatings Physics, University of Linköping, Linköping 58183 (Sweden); Kotipalli, Ratan; Henry, Frederic; Flandre, Denis [ICTEAM/IMNC, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve 1348 (Belgium)

    2015-05-01

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} rear surface passivated ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells with Mo nano-particles (NPs) as local rear contacts are developed to demonstrate their potential to improve optical confinement in ultra-thin CIGS solar cells. The CIGS absorber layer is 380 nm thick and the Mo NPs are deposited uniformly by an up-scalable technique and have typical diameters of 150 to 200 nm. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer passivates the CIGS rear surface between the Mo NPs, while the rear CIGS interface in contact with the Mo NP is passivated by [Ga]/([Ga] + [In]) (GGI) grading. It is shown that photon scattering due to the Mo NP contributes to an absolute increase in short circuit current density of 3.4 mA/cm{sup 2}; as compared to equivalent CIGS solar cells with a standard back contact. - Highlights: • Proof-of-principle ultra-thin CIGS solar cells have been fabricated. • The cells have Mo nano-particles (NPs) as local rear contacts. • An Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film passivates the CIGS rear surface between these nano-particles. • [Ga]/([Ga] + [In]) grading is used to reduce Mo-NP/CIGS interface recombination.

  11. Encapsulating graphene by ultra-thin alumina for reducing process contaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauber, Jan; Terres, Bernat; Stampfer, Christoph [II. Institute of Physics B, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); JARA Fundamentals of Future Information Technologies, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-8/9), Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Trellenkamp, Stefan [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-8/9), Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    We discuss a fabrication process for making graphene devices based on encapsulated graphene for reducing contaminations during individual processing steps. A 3-5 nm alumina layer is deposited directly after exfoliating graphene, protecting it during the entire processing. We show that the visibility of the encapsulated graphene is sufficient to identify graphene flakes and Raman spectra exhibit the characteristic finger print. We perform transport measurements to study the sample quality and compare the results with graphene samples processed without an alumina layer. In particular we observe a higher yield and significantly reduced contact resistances for devices fabricated with the here presented method. Graphene flake with metal (Cr/Au) contacts covered with an ultra-thin (3-5 nm) oxidized aluminum layer (left) and without the layer (right). (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Remarkably high mobility ultra-thin-film metal-oxide transistor with strongly overlapped orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Shih, Chen; Chin, Albert; Fu Lu, Chun; Fang Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    High mobility channel thin-film-transistor (TFT) is crucial for both display and future generation integrated circuit. We report a new metal-oxide TFT that has an ultra-thin 4.5 nm SnO2 thickness for both active channel and source-drain regions, very high 147 cm2/Vs field-effect mobility, high ION/IOFF of 2.3 × 107, small 110 mV/dec sub-threshold slope, and a low VD of 2.5 V for low power operation. This mobility is already better than chemical-vapor-deposition grown multi-layers MoS2 TFT. From first principle quantum-mechanical calculation, the high mobility TFT is due to strongly overlapped orbitals.

  13. Mechanical and electrical properties of ultra-thin chips and flexible electronics assemblies during bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Ende, D.A.; Van De Wiel, H.J.; Kusters, R.H.L.; Sridhar, A.; Schram, J.F.M.; Cauwe, M.; Van Den Brand, J.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips of less than 20 μm become flexible, allowing integration of silicon IC technology with highly flexible electronics such as food packaging sensor systems or healthcare and sport monitoring tags as wearable patches or even directly in clothing textile. The ultra-thin chips in these

  14. Mechanical and electrical properties of ultra-thin chips and flexible electronics assemblies during bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Ende, D.A.; Van De Wiel, H.J.; Kusters, R.H.L.; Sridhar, A.; Schram, J.F.M.; Cauwe, M.; Van Den Brand, J.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips of less than 20 μm become flexible, allowing integration of silicon IC technology with highly flexible electronics such as food packaging sensor systems or healthcare and sport monitoring tags as wearable patches or even directly in clothing textile. The ultra-thin chips in these pr

  15. Ordering Effects in NbC and TaC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, J. D.; Meyerhoff, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    By means of transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, evidence has been obtained for the existence of long range carbon atom ordering in single-crystal niobium carbide that has a carbon-to-metal ratio close to the integral composition Nb6C5. The ordering, which gives rise to superlattice and domain structures similar to those observed in V6C5, appears, however, only in samples that have been cooled slowly through the order-disorder temperature of 1025 C. In TaC of similar composition, the ordering, although present, remains very imperfect even after the crystals are subjected to the same thermal treatment. The results are interpreted in terms of the electronic structure of the transition metal carbides as it is currently understood, and their relevance to the mechanical properties of NbC and TaC are discussed.

  16. Ultra-thin metamaterial for perfect and omnidirectional sound absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Noé; Romero-García, Vicent; Pagneux, Vincent; Groby, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Using the concepts of slow sound and of critical coupling, an ultra-thin acoustic metamaterial panel for perfect and omnidirectional absorption is theoretically and experimentally conceived in this work. The system is made of a rigid panel with a periodic distribution of thin closed slits, the upper wall of which is loaded by Helmholtz Resonators (HRs). The presence of resonators produces a slow sound propagation shifting the resonance frequency of the slit to the deep sub-wavelength regime ($\\lambda/88$). By controlling the geometry of the slit and the HRs, the intrinsic visco-thermal losses can be tuned in order to exactly compensate the energy leakage of the system and fulfill the critical coupling condition to create the perfect absorption of sound in a large range of incidence angles due to the deep subwavelength behavior.

  17. Integration of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guanchao; Steigert, Alexander; Andrae, Patrick; Goebelt, Manuela; Latzel, Michael; Manley, Phillip; Lauermann, Iver; Christiansen, Silke; Schmid, Martina

    2015-11-01

    Integration of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells is investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that Ag nanoparticles underneath a Sn:In2O3 back contact could not be thermally passivated even at a low substrate temperature of 440 °C during CIGSe deposition. It is shown that a 50 nm thick Al2O3 film prepared by atomic layer deposition is able to block the diffusion of Ag, clearing the thermal obstacle in utilizing Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin CIGSe solar cells. Via 3-D finite element optical simulation, it is proved that the Ag nanoparticles show the potential to contribute the effective absorption in CIGSe solar cells.

  18. Superior stability of ultra thin CdTe solar cells with simple Cu/Au back contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmaudo, Ivan; Salavei, Andrei; Xu, Bing Lei; Di Mare, Simone; Romeo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.romeo@univr.it

    2015-05-01

    Due to its high scalability and low production cost, CdTe has shown a significant potential for high mass production, resulting to be one of the cheapest photovoltaic technologies available. Efficiencies exceeding 20% have been obtained by the application of high temperature CdTe deposition. However tellurium scarcity is a limitation for mass production and one of the possibilities to overcome this is the reduction of absorber thickness. We have already demonstrated efficiencies above 11% for devices with 1.5 μm thick CdTe. Nowadays we have fabricated ultra-thin absorber devices performing more than 13% efficiencies. But what is most interesting is that we have observed a different electrical operation and stability, connected to the fact that the depletion region takes a very large part of the device. In this work many CdTe solar cells with a standard Cu/Au back contact, made with different absorber thicknesses, were prepared, stored in dark and tested at different aging times, showing different reactions to the aging and in particular a remarkable stability as CdTe thickness reduces. - Highlights: • CdTe/CdS devices with 0.7, 1 and 1.8 μm thick absorbers have been prepared. • Superior stability in dark aging of ultra thin CdTe devices has been registered. • Electrical analysis shows different behaviors and nature of defects for thin CdTe samples. • For 6 μm CdTe samples degradation is driven mainly by defect compensation. • For ultra thin CdTe samples, degradation is dominated by impurities from the front contact.

  19. TaC Studios New Construction Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Curtis, O. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kim, E. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Roberts, S. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Stephenson, R. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2013-03-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA, in the mixed humid climate zone. This home will serve as a model home for the builder partner and addresses Building America energy savings targets through the planning and implementation of a design package will serve as a basis of design for the builder partner’s future homes. As a BA test house, this home will be evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and HVAC and hot water efficiency.

  20. Molecular Dynamics of Ultra-thin Lubricating Films under Confined Shear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGJian-ning; CHENJun; FANZeng; CAILan; YANGJi-chang

    2004-01-01

    The molecular dynamics simulation of ultra-thin films under confined shear was performed to imvestigate the relation betwceen dynamic properties of ultra-thin films and their microstructure.the solid walls were modelled using an Au crystal and the fluid molecules were modeled using decane the simulation results indicate that the the microstructure of ultra-thin films is a kind of solid-like layering structure.the density and velocity profiles of the fluid molecules are symmetric the slip and shear thinning behavior was founded and interpreted.a math ematic model was set up according to the results of the simulation and experiments.

  1. Advanced germanium layer transfer for ultra thin body on insulator structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsuro; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Irisawa, Toshifumi; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Hiroyuki; Poborchii, Vladimir; Kurashima, Yuuichi; Takagi, Hideki; Uchida, Noriyuki

    2016-12-01

    We present the HEtero-Layer Lift-Off (HELLO) technique to obtain ultra thin body (UTB) Ge on insulator (GeOI) substrates. The transferred ultra thin Ge layers are characterized by the Raman spectroscopy measurements down to the thickness of ˜1 nm, observing a strong Raman intensity enhancement for high quality GeOI structure in ultra thin regime due to quantum size effect. This advanced Ge layer transfer technique enabled us to demonstrate UTB-GeOI nMOSFETs with the body thickness of only 4 nm.

  2. Temporomandibular joint ankylosis fixation technique with ultra thin silicon sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Temporomandibular joint ankylosis is a highly distressing condition in which the joint space is obliterated by scar tissue and the patient has an inability to open the mouth. Different autogenous and alloplastic interposition materials have been used after the resection of the ankylotic bone to achieve desirable and long lasting results. The recurrence of disease is most distressing for both patients and surgeon. We have been using ultra thin silicon sheet as our preferred material for providing proper fixation and cover to the joint. We have been encouraged by good patient compliance, no implant extrusion and favourable outcome. Materials and Methods: The clinical study included 80 patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis, treated between April 2001 and March 2009. In all patients, temporomandibular joint ankylosis had resulted following trauma. Diagnosis was based on clinical assessment supplemented by radiographic examination consisting of a panoramic radiograph, axial and coronal computer tomography. The technique of using ultra thin silicon sheet covering whole of the joint space fixed with non-absorbable nylon 3-0 suture both medially to medial pterygoid muscle and laterally to periosteum of zygomatic arch was employed in all patients. Results: A total of 80 patients were in this study (59 males and 21 females. The aetiology of temporomandibular joint ankylosis was post-traumatic in all cases. The patients′ age ranged from 5 to 45 years. The disease was unilateral in 61 cases and bilateral in 19 cases. Twelve patients, who had previous surgery done in the form of gap arthroplasty in 6 cases, costochondral graft in 4 cases and temporalis muscle in 2 cases, presented with recurrence on the same side. The pre-op inter-incisal mouth opening ranged from 4 to 12 mm. The intraoperative inter-incisal mouth opening ranged from 28 to 46 mm. An additional procedure was done in 13 patients, including placement of costochondral

  3. Pulmonary mucormycosis (Cunninghamella bertholletiae) with cavitation diagnosed using ultra-thin fibre-optic bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shin-Ichi; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Fukuda, Minoru; Obase, Yasushi; Yoshida, Koichiro; Miyauchi, Ayaka; Kawasaki, Kouzou; Soda, Hiroshi; Oka, Mikio

    2008-03-01

    Recently, ultra-thin bronchoscopy has made it possible to observe smaller bronchi not visualized using standard techniques. We describe a case of pulmonary mucormycosis with cavitation, diagnosed using an ultra-thin bronchoscope. A 15-year-old girl with acute myeloid leukaemia had taken oral prednisolone, 60 mg/day, for graft versus host disease after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. She was admitted to our hospital with fever and a large cavitary lesion in the right hilum. Using an ultra-thin bronchoscope, the interior of the cavity in the superior segment of the right lower lobe was observed. The bronchoscopic findings revealed debris adhering to the cavity wall with a small volume of effusion. Cunninghamella bertholletiae was isolated from the effusion specimen obtained using the bronchoscope. Pulmonary mucormycosis (C. bertholletiae) complicating an immunocompromised state was diagnosed. Ultra-thin bronchoscopy is useful to diagnose complex pulmonary infections and more research is needed to verify its clinical indications and utility.

  4. Ultra-Thin Deformable Silicon Substrates with Lateral Segmentation and Flexible Metal Interconnect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoumpouidis, T.; Wang, L.; Bartek, M.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Ernst, L.J.

    2007-01-01

    Our progress in developing technology modules for deformable single-crystalline-silicon electronics is presented in this contribution. Additional deformability/reliability is accomplished by modifications of the previously reported ultra-thin and flexible CIRCONFLEX technology (1). The flexibility

  5. Feasibility of Ultra-Thin Fiber-Optic Dosimeters for Radiotherapy Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsoo Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, prototype ultra-thin fiber-optic dosimeters were fabricated using organic scintillators, wavelength shifting fibers, and plastic optical fibers. The sensor probes of the ultra-thin fiber-optic dosimeters consisted of very thin organic scintillators with thicknesses of 100, 150 and 200 μm. These types of sensors cannot only be used to measure skin or surface doses but also provide depth dose measurements with high spatial resolution. With the ultra-thin fiber-optic dosimeters, surface doses for gamma rays generated from a Co-60 therapy machine were measured. Additionally, percentage depth doses in the build-up regions were obtained by using the ultra-thin fiber-optic dosimeters, and the results were compared with those of external beam therapy films and a conventional fiber-optic dosimeter.

  6. Probing stress state and phase content in ultra-thin Ta films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitacre, J.F.; Yalisove, S.M.; Bilello, J.C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Rek, Z.U. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.

    1998-12-31

    Ta films 25 {angstrom} to 200 {angstrom} in thickness were sputter-deposited using different sputter gas (Ar) pressures and cathode power settings. The average in-plane stresses were determined using double crystal diffraction topography (DCDT). X-ray analysis (using the grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS) geometry) was performed using a synchrotron light source. To study microstructure and phase content, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and transmission electron diffraction (TED) were used. Well resolved x-ray patterns were collected for all of the films. The DCDT stress data was found to be consistent with stress effects evidence in the GIXS data. In general, residual stress state was not strongly dependent upon Ar pressure. The strongest evidence of amorphous content was found in both x-ray and TED data taken from 25 {angstrom} thick films deposited using 2mTorr Ar pressure and 460 W cathode power. These results show that it is possible to create and study ultra-thin Ta films which possess a range of residual stresses and phase compositions.

  7. Axial ion channeling patterns from ultra-thin silicon membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motapothula, M., E-mail: g0801315@nus.edu.sg [Center for Ion Beam Applications, Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Dang, Z.Y. [Center for Ion Beam Applications, Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Venkatesan, T. [NanoCore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Breese, M.B.H. [Center for Ion Beam Applications, Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); SSLS, National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603 (Singapore); Rana, M.A. [Physics Division, Directorate of Science, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Osman, A. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-07-15

    We present channeling patterns produced by MeV protons transmitted through 55 nm thick [0 0 1] silicon membranes showing the early evolution of the axially channeled beam angular distribution for small tilts away from the [0 0 1], [0 1 1] and [1 1 1] axes. Instead of a ring-like 'doughnut' distribution previously observed at small tilts to major axes in thicker membranes, geometric shapes such as squares and hexagons are observed along different axes in ultra-thin membranes. The different shapes arise because of the highly non-equilibrium transverse momentum distribution of the channeled beam during its initial propagation in the crystal and the reduced multiple scattering which allows the fine angular structure to be resolved. We describe a simple geometric construction of the intersecting planar channels at an axis to gain insight into the origin of the geometric shapes observed in such patterns and how they evolve into the 'doughnut' distributions in thicker crystals.

  8. Silicon nitride gradient film as the underlayer of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon overcoat for magnetic recording slider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guigen, E-mail: wanggghit@yahoo.com [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Kuang Xuping; Zhang Huayu; Zhu Can [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Han Jiecai [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zuo Hongbo [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Ma Hongtao [SAE Technologies Development (Dongguan) Co., Ltd., Dongguan 523087 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ultra-thin carbon films with different silicon nitride (Si-N) film underlayers were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It highlighted the influences of Si-N underlayers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbon films with Si-N underlayers obtained by nitriding especially at the substrate bias of -150 V, can exhibit better corrosion protection properties - Abstract: There are higher technical requirements for protection overcoat of magnetic recording slider used in high-density storage fields for the future. In this study, silicon nitride (Si-N) composition-gradient films were firstly prepared by nitriding of silicon thin films pre-sputtered on silicon wafers and magnetic recording sliders, using microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source. The ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films were then deposited on the Si-N films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc method. Compared with amorphous carbon overcoats with conventional silicon underlayers, the overcoats with Si-N underlayers obtained by plasma nitriding especially at the substrate bias of -150 V, can provide better corrosion protection for high-density magnetic recording sliders.

  9. Mechanisms involved in the hydrothermal growth of ultra-thin and high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demes, Thomas; Ternon, Céline; Morisot, Fanny; Riassetto, David; Legallais, Maxime; Roussel, Hervé; Langlet, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanowires (NWs) with tailored dimensions, notably high aspect ratios (AR) and small diameters, is a major concern for a wide range of applications and still represents a challenging and recurring issue. In this work, an additive-free and reproducible hydrothermal procedure has been developed to grow ultra-thin and high AR ZnO NWs on sol-gel deposited ZnO seed layers. Controlling the substrate temperature and using a low reagent concentration (1 mM) has been found to be essential for obtaining such NWs. We show that the NW diameter remains constant at about 20-25 nm with growth time contrary to the NW length that can be selectively increased leading to NWs with ARs up to 400. On the basis of investigated experimental conditions along with thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, a ZnO NW growth mechanism has been developed which involves the formation and growth of nuclei followed by NW growth when the nuclei reach a critical size of about 20-25 nm. The low reagent concentration inhibits NW lateral growth leading to ultra-thin and high AR NWs. These NWs have been assembled into electrically conductive ZnO nanowire networks, which opens attractive perspectives toward the development of highly sensitive low-cost gas- or bio-sensors.

  10. TaC Studios New Construction Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Kim, E.; Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2013-03-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed humid climate zone. This home will serve as a model home for the builder partner and addresses Building America energy savings targets through the planning and implementation of a design package will serve as a basis of design for the builder partner's future homes. As a BA test house, this home will be evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and HVAC and hot water efficiency.

  11. System and Method for Fabricating Super Conducting Circuitry on Both Sides of an Ultra-Thin Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari D. (Inventor); Mikula, Vilem (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method of fabricating circuitry in a wafer includes depositing a superconducting metal on a silicon on insulator wafer having a handle wafer, coating the wafer with a sacrificial layer and bonding the wafer to a thermally oxide silicon wafer with a first epoxy. The method includes flipping the wafer, thinning the flipped wafer by removing a handle wafer, etching a buried oxide layer, depositing a superconducting layer, bonding the wafer to a thermally oxidized silicon wafer having a handle wafer using an epoxy, flipping the wafer again, thinning the flipped wafer, etching a buried oxide layer from the wafer and etching the sacrificial layer from the wafer. The result is a wafer having superconductive circuitry on both sides of an ultra-thin silicon layer.

  12. Bombardment induced ion transport - part IV: ionic conductivity of ultra-thin polyelectrolyte multilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesp, Veronika; Hermann, Matthias; Schäfer, Martin; Hühn, Jonas; Parak, Wolfgang J; Weitzel, Karl-Michael

    2016-02-14

    The dependence of the ionic conductance of ultra-thin polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films on the temperature and the number of bilayers has been investigated by the recently developed low energy bombardment induced ion transport (BIIT) method. To this end multilayers of alternating poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) layers were deposited on a metal electrode and subsequently bombarded by a low energy potassium ion beam. Ions are transported through the film according to the laws of electro-diffusion towards a grounded backside electrode. They are neutralized at the interface between the polymer film and the metal electrode. The detected neutralization current scales linearly with the acceleration potential of the ion beam indicating Ohmic behavior for the (PAH/PSS)x multilayer, where x denotes the number of bilayers. The conductance exhibits a non-monotonic dependence on the number of bilayers, x. For 2 ≤ x ≤ 8 the conductance increases non-linearly with the number of bilayers. For x ≥ 8 the conductance decreases with increasing number of bilayers. The variation of the conductance is rationalized by a model accounting for the structure dependence of the conductivity. The thinnest sample for which the conductance has been measured is the single bilayer reflecting properties dominated by the interface. The activation energy for the ion transport is 0.49 eV.

  13. Long-range correlated dynamics in ultra-thin molecular glass films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Glor, Ethan C.; Li, Mu; Liu, Tianyi; Wahid, Kareem; Zhang, William; Riggleman, Robert A.; Fakhraai, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    It has been previously shown that the free surface of molecular glasses has enhanced surface diffusion compared to the bulk. However, the degree by which the glass dynamics are affected by the free surface remains unexplored. Here, we measure enhanced dynamics in ultra-thin molecular glass films as a function of film thickness. We demonstrate that these films exhibit a sharp transition from glassy solid to liquid-like behavior when the thickness is reduced below 30 nm. This liquid-like behavior persists even at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature, Tg. The enhanced dynamics in these films can produce large scale morphological features during physical vapor deposition and lead to a dewetting instability in films held at temperatures as low as Tg - 35 K. The effective viscosity of these films are measured by monitoring the dewetting kinetics. These measurements combined with cooling-rate dependent Tg measurements show that the apparent activation barrier for rearrangement decreases sharply in films thinner than 30 nm. This sharp transition in the dynamics suggests that long-range correlated dynamics exists in these films such that the enhancement induced by the free surface can strongly affect the dynamics of the film over a length scale that is ten times larger than the size of the molecules.

  14. Structural characteristics and formation mechanisms of crack-free multilayer TaC/SiC coatings on carbon-carbon composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-dong; XIONG Xiang; HUANG Bai-yun; HUANG Ke-long

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve high temperature (over 2 273 K) ablation resistance, TaC and TaC/SiC composite coatings were deposited on carbon-carbon composites by CVD method utilizing reactive TaCl5-C3H6-H2-Ar and TaCl5-C3H6-CH3SiCl3-H2-Ar systems respectively. The structure and morphology of these coatings were analyzed by XRD and SEM. The results show that the double carbide coatings have good chemical compatibility during preparation. Two distinctive composition gradients are developed and used to produce multilayer TaC/SiC coatings with low internal stress, free crack and good resistant to thermal shock. A transition layer consisting of either C-TaC or C-SiC formed between the coating and the C/C matrix can reduce the residual stress effectively. The processing parameters were optimized and the possible growth mechanisms for these coatings were proposed. A designing methodology to prepare high performance multilayer TaC/SiC composite coatings was developed.

  15. Thin TaC layer produced by ion mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barna, Árpád; Kotis, László; Pécz, Béla

    2012-01-01

    Ion-beam mixing in C/Ta layered systems was investigated. C 8nm/Ta 12nm and C 20nm/Ta 19nm/C 20nm layer systems were irradiated by Ga+ ions of energy in the range of 2–30keV. In case of the 8nm and 20nm thick C cover layers applying 5–8keV and 20–30keV Ga+ ion energy, respectively resulted...... in strongly asymmetric ion mixing; the carbon was readily transported to the Ta layer, while the reverse process was much weaker. Because of the asymmetrical transport the C/TaC interface remained sharp independently from the applied fluence. The carbon transported to the Ta layer formed Ta......Cx. The stoichiometry of the carbide produced varied along the depth. The TaCx layer contained implanted Ga, the concentration of which decreased with increasing depth. The thickness of the TaCx layer could be tailored by the ion fluence and energy making possible to produce coating layer of desired thickness....

  16. Ultra-thin a-SiNx protective overcoats for hard disks and read/write heads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Wan-Yu; Xu Jun; Lu Wen-Qi; Deng Xin-Lu; Dong Chuang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that amorphous silicon nitride(a-SiNx)overcoats were deposited at room temperature by microwave ECR plasma enhanced unbalanced magnetron sputtering.The 2 nm a-SiNx overcoat has better anti-corrosion properties than that of reference a-CNx overcoats(2-4.5 nm).The superior anti-corrosion performance is attributed to its stoichiomctric bond structure,where 94.8% Si atoms form Si-N asymmetric stretching vibration bonds.The N/Si ratio is 1.33 as in the stoichiometry of Si3N4 and corresponds to the highest hardness of 25.0 GPa.The surface is atomically smooth with RMS<0.2 nm.The ultra-thin a-SiNx overcoats are promising for hard disks and read/write heads protective coatings.

  17. Interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and damping parameter in ultra thin Co{sub 2}FeAl films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yishen [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Khodadadi, Behrouz; Schaefer, Sebastian; Mewes, Tim [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Lu, Jiwei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2013-04-22

    B2-ordered Co{sub 2}FeAl films were synthesized using an ion beam deposition tool. A high degree of chemical ordering {approx}81.2% with a low damping parameter ({alpha}) less than 0.004 was obtained in a 50 nm thick film via rapid thermal annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was optimized in ultra thin Co{sub 2}FeAl films annealed at 350 Degree-Sign C without an external magnetic field. The reduced thickness and annealing temperature to achieve PMA introduced extrinsic factors thus increasing {alpha} significantly. However, the observed damping of Co{sub 2}FeAl films was still lower than that of Co{sub 60}Fe{sub 20}B{sub 20} films prepared at the same thickness and annealing temperature.

  18. Ultra-thin Polyethylene glycol Coatings for Stem Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Samantha K.

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a widely accessible and a clinically relevant cell type that are having a transformative impact on regenerative medicine. However, current clinical expansion methods can lead to selective changes in hMSC phenotype resulting from relatively undefined cell culture surfaces. Chemically defined synthetic surfaces can aid in understanding stem cell behavior. In particular we have developed chemically defined ultra-thin coatings that are stable over timeframes relevant to differentiation of hMSCs (several weeks). The approach employs synthesis of a copolymer with distinct chemistry in solution before application to a substrate. This provides wide compositional flexibility and allows for characterization of the orthogonal crosslinking and peptide binding groups. Characterization is done in solution by proton NMR and after crosslinking by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The solubility of the copolymer in ethanol and low temperature crosslinking, expands its applicability to plastic substrates, in addition to silicon, glass, and gold. Cell adhesive peptides, namely Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) fragments, are coupled to coating via different chemistries resulting in the urethane, amide or the thioester polymer-peptide bonds. Development of azlactone-based chemistry allowed for coupling in water at low peptide concentrations and resulted in either an amide or thioester bonds, depending on reactants. Characterization of the peptide functionalized coating by XPS, infrared spectroscopy and cell culture assays, showed that the amide linkages can present peptides for multiple weeks, while shorter-term presentation of a few days is possible using the more labile thioester bond. Regardless, coatings promoted initial adhesion and spreading of hMSCs in a peptide density dependent manner. These coatings address the following challenges in chemically defined cell culture simultaneously: (i) substrate adaptability, (ii) scalability over large areas

  19. Ultra thin metallic coatings to control near field radiative heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Esquivel-Sirvent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical calculation of the changes in the near field radiative heat transfer between two surfaces due to the presence of ultra thin metallic coatings on semiconductors. Depending on the substrates, the radiative heat transfer is modulated by the thickness of the ultra thin film. In particular we consider gold thin films with thicknesses varying from 4 to 20 nm. The ultra-thin film has an insulator-conductor transition close to a critical thickness of dc = 6.4 nm and there is an increase in the near field spectral heat transfer just before the percolation transition. Depending on the substrates (Si or SiC and the thickness of the metallic coatings we show how the near field heat transfer can be increased or decreased as a function of the metallic coating thickness. The calculations are based on available experimental data for the optical properties of ultrathin coatings.

  20. Polarization conversion based on plasmonic phase control by an ultra-thin metallic nano-strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Helei; Hu, Dejiao; Deng, Yunsheng; Wu, Xuannan; Xiao, Xiao; Hou, Yidong; Wang, Yunjiao; Shi, Ruiying; Wang, Deqiang; Du, Jinglei

    2016-12-01

    Ultra-thin metallic nano-strips (thinner than skin depth) can lead to anomalous reflection for a transverse magnetic (TM) incidence of some wave-lengths, due to the phase modulation of localized surface plasmon resonance. Based on the principle above, we proposed a method of polarization modulation using ultra-thin metallic nano-strips. When irradiating nano-strips vertically by light with a given polarized angle, we can utilize the phase difference of the TM transmission and transverse electric (TE) transmission near anomalous reflection region to modulate transmission polarization. We have designed and fabricated the ultra-thin metallic nano-strips with the function of quarter-wave plate, the attained transmission Stokes parameter S3 is 0.95. The nano-strips is easy to design and fabricate, also compatible with other optics devices, hence has the potential applications in integrated optics field.

  1. Ultra-thin fully-depleted SOI MOSFETs: Special charge properties and coupling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminente, S.; Cristoloveanu, S.; Clerc, R.; Ohata, A.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2007-02-01

    A standard characterization method in fully depleted SOI devices consists in biasing the back interface in the accumulation regime, and measuring the front-channel properties. In ultra thin body device however, it is sometimes no longer possible to achieve such an accumulation regime at the back interface. This unusual effect is investigated by detailed simulations and analytical modelling of the potential and electron/hole concentrations. The enhancement of the interface coupling effect in ultra thin body devices, called super-coupling, can explain previously published experimental data [Pretet J, Ohata A, Dieudonne F, Allibert F, Bresson N, Matsumoto T, et al. Scaling issues for advanced SOI devices: gate oxide tunneling, thin buried oxide, and ultra-thin films. In: 7th International symposium silicon nitride and silicon dioxide thin insulating films, Paris, France, 2003. Electrochemical Society Proceedings, vol. 2003-02, Pennington (USA); 2003. p. 476-87], and reveals new challenges in the characterization of advanced SOI devices.

  2. Effects of high-temperature annealing on ultra-thin CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Wei; Lin Hao; Wu, Hsiang N.; Tang, Ching W., E-mail: chtang@che.rochester.edu

    2011-10-31

    High-temperature annealing (HTA), a process step prior to vapor cadmium chloride (VCC) treatment, has been found to be useful for improving the crystallinity of CdTe films and the efficiency of ultra-thin CdTe solar cells. Scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption, photoluminescence measurements and analyses on photoluminescence results using spectral deconvolution reveal that the additional HTA step produces substantial grain growth and reduces grain boundary defects. It also reduces excessive sulfur diffusion across the junction that can occur during the VCC treatment. The HTA step helps to produce pinhole-free CdTe films and reduce electrical shorts in ultra-thin CdTe solar cells. An efficiency of about 11.6% has been demonstrated for ultra-thin CdS/CdTe solar cells processed with HTA step.

  3. Film-thickness dependence of structure formation in ultra-thin polymer blend films

    CERN Document Server

    Gutmann, J S; Stamm, M

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the film-thickness dependence of structure formation in ultra-thin polymer blend films prepared from solution. As a model system we used binary blends of statistical poly(styrene-co-p-bromostyrene) copolymers of different degrees of bromination. Ultra-thin-film samples differing in miscibility and film thickness were prepared via spin coating of common toluene solutions onto silicon (100) substrates. The resulting morphologies were investigated with scanning force microscopy, reflectometry and grazing-incidence scattering techniques using both X-rays and neutrons in order to obtain a picture of the sample structure at and below the sample surface. (orig.)

  4. New process for production of ultra-thin grain oriented silicon steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xiuhua; LIU En; QIU Chunlin; QI Kemin; TIAN Yanwen

    2006-01-01

    The Hi-B silicon steels were cold rolled by cross shear rolling (CSR) with different mismatch speed ratio(MSR)s and conventional rolling(CR) respectively, followed by primary recrystallization annealing. The effects of MSR and annealing temperature on magnetic properties of ultra-thin grain oriented silicon steel were analyzed. Experimental results show that, with the increase of MSR, the magnetic properties can be remarkably improved. The higher the annealing temperature is, the higher the magnetic induction and the lower the iron loss in ultra-thin silicon steel is.

  5. Multi-resonant absorption in ultra-thin silicon solar cells with metallic nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massiot, Inès; Colin, Clément; Sauvan, Christophe; Lalanne, Philippe; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca I; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Collin, Stéphane

    2013-05-06

    We propose a design to confine light absorption in flat and ultra-thin amorphous silicon solar cells with a one-dimensional silver grating embedded in the front window of the cell. We show numerically that multi-resonant light trapping is achieved in both TE and TM polarizations. Each resonance is analyzed in detail and modeled by Fabry-Perot resonances or guided modes via grating coupling. This approach is generalized to a complete amorphous silicon solar cell, with the additional degrees of freedom provided by the buffer layers. These results could guide the design of resonant structures for optimized ultra-thin solar cells.

  6. Nanostructured ultra-thin patches for ultrasound-modulated delivery of anti-restenotic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannozzi L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lorenzo Vannozzi,1 Leonardo Ricotti,1 Carlo Filippeschi,2 Stefania Sartini,3 Vito Coviello,3 Vincenzo Piazza,4 Pasqualantonio Pingue,5 Concettina La Motta,3 Paolo Dario,1 Arianna Menciassi1 1The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, 2Center for MicroBioRobotics at SSSA, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pontedera, 3Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, 4Center for Nanotechnology Innovation at NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 5NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Pisa, Italy Abstract: This work aims to demonstrate the possibility to fabricate ultra-thin polymeric films loaded with an anti-restenotic drug and capable of tunable drug release kinetics for the local treatment of restenosis. Vascular nanopatches are composed of a poly(lactic acid supporting membrane (thickness: ~250 nm on which 20 polyelectrolyte bilayers (overall thickness: ~70 nm are alternatively deposited. The anti-restenotic drug is embedded in the middle of the polyelectrolyte structure, and released by diffusion mechanisms. Nanofilm fabrication procedure and detailed morphological characterization are reported here. Barium titanate nanoparticles (showing piezoelectric properties are included in the polymeric support and their role is investigated in terms of influence on nanofilm morphology, drug release kinetics, and cell response. Results show an efficient drug release from the polyelectrolyte structure in phosphate-buffered saline, and a clear antiproliferative effect on human smooth muscle cells, which are responsible for restenosis. In addition, preliminary evidences of ultrasound-mediated modulation of drug release kinetics are reported, thus evaluating the influence of barium titanate nanoparticles on the release mechanism. Such data were integrated with quantitative piezoelectric and thermal measurements. These results open new avenues for a fine control of local therapies based on smart responsive materials. Keywords

  7. Structural analysis of ultra-thin Pd films on W(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmer, Jeannette; Bode, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    We report on a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) growth study of ultra-thin Pd films on W(110) in the thickness range up to about three atomic layers. At a substrate temperature of (573 ± 20)K during deposition the initial growth at submonolayer coverages takes place in the step-flow mode, whereby the Pd step edges are preferentially oriented along directions leading to a pronounced saw-tooth-like appearance. It is found that the Pd monolayer is not smooth but instead exhibits a one-dimensional pattern consisting of alternating straight and zigzag lines along the [ 001 ] direction with a periodicity of (7.3 ± 0.5) nm. Atomic resolution STM images reveal that these stripes mark transition regions between two different three-fold-coordinated adsorption sites, i.e. left (L) or right (R) triangular. A structural model is presented which explains the straight and zigzag lines as vacancy rows and Pd grown in the Kurdjumov-Sachs configuration, respectively. In a transition regime between 0.93 AL-1.03 AL the one-dimensional character converts into triangularly shaped L and R domains up to 100 nm in size which are separated by short straight segments approximatelly oriented along and [001] directions. Growth of the second Pd layer occurs via the nucleation of hexagonal islands and at Pd coverages beyond 2 AL the growth mode changes from layer-by-layer to island growth, probably due to the structural transition from the bcc to the fcc crystal structure.

  8. Low-energy electron beams through ultra-thin foils, applications for electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aken, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis has discussed two electron microscopy applications that make use of ultra-thin foils: the tunnel junction emitter and the low-energy foil corrector. Both applications have in common that the electron beam is sent through the thin foil at low energy. Part of the electrons will scatter in

  9. Low-cost ultra-thin broadband terahertz beam-splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Benjamin S-Y; Fumeaux, Christophe; Lin, Hungyen; Fischer, Bernd M; Ng, Brian W-H; Abbott, Derek

    2012-02-27

    A low-cost terahertz beam-splitter is fabricated using ultra-thin LDPE plastic sheeting coated with a conducting silver layer. The beam splitting ratio is determined as a function of the thickness of the silver layer--thus any required splitting ratio can be printed on demand with a suitable rapid prototyping technology. The low-cost aspect is a consequence of the fact that ultra-thin LDPE sheeting is readily obtainable, known more commonly as domestic plastic wrap or cling wrap. The proposed beam-splitter has numerous advantages over float zone silicon wafers commonly used within the terahertz frequency range. These advantages include low-cost, ease of handling, ultra-thin thickness, and any required beam splitting ratio can be readily fabricated. Furthermore, as the beam-splitter is ultra-thin, it presents low loss and does not suffer from Fabry-Pérot effects. Measurements performed on manufactured prototypes with different splitting ratios demonstrate a good agreement with our theoretical model in both P and S polarizations, exhibiting nearly frequency-independent splitting ratios in the terahertz frequency range.

  10. Nano-Photonic Structures for Light Trapping in Ultra-Thin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathap Pathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thick wafer-silicon is the dominant solar cell technology. It is of great interest to develop ultra-thin solar cells that can reduce materials usage, but still achieve acceptable performance and high solar absorption. Accordingly, we developed a highly absorbing ultra-thin crystalline Si based solar cell architecture using periodically patterned front and rear dielectric nanocone arrays which provide enhanced light trapping. The rear nanocones are embedded in a silver back reflector. In contrast to previous approaches, we utilize dielectric photonic crystals with a completely flat silicon absorber layer, providing expected high electronic quality and low carrier recombination. This architecture creates a dense mesh of wave-guided modes at near-infrared wavelengths in the absorber layer, generating enhanced absorption. For thin silicon (<2 μm and 750 nm pitch arrays, scattering matrix simulations predict enhancements exceeding 90%. Absorption approaches the Lambertian limit at small thicknesses (<10 μm and is slightly lower (by ~5% at wafer-scale thicknesses. Parasitic losses are ~25% for ultra-thin (2 μm silicon and just 1%–2% for thicker (>100 μm cells. There is potential for 20 μm thick cells to provide 30 mA/cm2 photo-current and >20% efficiency. This architecture has great promise for ultra-thin silicon solar panels with reduced material utilization and enhanced light-trapping.

  11. Opto-electrical approaches for high efficiency and ultra-thin c-Si solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenito, A.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The need for cost reduction requires using less raw material and cost-effective processes without sacrificing the conversion efficiency. For keeping high the generated photo-current, an advanced light trapping scheme for ultra-thin silicon wafers is here proposed, exhibiting absorptances up to 99%

  12. High curvature bending characterization of ultra-thin chips and chip-on-foil assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D. van den; Verhoeven, F.; Eijnden, P. van der; Kusters, R.; Sridhar, A.; Cauwe, M.; Brand, J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips of less than 20μm become flexible, allowing integration of silicon IC technology with highly flexible electronics. This combination allows for highly intelligent products of unprecedented thinness, flexibility and cost. Examples include sensor systems integrated into food packaging

  13. High curvature bending characterization of ultra-thin chips and chip-on-foil assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D. van den; Verhoeven, F.; Eijnden, P. van der; Kusters, R.; Sridhar, A.; Cauwe, M.; Brand, J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips of less than 20μm become flexible, allowing integration of silicon IC technology with highly flexible electronics. This combination allows for highly intelligent products of unprecedented thinness, flexibility and cost. Examples include sensor systems integrated into food packaging

  14. Finite Element Modelling of Bends and Creases during Folding Ultra Thin Stainless Steel Foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Akagi, H.; Geijselaers, H.J.M.; Huetink, J.

    2003-01-01

    Finite Element Modelling of an ultra thin foil of SUS 304 stainless steel is carried out. These foils are 20 mm and below in thickness. The development of stresses and strains during folding of these foils is studied. The objective of this study is to induce qualities of paper in the foils of stainl

  15. Electron transport in ultra-thin films and ballistic electron emission microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveau, Y.; Di Matteo, S.; de Andres, P. L.; Flores, F.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a calculation scheme for the elastic electron current in ultra-thin epitaxial heterostructures. Our model uses a Keldysh’s non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism and a layer-by-layer construction of the epitaxial film. Such an approach is appropriate to describe the current in a ballistic electron emission microscope (BEEM) where the metal base layer is ultra-thin and generalizes a previous one based on a decimation technique appropriated for thick slabs. This formalism allows a full quantum mechanical description of the transmission across the epitaxial heterostructure interface, including multiple scattering via the Dyson equation, which is deemed a crucial ingredient to describe interfaces of ultra-thin layers properly in the future. We introduce a theoretical formulation needed for ultra-thin layers and we compare with results obtained for thick Au(1 1 1) metal layers. An interesting effect takes place for a width of about ten layers: a BEEM current can propagate via the center of the reciprocal space (\\overlineΓ ) along the Au(1 1 1) direction. We associate this current to a coherent interference finite-width effect that cannot be found using a decimation technique. Finally, we have tested the validity of the handy semiclassical formalism to describe the BEEM current.

  16. Effect of TaC Particles Dissolution on Grain Coarsening in Reduced Activation Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhi-xin; ZHANG Chi; HUANG Qun-ying; LIU Shao-jun; LI Zhao-dong; YANG Zhi-gang

    2011-01-01

    The effect of TaC on grains and packets coarsening in the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels was investigated. It was found that the combined effect of the austenitizing temperature and heating rate resulted in the heterogeneous austenite grain growth. When the austenitizing temperature was raised above 1 423 K, the TaC particles disappeared, and the homogenous grains abruptly increased. The thermodynamic model for dissolution of TaC particles during austenitizing was applied to interpret the results.

  17. Management of light absorption in extraordinary optical transmission based ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashooq, Kishwar; Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman, E-mail: anis@eee.buet.ac.bd [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh)

    2016-05-21

    Although ultra-thin-film solar cells can be attractive in reducing the cost, they suffer from low absorption as the thickness of the active layer is usually much smaller than the wavelength of incident light. Different nano-photonic techniques, including plasmonic structures, are being explored to increase the light absorption in ultra-thin-film solar cells. More than one layer of active materials with different energy bandgaps can be used in tandem to increase the light absorption as well. However, due to different amount of light absorption in different active layers, photo-generated currents in different active layers will not be the same. The current mismatch between the tandem layers makes them ineffective in increasing the efficiency. In this work, we investigate the light absorption properties of tandem solar cells with two ultra-thin active layers working as two subcells and a metal layer with periodically perforated holes in-between the two subcells. While the metal layer helps to overcome the current mismatch, the periodic holes increase the absorption of incident light by helping extraordinary optical transmission of the incident light from the top to the bottom subcell, and by coupling the incident light to plasmonic and photonic modes within ultra-thin active layers. We extensively study the effects of the geometry of holes in the intermediate metal layer on the light absorption properties of tandem solar cells with ultra-thin active layers. We also study how different metals in the intermediate layer affect the light absorption; how the geometry of holes in the intermediate layer affects the absorption when the active layer materials are changed; and how the intermediate metal layer affects the collection of photo-generated electron-hole pairs at the terminals. We find that in a solar cell with 6,6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester top subcell and copper indium gallium selenide bottom subcell, if the periodic holes in the metal layer are square or

  18. Management of light absorption in extraordinary optical transmission based ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashooq, Kishwar; Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman

    2016-05-01

    Although ultra-thin-film solar cells can be attractive in reducing the cost, they suffer from low absorption as the thickness of the active layer is usually much smaller than the wavelength of incident light. Different nano-photonic techniques, including plasmonic structures, are being explored to increase the light absorption in ultra-thin-film solar cells. More than one layer of active materials with different energy bandgaps can be used in tandem to increase the light absorption as well. However, due to different amount of light absorption in different active layers, photo-generated currents in different active layers will not be the same. The current mismatch between the tandem layers makes them ineffective in increasing the efficiency. In this work, we investigate the light absorption properties of tandem solar cells with two ultra-thin active layers working as two subcells and a metal layer with periodically perforated holes in-between the two subcells. While the metal layer helps to overcome the current mismatch, the periodic holes increase the absorption of incident light by helping extraordinary optical transmission of the incident light from the top to the bottom subcell, and by coupling the incident light to plasmonic and photonic modes within ultra-thin active layers. We extensively study the effects of the geometry of holes in the intermediate metal layer on the light absorption properties of tandem solar cells with ultra-thin active layers. We also study how different metals in the intermediate layer affect the light absorption; how the geometry of holes in the intermediate layer affects the absorption when the active layer materials are changed; and how the intermediate metal layer affects the collection of photo-generated electron-hole pairs at the terminals. We find that in a solar cell with 6,6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester top subcell and copper indium gallium selenide bottom subcell, if the periodic holes in the metal layer are square or

  19. Electrical and Electrochemical Properties of Nitrogen-Containing Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon (ta-C) Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xingyi

    Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) is a diamond-like carbon (DLC) material comprised of a mixture of sp2 (˜40%) and sp3-bonded (˜60%) carbon domains. The physicochemical structure and electrochemical properties depend strongly on the sp2/sp3 bonding ratio as well as the incorporation of impurities, such as hydrogen or nitrogen. The ability to grow ta-C films at lower temperatures (25-100 °C) on a wider variety of substrates is a potential advantage of these materials as compared with diamond films. In this project, the basic structural and electrochemical properties of nitrogen-incorporated ta-C thin films will be discussed. The major goal of this work was to determine if the ta-C:N films exhibit electrochemical properties more closely aligned with those of boron-doped diamond (sp 3 carbon) or glassy carbon (amorphous sp2 carbon). Much like diamond, ta-C:N thin-film electrodes are characterized by a low background voltammetric current, a wide working potential window, relatively rapid electron-transfer kinetics for aqueous redox systems, such as Fe(CN) 6-3/-4 and Ru(NH3)6+3/+2 , and weak adsorption of polar molecules from solution. For example, negligible adsorption of methylene blue was found on the ta-C:N films in contrast to glassy carbon; a surface on which this molecule strongly adsorbs. The film microstructure was studied with x-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), visible Raman spectroscopy and electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); all of which revealed the sp2-bonded carbon content increased with increasing nitrogen. The electrical properties of ta-C:N films were studied by four-point probe resistance measurement and conductive-probe AFM (CP-AFM). The incorporation of nitrogen into ta-C films increased the electrical conductivity primarily by increasing the sp2-bonded carbon content. CP-AFM showed the distribution of the conductive sp2-carbon on the film surface was not uniform. These films have potential to be used in field emission area. The

  20. Ultra-thin lithium micro-batteries. Performances and applications; Microaccumulateurs ultra minces au lithium. Performances et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.; Terrat, J.P. [Hydromecanique et frottement (HEF), 42 - Andrezieux Boutheon (France); Levasseur, A.; Vinatier, P.; Meunier, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 33 - Talence (France). Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee et Physique de Bordeaux

    1996-12-31

    This short paper (abstract) describes the characteristics and performances of prototypes of ultra-thin lithium micro-batteries (thickness < 0.2 mm) which can be incorporated into microelectronic circuits. (J.S.)

  1. Optimal Color Stability for White Organic Light-Emitting Diode (WOLED by Using Multiple-Ultra-Thin Layers (MUTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan-Lin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work demonstrates the improvement of color stability for white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED. The devices were prepared by vacuum deposition on ITO-glass substrates. These guest materials of 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (Rubrene were deposited in 4,4′-bis(2,2-diphenyl vinyl-1,1′-biphenyl (DPVBi, resulting in an emitting layer. Experimental results reveal that the properties in the multiple-ultra-thin layer (MUTL are better than those of the emitting layer with a single guest material, reaching the commercial white-light wavelength requirement of 400–700 nm. The function of the MUTL is as the light-emitting and trapping layer. The results show that the MUTL has excellent carrier capture effect, leading to high color stability of the device at various applied voltages. The Commissions Internationale De L’Eclairage (CIE coordinate of this device at 3~7 V is few displacement and shows a very slight variation of (0.016, 0.009. The CIE coordinates at a maximal luminance of 9980 cd/m2 are (0.34, 0.33.

  2. Lithography-free transmission filters at ultraviolet frequencies using ultra-thin aluminum films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyang; Butun, Serkan; Aydin, Koray

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum allows for significant plasmon responses in ultraviolet (UV) regime of spectrum, where conventional plasmonic materials such as silver and gold lack plasmonic behavior due to their inherent dissipative limitation from lower plasmon frequency and inter-band transition. Such UV plasmonic resonance based on aluminum nanostructures could be challenging due to the smaller feature size of nanoscale resonator and remarkable sensitivity to oxidization. Here we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate lithography-free transmission filters using triple layers of continuous ultra-thin Al and dielectric films. Our proposed transmission filter is a triple-layer Fabry-Perot cavity and operates from 2.5 to 5.5 eV with bandwidth down to 0.5 eV and transmission amplitude up to 50%. Such flat Al ultra-thin film coatings suggest the use of aluminum as low-cost UV filters and UV optoelectronics as well as structural coloring applications.

  3. Imaging Functions of Quasi-Periodic Nanohole Array as an Ultra-Thin Planar Optical Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung Sheng Kao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the lensing functions and imaging abilities of a quasi-periodic nanohole array in a metal screen have been theoretically investigated and demonstrated. Such an optical binary mask with nanoholes designed in an aperiodic arrangement can function as an ultra-thin planar optical lens, imaging complex structures composed of multiple light sources at tens of wavelengths away from the lens surface. Via resolving two adjacent testing objects at different separations, the effective numerical aperture (N.A. and the effective imaging area of the planar optical lens can be evaluated, mimicking the imaging function of a conventional lens with high N.A. Furthermore, by using the quasi-periodic nanohole array as an ultra-thin planar optical lens, important applications such as X-ray imaging and nano-optical circuits may be found in circumstances where conventional optical lenses cannot readily be applied.

  4. Microscopic Electronic and Mechanical Properties of Ultra-Thin Layered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-25

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0264 MICROSCOPIC ELECTRONIC AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA-THIN LAYERED MATERIALS Abhay Pasupathy THE TRUSTEES OF COLUMBIA...SUBTITLE 2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 Apr 2011 to 31 Mar 2016 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER MICROSCOPIC ELECTRONIC AND...0264 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The research goals of this project were to characterize the microscopic electronic and structural properties

  5. Experimental Study on the Surface Modification of Ultra Thin DLC Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shou-xing; ZHU Shi-gen

    2005-01-01

    School of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051Surface modification of Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was carried out in order to estimate the reliability of the ultra thin DLC films. The wear resistance, conductivity and mechatronic reliability of the films were studied by contact atomic force microscope (AFM), electric force microscope (EFM) and conductive AFM. The failure mechanism of pits formed and the reason for conductivity changed of DLC films were examined.

  6. Separation of Gases Using Ultra-Thin Porous Layers of Monodisperse Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubenchikov Mikhail A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a numerical solution of the two-dimensional problem of helium and methane molecules motion through an ultra-thin layer of a porous material composed of spherical nanoparticles of the same size. The interaction potential “nanoparticle-molecule” is obtained by integrating paired molecular interactions over the nanoparticle volume. Using the method of classical molecular dynamics, permeability of a layer having the size of about 10−8 m is studied.

  7. Ionic liquid gating of ultra-thin YBa2Cu3O7-x films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fête, A.; Rossi, L.; Augieri, A.; Senatore, C.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed investigation of the self-field transport properties of an ionic liquid gated ultra-thin YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) film. From the high temperature dynamic of the resistivity (>220 K), different scenarios pertaining to the interaction between the liquid and the thin film are proposed. From the low temperature evolution of Jc and Tc, a comparison between the behavior of our system and the standard properties of YBCO is drawn.

  8. TOF-SIMS analysis: Application to ultra-thin AWA film on magnetic head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    F-containing polymer was coated on the magnetic head of hard disc drive (HDD) as theultra-thin (<20(?)) film of anti-wetting agent (AWA). A static TOF-SIMS method has been applied tomeasuring the thickness and coating uniformity of the ultra-thin film. TOF- SIMS is also used tostudy the micro-tribology and transfer of lubricant between the magnetic head and media interface.

  9. Growth and hydrogenation of ultra-thin Mg films on Mo(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld, Christopher Worsøe; Davies, Jonathan Conrad; Vegge, Tejs;

    2005-01-01

    The growth and hydrogenation of ultra-thin magnesium overlayers have been investigated on a Mo(1 1 1) single crystal substrate. For increasing magnesium coverages we observe intermediate stages in the TPD and LEISS profiles, which illustrate the transition from one monolayer to multilayer growth....... are necessary to sustain this purely adsorbed state. Using predissociated hydrogen we show that the hydride formation is self-stabilizing and the hydride only decomposes at a temperature where a considerable desorption of magnesium occurs....

  10. Nano-Photonic Structures for Light Trapping in Ultra-Thin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathi, Prathap; Peer, Akshit; Biswas, Rana

    2017-01-01

    Thick wafer-silicon is the dominant solar cell technology. It is of great interest to develop ultra-thin solar cells that can reduce materials usage, but still achieve acceptable performance and high solar absorption. Accordingly, we developed a highly absorbing ultra-thin crystalline Si based solar cell architecture using periodically patterned front and rear dielectric nanocone arrays which provide enhanced light trapping. The rear nanocones are embedded in a silver back reflector. In contrast to previous approaches, we utilize dielectric photonic crystals with a completely flat silicon absorber layer, providing expected high electronic quality and low carrier recombination. This architecture creates a dense mesh of wave-guided modes at near-infrared wavelengths in the absorber layer, generating enhanced absorption. For thin silicon (100 μm) cells. There is potential for 20 μm thick cells to provide 30 mA/cm2 photo-current and >20% efficiency. This architecture has great promise for ultra-thin silicon solar panels with reduced material utilization and enhanced light-trapping. PMID:28336851

  11. Nano-Photonic Structures for Light Trapping in Ultra-Thin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathi, Prathap; Peer, Akshit; Biswas, Rana

    2017-01-13

    Thick wafer-silicon is the dominant solar cell technology. It is of great interest to develop ultra-thin solar cells that can reduce materials usage, but still achieve acceptable performance and high solar absorption. Accordingly, we developed a highly absorbing ultra-thin crystalline Si based solar cell architecture using periodically patterned front and rear dielectric nanocone arrays which provide enhanced light trapping. The rear nanocones are embedded in a silver back reflector. In contrast to previous approaches, we utilize dielectric photonic crystals with a completely flat silicon absorber layer, providing expected high electronic quality and low carrier recombination. This architecture creates a dense mesh of wave-guided modes at near-infrared wavelengths in the absorber layer, generating enhanced absorption. For thin silicon (100 μm) cells. There is potential for 20 μm thick cells to provide 30 mA/cm² photo-current and >20% efficiency. This architecture has great promise for ultra-thin silicon solar panels with reduced material utilization and enhanced light-trapping.

  12. Effects of intermediate plasmonic structures on the performance of ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashooq, Kishwar; Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman

    2017-02-01

    Although solar cells can meet the increasing demand for energy of modern world, their usage is not as widespread as expected because of their high production cost and low efficiency. Thin-film and ultra-thin-film solar cells with single and multiple active layers are being investigated to reduce cost. Additionally, multiple active layers of different energy bandgaps are used in tandem in order to absorb the solar spectra more efficiently. However, the efficiency of ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells may suffer significantly mainly because of low photon absorption and current mismatch between active layers. In this work, we study the effects of intermediate plasmonic structures on the performance of ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells. We consider three structures| each with a top amorphous silicon layer and a bottom micro-crystalline silicon layer, and an intermediate plasmonic layer between them. The intermediate layer is either a metal layer with periodic holes or periodic metal strips or periodic metal nano-clusters. Using a finite difference time domain technique for incident AM 1.5 solar spectra, we show that these intermediate layers help to excite different plasmonic and photonic modes for different light polarizations, and thereby, increase the absorption of light significantly. We find that the short-circuit current density increases by 12%, 6%, and 9% when the intermediate plasmonic structure is a metal hole-array, strips, and nano-clusters, respectively, from that of a structure that does not have the intermediate plasmonic layer.

  13. Decrease of the use temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (by deposition of ultra thin electrolyte layers); Reduction de la temperature de fonctionnement des piles a combustible a oxyde solide 'SOFC' (par depots de couches ultra minces d'electrolyte)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassir, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, Lab. d' Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique, URM 7575, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are nowadays very technologically studied. The decrease of the use temperature (800 to 1000 degrees Celsius) of these cells is one of the main current stake. The question is to essentially formulate lower temperature electrolyte materials. The yttriated zirconia, the most usual electrolyte, could be appropriate if the thickness was drastically diminished. A new vapor phase deposition technique (the atomic layer epitaxy: ALE) could be carried out to achieve this goal. In the same way, the decrease of the temperature could allow the use of the SOFC in the field of vehicles as power auxiliary. (O.M.)

