WorldWideScience

Sample records for deposited ito films

  1. ITO thin films deposited by advanced pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viespe, Cristian; Nicolae, Ionut; Sima, Cornelia; Grigoriu, Constantin; Medianu, Rares

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide thin films were deposited by computer assisted advanced PLD method in order to obtain transparent, conductive and homogeneous films on a large area. The films were deposited on glass substrates. We studied the influence of the temperature (room temperature (RT)-180 deg. C), pressure (1-6 x 10 -2 Torr), laser fluence (1-4 J/cm 2 ) and wavelength (266-355 nm) on the film properties. The deposition rate, roughness, film structure, optical transmission, electrical conductivity measurements were done. We deposited uniform ITO thin films (thickness 100-600 nm, roughness 5-10 nm) between RT and 180 deg. C on a large area (5 x 5 cm 2 ). The films have electrical resistivity of 8 x 10 -4 Ω cm at RT, 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 180 deg. C and an optical transmission in the visible range, around 89%

  2. Pulsed laser deposition of ITO thin films and their characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuev, D. A.; Lotin, A. A.; Novodvorsky, O. A.; Lebedev, F. V.; Khramova, O. D.; Petuhov, I. A.; Putilin, Ph. N.; Shatohin, A. N.; Rumyanzeva, M. N.; Gaskov, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are grown on quartz glass substrates by the pulsed laser deposition method. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of ITO films are studied as a function of the substrate temperature, the oxygen pressure in the vacuum chamber, and the Sn concentration in the target. The transmittance of grown ITO films in the visible spectral region exceeds 85%. The minimum value of resistivity 1.79 × 10 −4 Ω cm has been achieved in the ITO films with content of Sn 5 at %.

  3. Highly transparent conductive ITO/Ag/ITO trilayer films deposited by RF sputtering at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningyu Ren

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ITO/Ag/ITO (IAI trilayer films were deposited on glass substrate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature. A high optical transmittance over 94.25% at the wavelength of 550 nm and an average transmittance over the visual region of 88.04% were achieved. The calculated value of figure of merit (FOM reaches 80.9 10-3 Ω-1 for IAI films with 15-nm-thick Ag interlayer. From the morphology and structural characterization, IAI films could show an excellent correlated electric and optical performance if Ag grains interconnect with each other on the bottom ITO layer. These results indicate that IAI trilayer films, which also exhibit low surface roughness, will be well used in optoelectronic devices.

  4. Study on the electrical properties of ITO films deposited by facing target sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youn J; Jin, Su B; Kim, Sung I; Choi, Yoon S; Choi, In S; Han, Jeon G

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the mechanism for the change in the electrical properties (carrier concentration (n) and mobility (μ)) of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films deposited by magnetron sputtering in a confined facing magnetic field. The relationship between the carrier concentration and the mobility was significantly different from the results reported for ITO films deposited by other magnetron sputtering processes. The lowest resistivity obtained for ITO films deposited in a confined facing magnetic field at low substrate temperatures (approximately 120 0 C) was 4.26 x 10 -4 Ω cm at a power density of 3 W cm -2 . Crystalline ITO films were obtained at a low power density range from 3 to 5 W cm -2 due to the increase in the substrate temperature from 120 to 162 0 C. This contributed to the increased carrier concentration and decreased electrical resistivity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed an increase in the concentration of the Sn 4+ states. This was attributed to the formation of a crystalline ITO film, which effectively enhanced the carrier concentration and reduced the carrier mobility.

  5. Influence of Continuous and Discontinuous Depositions on Properties of Ito Films Prepared by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiempanakit, K.; Rakkwamsuk, P.; Dumrongrattana, S.

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on glass substrate without external heating by DC magnetron sputtering with continuous deposition of 800 s (S1) and discontinuous depositions of 400 s × 2 times (S2), 200 s × 4 times (S3) and 100 s × 8 times (S4). The structural, surface morphology, optical transmittance and electrical resistivity of ITO films were measured by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, spectrophotometer and four-point probe, respectively. The deposition process of the S1 condition shows the highest target voltage due to more target poisoning occurrence. The substrate temperature of the S1 condition increases with the saturation curve of the RC charging circuit while other conditions increase and decrease due to deposition steps as DC power turns on and off. Target voltage and substrate temperature of ITO films decrease when changing the deposition conditions from S1 to S2, S3 and S4, respectively. The preferential orientation of ITO films were changed from dominate (222) plane to (400) plane with the increasing number of deposition steps. The ITO film for the S4 condition shows the lowest electrical resistivity of 1.44 × 10-3 Ω·cm with the highest energy gap of 4.09 eV and the highest surface roughness of 3.43 nm. These results were discussed from the point of different oxygen occurring on the surface ITO target between the sputtering processes which affected the properties of ITO films.

  6. Properties of Ce-doped ITO films deposited on polymer substrate by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.M.; Kwon, S.H.; Choi, J.H.; Cho, Y.J.; Song, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Ce-doped indium tin oxide (ITO:Ce) films were deposited on flexible polyimide substrates by DC magnetron sputtering using ITO targets containing various CeO 2 contents (CeO 2 : 0, 0.5, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0 wt.%) at room temperature and post-annealed at 200 o C. The crystallinity of the ITO films decreased with increasing Ce content, and it led to a decrease in surface roughness. In addition, a relatively small change in resistance in dynamic stress mode was obtained for ITO:Ce films even after the annealing at high temperature (200 o C). The minimum resistivity of the amorphous ITO:Ce films was 3.96 x 10 -4 Ωcm, which was deposited using a 3.0 wt.% CeO 2 doped ITO target. The amorphous ITO:Ce films not only have comparable electrical properties to the polycrystalline films but also have a crystallization temperature > 200 o C. In addition, the amorphous ITO:Ce film showed stable mechanical properties in the bended state.

  7. ITO films with enhanced electrical properties deposited on unheated ZnO-coated polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes de Carvalho, C.; Lavareda, G.; Fortunato, E.; Alves, H.; Goncalves, A.; Varela, J.; Nascimento, R.; Amaral, A.

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited by radio frequency (rf)-plasma enhanced reactive thermal evaporation (rf-PERTE) at room temperature on intrinsic ZnO/polymer substrates to enhance their electrical and structural properties. The polymer substrate used is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The thickness of the ZnO films varied in the range 50-150 nm. The average thickness of the ITO films is of about 170 nm. Results show that ITO deposited on bare PET substrates exhibit: an average visible transmittance of about 85% and an electrical resistivity of 5.6 x 10 -2 Ω cm. ITO on ZnO/PET substrates show the optical quality practically preserved and the resistivity decreased to a minimum value of 1.9x10 -3 Ω cm for ZnO layers 125 nm thick. The electrical properties of ITO on ZnO/PET are largely improved by the increase in carrier mobility

  8. Deposition and characterization of ITO films produced by laser ablation at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmelund, E.; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Schou, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at 355 nm. Even though the absorption of laser light at the wavelength 355 nm is much smaller than that of the standard excimer lasers for PLD at 248 nm and 193 nm, high-quality films can be produced. At high fluence...

  9. Structural, optical and electrical characteristics of ITO thin films deposited by sputtering on different polyester substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.

    2008-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and different polyester substrates; namely polyarylate (PA), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephtalate (PET). The influence of the substrate on the structural, optical and electrical characteristics of the ITO layers was investigated. The sputtered films exhibited crystallization in the (2 2 2) orientation, with higher mean crystallite size and lower structural distortion onto PET than onto PA, PC or glass substrates. ITO films deposited onto PET showed also higher band gap energy, higher carrier concentration and lower resistivity than the ITO layers onto the other tested substrates. These optical and electrical characteristics have been related to the structural distortion that was found dependent on the specific polyester substrate

  10. The Effect of Deposition Rate on Electrical, Optical and Structural Properties of ITO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Raghupathi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO thin films have been prepared using the reactive evaporation technique on glass substrates in an oxygen atmosphere. It is found that the deposition rate plays prominent role in controlling the electrical and optical properties of the ITO thin films. Resistivity, electrical conductivity, activation energy, optical transmission and band gap energy were investigated. A transmittance value of more than 90% in the visible region of the spectrum and an electrical conductivity of 3x10–6 Ωm has been obtained with a deposition rate of 2 nm/min. XRD studies showed that the films are polycrystalline.

  11. Optical analysis of Cr-doped ITO films deposited by double-target laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesaria, M., E-mail: maura.cesaria@le.infn.it [Departiment of Mathematics and Physics ”Ennio De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Caricato, A.P. [Departiment of Mathematics and Physics ”Ennio De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Maruccio, G. [Departiment of Mathematics and Physics ”Ennio De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL) Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Departiment of Mathematics and Physics ”Ennio De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    We investigate the optical properties of ITO and Cr-doped ITO films deposited at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition onto amorphous SiO{sub 2} substrates. Our analysis approach is based on the Tauc's plot method applied to the absorption coefficient estimated by a route realistically describing the film structural features and including the contribution of the non-measurable film–substrate interface. Going beyond the conventional application of the Tauc's plot method, we quote two different transition energies for ITO and Cr-doped ITO and discuss their origin in the framework of a band-structure picture as a function of film thickness, Cr changes of the host ITO dispersion and Cr-doping content. In contrast to the conventional optical ITO description, we account for the existence of direct dipole forbidden transitions between the ITO fundamental band edges, involving different electronic and optical band gaps. Our results and discussion demonstrate that disregarding this theoretically established picture, as occurs in the experimental literature, would lead to conclusions inconsistent with the Cr-induced band occupation and effects on ITO dispersions. Preliminary optical (based on transmittance and reflectance spectra as well as band-tailing effects), electrical and structural inspection of the samples are also considered to check reliability and consistency of our discussion. - Highlights: • Realistic absorption coefficient of very thin films. • Electronic and optical band gap: ITO dipole forbidden optical transitions. • Interpretative model combining realistic band structure and Tauc's plot approach. • Inconsistencies stemming from conventional application of the Tauc's plot. • General model applicable to In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-like systems.

  12. Optical analysis of Cr-doped ITO films deposited by double-target laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A.P.; Maruccio, G.; Martino, M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the optical properties of ITO and Cr-doped ITO films deposited at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition onto amorphous SiO 2 substrates. Our analysis approach is based on the Tauc's plot method applied to the absorption coefficient estimated by a route realistically describing the film structural features and including the contribution of the non-measurable film–substrate interface. Going beyond the conventional application of the Tauc's plot method, we quote two different transition energies for ITO and Cr-doped ITO and discuss their origin in the framework of a band-structure picture as a function of film thickness, Cr changes of the host ITO dispersion and Cr-doping content. In contrast to the conventional optical ITO description, we account for the existence of direct dipole forbidden transitions between the ITO fundamental band edges, involving different electronic and optical band gaps. Our results and discussion demonstrate that disregarding this theoretically established picture, as occurs in the experimental literature, would lead to conclusions inconsistent with the Cr-induced band occupation and effects on ITO dispersions. Preliminary optical (based on transmittance and reflectance spectra as well as band-tailing effects), electrical and structural inspection of the samples are also considered to check reliability and consistency of our discussion. - Highlights: • Realistic absorption coefficient of very thin films. • Electronic and optical band gap: ITO dipole forbidden optical transitions. • Interpretative model combining realistic band structure and Tauc's plot approach. • Inconsistencies stemming from conventional application of the Tauc's plot. • General model applicable to In 2 O 3 -like systems

  13. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline ITO thin films on glass and clay substrates by ion-beam sputter deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, S.; Nanjo, H.; Kawasaki, K.; Wakui, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Ebina, T.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared on clay-1 (Clay-TPP-LP-SA), clay-2 (Clay-TPP-SA) and glass substrates using ion-beam sputter deposition method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the as-deposited ITO films on both clay-1 and clay-2 substrates were a mixture of amorphous and polycrystalline. But the as-deposited ITO films on glass substrates were polycrystalline. The surface morphologies of as-deposited ITO/glass has smooth surface; in contrast, ITO/clay-1 has rough surface. The surface roughnesses of ITO thin films on glass and clay-1 substrate were calculated as 4.3 and 83 nm, respectively. From the AFM and SEM analyses, the particle sizes of nanocrystalline ITO for a film thickness of 712 nm were calculated as 19.5 and 20 nm, respectively. Optical study showed that the optical transmittance of ITO/clay-2 was higher than that of ITO/clay-1. The sheet resistances of as-deposited ITO/clay-1 and ITO/clay-2 were calculated as 76.0 and 63.0 Ω/□, respectively. The figure of merit value for as-deposited ITO/clay-2 (12.70 x 10 -3 /Ω) was also higher than that of ITO/clay-1 (9.6 x 10 -3 /Ω), respectively. The flexibilities of ITO/clay-1 and ITO/clay-2 were evaluated as 13 and 12 mm, respectively. However, the ITO-coated clay-2 substrate showed much better optical and electrical properties as well as flexibility as compared to clay-1.

  14. Effect of oxygen flow rate on ITO thin films deposited by facing targets sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youn J.; Jin, Su B.; Kim, Sung I.; Choi, Yoon S.; Choi, In S.; Han, Jeon G.

    2010-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at various oxygen flow rates using a planar magnetron sputtering system with facing targets. In this system, the strong internal magnets inside the target holders confine the plasma between the targets. High resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed a combination of amorphous and crystalline phases on the glass substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that the decrease in carrier concentration and increase in mobility were caused by a decrease in the concentration of Sn 4+ states. The electrical and optical properties of the ITO films were examined by Hall measurements and UV-visible spectroscopy, which showed a film resistivity and transmittance of 4.26 x l0 -4 Ω cm, and > 80% in the visible region, respectively.

  15. Low temperature ITO thin film deposition on PES substrate using pulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.C.; Li, J.Y.; Yen, W.T.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using pulse magnetron sputtering (PMS) to deposit transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film onto flexible polyethersulfone (PES) plastic substrates. The thin film microstructure, optoelectronic and residual stress were analyzed using the modulating PMS power, work pressure, pulse frequency, duty cycle and cycle time process parameters. The residual stress of the thin film was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with the Sony equation. The experimental results show that PMS has a lower process temperature, higher deposition rate and lower resistivity compared with the radio frequency process at the same output power. The duty cycle increase produces the optimum optoelectronic characteristics. When the pressure, power, duty cycle and sputter time are increased, the thin film stress will also increase, causing flexural distortion in the PES plastic substrate. When the deposition thickness reaches 1.5 μm, ITO thin film will appear with a distinct split. Under 5 mtorr work pressure, 60 W power, 33 μs duty time and 2 μs pulse reverse time at duty cycle 95%, thin film with an optimized electrical 3.0 x 10 -4 Ω-cm, RMS surface roughness of 0.85 nm and visible region optical transmittance will be achieved with acquisition of over 85%

  16. Electrical and optical properties of ITO and ITO/Cr-doped ITO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Cesaria, M.; Luches, A.; Martino, M.; Valerini, D.; Maruccio, G.; Catalano, M.; Cola, A.; Manera, M.G.; Lomascolo, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on the effects of the insertion of Cr atoms on the electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films to be used as electrodes in spin-polarized light-emitting devices. ITO films and ITO(80 nm)/Cr-doped ITO(20 nm) bilayers and Cr-doped ITO films with a thickness of 20 nm were grown by pulsed ArF excimer laser deposition. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of ITO films and ITO/Cr-doped structures were characterized by UV-Visible transmission and reflection spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Hall-effect analysis. For the different investigations, the samples were deposited on different substrates like silica and carbon coated Cu grids. ITO films with a thickness of 100 nm, a resistivity as low as ∝4 x 10 -4 Ω cm, an energy gap of ∝4.3 eV and an atomic scale roughness were deposited at room temperature without any post-deposition process. The insertion of Cr into the ITO matrix in the upper 20 nm of the ITO matrix induced variations in the physical properties of the structure like an increase of average roughness (∝0.4-0.5 nm) and resistivity (up to ∝8 x 10 -4 Ω cm). These variations were correlated to the microstructure of the Cr-doped ITO films with particular attention to the upper 20 nm. (orig.)

  17. Electrical and optical properties of ITO and ITO/Cr-doped ITO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricato, A. P.; Cesaria, M.; Luches, A.; Martino, M.; Maruccio, G.; Valerini, D.; Catalano, M.; Cola, A.; Manera, M. G.; Lomascolo, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper we report on the effects of the insertion of Cr atoms on the electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films to be used as electrodes in spin-polarized light-emitting devices. ITO films and ITO(80 nm)/Cr-doped ITO(20 nm) bilayers and Cr-doped ITO films with a thickness of 20 nm were grown by pulsed ArF excimer laser deposition. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of ITO films and ITO/Cr-doped structures were characterized by UV-Visible transmission and reflection spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Hall-effect analysis. For the different investigations, the samples were deposited on different substrates like silica and carbon coated Cu grids. ITO films with a thickness of 100 nm, a resistivity as low as ˜4×10-4 Ω cm, an energy gap of ˜4.3 eV and an atomic scale roughness were deposited at room temperature without any post-deposition process. The insertion of Cr into the ITO matrix in the upper 20 nm of the ITO matrix induced variations in the physical properties of the structure like an increase of average roughness (˜0.4-0.5 nm) and resistivity (up to ˜8×10-4 Ω cm). These variations were correlated to the microstructure of the Cr-doped ITO films with particular attention to the upper 20 nm.

  18. Transparent conductive ITO/Cu/ITO films prepared on flexible substrates at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xingwei; Yan Jinliang; Li Ting; Zhang Liying

    2012-01-01

    Transparent conductive ITO/Cu/ITO films were deposited on PET substrates by magnetron sputtering using three cathodes at room temperature. Effects of the SiO 2 buffer layer and thickness of Cu interlayer on the structural, electrical and optical properties of ITO/Cu/ITO films were investigated. The optical transmittance was affected slightly by SiO 2 buffer layer, but the electrical properties of ITO/Cu/ITO films were improved. The transmittance and resistivity of the SiO 2 /ITO/Cu/ITO films decrease as the Cu layer thickness increases. The ITO/Cu/ITO film with 5 nm Cu interlayer deposited on the 40 nm thick SiO 2 buffer layer exhibits the sheet resistance of 143 Ω/sq and transmittance of 65% at 550 nm wavelength. The optical and electrical properties of the ITO/Cu/ITO films were mainly dependent on the Cu layer.

  19. Transparent conductive ITO/Cu/ITO films prepared on flexible substrates at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xingwei; Yan, Jinliang; Li, Ting; Zhang, Liying

    2012-01-01

    Transparent conductive ITO/Cu/ITO films were deposited on PET substrates by magnetron sputtering using three cathodes at room temperature. Effects of the SiO2 buffer layer and thickness of Cu interlayer on the structural, electrical and optical properties of ITO/Cu/ITO films were investigated. The optical transmittance was affected slightly by SiO2 buffer layer, but the electrical properties of ITO/Cu/ITO films were improved. The transmittance and resistivity of the SiO2/ITO/Cu/ITO films decrease as the Cu layer thickness increases. The ITO/Cu/ITO film with 5 nm Cu interlayer deposited on the 40 nm thick SiO2 buffer layer exhibits the sheet resistance of 143 Ω/sq and transmittance of 65% at 550 nm wavelength. The optical and electrical properties of the ITO/Cu/ITO films were mainly dependent on the Cu layer.

  20. Pulsed laser deposition of semiconductor-ITO composite films on electric-field-applied substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narazaki, Aiko; Sato, Tadatake; Kawaguchi, Yoshizo; Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koshizaki, Naoto

    2002-01-01

    The DC electric-field effect on the crystallinity of II-VI semiconductor in composite systems has been investigated for CdS-ITO films fabricated via alternative pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of CdS and indium tin oxide (ITO) on electric-field-applied substrates. The alternative laser ablation was performed under irradiation of ArF excimer laser in mixture gas of helium and oxygen. The application of electric-field facilitated the preferential crystal-growth of CdS in nanometer scale at low pressure, whereas all the films grown without the field were amorphous. There is a large difference in the crystallization between the films grown on field-applied and heated substrates; the latter showed the crystal-growth with random orientations. This difference indicates that the existence of electric-field has an influence on the transformation from amorphous to crystalline phase of CdS. The driving force for the field-induced crystallization is also discussed in the light of the Joule heat

  1. Effect of deposition parameters on properties of ITO films prepared by reactive middle frequency pulsed dual magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozin, A.I.; Vinnichenko, M.V.; Kolitsch, A.; Moeller, W.

    2004-01-01

    ITO layers with low resistivity and high visible transmittance were produced by means of middle frequency reactive dual magnetron sputtering. The influence of base pressure, Ar/O 2 ratio and magnetron pulse duration on the film composition, structure, electrical, and optical properties has been investigated. The deposition rate is proportional to the magnetron operation power at changing pulse duration and constant Ar and O 2 flows. At enhanced O 2 flows an onset of the magnetron target oxidation is discussed as a reason for the decrease of the deposition rate. The presence of water vapor in the residual gas is determined to be a reason for deterioration of resistivity and optical transmittance observed for ITO films produced at a base pressures higher than 5·10 -4 Pa. It is demonstrated that spectroscopic ellipsometry can be used as a noncontact tool to monitor the resistivity of ITO films

  2. Electrical and optical properties of ITO and ITO/Cr-doped ITO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P.; Cesaria, M.; Luches, A.; Martino, M.; Valerini, D. [University of Salento, Physics Department, Lecce (Italy); Maruccio, G. [University of Salento, Scuola Superiore Isufi, Lecce (Italy); Catalano, M.; Cola, A.; Manera, M.G.; Lomascolo, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [IMM-CNR, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Lecce (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper we report on the effects of the insertion of Cr atoms on the electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films to be used as electrodes in spin-polarized light-emitting devices. ITO films and ITO(80 nm)/Cr-doped ITO(20 nm) bilayers and Cr-doped ITO films with a thickness of 20 nm were grown by pulsed ArF excimer laser deposition. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of ITO films and ITO/Cr-doped structures were characterized by UV-Visible transmission and reflection spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Hall-effect analysis. For the different investigations, the samples were deposited on different substrates like silica and carbon coated Cu grids. ITO films with a thickness of 100 nm, a resistivity as low as {proportional_to}4 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm, an energy gap of {proportional_to}4.3 eV and an atomic scale roughness were deposited at room temperature without any post-deposition process. The insertion of Cr into the ITO matrix in the upper 20 nm of the ITO matrix induced variations in the physical properties of the structure like an increase of average roughness ({proportional_to}0.4-0.5 nm) and resistivity (up to {proportional_to}8 x 10{sup -4}{omega} cm). These variations were correlated to the microstructure of the Cr-doped ITO films with particular attention to the upper 20 nm. (orig.)

  3. Evaporation-Driven Deposition of ITO Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions with Low-Speed Dip-Coating Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Uchiyama, Hiroaki; Kozuka, Hiromitsu

    2017-05-30

    We suggest a novel wet coating process for preparing indium tin oxide (ITO) films from simple solutions containing only metal salts and water via evaporation-driven film deposition during low-speed dip coating. Homogeneous ITO precursor films were deposited on silica glass substrates from the aqueous solutions containing In(NO 3 ) 3 ·3H 2 O and SnCl 4 ·5H 2 O by dip coating at substrate withdrawal speeds of 0.20-0.50 cm min -1 and then crystallized by the heat treatment at 500-800 °C for 10-60 min under N 2 gas flow of 0.5 L min -1 . The ITO films heated at 600 °C for 30 min had a high optical transparency in the visible range and a good electrical conductivity. Multiple-coating ITO films obtained with five-times dip coating exhibited the lowest sheet (ρ S ) and volume (ρ V ) resistivities of 188 Ω sq -1 and 4.23 × 10 -3 Ω cm, respectively.

  4. ITO films deposited by rf-PERTE on unheated polymer substrates--properties dependence on In-Sn alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes de Carvalho, C.; Lavareda, G.; Fortunato, E.; Vilarinho, P.; Amaral, A.