  14. Role of interlayer coupling in ultra thin MoS 2

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2012-01-01

    The effects of interlayer coupling on the vibrational and electronic properties of ultra thin MoS 2 were studied by ab initio calculations. For smaller slab thickness, the interlayer distance is significantly elongated because of reduced interlayer coupling. This explains the anomalous thickness dependence of the lattice vibrations observed by Lee et al. (ACS Nano, 2010, 4, 2695). The absence of interlayer coupling in mono-layer MoS 2 induces a transition from direct to indirect band gap behaviour. Our results demonstrate a strong interplay between the intralayer chemical bonding and the interlayer van-der-Waals interaction. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Broadband light-trapping in ultra-thin nano-structured solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Clément; Massiot, Inès.; Cattoni, Andrea; Vandamme, Nicolas; Dupuis, Christophe; Bardou, Nathalie; Gerard, Isabelle; Naghavi, Negar; Guillemoles, Jean-François; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Collin, Stéphane

    2013-03-01

    Conventional light trapping techniques are inefficient at the sub-wavelength scale. This is the main limitation for the thickness reduction of thin-film solar cells below 500nm. We propose a novel architecture for broadband light absorption in ultra-thin active layers based on plasmonic nano-cavities and multi-resonant mechanism. Strong light enhancement will be shown numerically for photovoltaic materials such as CIGSe and GaAs. First experiments on ultrathin nano-patterned CIGSe solar cells will be presented.

  16. Estimating the thickness of ultra thin sections for electron microscopy by image statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Khanmohammadi, Mahdieh; Darkner, Sune

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for estimating the thickness of ultra thin histological sections by image statistics alone. Our method works for images, that are the realisations of a stationary and isotropic stochastic process, and it relies on the existence of statistical image-measures that are strictly...... monotonic with distance. We propose to use the standard deviation of the difference between pixel values as a function of distance, and we give an extremely simple, linear algorithm. Our algorithm is applied to the challenging domain of electron microscopic sections supposedly $45\\text{ nm}$ apart, and we...

  17. Valley-engineered ultra-thin silicon for high-performance junctionless transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Yoon; Choi, Sung-Yool; Hwang, Wan Sik; Cho, Byung Jin

    2016-07-01

    Extremely thin silicon show good mechanical flexibility because of their 2-D like structure and enhanced performance by the quantum confinement effect. In this paper, we demonstrate a junctionless FET which reveals a room temperature quantum confinement effect (RTQCE) achieved by a valley-engineering of the silicon. The strain-induced band splitting and a quantum confinement effect induced from ultra-thin-body silicon are the two main mechanisms for valley engineering. These were obtained from the extremely well-controlled silicon surface roughness and high tensile strain in silicon, thereupon demonstrating a device mobility increase of ~500% in a 2.5 nm thick silicon channel device.

  18. Solid-state dewetting of ultra-thin Au films on SiO₂ and HfO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguini, G; Curi, J Llamoja; Spiga, S; Tallarida, G; Wiemer, C; Perego, M

    2014-12-12

    Ultra-thin Au films with thickness (h) ranging from 0.5 to 6.0 nm were deposited at room temperature (RT) by means of e-beam evaporation on SiO2 and HfO2. Due to the natural solid-state dewetting (SSD) of the as-deposited films, Au nanoparticles (NPs) were formed on the substrates. By properly adjusting the h value, the size and the density of the Au NPs can be finely tuned. For h = 0.5 nm, spherical-like Au NPs with diameter below 5 nm and density in the order of 10(12) Au NPs cm(-2) were obtained without any additional thermal treatment independently from the substrate. The dependence of the Au NPs characteristics on the substrate starts to be effective for h ≥ 1.0 nm where the Au NPs diameter is in the 5-10 nm range and the density is around 10(11) Au NPs cm(-2). The effect of a subsequent high temperature (400-800 °C) annealing in N2 atmosphere on the Au NPs was investigated as well. For h ≤ 1.0 nm, the Au NPs characteristics evidenced an excellent thermal stability. Whereas the thermal treatment affects the cristallinity of the Au NPs. For the thicker films (2.0 ≤ h ≤ 6.0 nm), the thermal treatment becomes effective to induce the SSD. The proposed methodology can be exploited for the synthesis of Au NPs with diameter below 10 nm on different substrates at RT.

  19. Solid-state dewetting of ultra-thin Au films on SiO2 and HfO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguini, G.; Llamoja Curi, J.; Spiga, S.; Tallarida, G.; Wiemer, C.; Perego, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ultra-thin Au films with thickness (h) ranging from 0.5 to 6.0 nm were deposited at room temperature (RT) by means of e-beam evaporation on SiO2 and HfO2. Due to the natural solid-state dewetting (SSD) of the as-deposited films, Au nanoparticles (NPs) were formed on the substrates. By properly adjusting the h value, the size and the density of the Au NPs can be finely tuned. For h = 0.5 nm, spherical-like Au NPs with diameter below 5 nm and density in the order of 1012 Au NPs cm-2 were obtained without any additional thermal treatment independently from the substrate. The dependence of the Au NPs characteristics on the substrate starts to be effective for h ≥ 1.0 nm where the Au NPs diameter is in the 5-10 nm range and the density is around 1011 Au NPs cm-2. The effect of a subsequent high temperature (400-800 °C) annealing in N2 atmosphere on the Au NPs was investigated as well. For h ≤ 1.0 nm, the Au NPs characteristics evidenced an excellent thermal stability. Whereas the thermal treatment affects the cristallinity of the Au NPs. For the thicker films (2.0 ≤ h ≤ 6.0 nm), the thermal treatment becomes effective to induce the SSD. The proposed methodology can be exploited for the synthesis of Au NPs with diameter below 10 nm on different substrates at RT.

  20. Employing Si solar cell technology to increase efficiency of ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermang, Bart; Wätjen, Jörn Timo; Fjällström, Viktor; Rostvall, Fredrik; Edoff, Marika; Kotipalli, Ratan; Henry, Frederic; Flandre, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Reducing absorber layer thickness below 500 nm in regular Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells decreases cell efficiency considerably, as both short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage are reduced because of incomplete absorption and high Mo/CIGS rear interface recombination. In this work, an innovative rear cell design is developed to avoid both effects: a highly reflective rear surface passivation layer with nano-sized local point contact openings is employed to enhance rear internal reflection and decrease the rear surface recombination velocity significantly, as compared with a standard Mo/CIGS rear interface. The formation of nano-sphere shaped precipitates in chemical bath deposition of CdS is used to generate nano-sized point contact openings. Evaporation of MgF2 coated with a thin atomic layer deposited Al2O3 layer, or direct current magnetron sputtering of Al2O3 are used as rear surface passivation layers. Rear internal reflection is enhanced substantially by the increased thickness of the passivation layer, and also the rear surface recombination velocity is reduced at the Al2O3/CIGS rear interface. (MgF2/)Al2O3 rear surface passivated ultra-thin CIGS solar cells are fabricated, showing an increase in short circuit current and open circuit voltage compared to unpassivated reference cells with equivalent CIGS thickness. Accordingly, average solar cell efficiencies of 13.5% are realized for 385 nm thick CIGS absorber layers, compared with 9.1% efficiency for the corresponding unpassivated reference cells. PMID:26300619

  1. Employing Si solar cell technology to increase efficiency of ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermang, Bart; Wätjen, Jörn Timo; Fjällström, Viktor; Rostvall, Fredrik; Edoff, Marika; Kotipalli, Ratan; Henry, Frederic; Flandre, Denis

    2014-10-01

    Reducing absorber layer thickness below 500 nm in regular Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells decreases cell efficiency considerably, as both short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage are reduced because of incomplete absorption and high Mo/CIGS rear interface recombination. In this work, an innovative rear cell design is developed to avoid both effects: a highly reflective rear surface passivation layer with nano-sized local point contact openings is employed to enhance rear internal reflection and decrease the rear surface recombination velocity significantly, as compared with a standard Mo/CIGS rear interface. The formation of nano-sphere shaped precipitates in chemical bath deposition of CdS is used to generate nano-sized point contact openings. Evaporation of MgF2 coated with a thin atomic layer deposited Al2O3 layer, or direct current magnetron sputtering of Al2O3 are used as rear surface passivation layers. Rear internal reflection is enhanced substantially by the increased thickness of the passivation layer, and also the rear surface recombination velocity is reduced at the Al2O3/CIGS rear interface. (MgF2/)Al2O3 rear surface passivated ultra-thin CIGS solar cells are fabricated, showing an increase in short circuit current and open circuit voltage compared to unpassivated reference cells with equivalent CIGS thickness. Accordingly, average solar cell efficiencies of 13.5% are realized for 385 nm thick CIGS absorber layers, compared with 9.1% efficiency for the corresponding unpassivated reference cells.

  2. Instability analysis of charges trapped in the oxide of metal-ultra thin oxide-semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A.; Kassmi, K.; Maimouni, R.; Olivié, F.; Sarrabayrouse, G.; Martinez, A.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we present the theoretical and experimental results of the influence of a charge trapped in ultra-thin oxide of metal/ultra-thin oxide/semiconductor structures (MOS) on the I(Vg) current-voltage characteristics when the conduction is of the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling type. The charge, which is negative, is trapped near the cathode (metal/oxide interface) after constant current injection by the metal (Vg12.5 MV/cm)). It is shown that the charge centroid varies linearly with respect to the voltage Vg. The behavior at low field (position of the trapped charge, and to highlight the charge instability in the ultra-thin oxide of MOS structures.

  3. New strategy to create ultra-thin surface layer of grafted amphiphilic macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazutin, A A; Govorun, E N; Vasilevskaya, V V; Khokhlov, A R

    2015-05-14

    It was found first that macromolecules made of amphiphilic monomer units could form spontaneously an ultra-thin layer on the surface which the macromolecules are grafted to. The width of such layer is about double size of monomer unit consisting of hydrophilic A (repulsive) and hydrophobic (attractive) B beads. The hydrophilic A beads are connected in a polymer chain while hydrophobic B beads are attached to A beads of the backbone as side groups. Three characteristic regimes are distinguished. At low grafting density, the macromolecules form ultra-thin micelles of the shape changing with decrease of distance d between grafting points as following: circular micelles-prolonged micelles-inverse micelles-homogeneous bilayer. Those micelles have approximately constant height and specific top-down A-BB-A structure. At higher grafting density, the micelles start to appear above the single bilayer of amphiphilic macromolecules. The thickness of grafted layer in these cases is different in different regions of grafting surface. Only at rather high density of grafting, the height of macromolecular layer becomes uniform over the whole grafting surface. The study was performed by computer modeling experiments and confirmed in framework of analytical theory.

  4. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M. [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Sato, Hiromu [Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke [Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd., 2-10-1 Tuboi Nishi, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8507 (Japan); Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiyoshi, E-mail: s-yokoyama@cm.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  5. Phase Transition Phenomena in Ultra-Thin Ge2Sb2Te5 Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ting; LIU Bo; SONG Zhi-Tang; LIU Wei-Li; FENG Song-Lin; CHEN Bomy

    2005-01-01

    @@ We observe reversible phase transition phenomena in proto-type chalcogenide random access memory (C-RAM)devices adopting ultra-thin (12nm) Ge2Sb3 Te5 thin film. In this kind of proto-type device, the ultra-thin amorphous Ge2Sb2 Te5 thin film undergoes a crystallization process when a voltage is applied. The polycrystalline Ge2Sb3 Te5 remain unchanged when the voltage is below 0.6 V. A higher power is needed if the transition from polycrystalline to amorphous is expected. The re-amorphization process can be realized by applying a voltage higher than 0.7 V. The threshold voltage Vth and threshold electric field Eth of the transition from the polycrystalline state to the amorphous state in this proto-type device are ~0.7 V and ~ 5 × 105 V/cm, respectively. The programming voltage is significantly reduced compared to the values of C-RAM devices adopting a 200-nm-thick Ge2Sb2 Te5 inset.

  6. Optical bandgap of single- and multi-layered amorphous germanium ultra-thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pei; Zaslavsky, Alexander [Department of Physics and School of Engineering, Brown University, 182-184 Hope St., Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Longo, Paolo [Gatan, Inc., 5794 W Las Positas Blvd., Pleasanton, California 94588 (United States); Pacifici, Domenico, E-mail: Domenico-Pacifici@brown.edu [School of Engineering, Brown University, 184 Hope St., Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2016-01-07

    Accurate optical methods are required to determine the energy bandgap of amorphous semiconductors and elucidate the role of quantum confinement in nanometer-scale, ultra-thin absorbing layers. Here, we provide a critical comparison between well-established methods that are generally employed to determine the optical bandgap of thin-film amorphous semiconductors, starting from normal-incidence reflectance and transmittance measurements. First, we demonstrate that a more accurate estimate of the optical bandgap can be achieved by using a multiple-reflection interference model. We show that this model generates more reliable results compared to the widely accepted single-pass absorption method. Second, we compare two most representative methods (Tauc and Cody plots) that are extensively used to determine the optical bandgap of thin-film amorphous semiconductors starting from the extracted absorption coefficient. Analysis of the experimental absorption data acquired for ultra-thin amorphous germanium (a-Ge) layers demonstrates that the Cody model is able to provide a less ambiguous energy bandgap value. Finally, we apply our proposed method to experimentally determine the optical bandgap of a-Ge/SiO{sub 2} superlattices with single and multiple a-Ge layers down to 2 nm thickness.

  7. Optical bandgap of single- and multi-layered amorphous germanium ultra-thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Longo, Paolo; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Pacifici, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Accurate optical methods are required to determine the energy bandgap of amorphous semiconductors and elucidate the role of quantum confinement in nanometer-scale, ultra-thin absorbing layers. Here, we provide a critical comparison between well-established methods that are generally employed to determine the optical bandgap of thin-film amorphous semiconductors, starting from normal-incidence reflectance and transmittance measurements. First, we demonstrate that a more accurate estimate of the optical bandgap can be achieved by using a multiple-reflection interference model. We show that this model generates more reliable results compared to the widely accepted single-pass absorption method. Second, we compare two most representative methods (Tauc and Cody plots) that are extensively used to determine the optical bandgap of thin-film amorphous semiconductors starting from the extracted absorption coefficient. Analysis of the experimental absorption data acquired for ultra-thin amorphous germanium (a-Ge) layers demonstrates that the Cody model is able to provide a less ambiguous energy bandgap value. Finally, we apply our proposed method to experimentally determine the optical bandgap of a-Ge/SiO2 superlattices with single and multiple a-Ge layers down to 2 nm thickness.

  8. Ultra-thin distributed Bragg reflectors via stacked single-crystal silicon nanomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Minkyu; Seo, Jung-Hun; Lee, Jaeseong; Mi, Hongyi; Kim, Munho; Ma, Zhenqiang, E-mail: mazq@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Zhao, Deyin; Zhou, Weidong [Nanophotonics Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States); Yin, Xin; Wang, Xudong [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-05-04

    In this paper, we report ultra-thin distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) via stacked single-crystal silicon (Si) nanomembranes (NMs). Mesh hole-free single-crystal Si NMs were released from a Si-on-insulator substrate and transferred to quartz and Si substrates. Thermal oxidation was applied to the transferred Si NM to form high-quality SiO{sub 2} and thus a Si/SiO{sub 2} pair with uniform and precisely controlled thicknesses. The Si/SiO{sub 2} layers, as smooth as epitaxial grown layers, minimize scattering loss at the interface and in between the layers. As a result, a reflection of 99.8% at the wavelength range from 1350 nm to 1650 nm can be measured from a 2.5-pair DBR on a quartz substrate and 3-pair DBR on a Si substrate with thickness of 0.87 μm and 1.14 μm, respectively. The high reflection, ultra-thin DBRs developed here, which can be applied to almost any devices and materials, holds potential for application in high performance optoelectronic devices and photonics applications.

  9. Fabrication of Gold-Coated Ultra-Thin Anodic Porous Alumina Substrates for Augmented SERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Toccafondi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anodic porous alumina (APA is a nanostructured material used as a template in several nanotechnological applications. We propose the use of APA in ultra-thin form (<100 nm for augmented surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS. Here, the effect of in-depth thinning of the APA nanostructures for possible maximization of SERS was addressed. Anodization was carried out on ultra-thin films of aluminum on glass and/or silicon, followed by pore-opening. Gold (Au was overcoated and micro‑Raman/SERS measurements were carried out on test target analytes. Finite integration technique simulations of the APA-Au substrate were used both for the experimental design and simulations. It was observed that, under optimized conditions of APA and Au thickness, the SERS enhancement is higher than on standard APA-Au substrates based on thin (~100 nm APA by up to a factor of ~20 for test molecules of mercaptobenzoic acid. The agreement between model and experimental results confirms the current understanding of SERS as being mainly due to the physical origin of plasmon resonances. The reported results represent one step towards micro-technological, integrated, disposable, high-sensitivity SERS chemical sensors and biosensors based on similar substrates.

  10. Ultra-thin oxide films for band engineering: design principles and numerical experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Keith T.; Walsh, Aron, E-mail: a.walsh@bath.ac.uk

    2014-05-30

    The alignment of band energies between conductive oxides and semiconductors is crucial for the further development of oxide contacting layers in electronic devices. The growth of ultra thin films on the surface of an oxide material can be used to introduce a dipole moment at that surface due to charge differences. The dipole, in turn, alters the electrostatic potential — and hence the band energies — in the substrate oxide. We demonstrate the fundamental limits for the application of thin-films in this context, applying analytical and numerical simulations, that bridge continuum and atomistic. The simulations highlight the different parameters that can affect the band energy shifting potential of a given thin-film layer, taking the examples of MgO and SnO{sub 2}. In particular we assess the effect of formal charge, layer orientation, layer thickness and surface coverage, with respect to their effect on the electrostatic potential. The results establish some design principles, important for further development and application of thin-films for band energy engineering in transparent conductive oxide materials. - Highlights: • Bridging continuum electrostatics and numerical point charge simulations. • Principles for engineering of band energies through application of ultra-thin films. • Effects of thin-film orientation on band energy levels • Effects of film-coverage and thickness on band energy levels.

  11. Amplification of coherent synchrotron high harmonic emission from ultra-thin foils in relativistic light fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braenzel, J.; Andreev, A. A.; Platonov, K. Y.; Ehrentraut, L.; Schnürer, M.

    2017-08-01

    We report on a remarkable enhancement of high harmonic (HH) radiation emitted from the interaction of an ultra-intense laser pulse with ultra-thin foils by a manipulation of foil pre-plasma conditions. With a strong counter-propagating pre-pulse, we introduce a concerted expansion of the ultrathin foil target, and this significantly raises the efficiency of the HH generation process. Our experimental results show how the emission efficiency can be easily controlled by the intensity and delay time of the pre-pulse. The results give an important insight into the high harmonic generation process from solid dense plasmas when spatially limited. 1D particles in cell simulations confirm our experimental findings and show a significant dependency of the HH emission efficiency on the plasma density. The simplicity of the ultra-thin foil target and interaction geometry hold promise for specifically compact realization of imaging experiments with ultra-short and bright extreme ultra violet-pulses.

  12. Static analysis of ultra-thin beams based on a semi-continuum model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Li; Zhi-Jun Zheng; Ji-Lin Yu; C.W.Lim

    2011-01-01

    A linear semi-continuum model with discrete atomic layers in the thickness direction was developed to investigate the bending behaviors of ultra-thin beams with nanoscale thickness.The theoretical results show that the deflection of an ultra-thin beam may be enhanced or reduced due to different relaxation coefficients.If the relaxation coefficient is greater/less than one,the deflection of micro/nano-scale structures is enhanced/reduced in comparison with macro-scale structures.So,two opposite types of size-dependent behaviors are observed and they are mainly caused by the relaxation coefficients.Comparisons with the classical continuum model,exact nonlocal stress model and finite element model (FEM) verify the validity of the present semi-continuum model.In particular,an explanation is proposed in the debate whether the bending stiffness of a micro/nano-scale beam should be greater or weaker as compared with the macro-scale structures.The characteristics of bending stiffness are proved to be associated with the relaxation coefficients.

  13. Persistence of magic cluster stability in ultra-thin semiconductor nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Winyoo; Limtrakul, Jumras; Illas, Francesc; Bromley, Stefan T.

    2010-01-01

    The progression from quasi zero-dimensional (Q0D) nanoclusters to quasi one-dimensional (Q1D) nanorods, and, with increasing length, to nanowires, represents the most conceptually fundamental transition from the nanoscale to bulk-like length scales. This dimensionality crossover is particularly interesting, both scientifically and technologically, for inorganic semiconducting (ISC) materials, where striking concomitant changes in optoelectronic properties occur.1,2 Such effects are most pronounced for ultra-thin3 ISC nanorods/nanowires, where the confining and defective nature of the atomic structure become key. Although experiments on ISC materials in this size regime have revealed especially stable (or ``magic'') non-bulk-like Q0D nanoclusters,4,5 all ISC Q1D nanostructures have been reported as having structures corresponding to bulk crystalline phases. For two important ISC materials (CdS and CdSe) we track the Q0D-to-Q1D transition employing state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations demonstrating an unexpected persistence of magic cluster stability over the bulk-like structure in ultra-thin nanorods up to >10 nm in length. The transition between the magic-cluster-based and wurtzite nanorods is found to be accompanied by a large change in aspect ratio thus potentially providing a route to nano-mechanical transducer applications.

  14. Size dependent electronic and magnetic properties of ultra thin graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Meenakshi; Sharma, Hitesh

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of systematic investigation into size dependent electronic and magnetic properties of ultra thin graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) of finite and infinite length using spin polarized density functional calculation. The rectangular GNRs with width up to 1.40 nm with finite (2.50 nm) and infinite length were investigated. The ultra thin GNRs are found less stable in comparison to larger GNRs with binding energy increasing with increase in the size. All GNRs have shown finite HOMO-LUMO gap which decreases oscillatory as a function of width. HOMO-LUMO gap in the Finite length armchair GNRs is in range of 0.01-0.36 eV, where as in infinite length GNR the energy gap is in the range of 0.30-1.41 eV. Zigzag GNRs have shown very small HOMO-LUMO gap in the range 50-80 meV. The zigzag GNR have shown opening of energy band gap. However, for N = 8 and 10 layers, GNRs with zigzag edges are found to be ferromagnetic. The edge C atom on zigzag edges contribute magnetic moment of 0.94 {μ }B per C atom with total magnetic moment remaining constant with increase in the width. The energy difference between ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic state decreases sharply with the increase in GNR width suggesting iso-energetic behavior in larger GNRs. The results are consistent with the reported experimental results.

  15. Ultra thin hydro-films based on lactose-crosslinked fish gelatin for wound healing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxabide, Alaitz; Vairo, Claudia; Santos-Vizcaino, Edorta; Guerrero, Pedro; Pedraz, Jose Luis; Igartua, Manoli; de la Caba, Koro; Hernandez, Rosa Maria

    2017-09-15

    This study focuses on the development and characterization of an ultra thin hydro-film based on lactose-mediated crosslinking of fish gelatin by Maillard reaction. Lactose results in the only efficient crosslinker able to produce resistant to handling hydro-films when compared to conventional crosslinkers such as glutaraldehyde or genipin (tested at 25 and 37°C in phosphate buffer saline solution (PBS)).The disappearance of the peak related to the N-containing groups (XPS) and the images obtained by SEM and AFM demonstrate the highly ordered nano-scaled structure of lactose-crosslinked gelatin, confirming the crosslinking efficiency. This dressing presents high hydrophilicity and mild occlusivity, as shown by the swelling curve (max swelling at 5min) and by the occlusion factor of 25.17±0.99%, respectively. It demonstrates high stability to hydrolysis or cell-mediated degradation. Moreover, ISO 10993-5:2009 biocompatibility assay results in undetectable cytotoxicity effects. Spreading, adhesion and proliferation assays confirm the excellent adaptability of the cells onto the hydro-film surface without invading the dressing. Finally, the hydro-film enables the controlled delivery of therapeutic factors, such as the epidermal growth factor (EGF). This study demonstrates that lactose-mediated crosslinking is able to produce ultra thin gelatin hydro-films with suitable properties for biomedical applications, such as wound healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency for decorative PV applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Jay

    2015-10-01

    This talk will describe an approach to create architecturally compatible and decorative thin-film-based hybrid photovoltaics [1]. Most current solar panels are fabricated via complex processes using expensive semiconductor materials, and they are rigid and heavy with a dull, black appearance. As a result of their non-aesthetic appearance and weight, they are primarily installed on rooftops to minimize their negative impact on building appearance. Recently we introduced dual-function solar cells based on ultra-thin dopant-free amorphous silicon embedded in an optical cavity that not only efficiently extract the photogenerated carriers but also display distinctive colors with the desired angle-insensitive appearances [1,2]. The angle-insensitive behavior is the result of an interesting phase cancellation effect in the optical cavity with respect to angle of light propagation [3]. In order to produce the desired optical effect, the semiconductor layer should be ultra-thin and the traditional doped layers need to be eliminated. We adopted the approach of employing charge transport/blocking layers used in organic solar cells to meet this demand. We showed that the ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell can transmit desired wavelength of light and that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges. This is because the a-Si layer thickness is smaller than the charge diffusion length, therefore the electron-hole recombination is strongly suppressed in such ultra-thin layer. Reflective colored PVs can be made in a similar fashion. Light-energy-harvesting colored signage was demonstrated. Furthermore, a cascaded photovoltaics scheme based on tunable spectrum splitting can be employed to increase power efficiency by absorbing a broader band of light energy. Our work provides a guideline for optimizing a photoactive layer thickness in high efficiency hybrid PV design, which can be

  17. Ultra-thin rigid endoscope: Two-photon imaging through a graded-index multi-mode fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Sivankutty, Siddharth; Cossart, Rosa; Bouwmans, Géraud; Monneret, Serge; Rigneault, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Rigid endoscopes like graded-index (GRIN) lenses are known tools in biological imaging, but it is conceptually difficult to miniaturize them. In this letter, we demonstrate an ultra-thin rigid endoscope with a diameter of only 125 microns. In addition, we identify a domain where two-photon endoscopic imaging with fs-pulse excitation is possible. We validate the ultra-thin rigid endoscope consisting of a few cm of graded-index multi-mode fiber by using it to acquire optically sectioned two-photon fluorescence endoscopic images of three-dimensional samples.

  18. Structural and electrical characterization of ultra-thin SrTiO3 tunnel barriers grown over YBa2Cu3O7 electrodes for the development of high Tc Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, L Avilés; Sirena, M; Guzmán, L A Agüero; Sutter, J González; Vargas, S Pons; Steren, L B; Bernard, R; Trastoy, J; Villegas, J E; Briático, J; Bergeal, N; Lesueur, J; Faini, G

    2012-12-14

    The transport properties of ultra-thin SrTiO(3) (STO) layers grown over YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) electrodes were studied by conductive atomic force microscopy at the nano-scale. A very good control of the barrier thickness was achieved during the deposition process. A phenomenological approach was used to obtain critical parameters regarding the structural and electrical properties of the system. The STO layers present an energy barrier of 0.9 eV and an attenuation length of 0.23 nm, indicating very good insulating properties for the development of high-quality Josephson junctions.

  19. Characterization of the Micro-Abrasive Wear in Coatings of TaC-HfC/Au for Biomedical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Guzmán

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was the deposition of a Ta-Hf-C thin film with a gold interlayer on stainless steel, via the physical vapor deposition (PVD technique, in order to evaluate the properties of different systems subjected to micro-abrasive wear phenomena generated by alumina particles in Ringer's solution. The surface characterization was performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM. The crystallographic phases exhibited for each coating were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD. As a consequence of modifying the composition of Ta-Hf there was evidence of an improvement in the micro-abrasive wear resistance and, for each system, the wear constants that confirm the enhancement of the surface were calculated. Likewise, these surfaces can be bioactive, generating an alternative to improve the biological fixation of the implants, therefore, the coatings of TaC-HfC/Au contribute in the development of the new generation of orthopedic implants.

  20. Optical bandgap of ultra-thin amorphous silicon films deposited on crystalline silicon by PECVD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdulraheem, Yaser; Gordon, Ivan; Bearda, Twan; Meddeb, Hosny; Poortmans, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    ...) in a wavelength range from 250 nm to 850 nm. The data was fitted to a Tauc-Lorentz optical model and the fitting parameters were extracted and used to compute the refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical bandgap...

  1. Continuous Ultra-Thin MOS2 Films Grown by Low-Temperature Physical Vapor Deposition (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    films are composed of nano -scale domains with strong chemical binding between domain boundaries, allowing lift-off from the substrate and electronic...process yields materials with key optical and electronic properties identical to exfoliated layers. The films are composed of nano -scale domains with...with a layered atomic structure giving rise to remarkable me- chanical (e.g., low shear strength for solid lubrication )1 and catalytic (e.g

  2. Effects of thermal treatments on chemical composition and electrical properties of ultra-thin Lu oxide layers on Si

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenkevich, A.; Lebedinskii, Yu.; Spiga, S.; Wiemer, C.; Scarel, G.; Fanciulli, M.

    2007-01-01

    The correlation between chemical composition, layered structure evolution, and electrical properties of ultra-thin (2-5 nm) Lu oxide layers grown on chemically oxidized Si(100) and exposed to different thermal treatments was monitored by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray reflectivity and C-V,

  3. An approach to characterize ultra-thin conducting films protected against native oxidation by an in-situ capping layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bui, H.; Wiggers, F.B.; Jong, de M.P.; Kovalgin, A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate the application of a test structure to characterize electrical properties of ultra-thin titanium nitride films passivated by a non-conducting amorphous silicon layer. The amorphous silicon layer is used to prevent the oxidation of the conducting layer. Platinum electrodes

  4. Ultra-thin strut cobalt chromium bare metal stent usage in a complex real-world setting. (SOLSTICE Registry)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, M. J.; Stella, P. R.; Dens, J.; McKenzie, J. M.; Park, K. S.; Frambach, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To report clinical follow-up at 6 months after implantation of the ultra-thin strut cobalt chromiumSolarFlex stent in a real-world setting. Methods and results Patients (n=240) with single or multiple vessel coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at four site

  5. Local I-V characteristics of high-k ultra-thin ZrO{sub 2}- and ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}-films.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Dominik; Grube, Matthias; Erben, Elke; Schroeder, Uwe; Weber, Walter [namlab Gmbh, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Mueller, Johannes; Weinreich, Wenke [Fraunhofer-CNT, D-01099 Dresden (Germany); Geelhaar, Lutz; Riechert, Henning [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Mikolajick, Thomas [namlab Gmbh, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Chair of Nanoelectronic Materials, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In order to produce ultra thin ZrO{sub 2}-films, with a dielectric constant high enough to satisfy industry demands, it is necessary to reach the tetragonal crystalline phase. This can be achieved either by high temperature deposition or by a post deposition annealing step. Both however induce high leakage currents. Small amounts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be incorporated in ZrO{sub 2} to reduce leakage current. To get more insight into the charge carrier transport mechanisms involved, a thickness series of ultra thin ZrO{sub 2}- and ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}-films were deposited by ALD and subjected to different rapid thermal annealing processes. These layers were examined by GI-XRD, TEM, I-V-, C-V-Spectroscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy. Thus, leakage currents are reduced to 3.2.10{sup -8}(A)/(cm{sup 2}) at 1 V while maintaining the high k value (CET=1 nm at 1 V for a 10 nm film). CAFM studies demonstrate how the crystallization effects the charge transport mechanisms on the mesoscopic scale. Local I-V curves acquired on amorphous films and at grain boundaries in nanocrystalline films in yield lower breakdown voltages and higher leakage currents at crystallite grain boundaries.

  6. Structure of a zinc oxide ultra-thin film on Rh(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuhara, J.; Kato, D.; Matsui, T. [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Mizuno, S. [Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816–8580 (Japan)

    2015-11-07

    The structural parameters of ultra-thin zinc oxide films on Rh(100) are investigated using low-energy electron diffraction intensity (LEED I–V) curves, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. From the analysis of LEED I–V curves and DFT calculations, two optimized models A and B are determined. Their structures are basically similar to the planer h-BN ZnO(0001) structure, although some oxygen atoms protrude from the surface, associated with an in-plane shift of Zn atoms. From a comparison of experimental STM images and simulated STM images, majority and minority structures observed in the STM images represent the two optimized models A and B, respectively.

  7. Total absorption of visible light in ultra-thin weakly-absorbing semiconductor gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmberg, Björn C P; Choi, Duk-Yong; White, Thomas P; Botten, Lindsay C; Dossou, Kokou B; Poulton, Christopher G; Catchpole, Kylie R; McPhedran, Ross C; de Sterke, C Martijn

    2016-01-01

    The perfect absorption of light in subwavelength thickness layers generally relies on exotic materials, metamaterials or thick metallic gratings. Here we demonstrate that total light absorption can be achieved in ultra-thin gratings composed of conventional materials, including relatively weakly-absorbing semiconductors, which are compatible with optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors and optical modulators. We fabricate a 41 nm thick antimony sulphide grating structure that has a measured absorptance of A = 99.3% at a visible wavelength of 591 nm, in excellent agreement with theory. We infer that the absorption within the grating is A = 98.7%, with only A = 0.6% within the silver mirror. A planar reference sample absorbs A = 7.7% at this wavelength.

  8. Enhancement of spin-Seebeck effect by inserting ultra-thin Fe70Cu30 interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, D.; Ishida, M.; Uchida, K.; Qiu, Z.; Murakami, T.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-02-01

    We report the longitudinal spin-Seebeck effects (LSSEs) for Pt/Fe70Cu30/BiY2Fe5O12 (BiYIG) and Pt/BiYIG devices. The LSSE voltage was found to be enhanced by inserting an ultra-thin Fe70Cu30 interlayer. This enhancement decays sharply with increasing the Fe70Cu30 thickness, suggesting that it is not due to bulk phenomena, such as a superposition of conventional thermoelectric effects, but due to interface effects related to the Fe70Cu30 interlayer. Combined with control experiments using Pt/Fe70Cu30 devices, we conclude that the enhancement of the LSSE voltage in the Pt/Fe70Cu30/BiYIG devices is attributed to the improvement of the spin-mixing conductance at the Pt/BiYIG interfaces.

  9. Optical absorbers based on strong interference in ultra-thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Kats, Mikhail A

    2016-01-01

    Optical absorbers find uses in a wide array of applications across the electromagnetic spectrum, including photovoltaic and photochemical cells, photodetectors, optical filters, stealth technology, and thermal light sources. Recent efforts have sought to reduce the footprint of optical absorbers, conventionally based on graded structures or Fabry-Perot-type cavities, by using the emerging concepts of plasmonics, metamaterials, and metasurfaces. Unfortunately, these new absorber designs require patterning on subwavelength length scales, and are therefore impractical for many large-scale optical and optoelectronic devices. In this article, we summarize recent progress in the development of optical absorbers based on lossy films with thicknesses significantly smaller than the incident optical wavelength. These structures have a small footprint and require no nanoscale patterning. We outline the theoretical foundation of these absorbers based on "ultra-thin-film interference", including the concepts of loss-induc...

  10. Tradeoff between speed and static power dissipation of ultra-thin body SOI MOSFETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Yu; Huang Ru; Zhang Xing; Wang Yang-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    The speed performance and static power dissipation of the ultra-thin-body (UTB) MOSFETs have been comprehensively investigated, with both DC and AC behaviours considered. Source/drain extension width (Lsp) and silicon film thickness (tsi) are two independent parameters that influence the speed and static power dissipation of UTB siliconon-insulator (SOI) MOSFETs respectively, which can result in great design flexibility. Based on the different effects of physical and geometric parameters on device characteristics, a method to alleviate the contradiction between power dissipated and speed of UTB SOI MOSFETs is proposed. The optimal design regions of tsi and Lsp for low operating power and high performance logic applications are given, which may shed light on the design of UTB SOI MOSFETs.

  11. Ultra-Thin Flexible Eddy Current Sensor Array for Gap Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁天怀; 陈祥林; 黄毅平

    2004-01-01

    An ultra-thin flexible eddy current proximity sensor array was developed for online measurements of tiny gaps between large smooth metallic and nonmetallic surfaces of arbitrary shapes. The probe of the flexible eddy current sensor array, which includes a set of sensor coils, is fabricated on a thin flexible substrate using the flexible printed circuit board process which allows the probe to be very thin and flexible so that it can conform to the surface geometry of the measured objects. The sensor coils are connected to an inductance-capacitance oscillator, which converts the distance between the sensor coil and the metallic target to a frequency output. Experimental results show that the measurement accuracy of the sensor system can reach ±0.5% for a 2-mm gap and the sensor system is suitable for online gap measurements.

  12. Numerical Study of Scale Effects of Ultra-Thin Nickel Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lei; Xie Shuisheng; Yang Haoqiang; Huang Guojie

    2004-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that metallic materials display significant size effects when the characteristic length scale of non-uniform plastic deformation is close to a micron. Couple stress plasticity has been developed to explain such phenomena by Fleck and Hutchinson. The mechanical behaviors of ultra-thin nickel beams in different boundary conditions were studied with the hybrid element developed for couple stress plasticity before. Strong scale effects are found when the beam's thickness is close to the material characteristic length scale. Such phenomena will disappear if the beam' s thickness is greatly larger than the material characteristic length scale. The scale effect is the beams inherent property and it does not change with the change of support conditions.

  13. Microstructure and strengthening parameters of ultra-thin hot strip of low carbon steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The microstructure and precipitation mechanism of ultra-thinhot strip produced by CSP technology were analyzed by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), H-800 transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermodynamics theory. The EBSD results show that the finishing hot rolling microstructures are mixture of recrystallized and deformed austenite. After phase transformation, ferrite grains embody substructures and dislocations that led ultra-thin hot strip high strength and relatively low elongation rate. TEM observations show that there are a lot of fine and dispersive precipitates in microstructures. Most of aluminium nitrides are in grains, while coexisted precipitates of MnS along grain boundaries. Coexisted precipitates compose cation-vacancy type oxides such as Al2O3 in the core , while MnS at the fringe of surface. At the same time, reasons for microstructure refinement and strengthening effect were investigated.

  14. Simulation of ultra-thin sheet metal forming using phenomenological and crystal plasticity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzima, F.; Manach, PY; Balan, T.; Tabourot, L.; Toutain, S.; Diot, JL

    2016-08-01

    Micro-forming of ultra-thin sheet metals raises numerous challenges. In this investigation, the predictions of state-of-the-art crystal plasticity (CP) and phenomenological models are compared in the framework of industrial bending-dominated forming processes. Sheet copper alloys 0.1mm-thick are considered, with more than 20 grains through the thickness. Consequently, both model approaches are valid on theoretical ground. The phenomenological models’ performance was conditioned by the experimental database used for parameter identification. The CP approach was more robust with respect to parameter identification, while allowing for a less flexible description of kinematic hardening, at the cost of finer mesh and specific grain-meshing strategies. The conditions for accurate springback predictions with CP-based models are investigated, in an attempt to bring these models at the robustness level required for industrial application.

  15. Growth of ultra thin PbS films by SILAR technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puiso, J.; Lindroos, S.; Tamulevicius, S.; Leskelae, M.; Snitka, V

    2003-03-20

    The successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique involves growth of thin films from solution, ionic layer by ionic layer at room temperature and normal pressure. The aim of this work is to characterize SILAR grown PbS thin films (15-100 nm) on silicon substrates using different lead-precursor solutions. The X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations have been performed to compare the properties of the films grown with different lead precursor solutions. The PbS ultra thin films were polycrystalline and cubic. The films were stoichiometric and contained some oxygen. The film roughness and crystallite size could be controlled by choosing the lead precursors.

  16. Fabrication of ultra thin and aligned carbon nanofibres from electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibres

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Javed Rafique; Jie Yu; Xiaoxiong Zha; Khalid Rafique

    2010-10-01

    Ultra thin and aligned carbon nanofibres (CNFs) have been fabricated by heat treatment from aligned polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibre precursors prepared by electrospinning. The alignment of the precursor nanofibres was achieved by using a modified electrospinning set up developed recently, where a tip collector was used to collect and align the nanofibres. The average diameter of the aligned CNFs is about 80 nm. The stabilization and carbonization behaviour were studied mainly based on the randomly oriented PAN nanofibres. The effects of stabilization and carbonization temperatures, temperature-increasing rates, and with and without substrates on the morphology and structure of the CNFs were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure of the CNFs and thermogravimetric/differential temperature analysis was used to evaluate the thermal behaviour of PAN nanofibres.

  17. Ultra-thin metamaterial for perfect and quasi-omnidirectional sound absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, N.; Huang, W.; Romero-García, V.; Pagneux, V.; Groby, J.-P.

    2016-09-01

    Using the concepts of slow sound and critical coupling, an ultra-thin acoustic metamaterial panel for perfect and quasi-omnidirectional absorption is theoretically and experimentally conceived in this work. The system is made of a rigid panel with a periodic distribution of thin closed slits, the upper wall of which is loaded by Helmholtz Resonators (HRs). The presence of resonators produces a slow sound propagation shifting the resonance frequency of the slit to the deep sub-wavelength regime ( λ/88 ). By controlling the geometry of the slit and the HRs, the intrinsic visco-thermal losses can be tuned in order to exactly compensate the energy leakage of the system and fulfill the critical coupling condition to create the perfect absorption of sound in a large range of incidence angles due to the deep subwavelength behavior.

  18. Molecular dynamics of dewetting of ultra-thin water films on solid substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is applied to study the instability and rupture process of ultra-thin water films on a solid substrate. Results show the small disturbance of the film will develop linearly due to the spinodal instability, whereas the interaction between solid and liquid has less influences on the initial growth. Then the rupture occurs and the rim recedes with a dynamic contact angle. The radius of the rim varies with time as the square root of t, which is consistent with the macroscopic theory available.Stronger interaction between solid and liquid will postpone rupture time, decline the dynamic contact angle and raise the density of water near the interface between solid and liquid.

  19. MULTIPLE CLUSTER GROWTH OF ULTRA-THIN FILMS WITH ANISOTROPIC EDGE DIFFUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG DAI-MU; WU ZI-QIN

    2001-01-01

    The multiple cluster growth of ultra-thin films on a hexagonal substrate with fractal, dendritic and compact morphology has been studied by computer simulation. The influence of the different diffusion processes along island edges on the island shape has been investigated. The results show that the anisotropic corner diffusion induces the dendritic growth, and the anisotropic step diffusion can promote the anisotropic growth and cause the ramified islands growing in three directions. In the case of compact growth, the island shape is mainly determined by the anisotropic corner crossing process. The nonuniform distribution of the multiple cluster formation can be described quantitatively by multifractal. With patterns changing from fractal to compact islands, the width and height of the bell-like or hook-like multifractal spectra increase, while the top f(α) decreases.

  20. Ultra-thin nanocrystalline diamond membranes as pressure sensors for harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, S. D., E-mail: stoffel.d.janssens@gmail.com; Haenen, K., E-mail: ken.haenen@uhasselt.be [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Drijkoningen, S. [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2014-02-17

    Glass and diamond are suitable materials for harsh environments. Here, a procedure for fabricating ultra-thin nanocrystalline diamond membranes on glass, acting as an electrically insulating substrate, is presented. In order to investigate the pressure sensing properties of such membranes, a circular, highly conductive boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond membrane with a resistivity of 38 mΩ cm, a thickness of 150 nm, and a diameter of 555 μm is fabricated in the middle of a Hall bar structure. During the application of a positive differential pressure under the membrane (0–0.7 bar), four point piezoresistive effect measurements are performed. From these measurements, it can be concluded that the resistance response of the membrane, as a function of differential pressure, is highly linear and sensitive.

  1. Degradation of Ultra-Thin Gate Oxide NMOSFETs under CVDT and SHE Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shi-Gang; CAO Yan-Rong; HAO Yue; MA Xiao-Hua; CHEN Chi; WU Xiao-Feng; ZHOU Qing-Jun

    2008-01-01

    Degradation of device under substrate hot-electron (SHE) and constant voltage direct-tunnelling (CVDT) stresses are studied using NMOSFET with 1.4-nm gate oxides. The degradation of device parameters and the degradation of the stress induced leakage current (SILC) under these two stresses are reported. The emphasis of this paper is on SILC and breakdown of ultra-thin-gate-oxide under these two stresses. SILC increases with stress time and several soft breakdown events occur during direct-tunnelling (DT) stress. During SHE stress, SILC firstly decreases with stress time and suddenly jumps to a high level, and no soft breakdown event is observed. For DT injection, the positive hole trapped in the oxide and hole direct-tunnelling play important roles in the breakdown.For SHE injection, it is because injected hot electrons accelerate the formation of defects and these defects formed by hot electrons induce breakdown.

  2. Ion acceleration and plasma jet formation in ultra-thin foils undergoing expansion and relativistic transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.; Gray, R.J.; Powell, H.W.; MacLellan, D.A.; Gonzalez-Izquierdo, B. [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Stockhausen, L.C. [Centro de Laseres Pulsados (CLPU), Parque Cientifico, Calle del Adaja, s/n. 37185 Villamayor, Salamanca (Spain); Hicks, G.S.; Dover, N.P. [The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Rusby, D.R. [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Carroll, D.C. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Padda, H. [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Torres, R. [Centro de Laseres Pulsados (CLPU), Parque Cientifico, Calle del Adaja, s/n. 37185 Villamayor, Salamanca (Spain); Kar, S. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Clarke, R.J.; Musgrave, I.O. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Najmudin, Z. [The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Borghesi, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Neely, D. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); McKenna, P., E-mail: paul.mckenna@strath.ac.uk [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    At sufficiently high laser intensities, the rapid heating to relativistic velocities and resulting decompression of plasma electrons in an ultra-thin target foil can result in the target becoming relativistically transparent to the laser light during the interaction. Ion acceleration in this regime is strongly affected by the transition from an opaque to a relativistically transparent plasma. By spatially resolving the laser-accelerated proton beam at near-normal laser incidence and at an incidence angle of 30°, we identify characteristic features both experimentally and in particle-in-cell simulations which are consistent with the onset of three distinct ion acceleration mechanisms: sheath acceleration; radiation pressure acceleration; and transparency-enhanced acceleration. The latter mechanism occurs late in the interaction and is mediated by the formation of a plasma jet extending into the expanding ion population. The effect of laser incident angle on the plasma jet is explored.

  3. Recent trends in electrospinning of polymer nanofibers and their applications in ultra thin layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheman, Abdul; Alam, Mohammad Sarwar; Mohammad, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Fabrication of polymer derived electrospun nanofibers by electrospinning as chromatographic sorbent bed for ultra-thin layer chromatography (UTLC) is a very demanding topic in analytical chemistry. This review presents an overview of recent development in the fabrication of polymer derived electrospun nanofibers and their applications to design UTLC plates as stationary phases for on-plate identification and separation of analytes from their mixture solutions. It has been reported that electrospun fiber based stationary phases in UTLC have enhanced separation efficiency to provide separation of analyte mixture in a shorter development time than those of traditional particle-based TLC stationary phases. In addition, electrospun UTLC is cost effective and can be modified for obtaining different surface selectivities by changing the polymer materials to electrospun devices. Electrospun UTLC plates are not available commercially till date and efforts are being rendered for their commercialization. The morphology and diameter of electrospun nanofibers are highly dependent on several parameters such as type of polymer, polymer molecular weight, solvent, viscosity, conductivity, surface tension, applied voltage, collector distance and flow rate of the polymer solution during electrospinning process. Among the aforementioned parameters, solution viscosity is an important parameter which is mainly influenced by polymer concentration. This review provides evidence for the fabrication of UTLC plates containing electrospun polymer nanofibers. Furthermore, the future prospects related to electrospinning and its application in obtaining of different types of electrospun nanofibers are discussed. The present communication is aimed to review the work which appeared during 2009-2014 on the application of polymer derived electrospun nanofibers in ultra thin layer chromatography.

  4. Mechanical properties of ultra thin metallic films revealed by synchrotron techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Patric Alfons

    2007-07-20

    A prerequisite for the study of the scaling behavior of mechanical properties of ultra thin films is a suitable testing technique. Therefore synchrotron-based in situ testing techniques were developed and optimized in order to characterize the stress evolution in ultra thin metallic films on compliant polymer substrates during isothermal tensile tests. Experimental procedures for polycrystalline as well as single crystalline films were established. These techniques were used to systematically investigate the influence of microstructure, film thickness (20 to 1000 nm) and temperature (-150 to 200 C) on the mechanical properties. Passivated and unpassivated Au and Cu films as well as single crystalline Au films on polyimide substrates were tested. Special care was also dedicated to the microstructural characterization of the samples which was very important for the correct interpretation of the results of the mechanical tests. Down to a film thickness of about 100 to 200 nm the yield strength increased for all film systems (passivated and unpassivated) and microstructures (polycrystalline and singlecrystalline). The influence of different interfaces was smaller than expected. This could be explained by a dislocation source model based on the nucleation of perfect dislocations. For polycrystalline films the film thickness as well as the grain size distribution had to be considered. For smaller film thicknesses the increase in flow stress was weaker and the deformation behavior changed because the nucleation of perfect dislocations became unfavorable. Instead, the film materials used alternative mechanisms to relieve the high stresses. For regular and homogeneous deformation the total strain was accommodated by the nucleation and motion of partial dislocations. If the deformation was localized due to initial cracks in a brittle interlayer or local delamination, dislocation plasticity was not effective enough to relieve the stress concentration and the films showed

  5. Glass-modified stress waves for adhesion measurement of ultra thin films for device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vijay; Kireev, Vassili; Tian, Jun; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Akahoshi, Haruo

    2003-08-01

    Laser-generated stress wave profiles with rarefaction shocks (almost zero post-peak decay times) have been uncovered in different types of glasses and presented in this communication. The rise time of the pulses was found to increase with their amplitude, with values reaching as high as 50 ns. This is in contrast to measurements in other brittle crystalline solids where pulses with rise times of 1 -2 ns and post-peak decay times of 16 -20 ns were recorded. The formation of rarefaction shock is attributed to the increased compressibility of glasses with increasing pressures. This was demonstrated using a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic wave propagation model in which the wave speed was taken as a function of particle velocity. The technological importance of these pulses in measuring the tensile strength of very thin film interfaces is demonstrated by using a previously developed laser spallation experiment in which a laser-generated compressive stress pulse in the substrate reflects into a tensile wave from the free surface of the film and pries off its interface at a threshold amplitude. Because of the rarefaction shock, glass-modified waves allow generation of substantially higher interfacial tensile stress amplitudes compared with those with finite post-peak decay profiles. Thus, for the first time, tensile strengths of very strong and ultra thin film interfaces can be measured. Results presented here indicate that interfaces of 185-nm-thick films, and with strengths as high as 2.7 GPa, can be measured. Thus, an important advance has been made that should allow material optimization of ultra thin layer systems that may form the basis of future MEMS-based microelectronic, mechanical and clinical devices.

  6. How Do Organic Vapors Swell Ultra-Thin PIM-1 Films?

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech

    2017-06-22

    Dynamic sorption of ethanol and toluene vapor into ultra-thin supported PIM-1 films down to 6 nm are studied with a combination of in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and in-situ X-ray reflectivity. Both ethanol and toluene significantly swell the PIM-1 matrix and, at the same time, induce persistent structural relaxations of the frozen-in glassy PIM-1 morphology. For ethanol below 20 nm three effects were identified. First, the swelling magnitude at high vapor pressures is reduced by about 30% as compared to thicker films. Second, at low penetrant activities (below 0.3 p/p0) films below 20 nm are able to absorb slightly more penetrant as compared with thicker films despite similar swelling magnitude. Third, for the ultra-thin films the onset of the dynamic penetrant-induced glass transition Pg has been found to shift to higher values indicating higher resistance to plasticization. All of these effects are consistent with a view where immobilization of the super-glassy PIM-1 at the substrate surface leads to an arrested, even more rigid and plasticization-resistant, yet still very open, microporous structure. PIM-1 in contact with the larger and more condensable toluene shows very complex, heterogeneous swelling dynamics and two distinct penetrant-induced relaxation phenomena, probably associated with the film outer surface and the bulk, are detected. Following the direction of the penetrant\\'s diffusion the surface seems to plasticize earlier than the bulk and the two relaxations remain well separated down to 6 nm film thickness, where they remarkably merge to form just a single relaxation.

  7. Enhancement of Heat and Mass Transfer in Mechanically Contstrained Ultra Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Drost; Jim Liburdy; Brian Paul; Richard Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct research focused on resolving the key technical issues that limited the deployment of efficient and extremely compact microtechnology based heat actuated absorption heat pumps and gas absorbers. Success in demonstrating these technologies will reduce the main barriers to the deployment of a technology that can significantly reduce energy consumption in the building, automotive and industrial sectors while providing a technology that can improve our ability to sequester CO{sub 2}. The proposed research cost $939,477. $539,477 of the proposed amount funded research conducted at OSU while the balance ($400,000) was used at PNNL. The project lasted 42 months and started in April 2001. Recent developments at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oregon State University suggest that the performance of absorption and desorption systems can be significantly enhanced by the use of an ultra-thin film gas/liquid contactor. This device employs microtechnology-based structures to mechanically constrain the gas/liquid interface. This technology can be used to form very thin liquid films with a film thickness less then 100 microns while still allowing gas/liquid contact. When the resistance to mass transfer in gas desorption and absorption is dominated by diffusion in the liquid phase the use of extremely thin films (<100 microns) for desorption and absorption can radically reduce the size of a gas desorber or absorber. The development of compact absorbers and desorbers enables the deployment of small heat-actuated absorption heat pumps for distributed space heating and cooling applications, heat-actuated automotive air conditioning, manportable cooling, gas absorption units for the chemical process industry and the development of high capacity CO{sub 2} absorption devices for CO{sub 2} collection and sequestration. The energy

  8. Deuterium retention in TiC and TaC doped tungsten at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zibrov, M., E-mail: mzibrov@gmail.com [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Mayer, M.; Gao, L.; Elgeti, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kurishita, H. [International Research Centre for Nuclear Materials Science, IMR, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Gasparyan, Yu.; Pisarev, A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Samples made of tungsten doped either with titanium carbide (W–1.1TiC) or tantalum carbide (W–3.3TaC) were either exposed to D{sub 2} gas at a pressure of 100 kPa at 800–963 K or irradiated by 38 eV/D ions at 800 K. The deuterium (D) inventory in the samples was examined by nuclear reaction analysis and thermal desorption spectroscopy. The D bulk concentration and total retention in W–3.3TaC were comparable in all cases to that in pure polycrystalline W. The D bulk concentration in W–1.1TiC was more than one order of magnitude higher than that in pure W after exposure to D{sub 2} gas, and was also several times higher than that in W–1.1TiC after irradiation at 800 K. It is suggested that D trapping inside the carbide precipitates in W–1.1TiC becomes essential at high temperatures.

  9. Facile Route to Prepare TaC,NbC and WC Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yinxiao; LEI Ming; YANG Hui; WANG Xuefei

    2008-01-01

    By a novel solid-state reaction process using amorphous C3N4 (a-C3N4) and transition metal oxides as starting reagents,cubic TaC,NbC and hexagonal WC nanoparticles were successfully synthesized at 1150 ℃.The products were characterized by power X-ray diffraction (XRD),field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM),energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM).The experimental resuits show that a-C3N4 obtained by the reaction between C3N3Cl3 and Li3N is a highly efficient carburation reagent and the transition metal oxides are completely transformed into the corresponding metal carbide nanoparticles at 1150 ℃,respectively,which is significantly lower than that reported for the traditional preparation of carbides,typically> 1600 ℃.The TaC,NbC and WC nanoparticles are found to have an average particle size of 10 nm,15 nm and 8 nm by TEM observation,respectively.

  10. Effect of anionic dopants on thickness, morphology and electrical properties of polypyrrole ultra-thin films prepared by in situ chemical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodian, Mehrnoosh [Dep. of Polymer Engineering, Nanostructured Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 51335-1996 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourabbas, Behzad, E-mail: pourabas@sut.ac.ir [Dep. of Polymer Engineering, Nanostructured Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 51335-1996 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajerzadeh, Shams [Nano-Electronics and Thin Film Lab, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395/515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-29

    The effect of different dopant anions on deposition and characteristics of polypyrrole (PPy) thin film has been studied in this work. Ultra-thin films of conducting PPy were deposited on insulating surfaces of glass and oxidized silicon wafer by in situ chemical polymerization in the presence of different anionic dopants including sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, α-naphthalene sulfonic acid, anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid sodium salt monohydrate/5-sulfosalicylic acid dehydrate, and camphor sulfonic acid. Hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties and morphology of the self-assembled monolayer of N-(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)pyrrole, the surface modifying agent in this work, and PPy thin films were characterized before and after deposition by contact angle measurements, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Chemical structure, thickness, and conductivity of the thin films were also studied by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, ellipsometry, and four-point probe measurements. The results showed deposition of thin films of conducting PPy with comparable thickness in the range of 6-31 nm and different morphologies, uniformity, and smoothness with average roughness in the range of 0.3-6 nm and relatively high range of conductivity on the modified surfaces. - Highlights: • Conducting thin films of polypyrrole were deposited on glass and SiO{sub 2} substrates. • Surface modification using pyrrole-silane was employed prior to polymerization. • Films as thin as ≈ 7 nm were deposited using different surfactant/counter ions. • Chemistry of the counter ion affects thickness, conductivity and morphology. • Lower thickness/higher conductivity were obtained by structurally flexible dopants.