    2004-01-01

    The study of the influence of different tin concentrations in the In-Sn alloy on the properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited by radio frequency (rf) plasma enhanced reactive thermal evaporation (rf-PERTE) onto flexible polymer and window glass substrates at room temperature is presented. The polymer substrate used is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The tin concentration in the source alloy varied in the range 5-20 wt.%. The average thickness of the ITO films is of about 90 nm. Results show that ITO thin films deposited on PET from the evaporation of a 85%In:15%Sn alloy exhibit the following characteristics: an average visible transmittance of 80% and an electrical resistivity of 1.6x10 -3 Ω cm. On glass the value of the average visible transmittance increases (85%) and the resistivity decreases to 7.6x10 -4 Ω cm. The electrical properties of ITO films on PET are largely affected by the low carrier mobility

  5. Luminescent properties of CaTiO3:Pr thin-film phosphor deposited on ZnO/ITO/glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sung Mook; Han, Sang Hyuk; Song, Kuk Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo; Kim, Young Jin

    2005-01-01

    Red-emitting CaTiO 3 :Pr phosphor thin films were deposited on glass, ZnO/ITO/glass, and ITO/glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The effects of various substrates and heat treatment on the structural and luminous properties were investigated. The films deposited on ZnO/ITO/glass exhibited superior crystallinity and more enhanced PL and CL properties compared with those on ITO/glass. The intermediate ZnO layer between phosphor film and ITO contributed to the growing behaviors and the roughening of CaTiO 3 :Pr phosphor thin films, and consequently, to the excellent luminescence. The luminescent properties of the films were improved by following heat-treatment due to a combination of factors, namely the transformation from amorphous to poly crystalline phases, the activation of the activators, and the elimination of microdefects

  6. Influence of O2 Flux on Compositions and Properties of ITO Films Deposited at Room Temperature by Direct-Current Pulse Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hua-Lin; Ding Wan-Yu; Liu Chao-Qian; Chai Wei-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature by dc pulse magnetron sputtering. Varying O 2 flux, ITO films with different properties are obtained. Both x-ray diffractometer and x-ray photoelectron spectrometer are used to study the change of crystalline structures and bonding structures of ITO films, respectively. Electrical properties are measured by four-point probe measurements. The results indicate that the chemical structures and compositions of ITO films strongly depend on the O 2 flux. With increasing O 2 flux, ITO films display better crystallization, which could decrease the resistivity of films. On the contrary, ITO films contain less O vacancies with increasing O 2 flux, which could worsen the conductive properties of films. Without any heat treatment onto the samples, the resistivity of the ITO film could reach 6.0 × 10 −4 Ω ·cm, with the optimal deposition parameter of 0.2 sccm O 2 flux. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  7. Deposition of the low resistive ITO-films by means of reactive magnetron sputtering of the In/Sn target on the cold substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidik, Y. S.; Troyan, P. E.; Baturina, E. V.; Korzhenko, D. V.; Yurjev, Y. N.

    2016-06-01

    Detailed information on the deposition technology of the low-resistive ITO-films in oxygen-containing media by magnetron reactive sputtering from the In(90%)/Sn(10%) target on the cold substrate is given. Developed technology allows deposition ITO-films with sheet resistance 2-3 Ω/□, transparency higher than 90%. Developed technology is notable for high reproducibility of results and is compatible with production technology of semiconductor devices of optoelectronics.

  8. Deposition of the low resistive ITO-films by means of reactive magnetron sputtering of the In/Sn target on the cold substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Zhidik, Y. S.; Troyan, P. E.; Baturina, E. V.; Korzhenko, Dmitry Vladimirovich; Yuriev, Yuri Nikolaevich

    2016-01-01

    Detailed information on the deposition technology of the low-resistive ITO-films in oxygen-containing media by magnetron reactive sputtering from the In(90%)/Sn(10%) target on the cold substrate is given. Developed technology allows deposition ITO-films with sheet resistance transparency higher than 90%. Developed technology is notable for high reproducibility of results and is compatible with production technology of semiconductor devices of optoelectronics.

  9. Enhancement of the optical and electrical properties of ITO thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. M.; Mohamed, H. A.; Mohamed, S. H.

    2005-08-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is widely utilized in numerous industrial applications due to its unique combined properties of transparency to visible light and electrical conductivity. ITO films were deposited on glass substrates by an electron beam evaporation technique at room temperature from bulk samples, with different thicknesses. The film with 1500 Å thick was selected to perform annealing in the temperature range of 200 400 °C and annealing for varying times from 15 to 120 min at 400 °C. The X-ray diffraction of the films was analyzed in order to investigate its dependence on thickness, and annealing. Electrical and optical measurements were also carried out. Transmittance, optical energy gap, refractive index, carrier concentration, thermal emissivity and resistivity were investigated. It was found that the as-deposited films with different thicknesses were highly absorbing and have relatively poor electrical properties. The films become opaque with increasing the film thickness. After thermal annealing, the resistance decreases and a simultaneous variation in the optical transmission occurs. A transmittance value of 85.5% in the IR region and 82% in the visible region of the spectrum and a resistivity of 2.8 × 10-4 Ω Cm were obtained at annealing temperature of 400 °C for 120 min.

  10. Comparison study of ITO thin films deposited by sputtering at room temperature onto polymer and glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been grown simultaneously onto glass and polymer substrates at room temperature by sputtering from ceramic target. The structure, morphology and electro-optical characteristics of the ITO/glass and ITO/polymer samples have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, four-point electrical measurements and spectrophotometry. In the selected experimental conditions, the polycrystalline ITO coating shows higher average grain size and higher conductivity, with similar visible transmittance, onto the polymer than onto the glass substrate

  11. Electrical and optical characteristics of ITO films by pulsed laser deposition using a 10 wt.% SnO2-doped In2O3 ceramic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Hyeob; Park, Nae-Man; Kim, TaeYoub; Sung, GunYong

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of the oxygen pressure and the deposition temperature on the electrical and optical properties of the Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) films on quartz glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using a 10 wt.% SnO 2 -doped In 2 O 3 target. The resistivity and the carrier concentration of the films were decreased due to the decrease of the oxygen vacancy while increasing the oxygen pressure. With increasing deposition temperature, the resistivity of the films was decreased and the carrier concentration was increased due to the grain growth and the enhancement of the Sn diffusion. We have optimized the PLD process to deposit a highly conductive and transparent ITO film, which shows the optical transmittance of 88% and the resistivity of 2.49x10 -4 Ω cm for the film thickness of 180 nm

  12. CuS p-type thin film characterization deposited on Ti, ITO and glass substrates using spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) for light emitting diode (LED) application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabah, Fayroz A., E-mail: fayroz-arif@yahoo.com [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad (Iraq); Ahmed, Naser M., E-mail: naser@usm.my; Hassan, Z., E-mail: zai@usm.my; Azzez, Shrook A. [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Rasheed, Hiba S., E-mail: hibasaad1980@yahoo.com [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Department of Physics, College of Education, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad (Iraq); Al-Hazim, Nabeel Z., E-mail: nabeelnano333@gmail.com [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Ministry of Education, the General Directorate for Educational Anbar (Iraq)

    2016-07-06

    The copper sulphide (CuS) thin films were grown with good adhesion by spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) on Ti, ITO and glass substrates at 200 °C. The distance between nozzle and substrate is 30 cm. The composition was prepared by mixing copper chloride CuCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O as a source of Cu{sup 2+} and sodium thiosulfate Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}.5H{sub 2}O as a source of and S{sup 2−}. Two concentrations (0.2 and 0.4 M) were used for each CuCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} to be prepared and then sprayed (20 ml). The process was started by spraying the solution for 3 seconds and after 10 seconds the cycle was repeated until the solution was sprayed completely on the hot substrates. The structural characteristics were studied using X-ray diffraction; they showed covellite CuS hexagonal crystal structure for 0.2 M concentration, and covellite CuS hexagonal crystal structure with two small peaks of chalcocite Cu{sub 2}S hexagonal crystal structure for 0.4 M concentration. Also the surface and electrical characteristics were investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and current source device, respectively. The surface study for the CuS thin films showed nanorods to be established for 0.2 M concentration and mix of nanorods and nanoplates for 0.4 M concentration. The electrical study showed ohmic behavior and low resistivity for these films. Hall Effect was measured for these thin films, it showed that all samples of CuS are p- type thin films and ensured that the resistivity for thin films of 0.2 M concentration was lower than that of 0.4 M concentration; and for the two concentrations CuS thin film deposited on ITO had the lowest resistivity. This leads to the result that the conductivity was high for CuS thin film deposited on ITO substrate, and the conductivity of the three thin films of 0.2 M concentration was higher than that of 0.4 M concentration.

  13. Influence of the film thickness on the structure, optical and electrical properties of ITO coatings deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillén, C; Herrero, J

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films with thickness between 0.2 and 0.7 µm were deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. All films were polycrystalline, with crystallite size increasing and lattice distortion decreasing when the film thickness was increased. Besides, transmission in the near-infrared region is found to be decreasing and carrier concentration increasing when the film thickness was increased. For the same thickness, the lattice distortion is slightly lower and the carrier concentration higher for the layers grown on PET substrates. A direct relationship between the lattice distortion and the free carrier concentration has been established, applying to the films grown on glass and plastic substrates. By adjusting ITO coating thickness, sheet resistance below 15 Ω sq −1 and average visible transmittance about 90% have been achieved by sputtering at room temperature

  14. Effect of Ga2O3 buffer layer thickness on the properties of Cu/ITO thin films deposited on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Huihui; Yan Jinliang; Xu Chengyang; Meng Delan

    2014-01-01

    Cu and Cu/ITO films were prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates with a Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer using radio frequency (RF) and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. The effect of Cu layer thickness on the optical and electrical properties of the Cu film deposited on a PET substrate with a Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer was studied, and an appropriate Cu layer thickness of 4.2 nm was obtained. Changes in the optoelectrical properties of Cu(4.2 nm)/ITO(30 nm) films were investigated with respect to the Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer thickness. The optical and electrical properties of the Cu/ITO films were significantly influenced by the thickness of the Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer. A maximum transmission of 86%, sheet resistance of 45 Ω/□ and figure of merit of 3.96 × 10 −3 Ω −1 were achieved for Cu(4.2 nm)/ITO(30 nm) films with a Ga 2 O 3 layer thickness of 15 nm. (semiconductor materials)

  15. Investigation of temperature stability of ITO films characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troyan Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents research of thermal stability of optical and electro-physical parameters of ITO films deposited using various techniques. Variation of optical and electro-physical parameters was recorded using spectroscopy, and Hall’s and four-probe measurements. The best thermal stability was demonstrated by ITO films deposited by metal target sputtering In(90%/Sn(10% in mixture of gases O2 (25% + Ar (75% with further annealing in air atmosphere. This enables to apply this technique for production of thin film transparent resistive elements capable to heat the translucent structures up to 100°C without deterioration of their parameters.

  16. Diffusion and crystal growth in plasma deposed thin ITO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, H.; Wulff, H.; Quaas, M.; Tun, Tin Maung.; Hipple, R.

    2000-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films were deposited by means of DC-planar magnetron sputtering. A metallic In/Sn (90/10) target an Ar/O 2 gas mixture were used. The oxygen flow was varied between 0 and 2 sccm. Substrate voltages between 0 and -100 V were used. With increasing oxygen flow film structure and composition change from crystalline metallic In/Sn to amorphous ITO. Simultaneously the deposition rate decreases and the film density increases. The diffusion of oxygen into metallic In/Sn films and the amorphous-to-crystalline transformation of ITO were studied using in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD), grazing incidence reflectometry (GIXR), and AFM. From the X-ray integral intensities diffusion constants, activation energies of the diffusion, reaction order and activation energy of the crystal growth were extracted. (authors)

  17. Characteristics of ITO films with oxygen plasma treatment for thin film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Seob [Department of Photoelectronics Information, Chosun College of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eungkwon [Digital Broadcasting Examination, Korean Intellectual Property Office, Daejeon, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Byungyou [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong, 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyoeng, E-mail: jaehyeong@skku.edu [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong, 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The effect of O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the surface and the work function of ITO films. - Highlights: • ITO films were prepared on the glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering method. • Effects of O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the properties of ITO films were investigated. • The work function of ITO film was changed from 4.67 to 5.66 eV by plasma treatment. - Abstract: The influence of oxygen plasma treatment on the electro-optical and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method were investigated. The films were exposed at different O{sub 2} plasma powers and for various durations by using the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The resistivity of the ITO films was almost constant, regardless of the plasma treatment conditions. Although the optical transmittance of ITO films was little changed by the plasma power, the prolonged treatment slightly increased the transmittance. The work function of ITO film was changed from 4.67 eV to 5.66 eV at the plasma treatment conditions of 300 W and 60 min.

  18. Light scattering effect of ITO:Zr/AZO films deposited on periodic textured glass surface morphologies for silicon thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Shahzada Qamar [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Energy Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Lahore (Pakistan); Kwon, Gi Duk; Kim, Sunbo; Balaji, Nagarajan; Shin, Chonghoon; Kim, Sangho; Khan, Shahbaz; Pribat, Didier [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Energy Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Shihyun; Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Park, Hyeongsik; Raja, Jayapal; Lee, Youn-Jung [Sungkyunkwan University, College of Information and Communication Engineering, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Razaq, Aamir [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Lahore (Pakistan); Velumani, S. [Sungkyunkwan University, College of Information and Communication Engineering, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering (SEES), Mexico City (Mexico); Yi, Junsin [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Energy Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University, College of Information and Communication Engineering, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Various SF{sub 6}/Ar plasma-textured periodic glass surface morphologies for high transmittance, haze ratio and low sheet resistance of ITO:Zr films are reported. The SF{sub 6}/Ar plasma-textured glass surface morphologies were changed from low aspect ratio to high aspect ratio with the increase in RF power from 500 to 600 W. The micro- and nano-size features of textured glass surface morphologies enhanced the haze ratio in visible as well as NIR wavelength region. Micro-size textured features also influenced the sheet resistance and electrical characteristics of ITO:Zr films due to step coverage. The ITO:Zr/AZO bilayer was used as front TCO electrode for p-i-n amorphous silicon thin film solar cells with current density-voltage characteristics as: V{sub oc} = 875 mV, FF = 70.90 %, J{sub sc} = 11.31 mA/cm{sup 2}, η = 7.02 %. (orig.)

  19. Comparative studies on damages to organic layer during the deposition of ITO films by various sputtering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hao; Wang, Meihan; Hoshi, Yoichi; Uchida, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Sawada, Yutaka

    2013-11-01

    Aluminum (III) bis(2-methyl-8-quninolinato)-4-phenylphenolate (BAlq) was respectively bombarded and irradiated by Ar ions, oxygen ions, electron beam and ultraviolet light to confirm damages during the sputter-deposition of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) on organic layer. The degree of damage was evaluated by the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of BAlq. The results confirmed the oxygen ions led to a larger damage and were thought to play the double roles of bombardment to organic layer and reaction with organic layer as well. The comparative studies on PL spectra of BAlq after the deposition of TCO films by various sputtering systems, such as conventional magnetron sputtering (MS), low voltage sputtering (LVS) and kinetic-energy-control-deposition (KECD) system, facing target sputtering (FTS) were performed. Relative to MS, LVS and KECD system, FTS can completely suppress the bombardment of the secondary electrons and oxygen negative ions, and keep a higher deposition rate simultaneously, thus it is a good solution to attain a low-damage sputter-deposition.

  20. Comparative studies on damages to organic layer during the deposition of ITO films by various sputtering methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Hao, E-mail: haolei@imr.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Division of Surface Engineering of Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Meihan [College of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang University, Shenyang 110044 (China); Hoshi, Yoichi; Uchida, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Sawada, Yutaka [Center for Hyper Media Research, Tokyo Polytechnic University, 1583 Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0297 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Aluminum (III) bis(2-methyl-8-quninolinato)-4-phenylphenolate (BAlq) was respectively bombarded and irradiated by Ar ions, oxygen ions, electron beam and ultraviolet light to confirm damages during the sputter-deposition of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) on organic layer. The degree of damage was evaluated by the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of BAlq. The results confirmed the oxygen ions led to a larger damage and were thought to play the double roles of bombardment to organic layer and reaction with organic layer as well. The comparative studies on PL spectra of BAlq after the deposition of TCO films by various sputtering systems, such as conventional magnetron sputtering (MS), low voltage sputtering (LVS) and kinetic-energy-control-deposition (KECD) system, facing target sputtering (FTS) were performed. Relative to MS, LVS and KECD system, FTS can completely suppress the bombardment of the secondary electrons and oxygen negative ions, and keep a higher deposition rate simultaneously, thus it is a good solution to attain a low-damage sputter-deposition.

  1. Microstructure and opto-electric properties of Cu/ITO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xian; Li Junlei; Shi Shiwei; Song Xueping; Cui Jingbiao; Sun Zhaoqi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We prepared Cu/ITO films with different Cu layer thickness. ► We analyzed the relation between opto-electric properties and roughness of the films. ► The Cu-16.1 nm/ITO film shows excellent optical and electric properties. ► Cu/ITO films have great application prospects in new-type transflective displays. - Abstract: Cu/ITO thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates by DC and RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. X-ray diffraction results showed that the films were amorphous. Both of SEM images and 3D Profilometer images indicated that the surface morphology of the ITO films had been affected by the Cu layer. The optical and electric properties of the Cu/ITO films changed significantly with the variation of Cu layer thickness. Cu-5.4 nm/ITO film exhibited the highest optical transmittance of 62.9% at 550 nm and the lowest sheet resistance of 96 Ω/□, whereas Cu-16.1 nm/ITO film showed the highest average reflectance of 24.0% and the lowest resistance of 27.4 Ω/□. Based on our analysis, it was evaluated that Cu layer had an important effect on the electrical and optical properties of ITO thin films.

  2. Effects of bias voltage on the properties of ITO films prepared on polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Jung, Hakkee; Lim, Donggun; Yang, Keajoon; Song, Woochang; Yi, Junsin

    2005-01-01

    The ITO (indium tin oxide) thin films were deposited on acryl, glass, PET, and poly-carbonate substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The bias voltage was changed from -20 to -80 V. As the bias voltage increased, the deposition rate of ITO films decreased regardless of substrate types. The roughness of the films on PET increased with the bias voltage. The study demonstrated that the bias improved the electrical and optical properties of ITO films regardless of substrate types. The lowest electrical resistivity of 5.5x10 -4 no. OMEGAno. -cm and visible transmittance of about 80% were achieved by applying a negative bias of -60 V

  3. ITO thin films prepared by a microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuya, Masayuki; Ito, Nobuyuki; Shiozaki, Katsuyuki

    2007-01-01

    ITO thin films were prepared by irradiating 2.45 GHz of microwave with an output power of 700 W using a commercial kitchen microwave oven. A substrate temperature went up and down rapidly between 100 and 650 deg. C in a minute by a dielectric loss of SnO 2 layer pre-deposited on a glass substrate. We found that the electrical and optical properties of films were affected by the atmosphere in a microwave irradiation, while the sintering was completed within a few minutes. Although the electrical resistivity was not reduced below 5.0 x 10 -4 Ω.cm in this study, the results lead to the possibility of a practical rapid synthesis of ITO transparent conducting oxide films

  4. Annealing effect of ITO and ITO/Cu transparent conductive films in low pressure hydrogen atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.-C.; Chang, S.-C.; Chiu, C.-F.

    2006-01-01

    A layer of copper was sputtered onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates to form an ITO/Cu film, using a direct current magnetron operated at room temperature and in argon gas. The ITO and ITO/Cu films were heated in vacuum, and in hydrogen gas, to study their dependence of electronic and optical properties on annealing temperature. The resistivity of the ITO film was reduced from 6.2 x 10 -4 to 2.7 x 10 -4 Ω cm, and the average optical transmittance was improved to above 90% by the annealing process. The ITO/Cu film showed a low value of resistivity of 2.8 x 10 -4 Ω cm and the transmittance was between 58 and 72%

  5. Structural and optical properties of ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Deepannita; Kaleemulla, S.; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Subbaravamma, K.; Rao, G. Venugopal

    2018-04-01

    (In0.95Sn0.05)2O3 and (In0.90Cu0.05Sn0.05)2O3 thin films were coated onto glass substrate by electron beam evaporation technique. The structural and optical properties of ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films have been studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The crystallite size obtained for ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films was in the range of 24 nm to 22 nm. The optical band gap of 4 eV for ITO thin film sample has been observed. The optical band gap decreases to 3.85 eV by doping Cu in ITO.

  6. In situ diazonium-modified flexible ITO-coated PEN substrates for the deposition of adherent silver-polypyrrole nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Soumen; Bakas, Idriss; Singh, Ajay; Aswal, Dinesh K; Chehimi, Mohamed M

    2014-08-12

    In this paper, we report a simple and versatile process of electrografting the aryl multilayers onto indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated flexible poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) substrates using a diazonium salt (4-pyrrolylphenyldiazonium) solution, which was generated in situ from a reaction between the 4-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline precursor and sodium nitrite in an acidic medium. The first aryl layer bonds with the ITO surface through In-O-C and Sn-O-C bonds which facilitate the formation of a uniform aryl multilayer that is ∼8 nm thick. The presence of the aryl multilayer has been confirmed by impedance spectroscopy as well as by electron-transfer blocking measurements. These in situ diazonium-modified ITO-coated PEN substrates may find applications in flexible organic electronics and sensor industries. Here we demonstrate the application of diazonium-modified flexible substrates for the growth of adherent silver/polpyrrole nanocomposite films using surface-confined UV photopolymerization. These nanocomposite films have platelet morphology owing to the template effect of the pyrrole-terminated aryl multilayers. In addition, the films are highly doped (32%). This work opens new areas in the design of flexible ITO-conductive polymer hybrids.

  7. Mediatorless bioelectrocatalysis of dioxygen reduction at indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) and ITO nanoparticulate film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozniecka, Ewa; Jonsson-Niedziolka, Martin; Sobczak, Janusz W.; Opallo, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We introduced ITO nanoparticulate films for enzyme immobilization. → The material promotes mediatorless bioelectrocatalysis towards dioxygen reduction. → The electrocatalytical current increase with the thickness of nanoparticulate film. → There is no difference in electrocatalytic current in the presence or absence of mediator. → The stability of the electrode can be improved by crosslinking of the enzyme with bovine serum albumin and glutaraldehyde. - Abstract: Bilirubin oxidase was immobilised on ITO electrodes: bare or covered by ITO nanoparticulate film. The latter material was obtained by immersion and withdrawal of the substrate into ITO nanoparticles suspension. Formation of a protein deposit was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrode surface is covered by a protein film in the form of globular aggregates and it exhibits mediatorless electrocatalytic activity towards dioxygen reduction to water at pH 4.8. Modification of the electrode with ITO particles increases its catalytic activity about ten times up to 110 μA cm -2 seen for electrodes prepared by twelve immersion and withdrawal steps into ITO nanoparticle suspension. The catalytic activity is almost unaffected by addition of mediator to solution. The stability of the electrodes is increased by cross-linking of the enzyme with bovine serum albumin and glutaraldehyde. This electrode was applied as biocathode in a zinc-dioxygen battery operating in 0.1 mol dm -3 McIlvaine buffer (pH 4.8).

  8. Mediatorless bioelectrocatalysis of dioxygen reduction at indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) and ITO nanoparticulate film electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozniecka, Ewa; Jonsson-Niedziolka, Martin; Sobczak, Janusz W. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Opallo, Marcin, E-mail: mopallo@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > We introduced ITO nanoparticulate films for enzyme immobilization. > The material promotes mediatorless bioelectrocatalysis towards dioxygen reduction. > The electrocatalytical current increase with the thickness of nanoparticulate film. > There is no difference in electrocatalytic current in the presence or absence of mediator. > The stability of the electrode can be improved by crosslinking of the enzyme with bovine serum albumin and glutaraldehyde. - Abstract: Bilirubin oxidase was immobilised on ITO electrodes: bare or covered by ITO nanoparticulate film. The latter material was obtained by immersion and withdrawal of the substrate into ITO nanoparticles suspension. Formation of a protein deposit was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrode surface is covered by a protein film in the form of globular aggregates and it exhibits mediatorless electrocatalytic activity towards dioxygen reduction to water at pH 4.8. Modification of the electrode with ITO particles increases its catalytic activity about ten times up to 110 {mu}A cm{sup -2} seen for electrodes prepared by twelve immersion and withdrawal steps into ITO nanoparticle suspension. The catalytic activity is almost unaffected by addition of mediator to solution. The stability of the electrodes is increased by cross-linking of the enzyme with bovine serum albumin and glutaraldehyde. This electrode was applied as biocathode in a zinc-dioxygen battery operating in 0.1 mol dm{sup -3} McIlvaine buffer (pH 4.8).