  11. A tunneling current density model for ultra thin HfO2 high-k dielectric material based MOS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Niladri Pratap; Maity, Reshmi; Thapa, R. K.; Baishya, Srimanta

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an analytical model for evaluation of tunneling current density of ultra thin MOS devices is presented. The impacts of the promising high-k dielectric material, HfO2 on the current density model have been carried out. In this work, improvement in the results is brought in by taking into account the barrier height lowering due to the image force effect. The considered voltage range is from 0 to ψ1/e i.e., 0 neglecting the image force effect for a MOS device consisting asymmetric barrier. Later, image force effect of ultra thin oxide layer has been introduced for practical potential barrier by superimposing the potential barrier on the trapezoidal barrier. Theoretical predictions are compared with the results obtained by the 2-D numerical device simulator ATLAS and published experimental results. Excellent agreements among the three are observed.

  12. Spatially and momentum resolved energy electron loss spectra from an ultra-thin PrNiO{sub 3} layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinyanjui, M. K., E-mail: michael.kinyanjui@uni-ulm.de; Kaiser, U. [Central Facility of Electron Microscopy, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Benner, G.; Pavia, G. [Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 22, 73447 Oberkochen (Germany); Boucher, F. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, UMR6502, CNRS - Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, B.P.32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex (France); Habermeier, H.-U.; Keimer, B. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70579 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    We present an experimental approach which allows for the acquisition of spectra from ultra-thin films at high spatial, momentum, and energy resolutions. Spatially and momentum (q) resolved electron energy loss spectra have been obtained from a 12 nm ultra-thin PrNiO{sub 3} layer using a nano-beam electron diffraction based approach which enabled the acquisition of momentum resolved spectra from individual, differently oriented nano-domains and at different positions of the PrNiO{sub 3} thin layer. The spatial and wavelength dependence of the spectral excitations are obtained and characterized after the analysis of the experimental spectra using calculated dielectric and energy loss functions. The presented approach makes a contribution towards obtaining momentum-resolved spectra from nanostructures, thin film, heterostructures, surfaces, and interfaces.

  13. Structure-stress-resistivity relationship in WTi alloy ultra-thin and thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Priol, A.; Le Bourhis, E.; Renault, P.-O.; Muller, P.; Sik, H.

    2013-06-01

    WTi thin films were prepared from an alloyed target (W:Ti ˜ 70:30 at. %) by magnetron sputtering. Body-centered cubic WxTi1-x solid solutions with a {110} fiber texture and columnar grains have been produced with 0.75WTi thin films is about 60-200 μΩ cm, depending on the film thickness and microstructure (sputtering conditions). For both ultra-thin (9.5 nm) and thin (180 nm) films, a stress transition from compressive to tensile is observed as the working pressure increases. The process-structure-property relations of the WTi ultra-thin and thin films are discussed in relation with the state of the art.

  14. Growth of ultra-thin FeO(100) films on Ag(100): A combined XPS, LEED and CEMS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, G. J. P.; Paniago, R.; Pfannes, H.-D.

    2014-01-01

    The production and characterization of ultra-thin iron oxide films grown on an atomically clean Ag(100) surface by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is presented. The goal of this work was to prepare ultra-thin FeO(100) with excellent crystallographic quality. The films were prepared with high purity 57Fe and O2 and afterwards analyzed in situ by means of Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS). During preparation the evaporation rate, the O2 partial pressure, film thickness and annealing procedures were varied. The analysis of the various samples showed that in general a mixture of FeO and Fe3O4 phases is obtained. We determined the best conditions to produce the desired oxide (FeO). Besides the paramagnetic phase, the antiferromagnetic phase of the FeO films was characterized by low temperature Mössbauer spectra.

  15. 薄壁零件的工艺分析%Process Analysis of Ultra-thin Wall Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利民; 谭文凯; 黄新

    2011-01-01

    论述了在数控车床上加工薄壁零件时,如何针对零件特点优化加工工艺、制作专用的工装等工艺措施来提高产品合格率,并对工艺改进前后的零件质量进行比对分析.%It has been introduced that how to improve the rate of qualified products by optimizing the process, producing special tools and so on when the ultra-thin wall part is processed on CNC. The quality of the ultra-thin wall parts before and after proeess improvement was compared and analyzed.

  16. Theoretical requirements for broadband perfect absorption of acoustic waves by ultra-thin elastic meta-films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yuetao; Luo, Jie; Wang, Guanghao; Hang, Zhi Hong; Hou, Bo; Li, Jensen; Sheng, Ping; Lai, Yun

    2015-07-17

    We derive and numerically demonstrate that perfect absorption of elastic waves can be achieved in two types of ultra-thin elastic meta-films: one requires a large value of almost pure imaginary effective mass density and a free space boundary, while the other requires a small value of almost pure imaginary effective modulus and a hard wall boundary. When the pure imaginary density or modulus exhibits certain frequency dispersions, the perfect absorption effect becomes broadband, even in the low frequency regime. Through a model analysis, we find that such almost pure imaginary effective mass density with required dispersion for perfect absorption can be achieved by elastic metamaterials with large damping. Our work provides a feasible approach to realize broadband perfect absorption of elastic waves in ultra-thin films.

  17. Nanometric thin film membranes manufactured on square meter scale: ultra-thin films for CO 2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo

    2010-09-01

    Miniaturization and manipulation of materials at nanometer scale are key challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In membrane science and technology, the fabrication of ultra-thin polymer films (defect-free) on square meter scale with uniform thickness (<100 nm) is crucial. By using a tailor-made polymer and by controlling the nanofabrication conditions, we developed and manufactured defect-free ultra-thin film membranes with unmatched carbon dioxide permeances, i.e. >5 m3 (STP) m-2 h -1 bar-1. The permeances are extremely high, because the membranes are made from a CO2 philic polymer material and they are only a few tens of nanometers thin. Thus, these thin film membranes have potential application in the treatment of large gas streams under low pressure like, e.g., carbon dioxide separation from flue gas. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Nanometric thin film membranes manufactured on square meter scale: ultra-thin films for CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yave, Wilfredo; Car, Anja; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor [Institute of Materials Research, GKSS-Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Wind, Jan, E-mail: klausviktor.peinemann@kaust.edu.sa [Institute of Polymer Research, GKSS-Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Miniaturization and manipulation of materials at nanometer scale are key challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In membrane science and technology, the fabrication of ultra-thin polymer films (defect-free) on square meter scale with uniform thickness (<100 nm) is crucial. By using a tailor-made polymer and by controlling the nanofabrication conditions, we developed and manufactured defect-free ultra-thin film membranes with unmatched carbon dioxide permeances, i.e. > 5 m{sup 3} (STP) m{sup -2} h{sup -1}bar{sup -1}. The permeances are extremely high, because the membranes are made from a CO{sub 2} philic polymer material and they are only a few tens of nanometers thin. Thus, these thin film membranes have potential application in the treatment of large gas streams under low pressure like, e.g., carbon dioxide separation from flue gas.

  19. An ultra-thin, un-doped NiO hole transporting layer of highly efficient (16.4%) organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongrok; Park, Ik Jae; Kim, Myungjun; Lee, Seonhee; Bae, Changdeuck; Jung, Hyun Suk; Park, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Jin Young; Shin, Hyunjung

    2016-06-01

    NiO is a wide band gap p-type oxide semiconductor and has potential for applications in solar energy conversion as a hole-transporting layer (HTL). It also has good optical transparency and high chemical stability, and the capability of aligning the band edges to the perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) layers. Ultra-thin and un-doped NiO films with much less absorption loss were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with highly precise control over thickness without any pinholes. Thin enough (5-7.5 nm in thickness) NiO films with the thickness of few time the Debye length (LD = 1-2 nm for NiO) show enough conductivities achieved by overlapping space charge regions. The inverted planar perovskite solar cells with NiO films as HTLs exhibited the highest energy conversion efficiency of 16.40% with high open circuit voltage (1.04 V) and fill factor (0.72) with negligible current-voltage hysteresis.NiO is a wide band gap p-type oxide semiconductor and has potential for applications in solar energy conversion as a hole-transporting layer (HTL). It also has good optical transparency and high chemical stability, and the capability of aligning the band edges to the perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) layers. Ultra-thin and un-doped NiO films with much less absorption loss were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with highly precise control over thickness without any pinholes. Thin enough (5-7.5 nm in thickness) NiO films with the thickness of few time the Debye length (LD = 1-2 nm for NiO) show enough conductivities achieved by overlapping space charge regions. The inverted planar perovskite solar cells with NiO films as HTLs exhibited the highest energy conversion efficiency of 16.40% with high open circuit voltage (1.04 V) and fill factor (0.72) with negligible current-voltage hysteresis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01601d

  20. Bistability of optical response of an ultra thin layer consisting of two-level atoms: account of the local field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuval-Sergeeva, E. V.; Zaitsev, A. I.

    2008-03-01

    When describing the phenomenon of bistability of optical response of an ultra thin layer consisting of two-level atoms it is important to take into account the local field correction. The account of the correction results in the improvement of existence conditions of bistability. One more bistable region is formed starting with certain value of local field parameter. Both effects are induced by the dynamical frequency shift.

  1. Ultra-thin insulating isolation of functional materials%超薄型隔热隔振功能材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍力超; 宋钰

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍了一种通过辐射交联、发泡、二次辐射交联方法制备超薄型隔热隔振功能材料,以及该材料的性能特点.%This paper introduced a method of the radiation crosslinking of radiation crosslinking, foaming, two preparation of ultra-thin thermal isolation of functional materials, and properties of the material.

  2. Quantification of strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling on ultra-thin Permalloy/PMN-PT interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Tianxiang; Zhou, Ziyao; Liu, Ming; Yang, Xi; Gao, Yuan; Assaf, Badih A; Lin, Hwaider; Velu, Siddharth; Wang, Xinjun; Luo, Haosu; Chen, Jimmy; Akhtar, Saad; Hu, Edward; Rajiv, Rohit; Krishnan, Kavin; Sreedhar, Shalini; Heiman, Don; Howe, Brandon M; Brown, Gail J; Sun, Nian X

    2014-01-14

    Strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling are expected in ultra-thin ferromagnetic/ferroelectric multiferroic heterostructures, which could lead to significantly enhanced magnetoelectric coupling. It is however challenging to observe the combined strain charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling, and difficult in quantitatively distinguish these two magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms. We demonstrated in this work, the quantification of the coexistence of strain and surface charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling on ultra-thin Ni0.79Fe0.21/PMN-PT interface by using a Ni0.79Fe0.21/Cu/PMN-PT heterostructure with only strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling as a control. The NiFe/PMN-PT heterostructure exhibited a high voltage induced effective magnetic field change of 375 Oe enhanced by the surface charge at the PMN-PT interface. Without the enhancement of the charge-mediated magnetoelectric effect by inserting a Cu layer at the PMN-PT interface, the electric field modification of effective magnetic field was 202 Oe. By distinguishing the magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms, a pure surface charge modification of magnetism shows a strong correlation to polarization of PMN-PT. A non-volatile effective magnetic field change of 104 Oe was observed at zero electric field originates from the different remnant polarization state of PMN-PT. The strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in ultra-thin magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures could lead to power efficient and non-volatile magnetoelectric devices with enhanced magnetoelectric coupling.

  3. Growth of ultra-thin FeO(100) films on Ag(100): A combined XPS, LEED and CEMS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, G.J.P., E-mail: guilafis@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Depto. de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CP702 Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil); Paniago, R.; Pfannes, H.-D. [Depto. de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CP702 Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    The production and characterization of ultra-thin iron oxide films grown on an atomically clean Ag(100) surface by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is presented. The goal of this work was to prepare ultra-thin FeO(100) with excellent crystallographic quality. The films were prepared with high purity {sup 57}Fe and O{sub 2} and afterwards analyzed in situ by means of Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS). During preparation the evaporation rate, the O{sub 2} partial pressure, film thickness and annealing procedures were varied. The analysis of the various samples showed that in general a mixture of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phases is obtained. We determined the best conditions to produce the desired oxide (FeO). Besides the paramagnetic phase, the antiferromagnetic phase of the FeO films was characterized by low temperature Mössbauer spectra. - Highlights: • Highly ordered iron oxide ultra-thin film was grown on Ag(100) single crystal. • The samples were submitted to annealing at various temperatures. • The changes in the iron oxide phases were checked by LEED, XPS and CEMS. • The best conditions to prepare the wüstite and magnetite phases were determined.

  4. Tunable excitonic transitions in strained GaAs ultra-thin quantum disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Yadri, M.; Aghoutane, N.; Feddi, E.; Dujardin, F.

    2017-02-01

    Simultaneous influences of hydrostatic pressure and temperature combined to the size effect on the behaviour of the exciton in 2D AlAs / GaAs / AlAs ultra thin quantum disk are investigated. Our approach is performed in the framework of effective mass theory and adiabatic approximation by using a variational method with a robust trial wave function and by taking into account the dependence of the size, the dielectric constant and the effective masses on the pressure and temperature. Variations of the excitonic binding energy, photoluminescence energy and oscillator strength are determined according to hydrostatic pressure and temperature for different confinement regimes. The results of our numerical calculations show that the applied pressure favours the electron-hole attraction while the temperature tends to decrease the exciton binding energy. Another interesting result is the possibility of transforming a thin quantum disk into a large-gap material by strain effect. The opposing effects caused by temperature and pressure reveal a big practical interest and offer an alternative way to the tuning of the excitonic transition in optoelectronic devices.

  5. Oxygen-enabled control of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction in ultra-thin magnetic films

    KAUST Repository

    Belabbes, Abderrezak

    2016-04-22

    The search for chiral magnetic textures in systems lacking spatial inversion symmetry has attracted a massive amount of interest in the recent years with the real space observation of novel exotic magnetic phases such as skyrmions lattices, but also domain walls and spin spirals with a defined chirality. The electrical control of these textures offers thrilling perspectives in terms of fast and robust ultrahigh density data manipulation. A powerful ingredient commonly used to stabilize chiral magnetic states is the so-called Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) arising from spin-orbit coupling in inversion asymmetric magnets. Such a large antisymmetric exchange has been obtained at interfaces between heavy metals and transition metal ferromagnets, resulting in spin spirals and nanoskyrmion lattices. Here, using relativistic first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the magnitude and sign of DMI can be entirely controlled by tuning the oxygen coverage of the magnetic film, therefore enabling the smart design of chiral magnetism in ultra-thin films. We anticipate that these results extend to other electronegative ions and suggest the possibility of electrical tuning of exotic magnetic phases.

  6. Temperature stability of ultra-thin mixed BaSr-oxide layers and their transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Sajak, D; Islam, S; Pfnür, H; Hofmann, K R

    2012-08-01

    In the context of investigations of physical, chemical and electrical properties of ultra-thin layers of epitaxial and monocrystalline Sr(0.3)Ba(0.7)O on Si(100), we also investigated their thermal stability with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). At temperatures above 400 °C, transformation into silicate layers sets in. The stoichiometry after complete transformation was determined to be close to (Ba(0.8)Sr(0.2))(2)SiO(4) except for layers of only a few monolayers, where the silicate is not stoichiometric. There are strong indications that this silicate is stable until it desorbs at temperatures above 750 °C. Crystallinity, as seen with LEED, is lost during this transformation. Although transformation into silicate is coupled with metal desorption and compactification of the layers, they seem to remain closed. In addition, traces of Ba silicide at the Si interface were detected after layer desorption. This silicide cannot be desorbed thermally. The silicate layer has a bandgap of 5.9 ± 0.2 eV already for 3 ML thickness. Upon exposure to air, carbon and oxygen containing species, but no hydroxide, are formed irreversibly.

  7. Prediction of transmittance spectra for transparent composite electrodes with ultra-thin metal layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhao; Alford, T. L., E-mail: TA@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Khorasani, Arash Elhami [ON Semiconductor Corp., Phoenix, Arizona 85005 (United States); Theodore, N. D. [CHD-Fab, Freescale Semiconductor Inc., Tempe, Arizona 85224 (United States); Dhar, A. [Intel Corp., 2501 NW 229th Ave, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)

    2015-11-28

    Recent interest in indium-free transparent composite-electrodes (TCEs) has motivated theoretical and experimental efforts to better understand and enhance their electrical and optical properties. Various tools have been developed to calculate the optical transmittance of multilayer thin-film structures based on the transfer-matrix method. However, the factors that affect the accuracy of these calculations have not been investigated very much. In this study, two sets of TCEs, TiO{sub 2}/Au/TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/Ag/TiO{sub 2}, were fabricated to study the factors that affect the accuracy of transmittance predictions. We found that the predicted transmittance can deviate significantly from measured transmittance for TCEs that have ultra-thin plasmonic metal layers. The ultrathin metal layer in the TCE is typically discontinuous. When light interacts with the metallic islands in this discontinuous layer, localized surface plasmons are generated. This causes extra light absorption, which then leads to the actual transmittance being lower than the predicted transmittance.

  8. A molecular scale perspective: Monte Carlo simulation for rupturing of ultra thin polymer film melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satya Pal

    2017-04-01

    Monte Carlo simulation has been performed to study the rupturing process of thin polymer film under strong confinement. The change in mean square displacement; pair correlation function; density distribution; average bond length and microscopic viscosity are sampled by varying the molecular interaction parameters such as the strength and the equilibrium positions of the bonding, non-bonding potentials and the sizes of the beads. The variation in mean square angular displacement χθ = [ - 2 ] fits very well to a function of type y (t) = A + B *e-t/τ. This may help to study the viscous properties of the films and its dependence on different parameters. The ultra thin film annealed at high temperature gets ruptured and holes are created in the film mimicking spinodal dewetting. The pair correlation function and density profile reveal rich information about the equilibrium structure of the film. The strength and equilibrium bond length of finite extensible non-linear elastic potential (FENE) and non-bonding Morse potential have clear impact on microscopic rupturing of the film. The beads show Rouse or repetition motion forming rim like structures near the holes created inside the film. The higher order interaction as dipole-quadrupole may get prominence under strong confinement. The enhanced excluded volume interaction under strong confinement may overlap with the molecular dispersion forces. It can work to reorganize the molecules at the bottom of the scale and can imprint its signature in complex patterns evolved.

  9. Enhanced cooling in mono-crystalline ultra-thin silicon by embedded micro-air channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-12-11

    In today’s digital world, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled scaling of bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) based electronics has resulted in their higher performance but with increased dynamic and off-state power consumption. Such trade-off has caused excessive heat generation which eventually drains the charge of battery in portable devices. The traditional solution utilizing off-chip fans and heat sinks used for heat management make the whole system bulky and less mobile. Here we show, an enhanced cooling phenomenon in ultra-thin (>10 μm) mono-crystalline (100) silicon (detached from bulk substrate) by utilizing deterministic pattern of porous network of vertical “through silicon” micro-air channels that offer remarkable heat and weight management for ultra-mobile electronics, in a cost effective way with 20× reduction in substrate weight and a 12% lower maximum temperature at sustained loads. We also show the effectiveness of this event in functional MOS field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high-κ/metal gate stacks.

  10. Properties of ultra-thin vanadium layers in V/Ru superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscio, F.; Maret, M.; Meneghini, C.; Hazemann, J. L.; Albrecht, M.

    2007-12-01

    The properties of ultra-thin vanadium layers in V/Ru(0001) superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy were studied. The atomic structure of V was investigated by various methods including reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized x-ray-absorption fine structure (PXAFS). It appears that, for up to three atomic layers, V adopts a slightly distorted hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) structure induced by pseudomorphic growth on Ru(0001). By increasing the V thickness to four atomic layers, this structure almost completely relaxes towards the body-centered-cubic (bcc) bulk structure. This sharp structural transition is also manifested in the electronic properties. A reduced superconducting transition temperature between 0.6 and 1.05 K was found in the bcc V/hcp Ru superlattice, while superconductivity is quenched in the superlattice with hexagonal V. This behavior might be linked to the existence of a ferromagnetic ground state of the metastable V induced by the hybridization of the d-bands at the hcp V/Ru interface, as predicted from first-principles density-functional theory.

  11. Properties of ultra-thin vanadium layers in V/Ru superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liscio, F [Science et Ingenierie des Materiaux et Procedes, INPGrenoble, CNRS-UJF, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Maret, M [Science et Ingenierie des Materiaux et Procedes, INPGrenoble, CNRS-UJF, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Meneghini, C [Dipartimento Di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tre, 00146-Rome (Italy); Hazemann, J L [Institut Neel, MCMF, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Albrecht, M [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2007-12-05

    The properties of ultra-thin vanadium layers in V/Ru(0001) superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy were studied. The atomic structure of V was investigated by various methods including reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized x-ray-absorption fine structure (PXAFS). It appears that, for up to three atomic layers, V adopts a slightly distorted hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) structure induced by pseudomorphic growth on Ru(0001). By increasing the V thickness to four atomic layers, this structure almost completely relaxes towards the body-centered-cubic (bcc) bulk structure. This sharp structural transition is also manifested in the electronic properties. A reduced superconducting transition temperature between 0.6 and 1.05 K was found in the bcc V/hcp Ru superlattice, while superconductivity is quenched in the superlattice with hexagonal V. This behavior might be linked to the existence of a ferromagnetic ground state of the metastable V induced by the hybridization of the d-bands at the hcp V/Ru interface, as predicted from first-principles density-functional theory.

  12. Laser assisted micro-welding of ultra-thin glass wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevonkorpi, V.; Lundén, H.; Määttänen, A.

    2016-03-01

    The use of glass in semiconductor industry has been growing during the past years and the grow is estimated to continue and accelerate considerably during the coming years. For efficient manufacturing, especially when using ultra-thin wafers, novel bonding technologies are needed. In this paper, a laser assisted additive free glass-glass welding technology is presented. Furthermore, the use of laser assisted welding to manufacture hermetic packages for optical components is investigated. The reliability and robustness of the weld and the process is verified by damp heat (85 °C at 85% RH) testing. A large quantity, one hundred samples, was tested to define the repeatability of the welding process. D263T, a glass type commonly used in manufacturing consumer products, was selected. Glass-glass welding proved to be a reliable bonding method offering a non-outgassing, room temperature bonding. In addition, it was verified that the weld is hermetic having a good resistance to high temperature and moisture conditions. No changes in the welding seams were observed during or after damp heat testing.

  13. An Ultra-thin Amniotic Membrane as Carrier in Corneal Epithelium Tissue-Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Zou, Dulei; Li, Sanming; Wang, Junqi; Qu, Yangluowa; Ou, Shangkun; Jia, Changkai; Li, Juan; He, Hui; Liu, Tingting; Yang, Jie; Chen, Yongxiong; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Wei

    2016-02-15

    Amniotic membranes (AMs) are widely used as a corneal epithelial tissue carrier in reconstruction surgery. However, the engineered tissue transparency is low due to the translucent thick underlying AM stroma. To overcome this drawback, we developed an ultra-thin AM (UAM) by using collagenase IV to strip away from the epithelial denuded AM (DAM) some of the stroma. By thinning the stroma to about 30 μm, its moist and dry forms were rendered acellular, optically clear and its collagen framework became compacted and inerratic. Engineered rabbit corneal epithelial cell (RCEC) sheets generated through expansion of limbal epithelial cells on UAM were more transparent and thicker than those expanded on DAM. Moreover, ΔNp63 and ABCG2 gene expression was greater in tissue engineered cell sheets expanded on UAM than on DAM. Furthermore, 2 weeks after surgery, the cornea grafted with UAM based cell sheets showed higher transparency and more stratified epithelium than the cornea grafted with DAM based cell sheets. Taken together, tissue engineered corneal epithelium generated on UAM has a preferable outcome because the transplanted tissue is more transparent and better resembles the phenotype of the native tissue than that obtained by using DAM for this procedure. UAM preserves compact layer of the amniotic membrane and maybe an ideal substrate for corneal epithelial tissue engineering.

  14. Surface plasmon exciton transition in ultra-thin silver and silver iodide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi Mohan, D.; Sreejith, K.; Sunandana, C. S.

    2007-10-01

    Silver thin films in the thickness range 2 10 nm produced by thermal evaporation onto glass substrates were systematically iodized and carefully characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical absorption spectroscopy. While the uniodized films are X-ray amorphous in keeping with their quasi-continuous nature and 2D islanded structure, briefly iodized films showed characteristic beta AgI structure. Most interestingly, AFM of Ag films revealed uniform triangle-shaped embryos whose shape does not change appreciably upon iodization. Optical absorption spectra of uniodized Ag films show intense surface plasmon resonance (SPR) features with maxima at 440, 484 and 498 nm for the films of thicknesses 2, 5 and 10 nm, respectively, with 5 nm films showing properties characteristic of optimally matched dielectric and electronic properties of the substrate and sample, respectively. Finally, an interesting and unique SPR exciton phase transition is observed as the ultra-thin films are progressively iodized. These Ag and AgI films could be promising candidates for plasmonic and nanophotonic applications.

  15. Novel planar field emission of ultra-thin individual carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuefeng; Gao, Jingyun; Fu, Qiang; Xu, Jun; Zhao, Qing; Yu, Dapeng

    2009-10-07

    In this work, we proposed and realized a new prototype of planar field emission device based on as-grown individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the surface of a Si-SiO2 substrate. The anode, cathode and the CNT tip all lie on the same surface, so the electron emission is reduced from three-dimensional to two-dimensional. The benefits of such a design include usage of thinner CNT emitters, integrity with planar technology, stable construction, better heat dissipation, etc. A tip-to-tip field emission device was presented besides the tip-to-electrode one. Real-time, in situ observation of the planar field emission was realized in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Measurements showed that the minimum voltage for 10 nA field emission current was only 8.0 V and the maximum emission current density in an individual CNT emitter (1.0 nm in diameter) exceeded 5.7 x 10(8) A cm(-2). These results stand out in the comparison with recent works on individual CNT field emission, indicating that the planar devices based on ultra-thin individual CNTs are more competitive candidates for next-generation electron field emitters.

  16. Dual-side and three-dimensional microelectrode arrays fabricated from ultra-thin silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiangang; Roukes, Michael L.; Masmanidis, Sotiris C.

    2009-07-01

    A method for fabricating planar implantable microelectrode arrays was demonstrated using a process that relied on ultra-thin silicon substrates, which ranged in thickness from 25 to 50 µm. The challenge of handling these fragile materials was met via a temporary substrate support mechanism. In order to compensate for putative electrical shielding of extracellular neuronal fields, separately addressable electrode arrays were defined on each side of the silicon device. Deep reactive ion etching was employed to create sharp implantable shafts with lengths of up to 5 mm. The devices were flip-chip bonded onto printed circuit boards (PCBs) by means of an anisotropic conductive adhesive film. This scalable assembly technique enabled three-dimensional (3D) integration through formation of stacks of multiple silicon and PCB layers. Simulations and measurements of microelectrode noise appear to suggest that low impedance surfaces, which could be formed by electrodeposition of gold or other materials, are required to ensure an optimal signal-to-noise ratio as well a low level of interchannel crosstalk.

  17. RF Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Capacitive Switches Using Ultra Thin Hafnium Oxide Dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Onodera, Kazumasa; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2006-01-01

    A π-type RF capacitive switch using about 45-nm-thick HfO2 dielectric layer was fabricated. High isolation performance was obtained in wide-band range when the switch was down-state. The isolation was better than -40 dB at the frequency range of 4-35 GHz. Particularly, the isolation was better than -50 dB in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz, i.e., X band. HfO2 showed excellent process compatibility with conventional microfabrication procedure. The 45-nm-thick HfO2 film was prepared using sputtering at room temperature so that it was feasible to be integrated into RF switch and other microwave circuits. The results of constant bias stressing showed that the ultra thin HfO2 had excellent reliability. The electric breakdown of HfO2 was observed, which had no apparent negative effects on the reliability of the dielectric. HfO2 dielectrics were attractive in the application of RF micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) switch for new generation of low-loss high-linearity microwave circuits.

  18. Electromagnetic and microwave absorbing performance of ultra-thin Fe attached carbon nanotube hybrid buckypaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaowei; Zeng, Xianjun; Nie, Peng; Feng, Chunlin; Xiong, Xuhai; Ma, Keming

    2014-03-01

    The ultra-thin Fe attached multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid buckypaper (Fe/MWCNT hybrid buckypaper) was fabricated by vacuum filtration method with monodispersion solutions of MWCNTs and Fe nanoparticles. The morphology, element composition and magnetic properties of buckypapers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and vibrating sample magnetometer. The complex permittivity and permeability, the reflection loss (RL) properties of buckypapers attached composite were investigated in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz. The Fe/MWCNTs hybrid buckypaper attached composite posses much broader absorbing bandwidth and larger reflectivity than those of pure MWCNTs buckypaper attached composite with the same absorbing thickness (dm = 0.1 mm). The best reflectivity below -5 dB is at 14.0-18 GHz, and the minimum value is -14.4 dB at 16.8 GHz. The experimental result indicates that Fe/MWCNTs hybrid buckypaper has potential application in thin thickness and light-weight microwave absorbers.

  19. Bending induced electrical response variations in ultra-thin flexible chips and device modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Hadi; Wacker, Nicoleta; Dahiya, Ravinder

    2017-09-01

    Electronics that conform to 3D surfaces are attracting wider attention from both academia and industry. The research in the field has, thus far, focused primarily on showcasing the efficacy of various materials and fabrication methods for electronic/sensing devices on flexible substrates. As the device response changes are bound to change with stresses induced by bending, the next step will be to develop the capacity to predict the response of flexible systems under various bending conditions. This paper comprehensively reviews the effects of bending on the response of devices on ultra-thin chips in terms of variations in electrical parameters such as mobility, threshold voltage, and device performance (static and dynamic). The discussion also includes variations in the device response due to crystal orientation, applied mechanics, band structure, and fabrication processes. Further, strategies for compensating or minimizing these bending-induced variations have been presented. Following the in-depth analysis, this paper proposes new mathematical relations to simulate and predict the device response under various bending conditions. These mathematical relations have also been used to develop new compact models that have been verified by comparing simulation results with the experimental values reported in the recent literature. These advances will enable next generation computer-aided-design tools to meet the future design needs in flexible electronics.

  20. Facile design of ultra-thin anodic aluminum oxide membranes for the fabrication of plasmonic nanoarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Huang, Hao; Fan, Xingce; Hou, Xiangyu; Yin, Yin; Li, Wan; Si, Lifang; Nan, Haiyan; Wang, Huaiyu; Mei, Yongfeng; Qiu, Teng; Chu, Paul K.

    2017-03-01

    Ultra-thin anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are efficient templates for the fabrication of patterned nanostructures. Herein, a three-step etching method to control the morphology of AAO is described. The morphological evolution of the AAO during phosphoric acid etching is systematically investigated and a nonlinear growth mechanism during unsteady-state anodization is revealed. The thickness of the AAO can be quantitatively controlled from ∼100 nm to several micrometers while maintaining the tunablity of the pore diameter. The AAO membranes are robust and readily transferable to different types of substrates to prepare patterned plasmonic nanoarrays such as nanoislands, nanoclusters, ultra-small nanodots, and core–satellite superstructures. The localized surface plasmon resonance from these nanostructures can be easily tuned by adjusting the morphology of the AAO template. The custom AAO template provides a platform for the fabrication of low-cost and large-scale functional nanoarrays suitable for fundamental studies as well as applications including biochemical sensing, imaging, photocatalysis, and photovoltaics.

  1. Charge collection mapping of a novel ultra-thin silicon strip detector for hadrontherapy beam monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouterfa, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.bouterfa@uclouvain.be [ICTEAM Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Alexandre, Geoffrey; Cortina Gil, Eduardo [IRPM Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Flandre, Denis [ICTEAM Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2013-12-21

    In precise hadrontherapy treatments, the particle beam must be monitored in real time without being degraded. Silicon strip detectors have been fabricated over an area as large as 4.5×4.5 cm{sup 2} with ultra low thickness of 20μm. These offer the following considerable advantages: significantly reduced beam scattering, higher radiation hardness which leads to improved detector lifetime, and much better collection efficiency. In a previous work, the novel sensor has been described and a global macroscopic dosimetry characterization has been proposed. This provides practical information for the detector daily use but not about the local microscopic knowledge of the sensor. This work therefore presents a micrometric-accuracy charge-collection characterization of this new generation of ultra-thin silicon strip detectors. This goal is reached thanks to a 1060 nm-wavelength micrometric-sized laser that can be positioned relatively to the sensor with a submicron precision for the three different axes. This study gives a much better knowledge of the inefficient areas of the sensor and allows therefore optimization for future designs.

  2. Charge collection mapping of a novel ultra-thin silicon strip detector for hadrontherapy beam monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouterfa, Mohamed; Alexandre, Geoffrey; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; Flandre, Denis

    2013-12-01

    In precise hadrontherapy treatments, the particle beam must be monitored in real time without being degraded. Silicon strip detectors have been fabricated over an area as large as 4.5×4.5 cm2 with ultra low thickness of 20 μm. These offer the following considerable advantages: significantly reduced beam scattering, higher radiation hardness which leads to improved detector lifetime, and much better collection efficiency. In a previous work, the novel sensor has been described and a global macroscopic dosimetry characterization has been proposed. This provides practical information for the detector daily use but not about the local microscopic knowledge of the sensor. This work therefore presents a micrometric-accuracy charge-collection characterization of this new generation of ultra-thin silicon strip detectors. This goal is reached thanks to a 1060 nm-wavelength micrometric-sized laser that can be positioned relatively to the sensor with a submicron precision for the three different axes. This study gives a much better knowledge of the inefficient areas of the sensor and allows therefore optimization for future designs.

  3. Ultra-thin Low-Frequency Broadband Microwave Absorber Based on Magnetic Medium and Metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongzhi; He, Bo; Zhao, Jingcheng; Gong, Rongzhou

    2017-02-01

    An ultra-thin low-frequency broadband microwave absorber (MWA) based on a magnetic rubber plate (MRP) and cross-shaped structure (CSS) metamaterial (MM) was presented numerically and experimentally. The designed composite MWA is consisted of the MRP, CSS resonator, dielectric substrate and metallic background plane. The low-frequency absorption can be easily adjusted by tuning the geometric parameter of the CSS MM and the thickness of MPR. A bandwidth (i.e. the reflectance is below -10 dB) from 2.5 GHz to 5 GHz can be achieved with the total thickness of about 2 mm in experiments. The broadband absorption is attributed to the overlap of two resonant absorption peaks originated from MRP and CSS MM, respectively. More importantly, the thickness of the composite WMA is much thinner ( λ/40; λ is the operation center frequency), which could operate well at wide incidence angles for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic waves. Thus, it can be expected that our design will be applicable in the area of eliminating microwave energy and electromagnetic stealth.

  4. Development of ultra-thin polyethylene balloons for high altitude research upto mesosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Suneel; Ojha, D K; Peter, G Stalin; Vasudevan, R; Anand, D; Kulkarni, P M; Reddy, V Anmi; Rao, T V; Sreenivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Ever since its inception four decades back, Balloon Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Hyderabad has been functioning with the needs of its user scientists at its focus. During the early nineties, when the X-ray astronomy group at TIFR expressed the need for balloons capable of carrying the X-ray telescopes to altitudes up to 42 km, the balloon group initiated research and development work on indigenous balloon grade films in various thickness not only for the main experiment but also in parallel, took up the development of thin films in thickness range 5 to 6 microns for fabrication of sounding balloons required for probing the stratosphere up to 42 km as the regular 2000 grams rubber balloon ascents could not reach altitudes higher than 38 km. By the year 1999, total indigenisation of sounding balloon manufacture was accomplished. The work on balloon grade ultra-thin polyethylene film in thickness range 2.8 to 3.8 microns for fabrication of balloons capable of penetrating mesosphere ...

  5. White organic light-emitting diodes with an ultra-thin premixed emitting layer

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, T; Tondelier, Denis; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Forget, Sebastien; Chenais, Sebastien; Ishow, Elena

    2014-01-01

    We described an approach to achieve fine color control of fluorescent White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLED), based on an Ultra-thin Premixed emitting Layer (UPL). The UPL consists of a mixture of two dyes (red-emitting 4-di(4'-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)amino-4'-dicyanovinylbenzene or fvin and green-emitting 4-di(4'-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)aminobenzaldehyde or fcho) premixed in a single evaporation cell: since these two molecules have comparable structures and similar melting temperatures, a blend can be evaporated, giving rise to thin films of identical and reproducible composition compared to those of the pre-mixture. The principle of fine color tuning is demonstrated by evaporating a 1-nm-thick layer of this blend within the hole-transport layer (4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphtyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl (\\alpha-NPB)) of a standard fluorescent OLED structure. Upon playing on the position of the UPL inside the hole-transport layer, as well as on the premix composition, two independent parameters are available to finel...

  6. Enhanced cooling in mono-crystalline ultra-thin silicon by embedded micro-air channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Lizardo, Ernesto B.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2015-12-01

    In today's digital world, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled scaling of bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) based electronics has resulted in their higher performance but with increased dynamic and off-state power consumption. Such trade-off has caused excessive heat generation which eventually drains the charge of battery in portable devices. The traditional solution utilizing off-chip fans and heat sinks used for heat management make the whole system bulky and less mobile. Here we show, an enhanced cooling phenomenon in ultra-thin (>10 μm) mono-crystalline (100) silicon (detached from bulk substrate) by utilizing deterministic pattern of porous network of vertical "through silicon" micro-air channels that offer remarkable heat and weight management for ultra-mobile electronics, in a cost effective way with 20× reduction in substrate weight and a 12% lower maximum temperature at sustained loads. We also show the effectiveness of this event in functional MOS field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high-κ/metal gate stacks.

  7. Ultra-thin anisotropic metasurface for polarized beam splitting and reflected beam steering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenlong; Wang, Guangming; Li, Tangjing; Li, Haipeng; Zhuang, Yaqiang; Hou, Haisheng

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a polarization beam splitter utilizing an ultra-thin anisotropic metasurface. The proposed anisotropic element is composed of triple-layered rectangular patches spaced with double-layered dielectric isolators. By tailoring the metallic patches, the cell is capable of transmitting x-polarized waves efficiently and reflecting y-polarized beams with almost 100% efficiency at 15 GHz. In addition to this, the reflected phases can be modulated by adjusting the size of the element, which contributes to beam steering in reflection mode. By assigning gradient phases on the metasurface, the constructed sample has the ability to refract x-polarized waves normally and reflect y-polarized beams anomalously. For verification, a sample with a size of 240 × 240 mm2 is fabricated and measured. Consistent numerical and experimental results have both validated the efficiently anomalous reflection for y-polarized waves and normal refraction for x-polarized beams operating from 14.6-15.4 GHz. Furthermore, the proposed sample has a thickness of 0.1λ at 15 GHz, which provides a promising approach for steering and splitting beams in a compact size.

  8. Influences of oscillatory structural forces on dewetting of nanoparticle-laden ultra-thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Hui Hu

    2012-01-01

    To understand the influences of nanoparticles on dewetting in ultra-thin films,both linear stability theory and numerical simulations are performed in the present study,with the consideration of oscillatory structural (OS) forces.Long scale approximation is utilized to simplify the hydrodynamic and diffusion equations to a nonlinear system for film thickness and nanoparticle concentration.Results show that the presence of nanoparticles generally suppresses the dewetting process.Two physical mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are addressed in the present study.When the oscillatory structural forces are relatively smaller,the essential feature of film evolution is similar to the case of particle-free flow.The reduction of the linear growth rate and the postponement of film rupturing can be attributed to the increment of the viscosity due to the presence of nanoparticles.On the other hand,when the intensity of the OS forces becomes stronger,the stepwise thinning of film can be observed which prevents the film from rupture.Numerical simulations indicate that this phenomenon is caused by the existence of a stable zone due to the oscillatory nature of the structural forces.Another interesting finding is that the non-uniformity of the distribution of nanoparticle concentration might destabilize a spinodally stable film,and trigger the occurrence of film dewetting.

  9. Dynamic Fracture Toughness of TaC/CNTs/SiC CMCs Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoyun Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the fracture toughness of TaC and carbon nanotubes (CNTs reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs, prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS technique. A high densification of 98.4% was achieved under the sintering parameter of 133°C/min, 1800°C, and 90 MPa pressure. Vickers indentation was employed to measure the indentation toughness on the polished surface of ceramic samples, SEM was applied to directly observe the crack propagation after indentation, and split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB was developed to determine the dynamic fracture toughness within the ceramic samples subjected to an impact in a three-point bending configuration.

  10. First-principles calculations on elasticity and the thermodynamic properties of TaC under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Feng; Han, Ligang; Fu, Hongzhi [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang (China); Cheng, Xinlu [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2009-07-15

    First-principles calculations on the elastic and the thermodynamic properties of TaC have been carried out with the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional method. The calculated values are in very good agreement with experimental data as well as with some of the existing model calculations. The dependence of the elastic constants c{sub ij}, the aggregate elastic moduli (B,G,E), and the elastic anisotropy on pressure have been investigated. Moreover, the variation of the Poisson ratio and Debye temperature with pressure have been investigated for the first time. Through the quasi-harmonic Debye model, the thermodynamic properties were also obtained successfully. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Measured Whole-House Performance of TaC Studios Test Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T. [Southface Energy Institute, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Curtis, O. [Southface Energy Institute, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Stephenson, R. [Southface Energy Institute, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta-based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA, in the mixed humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach to potential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaC Studios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post-construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowners wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this home was evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored to determine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  12. HIGH-TEMPERATURE TENSILE FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF DIRECTIONALLY SOLIDIFIED Ni,Cr,Al-TaC EUTECTIC SUPERALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Zhang; J.J.Yu; H.Z.Fu

    2004-01-01

    The high-temperature tensile fracture behavior of the Ni, Cr, Al-TaC eutectic superalloy directionally solidified under high temperature gradient is investigated. The hightemperature tensile fracture of this in situ composite has ductile character with lots of ductile nests whose diameters decrease with the increasing solidification rates. The maximum σb and δ are respectively 668.5MPa and 19.6%. There is a TaC whisker in the center of each nest, and the deformation of γ' and TaC is uneven. The hightemperature tensile behavior cannot be explained by the rule of mixtures but is decided by the formation of the plastic deforrmation band. The crack extension model is given.

  13. An ultra-thin, un-doped NiO hole transporting layer of highly efficient (16.4%) organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongrok; Park, Ik Jae; Kim, Myungjun; Lee, Seonhee; Bae, Changdeuck; Jung, Hyun Suk; Park, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Jin Young; Shin, Hyunjung

    2016-06-02

    NiO is a wide band gap p-type oxide semiconductor and has potential for applications in solar energy conversion as a hole-transporting layer (HTL). It also has good optical transparency and high chemical stability, and the capability of aligning the band edges to the perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) layers. Ultra-thin and un-doped NiO films with much less absorption loss were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with highly precise control over thickness without any pinholes. Thin enough (5-7.5 nm in thickness) NiO films with the thickness of few time the Debye length (LD = 1-2 nm for NiO) show enough conductivities achieved by overlapping space charge regions. The inverted planar perovskite solar cells with NiO films as HTLs exhibited the highest energy conversion efficiency of 16.40% with high open circuit voltage (1.04 V) and fill factor (0.72) with negligible current-voltage hysteresis.

  14. Highly Flexible and Transparent Ag Nanowire Electrode Encapsulated with Ultra-Thin Al2O3: Thermal, Ambient, and Mechanical Stabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Byungil; An, Youngseo; Lee, Hyangsook; Lee, Eunha; Becker, Stefan; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Hyoungsub

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing demand in the flexible electronics industry for highly robust flexible/transparent conductors that can withstand high temperatures and corrosive environments. In this work, outstanding thermal and ambient stability is demonstrated for a highly transparent Ag nanowire electrode with a low electrical resistivity, by encapsulating it with an ultra-thin Al2O3 film (around 5.3 nm) via low-temperature (100 °C) atomic layer deposition. The Al2O3-encapsulated Ag nanowire (Al2O3/Ag) electrodes are stable even after annealing at 380 °C for 100 min and maintain their electrical and optical properties. The Al2O3 encapsulation layer also effectively blocks the permeation of H2O molecules and thereby enhances the ambient stability to greater than 1,080 h in an atmosphere with a relative humidity of 85% at 85 °C. Results from the cyclic bending test of up to 500,000 cycles (under an effective strain of 2.5%) confirm that the Al2O3/Ag nanowire electrode has a superior mechanical reliability to that of the conventional indium tin oxide film electrode. Moreover, the Al2O3 encapsulation significantly improves the mechanical durability of the Ag nanowire electrode, as confirmed by performing wiping tests using isopropyl alcohol. PMID:28128218

  15. Ion-beam mixed ultra-thin cobalt suicide (CoSi2) films by cobalt sputtering and rapid thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, S.; Kasko, I.; Ryssel, H.

    1995-10-01

    The influence of ion-beam mixing on ultra-thin cobalt silicide (CoSi2) formation was investigated by characterizing the ion-beam mixed and unmixed CoSi2 films. A Ge+ ion-implantation through the Co film prior to silicidation causes an interface mixing of the cobalt film with the silicon substrate and results in improved silicide-to-silicon interface roughness. Rapid thermal annealing was used to form Ge+ ion mixed and unmixed thin CoSi2 layer from 10 nm sputter deposited Co film. The silicide films were characterized by secondary neutral mass spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, tunneling electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering, and sheet resistance measurements. The experi-mental results indicate that the final rapid thermal annealing temperature should not exceed 800°C for thin (<50 nm) CoSi2 preparation. A comparison of the plan-view and cross-section TEM micrographs of the ion-beam mixed and unmixed CoSi2 films reveals that Ge+ ion mixing (45 keV, 1 × 1015 cm-2) produces homogeneous silicide with smooth silicide-to-silicon interface.

  16. Improved integration of ultra-thin high-k dielectrics in few-layer MoS2 FET by remote forming gas plasma pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tian-Bao; Yang, Wen; Zhu, Hao; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhang, David Wei

    2017-01-01

    The effective and high-quality integration of high-k dielectrics on two-dimensional (2D) crystals is essential to the device structure engineering and performance improvement of field-effect transistor (FET) based on the 2D semiconductors. We report a 2D MoS2 transistor with ultra-thin Al2O3 top-gate dielectric (6.1 nm) and extremely low leakage current. Remote forming gas plasma pretreatment was carried out prior to the atomic layer deposition, providing nucleation sites with the physically adsorbed ions on the MoS2 surface. The top gate MoS2 FET exhibited excellent electrical performance, including high on/off current ratio over 109, subthreshold swing of 85 mV/decade and field-effect mobility of 45.03 cm2/V s. Top gate leakage current less than 0.08 pA/μm2 at 4 MV/cm has been obtained, which is the smallest compared with the reported top-gated MoS2 transistors. Such an optimized integration of high-k dielectric in 2D semiconductor FET with enhanced performance is very attractive, and it paves the way towards the realization of more advanced 2D nanoelectronic devices and integrated circuits.

  17. Ultra-thin crystalline silicon films produced by plasma assisted epitaxial growth on silicon wafers and their transfer to foreign substrates*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabarrocas P. Roca i

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new process to produce ultra-thin crystalline silicon films with thicknesses in the range of 0.1 − 1 μm on flexible substrates. A crystalline silicon wafer was cleaned by SiF4 plasma exposure and without breaking vacuum, an epitaxial film was grown from SiF4, H2 and Ar gas mixtures at low substrate temperature (Tsub ≈ 200 °C in a standard RF PECVD reactor. We found that H2 dilution is a key parameter for the growth of high quality epitaxial films and modification of the structural composition of the interface with the c-Si wafer, allowing one to switch from a smooth interface at low hydrogen flow rates to a fragile one, composed of hydrogen-rich micro-cavities, at high hydrogen flow rates. This feature can be advantageously used to separate the epitaxial film from the crystalline Si wafer. As a example demonstration, we show that by depositing a metal film followed by a spin-coated polyimide layer and applying a moderate thermal treatment to the stack, the fragile interface breaks down and allows one to obtain an ultrathin crystalline wafer on the flexible polyimide support.

  18. Silica-based nanofibers for electrospun ultra-thin layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Toni E; Olesik, Susan V

    2014-10-17

    Nanofibrous silica-based stationary phases for electrospun ultra-thin layer chromatography (E-UTLC) are described. Nanofibers were produced by electrospinning a solution of silica nanoparticles dispersed in polyvinylpyrrolidone solutions to create composite silica/polymer nanofibers. Stationary phases were created from as-spun nanofibers, or the nanofibers were heated either to crosslink the polyvinylpyrrolidone or to calcine and selectively remove the polymer. As-spun, crosslinked, and calcined nanofibers with similar mat thicknesses (23-25 μm) were evaluated as stationary phases for E-UTLC separations of laser dyes and amino acids and compared to commercial silica TLC plates. As-spun nanofiber plates offered fast mobile phase velocities, but like other polymer-based nanofibers, separations were only compatible with techniques using nonsolvents of the polymer. Crosslinked nanofibers were not as limited in terms of chemical stability, but separations produced tailed spot shapes. No limitations in terms of mobile phases, analyte solvents, and visualization techniques were observed for calcined nanofibers. Highly efficient separations of amino acids were performed in 15 mm on calcined nanofiber plates, with observed plate heights as low as 8.6 μm, and plate numbers as large as 1400. Additional alignment of the nanofibers provided shorter analysis times but also larger spot widths. The extension of stationary phases to silica-based nanofibers vastly expands the range of mobile phases, analyte solvents, and visualization techniques which can be used for E-UTLC separations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of TaC Reinforcement on the Oxidation Resistance of CNTs/SiC CMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiaoyun; Wosu, Sylvanus N.

    2016-03-01

    This study focuses on a two-stage spark plasma sintering (SPS) of TaC and/or carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). The oxidation mechanism of SiC-based CMCs with CNTs reinforcement as well as the TaC additives effect on the thermal oxidation resistance of the SiC-CNTs-TaC systems are investigated. The oxidation behavior up to 1500 °C is characterized in terms of mass changes, oxide layer formation, and thickness. The results showed that more disorder occurred in the CNT network with increased oxidation temperature. TaC additives exhibited an enhanced protective effect in increasing the oxidation temperature of CNTs from 460 to 550 °C, and this protective effect was effective at 1200 °C achieved by the crystalized Ta2O5 which grew with a preferred orientation giving rise to the phase separation in the glassy protective layer. Degraded oxidation resistance was found at 1500 °C.

  20. Ultra-thin films of polysilsesquioxanes possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups as gate insulator for organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Yoshio; Kawa, Haruna [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakae-dani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan); Yoshiki, Jun [Division of Information and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Kumei, Maki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Oi, Fumio [Konishi Chemical IND. Co., LTD., 3-4-77 Kozaika, Wakayama 641-0007 (Japan); Yamakado, Hideo [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakae-dani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan); Fukuda, Hisashi [Division of Engineering for Composite Functions, Faculty of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Kimura, Keiichi, E-mail: kkimura@center.wakayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakae-dani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    Polysilsesquioxanes (PSQs) possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups as an organic moiety of the side chain were synthesized by sol-gel condensation copolymerization of the corresponding trialkoxysilanes. The ultra-thin PSQ film with a radical initiator and a cross-linking agent was prepared by a spin-coating method, and the film was cured integrally at low temperatures of less than 120 Degree-Sign C through two different kinds of polymeric reactions, which were radical polymerization of vinyl groups and sol-gel condensation polymerization of terminated silanol and alkoxy groups. The obtained PSQ film showed the almost perfect solubilization resistance to acetone, which is a good solvent of PSQ before polymerization. It became clear by atomic force microscopy observation that the surface of the PSQ film was very smooth at a nano-meter level. Furthermore, pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with the PSQ film as a gate insulator showed typical p-channel enhancement mode operation characteristics and therefore the ultra-thin PSQ film has the potential to be applicable for solution-processed OFET systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polysilsesquioxanes (PSQs) possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ultra-thin PSQ film could be cured at low temperatures of less than 120 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PSQ film showed the almost perfect solubilization resistance to organic solvent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface of the PSQ film was very smooth at a nano-meter level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor with the PSQ film was fabricated.

  1. Aging of oxygen and hydrogen plasma discharge treated a-C:H and ta-C coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Svenja [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); BMW Group, Hufelandstraße 4, 80788 Munich (Germany); Schulze, Marcus [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Morasch, Jan [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Surface Science Division, Jovanka-Bonschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hesse, Sabine [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hussein, Laith [Eduard-Zintl-Institut, Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 12, 64287, Darmstadt (Germany); Krell, Lisa; Schnagl, Johann [BMW Group, Hufelandstraße 4, 80788 Munich (Germany); Stark, Robert W. [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The water CA of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C changes from hydrophillic to hydrophobic on aging. • XPS study indicates that the decrease in surface energy of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C could be due to adsorption of organic component from air. • The COFLFM of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C decreased upon aging. • The COF of glycerol lubricated ta-C showed no sign of change upon aging. - Abstract: Surface modification with gas plasma is an efficient and easy way to improve the surface energy and the tribological behavior of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, e.g., in biomedical implants or as protective coatings. However, the long-term performance of the plasma treated DLC coatings is not fully clear. We thus studied the long-term stability of two kinds of DLC coatings, namely (a) hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and (b) tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) treated at different radio frequency (RF) power and time of oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plasma. Their surface properties, e.g. surface wettability, structure and tribological behavior, were studied at regular intervals for a period of two months using contact angle goniometer, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), lateral force microscopy (LFM) and ball on disc apparatus. The surface energy of both the coatings decreased upon aging. The higher the RF power and time of treatment, the higher was the hydrophobicity upon aging. XPS analysis showed that the increase in hydrophobicity could be due to adsorption of unavoidable volatile organic components in the atmosphere. The H{sub 2} plasma treated ta-C was capable of rearranging its structural bonds upon aging. The nano-friction measurements by LFM showed that the coefficient of friction of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C decreased upon aging. The results indicate that the surface properties of plasma treated a‐C:H and ta‐C are not stable on long-term and are

  2. Ultra-thin Glass Film Coated with Graphene:A New Material for Spontaneous Emission Enhancement of Quantum Emitter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Sun; Chun Jiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose an ultra-thin glass film coated with graphene as a new kind of surrounding material which can greatly enhance spontaneous emission rate (SER) of dipole emitter embedded in it. With properly designed parameters, numerical results show that SER-enhanced factors as high as 1.286 × 106 can be achieved. The influences of glass film thickness and chemical potential/doping level of graphene on spontaneous emission enhancement are also studied in this paper. A comparison is made between graphene and other coating materials such as gold and silver to see their perfor-mances in SER enhancement.

  3. Ultra-thin and low-power optical interconnect module based on a flexible optical printed circuit board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Hwan; Lee, Woo-Jin; Kim, Myoung Jin; Jung, Eun Joo; Kim, Gye Won; An, Jong Bae; Jung, Ki Young; Cha, Kyung Soon; Rho, Byung Sup

    2012-07-01

    We describe an ultra-thin and low-power optical interconnect module for mobile electronic devices such as mobile phones and notebooks. The module was fabricated by directly packaging optic and electronic components onto a thin and flexible optical printed circuit board having a size of 70×8×0.25 mm. The completed active module has features of thinness (0.5 mm), small size (7×5 mm), very low total power consumption (15.88 mW), and high data rate transmissions (2.5 Gbps).

  4. Ultra-thin plasmonic color filters incorporating free-standing resonant membrane waveguides with high transmission efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxing; Fan, Qingbin; Zhang, Si; Zhang, Zijie; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Yuzhang; Cao, Xun; Xu, Ting

    2017-01-01

    We propose an ultra-thin plasmonic color filtering device based on subwavelength metal grating engraved on a dielectric membrane waveguide without substrate. As experiments demonstrate, the fabricated free-standing plasmonic color filters have more than 70% transmission efficiency at different resonant wavelengths in the visible spectral region and are capable of generating arbitrary colors. Experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. These artificial nanostructured color filtering devices may find potential applications in high resolution color imaging and sensing systems.

  5. Cold Atom Physics Using Ultra-Thin Optical Fibers: Light-Induced Dipole Forces and Surface Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Sagu'e, G; Meschede, D; Rauschenbeutel, A; Vetsch, E

    2007-01-01

    The strong evanescent field around ultra-thin unclad optical fibers bears a high potential for detecting, trapping, and manipulating cold atoms. Introducing such a fiber into a cold atom cloud, we investigate the interaction of a small number of cold Caesium atoms with the guided fiber mode and with the fiber surface. Using high resolution spectroscopy, we observe and analyze light-induced dipole forces, van der Waals interaction, and a significant enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate of the atoms. The latter can be assigned to the modification of the vacuum modes by the fiber.

  6. Research on Influence of Cutting Conditions on Roundness of Ultra-thin Wall Parts in Ultrasonic Vibration Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the paper, the experimental researches were carr ie d out to discuss the roundness forming rule and the influence of cutting paramet ers on roundness by ultrasonic vibration cutting of the camera's guiding drawtu be with 47.75 mm diameter and 0.6~1.5 mm wall thickness. The research results s h ow that the roundness error of ultra-thin wall parts in ultrasonic vibration cu tting is only one third of that in common cutting. The relations between the rou ndness error and the cutting parameters behave as: (1...