  9. Convenient preparation of ITO nanoparticles inks for transparent conductive thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Daisuke; Masuko, Keiichiro; Weintraub, Benjamin A.; McKenzie, Lallie C.; Hutchison, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanoparticles are useful precursors to transparent electrodes in a variety of technologically important applications. We synthesized ITO nanoparticles from indium and tin acetylacetonates in oleyl alcohol using a novel temperature ramp profile. The monodispersed ITO nanoparticles have an average diameter of 8.6 nm and form dense, flat films by simple spin coating. The thickness of the film can be controlled by varying the number of additional depositions. The resulting ITO film is transparent and has a resistivity of 7 × 10 −3 Ω cm after sintering at 300 °C. Using a suitable solvent, it is possible to coat high-aspect-ratio structures with ITO nanoparticles. This approach to ITO coatings is greener and offers a number of advantages for transparent electrodes because it is highly versatile, easily scalable, and supports low-cost manufacturing.

  10. High-Transparency Sputtered In2O3 and ITO Films Containing Zirconium (Presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessert, T. A.; Yoshida, Y.; Fesenmaier, C. C.; Coutts, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    Our recent investigations have identified a method to produce ITO-like films that are less sensitive to variations in the oxygen-containing deposition ambient. Specifically, we are studying the effect of adding small amounts of Zr to both In2O3 and ITO ceramic sputtering targets

  11. Technique for forming ITO films with a controlled refractive index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markov, L. K., E-mail: l.markov@mail.ioffe.ru; Smirnova, I. P.; Pavluchenko, A. S.; Kukushkin, M. V.; Zakheim, D. A.; Pavlov, S. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    A new method for fabricating transparent conducting coatings based on indium-tin oxide (ITO) with a controlled refractive index is proposed. This method implies the successive deposition of material by electron-beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering. Sputtered coatings with different densities (and, correspondingly, different refractive indices) can be obtained by varying the ratio of the mass fractions of material deposited by different methods. As an example, films with effective refractive indices of 1.2, 1.4, and 1.7 in the wavelength range of 440–460 nm are fabricated. Two-layer ITO coatings with controlled refractive indices of the layers are also formed by the proposed method. Thus, multilayer transparent conducting coatings with desired optical parameters can be produced.

  12. Chemical mechanical polishing characteristics of ITO thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang-Yeon; Choi, Gwon-Woo; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Youn-Ok; Kim, Nam-Oh

    2012-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films have attracted intensive interest because of their unique properties of good conductivity, high optical transmittance over the visible region and easy patterning ability. ITO thin films have found many applications in anti-static coatings, thermal heaters, solar cells, flat panel displays (FPDs), liquid crystal displays (LCDs), electroluminescent devices, sensors and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). ITO thin films are generally fabricated by using various methods, such as spraying, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), evaporation, electron gun deposition, direct current electroplating, high frequency sputtering, and reactive sputtering. In this research, ITO films were grown on glass substrates by using a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. In order to achieve a high transmittance and a low resistivity, we examined the various film deposition conditions, such as substrate temperature, working pressure, annealing temperature, and deposition time. Next, in order to improve the surface quality of the ITO thin films, we performed a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) with different process parameters and compared the electrical and the optical properties of the polished ITO thin films. The best CMP conditions with a high removal rate, low nonuniformity, low resistivity and high transmittance were as follows: platen speed, head speed, polishing time, and slurry flow rate of 30 rpm, 30 rpm, 60 sec, and 60 ml/min, respectively.

  13. Development of low temperature RF magnetron sputtered ITO films on flexible substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muneshwar, T.P.; Varma, V.; Meshram, N; Soni, S.; Dusane, R.O. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is one of the important materials used as transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer in thin film solar cells, digital displays and other similar applications. For applications involving flexible polymeric substrates, it is important that deposition of ITO is carried out at near room temperature. This requirement puts constraint on stoichiometry leading to undesired electrical and optical properties. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on ITO films deposited on flexible Kapton {sup registered} by the RF magnetron sputtering is reported in this paper. (author)

  14. INFLUENCE OF SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE ON STRUCTURAL, ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ITO THIN FILMS PREPARED BY RF MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    OpenAIRE

    BO HE; LEI ZHAO; JING XU; HUAIZHONG XING; SHAOLIN XUE; MENG JIANG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using ceramic target to find the optimal condition for fabricating optoelectronic devices. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the ITO films prepared at various substrate temperatures were investigated. The results indicate the grain size increases with substrate temperature increases. As the substrate temperature grew up, the resistivity of ITO films grea...

  15. Spectroellipsometric study of the sol-gel nanocrystalline ITO multilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoica, T.F.; Gartner, M.; Losurdo, M.; Teodorescu, V.; Blanchin, M.; Stoica, T.; Zaharescu, M

    2004-05-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films have been deposited by sol-gel process using 'sols' of indium and tin isopropoxides. The thickness of one deposited ITO layer is approximately 50 nm. The desired thickness was obtained by 1-5 successive depositions. The XTEM cross-sectional view of an ITO sample with five depositions showed a clear delimitation of the layers with an alternating structure dense/porous ITO layers. The void fraction in porous regions varies between 20 and 25%. Cubic bixbyite In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals with size of 10-20 nm and no phases separation of tin oxide were observed. The optical properties of the films have been investigated by optical transmission and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Reliable optical constants and porosity are obtained only with the model of internal structure based on XTEM results.

  16. Effect of sputtering parameters on optical and electrical properties of ITO films on PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Kun-San; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2013-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering technique are investigated as a function of the deposition time, the argon flow rate and the target–substrate distance. It is found that all of the ITO films contain a high fraction of amorphous phase. The volume fraction of crystallite precipitates in the amorphous host increases with an increasing deposition time or a reducing argon flow rate. The deposition time and argon flow rate have higher effects on the optical transparency of the ITO films than the target–substrate distance has. Increasing film thickness is not the only reason for the transmittance reduced. It is found that an increase of the extinction coefficient by increasing deposition time or an increase of the refractive index by decreasing argon flow rate also reduces the transmittance of thin film. For a constant deposition time, the resistivity of the ITO films reduces with a reducing argon flow rate or a reducing target–substrate distance. For a constant argon flow rate, a critical value of the deposition time exists at which both the resistivity and the effect of the target–substrate distance are minimized. Finally, it is concluded that the film resistivity has low sensitivity to the target–substrate distance if the best deposition conditions which mostly attain the lowest resistivity are matched.

  17. Effect of sputtering parameters on optical and electrical properties of ITO films on PET substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kun-San; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2013-11-01

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering technique are investigated as a function of the deposition time, the argon flow rate and the target-substrate distance. It is found that all of the ITO films contain a high fraction of amorphous phase. The volume fraction of crystallite precipitates in the amorphous host increases with an increasing deposition time or a reducing argon flow rate. The deposition time and argon flow rate have higher effects on the optical transparency of the ITO films than the target-substrate distance has. Increasing film thickness is not the only reason for the transmittance reduced. It is found that an increase of the extinction coefficient by increasing deposition time or an increase of the refractive index by decreasing argon flow rate also reduces the transmittance of thin film. For a constant deposition time, the resistivity of the ITO films reduces with a reducing argon flow rate or a reducing target-substrate distance. For a constant argon flow rate, a critical value of the deposition time exists at which both the resistivity and the effect of the target-substrate distance are minimized. Finally, it is concluded that the film resistivity has low sensitivity to the target-substrate distance if the best deposition conditions which mostly attain the lowest resistivity are matched.

  18. Effect of sputtering parameters on optical and electrical properties of ITO films on PET substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Kun-San [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lo, Yu-Lung, E-mail: loyl@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering technique are investigated as a function of the deposition time, the argon flow rate and the target–substrate distance. It is found that all of the ITO films contain a high fraction of amorphous phase. The volume fraction of crystallite precipitates in the amorphous host increases with an increasing deposition time or a reducing argon flow rate. The deposition time and argon flow rate have higher effects on the optical transparency of the ITO films than the target–substrate distance has. Increasing film thickness is not the only reason for the transmittance reduced. It is found that an increase of the extinction coefficient by increasing deposition time or an increase of the refractive index by decreasing argon flow rate also reduces the transmittance of thin film. For a constant deposition time, the resistivity of the ITO films reduces with a reducing argon flow rate or a reducing target–substrate distance. For a constant argon flow rate, a critical value of the deposition time exists at which both the resistivity and the effect of the target–substrate distance are minimized. Finally, it is concluded that the film resistivity has low sensitivity to the target–substrate distance if the best deposition conditions which mostly attain the lowest resistivity are matched.

  19. Optical and electrical characterization of r.f. sputtered ITO films developed as art protection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boycheva, Sylvia; Sytchkova, Anna Krasilnikova; Piegari, Angela

    2007-01-01

    Transparent and conductive tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films have been prepared by r.f. plasma sputtering technique in Ar and Ar + O 2 gas mixture. The influence of the deposition conditions, film thickness, and substrate heating, as well as the post-annealing treatment on the optical and electrical properties of the ITO films has been investigated. The present study has extended the optical behaviour characterization of the ITO films in a wide UV-VIS-IR spectral region in addition to the comprehensive optical studies of this material at shorter wavelengths. The optical constants: refractive index (n), extinction (k) and absorption (α) coefficient, and the optical band gap (E go ) have been calculated for the ITO films in the spectral range between 350 and 2500 nm. A combination of several well-known theoretical models has been applied to describe precisely the complex optical behaviour of ITO films in separate spectral parts. In this approach, a good overlapping between the experimental and the simulated spectra in the whole investigated spectral region has been achieved. The deposition conditions and the optical and electrical properties of the ITO films have been optimized with respect to the requirements for their applications in art protection coatings

  20. Wavelet-fractal approach to surface characterization of nanocrystalline ITO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoufi, Davood; Kalali, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    In this study, indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared by electron beam deposition method on glass substrates at room temperature (RT). Surface morphology characterization of ITO thin films, before and after annealing at 500 °C, were investigated by analyzing the surface profile of atomic force microscopy (AFM) images using wavelet transform formalism. The wavelet coefficients related to the thin film surface profiles have been calculated, and then roughness exponent (α) of the films has been estimated using the scalegram method. The results reveal that the surface profiles of the films before and after annealing process have self-affine nature.

  1. Conduction noise absorption by ITO thin films attached to microstrip line utilizing Ohmic loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    For the aim of wide-band noise absorbers with a special design for low frequency performance, this study proposes conductive indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films as the absorbent materials in microstrip line. ITO thin films were deposited on the polyimide film substrates by rf magnetron cosputtering of In 2 O 3 and Sn targets. The deposited ITO films show a typical value of electrical resistivity (∼10 -4 Ω m) and sheet resistance can be controlled in the range of 20-230 Ω by variation in film thickness. Microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω was used for determining their noise absorbing properties. It is found that there is an optimum sheet resistance of ITO films for the maximum power absorption. Reflection parameter (S 11 ) is increased with decrease in sheet resistance due to impedance mismatch. On the while, transmission parameter (S 21 ) is decreased with decrease in sheet resistance due to larger Ohmic loss of the ITO films. Experimental results and computational prediction show that the optimum sheet resistance is about 100 Ω. For this film, greater power absorption is predicted in the lower frequency region than ferrite thin films of high magnetic loss, which indicates that Ohmic loss is the predominant loss parameter for power absorption in the low frequency range.

  2. Durability of ITO-MgF2 Films for Space-Inflatable Polymer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Waters, Deborah L.; Schieman, David A.; Hambourger, Paul D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results from ITO-MgF2 film durability evaluations that included tape peel, fold, thermal cycle, and AO exposure testing. Polymer coupon preparation is described as well as ITO-MgF2 film deposition equipment, procedures and film characterization. Durability testing methods are also described. The pre- and post-test condition of the films is assessed visually, microscopically, and electrically. Results show that at 500 ITO - 9 vol% MgF2 film is suitable to protect polymer surfaces, such as those used in space-inflatable structures of the PowerSphere microsatellite concept, during a 1-year Earth orbiting mission. Future plans for ground-based and orbital testing of this film are also discussed.

  3. Transparent conducting AZO and ITO films produced by pulsed laser ablation at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup, B.; Schou, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Thin films of aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and indium tin oxide (ITO) were deposited on glass substrates by laser ablation in an oxygen environment. The electrical and optical properties of films grown at various oxygen pressures were compared. With no substrate heating, highly transparent...... and conducting films were obtained with oxygen pressures between 15 and 23 mTorr for both materials. We obtained a specific resistivity of 1.8 x 10(-3) Omega cm for AZO and 1.1 x 10(-3) Omega cm for ITO. By heating the substrate to 160 degrees C or 200 degrees C, the resistivity was further reduced to 1.1 x 10......(-3) Omega cm for AZO and 3.9 x 10(-4) Omega cm for ITO. The average transmission of visible light (450-750 MI) was between 82% and 98% in most cases. The results suggest that AZO is a promising alternative to ITO....

  4. Characterization of dip-coated ITO films derived from nanoparticles synthesized by low-pressure spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogi, Takashi; Iskandar, Ferry; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2006-01-01

    In 2 O 3 :Sn (Indium Tin Oxide; ITO) films were prepared from a sol solution with highly crystalline ITO nanoparticles (less than 20 nm in size with 10 at.% Sn) which had been prepared by low-pressure spray pyrolysis (LPSP) in a single step. The ITO sol solution was prepared by dispersing LPSP-prepared ITO nanoparticles into ultra pure water. The nanoparticle ITO film was deposited on a glass substrate using a dip-coating method and then annealed in air at various temperatures. The optical transmittances of the ITO films were measured by UV-Vis spectrometry, and the films were found to have a high transparency to visible light (in the case of a film thickness of 250 nm annealed at 400 deg. C, the transparency was in excess of 95% over the range λ=450-800 nm, with a maximum value near 100% at wavelengths above λ=700 nm). The optical transmittances of the films were influenced by the size of the ITO particle used, the film thickness and the annealing temperature. The ITO films showed a minimum resistivity of 9.5x10 -2 Ω cm, and their resistivity was affected by both the ITO particle size and the annealing temperature used

  5. Morphology, structure and optical properties of sol-gel ITO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoica, T.F.; Teodorescu, V.S.; Blanchin, M.G.; Stoica, T.A.; Gartner, M.; Losurdo, M.; Zaharescu, M

    2003-08-15

    The alkoxidic route and the spinning deposition were used to prepare monolayer sol-gel indium tin oxide (ITO) films. The morphology and crystalline structure were investigated by cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ITO sol-gel mono-layer contains three regions of different porosities. The basic crystalline structure is that of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice. The optical properties have been studied by optical transmission and spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  6. Effects of high dose gamma irradiation on ITO thin film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alyamani, A. [National Nanotechnology Center, King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mustapha, N., E-mail: nazirmustapha@hotmail.com [Dept. of Physics, College of Sciences, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, P.O. Box 90950, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-07-29

    Transparent thin-film Indium Tin Oxides (ITO) were prepared on 0.7 mm thick glass substrates using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process with average thickness of 150 nm. The samples were then exposed to high gamma γ radiation doses by {sup 60}Co radioisotope. The films have been irradiated by performing exposure cycles up to 250 kGy total doses at room temperature. The surface structures before and after irradiation were analysed by x-ray diffraction. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was performed on all samples before and after irradiation to investigate any change in the grain sizes, and also in the roughness of the ITO surface. We investigated the influence of γ irradiation on the spectra of transmittance T, in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectrum using spectrophotometer measurements. Energy band gap E{sub g} was then calculated from the optical spectra for all ITO films. It was found that the optical band gap values decreased as the radiation dose was increased. To compare the effect of the irradiation on refractive index n and extinction coefficient k properties, additional measurements were done on the ITO samples before and after gamma irradiation using an ellipsometer. The optical constants n and k increased by increasing the irradiation doses. Electrical properties such as resistivity and sheet resistance were measured using the four-point probe method. The good optical, electrical and morphological properties maintained by the ITO films even after being exposed to high gamma irradiation doses, made them very favourable to be used as anodes for solar cells and as protective coatings in space windows. - Highlights: • Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition. • Effects of Gamma irradiation were investigated. • Changes of optical transmission and electrical properties of ITO films were studied. • Intensity of the diffraction peaks and the film's structure changed with increasing irradiation doses.

  7. Transparent conducting thin films by co-sputtering of ZnO-ITO targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, Paz; Antony, Aldrin; Roldan, Ruben; Nos, Oriol; Frigeri, Paolo Antonio; Asensi, Jose Miguel; Bertomeu, Joan [Grup d' Energia Solar, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Transparent and conductive Zn-In-Sn-O (ZITO) amorphous thin films have been deposited at room temperature by the rf magnetron co-sputtering of ITO and ZnO targets. Co-sputtering gives the possibility to deposit multicomponent oxide thin films with different compositions by varying the power to one of the targets. In order to make ZITO films with different Zn content, a constant rf power of 50 W was used for the ITO target, where as the rf power to ZnO target was varied from 25 W to 150 W. The as deposited films showed an increase in Zn content ratio from 17 to 67% as the power to ZnO target was increased from 25 to 150 W. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the as deposited films are reported. The films showed an average transmittance over 80% in the visible wavelength range. The electrical resistivity and optical band gap of the ZITO films were found to depend on the Zn content in the film. The ZITO films deposited at room temperature with lower Zn content ratios showed better optical transmission and electrical properties compared to ITO film. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Corundum nanostructure ITO film fabrication: An approach for physical properties assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solieman, A.; Zayed, M.K.; Alamri, S.N.; Al-Dahoudi, N.; Aegerter, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Transparent conductive nanostructured ITO films. ► Synthesis of ITO nanoparticles with corundum structure phase by the hydrothermal process. ► Deposition of nanoparticulate ITO films by spin coating technique. ► Curing of ITO films using UV irradiation at low temperatures. - Abstract: Corundum (hexagonal) structure indium tin oxide (h-ITO) nanocrystals have been synthesized by subjecting an aqueous solution of In and Sn chlorides (Sn/In 8 wt.%) to a hydrothermal process followed by annealing at 450 °C in forming gas for 1 h. The annealing temperature was selected based on thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of the dried precipitated powder, which showed a stable weight and phase at temperatures above 420 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed the formation of orthorhombic InOOH precipitates that is transformed, after annealing, into h-ITO nanocrystals with 32 nm average crystal size. For nanostructure film deposition, dispersed sols of the prepared nanocrystals were spun coated on glass substrates. The films were densified by UV irradiation, whilst four-probe method was used to measure its sheet resistance. A sheet resistance as low as 10.6 kΩ □ have been reached. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) showed that the films have high surface roughness and nanopores. The transmittance spectra of the nanostructure films were measured in the UV–vis–NIR wavelength range. In addition to its low resistivity, nanostructure h-ITO films showed a wide range of transparency.

  9. Sol-gel synthesis, characterization and optical properties of mercury-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited on ITO glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechiakh, R., E-mail: raouf_mechiakh@yahoo.fr [Departement de Medecine, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Hadj Lakhdar, Batna (Algeria); Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ben Sedrine, N.; Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-08-15

    The Hg-doped and undoped nano-crystalline TiO{sub 2} films on ITO glass substrates surface and polycrystalline powders were prepared by sol-gel dip coating technique. The crystal structure and surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} were characterized by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The results indicated that the powder of TiO{sub 2}, doped with 5% Hg in room temperature was only composed of the anatase phase whereas in the undoped powder exhibits an amorphous phase were present. After heat treatments of thin films, titanium oxide starts to crystallize at the annealing temperature 400 {sup o}C. The average crystallite size of the undoped TiO{sub 2} films was about 8.17 nm and was increased with Hg-doping in the TiO{sub 2} films. Moreover, the grains distributed more uniform and the surface roughness was greater in the Hg-doped TiO{sub 2} films than in the undoped one. Refractive index and porosity were calculated from the measured transmittance spectrum. The values of the index of refraction are in the range (1.95-2.49) and the porosity is in the range (47-2.8). The coefficient of transmission varies from 60 to 90%. SE study was used to determine the annealing temperature effect on the optical properties in the wavelength range from 0.25 to 2 {mu}m and the optical gap of the Hg-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films.

  10. Optical properties of ITO films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering with accompanying ion treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, P. N., E-mail: ftt@uni.udm.ru; Zakirova, R. M.; Fedotova, I. V. [Udmurt State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    A variation in the properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films obtained by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering with simultaneous ion treatment is reported. The ITO films feature the following parameters in the optical range of 450-1100 nm: a transmission coefficient of 80%, band gap of 3.50-3.60 eV, and a refractive index of 1.97-2.06. All characteristics of the films depend on the ion-treatment current. The latter, during the course of deposition, reduces the resistivity of the ITO films with the smallest value of the resistivity being equal to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm. The degradation of films with a high resistivity when kept in air is observed.

  11. Transparent conductive Ta2O5-codoped ITO thin films prepared by different heating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B.; Dong, X.P.; Wu, J.S.; Xu, X.F.

    2008-01-01

    Tantalum-doped indium tin oxide thin films were deposited by a cosputtering technique with an ITO target and a Ta 2 O 5 target. The variations of microstructure, electrical and optical properties with substrate temperature and annealing temperature were investigated in some detail. Ta-doped ITO thin films showed better crystalline structure with different prominent plane orientation by different heating process. ITO:Ta thin films deposited at room temperature showed better optical and electrical properties. Increasing substrate temperature and reasonable annealing temperature could remarkably improve the optical and electrical properties of the films. The variation of carrier concentration had an important influence on near-IR reflection, near-UV absorption and optical bandgap. ITO:Ta thin films showed wider optical bandgap. ITO:Ta thin films under the optimum parameters had a sheet resistance of 10-20 and ohm;/sq and a transmittance of 85% with an optical bandgap of above 4.0 eV. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Amorphous ITO thin films prepared by DC sputtering for electrochromic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, V.; Cui, H.N.; Meng, L.J.; Fortunato, E.; Martins, R.

    2002-01-01

    Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using DC magnetron reactive sputtering at different bias voltages and substrate temperatures. Some improvements were obtained on film properties, microstructure and other physical characteristics for different conditions. Amorphous and polycrystalline films can be obtained for various deposition conditions. The transmission, absorption, spectral and diffuse reflection of ITO films were measured in some ranges of UV-Vis-NIR. The refractive index (n), Energy band gap E g and the surface roughness of the film were derived from the measured spectra data. The carrier density (n c ) and the carrier mobility (μ) of the film micro conductive properties were discussed. The films exhibited suitable optical transmittance and conductivity for electrochromic applications

  13. ITO-MgF2 Film Development for PowerSphere Polymer Surface Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambourger, Paul D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    Multi-kilogram class microsatellites with a PowerSphere electric power system are attractive for fulfilling a variety of potential NASA missions. However, PowerSphere polymer surfaces must be coated with a film that has suitable electrical sheet resistivity for electrostatic discharge control, be resistant to atomic oxygen attack, be transparent to ultraviolet light for composite structure curing and resist ultraviolet light induced darkening for efficient photovoltaic cell operation. In addition, the film must be tolerant of polymer layer folding associated with launch stowage of PowerSphere inflatable structures. An excellent film material candidate to meet these requirements is co-sputtered, indium oxide (In2O3) - tin oxide (SnO2), known as 'ITO', and magnesium fluoride (MgF2). While basic ITO-MgF2 film properties have been the subject of research over the last decade, further research is required in the areas of film durability for space-inflatable applications and precise film property control for large scale commercial production. In this paper, the authors present film durability results for a folded polymer substrate and film resistance to vacuum UV darkening. The authors discuss methods and results in the area of film sheet resistivity measurement and active control, particularly dual-channel, plasma emission line measurement of ITO and MgF2 plasma sources. ITO-MgF2 film polymer coupon preparation is described as well as film deposition equipment, procedures and film characterization. Durability testing methods are also described. The pre- and post-test condition of the films is assessed microscopically and electrically. Results show that an approx. 500A ITO-18vol% MgF2 film is a promising candidate to protect PowerSphere polymer surfaces for Earth orbit missions. Preliminary data also indicate that in situ film measurement methods are promising for active film resistivity control in future large scale production. Future film research plans are also

  14. Preparation and Thermoelectric Characteristics of ITO/PtRh:PtRh Thin Film Thermocouple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Wang, Hongmin; Zhao, Zixiang; Zhang, Wanli; Jiang, Hongchuan

    2017-12-15

    Thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) can provide more precise in situ temperature measurement for aerospace propulsion systems without disturbance of gas flow and surface temperature distribution of the hot components. ITO/PtRh:PtRh TFTC with multilayer structure was deposited on alumina ceramic substrate by magnetron sputtering. After annealing, the TFTC was statically calibrated for multiple cycles with temperature up to 1000 °C. The TFTC with excellent stability and repeatability was realized for the negligible variation of EMF in different calibration cycles. It is believed that owing to oxygen diffusion barriers by the oxidation of top PtRh layer and Schottky barriers formed at the grain boundaries of ITO, the variation of the carrier concentration of ITO film is minimized. Meanwhile, the life time of TFTC is more than 30 h in harsh environment. This makes ITO/PtRh:PtRh TFTC a promising candidate for precise surface temperature measurement of hot components of aeroengines.