  7. Young's Modulus and Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion of ZnO Conductive and Transparent Ultra-Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A new technique for measuring Young's modulus of an ultra-thin film, with a thickness in the range of about 10 nm, was developed by combining an optical lever technique for measuring the residual stress and X-ray diffraction for measuring the strain in the film. The new technique was applied to analyze the mechanical properties of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films, that have become the focus of significant attention as a substitute material for indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes. Young's modulus...

  8. Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition: Basics, Opportunities, and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Profijt, H. B.; Potts, S. E.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an energy-enhanced method for the synthesis of ultra-thin films with A angstrom-level resolution in which a plasma is employed during one step of the cyclic deposition process. The use of plasma species as reactants allows for more freedom in processi

  9. Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition: Basics, Opportunities, and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Profijt, H. B.; Potts, S. E.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an energy-enhanced method for the synthesis of ultra-thin films with A angstrom-level resolution in which a plasma is employed during one step of the cyclic deposition process. The use of plasma species as reactants allows for more freedom in

  10. Mechanism of instability of carbides in Fe–TaC alloy under high energy electron irradiation at 673 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hiroaki, E-mail: abe.hiroaki@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Ishizaki, Takahiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Kano, Sho [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Li, Feng [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Satoh, Yuhki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Hamaguchi, Dai [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho 039-3212 (Japan); Nagase, Takeshi; Yasuda, Hidehiro [Research Center for Ultra-High Voltage Electron Microscopy, Osaka University, 7-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Fe–TaC alloy was fabricated as a model alloy for F82H steel. • Instability of TaC in Fe was observed under high energy electron irradiation at 673 K. • The rate of shrinkage depended on energy, flux, degree of beam focus. • Displacement of Ta in TaC, or radiation-enhanced diffusion of Ta are the mechanism of instability. - Abstract: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs), such as F82H steel, are designed to enhance the high-temperature strength by formation of MX-type nanometer-scale precipitates, mainly TaC. However, their instability under irradiation was recently reported. The purpose of this work, therefore, is to clarify the mechanism employing simultaneous observations under electron irradiation at elevated temperature in a high voltage electron microscope. In this work, Fe-0.2 wt.% TaC was fabricated as a model alloy of F82H steel. The instability of the precipitates was observed under electron irradiation at 1 MeV or above. The remarkable shrinkage and disappearance were clearly observed under irradiation with 1.5 MeV and above. On the contrary, the precipitates were mostly stable below 0.75 MeV. Two kinds of mechanism of the irradiation-induced instability were deduced from the electron-energy dependence. One is the dissolution and diffusion of tantalum from precipitates in ferrite matrix. The other is the displacements of tantalum in precipitates that introduce dissolution of Ta into matrix.

  11. Microstructure and Scratch Resistance of TaC Dense Ceramic Layer on an Iron Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nana; Xu, Yunhua; Zhong, Lisheng; Yan, Honghua; Ovcharenko, Vladimir E.

    2016-06-01

    A tantalum carbide dense ceramic layer with a thickness of ~20 μm was produced on the surface of an iron matrix using an in situ technique. The morphology, microstructure, and phase composition of the layer were characterized by means of SEM, TEM, and XRD. The results show fairly agglomerated and uniformly sized (~200 nm) TaC particulates with a face-cantered cubic structure. The values of nano-hardness for the surface and cross section of reinforcing layer can be as high as 29.5 ± 0.6 and 26.7 ± 0.1 GPa, respectively, which were analyzed using a nano-indentation apparatus. Moreover, the scratch resistance of the layer was measured by scratch tests under a progressively increasing load of 0-100 N. A high critical load of 90.4 N is obtained. It is worthy to note that there are only cracking, slight splitting, and small flaking pits (even at the maximum load) all over the whole scratch process, namely the reinforcing layer can protect the iron matrix from serious abrasion effectively. In addition, the excellent scratch resistance and mechanism are discussed in detail.

  12. The effects of ultra-thin cerium fluoride film as the anode buffer layer on the electrical characteristics of organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsin-Wei; Tsai, Cheng-Che; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Kao, Po-Ching; Juang, Yung-Der; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was enhanced by depositing a CeF3film as an ultra-thin buffer layer between the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and α-naphthylphenylbiphenyldiamine (NPB) hole transport layer, with the structure configuration ITO/CeF3 (0.5, 1, and 1.5 nm)/α-naphthylphenylbiphenyl diamine (NPB) (40 nm)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) (60 nm)/lithium fluoride (LiF) (1 nm)/Al (150 nm). The enhancement mechanism was systematically investigated via several approaches. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy results revealed the formation of the UV-ozone treated CeF3 film. The work function increased from 4.8 eV (standard ITO electrode) to 5.22 eV (0.5-nm-thick UV-ozone treated CeF3 film deposited on the ITO electrode). The surface roughness of the UV-ozone treated CeF3 film was smoother than that of the standard ITO electrode. Further, the UV-ozone treated CeF3 film increased both the surface energy and polarity, as determined from contact angle measurements. In addition, admittance spectroscopy measurements showed an increased capacitance and conductance of the OLEDs. Accordingly, the turn-on voltage decreased from 4.2 V to 3.6 V at 1 mA/cm2, the luminance increased from 7588 cd/m2 to 24760 cd/m2, and the current efficiency increased from 3.2 cd/A to 3.8 cd/A when the 0.5-nm-thick UV-ozone treated CeF3 film was inserted into the OLEDs.

  13. Quasi-optical THz spectroscopy on ultra-thin superconducting films of NbN and TaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pracht, Uwe Santiago; Heintze, Eric; Scheffler, Marc; Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Institut, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Il' in, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Guo, Qiao; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme (IMS), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Ultra-thin films of the conventional superconductors niobium nitride (NbN) and tantalum nitride (TaN) have recently attracted attention for devices such as single-photon detectors. Quasi-optical THz spectroscopy is a particularly suited tool with direct access to superconducting properties, such as the superconducting energy gap, which are necessary for a proper understanding of device performance and for future improvements. With our THz-spectroscopy approach we measure amplitude and phaseshift of coherent radiation (0.09-1.2 THz) passing through thin-film systems. We present the performance and possibilities of our experimental set-up, and we apply it to ultra-thin superconducting films of NbN and TaN. We fit the experimental data to weak-coupling BCS theory, and we obtain frequency- and temperature-dependent superconducting properties such as the complex optical conductivity, the complex dielectric function, the energy gap, the penetration depth, and the superfluid density.

  14. 'Illusional' nano-size effect due to artifacts of in-plane conductivity measurements of ultra-thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Ryoung; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Lee, Kyung-Ryul; Ji, Ho-Il; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won

    2011-04-01

    The nano-size effect, which indicates a drastic increase in conductivity in solid electrolyte materials of nano-scale microstructures, has drawn substantial attention in various research fields including in the field of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, especially in the cases of the conductivity of ultra-thin films measured in an in-plane configuration, it is highly possible that the 'apparent' conductivity increase originates from electrical current flowing through other conduction paths than the thin film. As a systematic study to interrogate those measurement artifacts, we report various sources of electrical current leaks regarding in-plane conductivity measurements, specifically insulators in the measurement set-up. We have observed a 'great conductivity increase' up to an order of magnitude at a very thin thickness of a single layer yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) film in a set-up with an intentional artifact current flow source. Here we propose that the nano-size effect, reported to appear in ultra-thin single layer YSZ, can be a result of misinterpretation.

  15. Effect of dangling bonds of ultra-thin silicon film surface on electronic states of internal atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiyama, Eiji, E-mail: ejkamiyama@aol.com [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan); Sueoka, Koji, E-mail: sueoka@c.oka-pu.ac.jp [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    We investigate how dangling bonds at the surface of ultra-thin films affect electronic states inside the film by first principles calculation. In the calculation models, dangling bonds at the surface are directly treated, and the impact on the electronic states of the internal atoms was estimated. Models with a H-terminated surface at both sides have no state in the bandgap. Whereas, new states appear at around the midgap by removing terminated H at surfaces of one or both sides. These mid-gap states appear at all layers, the states of which decrease as the layer moves away from the surface with dangling bonds. The sum of local DOS corresponds to the number of dangling bonds of the model. If the activation rate is assumed as 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}, which is an ordinary value of thermal oxide passivation on Si (1 0 0) surface, volume concentration and surface concentration at the 18th layer from the surface in a 36-layer model are estimated to be 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} and 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}, respectively. These numbers are comparable to the values, especially the dopant volume concentration of Si substrate used in current VLSI technology ({approx}10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}). Therefore, the midgap states inside ultra-thin films may degrade performance of the FinFETs.

  16. Surface modification of ultra thin PES-zeolite using thermal annealing to increase flux and rejection of produced water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusworo, T. D., E-mail: tdkusworo@che.undip.ac.id; Widayat,; Pradini, A. W.; Armeli, Y. P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Diponegoro Prof. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang, 50239, Phone/Fax : (024) 7460058 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Membrane technology is an alternative of water treatment based on filtration that is being developed. Surface Modification using heat treatment has been investigated to improve the performance of ultra thin PES-Zeolite nanocomposite membrane for produced water treatment from Pertamina Balongan. Two types of membranes with surface modification and without modification were prepared to study the effect of surface modification on its permeation properties. Asymmetric ultra thin PES-Zeolite nanocomposite membrane for produced water treatment was casted using the dry/wet phase inversion technique from dope solutions containing polyethersulfone, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent and zeolite as a filler. Experimental results showed that the heat treatment at near glass transition temperature was increase the rejection of COD, Turbidity and ion Ca{sup 2+}. The better adherence of zeolite particles in the polymer matrix combined with formation of charge transfer complexes (CTCs) and cross-linking might be the main factors to enhance the percent of rejection. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of PES-zeolite membrane became denser and more compact after the heat treatment. The FESEM micrographs also showed that the heat treatment was increased the adherence of zeolite particle and polymer. Membranes treated at 180 °C for 15 seconds indicated increase the rejection and small decrease in flux for produced water treatment.

  17. Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, Frédéric; De Leon, Israel; Schulz, Sebastian A.; Upham, Jeremy; Karimi, Ebrahim, E-mail: ekarimi@uottawa.ca [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 Canada (Canada); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 Canada (Canada); Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2014-09-08

    Orbital angular momentum associated with the helical phase-front of optical beams provides an unbounded “space” for both classical and quantum communications. Among the different approaches to generate and manipulate orbital angular momentum states of light, coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum allows a faster manipulation of orbital angular momentum states because it depends on manipulating the polarisation state of light, which is simpler and generally faster than manipulating conventional orbital angular momentum generators. In this work, we design and fabricate an ultra-thin spin-to-orbital angular momentum converter, based on plasmonic nano-antennas and operating in the visible wavelength range that is capable of converting spin to an arbitrary value of orbital angular momentum ℓ. The nano-antennas are arranged in an array with a well-defined geometry in the transverse plane of the beam, possessing a specific integer or half-integer topological charge q. When a circularly polarised light beam traverses this metasurface, the output beam polarisation switches handedness and the orbital angular momentum changes in value by ℓ=±2qℏ per photon. We experimentally demonstrate ℓ values ranging from ±1 to ±25 with conversion efficiencies of 8.6% ± 0.4%. Our ultra-thin devices are integratable and thus suitable for applications in quantum communications, quantum computations, and nano-scale sensing.

  18. Numerical experiments on evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid argon film on aluminum nanostructure substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weidong; Zhang, Haiyan; Tian, Conghui; Meng, Xiaojie

    2015-04-01

    Evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film are of great significant fundamental importance for both science and engineering applications. The evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film absorbed on an aluminum nanostructure solid wall are investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulated system consists of three regions: liquid argon, vapor argon, and an aluminum substrate decorated with nanostructures of different heights. Those simulations begin with an initial configuration for the complex liquid-vapor-solid system, followed by an equilibrating system at 90 K, and conclude with two different jump temperatures, including 150 and 310 K which are far beyond the critical temperature. The space and time dependences of temperature, pressure, density number, and net evaporation rate are monitored to investigate the phase transition process on a flat surface with and without nanostructures. The simulation results reveal that the nanostructures are of great help to raise the heat transfer efficiency and that evaporation rate increases with the nanostructures' height in a certain range.

  19. Numerical experiments on evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid argon film on aluminum nanostructure substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weidong; Zhang, Haiyan; Tian, Conghui; Meng, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film are of great significant fundamental importance for both science and engineering applications. The evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film absorbed on an aluminum nanostructure solid wall are investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulated system consists of three regions: liquid argon, vapor argon, and an aluminum substrate decorated with nanostructures of different heights. Those simulations begin with an initial configuration for the complex liquid-vapor-solid system, followed by an equilibrating system at 90 K, and conclude with two different jump temperatures, including 150 and 310 K which are far beyond the critical temperature. The space and time dependences of temperature, pressure, density number, and net evaporation rate are monitored to investigate the phase transition process on a flat surface with and without nanostructures. The simulation results reveal that the nanostructures are of great help to raise the heat transfer efficiency and that evaporation rate increases with the nanostructures' height in a certain range.

  20. Ultra-thin metamaterial absorber with extremely bandwidth for solar cell and sensing applications in visible region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingyao; Xiao, Zhongyin; Xu, Kaikai

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we proposed a broadband and ultra-thin metamaterial absorber in the visible region. The absorber is composed of three layers, and the most remarkable difference is that the split ring resonators (SRR) made of metal stannum are encrusted in the indium antimonide (InSb) plane on the top layer. Numerical results reveal that a broadband absorption spectrum above 90% can be realized from 353.9 THz to 613.2 THz due to the coupling effect between the material of stannum and InSb. The metamaterial absorber is ultra-thin, having the total thickness of 56 nm, i.e. less than λ/10 with respect to the center frequency of the absorption band more than 90%. In addition, the impedance matching theory, surface current distributions, E-field and H-field are investigated to explain the physical mechanism of the absorption. The sensing applications are discussed and the simulated results show that the proposed absorber operates well with a good efficiency. Moreover, the visible absorber has potential applications in the aspects of solar energy harvest, integrated photodetectors and so on.

  1. Measured Whole-House Performance of TaC Studios Test Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T. [Partnership for Home Innovation (PHI), Upper Marlboro, MD (United States). Southface Energy Inst.; Curtis, O. [Partnership for Home Innovation (PHI), Upper Marlboro, MD (United States). Southface Energy Inst.; Stephenson, R. [Partnership for Home Innovation (PHI), Upper Marlboro, MD (United States). Southface Energy Inst.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta-based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach topotential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaCStudios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post-construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowners wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this homewas evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored todetermine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  2. Optical properties of ultra-thin (layers on c-sapphire substrates with different initial growth conditions measured by surface-plasmon enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Jong; Kim, Tae-Soo; Lee, Jin-Gyu; Song, Jung Hoon

    2014-11-01

    We have carried out surface-plasmon enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) on 30 nm-thick GaN samples grown at various temperatures, in order to investigate the properties of ultra thin GaN films on sapphire. We found that the properties, such as the strain and the free-carrier density of the thin layers, were sensitively affected by the growth temperatures. Our results show that SERS, by selectively enhancing the Raman signal near the surface, can be a very useful technique to investigate the optical properties of ultra-thin GaN films and their initial growth mode.

  3. Investigating the highest melting temperature materials: A laser melting study of the TaC-HfC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillos-Barraza, Omar; Manara, Dario; Boboridis, K.; Watkins, Tyson; Grasso, Salvatore; Jayaseelan, Daniel D.; Konings, Rudy J. M.; Reece, Michael J.; Lee, William E.

    2016-12-01

    TaC, HfC and their solid solutions are promising candidate materials for thermal protection structures in hypersonic vehicles because of their very high melting temperatures (>4000 K) among other properties. The melting temperatures of slightly hypostoichiometric TaC, HfC and three solid solution compositions (Ta1‑xHfxC, with x = 0.8, 0.5 and 0.2) have long been identified as the highest known. In the current research, they were reassessed, for the first time in the last fifty years, using a laser heating technique. They were found to melt in the range of 4041–4232 K, with HfC having the highest and TaC the lowest. Spectral radiance of the hot samples was measured in situ, showing that the optical emissivity of these compounds plays a fundamental role in their heat balance. Independently, the results show that the melting point for HfC0.98, (4232 ± 84) K, is the highest recorded for any compound studied until now.

  4. Stoichiometry behavior of TaN, TaCN and TaC thin films produced by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M. [Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 2681, C.P. 22860, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Castillo, H.A. [Centro de Enseñanza Técnica y Superior, CETYS Universidad, Campus Tijuana, Tijuana, B.C. (Mexico); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellín Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Manizales (Colombia); De La Cruz, W. [Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 2681, C.P. 22860, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2013-08-15

    Thin films were synthesized in a magnetron sputtering system using a target of Ta with 99.99% purity and silicon substrates (1 1 1). The gases used for the film growth were (Ar + N{sub 2}), (Ar + CH{sub 4} + N{sub 2}) and (Ar + CH{sub 4}) mixtures for TaN, TaCN and TaC, respectively. The substrate temperature increased from room temperature to 500 °C. The chemical composition and bonding configuration were examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), revealing Ta-N, Ta-C-N, Ta-C and C-C bonds. Moreover, the crystallographic structure was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), indicating the presence of (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) planes belonging to a face-centered cubic structure. The stoichiometry variation dependence on the CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2} flow was analyzed, and the influence of the substrate temperature on the coatings was investigated. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the evolution on the grain formation in the coatings as the substrate temperature increased.

  5. Energy level alignment at the Si(1 1 1)/RCA–SiO{sub 2}/copper(II) phthalocyanine ultra-thin film interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzywiecki, Maciej, E-mail: maciej.krzywiecki@polsl.pl; Grządziel, Lucyna

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The interface formation studies between CuPc and Si by photoemission methods. • Charge rearrangement detected at the inorganic/organic interface. • Existence of disordered/polarization layer at the initial stages of CuPc deposition. • Examined structures applicable for organic transistors development. - Abstract: The photoemission experimental techniques (i.e. ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy—UPS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy—XPS) were used to investigate the charge–rearrangement–related phenomena occuring at organic–inorganic semiconductor interface. Examined samples were copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) ultra-thin (up to 16 nm) layers deposited onto oxidized silicon Si(1 1 1) of n- and p-type of conductivity. The 1.3-nm-thick silicon oxide was prepared by means of RCA wet cleaning procedure. The analysis of the photoemission data (mainly UPS) suggested the existance of the polarization layer within first 3 nm of CuPc layer thickness. Basing on the UPS and XPS results the energy level diagrams of examined structures have been constructed. In present paper it is suggested that the existance of the polarization layer could be assigned to the disordered adsorption and continous molecular reorientation of the CuPc molecules during the interface formation process. In the terms of the lack of the charge transfer via substrate/organic overlayer interface and disordered adsorption the fluctuations of CuPc electronic parameters were detected. Moreover the ionization energy and the work function parameters of final CuPc layer were affected. The values were more consistent with those obtained for much thicker (over 500 nm) CuPc layers. Performed studies showed that contrary to CuPc layers deposited on native substrates (where the charge transfer via tunnelable oxide – determined as dipole effect – has been detected), the thicker RCA-prepared oxide seems to be non-tunnelable hence the possibility for Si(1 1 1

  6. The design, construction and first-phase heavy vehicle simulator testing results on full scale ultra-thin reinforced concrete test sections at Rayton, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-Thin Reinforced Concrete Pavements (UTRCP) are successfully being used in residential streets and low-volume road applications in South Africa. Due to its popularity in this domain the Gauteng Provincial Department of Roads and Transport...

  7. 超薄氧化铝模板的制备及应用%Review of the preparation and application of ultra-thin alumina mask

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖昕; 戴金辉; 时磊艳; 徐楠

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale arrays of nanostructures on substrates have many potential applications in areas such as electronics, optoelectronics, sensing, catalyst, high-density storage, solar cells, field emission devices and ultra-thin display devices. Here, we review a new surface nano-patterning approach in fabricating ordered nanostructures, in which ultra-thin anodic alumina membranes are used as fabrication masks. According to the fabrication method, two different types of ultra-thin alumina masks exist: attached UTAM and connected UTAM.In this paper, applications of ultra-thin alumina masks have been reviewed in recent years.%基板上大面积的有序纳米阵列,在电子学、光电子学、传感器、催化剂、太阳能电池、高密度储存、场发射设备和超薄显示设备等领域具有广阔的应用前景.综述了一种构造表面有序纳米结构的新方法--超薄氧化铝模板法.根据超薄氧化铝模板的制备方法又分为附着型和结合型.还总结了近年来该方法的应用.

  8. Low frequency ultrasonic multi-mode Lamb wave method for characterizing the ultra-thin transversely isotropic laminate composite: Theory and experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui; WAN Mingxi; CHEN Xiao; CAO Wenwu

    2001-01-01

    A low-frequency multi-mode ultrasonic Lamb wave method suitable for characterizing the thickness, the density and the elastic constants of the ultra-thin transversely isotropic laminate composite is presented, The "ultra-thin" here means that the thickness of the plate is much less than the wavelength of the ultrasonic wave so that the echoes from the front and back faces of the plate can't be separated in the time domain. The dispersion equations for the low frequency ultrasonic Lamb waves with the propagation directions parallel and vertical to the fiber direction are derived. In conjunction with the least square algorithm method, the secant algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the ultra-thin fiber-reinforced composite layer. The evaluation errors and the sensitivity of the method to different parameters of the thin composite are analyzed. The technique has been used to characterize the ultra-thin grass fiber reinforced PES composite with thickness down to ten percents of the ultrasonic wavelength. It is observed that the agreement between the nominal and the estimation values is reasonably good.

  9. Scalable Multifunctional Ultra-thin Graphite Sponge: Free-standing, Superporous, Superhydrophobic, Oleophilic Architecture with Ferromagnetic Properties for Environmental Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Patino, Daisy; Mutlu, Zafer; Romero, Paige; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2016-02-01

    Water decontamination and oil/water separation are principal motives in the surge to develop novel means for sustainability. In this prospect, supplying clean water for the ecosystems is as important as the recovery of the oil spills since the supplies are scarce. Inspired to design an engineering material which not only serves this purpose, but can also be altered for other applications to preserve natural resources, a facile template-free process is suggested to fabricate a superporous, superhydrophobic ultra-thin graphite sponge. Moreover, the process is designed to be inexpensive and scalable. The fabricated sponge can be used to clean up different types of oil, organic solvents, toxic and corrosive contaminants. This versatile microstructure can retain its functionality even when pulverized. The sponge is applicable for targeted sorption and collection due to its ferromagnetic properties. We hope that such a cost-effective process can be embraced and implemented widely.

  10. A hybrid surface modification method on copper wire braids for enhancing thermal performance of ultra-thin heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, W. K.; Lin, H. T.; Wu, C. H.; Kuo, L. S.; Chen, P. H.

    2017-02-01

    Copper is the most widely used material in heat pipe manufacturing. Since the capability of wick structures inside a heat pipe will dominate its thermal performance, in this study, we introduce a hybrid surface modification method on the copper wire braids being inserted as wick structure into an ultra-thin heat pipe. The hybrid method is the combination of a chemical-oxidation-based method and a sol-gel method with nanoparticles being dip-coated onto the braid. The experimental data show that braids under hybrid treatment perform higher water rising speed than the oxidized braids while owning higher water net weight than those braids being only dip-coated with nanoparticle.

  11. Realization of dual-heterojunction solar cells on ultra-thin ∼25 μm, flexible silicon substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Onyegam, Emmanuel U.

    2014-04-14

    Silicon heterojunction (HJ) solar cells with different rear passivation and contact designs were fabricated on ∼ 25 μ m semiconductor-on-metal (SOM) exfoliated substrates. It was found that the performance of these cells is limited by recombination at the rear-surface. Employing the dual-HJ architecture resulted in the improvement of open-circuit voltage (Voc) from 605 mV (single-HJ) to 645 mV with no front side intrinsic amorphous silicon (i-layer) passivation. Addition of un-optimized front side i-layer passivation resulted in further enhancement in Voc to 662 mV. Pathways to achieving further improvement in the performance of HJ solar cells on ultra-thin SOM substrates are discussed. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  12. Theoretical comparison of optical and electronic properties of uniformly and randomly arranged nano-porous ultra-thin layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubarevich, Aliaksandr; Marus, Mikita; Fan, Weijun; Smirnov, Aliaksandr; Sun, Xiao Wei; Wang, Hong

    2015-07-13

    The theoretical comparison of optical and electronic properties of aluminum and silver nano-porous ultra-thin layers in terms of the arrangement and size of the pores was presented. The uniform nano-porous layers exhibit a slightly higher average transmittance (up to 10%) in the wavelength range of the plasmonic response in comparison to the randomly arranged ones. Compared to uniform nano-porous layers, a much larger sheet resistance (up to 12 times) for random nano-porous layers is observed. The uniform and random Ag nano-porous layers possessing the strong plasmonic response over whole visible range can reach an average transmittance of 90 and 80% at the sheet resistance of 10 and 20 Ohm/sq, respectively, which is comparable to widely used ITO electrodes.

  13. 3D lumped components and miniaturized bandpass filter in an ultra-thin M-LCP for SOP applications

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a library of 3D lumped components completely embedded in the thinnest, multilayer LCP (M-LCP) stack- up with four metallization layers and 100 μm of total thickness, is reported for the first time. A vertically and horizontally interdigitated capacitor, realized in this stack-up, provides higher self resonant frequency as compared to a similarly sized conventional parallel plate capacitor. Based on the above mentioned library, a miniaturized bandpass filter is presented for the GPS application. It utilizes mutually coupled inductors and is the smallest reported in the literature with a size of (0.035×0.028×0.00089)λg. Finally, the same filter realized in a competing ceramic technology (LTCC) is compared in performance with the ultra-thin M-LCP design. The M-LCP module presented in this work is inherently exible and offers great potential for wearable and conformal applications.

  14. Synthesis of ultra-thin tellurium nanoflakes on textiles for high-performance flexible and wearable nanogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen; Van Ngoc, Huynh; Qian, Yong Teng; Hwang, Jae Seok; Yan, Ya Ping; Choi, Hongsoo; Kang, Dae Joon

    2017-01-01

    We report that ultra-thin tellurium (Te) nanoflakes were successfully grown on a sample of a gold-coated textile, which then was used as an active piezoelectric material. An output voltage of 4 V and a current of 300 nA were obtained from the bending test under a driving frequency of 10 Hz. To test the practical applications, Te nanoflake nanogenerator (TFNG) device was attached to the subject's arm, and mechanical energy was converted to electrical energy by means of periodic arm-bending motions. The optimized open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density of approximately 125 V and 17 μA/cm2, respectively, were observed when a TFNG device underwent a compression test with a compressive force of 8 N and driving frequency of 10 Hz. This high-power generation enabled the instantaneous powering of 10 green light-emitting diodes that shone without any assistance from an external power source.

  15. Research on Peeling of Ultra Thinning Wafer%超薄硅片的剥膜研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文斌; 袁立伟; 张敏杰

    2011-01-01

    介绍了超薄化芯片,分析了贴膜工艺前移的必要性。阐述了剥膜原理.分析了剥膜台与剥膜棒位置的变化关系,提出了剥膜台与剥膜棒相平行的调整方法,并且检测了剥膜完成情况。%In this paper, the ultra thinning wafer is introduced, the requirement of stick technics going ahead is analyzed .Principle of peeling tape is expatiated ,peeling table and peeling bar of location change relation are analyzed, the method of adjusting peeling bar and peeling table parallelism is put forward, and peel fulfill circs is detected.

  16. Mismatched front and back gratings for optimum light trapping in ultra-thin crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Tong, Jonathan K.; Branham, Matthew S.; Huang, Yi; Yerci, Selçuk; Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Chen, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The implementation of a front and back grating in ultra-thin photovoltaic cells is a promising approach towards improving light trapping. A simple design rule was developed using the least common multiple (LCM) of the front and back grating periods. From this design rule, several optimal period combinations can be found, providing greater design flexibility for absorbers of indirect band gap materials. Using numerical simulations, the photo-generated current (Jph) for a 10-μm-thick crystalline silicon absorber was predicted to be as high as 38 mA/cm2, which is 11.74% higher than that of a single front grating (Jph=34 mA/cm2).

  17. A novel ultra-thin 3D detector—For plasma diagnostics at JET and ITER tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Francisco; Pelligrini, G.; Balbuena, J.; Lozano, M.; Orava, R.; Ullan, M.

    2009-08-01

    A novel ultra-thin silicon detector called U3DTHIN has been designed and built for applications that range from Neutral Particle Analyzers (NPA) used in Corpuscular Diagnostics of High Temperature Plasma to very low X-ray spectroscopy. The main purpose of this detector is to provide a state-of-the-art solution to upgrade the current detector system of the NPAs at JET and also to pave the road for the future detection systems of the ITER experimental reactor. Currently the NPAs use a very thin scintillator-photomultiplier tube [F. García, S.S. Kozlovsky, D.V. Balin, Background Properties of CEM, MCP and PMT detectors at n-γ irradiation. Preprint PNPI-2392, Gatchina, 2000, p. 9 [1]; F. García, S.S. Kozlovsky, V.V. Ianovsky, Scintillation Detectors with Low Sensitivity to n-γ Background. Preprint PNPI-2391, Gatchina, 2000, p. 8 [2

  18. Tracing dynamics of laser-induced fields on ultra-thin foils using complementary imaging with streak deflectometry

    CERN Document Server

    Abicht, Florian; Priebe, Gerd; Koschitzki, Christian; Andreev, Alexander; Nickles, Peter; Sander, Wolfgang; Schnürer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the electric and magnetic fields, which are created on plasma vacuum interfaces as a result of highly intense laser-matter-interactions. For the field generation ultra-thin polymer foils were irradiated with high intensity femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses with ultra-high contrast. To determine the temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of these fields the proton streak deflectometry method has been developed further and applied in two different imaging configurations. It enabled us to gather complementary information about the investigated field structure, in particular about the influence of different field components (parallel and normal to the target surface) and the impact of a moving ion front. The applied ultra-high laser contrast significantly increased the reproducibility of the experiment and improved the accuracy of the imaging method. In order to explain the experimental observations, which were obtained by applying ultra-short laser pulses, two differ...

  19. One step solution synthesis towards ultra-thin and uniform single-crystalline ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, G. W.; Wong, A. S. W.

    2007-03-01

    Bundles of high-aspect-ratio single-crystalline ZnO nanowires were fabricated by a single-step mild hydrothermal condition without the use of a seeding layer, thus eliminating an annealing step. The growth yields nanowires of high aspect ratio (>200). No significant lateral growth takes place with prolonged reaction time. The morphology and aspect ratio of the final products depend on the concentration of the precursors; a highly water-soluble tetradentate cyclic tertiary amine and zinc nitrate system. The nanowires grow along the [0001] direction and have an average width of <10 nm and a narrow distribution of ±5 nm. Photoluminescence measurements of the ultra-thin nanowires exhibit a strong band-edge emission at room temperature. The highly crystalline sub tens of nanometer scale diameter nanowires can, in combination, be a good one-dimensional candidate to study optical and electronic properties.

  20. Ultra-thin and flexible endoscopy probe for optical coherence tomography based on stepwise transitional core fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangbeom; Chae, Yugyeong; Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Moon, Sucbei

    2015-05-01

    We present an ultra-thin fiber-body endoscopy probe for optical coherence tomography (OCT) which is based on a stepwise transitional core (STC) fiber. In a minimalistic design, our probe was made of spliced specialty fibers that could be directly used for beam probing optics without using a lens. In our probe, the OCT light delivered through a single-mode fiber was efficiently expanded to a large mode field of 24 μm diameter for a low beam divergence. The size of our probe was 85 μm in the probe's diameter while operated in a 160-μm thick protective tubing. Through theoretical and experimental analyses, our probe was found to exhibit various attractive features in terms of compactness, flexibility and reliability along with its excellent fabrication simplicity.

  1. Characterizing ultra-thin matching layers of high-frequency ultrasonic transducer based on impedance matching principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Cao, Wenwu

    2004-02-01

    The quarter-wavelength (lambda/4) acoustic matching layer is a vital component in medical ultrasonic transducers, which can compensate for the large acoustic impedance mismatch between the piezoelectric material and the human body. At high frequencies (approximately 100 MHz), the lambda/4 matching layers become extremely thin, and the characterization of their properties becomes very challenging. We report a method to measure the phase velocity and attenuation of ultra-thin layers using the lambda/4 matching principle, in which the acoustic impedance of the thin layer is between the substrate and water. The method has been successfully used to characterize epoxy films on glass substrate. The experimental results show good agreement in the phase-velocity measurement between our proposed method and the conventional ultrasonic spectroscopy method, but the attenuation measurement is sensitive to the properties of the substrate and water medium as well as the alignment of the sample.

  2. Multi-strata subsurface laser die singulation to enable defect-free ultra-thin stacked memory dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Teh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the extension of multi-strata subsurface infrared (1.342 μm pulsed laser die singulation to the fabrication of defect-free ultra-thin stacked memory dies. We exploit the multi-strata interactions between generated thermal shockwaves and the preceding high dislocation density layers formed to initiate crack fractures that separate the individual dies from within the interior of the die. We show that optimized inter-strata distances between the high dislocation density layers together with effective laser energy dose can be used to compensate for the high backside reflectance (up to ∼ 82% wafers. This work has successfully demonstrated defect-free eight die stacks of 25 μm thick mechanically functional and 46 μm thick electrically functional memory dies.

  3. Ultra-thin GaAs single-junction solar cells integrated with a reflective back scattering layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiquan; Becker, Jacob; Liu, Shi; Kuo, Ying-Shen; Li, Jing-Jing; Landini, Barbara; Campman, Ken; Zhang, Yong-Hang

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports the proposal, design, and demonstration of ultra-thin GaAs single-junction solar cells integrated with a reflective back scattering layer to optimize light management and minimize non-radiative recombination. According to our recently developed semi-analytical model, this design offers one of the highest potential achievable efficiencies for GaAs solar cells possessing typical non-radiative recombination rates found among commercially available III-V arsenide and phosphide materials. The structure of the demonstrated solar cells consists of an In0.49Ga0.51P/GaAs/In0.49Ga0.51P double-heterostructure PN junction with an ultra-thin 300 nm thick GaAs absorber, combined with a 5 μm thick Al0.52In0.48P layer with a textured as-grown surface coated with Au used as a reflective back scattering layer. The final devices were fabricated using a substrate-removal and flip-chip bonding process. Solar cells with a top metal contact coverage of 9.7%, and a MgF2/ZnS anti-reflective coating demonstrated open-circuit voltages (Voc) up to 1.00 V, short-circuit current densities (Jsc) up to 24.5 mA/cm2, and power conversion efficiencies up to 19.1%; demonstrating the feasibility of this design approach. If a commonly used 2% metal grid coverage is assumed, the anticipated Jsc and conversion efficiency of these devices are expected to reach 26.6 mA/cm2 and 20.7%, respectively.

  4. Well-constructed cellulose acetate membranes for forward osmosis: Minimized internal concentration polarization with an ultra-thin selective layer

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sui

    2010-09-01

    The design and engineering of membrane structure that produces low salt leakage and minimized internal concentration polarization (ICP) in forward osmosis (FO) processes have been explored in this work. The fundamentals of phase inversion of cellulose acetate (CA) regarding the formation of an ultra-thin selective layer at the bottom interface of polymer and casting substrate were investigated by using substrates with different hydrophilicity. An in-depth understanding of membrane structure and pore size distribution has been elucidated with field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). A double dense-layer structure is formed when glass plate is used as the casting substrate and water as the coagulant. The thickness of the ultra-thin bottom layer resulted from hydrophilic-hydrophilic interaction is identified to be around 95nm, while a fully porous, open-cell structure is formed in the middle support layer due to spinodal decomposition. Consequently, the membrane shows low salt leakage with mitigated ICP in the FO process for seawater desalination. The structural parameter (St) of the membrane is analyzed by modeling water flux using the theory that considers both external concentration polarization (ECP) and ICP, and the St value of the double dense-layer membrane is much smaller than those reported in literatures. Furthermore, the effects of an intermediate immersion into a solvent/water mixed bath prior to complete immersion in water on membrane formation have been studied. The resultant membranes may have a single dense layer with an even lower St value. A comparison of fouling behavior in a simple FO-membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is evaluated for these two types of membranes. The double dense-layer membrane shows a less fouling propensity. This study may help pave the way to improve the membrane design for new-generation FO membranes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  5. The effects of ultra-thin cerium fluoride film as the anode buffer layer on the electrical characteristics of organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hsin-Wei [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Cheng-Che [Department of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Tung Fang Design Institute, Kaohsiung, 82941, Taiwan (China); Hong, Cheng-Shong [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, 824, Taiwan (China); Kao, Po-Ching [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60004, Taiwan (China); Juang, Yung-Der [Department of Materials Science, National University of Tainan, Tainan, 70005, Taiwan (China); Chu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: chusy@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • OLEDs were enhanced efficiency by depositing CeF{sub 3} buffer layer. • The surface roughness was smoother of the CeF{sub 3} buffer layer. • The surface energy and polarity were increased of the CeF{sub 3} buffer layer. • Admittance spectroscopy showed that increased capacitance. • The carrier injection was enhanced in the space charge region. - Abstract: In this study, the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was enhanced by depositing a CeF{sub 3}film as an ultra-thin buffer layer between the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and α-naphthylphenylbiphenyldiamine (NPB) hole transport layer, with the structure configuration ITO/CeF{sub 3} (0.5, 1, and 1.5 nm)/α-naphthylphenylbiphenyl diamine (NPB) (40 nm)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) (60 nm)/lithium fluoride (LiF) (1 nm)/Al (150 nm). The enhancement mechanism was systematically investigated via several approaches. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy results revealed the formation of the UV-ozone treated CeF{sub 3} film. The work function increased from 4.8 eV (standard ITO electrode) to 5.22 eV (0.5-nm-thick UV-ozone treated CeF{sub 3} film deposited on the ITO electrode). The surface roughness of the UV-ozone treated CeF{sub 3} film was smoother than that of the standard ITO electrode. Further, the UV-ozone treated CeF{sub 3} film increased both the surface energy and polarity, as determined from contact angle measurements. In addition, admittance spectroscopy measurements showed an increased capacitance and conductance of the OLEDs. Accordingly, the turn-on voltage decreased from 4.2 V to 3.6 V at 1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the luminance increased from 7588 cd/m{sup 2} to 24760 cd/m{sup 2}, and the current efficiency increased from 3.2 cd/A to 3.8 cd/A when the 0.5-nm-thick UV-ozone treated CeF{sub 3} film was inserted into the OLEDs.

  6. Structural phase diagram for ultra-thin epitaxial Fe3O4 / MgO(0 0 1) films: thickness and oxygen pressure dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraddadi, S; Hines, W; Yilmaz, T; Gu, G D; Sinkovic, B

    2016-03-23

    A systematic investigation of the thickness and oxygen pressure dependence for the structural properties of ultra-thin epitaxial magnetite (Fe3O4) films has been carried out; for such films, the structural properties generally differ from those for the bulk when the thickness  ⩽10 nm. Iron oxide ultra-thin films with thicknesses varying from 3 nm to 20 nm were grown on MgO (0 0 1) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy under different oxygen pressures ranging from 1  ×  10(-7) torr to 1  ×  10(-5) torr. The crystallographic and electronic structures of the films were characterized using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The quality of the epitaxial Fe3O4 ultra-thin films was judged by magnetic measurements of the Verwey transition, along with complementary XPS spectra. It was observed that under the same growth conditions the stoichiometry of ultra-thin films under 10 nm transforms from the Fe3O4 phase to the FeO phase. In this work, a phase diagram based on thickness and oxygen pressure has been constructed to explain the structural phase transformation. It was found that high-quality magnetite films with thicknesses  ⩽20 nm formed within a narrow range of oxygen pressure. An optimal and controlled growth process is a crucial requirement for the accurate study of the magnetic and electronic properties for ultra-thin Fe3O4 films. Furthermore, these results are significant because they may indicate a general trend in the growth of other oxide films, which has not been previously observed or considered.

  7. Structural phase diagram for ultra-thin epitaxial Fe3O4 / MgO(0 0 1) films: thickness and oxygen pressure dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraddadi, S.; Hines, W.; Yilmaz, T.; Gu, G. D.; Sinkovic, B.

    2016-03-01

    A systematic investigation of the thickness and oxygen pressure dependence for the structural properties of ultra-thin epitaxial magnetite (Fe3O4) films has been carried out; for such films, the structural properties generally differ from those for the bulk when the thickness  ⩽10 nm. Iron oxide ultra-thin films with thicknesses varying from 3 nm to 20 nm were grown on MgO (0 0 1) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy under different oxygen pressures ranging from 1  ×  10-7 torr to 1  ×  10-5 torr. The crystallographic and electronic structures of the films were characterized using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The quality of the epitaxial Fe3O4 ultra-thin films was judged by magnetic measurements of the Verwey transition, along with complementary XPS spectra. It was observed that under the same growth conditions the stoichiometry of ultra-thin films under 10 nm transforms from the Fe3O4 phase to the FeO phase. In this work, a phase diagram based on thickness and oxygen pressure has been constructed to explain the structural phase transformation. It was found that high-quality magnetite films with thicknesses  ⩽20 nm formed within a narrow range of oxygen pressure. An optimal and controlled growth process is a crucial requirement for the accurate study of the magnetic and electronic properties for ultra-thin Fe3O4 films. Furthermore, these results are significant because they may indicate a general trend in the growth of other oxide films, which has not been previously observed or considered.

  8. Silicon nanomembranes as a means to evaluate stress evolution in deposited thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna M. Clausen; Deborah M. Paskiewicz; Alireza Sadeghirad; Joseph Jakes; Donald E. Savage; Donald S. Stone; Feng Liu; Max G. Lagally

    2014-01-01

    Thin-film deposition on ultra-thin substrates poses unique challenges because of the potential for a dynamic response to the film stress during deposition. While theoretical studies have investigated film stress related changes in bulk substrates, little has been done to learn how stress might evolve in a film growing on a compliant substrate. We use silicon...

  9. Temporally and Spatially Resolved Plasma Spectroscopy in Pulsed Laser Deposition of Ultra-Thin Boron Nitride Films (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    relatively weak emission intensity compared to the atomic emission, and can be further masked by intense peaks of ionized boron at 345.1 nm and the second...become thermalized, reducing the concentration of ionized boron. From the maxi - mum locations in time of flight data in Figure 5(a), kinetic ve- locity...quickly transitioning from a high intensity and directional plume shape to a relatively weak and strongly confined distribution, which is mostly

  10. Ultra-thin film composite mixed matrix membranes incorporating iron(iii)-dopamine nanoparticles for CO2 separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinguk; Fu, Qiang; Scofield, Joel M. P.; Kentish, Sandra E.; Qiao, Greg G.

    2016-04-01

    Iron dopamine nanoparticles (FeDA NPs) are incorporated into a nanoscale thick polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrix for the first time, to form ultra-thin film composite mixed matrix membranes (UTFC-MMMs) via a recently developed continuous assembly of polymers (CAP) nanotechnology. The FeDA NPs are prepared by in situ nano-complexation between Fe3+ and DA and have a particle size that can be varied from 3 to 74 nanometers by adjusting the molar ratio of DA to Fe3+ ion. The cross-linked selective layer with sub 100 nanometer thickness is prepared by atom transfer radical polymerisation of a mixture of PEG macrocross-linkers and FeDA NPs on top of a highly permeable poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) prelayer, which is spin-coated onto a porous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) substrate. The incorporation of the FeDA NPs within the PEG-based selective layer is confirmed by XPS analysis. The UTFC-MMMs (thickness: ~45 nm) formed present excellent gas separation performance with a CO2 permeance of ~1200 GPU (1 GPU = 10-6 cm3 (STP) cm-2 s-1 cmHg-1) and an enhanced CO2/N2 selectivity of over 35, which is the best performance for UTFC membranes in the reported literature.Iron dopamine nanoparticles (FeDA NPs) are incorporated into a nanoscale thick polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrix for the first time, to form ultra-thin film composite mixed matrix membranes (UTFC-MMMs) via a recently developed continuous assembly of polymers (CAP) nanotechnology. The FeDA NPs are prepared by in situ nano-complexation between Fe3+ and DA and have a particle size that can be varied from 3 to 74 nanometers by adjusting the molar ratio of DA to Fe3+ ion. The cross-linked selective layer with sub 100 nanometer thickness is prepared by atom transfer radical polymerisation of a mixture of PEG macrocross-linkers and FeDA NPs on top of a highly permeable poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) prelayer, which is spin-coated onto a porous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) substrate. The incorporation of the FeDA NPs within the PEG

  11. Engineering of silicon-based ceramic fibers: Novel SiTaC(O) ceramic fibers prepared from polytantalosilane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z., E-mail: xiezhengfang@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Cao, S.; Wang, J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Yan, X. [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Bernard, S., E-mail: Samuel.Bernard@univ-lyon1.fr [Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces (UMR CNRS 5615), Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon1, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Miele, P. [Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces (UMR CNRS 5615), Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon1, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} This paper reports the preparation and characterization of a novel variety of silicon-based ceramic fibers. {yields} In the present paper, we provide a detailed picture of the preparation process of SiTaC(O) ceramic fibers from a polytantalosilane. {yields} We have fully characterized the polymer by FT-IR, NMR, chemical composition, GPC and TGA as well as the chemical composition, the structure, the texture, and the mechanical properties of the ceramic fibers by XPS, SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and mechanical tests. - Abstract: A novel variety of silicon-based ceramic fibers has been prepared from a preceramic organosilicon polymers called polytantalocarbosilane (PTaCS). This melt-spinnable polymer has been synthesized by thermally induced reactions between tantalum (V) tetraethoxyacetylacetonate (Ta(Acac)(OEt){sub 4}) and polysilacarbosilane (PSCS). The polymer in which [-Si-C-]{sub n} chains are crosslinked via Ta-containing bridges as identified by infrared spectroscopy, XPS and NMR, is decomposed in high ceramic yield (76%) and can be spun in the molten state into fibers to be cured in air then pyrolyzed in flowing nitrogen at 1200 deg. C into amorphous SiTaC(O) fibers. Complete characterization of this new generation of silicon-based ceramic fibers was made based on mechanical tests, XRD and SEM. These fibers exhibit relatively good mechanical properties and excellent high-temperature stability with good oxidation resistance.

  12. Influence of WS2 Nanopowder Addition on Friction Characteristics of ta-C Coating by FCVA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Geun Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of nano-size WS2 powders on the tribological behavior of ta-C coatings by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA method under boundary lubrication conditions has been investigated. In order to characterize and understand tribological behaviors of nano-size WS2 powders added to the synthetic oil (poly-alpha-olefin 6, lubricants with different mixture ratios, ranging from 2 to 8 wt%, have been prepared. ta-C coatings fabricated by FCVA method showed that the G-peak in the obtained Raman spectrum was shifted from 1520 to 1586 cm−1, indicating the sp3 content increased for samples with the thickness of 156 nm. The average friction coefficient decreased proportionally as the nano-size WS2 compositions increased up to 4 wt% in PAO6. After the friction test, structures and particle sizes of WS2 phases were also precisely characterized by using XRD and SEM.

  13. Mechanism of instability of carbides in Fe-TaC alloy under high energy electron irradiation at 673 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Kano, Sho; Li, Feng; Satoh, Yuhki; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Hamaguchi, Dai; Nagase, Takeshi; Yasuda, Hidehiro

    2014-12-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs), such as F82H steel, are designed to enhance the high-temperature strength by formation of MX-type nanometer-scale precipitates, mainly TaC. However, their instability under irradiation was recently reported. The purpose of this work, therefore, is to clarify the mechanism employing simultaneous observations under electron irradiation at elevated temperature in a high voltage electron microscope. In this work, Fe-0.2 wt.% TaC was fabricated as a model alloy of F82H steel. The instability of the precipitates was observed under electron irradiation at 1 MeV or above. The remarkable shrinkage and disappearance were clearly observed under irradiation with 1.5 MeV and above. On the contrary, the precipitates were mostly stable below 0.75 MeV. Two kinds of mechanism of the irradiation-induced instability were deduced from the electron-energy dependence. One is the dissolution and diffusion of tantalum from precipitates in ferrite matrix. The other is the displacements of tantalum in precipitates that introduce dissolution of Ta into matrix.

  14. Effect of Substrate Bias on Structure and Properties of Ta-C Films%基体负偏压对四面体非晶碳膜结构和性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建; 杨巍; 代伟; 柯培玲; 汪爱英

    2011-01-01

    Tetrahedral amorphous carbon(ta-C) films were prepared to study the deposition rate, composition, mechanical features and tribological properties as a function of substrate bias at a home-made 45°single bent filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition system. The results show that the sp3 content in the film first ascends and then descends with the increasing of the substrate bias. When the bias is -50 V, the content reaches the highest value of 64%, which leads to the observed maximum hardness and Young's modulus at 48. 22 Gpa and 388. 52 Gpa. Respectively. Furthermore, the minimum average coefficient of friction at 0. 1 is also acquired for the ta-C film deposited at -50 V. Therefore the sp3 content dominates the mechanical and tribological properties of deposited films.%采用自主研制的45°单弯曲磁过滤阴极电弧沉积系统于Si基体表面制备了四面体非晶碳(ta-C)膜,研究了基体负偏压对薄膜沉积速率、成分、力学性能及摩擦学性能的影响规律.结果表明,随基体负偏压升高,ta-C膜sp3键含量呈先增后减的变化趋势,在-50 V时达到最大值(约64%);其硬度和弹性模量呈相似的变化规律,在-50 V偏压下获得最大值(48.22 GPa和388.52 GPa).ta-C薄膜的摩擦学性能与其sp3碳杂化键的含量密切相关,在-50 V偏压下制备的薄膜具有最小平均摩擦因数值(0.10).可见,采用单弯曲磁过滤阴极弧电弧制备ta-C薄膜的力学和摩擦学特性主要受薄膜中sp3键含量的制约.

  15. Diode behavior in ultra-thin low temperature ALD grown zinc-oxide on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazek El-Atab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A thin-film ZnO(n/Si(p+ heterojunction diode is demonstrated. The thin film ZnO layer is deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD at different temperatures on a p-type silicon substrate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM AC-in-Air method in addition to conductive AFM (CAFM were used for the characterization of ZnO layer and to measure the current-voltage characteristics. Forward and reverse bias n-p diode behavior with good rectification properties is achieved. The diode with ZnO grown at 80°C exhibited the highest on/off ratio with a turn-on voltage (VON ∼3.5 V. The measured breakdown voltage (VBR and electric field (EBR for this diode are 5.4 V and 3.86 MV/cm, respectively.

  16. Analysis of Microstructure and Damage Evolution in Ultra-Thin Wires of the Magnesium Alloy MgCa0.8 at Multipass Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenin, Andrij; Kustra, Piotr; Byrska-Wójcik, Dorota; Grydin, Olexandr; Schaper, Mirko; Mentlein, Thorben; Gerstein, Gregory; Nürnberger, Florian

    2016-12-01

    A combined multipass hot and cold drawing process was implemented to manufacture ultra-thin wires of the magnesium alloy MgCa0.8 with a final diameter of 0.05 mm. Numerical simulations were applied to design the drawing process of 40 passes regarding the microstructure evolution. To parametrize the model, in situ tensile tests were performed. Analysis of the MgCa0.8 wires featuring diameters below 0.1 mm revealed no intergranular crack initiation. The grain size of the ultra-thin wires is within the range of 30-500 nm with grains elongated in the drawing direction. The fine-grained microstructure provides high mechanical strength properties.

  17. Plasmonic excitation-assisted optical and electric enhancement in ultra-thin solar cells: the influence of nano-strip cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaeian, Mohammad, E-mail: sabaiean@scu.ac.ir; Heydari, Mehdi; Ajamgard, Narges [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, 61357-43135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    The effects of Ag nano-strips with triangle, rectangular and trapezoid cross sections on the optical absorption, generation rate, and short-circuit current density of ultra-thin solar cells were investigated. By putting the nano-strips as a grating structure on the top of the solar cells, the waveguide, surface plasmon polariton (SPP), and localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes, which are excited with the assistance of nano-strips, were evaluated in TE and TM polarizations. The results show, firstly, the TM modes are more influential than TE modes in optical and electrical properties enhancement of solar cell, because of plasmonic excitations in TM mode. Secondly, the trapezoid nano-strips reveal noticeable impact on the optical absorption, generation rate, and short-circuit current density enhancement than triangle and rectangular ones. In particular, the absorption of long wavelengths which is a challenge in ultra-thin solar cells is significantly improved by using Ag trapezoid nano-strips.

  18. Nanometric thin film membranes manufactured on square meter scale: ultra-thin films for CO{sub 2} capture - article no. 395301

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yave, W.; Car, A.; Wind, J.; Peinemann, K.V. [GKSS Research Center of Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Miniaturization and manipulation of materials at nanometer scale are key challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In membrane science and technology, the fabrication of ultra-thin polymer films (defect-free) on square meter scale with uniform thickness (<100 nm) is crucial. By using a tailor-made polymer and by controlling the nanofabrication conditions, we developed and manufactured defect-free ultra-thin film membranes with unmatched carbon dioxide permeances, i.e. >5 m{sup 3} (STP) m{sup -2} h{sup -1} bar{sup -1}. The permeances are extremely high, because the membranes are made from a CO{sub 2} philic polymer material and they are only a few tens of nanometers thin. Thus, these thin film membranes have potential application in the treatment of large gas streams under low pressure like, e.g., carbon dioxide separation from flue gas.

  19. 4P-NPD ultra thin-films as efficient exciton blocking layers in DBP/C70 based organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Bhushan Ramesh; Liu, Yiming; Qamar, Talha

    2017-01-01

    Exciton blocking effects from ultra thin layers of N,N'-di-1-naphthalenyl-N,N'-diphenyl [1,1':4',1'':4'',1'''-quaterphenyl]-4,4'''-diamine (4P-NPD) was investigated in small molecule based inverted Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) using Tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) as the electron donor material...... beyond 1 nm. This work demonstrates a route for guiding the integration of exciton blocking layers in organic solar cell devices....

  20. A new numerical method to solve modified Reynolds equation for magnetic head/disk working in ultra-thin gas films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Howard; H; HU

    2008-01-01

    The modified Reynolds equation for ultra-thin gas films between magnetic head and disk assembly is difficult to solve with conventional numerical methods, since the bearing number is very large and there exist boundary layers where pressure changes rapidly. An iterative finite difference algorithm is introduced to solve the nonlinear modified Reynolds equation, with special treatment for the abrupt change in the thickness of the gas film. The numerical results for two types of magnetic heads demonstrate that the scheme is effective.

  1. Charge transfer from an adsorbed ruthenium-based photosensitizer through an ultra-thin aluminium oxide layer and into a metallic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Andrew J.; Temperton, Robert H.; Handrup, Karsten; Weston, Matthew; Mayor, Louise C.; O’Shea, James N., E-mail: james.oshea@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy and Nottingham Nanotechnology and Nanoscience Centre (NNNC), University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-21

    The interaction of the dye molecule N3 (cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarbo-xylato) -ruthenium(II)) with the ultra-thin oxide layer on a AlNi(110) substrate, has been studied using synchrotron radiation based photoelectron spectroscopy, resonant photoemission spectroscopy, and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Calibrated X-ray absorption and valence band spectra of the monolayer and multilayer coverages reveal that charge transfer is possible from the molecule to the AlNi(110) substrate via tunnelling through the ultra-thin oxide layer and into the conduction band edge of the substrate. This charge transfer mechanism is possible from the LUMO+2 and 3 in the excited state but not from the LUMO, therefore enabling core-hole clock analysis, which gives an upper limit of 6.0 ± 2.5 fs for the transfer time. This indicates that ultra-thin oxide layers are a viable material for use in dye-sensitized solar cells, which may lead to reduced recombination effects and improved efficiencies of future devices.

  2. Charge transfer from an adsorbed ruthenium-based photosensitizer through an ultra-thin aluminium oxide layer and into a metallic substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Andrew J; Handrup, Karsten; Weston, Matthew; Mayor, Louise C; O'Shea, James N

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of the dye molecule N3 (cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)-ruthenium(II)) with the ultra-thin oxide layer on a AlNi(110) substrate, has been studied using synchrotron radiation based photoelectron spectroscopy, resonant photoemission spectroscopy (RPES) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). Calibrated X-ray absorption and valence band spectra of the monolayer and multilayer coverages reveal that charge transfer is possible from the molecule to the AlNi(110) substrate via tunnelling through the ultra-thin oxide layer and into the conduction band edge of the substrate. This charge transfer mechanism is possible from the LUMO+2&3 in the excited state but not from the LUMO, therefore enabling core-hole clock analysis, which gives an upper limit of $6.0\\pm$2.5fs for the transfer time. This indicates that ultra-thin oxide layers are a viable material for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), which may lead to reduced recombination effe...

  3. Charge transfer from an adsorbed ruthenium-based photosensitizer through an ultra-thin aluminium oxide layer and into a metallic substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andrew J; Temperton, Robert H; Handrup, Karsten; Weston, Matthew; Mayor, Louise C; O'Shea, James N

    2014-06-21

    The interaction of the dye molecule N3 (cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarbo-xylato)-ruthenium(II)) with the ultra-thin oxide layer on a AlNi(110) substrate, has been studied using synchrotron radiation based photoelectron spectroscopy, resonant photoemission spectroscopy, and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Calibrated X-ray absorption and valence band spectra of the monolayer and multilayer coverages reveal that charge transfer is possible from the molecule to the AlNi(110) substrate via tunnelling through the ultra-thin oxide layer and into the conduction band edge of the substrate. This charge transfer mechanism is possible from the LUMO+2 and 3 in the excited state but not from the LUMO, therefore enabling core-hole clock analysis, which gives an upper limit of 6.0 ± 2.5 fs for the transfer time. This indicates that ultra-thin oxide layers are a viable material for use in dye-sensitized solar cells, which may lead to reduced recombination effects and improved efficiencies of future devices.

  4. 超薄锌层热镀锌板的研究进展%Research Progress of Ultra-thin Zinc Layer of Hot Galvanized Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑耀东

    2012-01-01

    The production and usage of hot galvanized sheet were introduced. The market demand for the ultra-thin zinc layer of hot galvanized sheet was analyzed from improving unit production capacity and reducing production cost. By comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the hot galvanized sheet and the electricity galvanized sheet, the specific measures taken by the current hot galvanized sheet in aspects of control of the ultra-thin zinc layer were reviewed. The development prospects of the ultra-thin zinc layer of hot galvanized sheet in China was forecasted.%介绍了我国热镀锌板的生产及使用现状,从提高机组生产能力和降低生产成本方面分析了市场对薄锌层镀锌板的需求.通过对电镀锌板与热镀锌板优缺点的比较,综述了当前热镀锌板在超薄锌层控制方面所采取的措施,预测了我国超薄锌层热镀锌板的发展前景.

  5. Enhancement of spin-Seebeck effect by inserting ultra-thin Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, D., E-mail: d.kikuchi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ishida, M.; Murakami, T. [Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Smart Energy Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, Tsukuba 305-8501 (Japan); Uchida, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Qiu, Z. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Saitoh, E. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2015-02-23

    We report the longitudinal spin-Seebeck effects (LSSEs) for Pt/Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30}/BiY{sub 2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (BiYIG) and Pt/BiYIG devices. The LSSE voltage was found to be enhanced by inserting an ultra-thin Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} interlayer. This enhancement decays sharply with increasing the Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} thickness, suggesting that it is not due to bulk phenomena, such as a superposition of conventional thermoelectric effects, but due to interface effects related to the Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} interlayer. Combined with control experiments using Pt/Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} devices, we conclude that the enhancement of the LSSE voltage in the Pt/Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30}/BiYIG devices is attributed to the improvement of the spin-mixing conductance at the Pt/BiYIG interfaces.

  6. FABRICATION OF STRAINED-Si CHANNEL P-MOSFET's ON ULTRA-THIN SiGe VIRTUAL SUBSTRATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the ultra-thin relaxed SiGe virtual substrates, a strained-Si channel p-type Metal Oxide Semi-conductor Field Effect Transistor (p-MOSFET) is presented. Built on strained-Si/240nm relaxed-Si0.8 Ge0.2/100nm Low Temperature Si (LT-Si)/10nm Si buffer was grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), in whichLT-Si layer is used to release stress of the SiGe layer and made it relaxed. Measurement indicates that thestrained-Si p-MOSFET's (L=4.2μm) transconductance and the hole mobility are enhanced 30% and 50% re-spectively, compared with that of conventional bulk-Si. The maximum hole mobility for strained-Si device is140cm2/Vs. The device performance is comparable to devices achieved on several μm thick compositiongraded buffers and relaxed-SiGe layer virtual substrates.

  7. Photoconductivity of ultra-thin Ge(GeSn) layers grown in Si by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talochkin, A. B.; Chistokhin, I. B.; Mashanov, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    Photoconductivity (PC) spectra of Si/Ge(GeSn)/Si structures with the ultra-thin (1.0-2.3 nm) Ge and GeSn alloy layers grown by the low-temperature (T = 100 °C) molecular beam epitaxy are studied. Photoresponse in the range of 1.2-0.4 eV related to light absorption in the buried Ge(GeSn) layer is observed. It is shown that in case of lateral PC, a simple diffusion model can be used to determine the absorption coefficient of this layer α ˜ 105 cm-1. This value is 100 times larger than that of a single Ge quantum dot layer and is reached significantly above the band gap of most bulk semiconductors. The observed absorption is caused by optical transitions between electron and hole states localized at the interfaces. The anomalous high value of α can be explained by the unusual state of Ge(GeSn) layer with high concentration of dangling bonds, the optical properties of which have been predicted theoretically by Knief and von Niessen (Phys. Rev. B 59, 12940 (1999)).

  8. Influence of hydrogen on the structure and stability of ultra-thin ZnO on metal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniek, Bjoern [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Hofmann, Oliver T. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Festkörperphysik, TU Graz, 8010 Graz (Austria); Rinke, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.rinke@aalto.fi [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, 14195 Berlin (Germany); School of Science, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2015-03-30

    We investigate the atomic and electronic structure of ultra-thin ZnO films (1 to 4 layers) on the (111) surfaces of Ag, Cu, Pd, Pt, Ni, and Rh by means of density-functional theory. The ZnO monolayer is found to adopt an α-BN structure on the metal substrates with coincidence structures in good agreement with experiment. Thicker ZnO layers change into a wurtzite structure. The films exhibit a strong corrugation, which can be smoothed by hydrogen (H) adsorption. An H over-layer with 50% coverage is formed at chemical potentials that range from low to ultra-high vacuum H{sub 2} pressures. For the Ag substrate, both α-BN and wurtzite ZnO films are accessible in this pressure range, while for Cu, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ni wurtzite films are favored. The surface structure and the density of states of these H passivated ZnO thin films agree well with those of the bulk ZnO(0001{sup ¯})-2×1-H surface.

  9. The Effect of Nb on the Continuous Cooling Transformation Curves of Ultra-Thin Strip CASTRIP© Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin R. Carpenter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nb on the hardenability of ultra-thin cast strip (UCS steels produced via the unique regime of rapid solidification, large austenite grain size, and inclusion engineering of the CASTRIP© process was investigated. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams were constructed for 0, 0.014, 0.024, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 wt% Nb containing UCS steels. Phase nomenclature for the identification of lower transformation product in low carbon steels was reviewed. Even a small addition of 0.014 wt% Nb showed a potent effect on hardenability, shifting the ferrite C-curve to the right and expanding the bainitic ferrite and acicular ferrite phase fields. Higher Nb additions increased hardenability further, suppressed the formation of ferrite to even lower cooling rates, progressively lowered the transformation start and finish temperatures and promoted the transformation of bainite instead of acicular ferrite. The latter was due to Nb suppressing the formation of allotriomorphic ferrite and allowing bainite to nucleate at prior austenite grain boundaries, a lower energy site than that for the intragranular nucleation of acicular ferrite at inclusions. Strength and hardness increased with increasing Nb additions, largely due to microstructural strengthening and solid solution hardening, but not from precipitation hardening.

  10. Temperature effect on buckling properties of ultra-thin-walled lenticular collapsible composite tube subjected to axial compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Jiangbo; Xiong Junjiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to outline the temperature effect on the buckling properties of ultra-thin-walled lenticular collapsible composite tube (LCCT) subjected to axial compression. The buckling tests of the LCCT specimens subjected to axial compression were carried out on INSTRON-500N servo-hydraulic machine in dry state and at the temperatures of 25 ?C, 100 ?C and ?80 ?C. The load-displacement curves and buckling initiation loads were measured and the buckling initiation mechanism was discussed from experimental observations. Experiments show that the buckling initiation load, on average, is only about 2.2% greater at the low temperature of ?80 ?C than at the room temperature of 25 ?C due to the material hardening, demonstrating an insignificant increase in the buckling initiation load, whereas it is about 19.5%lower at the high temperature of 100 ?C than at the room temperature owing to the material softening, implying a significant decrease in the buckling initiation load. The failure mode of the LCCT in axial compres-sion tests at three different temperatures can be reckoned to be characteristic of the buckling initi-ation and propagation around the central region until rupture. The finite element (FE) model is presented to simulate the buckling initiation mechanism based on the eigenvalue-based methodol-ogy. Good correlation between experimental and numerical results is achieved.

  11. Surface-induced solid-liquid phase transitions in ultra-thin water films at T > 0 ^oC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Animesh; Gellman, Andrew; Baker, Layton; Broitman, Estebahn

    2008-03-01

    We report here the measurements of both the adsorption isotherms and the dissipation in ultra-thin films of water adsorbed on the surfaces of SiO2 . The measurements were made in a small high vacuum chamber in which we have mounted a QCM. The chamber was evacuated to ˜10-8 Torr and then filled with water vapor at pressures ranging from 10-3 -- 40 Torr (the vapor pressure of water at room temperature is ˜22 Torr). In addition the temperature of the apparatus can be varied in the range 10 -- 60^oC. This is sufficient to measure the adsorption isotherm and to probe the phase of adsorbed water films over the range of conditions. Recently published work studying the adsorption of water on the SiO2 layer formed on Si single crystals has suggested that the phase of the water at temperatures well above 0^oC is actually that of a solid, ice-like structure rather than liquid water [1]. That work is based on the comparison of the vibrational spectrum of thin water films with those of liquid water and ice. In our study we are using the QCM to investigate the possibility of formation of Ice-like structures on SiO2. [1] Asay, D. B. and Kim, S.H., Evolution of the Adsorbed Water Layer Structure on Silicon Oxide at Room Temperature. J. Phys. Chem. B. 2005, 109, 16760-16763

  12. Wear evaluation of a cross-linked medical grade polyethylene by ultra thin layer activation compared to gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroosnijder, Marinus F.; Hoffmann, Michael; Sauvage, Thierry; Blondiaux, Gilbert; Vincent, Laetitia

    2005-01-01

    Most of today's artificial joints rely on an articulating couple consisting of a CoCrMo alloy and a medical grade polyethylene. The wear of the polyethylene component is the major cause for long-term failure of these prostheses since the wear debris leads to adverse biological reactions. The polyethylene wear is usually measured by gravimetric methods, which are limited due to a low sensitivity and accuracy. To demonstrate the reliability of ultra thin layer activation (UTLA) as an alternative technique, wear tests on a cross-linked ultra-high-molecular weight polyethylene (XLPE) sliding against CoCrMo were performed on a wear tester featuring multi-directional sliding motion. The amount of polyethylene wear was evaluated by both UTLA and gravimetry. The particular TLA method used in this work employed the implantation of 7Be radioactive recoils into the polyethylene surface by means of a light mass particle beam. The results indicate that apart from its relatively high sensitivity, UTLA also offers the possibility for on-line measurements of polyethylene wear. This makes it a viable and complementary technique in wear test studies for medical implant purposes especially for those involving wear resistant materials and for rapid wear screening.

  13. Neutron measurements with ultra-thin 3D silicon sensors in a radiotherapy treatment room using a Siemens PRIMUS linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, C.; Gómez, F.; Fleta, C.; Rodríguez, J.; Quirion, D.; Pellegrini, G.; Lousa, A.; Martínez-de-Olcoz, L.; Pombar, M.; Lozano, M.

    2013-05-01

    The accurate detection and dosimetry of neutrons in mixed and pulsed radiation fields is a demanding instrumental issue with great interest both for the industrial and medical communities. In recent studies of neutron contamination around medical linacs, there is a growing concern about the secondary cancer risk for radiotherapy patients undergoing treatment in photon modalities at energies greater than 6 MV. In this work we present a promising alternative to standard detectors with an active method to measure neutrons around a medical linac using a novel ultra-thin silicon detector with 3D electrodes adapted for neutron detection. The active volume of this planar device is only 10 µm thick, allowing a high gamma rejection, which is necessary to discriminate the neutron signal in the radiotherapy peripheral radiation field with a high gamma background. Different tests have been performed in a clinical facility using a Siemens PRIMUS linac at 6 and 15 MV. The results show a good thermal neutron detection efficiency around 2% and a high gamma rejection factor.

  14. Effect of aging and annealing on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of ultra-thin CoPt films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, R.; Hayakawa, K.; Ebata, K.; Sugita, R.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of aging and annealing on the magnetic properties of ultra-thin CoPt films with a Ru underlayer was investigated. For the 3 nm thick CoPt film aged in the air, the decrease of the saturation magnetic moment ms, the drastic increase of the perpendicular coercivity Hc⊥ and the perpendicular anisotropy were observed. This is because the surface layer of the CoPt film was oxidized and the bottom layer with high perpendicular anisotropy due to lattice distortion remained. For the annealed 3 nm thick CoPt film with a Pt protective layer, rising the annealing temperature Ta led to the decrease of ms, the decrease after increase of Hc⊥, and the decrease of the perpendicular squareness ratio S⊥ at Ta of 400 ∘C. The origins of effect of annealing were considered to be the grain boundary diffusion and the bulk diffusion of Ru and Pt into the CoPt film, and relaxation of the lattice distortion.

  15. Effect of aging and annealing on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of ultra-thin CoPt films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aging and annealing on the magnetic properties of ultra-thin CoPt films with a Ru underlayer was investigated. For the 3 nm thick CoPt film aged in the air, the decrease of the saturation magnetic moment ms, the drastic increase of the perpendicular coercivity Hc⊥ and the perpendicular anisotropy were observed. This is because the surface layer of the CoPt film was oxidized and the bottom layer with high perpendicular anisotropy due to lattice distortion remained. For the annealed 3 nm thick CoPt film with a Pt protective layer, rising the annealing temperature Ta led to the decrease of ms, the decrease after increase of Hc⊥, and the decrease of the perpendicular squareness ratio S⊥ at Ta of 400 ∘C. The origins of effect of annealing were considered to be the grain boundary diffusion and the bulk diffusion of Ru and Pt into the CoPt film, and relaxation of the lattice distortion.

  16. Design and analyses of an ultra-thin flat lens for wave front shaping in the visible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kai, E-mail: nianhua110@hotmail.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Li, Yiyan, E-mail: liy10@unlv.nevada.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4026 (United States); Tian, Xuelong, E-mail: xltian@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zeng, Dajun, E-mail: dajunzeng@163.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Gao, Xueli, E-mail: 2455031293@qq.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-12-04

    An ultra-thin flat lens is proposed for focusing circularly polarized light in the visible range. Anisotropic C-shaped nanoantennas with phase discontinuities are used to form the metasurface of the lens. The phase response of the C-shaped nanoantennas can be manipulated by simply rotating the angle of the unit nanoantenna. A 600 nm incident circularly polarized light is focused by the proposed techniques. Good agreements are observed by using our MoM and a commercial FDTD software package. The computation time spent by using MoM is approximately 10–100 times smaller than using FDTD. All the results show the proposed nanoantenna array has a great potential for nanoscale optical microscopy, solar cell energy conversion enhancement, as well as integrated optical circuits. - Highlights: • Successfully focusing a 600 nm light using a circularly C-shaped nanoantenna array. • The computation time spent by using MoM is approximately 10–100 times smaller than FDTD. • A good agreement is observed using our MoM to the classic FDTD method.

  17. Uncorrelated multiple conductive filament nucleation and rupture in ultra-thin high-κ dielectric based resistive random access memory

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing

    2011-08-29

    Resistive switching in transition metal oxides could form the basis for next-generation non-volatile memory (NVM). It has been reported that the current in the high-conductivity state of several technologically relevant oxide materials flows through localized filaments, but these filaments have been characterized only individually, limiting our understanding of the possibility of multiple conductive filaments nucleation and rupture and the correlation kinetics of their evolution. In this study, direct visualization of uncorrelated multiple conductive filaments in ultra-thin HfO2-based high-κ dielectricresistive random access memory (RRAM) device has been achieved by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), along with electron energy loss spectroscopy(EELS), for nanoscale chemical analysis. The locations of these multiple filaments are found to be spatially uncorrelated. The evolution of these microstructural changes and chemical properties of these filaments will provide a fundamental understanding of the switching mechanism for RRAM in thin oxide films and pave way for the investigation into improving the stability and scalability of switching memory devices.

  18. Ultra-thin polytetrafluoroethene/Nafion/silica composite membrane with high performance for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiangguo; Dai, Jicui; Bi, Fangyuan; Yin, Geping

    2014-12-01

    Ultra-thin and high performance polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE)/Nafion/silica composite membrane has been successfully prepared by solution casting and sol-gel method for all vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). Thickness of ∼25 μm polytetrafluoroethene/Nafion (P/N) membrane is first prepared by impregnating porous PTFE membrane with Nafion solution, and then the P/N membrane is immersed in tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) solution to prepare PTFE/Nafion/silica (P/N/S) composite membranes. The chemical structures of membranes are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), which prove that the Nafion resin and silica are well impregnated in PTFE membrane. The water uptake, proton conductivity, vanadium permeability and VRB single cell tests of the composite membrane are also investigated in detail. At 80 mA cm-2, coulombic efficiency, voltage efficiency and energy efficiency of the VRB with P/N/S-7 (7 wt.% SiO2 in P/N/S) membrane are 93.9%, 87.2% and 81.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the self-discharge rate of the VRB with P/N/S membrane is much slower than that of the VRB with P/N membrane, which indicates that the membrane has good vanadium block ability. Fifty cycles charge-discharge test proves that the P/N/S membrane is very stable and possesses high chemical stability under the strong acid solutions.

  19. Optimization and analysis of 3D nanostructures for power-density enhancement in ultra-thin photovoltaics under oblique illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bing; Wang, Peng; Menon, Rajesh

    2014-03-10

    Nanostructures have the potential to significantly increase the output power-density of ultra-thin photovoltaic devices by scattering incident sunlight into resonant guided modes. We applied a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm to design such nanostructures in order to maximize the output power-density under oblique-illumination conditions. We show that with appropriate design of nanostructured cladding layers, it is possible for a 10nm-thick organic absorber to produce an average peak power-density of 4 mW/cm² with incident polar angle ranging from -90° to 90° and incident azimuthal angle ranging from -23.5° to 23.5°. Using careful modal and spectral analysis, we further show that an optimal trade-off of absorption at λ~510 nm among various angles of incidence is essential to excellent performance under oblique illumination. Finally, we show that the optimized device with no sun tracking can produce on an average 7.23 times more energy per year than that produced by a comparable unpatterned device with an optimal anti-reflection coating.

  20. A study on in situ growth of TaC whiskers in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix powder for ceramic cutting tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Guolong [Centre for Advanced Jet Engineering Technologies (CaJET), School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of High-efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture (Shandong University), Ministry of Education (China); Huang, Chuanzhen, E-mail: chuanzhenh@sdu.edu.cn [Centre for Advanced Jet Engineering Technologies (CaJET), School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of High-efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture (Shandong University), Ministry of Education (China); Liu, Hanlian; Xu, Liang; Chong, Xuewen; Zou, Bin; Zhu, Hongtao [Centre for Advanced Jet Engineering Technologies (CaJET), School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of High-efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture (Shandong University), Ministry of Education (China)

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: In situ growth of TaC whiskers (TaC{sub w}) was synthesized in an α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix powder via a carbothermal reduction technique. The whiskers were 0.2–0.5 μm in diameter and 5–15 μm in length; they were straight and had smooth surfaces. Highlights: ► In situ growth of TaC whiskers was synthesized in an α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix powder. ► The wet mixing method and 1450 °C were suitable for whiskers growth. ► The growth of TaC whiskers is not influenced by the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. ► The major impurities were TaC particles, nickel and unreacted carbon. -- Abstract: In situ growth of tantalum carbide (TaC) whiskers was synthesized in an α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix powder via a carbothermal reduction technique within a temperature range of 1350–1500 °C in an argon atmosphere. The starting materials consisted of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, C, Ni and NaCl powders. Different mixing methods and various reaction temperatures were employed. Most of the prepared whiskers were 0.2–0.5 μm in diameter and 5–15 μm in length. The reaction temperature of 1400–1450 °C was suitable for the growth of TaC whiskers and a wet mixing method was beneficial to increase the whisker yield. Some of the whiskers exhibited the needle shape while others exhibited the screw shape. The growth mechanism of the whiskers was a complex mechanism involving a helical screw dislocation mechanism and a vapor–liquid–solid process. No obvious influences of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix powder on the growth of TaC whiskers were found and the major impurities in the obtained powder were TaC particles, nickel and unreacted carbon.

  1. Ultra-Thin Films of Poly(acrylic acid/Silver Nanocomposite Coatings for Antimicrobial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Fahmy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work not only colloids of poly(acrylic acid (PAA embedded with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs but thin films (10 nm also were deposited using electrospray deposition technique (ESD. A mixture of sodium borohydride (NaBH4 and ascorbic acid (AA were utilized to reduce the silver ions to generate Ag-NPs in the PAA matrix. Moreover, sodium tricitrate was used to stabilize the prepared colloids. The obtained colloids and films were characterized using UV-visible, transmission electron microscopy (TEM. UV-Vis results reveal that an absorption peak at 425 nm was observed in presence of PAA-AgNO3-AA-citrate-NaBH4. This peak is attributed to the well-known surface plasmon resonance of the silver bound in Ag-NPs, while the reduction was rendering and/or inhibiting in absence of the AA and citrate. FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the mechanism of the reaction process of silver nitrate with PAA. TEM images showed the well dispersion of Ag-NPs in the PAA matrix with average particle size of 8 nm. The antimicrobial studies showed that the Ag-NPs embedded in the PAA matrix have proven to have a significant antimicrobial activity against E. coli, B. subtilis, and C. albicans.

  2. Morphology and N2 Permeance of Sputtered Pd-Ag Ultra-Thin Film Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekain Fernandez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the temperature during the growth of Pd-Ag films by PVD magnetron sputtering onto polished silicon wafers was studied in order to avoid the effect of the support roughness on the layer growth. The surfaces of the Pd-Ag membrane films were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM, and the results indicate an increase of the grain size from 120 to 250–270 nm and film surface roughness from 4–5 to 10–12 nm when increasing the temperature from around 360–510 K. After selecting the conditions for obtaining the smallest grain size onto silicon wafer, thin Pd-Ag (0.5–2-µm thick films were deposited onto different types of porous supports to study the influence of the porous support, layer thickness and target power on the selective layer microstructure and membrane properties. The Pd-Ag layers deposited onto ZrO2 3-nm top layer supports (smallest pore size among all tested present high N2 permeance in the order of 10−6 mol·m−2·s−1·Pa−1 at room temperature.

  3. Test beam analysis of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies with Timepix readout ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar; Dannheim, Dominik; Firu, Elena; Kulis, Szymon; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The requirements for the vertex detector at the proposed Compact Linear Collider imply a very small material budget: less than 0.2% of a radiation length per detection layer including services and mechanical supports. We present here a study using Timepix readout ASICs hybridised to pixel sensors of 50 − 500 μm thickness, including assemblies with 100 μm thick sensors bonded to thinned 100μm thick ASICs. Sensors from three producers (Advacam, Micron Semiconductor Ltd, Canberra) with different edge termination technologies (active edge, slim edge) were bonded to Timepix ASICs. These devices were characterised with the EUDET telescope at the DESY II test beam using 5.6 GeV electrons. Their performance for the detection and tracking of minimum ionising particles was evaluated in terms of charge sharing, detection efficiency, single-point resolution and energy deposition.

  4. Toward high efficiency ultra-thin CIGSe based solar cells using light management techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghavi, Negar; Jehl, Zacharie; Donsanti, Frederique; Guillemoles, Jean-François; Gérard, Isabelle; Bouttemy, Muriel; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Collin, Stéphane; Colin, Clément; Péré-Laperne, Nicolas; Dahan, Nir; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Morel, Boris; Djebbour, Zakaria; Darga, Arouna; Mencaraglia, Denis; Voorwinden, Georg; Dimmler, Bernhard; Powalla, Micheal; Lincot, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    This study addresses the potential of different approaches to improve the generated current density in ultrathin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) based solar cells down to 0.1 μm. Advanced photon management, involving both absorption enhancement and reflection reduction in the absorber, is studied. In this contribution, the three main approaches used are: - The reduction of the CIGSe thickness by chemical etching which combines thickness reduction and smoothing effect on the absorber. - Optical management by front contact engineering and by the replacement of the back contact by the "lift-off" of CIGSe layer from the Mo layer and the deposition of a new reflective back contact. - Application of plasmonic structures to CIGSe solar cells enabling light confinement at the subwavelength scale.

  5. Growth of ultra-thin fluoride heterostructures on Ge(1 1 1) for quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Takao; Takahashi, Keita; Tsutsui, Kazuo

    2009-03-01

    Epitaxial growth of fluoride quantum well structure of Ca xSr 1-xF 2/CdF 2/Ca xSr 1-xF 2 on Ge(1 1 1) is investigated. The two-step growth method was found to be useful for growth of the initial Ca xSr 1-xF 2 layer on Ge(1 1 1) in which Ca xSr 1-xF 2 was deposited at room temperature followed by in situ annealing for solid phase epitaxy. The quantum well structures composed of triple fluoride layers on Ge(1 1 1) substrates were superior to conventional ones grown on Si(1 1 1) substrate, due to the less chemical reactivity of CdF 2 with Ge than that with Si.

  6. Optically transparent magnetic and electrically conductive Fe-Cr-Zr ultra-thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V.; Ketov, S.V.; Mizukami, S. [Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Orava, J. [Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    The transparent magnetic thin films having a nominal composition of Fe{sub 75}Cr{sub 15}Zr{sub 10} and containing nanocrystalline BCC Fe particles embedded in a metallic glassy matrix were deposited by a magnetron sputtering technique. The nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed in the glassy matrix, which results in the appearance of ferromagnetic properties. The phase composition and microstructure of the films were examined by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy equipped with EDX spectroscopy. The magneto-optical properties of the obtained films were also studied by magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) method. The material obtained possesses three key properties: it is optically transparent in the visible-light range as well as electrically conductive and it shows ferromagnetism, which all of these are often mutually alternative. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Building America Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed-humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach to potential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaC Studios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowner's wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this home was evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored to determine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  8. Mesoporous silica as a membrane for ultra-thin implantable direct glucose fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tushar; Hu, Ye; Stoller, Meryl; Feldman, Marc; Ruoff, Rodney S; Ferrari, Mauro; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2011-07-21

    The design, fabrication and characterization of an inorganic catalyst based direct glucose fuel cell using mesoporous silica coating as a functional membrane is reported. The desired use of mesoporous silica based direct glucose fuel cell is for a blood vessel implantable device. Blood vessel implantable direct glucose fuel cells have access to higher continuous glucose concentrations. However, reduction in the implant thickness is required for application in the venous system as part of a stent. We report development of an implantable device with a platinum thin-film (thickness: 25 nm) deposited on silicon substrate (500 μm) to serve as the anode, and graphene pressed on a stainless steel mesh (175 μm) to serve as the cathode. Control experiments involved the use of a surfactant-coated polypropylene membrane (50 μm) with activated carbon (198 μm) electrodes. We demonstrate that a mesoporous silica thin film (270 nm) is capable of replacing the conventional polymer based membranes with an improvement in the power generated over conventional direct glucose fuel cells.

  9. Effects of different wetting layers on the growth of smooth ultra-thin silver thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Chuan; Shah, Piyush; Sarangan, Andrew M.

    2014-09-01

    Ultrathin silver films (thickness below 10 nm) are of great interest as optical coatings on windows and plasmonic devices. However, producing these films has been a continuing challenge because of their tendency to form clusters or islands rather than smooth contiguous thin films. In this work we have studied the effect of Cu, Ge and ZnS as wetting layers (1.0 nm) to achieve ultrasmooth thin silver films. The silver films (5 nm) were grown by RF sputter deposition on silicon and glass substrates using a few monolayers of the different wetting materials. SEM imaging was used to characterize the surface properties such as island formation and roughness. Also the optical properties were measured to identify the optical impact of the different wetting layers. Finally, a multi-layer silver based structure is designed and fabricated, and its performance is evaluated. The comparison between the samples with different wetting layers show that the designs with wetting layers which have similar optical properties to silver produce the best overall performance. In the absence of a wetting layer, the measured optical spectra show a significant departure from the model predictions, which we attribute primarily to the formation of clusters.

  10. Laser Cladding of Ultra-Thin Nickel-Based Superalloy Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Tobias; Rommel, Daniel; Scherm, Florian; Gorywoda, Marek; Glatzel, Uwe

    2017-03-10

    Laser cladding is a well-established process to apply coatings on metals. However, on substrates considerably thinner than 1 mm it is only rarely described in the literature. In this work 200 µm thin sheets of nickel-based superalloy 718 are coated with a powder of a cobalt-based alloy, Co-28Cr-9W-1.5Si, by laser cladding. The process window is very narrow, therefore, a precisely controlled Yb fiber laser was used. To minimize the input of energy into the substrate, lines were deposited by setting single overlapping points. In a design of experiments (DoE) study, the process parameters of laser power, laser spot area, step size, exposure time, and solidification time were varied and optimized by examining the clad width, weld penetration, and alloying depth. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Similarly to laser cladding of thicker substrates, the laser power shows the highest influence on the resulting clad. With a higher laser power, the clad width and alloying depth increase, and with a larger laser spot area the weld penetration decreases. If the process parameters are controlled precisely, laser cladding of such thin sheets is manageable.

  11. Laser Cladding of Ultra-Thin Nickel-Based Superalloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser cladding is a well-established process to apply coatings on metals. However, on substrates considerably thinner than 1 mm it is only rarely described in the literature. In this work 200 µm thin sheets of nickel-based superalloy 718 are coated with a powder of a cobalt-based alloy, Co–28Cr–9W–1.5Si, by laser cladding. The process window is very narrow, therefore, a precisely controlled Yb fiber laser was used. To minimize the input of energy into the substrate, lines were deposited by setting single overlapping points. In a design of experiments (DoE study, the process parameters of laser power, laser spot area, step size, exposure time, and solidification time were varied and optimized by examining the clad width, weld penetration, and alloying depth. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by optical microscope (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Similarly to laser cladding of thicker substrates, the laser power shows the highest influence on the resulting clad. With a higher laser power, the clad width and alloying depth increase, and with a larger laser spot area the weld penetration decreases. If the process parameters are controlled precisely, laser cladding of such thin sheets is manageable.

  12. Characterization of nano-powder grown ultra-thin film p-CuO/n-Si hetero-junctions by employing vapour-liquid-solid method for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultana, Jenifar; Das, Anindita [Centre for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CRNN), Kolkata 700098 (India); Das, Avishek [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700009 (India); Saha, Nayan Ranjan [Department of Polymer Science and Technology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700009 (India); Karmakar, Anupam [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700009 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sanatan, E-mail: scelc@caluniv.ac.in [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the CuO nano-powder has been synthesized by employing chemical bath deposition technique for its subsequent use to grow ultrathin film (20 nm) of p-CuO on n-Si substrate for the fabrication of p-CuO/n-Si hetero-junction diodes. The thin CuO film has been grown by employing vapour-liquid-solid method. The crystalline structure and chemical phase of the film are characterized by employing field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Chemical stoichiometry of the film has been confirmed by using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The potential for photovoltaic applications of such films is investigated by measuring the junction current-voltage characteristics and by extracting the relevant parameters such as open circuit photo-generated voltage, short circuit current density, fill-factor and energy conversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Synthesis of CuO nano-powder by CBD method • Growth of ultra-thin film of CuO by employing VLS method for the first time • Physical and electrical characterization of such films for photovoltaic applications • Estimation of energy conversion efficiency of the p-CuO/n-Si p-n junction solar cell.

  13. Chiral magnetic conductivity and surface states of Weyl semimetals in topological insulator ultra-thin film multilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2016-06-15

    We investigate an ultra-thin film of topological insulator (TI) multilayer as a model for a three-dimensional (3D) Weyl semimetal. We introduce tunneling parameters t S, [Formula: see text], and t D, where the former two parameters couple layers of the same thin film at small and large momenta, and the latter parameter couples neighbouring thin film layers along the z-direction. The Chern number is computed in each topological phase of the system and we find that for [Formula: see text], the tunneling parameter [Formula: see text] changes from positive to negative as the system transits from Weyl semi-metallic phase to insulating phases. We further study the chiral magnetic effect (CME) of the system in the presence of a time dependent magnetic field. We compute the low-temperature dependence of the chiral magnetic conductivity and show that it captures three distinct phases of the system separated by plateaus. Furthermore, we propose and study a 3D lattice model of Porphyrin thin film, an organic material known to support topological Frenkel exciton edge states. We show that this model exhibits a 3D Weyl semi-metallic phase and also supports a 2D Weyl semi-metallic phase. We further show that this model recovers that of 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. Thus, paving the way for simulating a 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. We obtain the surface states (Fermi arcs) in the 3D model and the chiral edge states in the 2D model and analyze their topological properties.

  14. Hadron-therapy beam monitoring: Towards a new generation of ultra-thin p-type silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouterfa, M.; Aouadi, K. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bertrand, D. [Particle Therapy Dept., Ion Beam Application IBA, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Olbrechts, B.; Delamare, R. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Raskin, J. P.; Gil, E. C. [Institut de Recherche en Mathematique et Physique IRMP, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Flandre, D. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    Hadron-therapy has gained increasing interest for cancer treatment especially within the last decade. System commissioning and quality assurance procedures impose to monitor the particle beam using 2D dose measurements. Nowadays, several monitoring systems exist for hadron-therapy but all show a relatively high influence on the beam properties: indeed, most devices consist of several layers of materials that degrade the beam through scattering and energy losses. For precise treatment purposes, ultra-thin silicon strip detectors are investigated in order to reduce this beam scattering. We assess the beam size increase provoked by the Multiple Coulomb Scattering when passing through Si, to derive a target thickness. Monte-Carlo based simulations show a characteristic scattering opening angle lower than 1 mrad for thicknesses below 20 {mu}m. We then evaluated the fabrication process feasibility. We successfully thinned down silicon wafers to thicknesses lower than 10 {mu}m over areas of several cm{sup 2}. Strip detectors are presently being processed and they will tentatively be thinned down to 20 {mu}m. Moreover, two-dimensional TCAD simulations were carried out to investigate the beam detector performances on p-type Si substrates. Additionally, thick and thin substrates have been compared thanks to electrical simulations. Reducing the pitch between the strips increases breakdown voltage, whereas leakage current is quite insensitive to strips geometrical configuration. The samples are to be characterized as soon as possible in one of the IBA hadron-therapy facilities. For hadron-therapy, this would represent a considerable step forward in terms of treatment precision. (authors)

  15. High Stability White Organic Light-Emitting Diode (WOLED Using Nano-Double-Ultra Thin Carrier Trapping Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan-Lin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of indium tin oxide (ITO (100 nm/molybdenum trioxide (MoO3 (15 nm/N,N0-bis-(1-naphthyl-N,N0-biphenyl-1,10-biphenyl-4,40-diamine (NPB (40 nm/4,4′-Bis(2,2-diphenylvinyl-1,1′-biphenyl (DPVBi (10 nm/5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (Rubrene (0.2 nm/DPVBi (24 nm/Rubrene (0.2 nm/DPVBi (6 nm/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen: cesium carbonate (Cs2Co3 (10 nm/Al (120 nm with high color purity and stability white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED was fabricated. The function of the multiple-ultra-thin material (MUTM, such as Rubrene, is as the yellow light-emitting layer and trapping layer. The results show that the MUTM has an excellent carrier capture effect, resulting in high color stability of the device at different applied voltages. The Commissions Internationale De L’Eclairage (CIE coordinate of this device at 3~7 V is few displacement and shows a very slight variation of (±0.01, ±0.01. The maximum brightness of 9986 cd/m2 and CIE coordinates of (0.346, 0.339 are obtained at 7 V. The enhanced performance of the device may result from the direct charge trapping in MUTM and it can be found in the electroluminescence (EL process.

  16. Design of a CMOS readout circuit on ultra-thin flexible silicon chip for printed strain gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elsobky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flexible electronics represents an emerging technology with features enabling several new applications such as wearable electronics and bendable displays. Precise and high-performance sensors readout chips are crucial for high quality flexible electronic products. In this work, the design of a CMOS readout circuit for an array of printed strain gauges is presented. The ultra-thin readout chip and the printed sensors are combined on a thin Benzocyclobutene/Polyimide (BCB/PI substrate to form a Hybrid System-in-Foil (HySiF, which is used as an electronic skin for robotic applications. Each strain gauge utilizes a Wheatstone bridge circuit, where four Aerosol Jet® printed meander-shaped resistors form a full-bridge topology. The readout chip amplifies the output voltage difference (about 5 mV full-scale swing of the strain gauge. One challenge during the sensor interface circuit design is to compensate for the relatively large dc offset (about 30 mV at 1 mA in the bridge output voltage so that the amplified signal span matches the input range of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC. The circuit design uses the 0. 5 µm mixed-signal GATEFORESTTM technology. In order to achieve the mechanical flexibility, the chip fabrication is based on either back thinned wafers or the ChipFilmTM technology, which enables the manufacturing of silicon chips with a thickness of about 20 µm. The implemented readout chip uses a supply of 5 V and includes a 5-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC, a differential difference amplifier (DDA, and a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR ADC. The circuit is simulated across process, supply and temperature corners and the simulation results indicate excellent performance in terms of circuit stability and linearity.

  17. Chiral magnetic conductivity and surface states of Weyl semimetals in topological insulator ultra-thin film multilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate an ultra-thin film of topological insulator (TI) multilayer as a model for a three-dimensional (3D) Weyl semimetal. We introduce tunneling parameters t S, {{t}\\bot} , and t D, where the former two parameters couple layers of the same thin film at small and large momenta, and the latter parameter couples neighbouring thin film layers along the z-direction. The Chern number is computed in each topological phase of the system and we find that for {{t}\\text{S}},{{t}\\text{D}}>0 , the tunneling parameter {{t}\\bot} changes from positive to negative as the system transits from Weyl semi-metallic phase to insulating phases. We further study the chiral magnetic effect (CME) of the system in the presence of a time dependent magnetic field. We compute the low-temperature dependence of the chiral magnetic conductivity and show that it captures three distinct phases of the system separated by plateaus. Furthermore, we propose and study a 3D lattice model of Porphyrin thin film, an organic material known to support topological Frenkel exciton edge states. We show that this model exhibits a 3D Weyl semi-metallic phase and also supports a 2D Weyl semi-metallic phase. We further show that this model recovers that of 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. Thus, paving the way for simulating a 3D Weyl semimetal in topological insulator thin film multilayer. We obtain the surface states (Fermi arcs) in the 3D model and the chiral edge states in the 2D model and analyze their topological properties.

  18. Design of a CMOS readout circuit on ultra-thin flexible silicon chip for printed strain gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsobky, Mourad; Mahsereci, Yigit; Keck, Jürgen; Richter, Harald; Burghartz, Joachim N.

    2017-09-01

    Flexible electronics represents an emerging technology with features enabling several new applications such as wearable electronics and bendable displays. Precise and high-performance sensors readout chips are crucial for high quality flexible electronic products. In this work, the design of a CMOS readout circuit for an array of printed strain gauges is presented. The ultra-thin readout chip and the printed sensors are combined on a thin Benzocyclobutene/Polyimide (BCB/PI) substrate to form a Hybrid System-in-Foil (HySiF), which is used as an electronic skin for robotic applications. Each strain gauge utilizes a Wheatstone bridge circuit, where four Aerosol Jet® printed meander-shaped resistors form a full-bridge topology. The readout chip amplifies the output voltage difference (about 5 mV full-scale swing) of the strain gauge. One challenge during the sensor interface circuit design is to compensate for the relatively large dc offset (about 30 mV at 1 mA) in the bridge output voltage so that the amplified signal span matches the input range of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The circuit design uses the 0. 5 µm mixed-signal GATEFORESTTM technology. In order to achieve the mechanical flexibility, the chip fabrication is based on either back thinned wafers or the ChipFilmTM technology, which enables the manufacturing of silicon chips with a thickness of about 20 µm. The implemented readout chip uses a supply of 5 V and includes a 5-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC), a differential difference amplifier (DDA), and a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) ADC. The circuit is simulated across process, supply and temperature corners and the simulation results indicate excellent performance in terms of circuit stability and linearity.

  19. Solid-State Densification of Spun-Cast Self-Assembled Monolayers for Use in Ultra-Thin Hybrid Dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Daniel O; Acton, Orb; Weidner, Tobias; Cernetic, Nathan; Baio, Joe E; Castner, David G; Ma, Hong; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2012-11-15

    Ultra-thin self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-oxide hybrid dielectrics have gained significant interest for their application in low-voltage organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). A [8-(11-phenoxy-undecyloxy)-octyl]phosphonic acid (PhO-19-PA) SAM on ultrathin AlOx (2.5 nm) has been developed to significantly enhance the dielectric performance of inorganic oxides through reduction of leakage current while maintaining similar capacitance to the underlying oxide structure. Rapid processing of this SAM in ambient conditions is achieved by spin coating, however, as-cast monolayer density is not sufficient for dielectric applications. Thermal annealing of a bulk spun-cast PhO-19-PA molecular film is explored as a mechanism for SAM densification. SAM density, or surface coverage, and order are examined as a function of annealing temperature. These SAM characteristics are probed through atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). It is found that at temperatures sufficient to melt the as-cast bulk molecular film, SAM densification is achieved; leading to a rapid processing technique for high performance SAM-oxide hybrid dielectric systems utilizing a single wet processing step. To demonstrate low-voltage devices based on this hybrid dielectric (with leakage current density of 7.7×10(-8) A cm(-2) and capacitance density of 0.62 µF cm(-2) at 3 V), pentacene thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are fabricated and yield sub 2 V operation and charge carrier mobilites of up to 1.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

  20. Wetting and spontaneous infiltration: the case study of TaC/(Au, Al and Cu) compared to TiC/Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenshtein, M.; Froumin, N.; Nafman, O.; Frage, N.

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous infiltration of molten metals in to ceramic skeletons, in the course MMCs' production, is related to improved wetting of the ceramic by metals. TiC is considered a "metal-like" carbide and is supposed to be wetted well by metals through metallic bonding mechanism. Nevertheless, TiC/Cu exhibit an unusual behavior since spontaneous infiltration of molten Cu takes place, while TiC is partially wetted by Cu (θ=90°).In this work we studied the relation between wetting and spontaneous infiltration in the TaC/Au, Al and Cu systems. TaC is also considered a "metal-like" carbide and indeed no chemical interaction was observed at the interfaces of the studied systems.Sessile drop experiments showed almost perfect wetting in the three system but spontaneous infiltration occurred only in the first two (e.g. TaC/Au or Al). Thermodynamic calculation shows the difference between the systems which also has its' influence on the mechanical properties of the MMCs'. Further calculation clarifies the difference between TaC/Cu and TiC/Cu infiltration behavior, but is unable to explain the wetting results differences.Correlation between wetting and spontaneous infiltration in some cases is not straight forward and more studies and calculations on the atomistic level should be done in order to clarify this matter.

  1. The co-design of interface sensing and tailoring of ultra-thin film with ultrasonic vibration-assisted AFM system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jialin; Liu, Lianqing; Li, Guangyong

    2016-06-10

    Ultra-thin films (e.g., graphene, MoS2, and black phosphorus) have shown amazing performance in a variety of applications. The tailoring or machining of these ultra-thin films is often the preliminary step to manufacturing them into functional devices. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a flexible, high-efficiency and low-cost tailoring or machining tool with the advantages of high resolution and precision. However, the current AFM-based tailoring methods are often set up as an open loop regarding the machined depth and state. Thus, because of a lack of real-time feedback, an inappropriate applied force leads to over-cutting or under-cutting, which limits the performance of the manufactured devices. In this study, we propose a real-time tailoring and sensing method based on an ultrasonic vibration-assisted (USV-assisted) AFM system to solve the above problems. With the proposed method, the machined depth and state can be sensed in real time by detecting the phase value of the vibrating cantilever. To characterize and gain insight into the phase responses of the cantilever to the machined depth and sample material, a theoretical dynamic model of a cantilever-film vibrating system is introduced to model the machining process, and a sensing theory of machined depth and state is developed based on a USV-assisted AFM system. The experimental results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, which in turn lay the foundation for a closed-loop tailoring control strategy for ultra-thin films.

  2. CMOS compatible fabrication of flexible and semi-transparent FeRAM on ultra-thin bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2014-08-01

    Commercialization of flexible electronics requires reliable, high performance, ultra-compact and low power devices. To achieve them, we fabricate traditional electronics on bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) and transform the top portion into an ultra-thin flexible silicon fabric with prefabricated devices, preserving ultra-large-scale-integration density and same device performance. This can be done in a cost effective manner due to its full compatibility with standard CMOS processes. In this paper, using the same approach, for the first time we demonstrate a ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) cell on flexible silicon fabric platform and assess its functionality and practical potential.

  3. Low voltage substrate current: a monitor for interface states generation in ultra-thin oxide n-MOSFETs under constant voltage stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan-Gang; Xu Ming-Zhen; Tan Chang-Hua

    2007-01-01

    The low voltage substrate current (Ib) has been studied based on generation kinetics and used as a monitor of interface states (Nit) generation for ultra-thin oxide n-MOSFETs under constant voltage stress. It is found that the low voltage Ib is formed by electrons tunnelling through interface states, and the variations of Ib(△Ib) are proportional to variations of Nit (△Nit). The Nit energy distributions were determined by differentiating Nit(Vg). The results have been compared with that measured by using gate diode technique.

  4. Photoelectron diffraction of Rh nanoparticles growth on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Pd(111) ultra thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, G.J.P.; Pancotti, A.; Lima, L.H.; Siervo, A. de; Landers, R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Heterogeneous catalysis is a highly complex process. Usually, a catalyst is formed by transition metal nanoparticles (for example, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ni, Au) supported by an oxide such as alumina, silica, titania among others [1-4]. The performance of the catalyst in terms of macroscopic chemical parameters such as the temperature for reaction activation, selectivity and efficiency can be strongly influenced by different characteristics of the catalyst at the atomic level, for instance, its electronic and atomic structure, particle size and shape, crystallographic structure [5-6] and support material effects[1]. Metal-oxide-based catalysts are used for many important synthesis reactions in the chemical industry, such as selective oxidation, dehydrogenation, isomerization and other chemical processes [7]. Rhodium nanoparticles have been used, for example, in the studies of propionaldehyde decomposition under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. The aim of this work is to prepare rhodium nanoparticles on magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) (111) growth on Pd(111). The rhodium clusters and iron oxide ultra-thin films (thickness <10ML) were prepared in UHV conditions by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and keeping the substrate at 450 deg C. The system was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and photoelectron diffraction (PED) performed at the SGM beam line at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source (LNLS). Our results shows the formation of small Rh an island with the same atomic structure of fcc Rh at bulk, and thickness lower then 5MLs. The islands cover approximately 15% of the iron surface. These findings were determined mainly with the PED experiments supported by a comprehensive simulation approach based on multiple scattering calculations. References: [1] J. Libuda, H.-J. Freund, Surf. Sci. Rep. 57, 157 (2005). [2] C. R. Henry, Surf. Sci. Rep. 31, 231 (1998). [3] N. Nilius, A. Corper, G. Bozdech, N. Ernst , H

  5. Refining LA-ICP-MS techniques for the exploration of ultra-thin layers in Alpine and Polar ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Nicole; Bohleber, Pascal; Mayewski, Paul; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Kurbatov, Andrei; Sneed, Sharon; Handley, Mike; Erhardt, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    origin, archived in the CG ice core. Considering more broadly our findings from the CG ice and the refined characterization of our LA system, this technique promises to be of great benefit to the analysis of ultra-thin ice core layers. This may be especially relevant for members of the ice core community pursuing million year old ice kilometers below the surface. As such we also provide examples of LA analysis of deep polar ice from Greenland (GISP2) and shallow, yet ancient (up to 1 Mya), ice from the Allan Hills Blue Ice Area, Antarctica, which demonstrate how the insight gained from our study could be applied by the polar ice coring community.

  6. Ultra-thin single-layer transparent geometrical phase gradient metasurface and its application to high-gain circularly-polarized lens antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tang-Jing; Liang, Jian-Gang; Li, Hai-Peng; Liu, Ya-Qiao

    2016-09-01

    A new method to design an ultra-thin high-gain circularly-polarized antenna system with high efficiency is proposed based on the geometrical phase gradient metasurface (GPGM). With an accuracy control of the transmission phase and also the high transmission amplitude, the GPGM is capable of manipulating an electromagnetic wave arbitrarily. A focusing transmission lens working at Ku band is well optimized with the F/D of 0.32. A good focusing effect is demonstrated clearly by theoretical calculation and electromagnetic simulation. For further application, an ultra-thin single-layer transmissive lens antenna based on the proposed focusing metasurface operating at 13 GHz is implemented and launched by an original patch antenna from the perspective of high integration, simple structure, and low cost. Numerical and experimental results coincide well, indicating the advantages of the antenna system, such as a high gain of 17.6 dB, the axis ratio better than 2 dB, a high aperture efficiency of 41%, and also a simple fabrication process based on the convenient print circuit board technology. The good performance of the proposed antenna indicates promising applications in portable communication systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61372034).

  7. Hot-Carrier Stress Effects on GIDL and SILC in 90nm LDD-MOSFET with Ultra-Thin Gate Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shi-Gang; HAO Yue; MA Xiao-Hua; CAO Yan-Rong; CHEN Chi; WU Xiao-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Hot-carrier degradation for 90 nm gate length lightly-doped drain (LDD) NMOSFET with ultra-thin (1.4 nm) gate oxide is investigated under the low gate voltage stress (LGVS) and peak substrate current (Isub,max) stress. It is found that the degradation of device parameters exhibits saturating time dependence under the two stresses. We concentrate on the effect of these two stresses on gate-induced-drain leakage (GIDL) current and stress induced leakage current (SILC). The characteristics of the GIDL current are used to analyse the damage generated in the gate-to-LDD region during the two stresses, ttowever, the damage generated during the LGVS shows different characteristics from that during Isub,max stress. SILC is also investigated under the two stresses. It is found experimentally that there is a linear correlation between the degradation of SILC and that of threshold voltage during the two stresses. It is concluded that the mechanism of SILC is due to the combined effect of oxide charge trapping and interface traps for the ultra-short gate length and ultra-thin gate oxide LDD NMOSFETs under the two stresses.

  8. Plasmonic excitation-assisted optical and electric enhancement in ultra-thin solar cells: the influence of nano-strip cross section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sabaeian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Ag nano-strips with triangle, rectangular and trapezoid cross sections on the optical absorption, generation rate, and short-circuit current density of ultra-thin solar cells were investigated. By putting the nano-strips as a grating structure on the top of the solar cells, the waveguide, surface plasmon polariton (SPP, and localized surface plasmon (LSP modes, which are excited with the assistance of nano-strips, were evaluated in TE and TM polarizations. The results show, firstly, the TM modes are more influential than TE modes in optical and electrical properties enhancement of solar cell, because of plasmonic excitations in TM mode. Secondly, the trapezoid nano-strips reveal noticeable impact on the optical absorption, generation rate, and short-circuit current density enhancement than triangle and rectangular ones. In particular, the absorption of long wavelengths which is a challenge in ultra-thin solar cells is significantly improved by using Ag trapezoid nano-strips.

  9. Electronic properties of cubic TaC{sub x}N{sub 1-x}: A comparative study using self-consistent cluster and ab initio band-structure calculations and X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrentyev, A.A.; Gabrelian, B.V.; Vorzhev, V.B.; Nikiforov, I.Ya. [Department of Physics, Don State Technical University, Gagarin Sq. 1, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Khyzhun, O.Yu. [Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, UA-03142 Kyiv (Ukraine)], E-mail: khyzhun@ipms.kiev.ua

    2009-03-20

    To investigate the influence of substitution of carbon atoms for nitrogen atoms in the cubic TaC{sub x}N{sub 1-x} carbonitrides, total and partial densities of states were calculated for TaC, TaC{sub 0.5}N{sub 0.5} and TaN compounds (NaCl structure) using the self-consistent cluster (with the FEFF8 code) and ab initio band-structure augmented plane wave + local orbitals (APW + LO) methods. In the present work a rather good agreement of the theoretical FEFF8 and APW + LO data for electronic properties of the TaC{sub x}N{sub 1-x} system under consideration was obtained. The results indicate that a strong hybridization of the Ta 5d- and C(N) 2p-like states is characteristic for the valence band of the TaC{sub x}N{sub 1-x} carbonitrides. When going from TaC to TaN through the TaC{sub 0.5}N{sub 0.5} carbonitride, the main maxima of curves representing total and partial Ta 5d densities of states shift in the direction opposite to the position of the Fermi level. In the above sequence of compounds, an increase of occupation of the near-Fermi sub-band formed by contributions of Ta 5d(t{sub 2g}) states has been detected. The theoretical FEFF8 and APW + LO results for the electronic structure of the TaC{sub x}N{sub 1-x} carbonitrides were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data derived in the present work employing X-ray photoelectron, emission and absorption spectroscopy methods for cubic TaC{sub 0.98}, TaC{sub 0.52}N{sub 0.49} and TaN{sub 0.97} compounds.

  10. Experimental study of ultra-thin films mechanical integrity by combined nanoindentation and nano-acoustic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zihou

    Advancement of interconnect technology has imposed significant challenge on interface characterization and reliability for blurred interfaces between layers. There is a need for material properties and these miniaturized length scales and assessment of reliability; including the intrinsic film fracture toughness and the interfacial fracture toughness. The nano-meter range of film thicknesses currently employed, impose significant challenges on evaluating these physical quantities and thereby impose significant challenge on the design cycle. In this study we attempted to use a combined nano-indentation and nano-acoustic emission to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the failure modes in ultra-thin blanket films on Si substrates or stakes of different characteristics. We have performed and analyzed an exhaustive group of testes that cove many diverge combination of film-substrate combination, provided by both Intel and IBM. When the force-indentation depth curve shows excursion, a direct measure of the total energy release rate is estimated. The collected acoustic emission signal is then used to partition the total energy into two segments, one associated with the cohesive fracture toughness of the film and the other is for the adhesive fracture toughness of the interface. The acoustic emission signal is analyzed in both the time and frequency domain to achieve such energy division. In particular, the signal time domain analysis for signal skewness, time of arrival and total energy content are employed with the proper signal to noise ratio. In the frequency domain, an expansive group of acoustic emission signals are utilized to construct the details of the power spectral density. A bank of band-pass filters are designed to sort the individual signals to those associated with adhesive interlayer cracking, cohesive channel cracking, or other system induced noise. The attenuation time and the energy content within each spectral frequency were the key elements

  11. Performance evaluation indicator of ultra-thin wearing course asphalt mixture%超薄磨耗层沥青混合料评价指标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭忆秋; 姚李; 王海朋; 边鑫; 齐宇翔

    2012-01-01

    为了科学地选择和评价超薄磨耗层沥青混合料,选取SMA-10,UTAC-10和NovaChip Type-C 3种混合料类型作为评价性能指标,采用约束试件温度应力试验评价混合料的低温性能,通过渗水系数试验和抗滑性能试验评价混合料的表面性能,设计一种室内磨耗试验来研究混合料抵抗抗滑衰减的能力.采用一套3种条件下的飞散试验并结合冻融劈裂试验评价混合料的抗水损害性能.结果表明:冻断温度和冻断强度可有效评价磨耗层沥青混合料的低温性能,以初始摆值结合抗滑衰减程度评价磨耗层抗滑性能比较科学,评价超薄磨耗层材料的抗水损害能力须将冻融劈裂强度比和冻融劈裂强度结合起来.%To scientifically select and evaluate ultra-thin wearing course asphalt mixture,three types of asphalt mixture,SMA-10,UTAC-10 and NovaChip Type-C were selected to study the performance evaluation indicator.The low temperature performance of mixture was evaluated by use of thermal stress rest rained specimen test,and the surface performance was evaluated by permeable coefficient test and anti-slide performance test.A kind of indoor abrasion test was designed to evaluate the skid resistance attenuation property of asphalt mixture,and a set of dispersion tests under three conditions was designed combining with freeze-thaw splitting test to evaluate water damage resistance performance of asphalt mixture.The results show that the frozen broken temperature and frozen broken strength can effectively evaluate the low temperature performance of ultra-thin wearing course asphalt mixture.It is scientific to use initial value of BPN and sliding attenuation degree to evaluate skid resistance performance of ultra-thin wearing course.Freeze-thaw splitting strength ratio and freeze-thaw splitting strength should be combined to evaluate resistance water damage performance.