  15. Crystallization and electrical properties of ITO:Ce thin films for flat panel display applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Il; Cho, Sang Hyun; Choi, Sung Ryong; Oh, Min Cheol; Jang, Ji Hyang; Song, Pung Keun

    2009-01-01

    ITO and ITO:Ce films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering using an ITO (SnO 2 : 10 wt.%) target and CeO 2 doped ITO (CeO 2 : 0.5, 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 wt.%) ceramic targets, respectively, on unheated non-alkali glass substrates (corning E2000). The as-deposited films were annealed at 200 o C in an Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 1 Pa. The crystallization temperature of the ITO film was increased by introducing Ce atoms because they decrease the level of crystallinity. It was also confirmed that the etching rate, surface morphology and work function were improved by the addition of Ce atoms despite there being increased resistivity. The current voltage (I-V) characteristics of the OLED devices deteriorated with increasing Ce content in the ITO anode, which was attributed to a decrease in carrier density despite there being a high work function. Therefore, the carrier density is one of the most important factors that determine the turn-on voltage for OLED applications.

  16. Characteristics of a-IGZO/ITO hybrid layer deposited by magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Joon-Ho; Park, Hee-Woo; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Song, Pung-Keun

    2012-04-01

    Transparent a-IGZO (In-Ga-Zn-O) films have been actively studied for use in the fabrication of high-quality TFTs. In this study, a-IGZO films and a-IGZO/ITO double layers were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering under various oxygen flow rates. The a-IGZO films showed an amorphous structure up to 500 degrees C. The deposition rate of these films decreased with an increase in the amount of oxygen gas. The amount of indium atoms in the film was confirmed to be 11.4% higher than the target. The resistivity of double layer follows the rules for parallel DC circuits The maximum Hall mobility of the a-IGZO/ITO double layers was found to be 37.42 cm2/V x N s. The electrical properties of the double layers were strongly dependent on their thickness ratio. The IGZO/ITO double layer was subjected to compressive stress, while the ITO/IGZO double layer was subjected to tensile stress. The bending tolerance was found to depend on the a-IGZO thickness.

  17. Re-crystallization of ITO films after carbon irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Muhammad, E-mail: usmanm@ncp.edu.pk [Experimental Physics Laboratories, National Centre for Physics, Shahdara Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Shahid, E-mail: shahidkhan@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Khan, Majid [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Abbas, Turab Ali [Experimental Physics Laboratories, National Centre for Physics, Shahdara Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Carbon irradiation on ITO destroys crystal structure until threshold ion fluence. • Carbon irradiation induced amorphization in ITO is recoverable at higher fluence. • Optical transmittance is reduced after carbon irradiation. • Electrical resistivity is increased after irradiation with carbon ions in ITO. • Bandgap is reduced with increasing fluence of carbon irradiation. - Abstract: 2.0 MeV carbon ion irradiation effects on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrate are investigated. The films are irradiated with carbon ions in the fluence range of 1 × 10{sup 13} to 1 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. The irradiation induced effects in ITO are compared before and after ion bombardment by systematic study of structural, optical and electrical properties of the films. The XRD results show polycrystalline nature of un-irradiated ITO films which turns to amorphous state after 1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence of carbon ions. Further increase in ion fluence to 1 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} re-crystallizes the structure and retains for even higher fluences. A gradual decrease in the electrical conductivity and transmittance of irradiated samples is observed with increasing ion fluence. The band gap of the films is observed to be decreased after carbon irradiation.

  18. Re-crystallization of ITO films after carbon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Khan, Shahid; Khan, Majid; Abbas, Turab Ali

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon irradiation on ITO destroys crystal structure until threshold ion fluence. • Carbon irradiation induced amorphization in ITO is recoverable at higher fluence. • Optical transmittance is reduced after carbon irradiation. • Electrical resistivity is increased after irradiation with carbon ions in ITO. • Bandgap is reduced with increasing fluence of carbon irradiation. - Abstract: 2.0 MeV carbon ion irradiation effects on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrate are investigated. The films are irradiated with carbon ions in the fluence range of 1 × 10"1"3 to 1 × 10"1"5 ions/cm"2. The irradiation induced effects in ITO are compared before and after ion bombardment by systematic study of structural, optical and electrical properties of the films. The XRD results show polycrystalline nature of un-irradiated ITO films which turns to amorphous state after 1 × 10"1"3 ions/cm"2 fluence of carbon ions. Further increase in ion fluence to 1 × 10"1"4 ions/cm"2 re-crystallizes the structure and retains for even higher fluences. A gradual decrease in the electrical conductivity and transmittance of irradiated samples is observed with increasing ion fluence. The band gap of the films is observed to be decreased after carbon irradiation.

  19. Structural and morphological properties of ITO thin films grown by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorannevis, Z.; Akbarnejad, E.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2015-10-01

    Physical properties of transparent and conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films grown by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering are studied systematically by changing deposition time. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data indicate polycrystalline thin films with grain orientations predominantly along the (2 2 2) and (4 0 0) directions. From atomic force microscopy (AFM) it is found that by increasing the deposition time, the roughness of the film increases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show a network of a high-porosity interconnected nanoparticles, which approximately have a pore size ranging between 20 and 30 nm. Optical measurements suggest an average transmission of 80 % for the ITO films. Sheet resistances are investigated using four-point probes, which imply that by increasing the film thickness the resistivities of the films decrease to 2.43 × 10-5 Ω cm.

  20. Characterization of ITO/CdO/glass thin films evaporated by electron beam technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Abdel-Hafez Mohamed and Hazem Mahmoud Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A thin buffer layer of cadmium oxide (CdO was used to enhance the optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO films prepared by an electron-beam evaporation technique. The effects of the thickness and heat treatment of the CdO layer on the structural, optical and electrical properties of ITO films were carried out. It was found that the CdO layer with a thickness of 25 nm results in an optimum transmittance of 70% in the visible region and an optimum resistivity of 5.1×10−3 Ω cm at room temperature. The effect of heat treatment on the CdO buffer layer with a thickness of 25 nm was considered to improve the optoelectronic properties of the formed ITO films. With increasing annealing temperature, the crystallinity of ITO films seemed to improve, enhancing some physical properties, such as film transmittance and conductivity. ITO films deposited onto a CdO buffer layer heated at 450 °C showed a maximum transmittance of 91% in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum associated with the highest optical energy gap of 3.61 eV and electrical resistivity of 4.45×10−4 Ω cm at room temperature. Other optical parameters, such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant, dispersion energy, single effective oscillator energy, packing density and free carrier concentration, were also studied.

  1. Electrode patterning of ITO thin films by high repetition rate fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, H.K., E-mail: HKLin@mail.npust.edu.tw; Hsu, W.C.

    2014-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are deposited on glass substrates using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. As-deposited ITO thin film was 100 nm in thickness and a transmittance of ITO film on glass substrate was 79% at 550 nm. Conductive electrodes are then patterned on the ITO films using a high repetition rate fiber laser system followed by a wet chemical etching process. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the patterned samples are evaluated by means of a four-point probe technique, spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the samples annealed with a pulse repetition rate of 150 kHz or 400 kHz have a low sheet resistivity of 21 Ω/□ and a high optical transmittance of 90%. In addition, it is shown that a higher pulse repetition rate reduces both the residual stress and the surface roughness of the patterned specimens. Therefore, the present results suggest that a pulse repetition rate of 400 kHz represents the optimal processing condition for the patterning of crack-free ITO-coated glass substrates with good electrical and optical properties.

  2. Electrode patterning of ITO thin films by high repetition rate fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.K.; Hsu, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are deposited on glass substrates using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. As-deposited ITO thin film was 100 nm in thickness and a transmittance of ITO film on glass substrate was 79% at 550 nm. Conductive electrodes are then patterned on the ITO films using a high repetition rate fiber laser system followed by a wet chemical etching process. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the patterned samples are evaluated by means of a four-point probe technique, spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the samples annealed with a pulse repetition rate of 150 kHz or 400 kHz have a low sheet resistivity of 21 Ω/□ and a high optical transmittance of 90%. In addition, it is shown that a higher pulse repetition rate reduces both the residual stress and the surface roughness of the patterned specimens. Therefore, the present results suggest that a pulse repetition rate of 400 kHz represents the optimal processing condition for the patterning of crack-free ITO-coated glass substrates with good electrical and optical properties.

  3. Photoinduced absorption of Ag nanoparticles deposited on ITO substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozga, K.; Oyama, M.; Szota, M.; Nabialek, M.; Kityk, I.V.; Slezak, A.; Umar, A.A.; Nouneh, K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We study photoinduced absorption for two Ag NP deposited on the ITO. → The higher resistance eof the NP favors larger photoinduced changes. → Principal role is played by nanointerfaces. - Abstract: Substantial changes of absorption after illumination by 300 mW continuous wave green laser at 532 nm were observed. The effect of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate was explored versus Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) size, their regularity and surface plasmon resonance. The ITO substrate features play a crucial role for the formation of homogenous AgNPs. The attachments of AgNPs on ITO surface as well as their homogeneity are significantly changed under the influence of the laser treatment. We study the Ag NP deposited on the two different substrates which play a crucial role in the photoinduced absorption. The dependence of the photoinduced absorption versus the time of optical treatment is explained within a framework of the photopolarization of the particular trapping levels on the borders between the ITO substrate and the Ag NP.

  4. Photoinduced absorption of Ag nanoparticles deposited on ITO substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozga, K., E-mail: cate.ozga@wp.pl [Chair of Public Health, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 36B, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Oyama, M. [Department of Material Chemisrty, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Szota, M. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Technical University of Czestochowa, al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Nabialek, M. [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 17/19, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Slezak, A. [Chair of Public Health, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 36B, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Umar, A.A. [Institute of Micronegineering and Nanoelectronics Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM bangi, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Nouneh, K. [INANOTECH, Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, MAScIR (Moroccan Advanced Science, Innovation and Research Foundation), ENSET, Av. Armee Royale, 10100, Rabat (Morocco)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: > We study photoinduced absorption for two Ag NP deposited on the ITO. > The higher resistance eof the NP favors larger photoinduced changes. > Principal role is played by nanointerfaces. - Abstract: Substantial changes of absorption after illumination by 300 mW continuous wave green laser at 532 nm were observed. The effect of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate was explored versus Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) size, their regularity and surface plasmon resonance. The ITO substrate features play a crucial role for the formation of homogenous AgNPs. The attachments of AgNPs on ITO surface as well as their homogeneity are significantly changed under the influence of the laser treatment. We study the Ag NP deposited on the two different substrates which play a crucial role in the photoinduced absorption. The dependence of the photoinduced absorption versus the time of optical treatment is explained within a framework of the photopolarization of the particular trapping levels on the borders between the ITO substrate and the Ag NP.

  5. Optical, electrical, structural and microstructural characteristics of rf sputtered ITO films developed for art protection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasilnikova Sytchkova, A.; Grilli, M.L.; Piegari, A.; Boycheva, S.

    2007-01-01

    Transparent and conductive tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films have been prepared by rf sputtering in an Ar and Ar+O 2 gas mixture, both with and without additional substrate heating. The influence of both deposition conditions and post-annealing treatment on optical, electrical, structural and microstructural properties of the ITO films has been investigated. The optical constants have been calculated in the range 320-2500 nm using a combination of several theoretical models. A schematic diagram for the film properties change versus composition has been proposed in terms of a generalized parameter characterising the energy efficiency of the film formation. The deposition conditions and the optical and electrical properties of the films have been optimized with respect to the requirements for their application in art protection coatings. (orig.)

  6. On the processing-structure-property relationship of ITO layers deposited on crystalline and amorphous Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diplas, S.; Ulyashin, A.; Maknys, K.; Gunnaes, A.E.; Jorgensen, S.; Wright, D.; Watts, J.F.; Olsen, A.; Finstad, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) antireflection coatings were deposited on crystalline Si (c-Si), amorphous hydrogenated Si (a-Si:H) and glass substrates at room temperature (RT), 160 deg. C and 230 deg. C by magnetron sputtering. The films were characterised using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, combined with resistance and transmittance measurements. The conductivity and refractive index as well as the morphology of the ITO films showed a significant dependence on the processing conditions. The films deposited on the two different Si substrates at higher temperatures have rougher surfaces compared to the RT ones due to the development of crystallinity and growth of columnar grains

  7. On the Mechanism of In Nanoparticle Formation by Exposing ITO Thin Films to Hydrogen Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zheng; Maurice, Jean-Luc; Chen, Wanghua; Guilet, Stéphane; Cambril, Edmond; Lafosse, Xavier; Couraud, Laurent; Merghem, Kamel; Yu, Linwei; Bouchoule, Sophie; Roca I Cabarrocas, Pere

    2017-10-31

    We present our systematic work on the in situ generation of In nanoparticles (NPs) from the reduction of ITO thin films by hydrogen (H 2 ) plasma exposure. In contrast to NP deposition from the vapor phase (i.e., evaporation), the ITO surface can be considered to be a solid reservoir of In atoms thanks to H 2 plasma reduction. On one hand, below the In melting temperature, solid In NP formation is governed by the island-growth mode, which is a self-limiting process because the H 2 plasma/ITO interaction will be gradually eliminated by the growing In NPs that cover the ITO surface. On the other hand, we show that above the melting temperature In droplets prefer to grow along the grain boundaries on the ITO surface and dramatic coalescence occurs when the growing NPs connect with each other. This growth-connection-coalescence behavior is even strengthened on In/ITO bilayers, where In particles larger than 10 μm can be formed, which are made of evaporated In atoms and in situ released ones. Thanks to this understanding, we manage to disperse dense evaporated In NPs under H 2 plasma exposure when inserting an ITO layer between them and substrate like c-Si wafer or glass by modifying the substrate surface chemistry. Further studies are needed for more precise control of this self-assembling method. We expect that our findings are not limited to ITO thin films but could be applicable to various metal NPs generation from the corresponding metal oxide thin films.

  8. Characterization of a new transparent-conducting material of ZnO doped ITO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. M.

    2005-11-01

    Thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) doped with zinc oxide have the remarkable properties of being conductive yet still highly transparent in the visible and near-IR spectral ranges. The Electron beam deposi- tion technique is one of the simplest and least expensive ways of preparing. High-quality ITO thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by Electron beam evaporation technique. The effect of doping and substrate deposition temperature was found to have a significant effect on the structure, electrical and optical properties of ZnO doped ITO films. The average optical transmittance has been increased with in- creasing the substrate temperature. The maximum value of transmittance is greater than 84% in the visible region and 85% in the NIR region obtained for film with Zn/ITO = 0.13 at substrate temperature 200 °C. The dielectric constant, average excitation energy for electronic transitions (E o), the dispersion energy (E d), the long wavelength refractive index (n ), average oscillator wave length ( o) and oscillator strength S o for the thin films were determined and presented in this work.

  9. Development of nanocrystalline Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films using RF-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamilselvan, N.; Thilakan, Periyasamy

    2013-01-01

    ITO thin films have been deposited on glass substrate using RF Magnetron puttering Technique from the pre-synthesized ITO target. The sputtering parameters such as the deposition temperature, gas composition and the RF power densities were varied. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the crystallization of the films is mostly depending on the RF power density and substrate temperature. Crystallized films exhibited a change in the preferred orientation from (111) plane to (100) plane at specific conditions such as high RF power density and high oxygen mixing to the plasma. Change in the film microstructure and a shift in the optical bandgap were recorded from the SEM and UV-Visible measurements respectively. (author)

  10. Process development of ITO source/drain electrode for the top-gate indium-gallium-zinc oxide transparent thin-film transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Woo-Seok; Yoon, Young-sun; Shin, Jae-Heon; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Chu, Hye Yong

    2009-01-01

    Indium-tin oxide (ITO) has been widely used as electrodes for LCDs and OLEDs. The applications are expanding to the transparent thin-film transistors (TTFT S ) for the versatile circuits or transparent displays. This paper is related with optimization of ITO source and drain electrode for TTFTs on glass substrates. For example, un-etched ITO remnants, which frequently found in the wet etching process, often originate from unsuitable ITO formation processes. In order to improve them, an ion beam deposition method is introduced, which uses for forming a seed layer before the main ITO deposition. We confirm that ITO films with seed layers are effective to obtain clean and smooth glass surfaces without un-etched ITO remnants, resulting in a good long-run electrical stability of the top-gate indium-gallium-zinc oxide-TTFT.

  11. Synthesis and Analysis of MnTiO3 Thin Films on ITO Coated Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emerick; Sahiner, Mehmet-Alper

    Perovskites like Manganese Titanium Oxide have interesting chemical properties that may be advantageous to the development of p-n junction photovoltaic cells. Due to the limited understanding behind the compound, it is essential to know the characteristics of it when it is deposited in thin film form. The cells were created using pulsed laser deposition method for two separate mediums (first layers after ITO). ZnO was deposited onto ITO glass for the first sample. For the second sample, a layer of pure Molybdenum was deposited onto the ITO glass. The MnTiO3 was then deposited onto both samples. There was a target thickness of 1000 Angstroms, but ellipsometry shows that, for the Mo based sample, that film thickness was around 1500 Angstroms. There were inconclusive results for the ZnO based sample. The concentration of active carriers was measured using a Hall Effect apparatus for the Mo based sample. The XRD analyses were used to confirm the perovskite structure of the films. Measurements for photoelectric conversion efficiency were taken using a Keathley 2602 ScourceMeter indicated low values for efficiency. The structural information that is correlated with the low electrical performance of this sample will be discussed. SHU-NJSGC Summer 2015 Fellowship.

  12. Influence of sputtering power on the optical properties of ITO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K, Aijo John; M, Deepak, E-mail: manju.thankamoni@gmail.com; T, Manju, E-mail: manju.thankamoni@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sree Sankara College, Kalady P. O., Ernakulam Dist., Kerala (India); Kumar, Vineetha V. [Dept. of Physics, K. E. College, Mannanam, Kottayam Dist., Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    Tin doped indium oxide films are widely used in transparent conducting coatings such as flat panel displays, crystal displays and in optical devices such as solar cells and organic light emitting diodes due to the high electrical resistivity and optical transparency in the visible region of solar spectrum. The deposition parameters have a commendable influence on the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. In this study, ITO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. The properties of the films prepared under varying sputtering power were compared using UV- visible spectrophotometry. Effect of sputtering power on the energy band gap, absorption coefficient and refractive index are investigated.

  13. Roll-to-Roll sputtered ITO/Cu/ITO multilayer electrode for flexible, transparent thin film heaters and electrochromic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Mok; Ko, Eun-Hye; Kim, Tae-Ho; Nah, Yoon-Chae; Lee, Sang-Jin; Lee, Jae Heung; Kim, Han-Ki

    2016-09-22

    We fabricate high-performance, flexible, transparent electrochromic (EC) films and thin film heaters (TFHs) on an ITO/Cu/ITO (ICI) multilayer electrode prepared by continuous roll-to-roll (RTR) sputtering of ITO and Cu targets. The RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer on a 700 mm wide PET substrate at room temperature exhibits a sheet resistance of 11.8 Ω/square and optical transmittance of 73.9%, which are acceptable for the fabrication of flexible and transparent EC films and TFHs. The effect of the Cu interlayer thickness on the electrical and optical properties of the ICI multilayer was investigated in detail. The bending and cycling fatigue tests demonstrate that the RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer was more flexible than a single ITO film because of high strain failure of the Cu interlayer. The flexible and transparent EC films and TFHs fabricated on the ICI electrode show better performances than reference EC films and TFHs with a single ITO electrode. Therefore, the RTR-sputtered ICI multilayer is the best substitute for the conventional ITO film electrode in order to realize flexible, transparent, cost-effective and large-area EC devices and TFHs that can be used as flexible and smart windows.

  14. Optical and electrical properties of transparent conductive ITO thin films under proton radiation with 100 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Q.; He, S.Y.; Yang, D.Z.; Liu, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Under the simulation environment for the vacuum and heat sink in space, the changes in optical and electrical properties of transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films induced by radiation of protons with 100 keV were studied. The ITO thin films were deposited on JGS1 quartz substrate by a sol-gel method. The sheet resistance and transmittance spectra of the ITO thin films were measured using the four-point probe method and a spectrophotometer, respectively. The surface morphology was analyzed by AFM. The experimental results showed that the electrical and optical performances of the ITO thin films were closely related to the irradiation fluence. When the fluence exceeded a given value 2 x 10 16 cm -2 , the sheet resistance increased obviously and the optical transmittance decreased. The AFM analysis indicated that the grain size of the ITO thin films diminished. The studies about the radiation effect on ITO thin films will help to predict performance evolution of the second surface mirrors on satellites under space radiation environment. (orig.)

  15. Switchable Super-Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Film Surfaces on Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) Textured Si Wafer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Litao, Yao; Kim, Bonghwan

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a surface texturing process for pyramidal surface features along with an indium tin oxide (ITO) coating process to fabricate super-hydrophilic conductive surfaces. The contact angle of a water droplet was less than 5 degrees, which means that an extremely high wettability is achievable on super-hydrophilic surfaces. We have also fabricated a super-hydrophobic conductive surface using an additional coating of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) on the ITO layer coated on the textured Si surface; the ITO and PTFE films were deposited by using a conventional sputtering method. We found that a super-hydrophilic conductive surface is produced by ITO coated on the pyramidal Si surface (ITO/Si), with contact angles of approximately 0 degrees and a resistivity of 3 x 10(-4) Ω x cm. These values are highly dependent on the substrate temperature during the sputtering process. We also found that the super-hydrophobic conductive surface produced by the additional coating of PTFE on the pyramidal Si surface with an ITO layer (PTFE/ITO/Si) has a contact angle of almost 160 degrees and a resistivity of 3 x 10(-4) Ω x cm, with a reflectance lower than 9%. Therefore, these processes can be used to fabricate multifunctional features of ITO films for switchable super-hydrophilic and super-hydrophobic surfaces.

  16. Magnetoresistances in Ni80Fe20-ITO granular film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chunhong; Chen Ke; Yang Yanxia; Xiong Yuanqiang; Chen Peng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Magnetoresistance (MR) in Ni 80 Fe 20 -ITO granular film are investigated. ► MR is positive at high temperature, and is negative at low temperature. ► MR results from the competition among three mechanisms. - Abstract: The magnetic properties, electrical properties and magnetoresistance are investigated in Ni 80 Fe 20 -ITO granular film with various volume fractions V NF of Ni 80 Fe 20 . The room temperature magnetization hysteresis of sample with V NF = 25% shows superparamagnetic behavior. Current-voltage curve of sample with V NF = 25% at 175 K shows typical tunneling-type behavior. The magnetoresistances of samples with low V NF are positive at high temperature, and are negative at low temperature. The temperature-dependent magnetoresistances result from the competition among ordinary magnetoresistances, the granular-typed tunneling magnetoresistance and the spin-mixing induced magnetoresistances.

  17. Enhancement of optical transmittance and electrical resistivity of post-annealed ITO thin films RF sputtered on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmad Hadi; Hassan, Zainuriah; Shuhaimi, Ahmad

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports on the enhancement of optical transmittance and electrical resistivity of indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent conductive oxides (TCO) deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering on Si substrate. Post-annealing was conducted on the samples at temperature ranges of 500-700 °C. From X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), ITO (2 2 2) peak was observed after post-annealing indicating crystallization phase of the films. From UV-vis measurements, the ITO thin film shows highest transmittance of more than 90% at post-annealing temperature of 700 °C as compared to the as-deposited thin films. From atomic force microscope (AFM), the surface roughness becomes smoother after post-annealing as compared to the as-deposited. The lowest electrical resistivity for ITO sample is 6.68 × 10-4 Ω cm after post-annealed at 700 °C that are contributed by high carrier concentration and mobility. The improved structural and surface morphological characteristics helps in increasing the optical transmittance and reducing the electrical resistivity of the ITO thin films.

  18. Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited on unheated polymer substrates by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhinong; Li Yuqiong; Xia Fan; Zhao Zhiwei; Xue Wei

    2009-01-01

    The optical, electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by ion beam assisted deposition at room temperature were investigated. The properties of ITO films can be improved by introducing a buffer layer of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) between the ITO film and the PET substrate. ITO films deposited on SiO 2 -coated PET have better crystallinity, lower electrical resistivity, and improved resistance stability under bending than those deposited on bare PET. The average transmittance and the resistivity of ITO films deposited on SiO 2 -coated PET are 85% and 0.90 x 10 -3 Ω cm, respectively, and when the films are bent, the resistance remains almost constant until a bending radius of 1 cm and it increases slowly under a given bending radius with an increase of the bending cycles. The improved resistance stability of ITO films deposited on SiO 2 -coated PET is mainly attributed to the perfect adhesion of ITO films induced by the SiO 2 buffer layer.

  19. Atomic-Layer-Deposited AZO Outperforms ITO in High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kan, Zhipeng

    2018-05-11

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) transparent conducting electrodes are widely used across the display industry, and are currently the cornerstone of photovoltaic device developments, taking a substantial share in the manufacturing cost of large-area modules. However, cost and supply considerations are set to limit the extensive use of indium for optoelectronic device applications and, in turn, alternative transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials are required. In this report, we show that aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are sufficiently conductive and transparent to outperform ITO as the cathode in inverted polymer solar cells. Reference polymer solar cells made with atomic-layer-deposited AZO cathodes, PCE10 as the polymer donor and PC71BM as the fullerene acceptor (model systems), reach power conversion efficiencies of ca. 10% (compared to ca. 9% with ITO-coated glass), without compromising other figures of merit. These ALD-grown AZO electrodes are promising for a wide range of optoelectronic device applications relying on TCOs.

  20. Atomic-Layer-Deposited AZO Outperforms ITO in High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kan, Zhipeng; Wang, Zhenwei; Firdaus, Yuliar; Babics, Maxime; Alshareef, Husam N.; Beaujuge, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) transparent conducting electrodes are widely used across the display industry, and are currently the cornerstone of photovoltaic device developments, taking a substantial share in the manufacturing cost of large-area modules. However, cost and supply considerations are set to limit the extensive use of indium for optoelectronic device applications and, in turn, alternative transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials are required. In this report, we show that aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are sufficiently conductive and transparent to outperform ITO as the cathode in inverted polymer solar cells. Reference polymer solar cells made with atomic-layer-deposited AZO cathodes, PCE10 as the polymer donor and PC71BM as the fullerene acceptor (model systems), reach power conversion efficiencies of ca. 10% (compared to ca. 9% with ITO-coated glass), without compromising other figures of merit. These ALD-grown AZO electrodes are promising for a wide range of optoelectronic device applications relying on TCOs.

  1. Fabrication of highly conductive graphene/ITO transparent bi-film through CVD and organic additives-free sol-gel techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemasiri, Bastian Waduge Naveen Harindu; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Ji-Myon

    2017-12-19

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) still remains as the main candidate for high-performance optoelectronic devices, but there is a vital requirement in the development of sol-gel based synthesizing techniques with regards to green environment and higher conductivity. Graphene/ITO transparent bi-film was synthesized by a two-step process: 10 wt. % tin-doped ITO thin films were produced by an environmentally friendly aqueous sol-gel spin coating technique with economical salts of In(NO 3 ) 3 .H 2 O and SnCl 4 , without using organic additives, on surface free energy enhanced (from 53.826 to 97.698 mJm -2 ) glass substrate by oxygen plasma treatment, which facilitated void-free continuous ITO film due to high surface wetting. The chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene was transferred onto the synthesized ITO to enhance its electrical properties and it was capable of reducing sheet resistance over 12% while preserving the bi-film surface smoother. The ITO films contain the In 2 O 3 phase only and exhibit the polycrystalline nature of cubic structure with 14.35 ± 0.5 nm crystallite size. The graphene/ITO bi-film exhibits reproducible optical transparency with 88.66% transmittance at 550 nm wavelength, and electrical conductivity with sheet resistance of 117 Ω/sq which is much lower than that of individual sol-gel derived ITO film.

  2. Inkjet-printing of indium tin oxide (ITO) films for transparent conducting electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Myun-sung; Jeong, Bong-yong; Moon, Jooho; Chun, Sang-Ki; Kim, Jihoon

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Inkjet printing of ITO films. → Ag-grid was inkjet-printed in between two ITO layers in order to improve the electrical property. → Ag-grid inserted ITO films with 2 mm Ag-grid pitch showed the sheet resistance less than 3.4 Ω/sq and the transmittance higher than 82%. - Abstract: Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films have been prepared by inkjet-printing using ITO nanoparticle inks. The electrical and optical properties of the ITO films were investigated in order to understand the effects of annealing temperatures under microwave. The decrease in the sheet resistance and resistivity of the inkjet-printed ITO films was observed as the annealing temperature increases. The film annealed at 400 deg. C showed the sheet resistance of 517 Ω/sq with the film thickness of ∼580 nm. The optical transmittance of the films remained constant regardless of their annealing temperatures. In order to further reduce the sheet resistance of the films, Ag-grid was printed in between two layers of inkjet-printed ITO. With 3 mm Ag-grid line-to-line pitch, the Ag-grid inserted ITO film has the sheet resistance of 3.4 Ω/sq and the transmittance of 84% after annealing at 200 deg. C under microwave.

  3. Influence of Substrate Temperature on Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Ito Thin Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Jing; Xing, Huaizhong; Xue, Shaolin; Jiang, Meng

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we investigated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using ceramic target to find the optimal condition for fabricating optoelectronic devices. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the ITO films prepared at various substrate temperatures were investigated. The results indicate the grain size increases with substrate temperature increases. As the substrate temperature grew up, the resistivity of ITO films greatly decreased. The ITO film possesses high quality in terms of electrode functions, when substrate temperature is 480°C. The resistivity is as low as 9.42 × 10-5 Ω•cm, while the carrier concentration and mobility are as high as 3.461 × 1021 atom/cm3 and 19.1 cm2/Vṡs, respectively. The average transmittance of the film is about 95% in the visible region. The novel ITO/np-Silicon frame, which prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at 480°C substrate temperature, can be used not only for low-cost solar cell, but also for high quantum efficiency of UV and visible lights enhanced photodetector for various applications.

  4. Magnetic properties and microstructure investigation of electrodeposited FeNi/ITO films with different thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Derang; Wang, Zhenkun; Feng, Erxi; Wei, Jinwu; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •FeNi alloy thin films with different thickness deposited on Indium Tin Oxides (ITOs) conductive glass substrates by electrodeposition method. •A columnar crystalline microstructure and domain structure were obtained in FeNi thin films. •Particular FMR spectra of FeNi alloy with different thickness were studied. -- Abstract: FeNi alloy thin films with different thickness deposited on Indium Tin Oxides (ITOs) conductive glass substrates from the electrolytes by electrodeposition method have been studied by magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique. For these films possessing an in-plane isotropy, the remanence decreases with the increasing of film thickness and the critical thickness that a stripe domain structure emerges is about 116 nm. Characteristic differences of the FMR spectra of different thickness are also observed. The results show that the resonance field at high measured angle increases firstly then decreases with increasing thickness, which may be related to the striped domain structure

  5. Structural study of Mg doped cobalt ferrite thin films on ITO coated glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Mahesh; Bapna, Komal; Kumar, Kishor; Ahuja, B. L.

    2018-05-01

    We have synthesized thin films of Co1-xMgxFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) on transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. The structural properties of the grown films were analyzed by the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which suggest the single phase growth of these films. Raman spectra revealed the incorporation of Mg ions into CoFe2O4 lattice and suggest that the Mg ions initially go both to the octahedral and tetrahedral sites upto a certain concentration. For higher concentration, Mg ions prefer to occupy the tetrahedral sites.

  6. Improved ITO thin films for photovoltaic applications with a thin ZnO layer by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, J.; Guillen, C.

    2004-01-01

    The improvement of the optical and electrical characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) layers is pursued to achieve a higher efficiency in its application as frontal electrical contacts in thin film photovoltaic devices. In order to take advantage of the polycrystalline structure of ZnO films as growth support, the properties of ITO layers prepared at room temperature by sputtering onto bare and ZnO-coated substrates have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction, optical and electrical measurements. It has been found that by inserting a thin ZnO layer, the ITO film resistivity can be reduced as compared to that of a single ITO film with similar optical transmittance. The electrical quality improvement is related to ITO grain growth enhancement onto the polycrystalline ZnO underlayer

  7. Heat treatable indium tin oxide films deposited with high power pulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, F.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared by high power pulse magnetron sputtering [D. J. Christie, F. Tomasel, W. D. Sproul, D. C. Carter, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 22 (2004) 1415. ] without substrate heating. The ITO films were deposited from a ceramic target at a deposition rate of approx. 5.5 nm*m/min kW. Afterwards, the ITO films were covered with a siliconoxynitride film sputtered from a silicon alloy target in order to prevent oxidation of the ITO film during annealing at 650 deg. C for 10 min in air. The optical and electrical properties as well as the texture and morphology of these films were investigated before and after annealing. Mechanical durability of the annealed films was evaluated at different test conditions. The results were compared with state-of-the art ITO films which were obtained at optimized direct current magnetron sputtering conditions

  8. Crystallinity, etchability, electrical and mechanical properties of Ga doped amorphous indium tin oxide thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Jun; Song, Pung-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) and Ga-doped ITO (ITO:Ga) films were deposited on glass and polyimide (PI) substrates by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering using different ITO:Ga targets (doped-Ga: 0, 0.1 and 2.9 wt.%). The films were deposited with a thickness of 50 nm and then post-annealed at various temperatures (room temperature-250 °C) in a vacuum chamber for 30 min. The amorphous ITO:Ga (0.1 wt.% Ga) films post-annealed at 220 °C exhibited relatively low resistivity (4.622x10 −4 Ω cm), indicating that the crystallinity of the ITO:Ga films decreased with increasing Ga content. In addition, the amorphous ITO:Ga films showed a better surface morphology, etchability and mechanical properties than the ITO films. - Highlights: • The Ga doped indium tin oxide (ITO) films crystallized at higher temperatures than the ITO films. • The amorphisation of ITO films increases with increasing Ga content. • Similar resistivity was observed between crystalline ITO and amorphous Ga doped ITO films. • Etching property of ITO film was improved with increasing Ga content

  9. Growth and characterization of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Jung, Hakkee; Lee, Jongin; Lim, Donggun; Yang, Keajoon; Yi, Junsin; Song, Woo-Chang

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by d.c. magnetron sputtering as the front and back electrical contact for applications in flexible displays and optoelectronic devices. In addition, ITO powder was used for sputter target in order to reduce the cost and time of the film formation processes. As the sputtering power and pressure increased, the electrical conductivity of ITO films decreased. The films were increasingly dark gray colored as the sputtering power increased, resulting in the loss of transmittance of the films. When the pressure during deposition was higher, however, the optical transmittance improved at visible region of light. ITO films deposited onto PET have shown similar optical transmittance and electrical resistivity, in comparison with films onto glass substrate. High quality films with resistivity as low as 2.5 x 10 -3 Ω cm and transmittance over 80% have been obtained on to PET substrate by suitably controlling the deposition parameters

  10. A simple two-step method to fabricate highly transparent ITO/polymer nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haitao; Zeng, Xiaofei; Kong, Xiangrong; Bian, Shuguang; Chen, Jianfeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simple two-step method without further surface modification step was employed. ► ITO nanoparticles were easily to be uniformly dispersed in polymer matrix. ► ITO/polymer nanocomposite film had high transparency and UV/IR blocking properties. - Abstract: Transparent functional indium tin oxide (ITO)/polymer nanocomposite films were fabricated via a simple approach with two steps. Firstly, the functional monodisperse ITO nanoparticles were synthesized via a facile nonaqueous solvothermal method using bifunctional chemical agent (N-methyl-pyrrolidone, NMP) as the reaction solvent and surface modifier. Secondly, the ITO/acrylics polyurethane (PUA) nanocomposite films were fabricated by a simple sol-solution mixing method without any further surface modification step as often employed traditionally. Flower-like ITO nanoclusters with about 45 nm in diameter were mono-dispersed in ethyl acetate and each nanocluster was assembled by nearly spherical nanoparticles with primary size of 7–9 nm in diameter. The ITO nanoclusters exhibited an excellent dispersibility in polymer matrix of PUA, remaining their original size without any further agglomeration. When the loading content of ITO nanoclusters reached to 5 wt%, the transparent functional nanocomposite film featured a high transparency more than 85% in the visible light region (at 550 nm), meanwhile cutting off near-infrared radiation about 50% at 1500 nm and blocking UV ray about 45% at 350 nm. It could be potential for transparent functional coating materials applications.

  11. The effects of film thickness on the electrical, optical, and structural properties of cylindrical, rotating, magnetron-sputtered ITO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Ho; Seong, Tae-Yeon; Ahn, Kyung-Jun; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Seok, Hae-Jun; Seo, Hyeong-Jin; Kim, Han-Ki

    2018-05-01

    We report the characteristics of Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) films intended for use as transparent conducting electrodes; the films were prepared via a five-generation, in-line type, cylindrical, rotating magnetron sputtering (CRMS) system as a function of film thickness. By using a rotating cylindrical ITO target with high usage (∼80%), we prepared high conductivity, transparent ITO films on five-generation size glass. The effects of film thickness on the electrical, optical, morphological, and structural properties of CRMS-grown ITO films are investigated in detail to correlate the thickness and performance of ITO films. The preferred orientation changed from the (2 2 2) to the (4 0 0) plane with increasing thickness of ITO is attributed to the stability of the (4 0 0) plane against resputtering during the CRMS process. Based on X-ray diffraction, surface field emission scanning electron microscopy, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, we suggest a possible mechanism to explain the preferred orientation and effects of film thickness on the performance of CRMS-grown ITO films.

  12. Improving Performance of CIGS Solar Cells by Annealing ITO Thin Films Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Lung Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO thin films were grown on glass substrates by direct current (DC reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Annealing at the optimal temperature can considerably improve the composition, structure, optical properties, and electrical properties of the ITO film. An ITO sample with a favorable crystalline structure was obtained by annealing in fixed oxygen/argon ratio of 0.03 at 400°C for 30 min. The carrier concentration, mobility, resistivity, band gap, transmission in the visible-light region, and transmission in the near-IR regions of the ITO sample were -1.6E+20 cm−3, 2.7E+01 cm2/Vs, 1.4E-03 Ohm-cm, 3.2 eV, 89.1%, and 94.7%, respectively. Thus, annealing improved the average transmissions (400–1200 nm of the ITO film by 16.36%. Moreover, annealing a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS solar cell at 400°C for 30 min in air improved its efficiency by 18.75%. The characteristics of annealing ITO films importantly affect the structural, morphological, electrical, and optical properties of ITO films that are used in solar cells.

  13. Influence of a ZnO Buffer Layer on the Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of ITO/ZnO Bi-Layered Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Sung-Bo; Moon, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Daeil; Kim, Jun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) films and ITO/ZnO bi-layered films were prepared on polycarbonate substrates by RF magnetron sputtering without intentional substrate heating. In order to consider the influence of the ZnO thickness on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of ITO/ZnO films, the thickness of the ZnO buffer layer was varied from 5 to 20 nm. As-deposited ITO films show an average optical transmittance of 79.2% in the visible range and an electrical resistivity of 3.0×10"-"4 Ωcm, while films with a 5-nm thick ZnO buffer layer film show an electrical resistivity of 2.6×10"-"4 Ωcm and films with a 20-nm thick ZnO buffer layer show an optical transmittance of 82.0%. Based on the figure of merit, it is concluded that the ZnO buffer layer enhances the optical and electrical performance of ITO films used as transparent conducting oxides in flexible display applications.

  14. Structural characterization of ultrathin Cr-doped ITO layers deposited by double-target pulsed laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesaria, Maura; Caricato, Anna Paola; Leggieri, Gilberto; Luches, Armando; Martino, Maurizio; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Catalano, Massimo; Manera, Maria Grazia; Rella, Roberto; Taurino, Antonietta

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report on the growth and structural characterization of very thin (20 nm) Cr-doped ITO films, deposited at room temperature by double-target pulsed laser ablation on amorphous silica substrates. The role of Cr atoms in the ITO matrix is carefully investigated with increasing doping content by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Selected-area electron diffraction, conventional bright field and dark field as well as high-resolution TEM analyses, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy demonstrate that (i) crystallization features occur despite the low growth temperature and small thickness, (ii) no chromium or chromium oxide secondary phases are detectable, regardless of the film doping levels, (iii) the films crystallize as crystalline flakes forming large-angle grain boundaries; (iv) the observed flakes consist of crystalline planes with local bending of the crystal lattice. Thickness and compositional information about the films are obtained by Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry. Results are discussed by considering the combined effects of growth temperature, smaller ionic radius of the Cr cation compared with the trivalent In ion, doping level, film thickness, the double-target doping technique and peculiarities of the pulsed laser deposition method.

  15. Structural characterization of ultrathin Cr-doped ITO layers deposited by double-target pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaria, Maura; Caricato, Anna Paola; Leggieri, Gilberto; Luches, Armando; Martino, Maurizio; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Catalano, Massimo; Grazia Manera, Maria; Rella, Roberto; Taurino, Antonietta

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we report on the growth and structural characterization of very thin (20 nm) Cr-doped ITO films, deposited at room temperature by double-target pulsed laser ablation on amorphous silica substrates. The role of Cr atoms in the ITO matrix is carefully investigated with increasing doping content by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Selected-area electron diffraction, conventional bright field and dark field as well as high-resolution TEM analyses, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy demonstrate that (i) crystallization features occur despite the low growth temperature and small thickness, (ii) no chromium or chromium oxide secondary phases are detectable, regardless of the film doping levels, (iii) the films crystallize as crystalline flakes forming large-angle grain boundaries; (iv) the observed flakes consist of crystalline planes with local bending of the crystal lattice. Thickness and compositional information about the films are obtained by Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry. Results are discussed by considering the combined effects of growth temperature, smaller ionic radius of the Cr cation compared with the trivalent In ion, doping level, film thickness, the double-target doping technique and peculiarities of the pulsed laser deposition method.

  16. Structural characterization of ultrathin Cr-doped ITO layers deposited by double-target pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesaria, Maura; Caricato, Anna Paola; Leggieri, Gilberto; Luches, Armando; Martino, Maurizio; Maruccio, Giuseppe [Physics Department, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Catalano, Massimo; Manera, Maria Grazia; Rella, Roberto; Taurino, Antonietta, E-mail: antonietta.taurino@le.imm.cnr.it [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2011-09-14

    In this paper we report on the growth and structural characterization of very thin (20 nm) Cr-doped ITO films, deposited at room temperature by double-target pulsed laser ablation on amorphous silica substrates. The role of Cr atoms in the ITO matrix is carefully investigated with increasing doping content by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Selected-area electron diffraction, conventional bright field and dark field as well as high-resolution TEM analyses, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy demonstrate that (i) crystallization features occur despite the low growth temperature and small thickness, (ii) no chromium or chromium oxide secondary phases are detectable, regardless of the film doping levels, (iii) the films crystallize as crystalline flakes forming large-angle grain boundaries; (iv) the observed flakes consist of crystalline planes with local bending of the crystal lattice. Thickness and compositional information about the films are obtained by Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry. Results are discussed by considering the combined effects of growth temperature, smaller ionic radius of the Cr cation compared with the trivalent In ion, doping level, film thickness, the double-target doping technique and peculiarities of the pulsed laser deposition method.

  17. Comparative study of ITO and FTO thin films grown by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Aouaj, M.; Diaz, R.; Belayachi, A.; Rueda, F.; Abd-Lefdil, M.

    2009-01-01

    Tin doped indium oxide (ITO) and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films have been prepared by one step spray pyrolysis. Both film types grown at 400 deg. C present a single phase, ITO has cubic structure and preferred orientation (4 0 0) while FTO exhibits a tetragonal structure. Scanning electron micrographs showed homogeneous surfaces with average grain size around 257 and 190 nm for ITO and FTO respectively. The optical properties have been studied in several ITO and FTO samples by transmittance and reflectance measurements. The transmittance in the visible zone is higher in ITO than in FTO layers with a comparable thickness, while the reflectance in the infrared zone is higher in FTO in comparison with ITO. The best electrical resistivity values, deduced from optical measurements, were 8 x 10 -4 and 6 x 10 -4 Ω cm for ITO (6% of Sn) and FTO (2.5% of F) respectively. The figure of merit reached a maximum value of 2.15 x 10 -3 Ω -1 for ITO higher than 0.55 x 10 -3 Ω -1 for FTO.

  18. Screen-printed Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films for NH3 gas sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbarek, Hedia; Saadoun, Moncef; Bessais, Brahim

    2006-01-01

    Gas sensors using metal oxides have several advantageous features such as simplicity in device structure and low cost fabrication. In this work, Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films were prepared by the screen printing technique onto glass substrates. The granular and porous structure of screen-printed ITO are suitable for its use in gas sensing devices. The resistance of the ITO films was found to be strongly dependent on working temperatures and the nature and concentration of the ambient gases. We show that screen-printed ITO films have good sensing properties toward NH 3 vapours. The observed behaviors are explained basing on the oxidizing or the reducer nature of the gaseous species that react on the surface of the heated semi-conducting oxide

  19. Patterning of nanoparticulate transparent conductive ITO films using UV light irradiation and UV laser beam writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solieman, A.; Moharram, A.H.; Aegerter, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film is one of the most widely used as transparent conductive electrodes in all forms of flat panel display (FPD) and microelectronic devices. Suspension of already crystalline conductive ITO nanoparticles fully dispersed in alcohol was spun, after modifying with coupling agent, on glass substrates. The low cost, simple and versatile traditional photolithography process without complication of the photoresist layer was used for patterning ITO films. Using of UV light irradiation through mask and direct UV laser beam writing resulted in an accurate linear, sharp edge and very smooth patterns. Irradiated ITO film showed a high transparency (∼85%) in the visible region. The electrical sheet resistance decrease with increasing time of exposure to UV light and UV laser. Only 5 min UV light irradiation is enough to decrease the electrical sheet resistance down to 5 kΩ□.

  20. Fabrication of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film with pre-treated sol coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung-Jei; Han, Jeong-In

    2004-01-01

    A new pre-treated sol-coating method to fabricate an indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film is introduced in this paper. The pre-treatment sol-coating method is to form a seed layer on the substrate before spin coating of ITO sol. The pre-treatment was carried out at room temperature in order not to damage the substrate during the pre-treatment. It is effective to enhance the formation of the ITO sol film on the substrate, owing to the seed layer. The seed layer consists of ultrafine grains, which are observed at the pre-treated substrate. For the optimal pre-treatment condition, we used pre-treatment times of 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours to observe the effect on the characteristics of ITO sol film. As a result, the lowest resistance could be achieved with a pre-treatment time of 72 hours. The optical transmittance of the ITO sol film with the pre-treatment time of 72 hours exceeded 80 % at a wavelength of 400 nm. So, an ITO sol film with good electrical and optical properties could be fabricated by using the pretreatment sol coating.

  1. Nanosecond laser scribing of CIGS thin film solar cell based on ITO bottom contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Seungkuk; Wang, Zhen; Fu, Shi; Zhang, Tao; Yu, Yi Yin; Choi, JaeMyung; Jeong, Jeung-hyun; Hwang, David J.

    2018-03-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films, a promising photovoltaic architecture, have mainly relied on Molybdenum for the bottom contact. However, the opaque nature of Molybdenum (Mo) poses limitations in module level fabrication by laser scribing as a preferred method for interconnect. We examined the P1, P2, and P3 laser scribing processes on CIGS photovoltaic architecture on the indium tin oxide (ITO) bottom contact with a cost-effective nanosecond pulsed laser of 532 nm wavelength. Laser illuminated from the substrate side, enabled by the transparent bottom contact, facilitated selective laser energy deposition onto relevant interfaces towards high-quality scribing. Parametric tuning procedures are described in conjunction with experimental and numerical investigation of relevant mechanisms, and preliminary mini-module fabrication results are also presented.