  12. Cloning and Expression Analysis of A Stress-Related TaC2DP1 Gene from Wheat%小麦逆境胁迫相关基因TaC2DP1的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑞霞; 王新国; 夏国军; 李永春; 牛洪斌; 王翔; 尹钧; 任江萍

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]The objective of this study is to clone the stress resistance-related gene, analyze its sequence features, evolutionary relationships and expression characteristics, investigate its biological function during the stress tolerance of wheat, and to provide candidate gene and a theoretical foundation for clarifying molecular mechanism of stress resistance.[Method]Using an up-regulated EST obtained by cDNA chip as a probe to search the wheat EST databases, filter out the ESTs sequences with the homology of 97%of the probe, a full-length cDNA sequence was cloned from wheat by in silico cloning and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) method. The conserved domains and sequence features of the gene were analyzed by bioinformatics’ methods. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the MEGA 6.0 software, and then the cloned gene ORF was inserted into the expression vector pMAL-c2X by EcoR I and Hind Ⅲ digestion. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21 and expressed under the induction with 0.3 mmol·L-1 IPTG for 1-5 h. The expression of the fusion protein was detected by SDS-PAGE. The expression profiles of the cloned gene in various tissues and in response to cold, drought, heat and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).[Result]The full-length cDNA sequence designated as TaC2DP1 from wheat is 1 356 bp in length, contains a 1 209 bp open reading frame (ORF), with 50 bp in the 5' UTR and 97 bp in the 3' UTR. TaC2DP1 was predicted to encode a 402 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 43.41 kD and isoelectric point of 4.30, it belongs to the acidic protein. BLAST analysis revealed that the protein contains a C2-domain and was predicted to be a Ca2+binding domain. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that TaC2DP1 had the closest evolutionary relationship with a C2-domain protein in Triticum urartu with unknown function, and shares 91% identity in amino acids

  13. Series resistance effect on time zero dielectrics breakdown characteristics of MOSCAP with ultra-thin EOT high-k/metal gate stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xu; Hong, Yang; Yanrong, Wang; Wenwu, Wang; Guangxing, Wan; Shangqing, Ren; Weichun, Luo; Luwei, Qi; Chao, Zhao; Dapeng, Chen; Xinyu, Liu; Tianchun, Ye

    2016-05-01

    The time zero dielectric breakdown characteristics of MOSCAP with ultra-thin EOT high-k metal gate stacks are studied. The TZDB results show an abnormal area dependence due to the series resistance effect. The series resistance components extracted from the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling relation are attributed to the spreading resistance due to the asymmetry electrodes. Based on a series model to eliminate the series resistance effect, an area acceleration dependence is obtained by correcting the TZDB results. The area dependence follows Poisson area scaling rules, which indicates that the mechanism of TZDB is the same as TDDB and could be considered as a trap generation process. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program (863 Program) of China (No. SS2015AA010601), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61176091, 61306129), and the Opening Project of the Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Production Status and Market Application of Ultra Thin Electrical Steel Strip%电工钢极薄带生产现状及市场应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱华

    2011-01-01

    The production situation and market application of ultra thin electrical steel strip at home and abroad were described. The production capability, product property and application area of typical corporation were introduced. The results indicate that the urgency needed of electrical steel development is expanding high-grade non-oriented electrical steel production and improving products quality at present.%介绍了国内、外电工钢极薄带的生产现状及市场应用的情况,以及典型生产企业的生产规模、产品性能和应用领域,指出扩大高牌号无取向电工钢生产、提高产品质量是目前电工钢发展的迫切要求.

  15. Heteroepitaxial growth and surface structure of L1{sub 0}-MnGa(111) ultra-thin films on GaN(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandru, Andrada-Oana; Wang, Kangkang; Cooper, Kevin; Ingram, David C.; Smith, Arthur R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Garcia Diaz, Reyes; Takeuchi, Noboru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 14, Ensenada Baja California, Codigo Postal 22800 (Mexico); Haider, Muhammad [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-10-14

    L1{sub 0}-structured MnGa(111) ultra-thin films were heteroepitaxially grown on GaN(0001) under lightly Mn-rich conditions using molecular beam epitaxy. Room-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) investigations reveal smooth terraces and angular step edges, with the surface structure consisting primarily of a 2 × 2 reconstruction along with small patches of 1 × 2. Theoretical calculations were carried out using density functional theory, and the simulated STM images were calculated using the Tersoff-Hamman approximation, revealing that a stoichiometric 1 × 2 and a Mn-rich 2 × 2 surface structure give the best agreement with the observed experimental images.

  16. Modelling of the influence of charges trapped in the oxide on the I(Vg) characteristics of metal ultra-thin oxide semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A.; Kassmi, K.; Kassmi, Ka; Olivie, F.

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical and experimental influences of the charge trapped in the oxide of metal/ultra-thin oxide/semiconductor structures. It focuses on the two characteristics current-voltage I(Vg) and voltage-charges injected Vg(Qinj) (Vg is the voltage applied, Qinj is the injected charge) when the conduction is of the Fowler-Nordheim type. The charge is trapped in the thin oxide after injection of a constant current at high field (>12 MV cm-1) from the metal (in accumulation regime: Vg position shifts exponentially towards the injecting electrode. These results enable us to draw conclusions on the instability of the trapped charge. Indeed the increase in the charges injected causes the movement of the charge centroid towards the cathode.

  17. Reducing spin-torque switching current by incorporating an ultra-thin Ta layer with CoFeB free layer in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, R. S., E-mail: liurs7204@yahoo.com; Meng, H.; Naik, V. B.; Sim, C. H.; Yap, S.; Luo, P. [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR (Agency for Science Technology and Research), DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

    2014-12-15

    We studied the spin torque switching in dual MgO layer based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) by incorporating an ultra-thin (0.5 nm) Ta layer at the CoFeB free layer/top MgO layer interface. The Ta incorporated MTJ showed a significant reduction (∼30%) in critical switching current density (J{sub C0} ) as compared to that of the control MTJ whilst maintaining the same tunneling magnetoresistance as well as thermal stability. The reduction of J{sub C0} can be attributed to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy arising from the incorporation of an ultrathin Ta layer with the MgO|CoFeB structure. This scheme of reducing J{sub C0} without degrading other properties may contribute to the development of spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory for low power applications.

  18. CO2 laser cutting of ultra thin (75 μm) glass based rigid optical solar reflector (OSR) for spacecraft application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shubham; Sridhara, N.; Mitra, Avijit; Yougandar, B.; Dash, Sarat Kumar; Agarwal, Sanjay; Dey, Arjun

    2017-03-01

    Present study reports for the first time laser cutting of multilayered coatings on both side of ultra thin (i.e., 75 μm) glass substrate based rigid optical solar reflector (OSR) for spacecraft thermal control application. The optimization of cutting parameters was carried out as a function of laser power, cutting speed and number of cutting passes and their effect on cutting edge quality. Systematic and in-detail microstructural characterizations were carried out by optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques to study the laser affected zone and cutting edge quality. Sheet resistance and water contact angle experiments were also conducted locally both prior and after laser cut to investigate the changes of electrical and surface properties, if any.

  19. Experimental validation of an ultra-thin metasurface cloak for hiding a metallic obstacle from an antenna radiation at low frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teperik, Tatiana V.; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; de Lustrac, André; Sabanowski, Guy; Piau, Gérard-Pascal

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate numerically and experimentally an ultra-thin (≈ λ/240) metasurface-based invisibility cloak for low frequency antenna applications. We consider a monopole antenna mounted on a ground plane and a cylindrical metallic obstacle of diameter smaller than the wavelength located in its near-field. To restore the intrinsic radiation patterns of the antenna perturbed by this obstacle, a metasurface cloak consisting simply of a metallic patch printed on a dielectric substrate is wrapped around the obstacle. Using a finite element method based commercial electromagnetic solver, we show that the radiation patterns of the monopole antenna can be restored completely owing to electromagnetic modes of the resonant cavity formed between the patch and obstacle. The metasurface cloak is fabricated, and the concept is experimentally demonstrated at 125 MHz. Performed measurements are in good agreement with numerical simulations, verifying the efficiency of the proposed cloak.

  20. Nanoscale analysis of the electric properties of ultra thin ZrO{sub 2}-, (ZrO{sub 2}){sub x}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 1-x}- and ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}-films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Dominik; Grube, Matthias; Erben, Elke; Schroeder, Uwe; Weber, Walter; Mikolajick, Thomas [Namlab GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Weinreich, Wenke [Fraunhofer-CNT, Dresden (Germany); Geelhaar, Lutz; Riechert, Henning [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In order to achieve an high k-value in sub 10 nm thin films of ZrO{sub 2} it is necessary to reach the tetragonal crystalline phase. This is done by either depositing the layer at higher temperatures or by a post deposition annealing step. Both however induce high leakage current through the layer. Small amounts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be incorporated in ZrO{sub 2} to reduce leakage current. In order to understand the detailed charge carrier transport mechanisms, thickness series of ultra thin ZrO{sub 2}-, (ZrO{sub 2}){sub x}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 1-x}- and ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}-films were deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition and subjected to different rapid thermal annealing processes. These layers were examined by I-V-, C-V-Spectroscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy. It is shown that Al incorporation throughout the entire layer imposes the relatively low k value of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} onto the entire layer. Whereas incorporation of only to cycles of Al into the center of the ZrO{sub 2} effectively reduces leakage currents while maintaining a higher k value.

  1. A comparison of mechanical properties of three MEMS materials - silicon carbide, ultrananocrystalline diamond, and hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous carbon (Ta-C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, John A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Moldovan, N. (Northwestern University, Evanston, IL); Xiao, Xingcheng (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Zorman, C. A. (Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH); Mancini, D. C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Peng, B. (Northwestern University, Evanston, IL); Espinosa, H. D. (Northwestern University, Evanston, IL); Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Auciello, Orlando, (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL)

    2004-06-01

    Many MEMS devices are based on polysilicon because of the current availability of surface micromachining technology. However, polysilicon is not the best choice for devices where extensive sliding and/or thermal fields are applied due to its chemical, mechanical and tribological properties. In this work, we investigated the mechanical properties of three new materials for MEMS/NEMS devices: silicon carbide (SiC) from Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Young's modulus, characteristic strength, fracture toughness, and theoretical strength were measured for these three materials using only one testing methodology - the Membrane Deflection Experiment (MDE) developed at Northwestern University. The measured values of Young's modulus were 430GPa, 960GPa, and 800GPa for SiC, UNCD, and ta-C, repectively. Fracture toughness measurments resulted in values of 3.2, 4.5, and 6.2 MPa x m{sup 1/2}, respectively. The strengths were found to follow a Weibull distribution but their scaling was found to be controlled by different specimen size parameters. Therefore, a cross comparison of the strengths is not fully meaningful. We instead propose to compare their theoretical strengths as determined by employing Novozhilov fracture criterion. The estimated theoretical strength for SiC is 10.6GPa at a characteristic length of 58nm, for UNCD is 18.6GPa at a characteristic length of 37nm, and for ta-C is 25.4GPa at a characteristic length of 38nm. The techniques used to obtained these results as well as microscopic fractographic analyses are summarized in the article. We also highlight the importance of characterizing mechanical properties of MEMS materials by means of only one simple and accurate experimental technique.

  2. Influence of CdCl{sub 2} activation treatment on ultra-thin Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S/CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, A.J., E-mail: a.clayton@glyndwr.ac.uk [Centre for Solar Energy Research, Glyndŵr University, OpTIC, St. Asaph LL17 0JD (United Kingdom); Baker, M.A.; Babar, S. [Faculty of Engineering & Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Gibson, P.N. [Institute for Health & Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra, VA (Italy); Irvine, S.J.C.; Kartopu, G.; Lamb, D.A.; Barrioz, V. [Centre for Solar Energy Research, Glyndŵr University, OpTIC, St. Asaph LL17 0JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-01

    Ultra-thin CdTe photovoltaic solar cells with an absorber thickness of 0.5 μm were produced by metal organic chemical vapour deposition onto indium tin oxide coated boroaluminosilicate glass. A wide band gap Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S alloy window layer was employed to improve spectral response in the blue region of the solar spectrum. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to monitor changes in the chemical composition and microstructure of the Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S/CdTe solar cell after varying the post-deposition CdCl{sub 2} activation treatment time and annealing temperature. The CdCl{sub 2} treatment leached Zn from the Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S layer causing a redshift in the spectral response onset of window absorption. S diffusion occurred across the Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S/CdTe interface, which was more pronounced as the CdCl{sub 2} treatment was increased. A CdTe{sub 1−y}S{sub y} alloy was formed at the interface, which thickened with CdCl{sub 2} treatment time. Small concentrations of S (up to 2 at.%) were observed throughout the CdTe layer as the degree of CdCl{sub 2} treatment was increased. Greater S diffusion across the Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S/CdTe interface caused the device open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) to increase. The higher V{sub oc} is attributed to enhanced strain relaxation and associated reduction of defects in the interface region as well as the increase in CdTe grain size. - Highlights: • Increased CdCl{sub 2} activation treatment resulted in loss of Zn from Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S. • Sulphur diffusion into CdTe was enhanced with greater CdCl{sub 2} activation treatment. • Improvement to V{sub oc} correlated with increased sulphur diffusion into CdTe.

  3. Stable dropwise condensation for enhancing heat transfer via the initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) of grafted polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Adam T; Yagüe, Jose L; Gleason, Karen K; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2014-01-22

    Ultra-thin copolymer films are deposited by initiated chemical deposition (iCVD) to investigate their performance under the condensation of water vapor. By forming a grafted interface between the coating and the substrate, the films exhibit stable dropwise condensation even when subjected to 100 °C steam. The applicability of the iCVD to complex substrate geometries is demonstrated on a copper condenser coil.

  4. Study of NBE emission enhancement with an absence of DL emission from ZnO nanorods through controlled growth on ultra-thin Ag films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Bharathi Mohan, D., E-mail: d.bharathimohan@gmail.com

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • The growth of ZnO nanorods (NRs) is controlled on ultra-thin Ag layer after modifying its surface properties including particle size, number particles density, inter-particles distance and crystallinity. • Ag layer is not only acting as a catalyst for the vertical growth of ZnO NRs and also the corresponding plasmon resonance frequency is tuned and coupled with the excitonic frequency of ZnO NRs. • This type of hybrid structure leads to strong NBE emission enhancement without a broad deep level emission. The absence of DL emission suggests that there is no oxygen vacancy which is found to be very unusual in ZnO nanorods. • The possible reason for the NBE emission enhancement is explained through annealing of ultra thin Ag inter-layer, surface roughness and density of ZnO nanorods. The NBE emission enhancement on ZnO/Ag has been studied through charge transfers by giving a suitable band diagram. - Abstract: ZnO nanorods (NRs) exhibiting enhanced ultra-violet near band edge (UV-NBE) emission without a broad visible deep level (DL) emission has been investigated on catalytically grown ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructure. The hybrid structure is fabricated in two steps, (1) Thermal evaporation of ultra-thin catalytic layer of Ag with mass thickness ∼1 nm on glass substrate followed by annealing process from 50 to 250 °C and (2) vertical growth of ZnO NRs by hydrothermal reaction process on all Ag films. The surface properties of Ag layer such as particle size, inter-particle distance, particles number density, surface roughness and surface coverage area were altered through annealing process. Annealing at 100 °C modifies Ag from quasi-amorphous to nanocrystalline leading to high density growth and high aspect ratio of ZnO NRs where as a random and less density growth was realized at 250 °C due to increase of both particle size and inter-particles distance in Ag layer. X-ray diffraction reveals a predominant growth of (0 0 2) plane at 100

  5. 超薄瓷贴面的临床应用%Clinical application of ultra-thin veneers for anterior esthetic restorations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆小平; 袁宇; 王琦; 石玉娟; 钱冬冬

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the esthetic effect of anterior ultra-thin veneers which were fabricated from heat pressed IPS e.max press ingots of high translucency.Methods The whole 62 anterior teeth of 12 patients,who wanted to receive aesthetic restorative treatment,were invloved in the study.Grooves with 0.5 mm depth were marked at the center of the labial face by the use of spherical diamond burs with 1 mm in diameter.At the cervix of the teeth,the design of 0.3 mm shallow concave shoulder was adopted.IPS e.max HT ingots of different color were chosen to be hotpressed; the straining technique was used on the marginal ridge and incisor ridge of the ultra thin veneers after they had been carefully trimmed.Subsequently,the restorations were bonded with Variolink Veneer resin cement.After a short-term follow-up for 3 years,a modified USPHS criterion was used to evaluate the esthetic effect.Results The thickness of the ultra-thin veneers fabricated by heat pressing was 0.3-0.5 mm,marginal integrity of the veneers was perfect and fitted well with the marginal finishing line of the abutment,and then the translucency of veneers was high.There was no edge discoloring after the veneers were used for 6 months to 3 years,and they might produce an excellent chameleon effect by mixing the color of adjacent teeth and gums,and appeared a surface morphology of natural enamel after carefully carved.In the short-term clinical observation,none of the 62 veneers fractured or fell off; there was no case of dentin hypersensitivity.Conclusions Ultra-thin veneers fabricated from IPS e.max Press ingots have the following advantages,a simple operating procedure,high mechanical strength,and satisfactory esthetic effect.%目的 探讨采用IPS e.max HT热压铸造陶瓷制作前牙超薄瓷贴面的临床美学修复效果.方法 选择要求进行前牙美学修复的患者12例,共62个牙齿,用直径1 mm球状车针在牙齿唇侧中部及切端标记出0.5 mm深度的凹槽,颈部采用0

  6. X-ray Spectroscopy of Ultra-thin Oxide/oxide Heteroepitaxial Films: A Case Study of Single-nanometer VO2/TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quackenbush, Nicholas F. [Binghamton Univ., NY (United States); Paik, Hanjong [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Woicik, Joseph C. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Arena, Dario A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schlom, Darrell G. [Cornell Univ. and Kavli Inst. at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, NY (United States); Piper, Louis F. J. [Binghamton Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-08-21

    Epitaxial ultra-thin oxide films can support large percent level strains well beyond their bulk counterparts, thereby enabling strain-engineering in oxides that can tailor various phenomena. At these reduced dimensions (typically < 10 nm), contributions from the substrate can dwarf the signal from the epilayer, making it difficult to distinguish the properties of the epilayer from the bulk. This is especially true for oxide on oxide systems. Here, we have employed a combination of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) and angular soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to study epitaxial VO2/TiO2 (100) films ranging from 7.5 to 1 nm. We observe a low-temperature (300 K) insulating phase with evidence of vanadium-vanadium (V-V) dimers and a high-temperature (400 K) metallic phase absent of V-V dimers irrespective of film thickness. Results confirm that the metal insulator transition can exist at atomic dimensions and that biaxial strain can still be used to control the temperature of its transition when the interfaces are atomically sharp. Generally, our case study highlights the benefits of using non-destructive XAS and HAXPES to extract out information regarding the interfacial quality of the epilayers and spectroscopic signatures associated with exotic phenomena at these dimensions.

  7. 4P-NPD ultra-thin films as efficient exciton blocking layers in DBP/C70 based organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bhushan R.; Liu, Yiming; Qamar, Talha; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    2017-09-01

    Exciton blocking effects from ultra-thin layers of N,N‧-di-1-naphthalenyl-N,N‧-diphenyl [1,1‧:4‧,1″:4″,1‴-quaterphenyl]-4,4‴-diamine (4P-NPD) were investigated in small molecule-based inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) using tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene as the electron donor material and fullerene (C70) as the electron acceptor material. The short-circuit current density (J SC) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the optimized OSCs with 0.7 nm thick 4P-NPD were approximately 16% and 24% higher, respectively, compared to reference devices without exciton blocking layers (EBLs). Drift diffusion-based device modeling was conducted to model the full current density-voltage (JV) characteristics and external quantum efficiency spectrum of the OSCs, and photoluminescence measurements were conducted to investigate the exciton blocking effects with increasing thicknesses of the 4P-NPD layer. Importantly, coupled optical and electrical modeling studies of the device behaviors and exciton generation rates and densities in the active layer for different 4P-NPD layer thicknesses were conducted, in order to gain a complete understanding of the observed increase in PCE for 4P-NPD layer thicknesses up to 1 nm, and the observed decrease in PCE for layer thicknesses beyond 1 nm. This work demonstrates a route for guiding the integration of EBLs in OSC devices.

  8. Highly-flexible, ultra-thin, and transparent single-layer graphene/silver composite electrodes for organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Hu; Li, Huiying; Li, Ye; Jin, Guangyong; Gao, Lanlan; Marco, Mazzeo; Duan, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Transparent conductive electrode (TCE) platforms are required in many optoelectronic devices, including organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). To date, indium tin oxide based electrodes are widely used in TCEs but they still have few limitations in term of achieving flexible OLEDs and display techniques. In this paper, highly-flexible and ultra-thin TCEs were fabricated for use in OLEDs by combining single-layer graphene (SLG) with thin silver layers of only several nanometers in thickness. The as-prepared SLG + Ag (8 nm) composite electrodes showed low sheet resistances of 8.5 Ω/□, high stability over 500 bending cycles, and 74% transmittance at 550 nm wavelength. Furthermore, SLG + Ag composite electrodes employed as anodes in OLEDs delivered turn-on voltages of 2.4 V, with luminance exceeding 1300 cd m-2 at only 5 V, and maximum luminance reaching up 40 000 cd m-2 at 9 V. Also, the devices could work normally under less than the 1 cm bending radius.

  9. Low driving voltage Mach-Zehnder interference modulator constructed from an electro-optic polymer on ultra-thin silicon with a broadband operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiromu; Miura, Hiroki; Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M; Kashino, Tsubasa; Kikuchi, Takamasa; Ozawa, Masaaki; Nawata, Hideyuki; Odoi, Keisuke; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2017-01-23

    An electro-optic (EO) polymer waveguide using an ultra-thin silicon hybrid has been designed and fabricated. The silicon core has the thickness of 50 nm and a width of 5 μm. The waveguide was completed after covering the cladding with the high temperature stable EO polymer. We have demonstrated a low half-wavelength voltage of 0.9 V at the wavelength of 1.55 μm by using a Mach-Zehnder interference modulator with TM mode operation. The measured modulation corresponded to an effective in-device EO coefficient of 165 pm/V. By utilizing the traveling-wave electrode on the modulator the high-frequency response was tested up to 40 GHz. The 3 dB modulation bandwidth was measured to be 23 GHz. In addition, the high frequency sideband spectral measurement revealed that a linear response of the modulation index against the RF power was confirmed up to 40 GHz signal.

  10. Study on characteristics of a double-conductible channel organic thin-film transistor with an ultra-thin hole-blocking layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Guang-Cai; Xu Zheng; Zhao Su-Ling; Zhang Fu-Jun; Xu Na; Tian Xue-Yan; Xu Xu-Rong

    2009-01-01

    The properties of top-contact organic thin-film transistors (TC-OTFTs) using ultra-thin 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) as a hole-blocking interlayer have been improved significantly and a BCP interlayer was inserted into the middle of the pentacene active layer. This paper obtains a fire-new transport mode of an OTFT device with double-conductible channels. The accumulation and transfer of the hole carriers are limited by the BCP interlayer in the vertical region of the channel. A huge amount of carriers is located not only at the interface between pentacene and the gate insulator,but also at the two interfaces of pentacene/BCP interlayer and pentacene/gate insulator,respectively. The results suggest that the BCP interlayer may be useful to adjust the hole accumulation and transfer,and can increase the hole mobility and output current of OTFTs. The TC-OTFTs with a BCP interlayer at VDs=-20 V showed excellent hole mobility μFE and threshold voltage VTH of 0.58 cm2/(V.s) and-4.6V,respectively.

  11. Dissolution-and-reduction CVD synthesis of few-layer graphene on ultra-thin nickel film lifted off for mode-locking fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kaung-Jay; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Wu, Chung-Lun; Lin, Sheng-Fong; Yang, Chun-Yu; Lin, Shih-Meng; Tsai, Din-Ping; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2015-01-01

    The in-situ dissolution-and-reduction CVD synthesized few-layer graphene on ultra-thin nickel catalyst film is demonstrated at temperature as low as 550 °C, which can be employed to form transmission-type or reflection-type saturable absorber (SA) for mode-locking the erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs). With transmission-type graphene SA, the EDFL shortens its pulsewidth from 483 to 441 fs and broadens its spectral linewidth from 4.2 to 6.1 nm with enlarging the pumping current from 200 to 900 mA. In contrast, the reflection-type SA only compresses the pulsewidth from 875 to 796 fs with corresponding spectral linewidth broadened from 2.2 to 3.3 nm. The reflection-type graphene mode-locker increases twice of its equivalent layer number to cause more insertion loss than the transmission-type one. Nevertheless, the reflection-type based saturable absorber system can generate stabilized soliton-like pulse easier than that of transmission-type system, because the nonlinearity induced self-amplitude modulation depth is simultaneously enlarged when passing through the graphene twice under the retro-reflector design. PMID:26328535

  12. Ultra-thin resin embedding method for scanning electron microscopy of individual cells on high and low aspect ratio 3D nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, A; Schnitker, J; Bertazzo, S; Neumann, E; Mayer, D; Offenhäusser, A; Santoro, F

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of biological cells for either scanning or transmission electron microscopy requires a complex process of fixation, dehydration and drying. Critical point drying is commonly used for samples investigated with a scanning electron beam, whereas resin-infiltration is typically used for transmission electron microscopy. Critical point drying may cause cracks at the cellular surface and a sponge-like morphology of nondistinguishable intracellular compartments. Resin-infiltrated biological samples result in a solid block of resin, which can be further processed by mechanical sectioning, however that does not allow a top view examination of small cell-cell and cell-surface contacts. Here, we propose a method for removing resin excess on biological samples before effective polymerization. In this way the cells result to be embedded in an ultra-thin layer of epoxy resin. This novel method highlights in contrast to standard methods the imaging of individual cells not only on nanostructured planar surfaces but also on topologically challenging substrates with high aspect ratio three-dimensional features by scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Dissolution-and-reduction CVD synthesis of few-layer graphene on ultra-thin nickel film lifted off for mode-locking fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kaung-Jay; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Wu, Chung-Lun; Lin, Sheng-Fong; Yang, Chun-Yu; Lin, Shih-Meng; Tsai, Din-Ping; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2015-09-01

    The in-situ dissolution-and-reduction CVD synthesized few-layer graphene on ultra-thin nickel catalyst film is demonstrated at temperature as low as 550 °C, which can be employed to form transmission-type or reflection-type saturable absorber (SA) for mode-locking the erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs). With transmission-type graphene SA, the EDFL shortens its pulsewidth from 483 to 441 fs and broadens its spectral linewidth from 4.2 to 6.1 nm with enlarging the pumping current from 200 to 900 mA. In contrast, the reflection-type SA only compresses the pulsewidth from 875 to 796 fs with corresponding spectral linewidth broadened from 2.2 to 3.3 nm. The reflection-type graphene mode-locker increases twice of its equivalent layer number to cause more insertion loss than the transmission-type one. Nevertheless, the reflection-type based saturable absorber system can generate stabilized soliton-like pulse easier than that of transmission-type system, because the nonlinearity induced self-amplitude modulation depth is simultaneously enlarged when passing through the graphene twice under the retro-reflector design.

  14. Effects of Na incorporation and plasma treatment on Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} ultra-thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Garcia, H., E-mail: hamog@ier.unam.mx [Laboratorio de Espectroscopía, Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Messina, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo” S/N, C.P. 63155 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Calixto-Rodriguez, M. [Universidad Tecnológica Emiliano Zapata del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad Tecnológica No. 1, C.P. 62760 Emiliano Zapata, Morelos (Mexico); Martínez, H. [Laboratorio de Espectroscopía, Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2016-04-01

    As-deposited bismuth sulfide thin films prepared by means of a chemical bath deposition were treated with argon AC plasma. In this paper, we present the results on the physical modifications which were observed when a pre-treatment, containing a solution of 1 M sodium hydroxide, was applied to the glass substrates before depositing the bismuth sulfide. The bismuth sulfide thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV–VIS, and electrical measurements. The XRD analysis demonstrated an enhancement in the crystalline properties, as well as an increment in the crystal size. The energy band gap value was calculated as 1.60 eV. Changes in photoconductivity (σ{sub p}) values were also observed due to the pre-treatment in NaOH. A value of σ{sub p} = 6.2 × 10{sup −6} (Ω cm){sup −1} was found for samples grown on substrates without pre-treatment, and a value of σ{sub p} = 0.28 (Ω cm){sup −1} for samples grown on substrates with pre-treatment. Such σ{sub p} values are optimal for the improvement of solar cells based on Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films as absorber material. - Highlights: • We report our findings about Na incorporation and plasma treatment on Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin layers. • The Na pre-treatment improves the structural and electrical properties of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} films. • The E{sub g} value was 1.60 eV for films with pre-treatment with NaOH and treatment in Ar plasma.

  15. High-temperature wear and oxidation behaviors of TiNi/Ti2Ni matrix composite coatings with TaC addition prepared on Ti6Al4V by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y. H.; Li, J.; Tao, Y. F.; Hu, L. F.

    2017-04-01

    TiNi/Ti2Ni matrix composite coatings were produced on Ti6Al4V surfaces by laser cladding the mixed powders of Ni-based alloy and different contents of TaC (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 wt.%). Microstructures of the coatings were investigated. High-temperature wear tests of the substrate and the coatings were carried out at 600 °C in air for 30 min. High-temperature oxidation tests of the substrate and the coatings were performed at 1000 °C in air for 50 h. Wear and oxidation mechanisms were revealed in detail. The results showed that TiNi/Ti2Ni as the matrix and TiC/TiB2/TiB as the reinforcements are the main phases of the coatings. The friction coefficients of the substrate and the coatings with different contents of TaC were 0.431 (the substrate), 0.554 (0 wt.%), 0.486 (5 wt.%), 0.457 (10 wt.%), 0.458 (15 wt.%), 0.507 (20 wt.%), 0.462 (30 wt.%) and 0.488 (40 wt.%). The wear rates of the coatings were decreased by almost 83%-98% than that of the substrate and presented a decreasing tendency with increasing TaC content. The wear mechanism of the substrate was a combination of serious oxidation, micro-cutting and brittle debonding. For the coatings, oxidation and slight scratching were predominant during wear, accompanied by slight brittle debonding in partial zones. With the increase in content of TaC, the oxidation film better shielded the coatings from destruction due to the effective friction-reducing role of Ta2O5. The oxidation rates of the substrate and the coatings with different contents of TaC at 1000 °C were 12.170 (the substrate), 5.886 (0 wt.%), 4.937 (5 wt.%), 4.517 (10 wt.%), 4.394 (15 wt.%), 3.951 (20 wt.%), 4.239 (30 wt.%) and 3.530 (40 wt.%) mg2 cm-4 h-1, respectively. The oxidation film formed outside the coating without adding TaC was composed of TiO2, NiO, Cr2O3, Al2O3 and SiO2. When TaC was added, Ta2O5 and TaC were also detected, which effectively improved the oxidation resistance of the coatings. The addition of TaC contributed to the

  16. Method of making dense, conformal, ultra-thin cap layers for nanoporous low-k ILD by plasma assisted atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2011-05-24

    Barrier layers and methods for forming barrier layers on a porous layer are provided. The methods can include chemically adsorbing a plurality of first molecules on a surface of the porous layer in a chamber and forming a first layer of the first molecules on the surface of the porous layer. A plasma can then be used to react a plurality of second molecules with the first layer of first molecules to form a first layer of a barrier layer. The barrier layers can seal the pores of the porous material, function as a diffusion barrier, be conformal, and/or have a negligible impact on the overall ILD k value of the porous material.

  17. Spin-dependent electron transmission through ultra-thin magnetic layers: towards highly discriminative, compact spin detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sluijs, A.M.; Drouhin, H.J.; Lampel, G.; Lassailly, Y.; Marliere, C. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    1994-10-01

    At low energy, a longitudinally spin-polarized electron beam impinges on an ultrathin, self-supported ferromagnetic target, consisting of a 1 nm-thick cobalt film sandwiched between 21 and 2 nm-thick gold layers, and which is magnetized perpendicularly to the surface. The current transmitted by the target depends on the spin of the electrons. Cesium deposition on both sides of the target increases the transmission ratio from about 1 x 10{sup -5} up to 3 x 10{sup -4} and also increases the transmission spin-asymmetry from 15 to about 40%. Such a structure is well suited to the construction of convenient and compact spin-detectors. (authors). 4 figs., 9 refs.

  18. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the ultra-thin HfO2 based CO gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Irmak; Barin, Ã.-zlem; Yıldız, Dilber Esra; Acar, Selim

    2015-11-01

    In this work, an effort has been made to fabricate ultrathin HfO2/Al2O3 sample by atomic layer deposition method for the fast detection of CO gas at room temperature. The effect of the operating temperature and the UV light on the gas sensing characteristics has been studied. We investigated the optimum operating temperature for the sample by sensing 25 ppm CO and CO2 gases from room temperature to 150 °C for 10 °C steps. The maximum response was obtained at 150 °C for both gases in the measurement temperature range. Also, the photoresponse measurements clearly show the effect of UV light on the sample. At room temperature, sensor showed superior response (14%) for 5 ppm CO gas. The response time of sensor is 6 s to 5 ppm CO gas concentration. The ultrathin HfO2 based sample shows acceptable gas sensitivity for 5 ppm CO gas at room temperature under UV light irradiation.

  19. Low power phase change memory switching of ultra-thin In3Sb1Te2 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmo, S.; Cecchini, R.; Cecchi, S.; Wiemer, C.; Fanciulli, M.; Rotunno, E.; Lazzarini, L.; Rigato, M.; Pogany, D.; Lugstein, A.; Longo, M.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the fabrication and electrical characterization of phase change memory (PCM) devices formed by In3Sb1Te2 chalcogenide nanowires (NWs), with diameters as small as 20 nm. The NWs were self-assembled by metal organic chemical vapor deposition via the vapor-liquid-solid method, catalyzed by Au nanoparticles. Reversible and well reproducible memory switching of the NWs between low and high resistance states was demonstrated. The conduction mechanism of the high resistance state was investigated according to a trap-limited model for electrical transport in the amorphous phase. The size of the amorphized portion of the NW and the critical electric field for the transition to the low resistance state were evaluated. The In3Sb1Te2 NW-based devices showed very low working parameters, such as RESET voltage (˜3 V), current (˜40 μA), and power (˜130 μW). Our results indicated that the studied NWs are suitable candidates for the realization of ultra-scaled, high performance PCM devices.

  20. Anomalous thickness-dependent optical energy gap of ALD-grown ultra-thin CuO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, T. S.; Terasaki, I.; Karppinen, M.

    2016-11-01

    Usually an inverse square relation between the optical energy gap and the size of crystallites is observed for semiconducting materials due to the strong quantum localization effect. Coulomb attraction that may lead to a proportional dependence is often ignored or considered less important to the optical energy gap when the crystallite size or the thickness of a thin film changes. Here we report a proportional dependence between the optical energy gap and the thickness of ALD-grown CuO thin films due to a strong Coulomb attraction. The ultrathin films deposited in the thickness range of 9-81 nm show a p-type semiconducting behavior when analyzed by Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity measurements. The indirect optical energy gap nature of the films is verified from UV-vis spectrophotometric measurements. A progressive increase in the indirect optical energy gap from 1.06 to 1.24 eV is observed with the increase in the thickness of the films. The data are analyzed in the presence of Coulomb attractions using the Brus model. The optical energy gap when plotted against the cubic root of the thickness of the films shows a linear dependence.

  1. The impact of ultra-thin titania interlayers on open circuit voltage and carrier lifetime in thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerman, David; Colbert, Adam E.; Ginger, David S., E-mail: ginger@chem.washington.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kim, Hyungchul; Graham, Samuel, E-mail: sgraham@gatech.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2016-03-14

    We study the effects of modifying indium tin oxide electrodes with ultrathin titania (TiO{sub 2}) layers grown via plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). We find an optimal thickness of PE-ALD-grown titania by tracking performance, which initially increases, peaks, and eventually decreases with increasing TiO{sub 2} thickness. We use scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) to measure both the local work function and its distribution as a function of TiO{sub 2} thickness. We find that the variance in contact potential difference across the surface of the film is related to either the amorphous or anatase TiO{sub 2} form. Finally, we use local SKPM recombination rate experiments, supported by bulk transient photovoltage and charge extraction measurements. We show that the optimum TiO{sub 2} thickness is the one for which the carrier lifetime is the longest and the charge carrier density is the highest, when the TiO{sub 2} is amorphous, in agreement with the device measurements.

  2. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} based CO gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaduman, Irmak; Barin, Özlem; Acar, Selim [Department of Physics, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Yıldız, Dilber Esra [Department of Physics, Hitit University, 19030 Çorum (Turkey)

    2015-11-07

    In this work, an effort has been made to fabricate ultrathin HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample by atomic layer deposition method for the fast detection of CO gas at room temperature. The effect of the operating temperature and the UV light on the gas sensing characteristics has been studied. We investigated the optimum operating temperature for the sample by sensing 25 ppm CO and CO{sub 2} gases from room temperature to 150 °C for 10 °C steps. The maximum response was obtained at 150 °C for both gases in the measurement temperature range. Also, the photoresponse measurements clearly show the effect of UV light on the sample. At room temperature, sensor showed superior response (14%) for 5 ppm CO gas. The response time of sensor is 6 s to 5 ppm CO gas concentration. The ultrathin HfO{sub 2} based sample shows acceptable gas sensitivity for 5 ppm CO gas at room temperature under UV light irradiation.

  3. Ultra-thin g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets wrapped silicon nanowire array for improved chemical stability and enhanced photoresponse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Beibei; Yu, Hongtao; Quan, Xie, E-mail: quanxie@dlut.edu.cn; Chen, Shuo

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, as an oxygen free and metal free protective material for Si, was proposed. • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets wrapped Si nanowire array was synthesized. • SiNW/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibited enhancement of photoelectrochemical stability and photocurrent. - Abstract: In order to inhibit the oxidation of Si materials in aqueous solution, Si nanowire array was wrapped by ultra-thin g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets via an electrophoresis process. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets were evenly distributed on the surface of Si nanowire array. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that Si nanowire array/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets were composed of Si (4 0 0 crystal plane) and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (0 0 2 and 1 0 0 crystal planes). The cyclic voltammetry curves revealed that the corrosion of Si nanowire array was restrained under the protection of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets. Furthermore, the photocurrent density of Si nanowire array/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets increased by nearly 3 times compared to that of bare Si nanowire array due to the effective charge separation caused by the built-in electric field at the interface. This work will facilitate the applications of Si materials in aqueous solution, such as solar energy harvest and photocatalytic pollution control.

  4. Unexpected behavior of ultra-thin films of blends of polystyrene/poly(vinyl methyl ether) studied by specific heat spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Sherif; Szymoniak, Paulina; Schick, Christoph; Schönhals, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Specific heat spectroscopy (SHS) employing AC nanochip calorimetry was used to investigate the glassy dynamics of ultra-thin films (thicknesses: 10 nm-340 nm) of a polymer blend, which is miscible in the bulk. In detail, a Poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME)/Polystyrene (PS) blend with the composition of 25/75 wt. % was studied. The film thickness was controlled by ellipsometry while the film topography was checked by atomic force microscopy. The results are discussed in the framework of the balance between an adsorbed and a free surface layer on the glassy dynamics. By a self-assembling process, a layer with a reduced mobility is irreversibly adsorbed at the polymer/substrate interface. This layer is discussed employing two different scenarios. In the first approach, it is assumed that a PS-rich layer is adsorbed at the substrate. Whereas in the second approach, a PVME-rich layer is suggested to be formed at the SiO2 substrate. Further, due to the lower surface tension of PVME, with respect to air, a nanometer thick PVME-rich surface layer, with higher molecular mobility, is formed at the polymer/air interface. By measuring the glassy dynamics of the thin films of PVME/PS in dependence on the film thickness, it was shown that down to 30 nm thicknesses, the dynamic Tg of the whole film was strongly influenced by the adsorbed layer yielding a systematic increase in the dynamic Tg with decreasing the film thickness. However, at a thickness of ca. 30 nm, the influence of the mobile surface layer becomes more pronounced. This results in a systematic decrease in Tg with the further decrease of the film thickness, below 30 nm. These results were discussed with respect to thin films of PVME/PS blend with a composition of 50/50 wt. % as well as literature results.

  5. RFID超薄抗金属标签天线设计%Ultra-thin RFID tag antenna design for metallic object applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 陈钟荣

    2015-01-01

    设计了一款UHF频段RFID超薄抗金属电子标签天线,该天线采用Koch分形结构实现小型化。天线采用FPC材料作为标签天线的介质基板,厚度仅为0.25 mm。其良好的柔韧性使其能用于有共形要求的场合。仿真和测试表明,提出的天线具有较宽的带宽(900~930 MHz)、相对高的增益(约–10.7 dB)、较高的天线效率及较大的阅读距离(约3 m),可应用于物联网中对金属物体的管理。%An ultra-thin RFID tag antenna for ultrahigh frequency (UHF) band was proposed, which could be used on metallic object. This antenna was miniaturized by using Koch fractal structure. The antenna was fabricated on a flexible printed circuit (FPC) board with a thickness of 0.25 mm, making it to be a possible candidate in occasions with conformal requirements. Both simulated and measured results show that the antenna has the wide bandwidth(900–930 MHz), relatively high gain ( about –10.7 dB), and large reading distance (about 3 m). This kind of antenna can be used for the management of metal objects in the internet of things.

  6. Oxidation behaviors of the TiNi/Ti{sub 2}Ni matrix composite coatings with different contents of TaC addition fabricated on Ti6Al4V by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Y.H.; Li, J., E-mail: jacob_lijun@sina.com; Tao, Y.F.; Hu, L.F.

    2016-09-15

    The TiNi/Ti{sub 2}Ni matrix composite coatings were fabricated on Ti6Al4V by laser cladding the mixtures of NiCrBSi and different contents of TaC (0 wt%, 5 wt%, 15 wt%, 30 wt% and 40 wt%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) were used to examine the microstructures of the coatings. Oxidation behaviors of these coatings were also investigated at 800 °C for 50 h in air. The results showed that the coating without TaC addition was mainly composed of TiNi/Ti{sub 2}Ni as the matrix and TiC/TiB{sub 2}/TiB as the reinforcement. TaC was dissolved completely and precipitated again during laser cladding. Ta and C from the added TaC mainly existed as the solute atoms in the solid solutions of TiC, TiB{sub 2} and TiB in the coatings with TaC addition. The addition of TaC refined the microstructures of the coatings. In the oxidation test, the oxidation process was divided into the violent oxidation stage and the slow oxidation stage. The oxidation rates of the substrate and the coatings with different contents of TaC (0, 5, 15, 30, 40 wt%) were 0.644, 0.287, 0.173, 0.161, 0.223 and 0.072 mg cm{sup −2} h{sup −1} in the first stage, 0.884, 0.215, 0.136, 0.126, 0.108 and 0.040 mg{sup 2} cm{sup −4} h{sup −1} in the second stage, respectively. The weight gain of these samples were 6.70, 3.30, 2.86, 2.64, 2.41 and 1.69 mg cm{sup −2}, respectively after the whole oxidation test. The oxidation film formed on the surface of the coating without TaC addition mainly consisted of TiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and a small amount of NiO, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}. Moreover, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} was also formed on the surfaces of these coatings with different contents of TaC. The oxides formed during the oxidation test were supposed to be responsible for the improvement in oxidation resistance of these coatings. - Highlights: • The composite coatings with TaC addition were fabricated on Ti6Al4V by laser

  7. Nitrogen doping for adhesion improvement of DLC film deposited on Si substrate by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bootkul, D., E-mail: mo_duangkhae@hotmail.com [Department of General Science, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Supsermpol, B.; Saenphinit, N. [Western Digital Company, Ayutthaya 13160 (Thailand); Aramwit, C. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand)

    2014-08-15

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been used in many applications due to their attractive combination of properties including chemical inertness, corrosion protection, biocompatibility, high hardness, and low wear rates. However, they still have some limitations such as high internal stresses and low toughness which lead to poor adhesion of films. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped DLC (N-DLC) offers the possibility of overcoming these limitations. In this study, DLC films, namely tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) and nitrogen doped tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:N) were deposited on single crystalline Si wafer substrates using the Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) technique. Film characterizations were carried out by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), triboindenter tester and nano-scratch tester. Measurement results showed that intentionally doping with nitrogen reduced the carbon sp{sup 3} content and increased the surface roughness in comparison with that of pure ta-C films. The hardness measurement confirmed the Raman and AFM analyses that adding nitrogen in ta-C films decreased the hardness, especially with high nitrogen content. However, the nano-scratch test revealed the increasing of the critical load with nitrogen. This work, then, extended its scope to investigate the properties of double-layer ta-C films which were composed of ta-C:N interlayer of various thickness around 10–30 nm and ta-C top-layer with thickness of around 80 nm. Microstructure characterization demonstrated that a ta-C:N interlayer gradually decreased the sp{sup 3} fraction in the films and increased film roughness whenever the ta-C:N interlayer thickness increased. In this structure, the tribological property in terms of adhesion to the Si substrate was significantly improved by about 20–90%, but the mechanical property in terms of hardness was gradually degraded by about 2–10%, compared to pure ta-C film, when the ta-C

  8. Impact of varying buffer thickness generated strain and threading dislocations on the formation of plasma assisted MBE grown ultra-thin AlGaN/GaN heterostructure on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhra Chowdhury

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE growth of ultra-thin Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN heterostructures on Si(111 substrate with three buffer thickness (600 nm/400 nm/200 nm have been reported. An unique growth process has been developed that supports lower temperature epitaxy of GaN buffer which minimizes thermally generated tensile strain through appropriate nitridation and AlN initiated epitaxy for achieving high quality GaN buffer which supports such ultra-thin heterostructures in the range of 10-15Å. It is followed by investigations of role of buffer thickness on formation of ultra-thin Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN heterostructure, in terms of stress-strain and threading dislocation (TD. Structural characterization were performed by High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction (HRXRD, room-temperature Photoluminescence (RT-PL, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Analysis revealed increasing biaxial tensile stress of 0.6918 ± 0.04, 1.1084, 1.1814 GPa in heterostructures with decreasing buffer thickness of 600, 400, 200 nm respectively which are summed up with residual tensile strain causing red-shift in RT-PL peak. Also, increasing buffer thickness drastically reduced TD density from the order 1010 cm−2 to 108 cm−2. Surface morphology through AFM leads to decrease of pits and root mean square value with increasing buffer thickness which are resulted due to reduction of combined effect of strain and TDs.

  9. Impact of varying buffer thickness generated strain and threading dislocations on the formation of plasma assisted MBE grown ultra-thin AlGaN/GaN heterostructure on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Subhra, E-mail: subhra1109@gmail.com [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Biswas, Dhrubes [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Department of E and E C E, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of ultra-thin Al{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N/GaN heterostructures on Si(111) substrate with three buffer thickness (600 nm/400 nm/200 nm) have been reported. An unique growth process has been developed that supports lower temperature epitaxy of GaN buffer which minimizes thermally generated tensile strain through appropriate nitridation and AlN initiated epitaxy for achieving high quality GaN buffer which supports such ultra-thin heterostructures in the range of 10-15Å. It is followed by investigations of role of buffer thickness on formation of ultra-thin Al{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N/GaN heterostructure, in terms of stress-strain and threading dislocation (TD). Structural characterization were performed by High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction (HRXRD), room-temperature Photoluminescence (RT-PL), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Analysis revealed increasing biaxial tensile stress of 0.6918 ± 0.04, 1.1084, 1.1814 GPa in heterostructures with decreasing buffer thickness of 600, 400, 200 nm respectively which are summed up with residual tensile strain causing red-shift in RT-PL peak. Also, increasing buffer thickness drastically reduced TD density from the order 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} to 10{sup 8} cm{sup −2}. Surface morphology through AFM leads to decrease of pits and root mean square value with increasing buffer thickness which are resulted due to reduction of combined effect of strain and TDs.

  10. The study of origin of interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in ultra-thin CoFeB layer on the top of MgO based magnetic tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Peng; Li, Shaoping; Zheng, Yuankai; Fang, Jason; Chen, Lifan; Hong, Liang; Wang, Haifeng

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive microstructure study has been conducted experimentally for identifying the origin or mechanism of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the ultra-thin (10 Å) CoFeB layer on the top of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). The high resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the feature of crystal structure in 10 Å-CoFeB layer is localized in nature at the CoFeB-MgO interface. On the other hand, the strain-relaxed crystalline structure is observed in the thick CoFeB (20 Å) layer at the CoFeB-MgO interface, associated with a series of dislocation formations. The electron energy loss spectroscopy further suggests that the local chemical stoichiometry of the ultra-thin 10 Å-CoFeB layer is notably changed at the CoFeB-MgO interface, compared with an atomic stoichiometry in a thick 20 Å-CoFeB layer. The origin of PMA mechanism is therefore identified experimentally as an interface effect, which can be attributed to a change of local atom bonding or lattice constant of the transition metal at the CoFeB-MgO based MTJ interface. Furthermore, such a local interfacial atom bonding change is seemly induced by the localized anisotropic strain and consistent with previous theoretical speculations and calculations. The observed experimental findings provide some perspective on microstructure and chemistry on PMA in ultra-thin CoFeB film at the MTJ interface, then deepening our understanding of the mechanism of PMA within MTJ stack and thus facilitating advancement for emerging spintronics technology.

  11. Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, H.M., E-mail: mobarak.ho31@yahoo.com; Masjuki, H.H.; Mohamad, E. Niza, E-mail: edzrol@um.edu.my; Kalam, M.A.; Rashedul, H.K.; Rashed, M.M.; Habibullah, M.

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • We tested a-C:H and ta-C DLC coatings as a function of temperature. • Jatropha oil contains large amounts of polar components that enhanced the lubricity of coatings. • CoF decreases with increasing temperature for both contacts. • Wear rate increases with increasing temperature in a-C:H and decreases in ta-C DLC. • At high temperature, ta-C coatings confer more protection than a-C:H coatings. - Abstract: The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC.

  12. 锌镍合金用于载体支撑超薄铜箔剥离层的研究%Study on Zn-Ni Alloy Used for Stripping Layer of Ultra-thin Copper Foil with Carrier Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓庚凤; 黄崛起; 赖远腾; 徐鹏

    2013-01-01

    High-zinc and low-nickel alloy coating used for stripping layer on 35 μm ultra-thin copper foil as carrier foil was electrodeposited. Ultra-thin copper foil was electrodeposited in pyrophosphate solution, and then ultra-thin copper carrier foil was prepared. The effects of ratio of zinc sulfate and nickel sulfate, dosage of complexing agent of potassium pyrophosphate trihydrate, dosage of additives of gelatin on the properties of stripping layer were investigated. The results show that zinc and nickel can be co-electroplated under the conditions including zinc sulfate of 12 g/L, nickel sulfate of 6 g/L, potassium pyrophosphate trihydrate of 0. 5 mol/L, gelatin of 0. 2 g/L and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate 0. 2~0. 3 g/L. Peelable strength between ultra-thin copper foil and carrier copper foil is stable and can reach 4. 7 N/cm when zinc-nickel alloy is used as a stripping layer.%在35μm载体铜箔上电镀一层高锌低镍合金镀层作为剥离层,再在焦磷酸盐液中电沉积超薄铜箔层,最后制得载体支撑超薄铜箔.考察了镀液硫酸锌和硫酸镍的配比、焦磷酸钾络合剂及明胶添加剂等对剥离层性能的影响.结果表明,在剥离层镀液中Zn2+∶Ni2+=4∶1,焦磷酸钾0.5 mol/L,明胶0.2g/L,十二烷基苯磺酸钠0.2~0.3 g/L条件下,锌和镍能够共同沉积,该镀层作为剥离层后剥离效果良好,载体箔和超薄铜箔间的剥离强度较稳定,可以达到4.7 N/cm.

  13. Spin dynamics and frequency dependence of magnetic damping study in soft ferromagnetic FeTaC film with a stripe domain structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samantaray, B., E-mail: iitg.biswanath@gmail.com; Ranganathan, R.; Mandal, P. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Singh, Akhilesh K.; Perumal, A. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati - 781039 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and low magnetic damping are the key factors for the free layer magnetization switching by spin transfer torque technique in magnetic tunnel junction devices. The magnetization precessional dynamics in soft ferromagnetic FeTaC thin film with a stripe domain structure was explored in broad band frequency range by employing micro-strip ferromagnetic resonance technique. The polar angle variation of resonance field and linewidth at different frequencies have been analyzed numerically using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation by taking into account the total free energy density of the film. The numerically estimated parameters Landé g-factor, PMA constant, and effective magnetization are found to be 2.1, 2 × 10{sup 5} erg/cm{sup 3} and 7145 Oe, respectively. The frequency dependence of Gilbert damping parameter (α) is evaluated by considering both intrinsic and extrinsic effects into the total linewidth analysis. The value of α is found to be 0.006 at 10 GHz and it increases monotonically with decreasing precessional frequency.

  14. Spin dynamics and frequency dependence of magnetic damping study in soft ferromagnetic FeTaC film with a stripe domain structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Samantaray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA and low magnetic damping are the key factors for the free layer magnetization switching by spin transfer torque technique in magnetic tunnel junction devices. The magnetization precessional dynamics in soft ferromagnetic FeTaC thin film with a stripe domain structure was explored in broad band frequency range by employing micro-strip ferromagnetic resonance technique. The polar angle variation of resonance field and linewidth at different frequencies have been analyzed numerically using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation by taking into account the total free energy density of the film. The numerically estimated parameters Landé g-factor, PMA constant, and effective magnetization are found to be 2.1, 2 × 105 erg/cm3 and 7145 Oe, respectively. The frequency dependence of Gilbert damping parameter (α is evaluated by considering both intrinsic and extrinsic effects into the total linewidth analysis. The value of α is found to be 0.006 at 10 GHz and it increases monotonically with decreasing precessional frequency.

  15. Spin dynamics and frequency dependence of magnetic damping study in soft ferromagnetic FeTaC film with a stripe domain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantaray, B.; Singh, Akhilesh K.; Perumal, A.; Ranganathan, R.; Mandal, P.

    2015-06-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and low magnetic damping are the key factors for the free layer magnetization switching by spin transfer torque technique in magnetic tunnel junction devices. The magnetization precessional dynamics in soft ferromagnetic FeTaC thin film with a stripe domain structure was explored in broad band frequency range by employing micro-strip ferromagnetic resonance technique. The polar angle variation of resonance field and linewidth at different frequencies have been analyzed numerically using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation by taking into account the total free energy density of the film. The numerically estimated parameters Landé g-factor, PMA constant, and effective magnetization are found to be 2.1, 2 × 105 erg/cm3 and 7145 Oe, respectively. The frequency dependence of Gilbert damping parameter (α) is evaluated by considering both intrinsic and extrinsic effects into the total linewidth analysis. The value of α is found to be 0.006 at 10 GHz and it increases monotonically with decreasing precessional frequency.

  16. High-resolution structural studies of ultra-thin magnetic, transition metal overlayers and two-dimensional transition metal oxides using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellar, S.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Div.

    1997-05-01

    This thesis report the surface-structure determination of three, ultra-thin magnetic transition-metal films, Fe/Au(100), Mn/Ni(100), and Mn/Cu(100) using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) and photoelectron holography. These structural studies are the first to use non-s initial states in the ARPEFS procedure. This thesis also reports an ARPEFS surface-structure determination of a two-dimensional transition-metal oxide, [(1 x 1)O/W(110)] x 12. The authors have analyzed the ARPFES signal from the Au 4f{sub 7/5} core level of the Au(1 ML)/Fe(15 ML)/Au(100) system. The analysis shows that the Fe grows layer by layer with one monolayer of gold, acting as a surfactant, remaining on top of the growing Fe layers. These surface gold atoms sit in the four-fold hollow site, 1.67 {+-} 0.02 A above the iron surface. The grown Fe layer is very much like the bulk, bcc iron, with an interlayer spacing of 1.43 {+-} 0.03 A. Analysis of the Mn 3p ARPEFS signals from c(2 x 2)Mn/Ni(100) and c(2 x 2)Mn/Cu(100) shows that the Mn forms highly corrugated surface alloys. The corrugation of the Mn/Ni(100) and Mn/Cu(100) systems are 0.24 {+-} 0.02 A and 0.30 {+-} 0.04 A respectively. In both cases the Mn is sticking above the plane of the surface substrate atoms. For the Mn/Ni(100) system the first layer Ni is contracted 4% from the bulk value. The Mn/Cu(100) system shows bulk spacing for the substrate Cu. Photoelectron holography shows that the Mn/Ni interface is very abrupt with very little Mn leaking into the second layer, while the Mn/Cu(100) case has a significant amount of Mn leaking into the second layer. A new, five-element electrostatic electron lens was developed for hemispherical electron-energy analyzers. This lens system can be operated at constant transverse or constants angular magnification, and has been optimized for use with the very small photon-spot sizes. Improvements to the hemispherical electron-energy analyzer are also discussed.