  2. Cuprous oxide thin films grown by hydrothermal electrochemical deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, M.; Biswas, I.; Pujaru, S.; Chakraborty, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Semiconducting cuprous oxide films were grown by a hydrothermal electro-deposition technique on metal (Cu) and glass (ITO) substrates between 60 °C and 100 °C. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the formation of cubic cuprous oxide films in different preferred orientations depending upon the deposition technique used. Film growth, uniformity, grain size, optical band gap and photoelectrochemical response were found to improve in the hydrothermal electrochemical deposition technique. - Highlights: • Cu 2 O thin films were grown on Cu and glass substrates. • Conventional and hydrothermal electrochemical deposition techniques were used. • Hydrothermal electrochemical growth showed improved morphology, thickness and optical band gap

  3. Mechanical Properties of ZTO, ITO, and a-Si:H Multilayer Films for Flexible Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Claudia; Menzel, Siegfried B; Rane, Gayatri K; Smirnov, Vladimir; Wilken, Karen; Leszczynska, Barbara; Fischer, Dustin; Prager, Nicole

    2017-03-01

    The behavior of bi- and trilayer coating systems for flexible a-Si:H based solar cells consisting of a barrier, an electrode, and an absorption layer is studied under mechanical load. First, the film morphology, stress, Young's modulus, and crack onset strain (COS) were analyzed for single film coatings of various thickness on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. In order to demonstrate the role of the microstructure of a single film on the mechanical behavior of the whole multilayer coating, two sets of InSnOx (indium tin oxide, ITO) conductive coatings were prepared. Whereas a characteristic grain-subgrain structure was observed in ITO-1 films, grain growth was suppressed in ITO-2 films. ITO-1 bilayer coatings showed two-step failure under tensile load with cracks propagating along the ITO-1/a-Si:H-interface, whereas channeling cracks in comparable bi- and trilayers based on amorphous ITO-2 run through all constituent layers. A two-step failure is preferable from an application point of view, as it may lead to only a degradation of the performance instead of the ultimate failure of the device. Hence, the results demonstrate the importance of a fine-tuning of film microstructure not only for excellent electrical properties, but also for a high mechanical performance of flexible devices (e.g., a-Si:H based solar cells) during fabrication in a roll-to-roll process or under service.

  4. Mechanical Properties of ZTO, ITO, and a-Si:H Multilayer Films for Flexible Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hengst

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of bi- and trilayer coating systems for flexible a-Si:H based solar cells consisting of a barrier, an electrode, and an absorption layer is studied under mechanical load. First, the film morphology, stress, Young’s modulus, and crack onset strain (COS were analyzed for single film coatings of various thickness on polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrates. In order to demonstrate the role of the microstructure of a single film on the mechanical behavior of the whole multilayer coating, two sets of InSnOx (indium tin oxide, ITO conductive coatings were prepared. Whereas a characteristic grain–subgrain structure was observed in ITO-1 films, grain growth was suppressed in ITO-2 films. ITO-1 bilayer coatings showed two-step failure under tensile load with cracks propagating along the ITO-1/a-Si:H-interface, whereas channeling cracks in comparable bi- and trilayers based on amorphous ITO-2 run through all constituent layers. A two-step failure is preferable from an application point of view, as it may lead to only a degradation of the performance instead of the ultimate failure of the device. Hence, the results demonstrate the importance of a fine-tuning of film microstructure not only for excellent electrical properties, but also for a high mechanical performance of flexible devices (e.g., a-Si:H based solar cells during fabrication in a roll-to-roll process or under service.

  5. Influence of substrate temperature on the optical and electrical properties magnetron sputtering ITO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khripunov, G.S.; Yurchenko, G.V.

    1999-01-01

    Electrical and optical properties of ITO films obtained at substrate temperature from 200 degree C to 500 degree C by magnetron sputtering of target 95% In 2 O 3 - 5% SnO 2 were studied. It was shown that the ITO film obtained at the substrate temperature 300 i N have optimum combination of the optical and electrical characteristics: resistivity 2.1 centre dot 10 -4 Ω cm, transmittance in visible spectral range about 88% at the thickness film 0.61 μ, factor of quality reaches 8.2 centre dot 10 -2 Ω 1

  6. Effect of modified ITO substrate on electrochromic properties of polyaniline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Silva, U.; Nicho, M.E.; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEMor, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hu, Hailin [Departamento de Materiales Solares, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Av. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, 62580, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-09-22

    In this work, we report the morphological and electrochromic properties of electrochemically synthesized polyaniline (PANI) thin films on bare and modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates. In the last case, the surface of ITO glass was covered by a self-assembled monolayer of N-phenyl-{gamma}-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (PAPTS). Atomic force microscopy images and perfilometry show that smoother and thinner PANI films were grown on PAPTS-modified ITO substrates. PANI-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) were assembled by using a viscous polymeric electrolyte (PE) of LiClO{sub 4} and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) co-dissolved in a mixture of propylene and ethylene carbonate. The architectural design of the devices was glass/ITO/PANI/PE/ITO/glass. A dual ECD was also prepared by collocating a poly(3-methylthiophene) (P3MT) thin film as a complementary electrochromic element. The effect of the PAPTS-modified ITO substrate is reflected in a higher optical transmittance at bleach state and a little less color change at 550 nm of PANI-based ECDs. (author)

  7. Nanocomposite oxide thin films grown by pulsed energy beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, M.; Petitmangin, A.; Hebert, C.; Seiler, W.

    2011-01-01

    Highly non-stoichiometric indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were grown by pulsed energy beam deposition (pulsed laser deposition-PLD and pulsed electron beam deposition-PED) under low oxygen pressure. The analysis of the structure and electrical transport properties showed that ITO films with a large oxygen deficiency (more than 20%) are nanocomposite films with metallic (In, Sn) clusters embedded in a stoichiometric and crystalline oxide matrix. The presence of the metallic clusters induces specific transport properties, i.e. a metallic conductivity via percolation with a superconducting transition at low temperature (about 6 K) and the melting and freezing of the In-Sn clusters in the room temperature to 450 K range evidenced by large changes in resistivity and a hysteresis cycle. By controlling the oxygen deficiency and temperature during the growth, the transport and optical properties of the nanocomposite oxide films could be tuned from metallic-like to insulating and from transparent to absorbing films.

  8. Role of annealing temperature on microstructural and electro-optical properties of ITO films produced by sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senol, Abdulkadir; Gulen, Mahir; Yildirim, Gurcan; Ozturk, Ozgur; Varilci, Ahmet; Terzioglu, Cabir; Belenli, Ibrahim

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of annealing temperature on electrical, optical and microstructural properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited onto Soda lime glass substrates by conventional direct current (DC) magnetron reactive sputtering technique at 100 watt using an ITO ceramic target (In2O3:SnO2, 90:10 wt. %) in argon atmosphere at room temperature. The films obtained are exposed to the calcination process at different temperature up to 700 ° C. Resistivity, Hall Effect, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), ultra violet-visible spectrometer (UV-vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements are performed to characterize the samples. Moreover, phase purity, surface morphology, optical and photocatalytic properties of the films are compared with each other. Furthermore, mobility, carrier density and conductivity characteristics of the samples prepared are carried out as function of temperature in the range of 80-300 K at the magnetic field of 0.550 T. The results obtained show that all the properties depend strongly on the annealing temperature and in fact the film annealed at 400 ° C obtains the better optical properties due to the high refractive index while the film produced at 100 °C exhibits much better photoactivity than the other films as a result of the large optical energy band gap.

  9. Ridge Minimization of Ablated Morphologies on ITO Thin Films Using Squared Quasi-Flat Top Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Young Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we explore the improvements in pattern quality that was obtained with a femtosecond laser with quasi-flat top beam profiles at the ablated edge of indium tin oxide (ITO thin films for the patterning of optoelectronic devices. To ablate the ITO thin films, a femtosecond laser is used that has a wavelength and pulse duration of 1030 nm and 190 fs, respectively. The squared quasi-flat top beam is obtained from a circular Gaussian beam using slits with varying x-y axes. Then, the patterned ITO thin films are measured using both scanning electron and atomic force microscopes. In the case of the Gaussian beam, the ridge height and width are approximately 39 nm and 1.1 μm, respectively, whereas, when the quasi-flat top beam is used, the ridge height and width are approximately 7 nm and 0.25 μm, respectively.

  10. Study of low resistivity and high work function ITO films prepared by oxygen flow rates and N2O plasma treatment for amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Oh, Woong-Kyo; Kim, Sunbo; Ahn, Shihyun; Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Park, Hyeongsik; Lee, Youngseok; Dao, Vinh Ai; Velumani, S; Yi, Junsin

    2014-12-01

    Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited on glass substrates with lowest resistivity of 2.62 x 10(-4) Ω x cm and high transmittance of about 89% in the visible wavelength region. We report the enhancement of ITO work function (Φ(ITO)) by the variation of oxygen (O2) flow rate and N2O surface plasma treatment. The Φ(ITO) increased from 4.43 to 4.56 eV with the increase in O2 flow rate from 0 to 4 sccm while surface treatment of N2O plasma further enhanced the ITO work function to 4.65 eV. The crystallinity of the ITO films improved with increasing O2 flow rate, as revealed by XRD analysis. The ITO work function was increased by the interfacial dipole resulting from the surface rich in O- ions and by the dipole moment formed at the ITO surface during N2O plasma treatment. The ITO films with high work functions can be used to modify the front barrier height in heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cells.

  11. Characterization of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)--indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, K.; Sayer, M.; Laursen, T.; Whitton, J.L.; Pascual, R.; Johnson, D.J.; Amm, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the interface between ultrathin sputtered lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films and a conductive electrode (indium tin oxide-ITO) is investigated. Structural and compositional changes at the PZT-ITO interface have been examined by surface analysis and depth profiling techniques of glancing angle x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering (RBS), SIMS, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). Studies indicate significant interdiffusion of lead into the underlying ITP layer and glass substrate with a large amount of residual stress at the interface. Influence of such compositional deviations at the interface is correlated to an observed thickness dependence in the dielectric properties of PZT films

  12. Characteristics of tungsten oxide thin films prepared on the flexible substrates using pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyuu, Yoshihito

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) thin films have been prepared on the flexible indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using WO 3 targets in oxygen gas. Color of the WO 3 film on the flexible ITO substrates depends on the oxygen gas mixture. The plasma plume produced by PLD using a Nd:YAG laser and WO 3 target is investigated by temporal and spatial-resolved optical emission spectroscopy. WO 3 films prepared on the flexible ITO substrates show electrochromic properties, even when the substrates are bent. The film color changes from blue to transparent within 10-20 s after the applied DC voltage is turned off

  13. Sputtered gold-coated ITO nanowires by alternating depositions from Indium and ITO targets for application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Grazielle O.; Mamián-López, Mónica B.; Pessoa, Priscila R.; Poppi, Ronei J.; Joanni, Ednan; Jesus, Dosil P.

    2015-08-01

    Indium Tin oxide (ITO) nanowires were deposited by RF sputtering over oxidized silicon using ITO and Indium targets. The nanowires grew on the substrate with a catalyst layer of Indium by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Modifications in the deposition conditions affected the morphology and dimensions of the nanowires. The samples, after being covered with gold, were evaluated as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for detection of dye solutions and very good intensifications of the Raman signal were obtained. The SERS performance of the samples was also compared to that of a commercial SERS substrate and the results achieved were similar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time ITO nanowires were grown by the sputtering technique using oxide and metal targets.

  14. A study on electric properties for pulse laser annealing of ITO film after wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.J.; Lin, H.K.; Li, C.H.; Chen, L.X.; Lee, C.C.; Wu, C.W.; Huang, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The electric properties of ITO thin film after UV or IR laser annealing and wet etching was analyzed via grazing incidence in-plane X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra and residual stress measurement. The laser annealing process readily induced microcracks or quasi-microcracks on the ITO thin film due to the residual tension stress of crystalline phase transformation between irradiated and non-irradiated areas, and these defects then became the preferred sites for a higher etching rate, resulting in discontinuities in the ITO thin film after the wet etching process. The discontinuities in the residual ITO thin film obstruct carrier transmission and further result in electric failure. - Highlights: ► The laser annealing process induces microcracks in InSnO 2 thin films. ► The defects result in higher local etching rate during wet etching. ► These process defects originate from residual tension stress. ► Decreasing the thermal shock is suggested in order to reduce these process defects.

  15. Deposition of indium tin oxide films on acrylic substrates by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, B.S.; Hsieh, S.T.; Wu, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto acrylic substrates by rf magnetron sputtering. Low substrate temperature (< 80 C) and low rf power (< 28 W) were maintained during sputtering to prevent acrylic substrate deformation. The influence of sputtering parameters, such as rf power, target-to-substrate distance, and chamber pressure, on the film deposition rate, the electrical properties, as well as the optical properties of the deposited films was investigated. Both the refractive index and the extinction coefficient were derived. The high reflection at wavelengths greater than 3 μm made these sputtered ITO films applicable to infrared mirrors

  16. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  17. Sputtered gold-coated ITO nanowires by alternating depositions from Indium and ITO targets for application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, Grazielle O.; Mamián-López, Mónica B.; Pessoa, Priscila R.; Poppi, Ronei J.; Joanni, Ednan; Jesus, Dosil P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ITO nanowires were grown by the sputtering method using a new synthesis procedure. • By changing the deposition parameters the morphology and dimensions of the nanostructures were modified. • Seed layer thickness was an important factor for obtaining branched nanowires. • SERS substrates having good performance and a high application potential were produced. • The first Raman results for our substrates are already comparable to commercial substrates. - Abstract: Indium Tin oxide (ITO) nanowires were deposited by RF sputtering over oxidized silicon using ITO and Indium targets. The nanowires grew on the substrate with a catalyst layer of Indium by the vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) mechanism. Modifications in the deposition conditions affected the morphology and dimensions of the nanowires. The samples, after being covered with gold, were evaluated as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for detection of dye solutions and very good intensifications of the Raman signal were obtained. The SERS performance of the samples was also compared to that of a commercial SERS substrate and the results achieved were similar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time ITO nanowires were grown by the sputtering technique using oxide and metal targets

  18. Sputtered gold-coated ITO nanowires by alternating depositions from Indium and ITO targets for application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setti, Grazielle O. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Renato Archer Information Technology Center, Rodovia Dom Pedro I (SP-65), Km 143,6 – Amarais, 13069-901 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Mamián-López, Mónica B.; Pessoa, Priscila R.; Poppi, Ronei J. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Joanni, Ednan, E-mail: ednan.joanni@cti.gov.br [Renato Archer Information Technology Center, Rodovia Dom Pedro I (SP-65), Km 143,6 – Amarais, 13069-901 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Jesus, Dosil P. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ITO nanowires were grown by the sputtering method using a new synthesis procedure. • By changing the deposition parameters the morphology and dimensions of the nanostructures were modified. • Seed layer thickness was an important factor for obtaining branched nanowires. • SERS substrates having good performance and a high application potential were produced. • The first Raman results for our substrates are already comparable to commercial substrates. - Abstract: Indium Tin oxide (ITO) nanowires were deposited by RF sputtering over oxidized silicon using ITO and Indium targets. The nanowires grew on the substrate with a catalyst layer of Indium by the vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) mechanism. Modifications in the deposition conditions affected the morphology and dimensions of the nanowires. The samples, after being covered with gold, were evaluated as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for detection of dye solutions and very good intensifications of the Raman signal were obtained. The SERS performance of the samples was also compared to that of a commercial SERS substrate and the results achieved were similar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time ITO nanowires were grown by the sputtering technique using oxide and metal targets.

  19. Synthesis and morphological modification of semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Jaime S., E-mail: jsanchez@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); López-Salinas, Esteban [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Prince, Julia [Universidad Anáhuac México Norte, Av. Universidad Anáhuac # 46, Huixquilucan, Edo. de México 52786 (Mexico); González, Ignacio; Acevedo-Peña, Prospero [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Ángel, Paz del [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) thin films with different chemical compositions (MgZnAl, MgZnGa, MgGaAl) and varying thicknesses were easily prepared by sol–gel method followed by dip-coating. Films were chemically uniform, transparent and well adhered to a conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. Structure, chemical composition and morphology of the thin films were characterized by XRD-GADDS, SEM-EDS and AFM. Additionally, the semiconducting properties of all the prepared films were studied through the Mott–Schottky relationship; such properties were closely related to the chemical compositions of the film. The films were characterized after electrochemical treatment and important modifications regarding surface morphology, particle and crystal sizes were observed. An in-depth study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of several different electrochemical treatments on the morphology, particle size distribution and crystal size of LDH thin films. Upon electrochemical treatment, the films' surface became smooth and the particles forming the films were transformed from flaky open LDH platelets to uniformly distributed close-packed LDH nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films prepared by sol–gel. • LDH thin films show a turbostratic morphology made up of porous flakes. • Electrochemical treatments change the flaky structure into a nanoparticle array.

  20. Tracking metal ions with polypyrrole thin films adhesively bonded to diazonium-modified flexible ITO electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Momath; Diaw, Abdou K D; Gningue-Sall, Diariatou; Aaron, Jean-Jacques; Oturan, Mehmet A; Chehimi, Mohamed M

    2018-05-09

    Adhesively bonded polypyrrole thin films doped with benzene sulfonic acid (BSA) were electrodeposited on aminobenzenediazonium-modified flexible ITO electrodes and further employed for the detection of Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Cd 2+ metal ions in aqueous medium. The aminophenyl (AP) adhesive layer was grafted to ITO by electroreduction of the in situ generated parent diazonium compound. Polypyrrole (PPy) thin films exhibited remarkable adhesion to aminophenyl (ITO-AP). The strongly adherent polypyrrole films exhibited excellent electroactivity in the doped state with BSA which itself served to chelate the metal ions in aqueous medium. The surface of the resulting, modified flexible electrode was characterized by XPS, SEM, and electrochemical methods. The ITO-AP-PPy electrodes were then used for the simultaneous detection of Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Pb 2+ by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The detection limits were 11.1, 8.95, and 0.99 nM for Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Pb 2+ , respectively. In addition, the modified electrodes displayed a good reproducibility, making them suitable for the determination of heavy metals in real wastewater samples.

  1. ITO-Free Semitransparent Organic Solar Cells Based on Silver Thin Film Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhe Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ITO-free semitransparent organic solar cells (OSCs based on MoO3/Ag anodes with poly(3-hexylthiophene and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester films as the active layer are investigated in this work. To obtain the optimal transparent (MoO3/Ag anode, ITO-free reference OSCs are firstly fabricated. The power conversion efficiency (PCE of 2.71% is obtained for OSCs based on the optimal MoO3 (2 nm/Ag (9 nm anode, comparable to that of ITO-based reference OSCs (PCE of 2.85%. Then based on MoO3 (2 nm/Ag (9 nm anode, ITO-free semitransparent OSCs with different thickness combination of Ca and Ag as the cathodes are investigated. It is observed from our results that OSCs with Ca (15 nm/Ag (15 nm cathode have the optimal transparency. Meanwhile, the PCE of 1.79% and 0.67% is obtained for illumination from the anode and cathode side, respectively, comparable to that of similar ITO-based semitransparent OSCs (PCE of 1.59% and 0.75% for illumination from the anode and cathode side, resp. (Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 95, pp. 877–880, 2011. The transparency and PCE of ITO-free semitransparent OSCs can be further improved by introducing a light couple layer. The developed method is compatible with various substrates, which is instructive for further research of ITO-free semitransparent OSCs.

  2. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structural and optical properties of dc sputtered ITO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkache, L.; Layadi, A.; Mosser, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present results on the effect of the partial pressure of oxygen (ppo) on the structural and optical properties of tin-doped indium oxide, In 2 O 3 :Sn (ITO), thin films deposited on glass substrates by reactive dc diode sputtering. The deposition rate decreases with increasing ppo. The ppo did not affect the chemical composition of the ITO films as inferred from X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). From X-ray diffraction, we find out that the samples have crystalline structure in the ppo range 2 x 10 -4 to 6 x 10 -4 mbar and are amorphous outside this range. These samples have a preferred orientation for ppo between 2 x 10 -4 and 4.5 x 10 -4 mbar, but as the ppo increased beyond 4.7 x 10 -4 mbar, the texture dominates. This change occurs for the same substrate temperature (about 130 deg. C). The grain size decreases as the ppo increases. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) have been used to investigate the surface roughness and the morphology of these samples. The optical transmission is greater than 90% in the visible region and does depend on the ppo. The refractive index n values are found to be in the 1.68-1.86 range. The energy gap values are between 3.1 and 3.5 eV.

  3. Metal-insulator transition in tin doped indium oxide (ITO thin films: Quantum correction to the electrical conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin doped indium oxide (ITO thin films are being used extensively as transparent conductors in several applications. In the present communication, we report the electrical transport in DC magnetron sputtered ITO thin films (prepared at 300 K and subsequently annealed at 673 K in vacuum for 60 minutes in low temperatures (25-300 K. The low temperature Hall effect and resistivity measurements reveal that the ITO thin films are moderately dis-ordered (kFl∼1; kF is the Fermi wave vector and l is the electron mean free path and degenerate semiconductors. The transport of charge carriers (electrons in these disordered ITO thin films takes place via the de-localized states. The disorder effects lead to the well-known ‘metal-insulator transition’ (MIT which is observed at 110 K in these ITO thin films. The MIT in ITO thin films is explained by the quantum correction to the conductivity (QCC; this approach is based on the inclusion of quantum-mechanical interference effects in Boltzmann’s expression of the conductivity of the disordered systems. The insulating behaviour observed in ITO thin films below the MIT temperature is attributed to the combined effect of the weak localization and the electron-electron interactions.

  4. Metal-insulator transition in tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films: Quantum correction to the electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak Kumar; Kumar, K. Uday; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2017-01-01

    Tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films are being used extensively as transparent conductors in several applications. In the present communication, we report the electrical transport in DC magnetron sputtered ITO thin films (prepared at 300 K and subsequently annealed at 673 K in vacuum for 60 minutes) in low temperatures (25-300 K). The low temperature Hall effect and resistivity measurements reveal that the ITO thin films are moderately dis-ordered (kFl˜1; kF is the Fermi wave vector and l is the electron mean free path) and degenerate semiconductors. The transport of charge carriers (electrons) in these disordered ITO thin films takes place via the de-localized states. The disorder effects lead to the well-known `metal-insulator transition' (MIT) which is observed at 110 K in these ITO thin films. The MIT in ITO thin films is explained by the quantum correction to the conductivity (QCC); this approach is based on the inclusion of quantum-mechanical interference effects in Boltzmann's expression of the conductivity of the disordered systems. The insulating behaviour observed in ITO thin films below the MIT temperature is attributed to the combined effect of the weak localization and the electron-electron interactions.

  5. Electrical and optical performance of transparent conducting oxide films deposited by electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xianghui; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Liu, Jun-Peng

    2011-09-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films have the remarkable combination of high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. There is always a strong motivation to produce TCO films with good performance at low cost. Electrostatic Spray Assisted Vapor Deposition (ESAVD), as a variant of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), is a non-vacuum and low-cost deposition method. Several types of TCO films have been deposited using ESAVD process, including indium tin oxide (ITO), antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO), and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO). This paper reports the electrical and optical properties of TCO films produced by ESAVD methods, as well as the effects of post treatment by plasma hydrogenation on these TCO films. The possible mechanisms involved during plasma hydrogenation of TCO films are also discussed. Reduction and etching effect during plasma hydrogenation are the most important factors which determine the optical and electrical performance of TCO films.

  6. A Highly Thermostable In2O3/ITO Thin Film Thermocouple Prepared via Screen Printing for High Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantao Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An In2O3/ITO thin film thermocouple was prepared via screen printing. Glass additives were added to improve the sintering process and to increase the density of the In2O3/ITO films. The surface and cross-sectional images indicate that both the grain size and densification of the ITO and In2O3 films increased with the increase in annealing time. The thermoelectric voltage of the In2O3/ITO thermocouple was 53.5 mV at 1270 °C at the hot junction. The average Seebeck coefficient of the thermocouple was calculated as 44.5 μV/°C. The drift rate of the In2O3/ITO thermocouple was 5.44 °C/h at a measuring time of 10 h at 1270 °C.

  7. F2-laser patterning of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M.Y.; Li, J.; Herman, P.R.; Lilge, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the controlled micromachining of 100 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates with a vacuum-ultraviolet 157 nm F 2 laser. Partial to complete film removal was observed over a wide fluence window from 0.49 J/cm 2 to an optimized single pulse fluence of 4.5 J/cm 2 for complete film removal. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis show little substrate or collateral damage by the laser pulse which conserved the stoichiometry, optical transparency and electrical conductivity of ITO coating adjacent to the trenches. At higher fluence, a parallel micron sized channel can be etched in the glass substrate. The high photon energy and top-hat beam homogenized optical system of the F 2 laser opens new means for direct structuring of electrodes and microchannels in biological microfluidic systems or in optoelectronics. (orig.)

  8. Effect on the properties of ITO thin films in Gamma environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, A. H.; Shah, M. A.; Asokan, K.