  17. Micro-nanocomposites Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ NbC/ WC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ NbC/ TaC; Micro-nanocompositos de Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ NbC/ WC e Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ NbC/ TaC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Thais da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Alumina based ceramics belong to a class of materials designated as structural, which are widely used in cutting tools. Although alumina has good properties for application as a structural ceramics, composites with different additives have been produced with the aim of improving its fracture toughness and mechanical strength. New studies point out micro-nanocomposites, wherein the addition of micrometric particles should enhance mechanical strength, and nano-sized particles enhance fracture toughness. In this work, alumina based micro nanocomposites were obtained by including nano-sized NbC and micrometer WC particles at 2:1, 6:4, 10:5 and 15:10 vol% proportions, and also with the inclusion of nano-sized NbC and micrometer TaC particles at 2:1 vol% proportion. For the study of densification, micro-nanocomposites were sintered in a dilatometer with a heating rate of 20°C/min until a temperature of 1800°C in argon atmosphere. Based on the dilatometry results, specimens were sintered in a resistive graphite furnace under argon atmosphere between 1500°C and 1700°C by holding the sintering temperature for 30 minutes. Densities, crystalline phases, hardness and tenacity were determined, and micro-nanocomposites microstructures were analyzed. The samples Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: NbC: TaC sintered at 1700 ° C achieved the greater apparent density (~ 95% TD) and the sample sintered at 1600 ° C showed homogeneous microstructure and increased hardness value (15.8 GPa) compared to the pure alumina . The compositions with 3% inclusions are the most promising for future applications. (author)

  18. Novel Solution Process for Fabricating Ultra-Thin-Film Absorber Layers in Fe2SiS4 and Fe2GeS4 Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orefuwa, Samuel A.; Lai, Cheng-Yu; Dobson, Kevin D.; Ni, Chaoying; Radu, Daniela R.

    2014-05-12

    Fe2SiS4 and Fe2GeS4 crystalline materials posses direct bandgaps of ~1.55 and ~1.4 eV respectively and an absorption coefficient larger than 10^5 cm–1; their theoretical potential as solar photovoltaic absorbers has been demonstrated. However, no solar devices that employ either Fe2SiS4 or Fe2GeS4 have been reported to date. In the presented work, nanoprecursors to Fe2SiS4 and Fe2GeS4 have been fabricated and employed to build ultra-thin-film layers via spray coating and rod coating methods. Temperature-dependent X-Ray diffraction analyses of nanoprecursors coatings show an unprecedented low temperature for forming crystalline Fe2SiS4 and Fe2GeS4. Fabricating of ultra-thin-film photovoltaic devices utilizing Fe2SiS4 and Fe2GeS4 as solar absorber material is presented.

  19. Anatase TiO{sub 2} hierarchical structures composed of ultra-thin nano-sheets exposing high percentage {0 0 1} facets and their application in quantum-dot sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dapeng, E-mail: dpengwu@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Province for Green Motive Power and Key Materials, Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Zhang, Shuo; Jiang, Shiwei; He, Jinjin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Jiang, Kai [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Province for Green Motive Power and Key Materials, Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

    2015-03-05

    Graphical abstract: TiO{sub 2} hierarchical structures assembled from ultra-thin nanosheets exposing ∼90% {0 0 1} facets were employed as photoanode materials to improve the performance of CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells. - Highlights: • THSs composited of nanosheets exposing high percent {0 0 1} facets were prepared. • THSs improve the QDs loading amount and light scattering of the photoanode. • THSs suppress the carrier recombination and finally lead to ∼25% PCE improvement. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} hierarchical structures (THSs) composed of ultra-thin nano-sheets exposing ∼90% {0 0 1} facets were prepared via a hydrothermal method. Time dependent trails revealed the formation of THSs experienced a self-assemble process. The as-prepared product were used as the photoanode materials for CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells, and the THSs/nanoparticle hybrid photoanode demonstrated a power conversion efficiency of 3.47%, indicating ∼25% improvement compared with the nanoparticle cell.

  20. Pulsed laser deposition of nanostructured Ag films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Tony [School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Doggett, Brendan [School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Lunney, James G. [School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)]. E-mail: jlunney@tcd.ie

    2006-04-30

    Ultra-thin (0.5-5 nm) films of Ag have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition in vacuum using a 26 ns KrF excimer laser at 1 J cm{sup -2}. The deposition was controlled using a Langmuir ion probe and a quartz crystal thickness monitor. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the films are not continuous, but are structured on nanometer size scales. Optical absorption spectra showed the expected surface plasmon resonance feature, which shifted to longer wavelength and increased in strength as the equivalent film thickness was increased. It is shown that Maxwell Garnett effective medium theory can be used to calculate the main features of optical absorption spectra.

  1. Effect of high substrate bias and hydrogen and nitrogen incorporation on filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposited tetrahedral amorphous carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, O.S. [Plasma Processed Materials Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012 (India)], E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in; Khan, Mohd. Alim [Plasma Processed Materials Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012 (India); Kumar, Mahesh; Shivaprasad, S.M. [Surface Physics and Nanostructures Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012 (India); Satyanarayana, B.S. [MIT Innovation Centre and Electronics and Communication Department, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal-579104 (India); Dixit, P.N. [Plasma Processed Materials Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012 (India); Bhattacharyya, R. [Emeritus Scientist, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Khan, M.Y. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, Central University, New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2008-02-29

    The application of a sufficiently high negative substrate bias, during the growth of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), is usually associated with low sp{sup 3} bonding configuration and stressed films. However, in an effort to understand and utilize the higher pseudo thermo dynamical conditions during the film growth, at high negative substrate bias (- 300 V), reported here is a study on ta-C films grown under different hydrogen and nitrogen concentration. As grown ta-C films were studied under different negative substrate bias conditions. The variation of the sp{sup 3} content and sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio in the ta-C films exhibits a trend similar to those reported in literature, with a subtle variation in this report being the substrate bias voltage, which was observed to be around - 200 V, for obtaining the highest sp{sup 3} (80%) bonding and sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} (3.95) ratio. The hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated ta-C films studied, at a bias of - 300 V, show an increase in sp{sup 3} (87-91%) bonding and sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} (7-10) ratio in the range of studies reported. The inference is drawn on the basis of the set of data obtained from measurements carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray induced Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy of as grown and hydrogen and nitrogen incorporated ta-C films deposited using an S bend filtered cathodic vacuum arc system. The study indicates the possibility of further tailoring ta-C film properties and also extending capabilities of the cathodic arc system for developing carbon based films for electronics and tribological applications.

  2. 纳米碳化钽对SPS烧结钨显微结构的影响%Effect of Nano-TaC on Microstructure of Sintered Tungsten by SPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苹苹; 沈卫平; 周亚南; 马明亮; 张庆玲; 王青云

    2012-01-01

    Dispersion strengthened tungsten with nano-tantalum carbide (TaC) was prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) process at 1700 ℃ for 1 min. The results show that the grain size of tungsten will be larger if the particle size of tungsten powder is larger. When the particle size of tungsten powder is 3 μm, the grain size of tungsten is 22.19 μm. And then, with the increase of TaC content, the grain size of tungsten will be finer. When the particle size of tungsten powder is 200 nm and the content of TaC is 4%, the grain size of sintered tungsten is about 5.91 μm. It also can be seen that TaC is spherical, it exists at grain boundaries of the sintered tungsten. Some transgranular fracture can be seen in fracture surface of pure tungsten by SPS, but it is mainly intergranular fracture in fracture surface of dispersion strengthened tungsten with nano-tantalum carbide.%通过放电等离子体烧结(SPS)方法在1700℃下制备纳米碳化钽(TaC)弥散强化钨块,研究钨粉原始粉末粒度大小和添加碳化钽的量对烧结钨块微观组织的影响.结果表明:不同粒度钨粉(30 nm、200 nm和3μm)制备的钨块,烧结后的粒径随原始粉末粒度的增大而增大,3 μm钨粉烧结后的晶粒平均直径为22.19μm;同一种粒度钨粉(如200 nm)中分别添加质量分数为0%,1%,2%和4%的碳化钽,烧结后钨晶粒的平均直径随碳化钽添加量的增加而减小,加入量为4%时晶粒平均直径为5.91 μm.通过SEM分析可以看出,碳化钽在烧结钨中是以球形状态存在的.从断口可以看出,纯钨烧结体为穿晶断裂,加入碳化钽的钨烧结体为晶间断裂.

  3. 激光熔覆涂层中原位生成TaC的颗粒行为特征%Particle Behavior of in-situ Synthesized TaC in Laser Clad Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余廷; 邓琦林; 郑静风; 董刚; 杨建国

    2011-01-01

    通过激光在中碳钢基体表面熔覆NiCrBSi+ Ta复合涂层原位生成了TaC颗粒.利用扫描电镜(SEM)、能谱仪(EDS)和X射线衍射仪(XRD)分析涂层的形貌、成分和物相.讨论了TaC颗粒的形貌、生长机制、分布情况以及影响颗粒分布的因素.结果显示,TaC颗粒为等轴或花瓣状,其形成机制主要是独立形核生长、碰撞烧结和原位析出.TaC颗粒分布均匀,没有出现明显的梯度分布现象.TaC颗粒被基体相晶界捕获而不是被基体相吞没或推至涂层顶部,这促使颗粒均匀分布.TaC颗粒周围生长有针状铬的硼化物或碳化物,应有利于颗粒与基体牢固结合.不同于其他碳化物的是,研究发现TaC颗粒中固溶了大量的Si元素,这为控制陶瓷颗粒强化材料中的Si含量提供了一种新途径.%NiCrBSi + Ta composite coating is produced on surface of a medium carbon steel substrate by laser cladding in order to in situ synthesize TaC particle. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) are used to observe and analyze the coating. Morphology, distribution and formation mechanism of in situ synthesized TaC particle are discussed. In spite of high melting point, equiaxial and flower-like TaC particles are still formed by one-step laser cladding. The result shows that the formation mechanism of TaC particle is nucleation and growth, colliding and sintering, and in situ precipitating. The distribution of particles is homogeneous. Most of TaC particles are entrapped at grain boundaries instead of being engulfed by matrices or pushed to the top of the coating due to high convection, high thermal gradient, multidirectional solidification of matrix dendrites and difference between thermal conductivities of particle and matrix. The entrapment at grain boundaries is favorable for the homogeneous distribution of particles. Acicular chromium borides or carbides are found to grow up around

  4. Effect of Reverse Substrate Bias on Degradation of Ultra-Thin Gate-Oxide n-Channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors under Different Stress Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yao; XU Ming-Zhen; TAN Chang-Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ Degradation of ultra-thin gate-oxide n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with the halo structure has been studied under different stress modes with a reverse substrate bias. The device degradation under the same stress mode with different reverse substrate voltages has been characterized by monitoring the substrate current in a stressing process, which follows a simple power law. When the gate voltage is less than the critical value, the device degradation will first decrease and then increase with the increasing reverse sub strate voltage, otherwise, the device degradation will increase continuously. The critical value can be obtained by measuring the substrate current variation with the increases of reverse substrate voltage and gate voltage. The experimental results indicate that the stress mode with enhanced injection efficiency and smaller device degradation can be obtained when the gate voltage is less than the critical value with a proper reverse substratevoltage chosen.

  5. Preparation of ultra-thin and high-quality WO3 compact layers and comparision of WO3 and TiO2 compact layer thickness in planar perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jincheng; Shi, Chengwu; Chen, Junjun; Wang, Yanqing; Li, Mingqian

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the ultra-thin and high-quality WO3 compact layers were successfully prepared by spin-coating-pyrolysis method using the tungsten isopropoxide solution in isopropanol. The influence of WO3 and TiO2 compact layer thickness on the photovoltaic performance of planar perovskite solar cells was systematically compared, and the interface charge transfer and recombination in planar perovskite solar cells with TiO2 compact layer was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that the optimum thickness of WO3 and TiO2 compact layer was 15 nm and 60 nm. The planar perovskite solar cell with 15 nm WO3 compact layer gave a 9.69% average and 10.14% maximum photoelectric conversion efficiency, whereas the planar perovskite solar cell with 60 nm TiO2 compact layer achieved a 11.79% average and 12.64% maximum photoelectric conversion efficiency.

  6. Charge selective contact on ultra-thin In(OH){sub x}S {sub y}/Pb(OH) {sub x}S {sub y} heterostructure prepared by SILAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, S.; Oja, I.; Lim, B.; Belaidi, A.; Bohne, W.; Strub, E.; Roehrich, J.; Lux-Steiner, M.-Ch.; Dittrich, Th. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Ultra-thin In(OH){sub x}S{sub y}/Pb(OH){sub x}S {sub y} heterostructures were formed by the wet chemical SILAR (successive ion layer adsorption and reaction) technique. ERDA (elastic recoil detection analysis) was used for stoichiometry analysis. The heterocontacts were conditioned by joint annealing of the two layers at different low temperatures in air. The charge selectivity was demonstrated with various small area solar cell structures. The results are discussed on the base of formation of bonds between sulphide clusters and passivation of defects with hydrogen containing species in hydroxy-sulphides. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Full-mouth composite rehabilitation of a mixed erosion and attrition patient: a case report with v-shaped veneers and ultra-thin CAD/CAM composite overlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahillo, Jose; Jané, Luis; Bortolotto, Tissiana; Krejci, Ivo; Roig, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    Loss of tooth substance has become a common pathology in modern society. It is of multifactorial origin, may be induced by a chemical process or by excessive attrition, and frequently has a combined etiology. Particular care should be taken when diagnosing the cause of dental tissue loss, in order to minimize its impact. Several publications have proposed the use of minimally invasive procedures to treat such patients in preference to traditional full-crown rehabilitation. The use of composite resins, in combination with improvements in dental adhesion, allows a more conservative approach. In this paper, we describe the step-by-step procedure of full-mouth composite rehabilitation with v-shaped veneers and ultra-thin computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM)- generated composite overlays in a young patient with a combination of erosion and attrition disorder.

  8. The Ultra-thin Main Insulation Structures Lapped with Dry-mica Tapes for High Voltage Motors%少胶绝缘高压电机超薄型主绝缘结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾彩萍

    2016-01-01

    Effect of the insulation materials and structures lapped with dry-mica tapes on the main insulation properties has been systematically investigated. The ultra-thin main insulation structures of 6 kV and 10 kV grades have been successfully manufactured by alternative half-overlapped with the designed glass or PET mica tapes, followed by VPI with anhydride-cured epoxy resins and corona protection with low electrical resistant materials, and exhibited excellent insulation properties and long thermo-electric aging life. The high voltage motors fabricated with the ultra-thin main insulation structures are lowered in the servicing temperature rise, obvious lightweight and reduced in production cost.%系统研究了绝缘材料及绕包结构等对高压电机主绝缘性能的影响。采用玻璃云母带与薄膜云母带为主绝缘绕包材料,通过交替半迭包工艺绕包的云母绝缘结构,经高性能环氧酸酐树脂( VPI)浸渍固化及薄型低阻防晕材料保护后制作的6 kV和10 kV超薄型高压电机主绝缘结构,表现出优良的电性能和老化寿命,实现了高压电机主绝缘的明显减薄。采用该超薄型绝缘结构制造的高压电机绕组温升显著降低,体积明显缩小,制造成本下降。

  9. Preparation of ultra-thin and high-quality WO{sub 3} compact layers and comparision of WO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} compact layer thickness in planar perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jincheng; Shi, Chengwu, E-mail: shicw506@foxmail.com; Chen, Junjun; Wang, Yanqing; Li, Mingqian

    2016-06-15

    In this paper, the ultra-thin and high-quality WO{sub 3} compact layers were successfully prepared by spin-coating-pyrolysis method using the tungsten isopropoxide solution in isopropanol. The influence of WO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} compact layer thickness on the photovoltaic performance of planar perovskite solar cells was systematically compared, and the interface charge transfer and recombination in planar perovskite solar cells with TiO{sub 2} compact layer was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that the optimum thickness of WO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} compact layer was 15 nm and 60 nm. The planar perovskite solar cell with 15 nm WO{sub 3} compact layer gave a 9.69% average and 10.14% maximum photoelectric conversion efficiency, whereas the planar perovskite solar cell with 60 nm TiO{sub 2} compact layer achieved a 11.79% average and 12.64% maximum photoelectric conversion efficiency. - Graphical abstract: The planar perovskite solar cell with 15 nm WO{sub 3} compact layer gave a 9.69% average and 10.14% maximum photoelectric conversion efficiency, whereas the planar perovskite solar cell with 60 nm TiO{sub 2} compact layer achieved a 11.79% average and 12.64% maximum photoelectric conversion efficiency. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Preparation of ultra-thin and high-quality WO{sub 3} compact layers. • Perovskite solar cell with 15 nm-thick WO{sub 3} compact layer achieved PCE of 10.14%. • Perovskite solar cell with 60 nm-thick TiO{sub 2} compact layer achieved PCE of 12.64%.

  10. 超细金属丝中电子的关联函数和关联能%The Correlation Function and Correlation Energies of the Electron Gas in Ultra-thin Metal Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹康生; 邵金山

    2000-01-01

    For the ultra- thin metal wires systems with coulomb interaction, a new quasi one - dimensionmodel is presented in thispaper. The form of effective coulomb potential for the ultra - thin metal wire systems is derived. Based on the correlated wave function theory, the Jastrow- Feenbery -stater many- body variation wave function is obtained on the basis of the collective oscillation behavior of the electron. gas. We have solved correlation function equation of real space and variation calculation to the system energies. 牋牋牋The pair correlation wave function and correlation energies and many- body wave function of ultrathin K wires are obtained. The pair correlation function obtained in this paper is positive definite and can satisfy the normalization condition.%对于具有库仑相互作用的超细金属丝,该文提出了一种新的准一维模型,从而得到了准一维超细金属丝体系的电子有效库仑势形式.并在相关基函数理论框架下,利用准一维电子体系的集体振荡行为,确定了具有库仑相互作用的二体关联的Jastrow-Feenberg-Slater多体变分波函数,通过对实空间关联函数的方程的自洽迭代求解以及体系能量的变分计算,得到了金属钾r5=4.967细丝的关联函数、关联能.该文得到的关联函数是恒正的,并且满足归一化条件.

  11. Overpotential deposition of Ag monolayer and bilayer on Au(1 1 1) mediated by Pb adlayer underpotential deposition/stripping cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. X.; Ocko, B. M.; Adzic, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Ultra-thin Ag films on the Au(1 1 1) surface were prepared via overpotential deposition (OPD) in the presence of Pb 2+ ions. By carrying out repetitive Pb adlayer underpotential deposition (UPD) and stripping cycles during Ag bulk deposition, the two-dimensional growth of Ag films was significantly enhanced in high OPD. The Ag monolayer sample was made by comparing the voltammetry curves, in which the signatures for Pb adlayer UPD on Au(1 1 1) changed to that on Ag(1 1 1). As demonstrated by the X-ray specular reflectivity measurements, nearly complete monolayer and bilayer films can be made with optimized deposition procedures. On subatomic scale, however, we found that these films have significant higher root-mean-square displacement amplitudes than those underpotentially deposited Ag monolayer and bilayer on either Au(1 1 1) or Pt(1 1 1).

  12. Obliquely Deposited Gold Nanohelices on Lithography-Free Prepared Nanoseeded Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Liu, Wei-Chih; Hsiao, Chih-Yung; Lin, Po-Cheng; Yu, Chia-Liang; Chan, Teh-Li

    2017-08-01

    A substrate surface on which gold particles are distributed is prepared by annealing an ultra-thin gold film to enable glancing angle deposition. By cooling the substrate and controlling its spin rate, two spiral-like and one screw-like gold nanohelix arrays are grown upon the seeded surfaces. The mean helix radius and pitch length are reduced to 17 and 55 nm, respectively. The g-factor of the three nanohelix arrays is measured here and associated circular dichroism peak blue shifts occur as the gold helices shrink.

  13. Carbon-assisted chemical vapor deposition of hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismach, Ariel; Chou, Harry; Mende, Patrick; Dolocan, Andrei; Addou, Rafik; Aloni, Shaul; Wallace, Robert; Feenstra, Randall; Ruoff, Rodney S.; Colombo, Luigi

    2017-06-01

    We show that in a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system, the residual oxygen and/or air play a crucial role in the mechanism of the growth of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films on Ni foil ‘enclosures’. Hexagonal-BN films grow on the Ni foil surface via the formation of an intermediate boric-oxide (BO x ) phase followed by a thermal reduction of the BO x by a carbon source (either amorphous carbon powder or methane), leading to the formation of single- and bi-layer h-BN. Low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and diffraction (LEED) were used to map the number of layers over large areas; Raman spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to characterize the structure and physical quality of the ultra-thin h-BN film. The growth procedure reported here leads to a better understanding and control of the synthesis of ultra-thin h-BN films.

  14. Investigation of high-quality ultra-thin LaAlO{sub 3} films as high-k gate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X B [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Hankou Road 22, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Z G [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Hankou Road 22, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, X [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang, R [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhou, H W [Digital DNA Laboratories, Motorola Inc. (China); Wang, X P [Digital DNA Laboratories, Motorola Inc.(China); Nguyen, Bich-Yen [Digital DNA Laboratories, Motorola Inc. (China)

    2003-12-07

    We have studied the formation of a high-quality LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) film directly on silicon substrates by the pulsed laser deposition method as a novel high-k gate dielectric. The LAO films can remain amorphous at temperatures up to 850 deg. C. An atomic force microscopy study indicated a very smooth surface of the deposited films with a rms of 0.14 nm for an 8 nm LAO film. The structures and electrical properties of metal-dielectric-semiconductor (Pt/LAO/Si) capacitors were investigated with LAO films deposited under different ambient conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicated that interfacial reactions often occur for films of LAO deposited under oxygen ambient. A small effective oxide thickness of 1.2 nm was obtained for those films deposited under 20 Pa nitrogen ambient, with the corresponding leakage current density 17.1 mA cm{sup -2} at +1 V gate voltage. It is proposed that amorphous LAO films are a novel promising alternative high-k gate dielectric material in future ultra-large scale integrated devices.

  15. Nanoparticle formation and thin film deposition in aniline containing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, Cedric; Dias, Ana; Hussain, Shahzad; Strunskus, Thomas; Stefanovic, Ilija; Boulmer-Leborgne, Chantal; Lecas, Thomas; Kovacevic, Eva; Berndt, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    This contribution deals with plasma based polymerization processes in mixtures of argon and aniline. The investigations are performed in a capacitively coupled RF discharge (in pulsed and continuous mode) and concern both the observed formation of nanoparticles in the plasma volume and the deposition of films. The latter process was used for the deposition of ultra-thin layers on different kind of nanocarbon materials (nanotubes and free standing graphene). The analysis of the plasma and the plasma chemistry (by means of mass spectroscopy and in-situ FTIR spectroscopy) is accompanied by several ex-situ diagnostics of the obtained materials which include NEXAFS and XPS measurements as well as Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The decisive point of the investigations concern the preservation of the original monomer structure during the plasma polymerization processes and the stability of the thin films on the different substrates.

  16. Study on Effects of Process Parameters on Laser Seal Welding for Ultra Thin Titanium Shell%超薄钛壳激光焊接工艺参数对焊缝成形影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪先胜; 周正干; 文雄伟

    2011-01-01

    受加工工艺、热变形等因素影响,超薄钛壳的密封焊接存在较大的困难。采用Nd:YAG脉冲激光器对0.3mm厚的钛壳进行激光密封焊接,详细研究了激光焊接过程中脉冲激光波形、激光功率、焊接速度、离焦量、侧吹气体流量等工艺参数对焊接成形质量的影响,随后对0.3mm厚的搭接接头进行了显微硬度测量与显微组织分析,最后采用氦质谱检漏对焊接样品进行了漏率测量。试验结果表明:平稳的焊接波形是获得优质密封焊接效果的良好选择;激光功率和焊接速度的合理匹配是保证焊接质量的必要条件;当采用侧吹气体流量为15L/min时,气体保护效果%Due to the effects of manufacture techniques on specimen and heat distortion during welding,seal welding for ultra thin titanium shell is quite difficult.An Nd: YAG pulse laser system was used to seal 0.3mm thick medical titanium implant herein.The effects of process parameters including pulse wave shape,laser power,welding speed,defocusing amount,and shielding gas were investigated.Besides,tests of micro-hardness and micro-structure analyses on overlapped weld joint were discussed.Finally,parts of the welded specimens were analyzed by helium mass spectrum leakage detector.The experimental results show that flat wave shape is optimum choice for seal welding,reasonable collocation of laser power and welding speed guarantees the welding quality,and the weld bead color is good when the shielding gas flow rate is at 15 L/minute.The welding specification for sealing ultra thin titanium shell was confirmed through a serial of technique experiments.It provides reference for engineering applications and optimization of the seal welding further.

  17. Design and Preparation of Lightweight Composite Pressure Vessels with Ultra Thin Metal Liner%含超薄金属内衬轻量化复合材料压力容器的设计与制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    矫维成; 杨帆; 郝立峰; 徐忠海; 刘文博; 王荣国; 赫晓东

    2013-01-01

    In the development of the new energy cars, the rocket engine systems and the satellites, there are some special requirements, such as the high air tightness, the lightweight and the long-life, for the composite pressure vessels used to store the liquid propellant and high pressure gas. In this paper, a new method is proposed to design and prepare the lightweight composite pressure vessels with ultra thin metal liner. A characterization method for the slippage coefficient measurement between the fiber and the mandrel is developed. The Al alloy liners of 0.8mm in thickness are fabricated. A new stronger interface between the composite layer and the ultra thin Al alloy liner is designed according to the structure of the Gecko feet. A self-healing technology is adopted to improve the reusable properties. With the lightweight composite pressure vessels, the weight can be saved by 70% as compared to the metal pressure vessels with the same volume and the same pressure.%随着新能源汽车、火箭发动机系统、卫星等新技术和新装备的不断发展,对其携带液体燃料和高压气体的压力容器提出高气密、轻质量、长寿命的苛刻要求.对此,本文提出一种含超薄金属内衬轻量化复合材料压力容器的设计与制备技术.研究了缠绕纤维与芯模表面间滑线系数的表征方法,提出了基于工艺可实现的精密缠绕理论;研制出0.8mm厚超薄铝合金内衬;建立了仿壁虎脚结构的界面层设计理论模型,制备出超薄金属内衬与复合材料层间的超强界面层;掌握了复合材料结构的损伤自修复方法,提高了复合材料压力容器的可重复使用次数,所研制的轻量化复合材料压力容器相比同容积、同压力的金属容器减重70%.

  18. Preparation and performance of antistatic ultra-thin fire retardant coating for steel structure%抗静电超薄型钢结构防火涂料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董延茂; 倪春华; 郭叶书; 姚社春; 李胜帅

    2012-01-01

    The steel structure can be protected by ultra-thin fire retardant coating (UFRC),due to the fire insulation of the protection layer formed during the combustion. In this article, the antistatic ultra-thin fire retardant coating (AUFRC) for steel structure was prepared with acrylic resin and amino resin as resin matrix, ammonium polyphosphate (APP),pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL) as flame retardant (IFR) system and aluminium hydroxide (AH) as synergists. The AUFRC and its ignitionresidue were tested by FTIR and XRD. The flame retardant mechanism was studied. The results show that the AUFRC exhibits good fire retarding properties and excellent antistatic performance,when prepared with 80 portions resin matrix (acrylic resin:amino resin=1:2,wt:wt), 25 portions APP, 10 portions MEL and 5 portions AH.%超薄(CB)型钢结构膨胀防火涂料(UFRC)在燃烧过程中可形成耐火隔热保护层,提高钢结构耐火极限。选用氨基树脂、改性丙烯酸树脂为基体树脂,以多聚磷酸铵(APP)、季戊四醇(PER)、三聚氰胺(MEL)为膨胀阻燃体系,以氢氧化铝(AH)为协效剂,制备了抗静电膨胀型防火涂料(AUFRC)。用红外(FTIR)、XRD等方法对防火涂料及其燃烧残渣进行了分析,初步探讨了阻燃机理。当基体树脂(wt(氨基树脂)∶wt(丙烯酸树脂)=1∶2)为80份,APP为25份,PER为15份,MEL为10份,AH为5份时,制备的防火涂料阻燃、抗静电等综合性能最佳。

  19. Study on influences of TiN capping layer on time-dependent dielectric breakdown characteristic of ultra-thin EOT high-k metal gate NMOSFET with kMC TDDB simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Yang, Hong; Luo, Wei-Chun; Xu, Ye-Feng; Wang, Yan-Rong; Tang, Bo; Wang, Wen-Wu; Qi, Lu-Wei; Li, Jun-Feng; Yan, Jiang; Zhu, Hui-Long; Zhao, Chao; Chen, Da-Peng; Ye, Tian-Chun

    2016-08-01

    The thickness effect of the TiN capping layer on the time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) characteristic of ultra-thin EOT high-k metal gate NMOSFET is investigated in this paper. Based on experimental results, it is found that the device with a thicker TiN layer has a more promising reliability characteristic than that with a thinner TiN layer. From the charge pumping measurement and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis, it is indicated that the sample with the thicker TiN layer introduces more Cl passivation at the IL/Si interface and exhibits a lower interface trap density. In addition, the influences of interface and bulk trap density ratio N it/N ot are studied by TDDB simulations through combining percolation theory and the kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) method. The lifetime reduction and Weibull slope lowering are explained by interface trap effects for TiN capping layers with different thicknesses. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. SS2015AA010601), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176091 and 61306129), and the Opening Project of Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of MicroElectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. 浅谈STP超薄高效保温板防火性能%A Brief Introduction of Fire Resistance Capability of STP Ultra-thin and High-efficiency Heat Retaining Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓良; 芦金凤

    2012-01-01

    The heat preservation and fire resistance of exterior wall has become an attended issue by public and relevant notice has been promulgated by relevant sections of national government. This article has researched on basic condition, fire resistance principle, application scope and characteristics of the SIP ultra-thin and high-efficiency heat retaining plate which has relatively superior fire resistance capability based on its fire resistance capability combined with practical engineering experiences.%外墙保温防火成为近几年社会各界普遍关心的社会问题,国家相关部门为此也颁布了相应的通知,文章是就防火性能比较优越的STP超薄高效保温板的防火性能结合实际工程施工经验进行归纳总结,从STP超薄高效保温板的基本情况.防火原理、应用范围、自身特点等方面进行了研究.

  1. Design of ultra-thin and high-efficiency power with synchronous rectification technology%采用同步整流技术的超薄高效电源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝志燕; 鲍嘉明

    2012-01-01

    设计了一款用于32寸液晶电视的150 W超薄高效电源,提供三路输出,分别给待机电源提供5V电压,音响提供12V电压和LCD液晶屏提供24V电压.在半桥LLC串联谐振转换器中,传统的同步整流技术采用的是整流二极管,通过采用整流MOSFET来减小输出的损耗,从而提高了电源效率.通过采用卧式骨架和细长型电解电容,使整个电源的厚度仅为13 mm,长和宽都为15 cm.%A 150 W ultra thin and high efficiency power was designed for 32 inch LCD TV, providing three outputs respectively-5 V voltage for standby power, 12 V for sound speaker and 24 V for liquid crystal display. In the half-bridge LLC series resonant converters, rectifier diode was used in traditional synchronous rectification. In this paper, rectifier MOSFET was used to reduce the loss of rectifier output to improve the power efficiency. Through the use of horizontal frame and slim electrolytic capacitor, the thickness of power was only 13 mm, and both length and width were 15 cm.

  2. 加铺超薄罩面后沥青路面就地热再生适用性分析%Applicability Analysis of Asphalt Pavement Hot in Place Recycling of Ultra-thin Wearing Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怀宇; 张剑波

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes ultra-thin wearing course material.The results and analyses show that gradation and asphalt aggregate ratio of the material meet the standard of AC-13 Technology,and ul-tra-thin wearing course material can be regenerated.High temperature stability,moisture stability,low temperature property meet the requirements of HMA in specifications.Pavement compactness,smooth-ness,water permeability coefficient index can meet the requirements of specification after regeneration.%对加铺超薄磨耗层后的路面沥青混合料进行试验分析。试验结果与分析表明:加铺超薄磨耗层后的混合料级配和油石比满足规范的 AC-13的技术要求,说明超薄磨耗层路面可进行再生利用。对再生混合料进行高温性能、水稳定性能和低温性能试验,发现含有超薄磨耗层的再生混合料的高温性能、水稳性能和低温性能均满足规范要求。再生后路面压实度、平整度、渗水系数等指标满足规范要求。

  3. Phase separation enhanced magneto-electric coupling in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 ultra-thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberca, A.; Munuera, C.; Azpeitia, J.; Kirby, B.; Nemes, N. M.; Perez-Muñoz, A. M.; Tornos, J.; Mompean, F. J.; Leon, C.; Santamaria, J.; Garcia-Hernandez, M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the origin of the magnetoelectric coupling in manganite films on ferroelectric substrates. We find large magnetoelectric coupling in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 ultra-thin films in experiments based on the converse magnetoelectric effect. The magnetization changes by around 30–40% upon applying electric fields on the order of 1 kV/cm to the BaTiO3 substrate, corresponding to magnetoelectric coupling constants on the order of α = (2–5)·10−7 s/m. Magnetic anisotropy is also affected by the electric field induced strain, resulting in a considerable reduction of coercive fields. We compare the magnetoelectric effect in pre-poled and unpoled BaTiO3 substrates. Polarized neutron reflectometry reveals a two-layer behavior with a depressed magnetic layer of around 30 Å at the interface. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) shows a granular magnetic structure of the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3. The magnetic granularity of the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 film and the robust magnetoelastic coupling at the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 interface are at the origin of the large magnetoelectric coupling, which is enhanced by phase separation in the manganite. PMID:26648002

  4. Multi-step cure kinetic model of ultra-thin glass fiber epoxy prepreg exhibiting both autocatalytic and diffusion-controlled regimes under isothermal and dynamic-heating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye Chan; Min, Hyunsung; Hong, Sungyong; Wang, Mei; Sun, Hanna; Park, In-Kyung; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon; Moon, Hyungpil; Kim, Kwang J.; Suhr, Jonghwan; Nam, Jae-Do

    2017-08-01

    As packaging technologies are demanded that reduce the assembly area of substrate, thin composite laminate substrates require the utmost high performance in such material properties as the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and stiffness. Accordingly, thermosetting resin systems, which consist of multiple fillers, monomers and/or catalysts in thermoset-based glass fiber prepregs, are extremely complicated and closely associated with rheological properties, which depend on the temperature cycles for cure. For the process control of these complex systems, it is usually required to obtain a reliable kinetic model that could be used for the complex thermal cycles, which usually includes both the isothermal and dynamic-heating segments. In this study, an ultra-thin prepreg with highly loaded silica beads and glass fibers in the epoxy/amine resin system was investigated as a model system by isothermal/dynamic heating experiments. The maximum degree of cure was obtained as a function of temperature. The curing kinetics of the model prepreg system exhibited a multi-step reaction and a limited conversion as a function of isothermal curing temperatures, which are often observed in epoxy cure system because of the rate-determining diffusion of polymer chain growth. The modified kinetic equation accurately described the isothermal behavior and the beginning of the dynamic-heating behavior by integrating the obtained maximum degree of cure into the kinetic model development.

  5. Superhard carbon deposited by pulsed high-current arc as protective nanocoating for magnetic hard disks; Superharter Kohlenstoff abgeschieden mit gepulstem Hochstrombogen als Nanoschutzschicht fuer Magnetspeicherplatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhaeuser, M.; Hilgers, H. [IBM Mainz (Germany). Abt. 4627; Witke, T. [Infenion Dresden (Germany). Bereich PVD; Siemroth, P. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffphysik und Schichttechnologie (IWS), Dresden (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    Superhard amorphous carbon films (ta-C) deposited by pulsed high-current arc (HCA) possess a good perspective to be used as future ultrathin protective coatings for magnetic hard disks. The ta-C coatings meet all demands concerning the mechanical, chemical and tribological properties required for corrosion and wear protective coatings with thicknesses of 2-3 nm. From the current point of view the deposition technique also qualifies for an industrial mass production. Consequently there is a very good prospect that in near future the high-current arc technique will be the method of choice for carbon deposition in industrial hard disk drive production. (orig.) [German] Superharte amorphe Kohlenstoffschichten (ta-C), die mit gepulstem Hochstrombogen (high-current arc, HCA) abgeschieden werden, besitzen ein hohes Potential als zukuenftige ultraduenne Schutzschichten fuer Magnetspeicherplatten. Die ta-C-Schichten erfuellen alle wesentlichen Anforderungen, die in mechanischer, chemischer und tribologischer Hinsicht an 2-3 nm dicke Verschleiss- und Korrosionsschutzschichten gestellt werden. Auch die Beschichtungstechnik ist aus jetziger Sicht fuer die Massenproduktion geeignet. Damit bestehen sehr gute Aussichten, dass in naher Zukunft die Hochstrombogenverdampfung die Methode der Wahl fuer die Kohlenstoffabscheidung in der industriellen Festplattenproduktion darstellt. (orig.)

  6. Investigating Quantum Oscillations in the Thermal Coefficient of Resistivity of Ultra-thin Ag Capping Layers on Cu for IC Interconnect Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Elroy

    As the semiconductor industry continues to scale feature sizes, scattering from phonons, surfaces, and grain boundaries result in an increase of metal interconnect resistivity in state-of-the-art integrated circuits (ICs). The interconnect chapter of the 2011 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) stated that there are currently no manufacturable solutions in the near term for suitable Cu replacements. Previous studies of thin Ag films deposited on Cu demonstrated oscillations in the electron-phonon interactions within the bilayer system. This thesis investigates oscillations in the resistive properties of the Ag/Cu bilayer system and discusses the applicability of these oscillations to the resistivity challenges facing metal-based IC interconnects. Ag/Cu bilayer films were prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The films were characterized by measuring the electrical resistance of the films at various temperatures and calculating the thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR) for various Ag capping layer thicknesses. Films were further characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Patterned Ag-capped Cu lines were fabricated, which exhibited resistive behavior similar to that of the Ag/Cu films. Compared to bare Cu, the resistances of Ag-capped Cu lines and films were lower and exhibited a reduced dependence on temperature. Smaller thermal coefficients of resistivity were also observed for Ag-capped Cu films and patterned lines when compared to Cu alone.

  7. Matrix shaped pulsed laser deposition: New approach to large area and homogeneous deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkan, C.K.; May, A. [INM – Leibniz Institute for New Materials, CVD/Biosurfaces Group, Campus D2 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Hammadeh, M. [Department for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine, IVF Laboratory, Saarland University Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, Building 9, 66421 Homburg, Saar (Germany); Abdul-Khaliq, H. [Clinic for Pediatric Cardiology, Saarland University Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, Building 9, 66421 Homburg, Saar (Germany); Aktas, O.C., E-mail: cenk.aktas@inm-gmbh.de [INM – Leibniz Institute for New Materials, CVD/Biosurfaces Group, Campus D2 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is one of the well-established physical vapor deposition methods used for synthesis of ultra-thin layers. Especially PLD is suitable for the preparation of thin films of complex alloys and ceramics where the conservation of the stoichiometry is critical. Beside several advantages of PLD, inhomogeneity in thickness limits use of PLD in some applications. There are several approaches such as rotation of the substrate or scanning of the laser beam over the target to achieve homogenous layers. On the other hand movement and transition create further complexity in process parameters. Here we present a new approach which we call Matrix Shaped PLD to control the thickness and homogeneity of deposited layers precisely. This new approach is based on shaping of the incoming laser beam by a microlens array and a Fourier lens. The beam is split into much smaller multi-beam array over the target and this leads to a homogenous plasma formation. The uniform intensity distribution over the target yields a very uniform deposit on the substrate. This approach is used to deposit carbide and oxide thin films for biomedical applications. As a case study coating of a stent which has a complex geometry is presented briefly.

  8. 碳热还原杂化前驱体合成SiC-TaC纳米复合粉体%Synthesis of SiC-TaC Nanopowder with Hybrid Precursor via Carbonthermal Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 肖汉宁; 郭文明; 胡继林; 谢文; 高朋召; 欧阳唐哲

    2012-01-01

    A compound gel was firstly prepared with tantalum pentachloride(TaCl5),tetraethoxysilane(TEOS) and glucose(C6H12O6? H2O) as starting materials,and the gel was then calcined at 450 ℃ to obtain a C-SiO2-Ta2O5 hybrid precursor.A nanopowder of SiC-TaC was synthesized with the precusor via the carbonthermal reduction at 1 200-1 500 ℃.The products were charaterized by using X-ray diffration,scanning electron microscope,energy dispersive.The results show that the amorphous SiO2 and Ta2O5 can be composed by Si-O-Ta bonding,and the evenly-distributed Si-O-Ta-C long chain renders the solid structure of interpenetrating networks inside the hybrid precursor.TaC was obtained at 1 200 ℃,and SiC started to be synthesized at 1 400 ℃,and the whole reaction process could be fully completed at 1 500 ℃.The nanopowder of SiC-TaC presented distinct features at different mole ratios of tantalum to silicon.The particle size distribution of the powder appeared narrower at a mole ratio of tantalum to silicon of 0.02.The morphology of SiC could vary from spherical nanoparticles into curve-shaped nanowires when the mole ratio increased.%以五氯化钽(TaCl5)、正硅酸乙酯(TEOS)和葡萄糖(C6H12O6 H2O)为原料制备了葡萄糖复合凝胶,凝胶经过450℃煅烧得到C-SiO2-Ta2O5杂化前驱体,通过碳热还原前驱体,于1200~1500℃合成了SiC-TaC纳米复合粉体,并用X射线衍射扫描电镜和能谱仪对产物进行表征。结果表明:凝胶中无定型的SiO2和Ta2O5可通过Si—O—Ta键合,均匀分布的Si—O—Ta—C长链使得杂化前驱体内部结合成为牢固的互穿网络结构;TaC于1200℃时得到,而SiC可在1400℃开始合成,反应可在1500℃完成。在不同的钽硅摩尔比下,SiC-TaC纳米复合粉体具有差异性形貌。当钽硅比约为0.02时,SiC与TaC纳米晶粒颗粒分布均匀,同质化明显。随着钽硅比的升高,SiC有从球状转变为纳米线状的趋势。

  9. Influencia de las adiciones de TaC y NbC en las propiedades de los aceros rápidos pulvimetalúrgicos M3/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordo, E.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix composites based on M3/2 high speed steel and reinforced with different percentages of NbC and TaC were manufactured following a conventional powder metallurgy route: mixing, compacting and sintering. Graphite, to compensate carbon losses during sintering, and copper-phosphorous, to promote liquid phase sintering, were added to M3/2 powders to constitute the base material. Carbide and base material powders were dry mixed and uniaxially compacted at 700 MPa. After this, vacuum sintering was carried out at two temperatures: 1190 °C and 1230 °C. The mechanical properties and wear behaviour of all sintered materials were examined, and their characterisation was completed with a broad microstructural study

    Este trabajo plantea la fabricación de materiales compuestos de matriz metálica, basados en el acero rápido M3/2 y reforzados con distintas cantidades de NbC y TaC, mediante técnicas convencionales pulvimetalúrgicas (P/M: mezcla, compactación y sinterización. Al acero rápido se añadió grafito para compensar las pérdidas de carbono durante la sinterización y cupro-fósforo para promover sinterización en fase líquida, constituyendo esta mezcla el material base. Los polvos de carburos y de material base fueron mezclados en seco y compactados uniaxialmente a 700 MPa. Tras esta etapa, se realizó la sinterización en vacío a dos temperaturas: 1.190 °C y 1.230 °C. Todos los materiales sinterizados fueron caracterizados mediante el estudio de las propiedades mecánicas, el comportamiento a desgaste y un amplio análisis microestructural.

  10. A Simple Method for the Growth of Very Smooth and Ultra-Thin GaSb Films on GaAs (111) Substrate by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Pei-Nan; Tong, Jin-Chao; Tobing, Landobasa Y. M.; Qiu, Shu-Peng; Xu, Zheng-Ji; Tang, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Dao-Hua

    2017-02-01

    We present a simple thermal treatment with the antimony source for the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of thin GaSb films on GaAs (111) substrates for the first time. The properties of the as-grown GaSb films are systematically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, photo-luminescence (PL) and Hall measurement. It is found that the as-grown GaSb films by the proposed method can be as thin as 35 nm and have a very smooth surface with the root mean square roughness as small as 0.777 nm. Meanwhile, the grown GaSb films also have high crystalline quality, of which the full width at half maximum of the rocking-curve is as small as 218 arcsec. Moreover, the good optical quality of the GaSb films has been demonstrated by the low-temperature PL. This work provides a simple and feasible buffer-free strategy for the growth of high-quality GaSb films directly on GaAs substrates and the strategy may also be applicable to the growth on other substrates and the hetero-growth of other materials.

  11. Interfacial Energy Alignment at the ITO/Ultra-Thin Electron Selective Dielectric Layer Interface and Its Effect on the Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Eiji; Goto, Yoshinori; Saka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsutoshi

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated the photovoltaic properties of an inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cell in a device with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/electron selective layer (ESL)/P3HT:PCBM active layer/MoOx/Ag multilayered structure. The insertion of only single layer of poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) (PDDA) cationic polymer film (or poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) polymeric interfacial dipole layer) and titanium oxide nanosheet (TN) films as an ESL effectively improved cell performance. Abnormal S-shaped curves were observed in the inverted BHJ cells owing to the contact resistance across the ITO/active layer interface and the ITO/PDDA/TN/active layer interface. The series resistance across the ITO/ESL interface in the inverted BHJ cell was successfully reduced using an interfacial layer with a positively charged surface potential with respect to ITO base electrode. The positive dipole in PEI and the electronic charge phenomena at the electrophoretic deposited TN (ED-TN) films on ITO contributed to the reduction of the contact resistance at the electrode interface. The surface potential measurement revealed that the energy alignment by the transfer of electronic charges from the ED-TN to the base electrodes. The insertion of the ESL with a large positive surface potential reduced the potential barrier for the electron injection at ITO/TN interface and it improved the photovoltaic properties of the inverted cell with an ITO/TN/active layer/MoOx/Ag structure.

  12. A Simple Method for the Growth of Very Smooth and Ultra-Thin GaSb Films on GaAs (111) Substrate by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Pei-Nan; Tong, Jin-Chao; Tobing, Landobasa Y. M.; Qiu, Shu-Peng; Xu, Zheng-Ji; Tang, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Dao-Hua

    2017-07-01

    We present a simple thermal treatment with the antimony source for the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of thin GaSb films on GaAs (111) substrates for the first time. The properties of the as-grown GaSb films are systematically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, photo-luminescence (PL) and Hall measurement. It is found that the as-grown GaSb films by the proposed method can be as thin as 35 nm and have a very smooth surface with the root mean square roughness as small as 0.777 nm. Meanwhile, the grown GaSb films also have high crystalline quality, of which the full width at half maximum of the rocking-curve is as small as 218 arcsec. Moreover, the good optical quality of the GaSb films has been demonstrated by the low-temperature PL. This work provides a simple and feasible buffer-free strategy for the growth of high-quality GaSb films directly on GaAs substrates and the strategy may also be applicable to the growth on other substrates and the hetero-growth of other materials.

  13. Atomic layer deposition (ALD): A versatile technique for plasmonics and nanobiotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyungsoon; Wittenberg, Nathan J; Lindquist, Nathan C; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2012-02-28

    While atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been used for many years as an industrial manufacturing method for microprocessors and displays, this versatile technique is finding increased use in the emerging fields of plasmonics and nanobiotechnology. In particular, ALD coatings can modify metallic surfaces to tune their optical and plasmonic properties, to protect them against unwanted oxidation and contamination, or to create biocompatible surfaces. Furthermore, ALD is unique among thin-film deposition techniques in its ability to meet the processing demands for engineering nanoplasmonic devices, offering conformal deposition of dense and ultra-thin films on high-aspect-ratio nanostructures at temperatures below 100 °C. In this review, we present key features of ALD and describe how it could benefit future applications in plasmonics, nanosciences, and biotechnology.

  14. Evolution of microstructure and related optical properties of ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adib Abou Chaaya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of transmittance and photoluminescence spectra on the growth of oxygen-rich ultra-thin ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition is reported. The structural transition from an amorphous to a polycrystalline state is observed upon increasing the thickness. The unusual behavior of the energy gap with thickness reflected by optical properties is attributed to the improvement of the crystalline structure resulting from a decreasing concentration of point defects at the growth of grains. The spectra of UV and visible photoluminescence emissions correspond to transitions near the band-edge and defect-related transitions. Additional emissions were observed from band-tail states near the edge. A high oxygen ratio and variable optical properties could be attractive for an application of atomic layer deposition (ALD deposited ultrathin ZnO films in optical sensors and biosensors.

  15. Evolution of microstructure and related optical properties of ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chaaya, Adib; Viter, Roman; Bechelany, Mikhael; Alute, Zanda; Erts, Donats; Zalesskaya, Anastasiya; Kovalevskis, Kristaps; Rouessac, Vincent; Smyntyna, Valentyn; Miele, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    A study of transmittance and photoluminescence spectra on the growth of oxygen-rich ultra-thin ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition is reported. The structural transition from an amorphous to a polycrystalline state is observed upon increasing the thickness. The unusual behavior of the energy gap with thickness reflected by optical properties is attributed to the improvement of the crystalline structure resulting from a decreasing concentration of point defects at the growth of grains. The spectra of UV and visible photoluminescence emissions correspond to transitions near the band-edge and defect-related transitions. Additional emissions were observed from band-tail states near the edge. A high oxygen ratio and variable optical properties could be attractive for an application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) deposited ultrathin ZnO films in optical sensors and biosensors.

  16. Self-assembling and self-limiting monolayer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foest, Rüdiger; Schmidt, Martin; Gargouri, Hassan

    2014-02-01

    Effects of spatial ordering of molecules on surfaces are commonly utilized to deposit ultra-thin films with a thickness of a few nm. In this review paper, several methods are discussed, that are distinguished from other thin film deposition processes by exactly these effects that lead to self-assembling and self-limiting layer growth and eventually to coatings with unique and fascinating properties and applications in micro-electronics, optics, chemistry, or biology. Traditional methods for the formation of self-assembled films of ordered organic molecules, such as the Langmuir-Blodgett technique along with thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) of inorganic molecules are evaluated. The overview is complemented by more recent developments for the deposition of organic or hybrid films by molecular layer deposition. Particular attention is given to plasma assisted techniques, either as a preparative, supplementary step or as inherent part of the deposition as in plasma enhanced ALD or plasma assisted, repeated grafting deposition. The different methods are compared and their film formation mechanisms along with their advantages are presented from the perspective of a plasma scientist. The paper contains lists of established film compounds and a collection of the relevant literature is provided for further reading.

  17. Photoelectron spectroscopic studies of ultra-thin CuPc layers on a Si(111)-(√3 × √3)R30°-B surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzli, S.; Laribi, A.; Mrezguia, H.; Arbi, I.; Akremi, A.; Chefi, C.; Chérioux, F.; Palmino, F.

    2016-12-01

    The adsorption of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules on Si(111)-(√3 × √3)R30°-B surface is investigated at room temperature under ultra-high vacuum. Crystallographic, chemical and electronic properties of the interface are investigated by low energy electron diffraction (LEED), ultraviolet and X-ray photoemission spectroscopies (UPS, XPS) and X-ray photoemission diffraction (XPD). LEED and XPD results shed light on the growth mechanism of CuPc on this substrate. At one monolayer coverage the growth mode was characterized by the formation of crystalline 3D nanoislands. The molecular packing deduced from this study appears very close to the one of the bulk CuPc α phase. The 3D islands are formed by molecules aligned in a standing manner. XPS core level spectra of the substrate reveal that there is no discernible chemical interaction between molecules and substrate. However there is charge transfer from molecules to the substrate. During the growth, the work function (WF) was found to decrease from 4.50 eV for the clean substrate to 3.70 eV for the highest coverage (30 monolayers). Within a thickness of two monolayers deposition, an interface dipole of 0.50 eV was found. A substrate band bending of 0.25 eV was deduced over all the range of exposure. UPS spectra indicate the existence of a band bending of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of 0.30 eV. The changes in the work function, in the Fermi level position and in the onset of the molecular HOMO state have been used to determine the energy level alignment at the interface.

  18. Study of Water Stability of Different Asphalt Mixtures for Ultra-Thin Surfacing Layer%不同类型超薄层沥青混合料的水稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏忠高

    2016-01-01

    采用浸水车辙试验和冻融劈裂试验分别评价了Type-B(美国级配)、改良型SMA-10、OGFC-10这3种级配和SBS改性沥青、普通沥青+8%抗车辙剂和高黏弹沥青3种结合料组成的9种超薄层沥青混合料的水稳定性.试验结果表明:有5种超薄层沥青混合料,即Type-B SBS改性沥青混合料、改良型SMA-10 SBS改性沥青混合料、Type-B高黏弹沥青混合料、改良型SMA-10高黏弹沥青和OGFC-10高黏弹沥青混合料满足现有规范对水稳定性的要求,其中改良型SMA-10高黏弹沥青混合料的综合性能最优,其条件前后的车辙动稳定度不仅分别是其他8种混合料的2.0~4.5倍和2.0 ~4.7倍.推荐该混合料用于重要的城市主干道、高速公路或重交通道路路面的预防性养护或维修.%By performing immersion rutting test and freeze-thaw splitting test,the water stability of nine different asphalt mixtures for ultra-thin surfacing layer was studied.The said nine asphalt mixtures were made respectively by three gradations (namely Type-B with USA gradation,improved SMA-10 and OGFC-10) and with three binders (namely SBS modified asphalt,common asphalt + 8% anti-rutting agent and highly viscoelastic asphalt).The test results show that five types of asphalt mixture for ultra-thin surfacing layer (namely Type-B SBS modified asphalt mixture,improved SMA-10 SBS modified asphalt mixture,Type-B highly viscoelastic asphalt mixture,improved SMA-10 highly viscoelastic asphalt mixture and OGFC-10 highly viscoelastic asphalt mixture) meet China' s prevailing specification for water stability of asphalt mixtures.Among them the improved SMA-10 highly viscoelastic asphalt mixture demonstrated optimal general performance with both rut dynamic stability and the immersion rutting dynamic stability 2.0 ~ 4.5 times and 2.0 ~ 4.7 times that of other eight mixtures and is thus recommended for use in pavement protective maintenance or repair of key urban artery

  19. A cathode material based on the iron fluoride with an ultra-thin Li3FeF6 protective layer for high-capacity Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Xu, Zhanglin; Zhou, Haochen; Tang, Jingjing; Sun, Hongxu; Ding, Jing; Zhou, Xiangyang

    2017-09-01

    Iron fluoride based on the multi-electron reaction is a typical representative among the new-style cathode materials for Lithium-ion batteries, which is attracting extensive attentions. To relieve the cathode dissolution and interfacial side reactions and improve the electrochemical performance of FeF3·0.33H2O, we design an ultra-thin Li3FeF6 protective layer, which is in-situ formed on the surface of FeF3·3H2O particles by a facile process. The prepared Li3FeF6/FeF3·0.33H2O (LF50) composite displays a superior rate performance (152 mAh g-1 at 1000 mA g-1), which is remarkable to many other carbon-free iron fluorides. And it is noticeable that a reversible capacity of 174 mAh g-1 can be retained after 100 cycles, indicating an outstanding cycling stability contrast to the bare FeF3·0.33H2O. The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the protection of Li3FeF6 layer which reduces the cathode dissolution and interfacial side reactions. Moreover, the agglomeration of first particles in the calcination process is effectively suppressed resulting from the introduction of the Li3FeF6 protective layer, which promotes electrolyte penetration and charge transfer in the composites. It is expected that the strategy can provide a new approach for the modification of other metal fluoride.

  20. Uniform deposition of uranium hexafluoride (UF6): Standardized mass deposits and controlled isotopic ratios using a thermal fluorination method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; O’Hara, Matthew J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Addleman, R. Shane; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2016-07-01

    Abstract: We report a convenient method for the generation of volatile uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from solid uranium oxides and other uranium compounds, followed by uniform deposition of low levels of UF6 onto sampling coupons. Under laminar flow conditions, UF6 is shown to interact with surfaces within the chamber to a highly predictable degree. We demonstrate the preparation of uranium deposits that range between ~0.01 and 470±34 ng∙cm-2. The data suggest the method can be extended to creating depositions at the sub-picogram∙cm-2 level. Additionally, the isotopic composition of the deposits can be customized by selection of the uranium source materials. We demonstrate a layering technique whereby two uranium solids, each with a different isotopic composition, are employed to form successive layers of UF6 on a surface. The result is an ultra-thin deposit of UF6 that bears an isotopic signature that is a composite of the two uranium sources. The reported deposition method has direct application to the development of unique analytical standards for nuclear safeguards and forensics.

  1. Uniform deposition of uranium hexafluoride (UF6): Standardized mass deposits and controlled isotopic ratios using a thermal fluorination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bruce K; O'Hara, Matthew J; Casella, Andrew M; Carter, Jennifer C; Addleman, R Shane; MacFarlan, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    We report a convenient method for the generation of volatile uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from solid uranium oxides and other U compounds, followed by uniform deposition of low levels of UF6 onto sampling coupons. Under laminar flow conditions, UF6 is shown to interact with surfaces within a fixed reactor geometry to a highly predictable degree. We demonstrate the preparation of U deposits that range between approximately 0.01 and 500ngcm(-2). The data suggest the method can be extended to creating depositions at the sub-picogramcm(-2) level. The isotopic composition of the deposits can be customized by selection of the U source materials and we demonstrate a layering technique whereby two U solids, each with a different isotopic composition, are employed to form successive layers of UF6 on a surface. The result is an ultra-thin deposit that bears an isotopic signature that is a composite of the two U sources. The reported deposition method has direct application to the development of unique analytical standards for nuclear safeguards and forensics. Further, the method allows access to very low atomic or molecular coverages of surfaces.