    2018-04-01

    The present study reports the effect of gamma irradiation of varying doses (0-200 kGy) on the physical properties of the indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films. The films were fabricated by thermal evaporation method using indium-tin (InSn) ingots followed by an oxidation in atmosphere at a temperature of 550 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the body-centered cubic (BCC) structure corresponds to the ITO thin films, high phase purity and a variation in crystallite size between 30-44 nm. While the optical studies revealed an increase in transmission as well as variation in optical band gap, the electrical studies confirmed n-type semiconductive behavior of the thin films, increase in mobility and a decrease in resistivity from 2.33×10-2 - 9.31×10-4 Ωcm with the increase in gamma dose from 0-200 kGy. The gamma irradiation caused totally electronic excitation and resulted in this modifications. The degenerate electron gas model was considered when attempting to understand the prevalent scattering mechanism in gamma irradiated ITO thin films.

  9. Metal-insulator transition in tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films: Quantum correction to the electrical conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar Kaushik; K. Uday Kumar; A. Subrahmanyam

    2017-01-01

    Tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films are being used extensively as transparent conductors in several applications. In the present communication, we report the electrical transport in DC magnetron sputtered ITO thin films (prepared at 300 K and subsequently annealed at 673 K in vacuum for 60 minutes) in low temperatures (25-300 K). The low temperature Hall effect and resistivity measurements reveal that the ITO thin films are moderately dis-ordered (kFl∼1; kF is the Fermi wave vector and l ...

  10. Effect of temperature on the electrical properties of ITO in a TiO2/ITO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Naoki; Imawaka, Naoto; Yoshino, Katsumi; Yamada, Yasuji; Ohnishi, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Thermal stabilities of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates and TiO 2 /ITO structures were evaluated in relation to their electrical properties. The ITO substrates and TiO 2 /ITO structures were annealed at 350, 400, and 500 C. The ITO substrate with large grain size showed higher thermal stability than that with small grain size. The thermal stability of TiO 2 /ITO structure improved with increasing TiO 2 thickness, and a decrease in electron concentration was observed in resistance-increased samples. These changes were attributed to variations in grain-boundary potential caused by oxygen adsorption. It may be concluded that variation of the grain-boundary potential by thermal annealing has a dominant influence on resistance. Therefore, optimization of the grain size is important to improve the thermal stability of ITO. This mechanism and procedure can be applied to improve the characteristics of other TCO materials. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Highly transparent ITO thin films on photosensitive glass: sol-gel synthesis, structure, morphology and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koroesi, Laszlo; Papp, Szilvia; Dekany, Imre [University of Szeged, Supramolecular and Nanostructured Materials Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary); Beke, Szabolcs [Italian Institute of Technology, Department of Nanophysics, Genova (Italy); Pecz, Bela; Horvath, Robert; Petrik, Peter; Agocs, Emil [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-05-15

    Conductive and highly transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared on photosensitive glass substrates by the combination of sol-gel and spin-coating techniques. First, the substrates were coated with amorphous Sn-doped indium hydroxide, and these amorphous films were then calcined at 550 {sup circle} C to produce crystalline and electrically conductive ITO layers. The resulting thin films were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The measurements revealed that the ITO films were composed of spherical crystallites around 20 nm in size with mainly cubic crystal structure. The ITO films acted as antireflection coatings increasing the transparency of the coated substrates compared to that of the bare supports. The developed ITO films with a thickness of {proportional_to}170-330 nm were highly transparent in the visible spectrum with sheet resistances of 4.0-13.7 k{omega}/sq. By coating photosensitive glass with ITO films, our results open up new perspectives in micro- and nano-technology, for example in fabricating conductive and highly transparent 3D microreactors. (orig.)

  12. Deposition of indium tin oxide thin films by cathodic arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.-H.; Wen, J.-C.; Chen, K.-L.; Chen, S.-Y.; Leu, M.-S.

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been deposited by cathodic arc ion plating (CAIP) using sintered oxide target as the source material. In an oxygen atmosphere of 200 deg. C, ITO films with a lowest resistivity of 2.2x10 -4 Ω-cm were obtained at a deposition rate higher than 450 nm/min. The carrier mobility of ITO shows a maximum at some medium pressures. Although morphologically ITO films with a very fine nanometer-sized structure were observed to possess the lowest resistivity, more detailed analyses based on X-ray diffraction are attempted to gain more insight into the factors that govern electron mobility in this investigation

  13. Combustion synthesized indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film for source/drain electrodes in all solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tue, Phan Trong; Inoue, Satoshi; Takamura, Yuzuru; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We report combustion solution synthesized (SCS) indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film, which is a well-known transparent conductive oxide, for source/drain (S/D) electrodes in solution-processed amorphous zirconium-indium-zinc-oxide TFT. A redox-based combustion synthetic approach is applied to ITO thin film using acetylacetone as a fuel and metal nitrate as oxidizer. The structural and electrical properties of SCS-ITO precursor solution and thin films were systematically investigated with changes in tin concentration, indium metal precursors, and annealing conditions such as temperature, time, and ambient. It was found that at optimal conditions the SCS-ITO thin film exhibited high crystalline quality, atomically smooth surface (RMS ∝ 4.1 Aa), and low electrical resistivity (4.2 x 10 -4 Ω cm). The TFT using SCS-ITO film as the S/D electrodes showed excellent electrical properties with negligible hysteresis. The obtained ''on/off'' current ratio, subthreshold swing factor, subthreshold voltage, and field-effect mobility were 5 x 10 7 , 0.43 V/decade, 0.7 V, and 2.1 cm 2 /V s, respectively. The performance and stability of the SCS-ITO TFT are comparable to those of the sputtered-ITO TFT, emphasizing that the SCS-ITO film is a promising candidate for totally solution-processed oxide TFTs. (orig.)

  14. Room temperature deposition of crystalline indium tin oxide films by cesium-assisted magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deuk Yeon; Baik, Hong-Koo

    2008-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on a Si (1 0 0) substrate at room temperature by cesium-assisted magnetron sputtering. Including plasma characteristics, the structural, electrical, and optical properties of deposited films were investigated as a function of cesium partial vapor pressure controlled by cesium reservoir temperature. We calculated the cesium coverage on the target surface showing maximum formation efficiency of negative ions by means of the theoretical model. Cesium addition promotes the formation efficiency of negative ions, which plays important role in enhancing the crystallinity of ITO films. In particular, the plasma density was linearly increased with cesium concentrations. The resultant decrease in specific resistivity and increase in transmittance (82% in the visible region) at optimum cesium concentration (4.24 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 80 deg. C of reservoir temperature) may be due to enhanced crystallinity of ITO films. Excess cesium incorporation into ITO films resulted in amorphization of its microstructure leading to degradation of ITO crystallinity. We discuss the cesium effects based on the growth mechanism of ITO films and the plasma density

  15. Electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on unheated substrates by d.c. reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, T.; Miyata, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Transparent conducting thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) have been deposited by d.c. reactive planar magnetron sputtering by using metal In-Sn alloy target in an Ar-O 2 gas mixture. The study demonstrates that the deposition on unheated substrates achieved sheet resistance of as low as about 50-60 Ω/□ (or a resistivity of about 7 x 10 -4 Ω cm), and visible transmission of about 90% for a wavelength of 420 nm. The effects of heat treatment at 450 C in air depends on the deposition conditions of the as-deposited ITO films. Although annealing improves the properties of as-deposited ITO films which were deposited with non-optimum conditions, the optimized condition for the formation of the film in the as-deposited state is essential to obtain a high quality transparent conducting coating. (orig.)

  16. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Roslie Ali; Shahrul Nizam Mohd Salleh

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) were deposited onto Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates by introducing the use of Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) as the method. The Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) were dispersed ultrasonically in ethanol and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to form stable suspension. The addition of Sodium Hydroxide in ethanol can stabilize the suspension, which was very important step before the deposition take place. Two substrates of Indium-Tin-Oxide(ITO)-coated glass placed in parallel facing each other (conductive side) into the suspension. The deposition occurs at room temperature, which the distance fixed at 1 cm between both electrodes and the voltage level applied was fixed at 400 V, respectively. The deposition time also was fixed at 30 minutes. The deposited ITO-Glass with Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) will be characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and Raman Microscope. The images of SEM shows that the Multi -Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) were distributed uniformly onto the surface of ITO-Glass. The deposited ITO-Glass with Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) could be the potential material in various practical applications such as field emission devices, fuel cells, and super capacitors. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was found to be an efficient technique in forming well distribution of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) onto ITO-Glass substrates, as proved in characterization methods, in which the optimum conditions will play the major role. (author)

  17. ITO films realized at room-temperature by ion beam sputtering for high-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, B.; Rammal, W.; Moliton, A. [Limoges Univ., Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, CNRS, UMR 6172, Institut de Recherche XLIM, Dept. MINACOM, 87 - Limoges (France)

    2006-06-15

    Indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin layers are obtained by an IBS (Ion Beam Sputtering) deposition process. We elaborated ITO films on flexible substrates of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), under soft conditions of low temperatures and fulfilling the requirements of fabrication processes of the organic optoelectronic components. With a non thermally activated (20 Celsius degrees) ITO deposition assisted by an oxygen flow (1 cm{sup 3}/min), we got an optical transmittance of 90% in the visible range, a resistivity around 10{sup -3} {omega}.cm and a surface roughness lower than 1.5 mm. Thus we realized flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs) with good performances: a maximum luminance of 12000 cd/m{sup 2} at a voltage of 19 V and a maximum luminous power efficiency around 1 lm/W at a voltage of 10 V (or a maximum current efficiency of 4 cd/A at 14 V) for the (PET(50 {mu}m) / ITO(200 nm) / TPD(40 nm) / Alq3(60 nm) / Ca / Al) structure. (authors)

  18. Three-dimensional electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells: synthesis of indium-tin-oxide nanowire arrays and ITO/TiO2 core-shell nanowire arrays by electrophoretic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H-W; Ting, C-F; Hung, M-K; Chiou, C-H; Liu, Y-L; Liu Zongwen; Ratinac, Kyle R; Ringer, Simon P

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) show promise as a cheaper alternative to silicon-based photovoltaics for specialized applications, provided conversion efficiency can be maximized and production costs minimized. This study demonstrates that arrays of nanowires can be formed by wet-chemical methods for use as three-dimensional (3D) electrodes in DSSCs, thereby improving photoelectric conversion efficiency. Two approaches were employed to create the arrays of ITO (indium-tin-oxide) nanowires or arrays of ITO/TiO 2 core-shell nanowires; both methods were based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD) within a polycarbonate template. The 3D electrodes for solar cells were constructed by using a doctor-blade for coating TiO 2 layers onto the ITO or ITO/TiO 2 nanowire arrays. A photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 4.3% was achieved in the DSSCs made from ITO nanowires; this performance was better than that of ITO/TiO 2 core-shell nanowires or pristine TiO 2 films. Cyclic voltammetry confirmed that the reaction current was significantly enhanced when a 3D ITO-nanowire electrode was used. Better separation of charge carriers and improved charge transport, due to the enlarged interfacial area, are thought to be the major advantages of using 3D nanowire electrodes for the optimization of DSSCs.

  19. Indium-tin-oxide thin film deposited by a dual ion beam assisted e-beam evaporation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, J.W.; Kim, J.S.; Yeom, G.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polycarbonate (PC) substrates at low temperatures (<90 deg. C) by a dual ion beam assisted e-beam evaporation system, where one gun (gun 1) is facing ITO flux and the other gun (gun 2) is facing the substrate. In this experiment, effects of rf power and oxygen flow rate of ion gun 2 on the electrical and optical properties of depositing ITO thin films were investigated. At optimal deposition conditions, ITO thin films deposited on the PC substrates larger than 20 cmx20 cm showed the sheet resistance of less than 40 Ω/sq., the optical transmittance of above 90%, and the uniformity of about 5%

  20. Fabricating ZnO single microwire light-emitting diode with transparent conductive ITO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yingtian; Dai, Jun; Shi, Zhifeng; Long, Beihong; Wu, Bin; Cai, Xupu; Chu, Xianwei; Du, Guotong; Zhang, Baolin; Yin, Jingzhi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, n-ZnO single microwire/p + -Si heterojunction LEDs are fabricated using the transparent conductive ITO film as an electrode. A distinct UV emission resulting from free exciton recombination in a ZnO single microwire is observed in the electroluminescence. Size difference of ZnO single microwire shows significant influence on emission efficiency. The EL spectra of n-ZnO single microwire/p-Si heterostructure exhibited relatively stronger UV emission which was compared with the EL spectra of n-ZnO single nanowire/p-Si heterostructure and n-ZnO film/p-Si heterostructure, respectively. - Highlights: • The ZnO microwires were synthesized with a vapor phase transport method. • ZnO single microwire/Si LEDs were fabricated using the ITO film as an electrode. • The EL spectra had been compared with n-ZnO film/p-Si heterostructure. • The EL spectra had been compared with n-ZnO single nanowire/p-Si heterostructure

  1. The effects of sodium in ITO by pulsed laser deposition on organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Thian Khok; Kee, Yeh Yee; Tan, Sek Sean; Siew, Wee Ong; Tou, Teck Yong; Yap, Seong Shan

    2010-01-01

    The depth profile of ITO on glass was measured by the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS) which revealed high sodium (Na) ion concentration at the ITO surface as well as at the ITO-glass interface as a result of out diffusion with substrate heating. Effects of Na ions on the performance of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) were studied by etching away a few tens of nanometers off the ITO surface with a dilute aquaregia solution of HNO 3 :HCl:H 2 O. A single-layer, molecularly doped ITO/(PVK+TPD+Alq 3 )/Al OLEDs were fabricated on bare and etched ITO samples. Although the removal of a 10-nm layer of ITO surface increased the voltage range, brightness, and lifetime, it was insufficient to correlate these improvements with solely to the Na ion reduction without considering the surface roughness. (orig.)

  2. The effects of sodium in ITO by pulsed laser deposition on organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Thian Khok [Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kee, Yeh Yee; Tan, Sek Sean; Siew, Wee Ong; Tou, Teck Yong [Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Seong Shan [Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-12-15

    The depth profile of ITO on glass was measured by the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS) which revealed high sodium (Na) ion concentration at the ITO surface as well as at the ITO-glass interface as a result of out diffusion with substrate heating. Effects of Na ions on the performance of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) were studied by etching away a few tens of nanometers off the ITO surface with a dilute aquaregia solution of HNO{sub 3}:HCl:H{sub 2}O. A single-layer, molecularly doped ITO/(PVK+TPD+Alq{sub 3})/Al OLEDs were fabricated on bare and etched ITO samples. Although the removal of a 10-nm layer of ITO surface increased the voltage range, brightness, and lifetime, it was insufficient to correlate these improvements with solely to the Na ion reduction without considering the surface roughness. (orig.)

  3. Indium oxide-based transparent conductive films deposited by reactive sputtering using alloy targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Maruyama, Eri; Jia, Junjun; Machinaga, Hironobu; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2017-04-01

    High-quality transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films, Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) and In2O3-ZnO (IZO), were successfully deposited on either synthetic silica or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates in the “transition region” by reactive dc magnetron sputtering using In-Zn and In-Sn alloy targets, respectively, with a specially designed plasma emission feedback system. The composition, crystallinity, surface morphology, and electrical and optical properties of the films were analyzed. All of the IZO films were amorphous, whereas the ITO films were polycrystalline over a wide range of deposition conditions. The minimum resistivities of the IZO and ITO films deposited on the heated PET substrates at 150 °C were 3.3 × 10-4 and 5.4 × 10-4 Ω·cm, respectively. By applying rf bias to unheated PET substrates, ITO films with a resistivity of 4.4 × 10-4 Ω·cm were deposited at a dc self-bias voltage of -60 V.

  4. Modification of erbium photoluminescence decay rate due to ITO layers on thin films of SiO{sub 2}:Er doped with Si-nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojdak, M., E-mail: m.wojdak@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Jayatilleka, H. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G4 (Canada); Shah, M. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Kenyon, A.J., E-mail: t.kenyon@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Gourbilleau, F.; Rizk, R. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), ENSICAEN, CNRS, CEA/IRAMIS, Université de Caen, 14050 CAEN cedex (France)

    2013-04-15

    During the fabrication of MOS light emitting devices, the thin film of active material is usually characterized by photoluminescence measurements before electrical contacts are deposited. However, the presence of a conductive contact layer can alter the luminescent properties of the active material. The local optical density of states changes due to the proximity of luminescent species to the interface with the conductive medium (the top electrode), and this modifies the radiative rate of luminescent centers within the active layer. In this paper we report enhancement of the observed erbium photoluminescence rate after deposition of indium tin oxide contacts on thin films of SiO{sub 2}:Er containing silicon nanoclusters, and relate this to Purcell enhancement of the erbium radiative rate. -- Highlights: ► We studied photoluminescence of Er in SiO{sub 2} thin films doped with Si nanoclusters. ► Presence of ITO layer on the top enhances photoluminescence decay rate of Er. ► The effect depends on the thickness of active film. ► Radiative rate change in proximity of ITO layer was calculated theoretically. ► The calculation results are compared with the experiment and discussed.

  5. Microprocessing of ITO and a-Si thin films using ns laser sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molpeceres, C.; Lauzurica, S.; Ocaña, J. L.; Gandía, J. J.; Urbina, L.; Cárabe, J.

    2005-06-01

    Selective ablation of thin films for the development of new photovoltaic panels and sensoring devices based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) is an emerging field, in which laser micromachining systems appear as appropriate tools for process development and device fabrication. In particular, a promising application is the development of purely photovoltaic position sensors. Standard p-i-n or Schottky configurations using transparent conductive oxides (TCO), a-Si and metals are especially well suited for these applications, appearing selective laser ablation as an ideal process for controlled material patterning and isolation. In this work a detailed study of laser ablation of a widely used TCO, indium-tin-oxide (ITO), and a-Si thin films of different thicknesses is presented, with special emphasis on the morphological analysis of the generated grooves. Excimer (KrF, λ = 248 nm) and DPSS lasers (λ = 355 and λ = 1064 nm) with nanosecond pulse duration have been used for material patterning. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques have been applied for the characterization of the ablated grooves. Additionally, process parametric windows have been determined in order to assess this technology as potentially competitive to standard photolithographic processes. The encouraging results obtained, with well-defined ablation grooves having thicknesses in the order of 10 µm both in ITO and in a-Si, open up the possibility of developing a high-performance double Schottky photovoltaic matrix position sensor.

  6. Plasma treatment of ITO films for the formation of nanoparticles toward scalable production of novel nanostructure-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Cigang; Bailey, Louise R.; Proudfoot, Gary; Cooke, Mike [Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, Bristol (United Kingdom); Eisenhawer, Bjoern; Jia, Guobin; Bergmann, Joachim; Falk, Fritz [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena (Germany); Ulyashin, Alexander [Department of Industrial Processes, SINTEF, Oslo (Norway)

    2015-01-01

    Plasma treatment of indium tin oxide (ITO) has been studied to form metallic nanoparticles (NPs) for nanostructure-based solar cells. It is demonstrated that NPs can be formed at temperatures as low as 100 C, and the size of NPs increases with temperature. An ITO layer treated at 100 C has higher transmission than that treated at 200 C for the same time. It is suggested that such NPs can be used for the conversion efficiency enhancement of ITO/Si heterojunction solar cells. It is also shown that NPs can be produced on different substrates covered by an ITO layer, such as ITO/Al foil, ITO/glass, ITO/stainless steel, and ITO/Si, where the resulting NPs were used for catalytic growth of Si nanowires (NWs). The morphology and density of Si NWs depend on a substrate. It is established that p-doped Si NWs show larger diameters, and n-doped Si NWs do not show obvious change of diameters compared to undoped Si NWs. New types of solar cell structures with combined radial and axial junctions have been proposed. As an example, p-n junction-based 3D structures using the NPs obtained from treatment of ITO film are presented. Finally, a potentially scalable process flow for fabrication of nanostructure-based solar cells is discussed. Schematic illustration of fabrication steps to produce the proposed novel solar cell with combined radial and axial junctions. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Laser deposition of HTSC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol', Eh.N.; Bagratashvili, V.N.; Zherikhin, A.N.; Sviridov, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) films fabrication by the laser deposition are reviewed. Physical and chemical processes taking place during laser deposition are considered, such as the target evaporation, the material transport from the target to the substrate, the film growth on the substrate, thermochemical reactions and mass transfer within the HTSC films and their stability. The experimental results on the laser deposition of different HTSC ceramics and their properties investigations are given. The major technological issues are discussed including the deposition schemes, the oxygen supply, the target compositions and structure, the substrates and interface layers selection, the deposition regimes and their impact on the HTSC films properties. 169 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  8. Opto-electronic properties of chromium doped indium-tin-oxide films deposited at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Weiche; Lee Shihchin; Yang Chihhao; Lin Tienchai

    2008-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) doped chromium films were deposited on Corning 7059 glass prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering under various levels of sputtering power for the chromium target. Experimental results show that the surface roughness slightly decreases by co-sputtering Cr. The pure ITO films deposited at room temperature were amorphous-like. At 15 W of chromium target power, the structure of ITO: Cr film mainly consists of (2 2 2) crystallization plane, with minority of (2 1 1), (4 4 0), (6 6 2) crystallization planes. The carrier concentration of the ITO films increases with increasing the doping of chromium, however the mobility of the carrier decreases. When the sputtering power of the chromium target is at 7.5 W, there has a maximum carrier mobility of 27.3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , minimum carrier concentration of 2.47 x 10 20 cm -3 , and lowest resistivity of 7.32 x 10 -4 Ω cm. The transmittance of all the chromium doped ITO films at the 300-800 nm wavelength region in this experiment can reach up to 70-85%. In addition, the blue shift of UV-Vis spectrum is not observed with the increase of carrier concentration

  9. ITO/Au/ITO sandwich structure for near-infrared plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xu; Mak, Chee Leung; Dai, Jiyan; Li, Kan; Ye, Hui; Leung, Chi Wah

    2014-09-24

    ITO/Au/ITO trilayers with varying gold spacer layer thicknesses were deposited on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Transmission electron microscopy measurements demonstrated the continuous nature of the Au layer down to 2.4 nm. XRD patterns clearly showed an enhanced crystallinity of the ITO films promoted by the insertion of the gold layer. Compared with a single layer of ITO with a carrier concentration of 7.12 × 10(20) cm(-3), the ITO/Au/ITO structure achieved an effective carrier concentration as high as 3.26 × 10(22) cm(-3). Transmittance and ellipsometry measurements showed that the optical properties of ITO/Au/ITO films were greatly influenced by the thickness of the inserted gold layer. The cross-point wavelength of the trilayer samples was reduced with increasing gold layer thickness. Importantly, the trilayer structure exhibited a reduced loss (compared with plain Au) in the near-infrared region, suggesting its potential for plasmonic applications in the near-infrared range.

  10. Dependence of plasma treatment of ITO electrode films on electrical and optical properties of polymer light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Baek, Seung Jun; Chang, Ho Jung; Chang, Young Chul

    2012-01-01

    Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) having indium tin oxide (ITO)/PEDOT:PSS [poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate]/PVK [poly-vinylcarbazole]:PFO-poss [poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) end capped by polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane]/TPBI [2,2',2''-(1,3,5-benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole)]/LiF/Al structures were prepared on plasma-treated ITO/glass substrates using spin-coating and thermal evaporation methods. The effects of the plasma treatment on the ITO films to the optical and electrical properties of the PLEDs were examined. The sheet resistance of the ITO films decreased with an increasing radio frequency (RF) plasma intensity from 20 to 200 W under a 20 mTorr Ar + O 2 gas (50:50 vol.%) pressure. The work function of the ITO films without plasma treatment was 4.97 eV, and increased to about 5.16-5.23 eV after the plasma treatment of the films. The surface roughness improved with increasing plasma intensities. The luminance and current efficiency of the PLEDs were improved when the devices were prepared on the plasma-treated ITO/glass substrates. The maximum current density and luminance for the PLEDs was obtained at a 150-W RF plasma intensity; they were 310 mA cm -2 and 2535 cd m -2 at 9 V, respectively. The Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates were found to be x, y = 0.17, 0.06-0.07, showing a good blue color. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Preparation and characterizations of electroluminescent p-ZnO : N/n-ZnO : Ga/ITO thin films by spray pyrolysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Panatarani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnO thin films were fabricated by spray pyrolysis (SP method with p-ZnO : N/n-ZnO:Ga/ITO structure. The X-ray results show that the deposited films have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The EDS results observed that the composition of Ga in ZnO:Ga and N in ZnO:N was 3.73% and 27.73% respectively. The photoluminescence (PL with excitation wave length of 260 nm shows that ZnO:Ga and ZnO:N films emitted UV emission at ∼393 and ∼388 nm, respectively and the films resistivity was 7.12 and 12.80 Ohm-cm respectively. The electroluminescence of the p-ZnO : N/n-ZnO:Ga/ITO structure was obtained by applying forward bias of 5 volt with 30 mA current, resulting in a 3.35 volt threshold bias with the peak electroluminescence in UV-blue range.