  2. The role of ZrN capping layer deposited on ultra-thin high-k Zr-doped yttrium oxide for metal-gate metal–insulator–semiconductor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, Pi-Chun; Mong, Fan-Chen; Huang, Jen-Hung [Department of Materials Engineering and Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan (China)

    2013-08-28

    Metal-gate MIS structures with and without ZrN capping layer on high-k Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Zr/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} stack were fabricated. The binding energies and depth profiles were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were compared. It is found that Ti out-diffusion into Zr-based high-k dielectric becomes lesser with the insertion of ZrN capping layer. The electrical properties of current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were measured in the postannealing temperature range of 550–850 °C. According to the defect reaction model, Zr cation vacancies are associated with the concentration of Ti ion by a transition from +3 to +2 states. The amount of Zr cation vacancies is quantified and equal to a half of Ti substitution amount at Zr site. The reduction in cation vacancies at high temperatures can well explain the decrease in ΔV{sub FB} for samples with ZrN layer. In contrast, an excess of Ti outdiffusion will produce the interstitial defects in high-k films without ZrN capping.

  3. Reaction of [P(2)N(2)]Ta==CH(2)(Me) with ethylene: synthesis of [P(2)N(2)]Ta(C(2)H(4))Et, a neutral species with a beta-agostic ethyl group in equilibrium with an alpha-agostic ethyl group ([P(2)N(2)] = PhP(CH(2)SiMe(2)CH(2))(2)PPh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryzuk, M D; Johnson, S A; Rettig, S J

    2001-02-28

    The photolysis of [P(2)N(2)]TaMe(3) ([P(2)N(2)] = PhP(CH(2)SiMe(2)NSiMe(2)CH(2))(2)PPh) produces [P(2)N(2)]Ta=CH(2)(Me) as the major product. The thermally unstable methylidene complex decomposes in solution in the absence of trapping agents to unidentified products. However, in the presence of ethylene [P(2)N(2)]Ta=CH(2)(Me) is slowly converted to [P(2)N(2)]Ta(C(2)H(4))Et, with [P(2)N(2)]Ta(C(2)H(4))Me observed as a minor product. A mechanistic study suggests that the formation of [P(2)N(2)]Ta(C(2)H(4))Et results from the trapping of [P(2)N(2)]TaEt, formed by the migratory insertion of the methylene moiety into the tantalum-methyl bond. The minor product, [P(2)N(2)]Ta(C(2)H(4))Me, forms from the decomposition of a tantalacyclobutane resulting from the addition of ethylene to [P(2)N(2)]Ta=CH(2)(Me) and is accompanied by the production of an equivalent of propylene. Pure [P(2)N(2)]Ta(C(2)H(4))Et can be synthesized by hydrogenation of [P(2)N(2)]TaMe(3) in the presence of PMe(3), followed by the reaction of ethylene with the resulting trihydride. Crystallographic and NMR data indicate the presence of a beta-agostic interaction between the ethyl group and tantalum center in [P(2)N(2)]Ta(C(2)H(4))Et. Partially deuterated analogues of [P(2)N(2)]Ta(C(2)H(4))Et show a large isotopic perturbation of resonance for both the beta-protons and the alpha-protons of the ethyl group, indicative of an equilibrium between a beta-agostic and an alpha-agostic interaction for the ethyl group in solution. An EXSY spectrum demonstrates that an additional fluxional process occurs that exchanges all of the (1)H environments of the ethyl and ethylene ligands. The mechanism of this exchange is believed to involve the direct transfer of the beta-agostic hydrogen atom from the ethyl group to the ethylene ligand, via the so-called beta-hydrogen transfer process.

  4. Preparation of ultra thin CuIn1 xGaxSe2 solar cells and their light absorption enhancement Präparation von ultradünnen CuIn1 xGaxSe2 Solarzellen und deren verbesserter Lichtabsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Guanchao

    2015-01-01

    CuIn1 xGaxSe2 CIGSe solar cells are the promising thin film candidates to compete with the dominant crystalline Si solar cells in the photovoltaic market. One of the major concerns in mass production is the consumption of the rare element Indium and the resultant high manufacturing cost. To achieve the goal of reduced consumption of Indium, one approach is to reduce the thickness of CIGSe absorbers from typical 2 3 amp; 956;m to below 500 nm. However, the ultra thin CIGSe thickness less ...

  5. Field emission properties of amorphous GaN ultrathin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG FengYing; WANG RuZhi; ZHAO Wei; SONG XueMei; WANG Bo; YAN Hui

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous gallium nitride (a-GaN) films with thicknesses of 5 and 300 nm are deposited on n-Si (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and their field emission (FE) properties are studied. It shows that compared with thicker (300 nm) a-GaN film, better FE performance is obtained on ultrathin (5 nm) a-GaN film with a threshold field of 0.78 V/μm, which is the lowest value ever reported. Furthermore, the current density reaches 42 mA/cm~2 when the applied field is 3.72 V/μm. These experimental results unambiguously confirm Binh's theoretical analysis (Birth et al. Phys Rev Lett, 2000, 85(4): 864-867) that the FE performance would be prominently enhanced with the coating of an ultra-thin wide band-gap semiconductor film.

  6. Dawson型多金属氧酸盐-双氢氧化物超薄膜的合成%Synthesis of Layered Double Hydroxides Ultra Thin Films Functionalized with Dawson-Type Polyoxometalate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹峰; 王金萍

    2016-01-01

    通过层接层方法制备了基于剥离的锌钛双氢氧化物单层和典型的Dawson型多金属氧酸盐阴离子α-P2 W18 O6-62(P2W18)间作用的新型超薄膜.采用UV/DRS、XRD、FT-IR、ICP-AES和SEM方法对样品的结构和形貌进行了表征.结果表明,P2W18的结构在超薄膜中未发生改变,超薄膜的厚度在纳米范围,表面形貌完整有序均匀.以制备的超薄膜为光催化剂测试了对偶氮类染料刚果红(CR)的可见光催化降解活性.超薄膜表现出比纯Dawson型多金属氧酸盐阴离子高得多的催化活性,主要归因于剥离的锌钛双氢氧化物单层和金属氧酸盐阴离子的强化学作用对其可见光光响应能力的提高.%The novel ordered ultra thin films(UTFs)based on the hybrid assembly of exfoliated Zn-Ti layered double hydroxide(LDH)monolayer and typical Dawson-type polyoxometalate(POM)anionsα-P2 W18 O6-62(P2W18)were pre-pared by utilizing the layer by layer(LBL)technique. The UTFs were characterized by UV diffuse reflectance spec-tra(UV/DRS),X-ray diffraction(XRD),Fourier transform infrared spectra(FT-IR),inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry(ICP-AES),and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The results indicate that the Dawson structures remained intact in the hybrid compositions,the thickness of the UTFs was within nano range, and the morphology was continuous and uniform. The visible light photocatalytic activitiesof the UTFs were tested in the degradation of aqueous azo dye Congo red(CR). The UTFs showed much higher photocatalytic activity than pure P2W18,which was mainly attributed to the improved response ability of P2W18to the visible light caused by the inter-action between exfoliated Zn-Ti-LDH monolayer and P2W18.

  7. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy characterization of nickel deposition on bacterial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Recently bacterial cells have become attractive biological templates for the fabrication of metal nano- structures or nanomaterials due to their inherent small size, various standard geometrical shapes and abundant source. In this paper, nickel-coated bacterial cells (gram-negative bacteria of Escherichia coli) were fabricated via electroless chemical plating. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization results reveal evident morphological difference between bacterial cells before and after deposition with nickel. The bare cells with smooth surface presented transverse outspreading effect at mica surface. Great changes took place in surface roughness for those bacterial cells after metallization. A large number of nickel nanoparticles were observed to be equably distributed at bacterial surface after activation and subsequent metallization. Furthermore, ultra thin section analytic results validated the presence and uniformity of thin nickel coating at bacterial surface after metallization.

  8. Atomic Layer Deposition Al2O3 Thin Films in Magnetized Radio Frequency Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingcun; Chen, Qiang; Sang, Lijun; Yang, Lizhen; Liu, Zhongwei; Wang, Zhenduo

    Self-limiting deposition of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films were accomplished by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using trimethyl aluminum (TMA) and O2 as precursor and oxidant, respectively, where argon was kept flowing in whole deposition process as discharge and purge gas. In here we present a novel plasma source for the atomic layer deposition technology, magnetized radio frequency (RF) plasma. Difference from the commercial RF source, magnetic coils were amounted above the RF electrode, and the influence of the magnetic field strength on the deposition rate and morphology are investigated in detail. It concludes that a more than 3 Å/ purging cycle deposition rate and the good quality of ALD Al2O3 were achieved in this plasma source even without extra heating. The ultra-thin films were characterized by including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The high deposition rates obtained at ambient temperatures were analyzed after in-situ the diagnostic of plasmas by Langmuir probe.

  9. 应用超量扩张形成的超薄皮瓣修复面颈部及四肢关节瘢痕组织%Application of ultra-thin expanded flap for repairing scar of neck and face and joint of extremities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈骥扬; 何海填; 孟晖; 孙东原; 向明

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨应用超量扩张形成的超薄皮瓣修复面颈部及四肢关节瘢痕组织的临床价值。方法回顾性分析2012年1月至2014年12月深圳市蛇口人民医院收治的42例面颈部及四肢关节瘢痕患者的临床资料,共置入112枚皮肤软组织扩张器,进行超过额定容积的超量扩张,形成超薄皮瓣后修复瘢痕组织。观察扩张器外露及皮瓣存活情况,评估总体修复效果,调查患者满意度。结果面颈部及四肢超薄皮瓣厚度为2.0~3.0 mm。扩张器注水期5处扩张器外露,余皆正常。皮瓣转移术后112处扩张皮瓣中10处出现皮瓣远端血运障碍,经处理后3处恢复正常、7处皮瓣坏死,但未严重影响最终治疗效果;余皮瓣成活良好。随访3~6个月,平均随访时间5个月。术后外观功能均获得明显改善,患者总体满意度90%(38/42)。结论超量扩张形成的超薄皮瓣修复面颈部及四肢关节瘢痕组织效果满意。%Objective To explore the applicable value of ultra-thin expanded flap for repairing scar of neck, face or joint of extremities. Methods Clinical data of 42 patients who were treated by ultra-thin exceedingly expanded flaps (by 112 implanted expanders of skin soft tissue) to repair scar of neck and face, joint of extremities in Shekou People's Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014, were analyzed retrospectively. The expander exposure and flap survival were observed, total repair effects were evaluated, and the patient satisfaction degree was investigated. Results The thickness of ultra-thin expanded flap was 2.0 to 3.0 mm. Five expanders were exposed during water-injection period. Of 112 expanded flaps, there were 10 flaps with distal blood circulatory disorders after skin flap transferring, in which 3 flaps survived after treatment, other 7 flaps developed necrosis without serious effects on therapeutic results. The remaining flaps survived well. The follow-up time was

  10. Characterization of ultra-thin thermoluminescent dosimeters LIF: Mg, Cu, P (MCP-Ns) for use in radiotherapy and practical application; Caracterizacion de dosimetros termoluminiscentes ultra-finos LiF:Mg, Cu, P. (MCP-Ns) para su uso en radioterapia y aplicacion practica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, M.; Duch, M. A.; Carrasco, P.; Jornet, N.; Ginajaume, M.; Ribas, M.

    2011-07-01

    In the field of radiotherapy, there are various situations in which the experimental determination of the absorbed dose is complex, for photon beams, the measurement of the dose in an area characterized by a high dose gradient, or in a very different material water in terms of atomic number and density, require the use of a detector small enough to provide us with a realistic value of this quantity. A priori, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) would be appropriate in such situations. Thus, the objective of this paper is (i) first studied the behavior of TLD LiF: Mg, Cu, P ultra-thin beams of radiation for mega-voltage (MV) and (ii) applied to a case study where can be reflected potential advantages over standard thickness dosimeters. (Author)

  11. Self-limiting atomic layer deposition of conformal nanostructured silver films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golrokhi, Zahra; Chalker, Sophia; Sutcliffe, Christopher J.; Potter, Richard J.

    2016-02-01

    The controlled deposition of ultra-thin conformal silver nanoparticle films is of interest for applications including anti-microbial surfaces, plasmonics, catalysts and sensors. While numerous techniques can produce silver nanoparticles, few are able to produce highly conformal coatings on high aspect ratio surfaces, together with sub-nanometre control and scalability. Here we develop a self-limiting atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for the deposition of conformal metallic silver nanoparticle films. The films have been deposited using direct liquid injection ALD with ((hexafluoroacetylacetonato)silver(I)(1,5-cyclooctadiene)) and propan-1-ol. An ALD temperature window between 123 and 128 °C is identified and within this range self-limiting growth is confirmed with a mass deposition rate of ∼17.5 ng/cm2/cycle. The effects of temperature, precursor dose, co-reactant dose and cycle number on the deposition rate and on the properties of the films have been systematically investigated. Under self-limiting conditions, films are metallic silver with a nano-textured surface topography and nanoparticle size is dependent on the number of ALD cycles. The ALD reaction mechanisms have been elucidated using in-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements, showing chemisorption of the silver precursor, followed by heterogeneous catalytic dehydrogenation of the alcohol to form metallic silver and an aldehyde.

  12. Nanostructured TaxC interlayer synthesized via double glow plasma surface alloying process for diamond deposition on cemented carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wolong; Hei, Hongjun; Zhong, Qiang; Shen, Yanyan; Liu, Xiaoping; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Bing; He, Zhiyong; Yu, Shengwang

    2015-12-01

    The aim in this work was to improve the adhesion of diamond coating with pre-deposition of a TaxC interlayer on cemented carbide (WC-Co) substrate by double glow plasma surface alloying technique. The following deposition of diamond coating on the interlayer was performed in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor. TaxC interlayer with an inner diffusion layer and an outer deposition layer was composed of Ta2C and TaC nanocrystalline, and it exhibited a special compact surface morphology formed of flower-shaped pits. As the gradual element distributions existed in the diffusion layer, the interlayer displayed a superior adherence to the substrate with significantly enhanced surface microhardness to the original substrate. After CVD process, the preferred orientation of TaC changed from (2 2 2) to (2 0 0) plane, and a uniform and tense diamond coating with adhesion referred to class HF 2 at least (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure 3198 norm) was obtained on the interlayered substrate. It indicated that the diffusion of Co was effectively inhibited by the formation of TaxC diffusion-deposition interlayer. The TaxC interlayer is most likely to improve the performance of diamond coatings used in cutting tools.

  13. Nanostructured Ta{sub x}C interlayer synthesized via double glow plasma surface alloying process for diamond deposition on cemented carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Wolong; Hei, Hongjun; Zhong, Qiang; Shen, Yanyan; Liu, Xiaoping; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Bing; He, Zhiyong, E-mail: hezhiyong@tyut.edu.cn; Yu, Shengwang, E-mail: yushengwang@tyut.edu.cn

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ta{sub x}C interlayer was creatively obtained on WC–Co by DG-PSA for diamond deposition. • The interlayer with a flower-shaped surface consisted of Ta{sub 2}C and TaC nanocrystal. • Ta{sub x}C interlayer had a superior adherence because of gradual element distributions. • The samples’ surface microhardness is increased caused by nanostructured interlayer. • Ta{sub x}C interlayer improved diamond adhesion on WC–Co by suppressing Co diffusion. - Abstract: The aim in this work was to improve the adhesion of diamond coating with pre-deposition of a Ta{sub x}C interlayer on cemented carbide (WC–Co) substrate by double glow plasma surface alloying technique. The following deposition of diamond coating on the interlayer was performed in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor. Ta{sub x}C interlayer with an inner diffusion layer and an outer deposition layer was composed of Ta{sub 2}C and TaC nanocrystalline, and it exhibited a special compact surface morphology formed of flower-shaped pits. As the gradual element distributions existed in the diffusion layer, the interlayer displayed a superior adherence to the substrate with significantly enhanced surface microhardness to the original substrate. After CVD process, the preferred orientation of TaC changed from (2 2 2) to (2 0 0) plane, and a uniform and tense diamond coating with adhesion referred to class HF 2 at least (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure 3198 norm) was obtained on the interlayered substrate. It indicated that the diffusion of Co was effectively inhibited by the formation of Ta{sub x}C diffusion–deposition interlayer. The Ta{sub x}C interlayer is most likely to improve the performance of diamond coatings used in cutting tools.

  14. Development of plasma assisted thermal vapor deposition technique for high-quality thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Il; Choi, Yong Sup; Park, Hyun Jae

    2016-12-01

    The novel technique of Plasma-Assisted Vapor Deposition (PAVD) is developed as a new deposition method for thin metal films. The PAVD technique yields a high-quality thin film without any heating of the substrate because evaporated particles acquire energy from plasma that is confined to the inside of the evaporation source. Experiments of silver thin film deposition have been carried out in conditions of pressure lower than 10-3 Pa. Pure silver plasma generation is verified by the measurement of the Ag-I peak using optical emission spectroscopy. A four point probe and a UV-VIS spectrophotometer are used to measure the electrical and optical properties of the silver film that is deposited by PAVD. For an ultra-thin silver film with a thickness of 6.5 nm, we obtain the result of high-performance silver film properties, including a sheet resistance 75%. The PAVD-film properties show a low sheet resistance of 30% and the same transmittance with conventional thermal evaporation film. In the PAVD source, highly energetic particles and UV from plasma do not reach the substrate because the plasma is completely shielded by the optimized nozzle of the crucible. This new PAVD technique could be a realistic solution to improve the qualities of transparent electrodes for organic light emission device fabrication without causing damage to the organic layers.

  15. Microwave assisted apatite coating deposition on Ti6Al4V implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Nabiyouni, Maryam; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2013-10-01

    In this work we report a novel microwave assisted technology to deposit a uniform, ultra-thin apatite coating without any cracks on titanium implants in minutes. This method comprises of conventional biomimetic coating in synergism with microwave irradiation to result in alkaline earth phosphate nucleation. The microwave assisted coating process mainly follows the initial stages of biomimetic coating until the step of the Ca-P nuclei formation. After that, due to microwave irradiation more Ca-P nuclei are formed to cover the whole surface of the implant instead of the growth of deposited Ca-P nuclei to Ca-P globules and coatings. It is interesting to note the doping of Mg(2+) to Ca-P apatite coating can significantly change the properties and performances of as-deposited coatings. The hydrophilicity, physical properties, bioactivity, cell adhesion, and growth capability of as-deposited microwave assisted coatings were investigated. The study shows that this coating technology has great potential in biomedical applications. Additionally, since biomimetic coating can be applied to series of implant materials such as polymer, metals and glass, it is expected this microwave assisted coating technology can also be applied to these materials if they can remains stable at 100 °C, the boiling point of water.

  16. 安徽百善煤矿超薄基岩区地质特征及对煤层安全开采影响%Geological Characteristics and Impacts on Coal Seam Safe Working in Ultra-thin Bedrock Area, Baishan Coalmine, Anhui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周增强; 张枫林

    2013-01-01

    百善煤矿64采区超薄基岩区域地质储量210万t,基岩厚度均小于20m,对安全回采造成了巨大影响。在分析煤矿主采煤层赋存、顶板岩石力学地质特征及水文地质条件的基础上,重点分析了超薄风化基岩及松散层内含(隔)水层的岩石特征及强风化岩石泥化对工作面开采的影响。以理论计算、现场实测数据和开采实践为依据,重点研究分析了风化基岩和含(隔)水层的物理特征及强风化岩石泥化对“两带”发育高度的影响,并设计了合理的安全保护煤柱。实践表明:超薄基岩区域强风化岩石软弱、泥化、风化对工作面回采“两带”发育高度有降低作用,有利于工作面的安全回采。%The ultra-thin bedrock area in No.64 winning district, Baishan coalmine has geological reserves 2.10 million tons, with bed-rock thickness less than 20m, thus seriously impacts safe winning. Based on main mineable coal seams hosting, coal roof rock mechanic characteristics and hydrogeological condition analyses, focused on ultra-thin weathered bedrock and loose beds aquifer (aquifuge) rock characteristics and water degradation of strongly weathered rock impacts on working face winning. On the basis of theoretic computation, field measured data and mining practices, focused on impacts from physical properties of weathered bedrock and aquifer (aquifuge) and strongly weathered rock water degradation on heights of caving zone, water conducted zone, then designed rational safety pillar. The prac-tices have demonstrated that strongly weathered rock’s weak, water degradation and weathering properties can lower down heights of caving zone and water conducted zone, thus in favor of working face safe winning.

  17. Atmospheric Plasma Deposition of Diamond-like Carbon Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladwig, Angela

    2008-01-23

    There is great demand for thin functional coatings in the semiconductor, optics, electronics, medical, automotive and aerospace industries [1-13]. As fabricated components become smaller and more complex, the properties of the materials’ surface take on greater importance. Thin coatings play a key role in tailoring surfaces to give them the desired hardness, wear resistance, chemical inertness, and electrical characteristics. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings possess an array of desirable properties, including outstanding abrasion and wear resistance, chemical inertness, hardness, a low coefficient of friction and exceptionally high dielectric strength [14-22]. Diamond-like carbon is considered to be an amorphous material, containing a mixture of sp2 and sp3 bonded carbon. Based on the percentage of sp3 carbon and the hydrogen content, four different types of DLC coatings have been identified: tetrahedral carbon (ta-C), hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) hard, a-C:H soft, and hydrogenated tetrahedral carbon (ta-C:H) [20,24,25]. Possessing the highest hardness of 80 GPa, ta-C possesses an sp3 carbon content of 80 to 88u%, and no appreciable hydrogen content whereas a-C:H soft possesses a hardness of less than 10 GPa, contains an sp3 carbon content of 60% and a hydrogen content between 30 to 50%. Methods used to deposit DLC coatings include ion beam deposition, cathodic arc spray, pulsed laser ablation, argon ion sputtering, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition [73-83]. Researchers contend that several advantages exist when depositing DLC coatings in a low-pressure environment. For example, ion beam processes are widely utilized since the ion bombardment is thought to promote denser sp3-bonded carbon networks. Other processes, such as sputtering, are better suited for coating large parts [29,30,44]. However, the deposition of DLC in a vacuum system has several disadvantages, including high equipment cost and restrictions on the size and shape of

  18. Discussion on the Preparation and Flame-retardant Mechanism of Ultra-thin Fire-retardant Coatings for Steel Structure%超薄型钢结构防火涂料的研制及其阻燃机理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔定伟; 张鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    Using bromine carbon styrene-acrylic emulsion as binder and additives includi ng ammonium polyphosphate, melamine and pentaerythritol, we have prepared ultra-thin fire-retardant coatings for steel structure, solving the problem of short fire- retardant efficiency. This paper discusses the flame retarding mechanism of the binder; showing that every technical indicator of the coatings can meet or exceed the requirement of the standard "Fire-retardant Coatings for Steel Structures - General Technical Conditions".%以溴碳苯丙乳液勾基料,配以聚磷酸铵、三聚氰胺、季戊四醇等助剂,配制了超薄型钢结构防火涂料;解决了现有钢结构防火涂料阻燃时效短的弊端,并对基料的阻燃机理进行了简单的探讨。自制超薄型钢结构防火涂料的各项技术指标均达到或超过了《钢结构防火涂料通用技术条件》中规定的指标。

  19. Data set for fabrication of conformal two-dimensional TiO2 by atomic layer deposition using tetrakis (dimethylamino) titanium (TDMAT) and H2O precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuiykov, Serge; Akbari, Mohammad Karbalaei; Hai, Zhenyin; Xue, Chenyang; Xu, Hongyan; Hyde, Lachlan

    2017-08-01

    The data and complementary information presented hare are related to the research article of "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.02.016; Materials and Design 120 (2017) 99-108" [1]. The article provides data and information on the case of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ultra-thin two-dimensional TiO2 film. The chemical structure of precursors, and the fabrication process were illustrated. The data of spectral ellipsometric measurements and the methods of calculations were presented. Data of root mean square roughness and the average roughness of the ADL TiO2 film are presented. The method of bandgap measurements and the bandgap calculation are also explained in the present data article.

  20. Data set for fabrication of conformal two-dimensional TiO2 by atomic layer deposition using tetrakis (dimethylamino titanium (TDMAT and H2O precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Zhuiykov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data and complementary information presented hare are related to the research article of “http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.02.016; Materials and Design 120 (2017 99–108” [1]. The article provides data and information on the case of atomic layer deposition (ALD of ultra-thin two-dimensional TiO2 film. The chemical structure of precursors, and the fabrication process were illustrated. The data of spectral ellipsometric measurements and the methods of calculations were presented. Data of root mean square roughness and the average roughness of the ADL TiO2 film are presented. The method of bandgap measurements and the bandgap calculation are also explained in the present data article.

  1. Interfacial engineering of two-dimensional nano-structured materials by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuiykov, Serge; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Hai, Zhenyin; Karbalaei Akbari, Mohammad; Heynderickx, Philippe M.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is an enabling technology which provides coating and material features with significant advantages compared to other existing techniques for depositing precise nanometer-thin two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures. It is a cyclic process which relies on sequential self-terminating reactions between gas phase precursor molecules and a solid surface. ALD is especially advantageous when the film quality or thickness is critical, offering ultra-high aspect ratios. ALD provides digital thickness control to the atomic level by depositing film one atomic layer at a time, as well as pinhole-free films even over a very large and complex areas. Digital control extends to sandwiches, hetero-structures, nano-laminates, metal oxides, graded index layers and doping, and it is perfect for conformal coating and challenging 2D electrodes for various functional devices. The technique's capabilities are presented on the example of ALD-developed ultra-thin 2D tungsten oxide (WO3) over the large area of standard 4" Si substrates. The discussed advantages of ALD enable and endorse the employment of this technique for the development of hetero-nanostructure 2D semiconductors with unique properties.

  2. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070291 Gong Ping (Northern Fujian Geological Party, Shaozou 354000) Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Control Factors of the Shimen Au-polymetallic Deposit in Zhenghe County, Fujian Province (Geology of Fujian, ISSN1001-3970, CN38-1080/P, 25(1), 2006, p.18-24, 2 illus., 2 tables, 1 ref.) Key words: gold deposits, polymetallic deposits, Fujian Province

  3. 宽带超薄完美吸波体设计及在圆极化倾斜波束天线雷达散射截面缩减中的应用研究*%Design of ultra-thin broadband metamaterial absorber and its application for RCS reduction of circular polarization tilted beam antenna∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思佳; 曹祥玉; 高军; 刘涛; 杨欢欢; 李文强

    2013-01-01

      为了缩减天线带内雷达散射截面(radar cross section, RCS),在双频带完美吸波材料的基础上,通过缩小两吸波率峰值之间的距离,设计出了一种频带较宽的超薄完美吸波体.该吸波体由两层金属及其中间的有耗介质组成,底面金属不刻蚀,顶面由方形贴片和绕其四周的开口方环组成,该结构具有低频点LC谐振和高频点偶极子谐振的特征.仿真和实验结果表明:该吸波体具有极化不敏感和宽入射角的特征,其在厚度小于0.01λ的条件下,具有8.2%的半波功率相对带宽,最大吸波率的峰值为91.6%和96.5%.将吸波体用于圆极化的倾斜波束(tilted beam, TB)天线,仿真和测试结果表明:该天线在保持增益不变的条件下,不仅轴比得到改善,有效带宽得到拓展,且在5.5—6.5 GHz范围内TB天线的RCS缩减至少在3 dBsm以上,在谐振频点处最大缩减幅度分别为11 dBsm和8 dBsm;在两谐振点处鼻锥方向−36◦—+36◦范围内, TB天线的RCS缩减均有明显效果.%  In order to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) of antenna, a wideband-enhanced ultra-thin metamaterial absorber is designed by reducing the distance between the two absorption peaks due to the double resonances. The absorber is composed of two metallic layers separated by a lossy dielectric spacer. The top layer consists of a single-square loop with four splits on the four sides and a square metal patch in the center and the bottom one is of a solid metal. A dipole resonance and an LC resonance are caused by the structure of the metamaterial absorber. By fine adjusting geometry parameters of the structure, we can obtain a polarization-insensitive and wide-incident-angle ultra-thin absorber whose absorption values are 91.6%and 96.5%. On condition that thickness is less than 0.01λ the absorber has a full-width at half-maximum of 8.2%. The absorber is applied to the circularly polarized tilted beam antenna for reducing RCS

  4. Atomic layer deposition enhanced grafting of phosphorylcholine on stainless steel for intravascular stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qi; Yan, Jin; Qian, Xu; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Aidong

    2014-09-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR) and re-endothelialization delay are two major issues of intravascular stent in terms of clinical safety and effects. Construction of mimetic cell membrane surface on stents using phosphorylcholine have been regarded as one of the most powerful strategies to resolve these two issues and improve the performance of stents. In this study, atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology, which is widely used in semiconductor industry, was utilized to fabricate ultra-thin layer (10nm) of alumina (Al2O3) on 316L stainless steel (SS), then the alumina covered surface was modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) sequentially in order to produce phosphorylcholine mimetic cell membrane surface. The pristine and modified surfaces were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscope and water contact angle measurement. Furthermore, the abilities of protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and cell proliferation on the surfaces were investigated. It was found that alumina layer can significantly enhance the surface grafting of APS and MPC on SS; and in turn efficiently inhibit protein adsorption and platelet adhesion, and promote the attachment and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on the surfaces. In association with the fact that the deposition of alumina layer is also beneficial to the improvement of adhesion and integrity of drug-carrying polymer coating on drug eluting stents, we expect that ALD technology can largely assist in the modifications on inert metallic surfaces and benefit implantable medical devices, especially intravascular stents.

  5. The influence of tertiary butyl hydrazine as a co-reactant on the atomic layer deposition of silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golrokhi, Zahra; Marshall, Paul A.; Romani, Simon; Rushworth, Simon; Chalker, Paul R.; Potter, Richard J.

    2017-03-01

    Ultra-thin conformal silver films are the focus of development for applications such as anti-microbial surfaces, optical components and electronic devices. In this study, metallic silver films have been deposited using direct liquid injection thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) using (hfac)Ag(1,5-COD) ((hexafluoroacetylacetonato)silver(I)(1,5-cyclooctadiene)) as the metal source and tertiary butyl hydrazine (TBH) as a co-reactant. The process provides a 23 °C wide 'self-limiting' ALD temperature window between 105 and 128 °C, which is significantly wider than is achievable using alcohol as a co-reactant. A mass deposition rate of ∼20 ng/cm2/cycle (∼0.18 Å/cycle) is observed under self-limiting growth conditions. The resulting films are crystalline metallic silver with a near planar film-like morphology which are electrically conductive. By extending the temperature range of the ALD window by the use of TBH as a co-reactant, it is envisaged that the process will be exploitable in a range of new low temperature applications.

  6. Effect of PbI2 deposition rate on two-step PVD/CVD all-vacuum prepared perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, Apostolos; Christodoulou, Christos; Lux-Steiner, Martha; Fostiropoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-12-01

    In this work we fabricate all-vacuum processed methyl ammonium lead halide perovskite by a sequence of physical vapour deposition of PbI2 and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of CH3NH3I under a static atmosphere. We demonstrate that for higher deposition rate the (001) planes of PbI2 film show a higher degree of alignment parallel to the sample's surface. From X-ray diffraction data of the resulted perovskite film we derive that the intercalation rate of CH3NH3I is fostered for PbI2 films with higher degree of (001) planes alignment. The stoichiometry of the produced perovskite film is also studied by Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Complete all-vacuum perovskite solar cells were fabricated on glass/ITO substrates coated by an ultra-thin (5 nm) Zn-phthalocyanine film as hole selective layer. A dependence of residual PbI2 on the solar cells performance is displayed, while photovoltaic devices with efficiency up to η=11.6% were achieved.

  7. Characteristics of atomic layer deposition grown HfO{sub 2} films after exposure to plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.W. [Kookje Electric Korea Co. LTD, 4-2 Chaam-Dong, Chonan-Si, Chungcheongnam-Do (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ywkim@kekorea.co.kr; Roh, Y. [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ji-Beom [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jibyoo@skku.ac.kr; Kim, Hyoungsub [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-01-22

    Ultra thin HfO{sub 2} films were grown by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using tetrakismethylethylaminohafnium (Hf[N(CH){sub 3}(C{sub 2}H{sub 5})]{sub 4}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) as the precursors and subsequently exposed to various plasma conditions, i.e., CCP (capacitively coupled plasma) and MMT (modified magnetron typed plasma) in N{sub 2} or N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ambient. The conventional CCP treatment was not effective in removing the carbon impurities, which were incorporated during the ALD process, from the HfO{sub 2} films. However, according to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, the MMT treated films exhibited a significant reduction in their carbon contents and the efficient incorporation of nitrogen atoms. Although the incorporated nitrogen was easily released during the post-thermal annealing of the MMT treated samples, it was more effective than the CCP treatment in removing the film impurities. Consequently, the MMT treated samples exhibited excellent electrical properties as compared to the as-deposited HfO{sub 2} films, including negligible hysteresis (flatband voltage shift), a low leakage current, and the reduced equivalent oxide thickness of the gate stack. In conclusion, MMT post treatment is more effective than conventional CCP treatment in improving the electrical properties of high-k films by reducing the carbon contamination and densifying the as-deposited defective films.

  8. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102406 Chen Gang(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Li Fengming Discussion on Geological Characteristics and Genesis of Yuquanshan Graphite Deposit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,27(4),2009,p.325-329,4 illus.,4 tables,5 refs.)Key words:graphite deposit,XinjiangYuquanshan graphite deposit of Xinjiang occurs in mica-quartz schist of Xingeer Information which belongs to Xinditate Group of Lower Pt in Kuluketage Block of Tarim paleo-continent,and experiences two mineralizing periods of

  9. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140876 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550025,China);Yang Ruidong Study on the Strontium Isotopic Composition of Large Devonian Barite Deposits from Zhenning,Guizhou Province(Geochimica,

  10. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122457 Cai Jianshe ( Fujian Institute of Geological Survey and Drawing,Fuzhou 350011,China ) On the Geologic Characteristics and Genesis of the Longtangsi Fluorite Deposit in Pucheng County,Fujian Province ( Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080 / P,30 ( 4 ), 2011,p.301-306,3illus.,1table,6 refs.,with English abstract ) Key words:fluorspar deposit,Fujian Province

  11. Temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropies in ultra-thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Hucht, A

    1999-01-01

    shown that in contrast to other works the temperature driven spin reorientation transition in the monolayer is discontinuous also in the simulations, whereas in general it is continuous for the bilayer. Consequently the molecular field theory and the Monte Carlo simulations agree qualitatively. Exemplary for thicker films the influence of an external magnetic field is investigated in the bilayer, furthermore the effective anisotropies K sub n (T) of the phenomenological Landau theory are calculated numerically for the microscopic model. Analytic expressions for the dependence of the anisotropies K sub n (T) on the parameters of the model are obtained by the means of perturbation theory, which lead to a deeper understanding of the spin reorientation transition. Accordingly to this the origin for the spin reorientation transition lies in the differing temperature dependence of the dipolar and spin-orbit parts of the K sub n (T). Additionally the magnetization in the surface of the film decreases more rapidly wi...

  12. Novel interconnect methodologies for ultra-thin chips on foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sridhar, A.; Cauwe, M.; Fledderus, H.; Kusters, R.H.L.; Brand, J. van den

    2012-01-01

    Reliable interconnection technology is key to the realization of reliable hybrid microelectronic systems that combine printed electronics and silicon technology. Flexible hybrid electronic systems-in-foil (SiF) that are typically suited for roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing place additional requireme

  13. Ultra thin films for sensing and heating of microprobes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaitas, A.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation aims to advance the current state of cantilevers with integrated metal thermal and deflection sensing elements. Metallic sensing elements enable the use of alternative substrate materials (such as polymers), that tend to exhibit higher compliance properties and are more robust (les

  14. Ultra-Thin Films for Opto-Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    oxidative addition step [TM ] = trans-metallation step - (or disproportionation step) •Zi._-_ [RE ] = reductive elimination step Ph "f >, Br Pn Fý...on the other hand, results in films with conductivities that are considerably lower. The iodine doped films were rapidly dedoped in air. It suggest...that poly(thiophene) has large ionization potential and that the dopant has not fully penetrated the multilayer structure or that iodine only forms a

  15. Application of ultra-thin polymer coating on metallic wires

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Juan

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the coating of fine wires using hydrodynamic pressure technique has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. One of the principal aims of the project is to establish the minimum possible coating thickness on fine wires which can be applied by means of hydrodynamic technique. Models based on steady, uniform and laminar flow of Newtonian as well as non-Newtonian fluid for polymer coating for the process of plasto-hydrodynamic wire coating in a stepped bore unit have be...

  16. Ultra-thin Oxide Membranes: Synthesis and Carrier Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Sung

    Self-supported freestanding membranes are films that are devoid of any underlying supporting layers. The key advantage of such structures is that, due to the lack of substrate effects - both mechanical and chemical, the true native properties of the material can be probed. This is crucial since many of the studies done on materials that are used as freestanding membranes are done as films clamped to substrates or in the bulk form. This thesis focuses on the synthesis and fabrication as well as electrical studies of free standing ultrathin process. Taking things a step further, to electrically probe these membranes required design of complex device architecture and extensive optimization of nano-fabrication processes. The challenges and optimized fabrication method of such membranes are demonstrated. Three materials are probed in this study, VO2, TiO2, and CeO2. VO2 for understanding structural considerations for electronic phase change and nature of ionic liquid gating, TiO2 and CeO2 for understanding surface conduction properties and surface chemistry. The VO2 study shows shift in metal-insulator transition (MIT) temperature arising from stress relaxation and opening of the hysteresis. The ionic liquid gating studies showed reversible modulation of channel resistance and allowed distinguishing bulk process from the surface effects. Comparing the ionic liquid gating experiments to hydrogen doping experiments illustrated that ionic liquid gating can be a surface limited electrostatic effect, if the critical voltage threshold is not exceeded. TiO2 study shows creation of non-stoichiometric forms under ion milling. Utilizing focused ion beam milling, thin membranes of Ti xOy of 100-300 nm thickness have been created. TEM studies indicated polycrystallinity and presence of twins in the FIB-milled nanowalls. Compositional analysis in the transmission electron microscope also showed reduced content of oxygen, confirming non-stoichiometry. Temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of the nanowall showed semiconducting behavior with an activation energy different from that of TiO2 single crystals and was attributed to formation of TinO2n-1 phases after FIB processing. The CeO2 study involved high temperature conductivity studies on substrate-free self-supported nano-crystalline ceria membranes up to 800 K. Increasing conductivity with oxygen partial pressure directly opposing the behavior of thin film devices 'clamped' by substrate has been observed. This illustrate that the relaxed nature of free standing membranes, and increased surface to volume ratio enables more sensitive electrical response to oxygen adsorption which could have implications for their use in oxygen storage devices, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors. The work in this thesis advances the understanding of materials in freestanding membrane form and advances fabrication techniques that have not been explored before, having implications for sensors, actuators, SOFC, memristors, and physics of quasi-2D materials.

  17. A damascene platform for controlled ultra-thin nanowire fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmain, M; Labbaye, T; Dellenbach, F; Nauenheim, C; Drouin, D; Ecoffey, S

    2013-06-21

    This paper presents a damascene process for the fabrication of titanium micro/nanostructures and nanowires with adjustable thickness down to 2 nm. Their depth is precisely controlled by chemical-mechanical planarization together with in-process electrical characterization. The latter, in combination with a model of the titanium resistivity versus thickness, allows control of the metal line depth in the nanometer range. In summary, we have developed a planarization end point detection method for metal nanostructures. In addition, the model adopted covers geometrical influences like oxidation and ageing. The fabricated titanium nanowire test structures have a thickness ranging from 2 to 25 nm and a width ranging between 15 and 230 nm.

  18. Ultra-thin, single-layer polarization rotator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, T. V.; Truong, V. V., E-mail: Truong.Vo-Van@Concordia.Ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Do, P. A.; Haché, A. [Département de Physique et d’Astronomie, Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, E1A 3E9 (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    We demonstrate light polarization control over a broad spectral range by a uniform layer of vanadium dioxide as it undergoes a phase transition from insulator to metal. Changes in refractive indices create unequal phase shifts on s- and p-polarization components of incident light, and rotation of linear polarization shows intensity modulation by a factor of 10{sup 3} when transmitted through polarizers. This makes possible polarization rotation devices as thin as 50 nm that would be activated thermally, optically or electrically.

  19. Ultra Thin Film Characterization of the Organic Rectifier Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-05

    coating by the oleophobic method 𔃼 ito a monofunctionalized TCNQ acceptor. prepared in high y ield. hsdrox\\sl-coated electrode ". As discussed above...Bigelow oleophobic (BO) film-casting technique [29-321. The forces binding an LB or BO monolayer to the substrate are usually weak physisorptive or

  20. Superconductor to Quantum Metal Transitions in Ultra Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Hsiang; Goldman, Allen M.

    2009-03-01

    Homogeneous films of amorphous bismuth have been continuously tuned from the superconducting state by increasing a perpendicular magnetic field. Electrical transport and Hall measurements show that the non-superconducting states of the films are quantum-corrected metals. In the vicinity of transition field, the resistance can be fit by an Arrhenius type of conduction at high temperatures but this form fails at lower temperatures where the resistance is a non-monotonic function of temperature. This suggests that a two-phase regime develops near criticality. Theories suggest that this is in the form of superconducting puddles embedded in a normal matrix^1,2. ^1B. Spivak, P. Oreto, and S. A. Kivelson, Phys. Rev. B 77, 214523 (2008) ^2Y. Dubi, Y. Meir, and Y. Avishai, Nature 449, 876-880 (2007)

  1. Indentation metrology of clamped, ultra-thin elastic sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Dominic; Davidovitch, Benny

    2017-01-01

    We study the indentation of ultrathin elastic sheets clamped to the edge of a circular hole. This classical setup has received considerable attention lately, being used by various experimental groups as a probe to measure the surface properties and stretching modulus of thin solid films. Despite the apparent simplicity of this method, the geometric nonlinearity inherent in the mechanical response of thin solid objects renders the analysis of the resulting data a nontrivial task. Importantly, ...

  2. CARBON DIFFUSION PATHS IN Ni-Ta-C SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    TaCandTa2CareimportantcarbidesusedtostrengthenNi-basedsuperaloys.KnowledgeoftheNi-Ta-Cphasediagramandthecarbideforma-tionsequ...

  3. Atomic layer deposition of NiO hole-transporting layers for polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Che-Chen; Su, Heng-Wei; Hou, Cheng-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Tsai, Feng-Yu

    2015-09-25

    NiO is an attractive hole-transporting material for polymer solar cells (PSCs) owing to its excellent stability and electrical/optical properties. This study demonstrates, for the first time, fabrication of uniform, defect-free, and conformal NiO ultra-thin films for use as hole-transporting layers (HTLs) in PSCs by atomic layer deposition (ALD) through optimization of the ALD processing parameters. The morphological, optical, and electrical properties of ALD NiO films were determined to be favorable for their HTL application. As a result, PSCs containing an ALD NiO HTL with an optimized thickness of 4 nm achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.4%, which was comparable to that of a control device with a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) HTL. The high quality and manufacturing scalability of ALD NiO films demonstrated here will facilitate the adoption of NiO HTLs in PSCs.

  4. Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition and Nanoskiving for Fabricating NiTi Alloy Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huilong; Horn, Mark W.; Hamilton, Reginald F.

    2016-12-01

    Nanoskiving is a novel nanofabrication technique to produce shape memory alloy nanowires. Our previous work was the first to successfully fabricate NiTi alloy nanowires using the top-down approach, which leverages thin film technology and ultramicrotomy for ultra-thin sectioning. For this work, we utilized biased target ion beam deposition technology to fabricate nanoscale (i.e., sub-micrometer) NiTi alloy thin films. In contrast to our previous work, rapid thermal annealing was employed for heat treatment, and the B2 austenite to R-phase martensitic transformation was confirmed using stress-temperature and diffraction measurements. The ultramicrotome was programmable and facilitated sectioning the films to produce nanowires with thickness-to-width ratios ranging from 4:1 to 16:1. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis confirmed the elemental Ni and Ti make-up of the wires. The findings exposed the nanowires exhibited a natural ribbon-like curvature, which depended on the thickness-to-width ratio. The results demonstrate nanoskiving is a potential nanofabrication technique for producing NiTi alloy nanowires that are continuous with an unprecedented length on the order of hundreds of micrometers.

  5. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of iron disulfide and its use for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaoui, Ahmed; Fiechter, Sebastian; Vogel, Ralf; Giersig, M.; Weller, Horst; Tributsch, Helmut

    1992-12-01

    Thin polycrystalline films of iron disulfide have been grown on different substrates by chemical vapour deposition. The films were characterized using optical absorption and TEM. RBS and EDAX analysis has been used to explore the chemical stoichiometry. XRD and FTIR allowed the identification of both FeS2 phases pyrite and marcasite. A novel method for sensitization of highly porous Ti02 elecrodes with ultra thin (10-20 nm) polycrystalline films of FeS2 (pyrite) is presented. Photoelectrochemical solar cell using the above electrode generated high photovoltage of up to 600mV compared with single crystalline electrode (200 mV). In this device the semiconductor with a small band gap and high absorption coefficient (FeS2 pyrite; EG = 0.9 eV; a = 6 x 105 cm-1) absorbs the light and injects electrons into the conduction band the wide band gap semiconductor (Ti02 anatase; EG = 3.2 eV). Regeneration of holes is taking place by electron transfer from redox system in the electrolyte.

  6. Structure and morphology of magnetron sputter deposited ultrathin ZnO films on confined polymeric template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajaib; Schipmann, Susanne; Mathur, Aakash; Pal, Dipayan; Sengupta, Amartya; Klemradt, Uwe; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-08-01

    The structure and morphology of ultra-thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films with different film thicknesses on confined polymer template were studied through X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Using magnetron sputter deposition technique ZnO thin films with different film thicknesses (molecular weight of polystyrene). The detailed internal structure, along the surface/interfaces and the growth direction of the system were explored in this study, which provides insight into the growth procedure of ZnO on confined polymer and reveals that a thin layer of ZnO, with very low surface and interface roughness, can be grown by DC magnetron sputtering technique, with approximately full coverage (with bulk like electron density) even in nm order of thickness, in 2-7 nm range on confined polymer template, without disturbing the structure of the underneath template. The resulting ZnO-polystyrene hybrid systems show strong ZnO near band edge (NBE) and deep-level (DLE) emissions in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra, where the contribution of DLE gets relatively stronger with decreasing ZnO film thickness, indicating a significant enhancement of surface defects because of the greater surface to volume ratio in thinner films.

  7. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry during atomic layer deposition of Pt, Ru and Pd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leick, N.; Weber, J. W.; Mackus, A. J. M.; Weber, M. J.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2016-03-01

    The preparation of ultra-thin platinum-group metal films, such as Pt, Ru and Pd, by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was monitored in situ using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the photon energy range of 0.75-5 eV. The metals’ dielectric function was parametrized using a ‘flexible’ Kramers-Kronig consistent dielectric function because it was able to provide accurate curve shape control over the optical response of the metals. From this dielectric function, it was possible to extract the film thickness values during the ALD process. The important ALD process parameters, such as the nucleation period and growth per cycle of Pt, Ru and Pd could be determined from the thickness evolution. In addition to process parameters, the film resistivity in particular could be extracted from the modeled dielectric function. Spectroscopic ellipsometry thereby revealed itself as a feasible and valuable technique to be used in research and development applications, as well as for process monitoring during ALD.

  8. Atomic layer deposition of NiO hole-transporting layers for polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Che-Chen; Su, Heng-Wei; Hou, Cheng-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Tsai, Feng-Yu

    2015-09-01

    NiO is an attractive hole-transporting material for polymer solar cells (PSCs) owing to its excellent stability and electrical/optical properties. This study demonstrates, for the first time, fabrication of uniform, defect-free, and conformal NiO ultra-thin films for use as hole-transporting layers (HTLs) in PSCs by atomic layer deposition (ALD) through optimization of the ALD processing parameters. The morphological, optical, and electrical properties of ALD NiO films were determined to be favorable for their HTL application. As a result, PSCs containing an ALD NiO HTL with an optimized thickness of 4 nm achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.4%, which was comparable to that of a control device with a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) HTL. The high quality and manufacturing scalability of ALD NiO films demonstrated here will facilitate the adoption of NiO HTLs in PSCs.

  9. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110947 Chen Xinglong(Guizhou Bureau of Nonferrous Metal and Nuclear Geology,Guiyang 550005,China);Gong Heqiang Endowment Factors and Development & Utilization Strategy of Bauxite Resource in North Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,27(2),2010,p.106-110,6 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:bauxite deposit,Guizhou Province20110948 Dang Yanxia(Mineral Resource & Reservoir Evaluation Center,Urumiq 830000,China);Fan Wenjun Geological Features and a Primary Study of Metallogenesis of the Wucaiwang Zeolite Deposit,Fuyun County(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(2),2010,p.167-170,2 illus.,1 table,5 refs.)Key words:zeolite deposit,Xinjiang Nearly all zeolite deposits in the world result from low-temperature-alteration of glass-bearing volcanic rocks.The southern slope of the Kalamali Mountain is one of the regions where medium to acid volcanics are major lithological type,thus it is a preferred area to look for zeolite deposit.The Wucaiwang zeolite ore district consists of mainly acid volcanic-clastic rocks.

  10. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091594 Bao Yafan(The Third Geologic Survey of Jilin Province,Siping 136000,China);Liu Yanjun Relations between Bashenerxi Granite,West Dongkunlun and Baiganhu Tungsten-Tin Deposit(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,27(3),2008,p.56-59,67,5 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:tungsten ores,tin ores,monzogranite,Kunlun Mountains20091595 Chen Fuwen(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Yichang 443003,China);Dai Pingyun Metallogenetic and Isotopic Chronological Study on the Shenjiaya Gold Deposit in Xuefeng Mountains,Hunan Province(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,82(7),2008,p.906-911,3 illus.,2 tables,30 refs.)Key words:gold ores,HunanThe Shenjiaya gold deposit is a representative one

  11. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111705 An Junbo(Team 603,Bureau of Nonferrous Metals Geological Exploration of Jilin Province,Hunchun 133300,China);Xu Renjie Geological Features and Ore Genesis of Baishilazi Scheelite Deposit in Yanbian Area(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,29(3),2010,p.39-43,2 illus.,2 tables,7 refs.)Key words:tungsten ores,Jilin ProvinceThe Baishilazi scheelite deposit is located in contacting zone between the marble of the Late Palaeozoic Qinglongcun Group and the Hercynian biotite granite.The vein and lenticular major ore body is obviously controlled by NE-extending faults and con

  12. Atomic layer deposition: an enabling technology for the growth of functional nanoscale semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyikli, Necmi; Haider, Ali

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present the progress in the growth of nanoscale semiconductors grown via atomic layer deposition (ALD). After the adoption by semiconductor chip industry, ALD became a widespread tool to grow functional films and conformal ultra-thin coatings for various applications. Based on self-limiting and ligand-exchange-based surface reactions, ALD enabled the low-temperature growth of nanoscale dielectric, metal, and semiconductor materials. Being able to deposit wafer-scale uniform semiconductor films at relatively low-temperatures, with sub-monolayer thickness control and ultimate conformality, makes ALD attractive for semiconductor device applications. Towards this end, precursors and low-temperature growth recipes are developed to deposit crystalline thin films for compound and elemental semiconductors. Conventional thermal ALD as well as plasma-assisted and radical-enhanced techniques have been exploited to achieve device-compatible film quality. Metal-oxides, III-nitrides, sulfides, and selenides are among the most popular semiconductor material families studied via ALD technology. Besides thin films, ALD can grow nanostructured semiconductors as well using either template-assisted growth methods or bottom-up controlled nucleation mechanisms. Among the demonstrated semiconductor nanostructures are nanoparticles, nano/quantum-dots, nanowires, nanotubes, nanofibers, nanopillars, hollow and core-shell versions of the afore-mentioned nanostructures, and 2D materials including transition metal dichalcogenides and graphene. ALD-grown nanoscale semiconductor materials find applications in a vast amount of applications including functional coatings, catalysis and photocatalysis, renewable energy conversion and storage, chemical sensing, opto-electronics, and flexible electronics. In this review, we give an overview of the current state-of-the-art in ALD-based nanoscale semiconductor research including the already demonstrated and future applications.

  13. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090243 Chen Zhibin (Hebei Institute of Geological Survey, Shijiazhuang 050081, China) Ore-Controlling Factors of the Beichagoumen Ag-Polymetallic Deposits in Northern Hebei Province (Geological Survey and Research, ISSN1672-4135, CN12-1353/P, 31(1), 2008, p.1-5, 3 illus., 10 refs.)

  14. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131565 Cai Lianyou(No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China);Weng Wangfei Geological Characteristics and Genesis Analysis of Guocun Navajoite Deposit in South Anhui Province(Mineral Resources and Geology,

  15. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102341 Bao Peisheng(Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Science,Beijing 100037,China)Further Discussion on the Genesis of the Podiform Chromite Deposits in the Ophiolites-Questioning about the Rock:Melt Interaction Metallogeny(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,28(12),2009,p.1741-1761

  16. NONMETALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131601 Gao Junbo(College of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Guizhou University,Guiyang 550003,China);Yang Ruidong Hydrothermal Venting-Flowing Sedimentation Characteristics of Devonian Barite Deposits from Leji,Zhenning County,Guizhou Province(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,CN62-1038/P,30(3),

  17. Surface ordering during underpotential deposition of lead on copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Natasa

    Recently there has been an increased fundamental and practical interest in studies of ultra-thin films in systems with large atomic size mismatch. For those systems interesting surface stress-driven phenomena are observed, such as surface-confined alloying resulting in self-assembly and ordering of domain structures. The system of interest in the present study is the electrochemical deposition of lead on copper that has an atomic size mismatch of 37%. This system shows no bulk alloying and has been thoroughly examined in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Electrodeposition of lead on copper starts by formation of one epitaxial monolayer in the potential region positive with respect to the reversible potential of bulk lead deposition, a phenomenon known in electrochemistry as underpotential deposition (UPD). On copper (111), in-situ STM results have shown (4 x 4) Moire structure of the complete lead monolayer, a structure identical to that observed in UHV. Following stripping of the lead monolayer, STM results revealed nano-organization of the topmost copper layer. Depending on the solution pH value, different types of nanoscale organization have been observed: (i) a Moire pattern of anion-induced reconstruction of the top copper layer, and (ii) a star pattern dislocation network. Additional experiments in lead-free aerated and deaerated solutions at different pH values suggest that observed structures are results of lead-assisted oxy-anion adsorption in which lead plays a catalytic role. On copper (100), the lead UPD process features coverage-dependent phase behavior identical to that observed in UHV. As a function of lead coverage, phases corresponding to a dilute random alloy phase and ordered surface alloy phase that appears at a surface coverage ratio of three lead atoms to eight copper atoms are observed. With increasing lead coverage, lead dealloys from this ordered phase resulting in the formation of a c(2 x 2) lead overlayer phase that transforms with increasing lead

  18. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122389 Cai Lianyou ( No.332 Geological Team,Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Anhui Province,Huangshan 245000,China );Weng Wangfei Geologic Characteristic and Ore-Control Factors of the Nanshan W-Mo Polymetallic Ore Deposit in South Anhui Province ( Geological Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135,CN12-1353 / P,34 ( 4 ), 2011,p.290-298,3 illus.,1table,14refs. ) Key words:tungsten ores,molybdenum ores,ore guide of prospecting,Anhui Province

  19. METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110165 Chen Jiawei(The 3rd Geological Team,Henan Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Xinyang 464000,China)Ore Control Conditions and Genetic Model for the Bodaoling Ag-Au Deposit in Guangshan,Henan Province(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,30(1),2010,p.28-30,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)Key words:gold ores,Henan Province20110166 Chen Mingquan(Geological Team 306,Yunnan Bureau of Nonferrous Geology,Kunming 650216,Ch

  20. Unexpected high power performance of atomic layer deposition coated Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Woo; Travis, Jonathan J.; Hu, Enyuan; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Kim, Seul Cham; Kang, Chan Soon; Woo, Jae-Ha; Yang, Xiao-Qing; George, Steven M.; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Se-Hee

    2014-05-01

    Electric-powered transportation requires an efficient, low-cost, and safe energy storage system with high energy density and power capability. Despite its high specific capacity, the current commercially available cathode material for today's state-of-art Li-ion batteries, lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide Li[Ni1/3 Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 (NMC), suffers from poor cycle life for high temperature operation and marginal rate capability resulting from irreversible degradation of the cathode material upon cycling. Using an atomic-scale surface engineering, the performance of Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 in terms of rate capability and high temperature cycle-life is significantly improved. The Al2O3 coating deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) dramatically reduces the degradation in cell conductivity and reaction kinetics. This durable ultra-thin Al2O3-ALD coating layer also improves stability for the NMC at an elevated temperature (55 °C). The experimental results suggest that a highly durable and safe cathode material enabled by atomic-scale surface modification could meet the demanding performance and safety requirements of next-generation electric vehicles.