  12. Stress assisted selective ablation of ITO thin film by picosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Nazar; Chan, Helios; Milne, David; Brunton, Adam; M. O'Connor, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    Fast selective pattering with high precession on 175 nm ITO thin film with IR ps lasers is investigated. Ablation parameters are optimized with detailed studies on the scribed depth, topography, and particle generation using AFM and SEM. A comparison of 10 and 150 ps laser revealed that the shorter pulse (10 ps) laser is more appropriate in selective and partial ablation; up to 20 nm resolution for controlled depth with multipulses having energy below the damage threshold is demonstrated. The experimental results are interpreted to involve stress assisted ablation mechanism for the 10 ps laser while thermal ablation along with intense melting occurs for 150 ps laser. The transition between these regimes is estimated to occur at approximately 30 ps.

  13. Electrochemical characterization of organosilane-functionalized nanostructured ITO surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruna, R., E-mail: rpruna@el.ub.edu; Palacio, F.; López, M. [SIC, Departament d' Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pérez, J. [Nanobioengineering Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Baldiri Reixac 15-21, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Mir, M. [Nanobioengineering Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Baldiri Reixac 15-21, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Monforte de Lemos 3-5 Pabellón 11, E-28029 Madrid (Spain); Blázquez, O.; Hernández, S.; Garrido, B. [MIND-IN" 2UB, Departament d' Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-08-08

    The electroactivity of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) has been investigated for its further use in applications such as sensing biological compounds by the analysis of redox active molecules. ITO films were fabricated by using electron beam evaporation at different substrate temperatures and subsequently annealed for promoting their crystallization. The morphology of the deposited material was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, confirming the deposition of either thin films or nanowires, depending on the substrate temperature. Electrochemical surface characterization revealed a 45 % increase in the electroactive surface area of nanostructured ITO with respect to thin films, one third lower than the geometrical surface area variation determined by atomic force microscopy. ITO surfaces were functionalized with a model organic molecule known as 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol. The chemical attachment was done by means of a glycidoxy compound containing a reactive epoxy group, the so-called 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy-silane. ITO functionalization was useful for determining the benefits of nanostructuration on the surface coverage of active molecules. Compared to ITO thin films, an increase in the total peak height of 140 % was observed for as-deposited nanostructured electrodes, whereas the same measurement for annealed electrodes resulted in an increase of more than 400 %. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of nanostructured ITO to increase the surface-to-volume ratio, conductivity and surface area functionalization, features that highly benefit the performance of biosensors.

  14. Electrochemical characterization of organosilane-functionalized nanostructured ITO surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruna, R.; Palacio, F.; López, M.; Pérez, J.; Mir, M.; 2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (MIND-IN2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Blázquez, O.; 2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (MIND-IN2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Hernández, S.; 2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (MIND-IN2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Garrido, B.

    2016-01-01

    The electroactivity of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) has been investigated for its further use in applications such as sensing biological compounds by the analysis of redox active molecules. ITO films were fabricated by using electron beam evaporation at different substrate temperatures and subsequently annealed for promoting their crystallization. The morphology of the deposited material was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, confirming the deposition of either thin films or nanowires, depending on the substrate temperature. Electrochemical surface characterization revealed a 45 % increase in the electroactive surface area of nanostructured ITO with respect to thin films, one third lower than the geometrical surface area variation determined by atomic force microscopy. ITO surfaces were functionalized with a model organic molecule known as 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol. The chemical attachment was done by means of a glycidoxy compound containing a reactive epoxy group, the so-called 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy-silane. ITO functionalization was useful for determining the benefits of nanostructuration on the surface coverage of active molecules. Compared to ITO thin films, an increase in the total peak height of 140 % was observed for as-deposited nanostructured electrodes, whereas the same measurement for annealed electrodes resulted in an increase of more than 400 %. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of nanostructured ITO to increase the surface-to-volume ratio, conductivity and surface area functionalization, features that highly benefit the performance of biosensors.

  15. Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited using High Target Utilisation Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calnan, S.; Upadhyaya, H.M.; Thwaites, M.J.; Tiwari, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on soda lime glass and polyimide substrates using an innovative process known as High Target Utilisation Sputtering (HiTUS). The influence of the oxygen flow rate, substrate temperature and sputtering pressure, on the electrical, optical and thermal stability properties of the films was investigated. High substrate temperature, medium oxygen flow rate and moderate pressure gave the best compromise of low resistivity and high transmittance. The lowest resistivity was 1.6 x 10 -4 Ω cm on glass while that on the polyimide was 1.9 x 10 -4 Ω cm. Substrate temperatures above 100 deg. C were required to obtain visible light transmittance exceeding 85% for ITO films on glass. The thermal stability of the films was mainly influenced by the oxygen flow rate and thus the initial degree of oxidation. The film resistivity was either unaffected or reduced after heating in vacuum but generally increased for oxygen deficient films when heated in air. The greatest increase in transmittance of oxygen deficient films occurred for heat treatment in air while that of the highly oxidised films was largely unaffected by heating in both media. This study has demonstrated the potential of HiTUS as a favourable deposition method for high quality ITO suitable for use in thin film solar cells

  16. Electrochemistry of LB films of mixed MGDG:UQ on ITO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyo, Javier; Guaus, Ester; Torrent-Burgués, Juan; Sanz, Fausto

    2015-08-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of biomimetic monolayers of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) incorporating ubiquinone-10 (UQ) has been investigated. MGDG is the principal component in the thylakoid membrane and UQ seems a good substitute for plastoquinone-9, involved in photosynthesis chain. The monolayers have been performed using the Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) techniques and the redox behaviour of the LB films, transferred at several surface pressures on a glass covered with indium-tin oxide (ITO), has been characterized by cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voltammograms show that UQ molecules present two redox processes (I and II) at high UQ content and high surface pressures, and only one redox process (I) at low UQ content and low surface pressures. The apparent rate constants calculated for processes I and II indicate a different kinetic control for the reduction and the oxidation of UQ/UQH2 redox couple, being k(Rapp)(I) = 2.2 · 10(-5) s(-1), k(Rapp)(II) = 5.1 · 10(-14) k(Oapp)(I) = 3.3 · 10(-3) s(-1) and k(Oapp)(II) = 6.1 · 10(-6) s(-1), respectively. The correlation of the redox response with the physical states of the LB films allows determining the positions of the UQ molecules in the biomimetic monolayer, which change with the surface pressure and the UQ content. These positions are known as diving and swimming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Photocatalysis of zinc oxide nanotip array/titanium oxide film heterojunction prepared by aqueous solution deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Lee, Bo-Wei; Kao, Chen-Yu

    2017-05-01

    A TiO2 film was prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass by aqueous solution deposition (ASD) with precursors of ammonium hexafluoro-titanate and boric acid at 40 °C. The photocatalysis of annealed TiO2 film increases with increasing growth time and decreases with increasing growth times longer than 60 min. A ZnO nanotip array was prepared on ZnO seed layer/TiO2 film/glass by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of zinc nitrate and ammonium hydroxide at 70 °C. The photocatalysis of ASD-ZnO/ASD-TiO2 film/ITO glass can be better than that of P25.

  18. IR spectroscopy at the ITO-organic interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, Milan [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Shazada, Ahmad [Max-Planck Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany); Tamanai, Akemi; Trollmann, Jens; Glaser, Tobias; Beck, Sebastian; Tengeler, Sven; Pucci, Annemarie [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Thin films of P3HT have been prepared by spin coating and electrooxidative polymerization on platinum- and ITO-coated substrates. Additionally, P3HT-films on silicon substrates have been prepared by spin coating only. The measured IR spectra of the spin coated films allowed for an elaboration of a detailed optical model for P3HT, which has been used to simulate IR reflection-absorption spectra on ITO and Pt substrates. Comparison of simulated spectra with measurements revealed no substrate influence on the IR spectra for the spincoated films. In case of spincoated P3HT-films on ITO-substrate, the obtained IR spectra correspond to simulation data very well up to 6000 wavenumbers. In the electropolymerized P3HT films we have identified residuals of the electrolyte ionic liquid, acting as dopand for P3HT. While IR spectra of the electropolymerized P3HT films on Pt substrate could be explained reasonably well as a superposition of chemically doped P3HT and the ionic electrolyte, the IR spectra of electropolymerized P3HT films on ITO substrates showed strongly deposition-time dependent deviations. These were most likely related to varying properties of the ITO surface between reference and sample measurement due to an interaction of ITO and the electrolyte at the film-substrate interface.

  19. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition of indium tin oxide thin films in different gases and organic light emitting device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, T.Y.; Tou, T.Y.; Yow, H.K.; Safran, G.

    2008-01-01

    The microstructures, electrical and optical properties of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) films, deposited on glass substrates in different background gases by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, were characterized. The optimal pressure for obtaining the lowest resistivity in ITO thin film is inversely proportional to the molecular weight of the background gases, namely the argon (Ar), oxygen (O 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ) and helium (He). While substrate heating to 250 deg. C decreased the ITO resistivity to -4 Ω cm, obtaining the optical transmittance of higher than 90% depended mainly on the background gas pressure for O 2 and Ar. Obtaining the lowest ITO resistivity, however, did not beget a high optical transmittance for ITO deposition in N 2 and He. Scanning electron microscope pictures show distinct differences in microstructures due to the background gas: nanostructures when using Ar and N 2 but polycrystalline for using O 2 and He. The ITO surface roughness varied with the deposition distance. The effects on the molecularly doped, single-layer organic light emitting device (OLED) operation and performance were also investigated. Only ITO thin films prepared in O 2 and Ar are suitable for the fabrication OLED with performance comparable to that fabricated on the commercially available, magnetron-sputtered ITO

  20. Deposition of magnetoelectric hexaferrite thin films on substrates of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, Saba; Izadkhah, Hessam; Vittoria, Carmine

    2016-12-15

    Magnetoelectric M-type hexaferrite thin films (SrCo{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19}) were deposited using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique on Silicon substrate. A conductive oxide layer of Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO) was deposited as a buffer layer with the dual purposes of 1) to reduce lattice mismatch between the film and silicon and 2) to lower applied voltages to observe magnetoelectric effects at room temperature on Silicon based devices. The film exhibited magnetoelectric effects as confirmed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques in voltages as low as 0.5 V. Without the oxide conductive layer the required voltages to observe magnetoelectric effects was typically about 1000 times larger. The magnetoelectric thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and ferromagnetic resonance techniques. We measured saturation magnetization of 650 G, and coercive field of about 150 Oe for these thin films. The change in remanence magnetization was measured in the presence of DC voltages and the changes in remanence were in the order of 15% with the application of only 0.5 V (DC voltage). We deduced a magnetoelectric coupling, α, of 1.36×10{sup −9} s m{sup −1} in SrCo{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19} thin films.

  1. Effect of Hydrogen Post-Annealing on Transparent Conductive ITO/Ga2O3 Bi-Layer Films for Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Heon; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sang Young; Kim, Tae Geun

    2015-10-01

    The effect of hydrogen post-annealing on the electrical and optical properties of ITO/Ga2O bi-layer films, deposited by RF magnetron sputtering, is investigated for potential applications to transparent conductive electrodes of ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes. Three samples--an as-deposited sample and two samples post-annealed in N2 gas and N2-H2 gas mixture--were prepared and annealed at different temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 500 °C for comparison. Among these samples, the sample annealed at 300 °C in a mixture of N2 and H2 gases shows the lowest sheet resistance of 301.3 Ω/square and a high UV transmittance of 87.1% at 300 nm.

  2. Thickness-dependent surface plasmon resonance of ITO nanoparticles for ITO/In-Sn bilayer structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenzuo; Hong, Ruijin; Jing, Ming; Shao, Wen; Tao, Chunxian; Zhang, Dawei

    2018-01-05

    Tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in doped semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs), which represents an important characteristic in LSPR sensor applications, still remains a challenge. Here, indium tin oxide/indium tin alloy (ITO/In-Sn) bilayer films were deposited by electron beam evaporation and the properties, such as the LSPR and surface morphology, were investigated by UV-VIS-NIR double beam spectrophotometer and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. By simply engineering the thickness of ITO/In-Sn NPs without any microstructure fabrications, the LSPR wavelength of ITO NPs can be tuned by a large amount from 858 to 1758 nm. AFM images show that the strong LSPR of ITO NPs is closely related to the enhanced coupling between ITO and In-Sn NPs. Blue shifts of ITO LSPR from 1256 to 1104 nm are also observed in the as-annealed samples due to the higher free carrier concentration. Meanwhile, we also demonstrated that the ITO LSPR in ITO/In-Sn NPs structures has good sensitivity to the surrounding media and stability after 30 d exposure in air, enabling its application prospects in many biosensing devices.

  3. Growth modes of pentacene films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisz, G.; Kuzma, M.; Virt, I.; Sagan, P.; Rudyj, I.

    2011-01-01

    Thin pentacene films were deposited on KCl and ITO/glass substrates by the pulsed laser deposition method (PLD) using a YAG:Nd 3+ laser with a second harmonic (λ = 532 nm). We compared the structure of the layer on differently oriented substrates with respect to the pentacene plasma plume - vertical and parallel orientation. The structure of the layers formed was examined using SEM, RHEED and THEED methods. The lattice parameters of the layer deposited on KCl were determined from THEED pattern (a = 5.928 A, b 7.874 A, c = 14,98 A, α = 76.54 o , β 75.17 o , γ = 89.20 o ). The preferred direction [11-bar 0] of the layer growth on KCl substrate was addressed. The effect of the substrate orientation results in a different growth mode of the layers.

  4. ITO-free organic light-emitting diodes with MoO{sub 3}/Al/MoO{sub 3} as semitransparent anode fabricated using thermal deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hsin-Wei; Huang, Ching-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Kao, Po-Ching [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60004, Taiwan (China); Chu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: chusy@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • In this paper, the structure of the proposed devices is substrate (glass; polyethersulfone (PES))/anode (MoO{sub 3}/Al/MoO{sub 3}; MoO{sub 3}/Al)/α-naphthylphenylbiphenyl diamine (NPB) (40 nm)/tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) (60 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (150 nm). • The optical transmittance of the metal layer was enhanced by depositing metal oxidation (MoO{sub 3}) and metal (Al) layers. • The optimized films show the typical sheet resistance of 7 Ω/sq and a high transmittance of 70% at 550 nm. • The indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free OLEDs with the fabricated composite anodes on a glass substrate exhibited the high luminance and current efficiency of 21,750 cd/m{sup 2} and 3.18 cd/A, respectively. • The bending effects on PES substrate by depositing metal oxidation (MoO{sub 3}) and metal (Al) layers were also investigated. • MoO{sub 3} covering the Al layer modifies the surface of the electrode and enhances the durability. The surface roughness of the bi-layer films was higher than that of the tri-layer films. Therefore, OLEDs with OMO anode outperform those with bi-layer films anode. - Abstract: In this paper, semitransparent electrodes with the structure substrate/MoO{sub 3}/Al/MoO{sub 3} (OMO) were fabricated via the thermal deposition method for use as the anode in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The optical transmittance of the metal layer was enhanced by depositing metal oxidation (MoO{sub 3}) and metal (Al) layers. The optimal thickness of the Al thin films was determined to be 15 nm for high optical transmittance and good electrical conductivity. The optimized films show the typical sheet resistance of 7 Ω/sq and a high transmittance of 70% at 550 nm. The indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free OLEDs with the fabricated composite anodes on a glass substrate exhibited the high luminance and current efficiency of 21,750 cd/m{sup 2} and 3.18 cd/A, respectively. In addition, bending effects on the polyethersulfone (PES) substrate/MoO{sub 3

  5. ITO-free organic light-emitting diodes with MoO3/Al/MoO3 as semitransparent anode fabricated using thermal deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hsin-Wei; Huang, Ching-Wen; Kao, Po-Ching; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In this paper, the structure of the proposed devices is substrate (glass; polyethersulfone (PES))/anode (MoO 3 /Al/MoO 3 ; MoO 3 /Al)/α-naphthylphenylbiphenyl diamine (NPB) (40 nm)/tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) (60 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (150 nm). • The optical transmittance of the metal layer was enhanced by depositing metal oxidation (MoO 3 ) and metal (Al) layers. • The optimized films show the typical sheet resistance of 7 Ω/sq and a high transmittance of 70% at 550 nm. • The indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free OLEDs with the fabricated composite anodes on a glass substrate exhibited the high luminance and current efficiency of 21,750 cd/m 2 and 3.18 cd/A, respectively. • The bending effects on PES substrate by depositing metal oxidation (MoO 3 ) and metal (Al) layers were also investigated. • MoO 3 covering the Al layer modifies the surface of the electrode and enhances the durability. The surface roughness of the bi-layer films was higher than that of the tri-layer films. Therefore, OLEDs with OMO anode outperform those with bi-layer films anode. - Abstract: In this paper, semitransparent electrodes with the structure substrate/MoO 3 /Al/MoO 3 (OMO) were fabricated via the thermal deposition method for use as the anode in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The optical transmittance of the metal layer was enhanced by depositing metal oxidation (MoO 3 ) and metal (Al) layers. The optimal thickness of the Al thin films was determined to be 15 nm for high optical transmittance and good electrical conductivity. The optimized films show the typical sheet resistance of 7 Ω/sq and a high transmittance of 70% at 550 nm. The indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free OLEDs with the fabricated composite anodes on a glass substrate exhibited the high luminance and current efficiency of 21,750 cd/m 2 and 3.18 cd/A, respectively. In addition, bending effects on the polyethersulfone (PES) substrate/MoO 3 /Al/MoO 3 and PES substrate/MoO 3 /Al structures were

  6. Amorphous indium tin oxide films deposited on flexible substrates by facing target sputtering at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Yu; Gao, Fangyuan; Dong, Guobo; Guo, Tingting; Liu, Qirong; Ye, Di; Diao, Xungang

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates using a DC facing target sputtering (DC-FTS) system at room temperature. The sputtering conditions including oxygen partial pressure and discharge current were varied from 0% to 4% and 0.5 A to 1.3 A, respectively. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the structure and surface morphology of as-prepared films. All the films exhibited amorphous structures and smooth surfaces. The dependence of electrical and optical properties on various deposition parameters was investigated by a linear array four-point probe, Hall-effect measurements, and ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A lowest sheet resistance of 17.4 Ω/square, a lowest resistivity of 3.61 × 10 −4 Ω cm, and an average relative transmittance over 88% in the visible range were obtained under the optimal deposition conditions. The relationship between the Hall mobility (μ) and carrier concentration (n) was interpreted by a functional relation of μ ∼ n −0.127 , which indicated that ionized donor scattering was the dominant electron scattering mechanism. It is also confirmed that the carrier concentration in ITO films prepared by the DC-FTS system is mainly controlled by the number of activated Sn donors rather than oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • ITO thin films were grown on PET substrates by DC facing target sputtering system. • All the films were prepared at room temperature and exhibited amorphous structure. • Highly conductive and transparent ITO thin films were obtained. • The dominant ionized donor scattering mechanism was suggested

  7. Amorphous indium tin oxide films deposited on flexible substrates by facing target sputtering at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Yu [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Gao, Fangyuan, E-mail: gaofangyuan@buaa.edu.cn [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Dong, Guobo; Guo, Tingting; Liu, Qirong [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ye, Di [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100191 (China); Diao, Xungang [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates using a DC facing target sputtering (DC-FTS) system at room temperature. The sputtering conditions including oxygen partial pressure and discharge current were varied from 0% to 4% and 0.5 A to 1.3 A, respectively. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the structure and surface morphology of as-prepared films. All the films exhibited amorphous structures and smooth surfaces. The dependence of electrical and optical properties on various deposition parameters was investigated by a linear array four-point probe, Hall-effect measurements, and ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A lowest sheet resistance of 17.4 Ω/square, a lowest resistivity of 3.61 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm, and an average relative transmittance over 88% in the visible range were obtained under the optimal deposition conditions. The relationship between the Hall mobility (μ) and carrier concentration (n) was interpreted by a functional relation of μ ∼ n{sup −0.127}, which indicated that ionized donor scattering was the dominant electron scattering mechanism. It is also confirmed that the carrier concentration in ITO films prepared by the DC-FTS system is mainly controlled by the number of activated Sn donors rather than oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • ITO thin films were grown on PET substrates by DC facing target sputtering system. • All the films were prepared at room temperature and exhibited amorphous structure. • Highly conductive and transparent ITO thin films were obtained. • The dominant ionized donor scattering mechanism was suggested.

  8. Impedance spectroscopy of heterojunction solar cell a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film investigated at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šály, V; Pern, M; Janíček, F; Mikolášek, M; Packa, J; Huran, J

    2017-01-01

    Progressive smart photovoltaic technologies including heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film are one of the prospective replacements of conventional photovoltaic silicon technology. Our paper is focused on the investigation of heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si provided with a layer of ITO (indium oxide/tin oxide 90/10 wt.%) which acts as a passivating and antireflection coating. Prepared photovoltaic cell structure was investigated at various temperatures and the influence of temperature on its operation was searched. The investigation of the dynamic properties of heterojunction PV cells was carried out using impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent AC circuit which approximates the measured impedance data was proposed. Assessment of the influence of the temperature on the operation of prepared heterostructure was carried out by analysis of the temperature dependence of AC equivalent circuit elements. (paper)

  9. Impedance spectroscopy of heterojunction solar cell a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film investigated at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šály, V.; Perný, M.; Janíček, F.; Huran, J.; Mikolášek, M.; Packa, J.

    2017-04-01

    Progressive smart photovoltaic technologies including heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film are one of the prospective replacements of conventional photovoltaic silicon technology. Our paper is focused on the investigation of heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si provided with a layer of ITO (indium oxide/tin oxide 90/10 wt.%) which acts as a passivating and antireflection coating. Prepared photovoltaic cell structure was investigated at various temperatures and the influence of temperature on its operation was searched. The investigation of the dynamic properties of heterojunction PV cells was carried out using impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent AC circuit which approximates the measured impedance data was proposed. Assessment of the influence of the temperature on the operation of prepared heterostructure was carried out by analysis of the temperature dependence of AC equivalent circuit elements.

  10. Study of Ag/RGO/ITO sandwich structure for resistive switching behavior deposited on plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Rajdeep; Rag, Adarsh; De, Shounak; Bhat, Somashekhara

    2018-05-01

    We report here the use of facile and environmentally benign way synthesized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for low-voltage non-volatile memory device as charge storing element. The RGO solutions have been synthesized using electrochemical exfoliation of battery electrode. The solution processed based RGO solution is suitable for large area and low-cost processing on plastic substrate. Room-temperature current-voltage characterisation has been carried out in Ag/RGO/ITO PET sandwich configuration to study the type of trap distribution. It is observed that in the low-voltage sweep, ohmic current is the main mechanism of current flow and trap filled/assisted conduction is observed at high-sweep voltage region. The Ag/RGO/ITO PET sandwich structure showed bipolar resistive switching behavior. These mechanisms can be analyzed based on oxygen availability and vacancies in the RGO giving rise to continuous least resistive path (conductive) and high resistance path along the structure. An Ag/RGO/ITO arrangement demonstrates long retention time with low operating voltage, low set/reset voltage, good ON/OFF ratio of 103 (switching transition between lower resistance state and higher resistance state and decent switching performance. The RGO memory showed decent results with an almost negligible degradation in switching properties which can be used for low-voltage and low-cost advanced flexible electronics.

  11. Optimisation of chemical solution deposition of indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunde, Tor Olav Løveng; Einarsrud, Mari-Ann; Grande, Tor, E-mail: grande@ntnu.no

    2014-12-31

    An environmentally friendly aqueous sol–gel process has been optimised to deposit indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films, aiming to improve the film properties and reduce the deposition costs. It was demonstrated how parameters such as cation concentration and viscosity could be applied to modify the physical properties of the sol and thereby reduce the need for multiple coatings to yield films with sufficient conductivity. The conductivity of the thin films was enhanced by adjusting the heat treatment temperature and atmosphere. Both increasing the heat treatment temperature of the films from 530 to 800 °C and annealing in reducing atmosphere significantly improved the electrical conductivity, and conductivities close to the state of the art sputtered ITO films were obtained. A pronounced decreased conductivity was observed after exposing the thin films to air and the thermal reduction and ageing of the film was studied by in situ conductivity measurements. - Highlights: • Spin coating of indium tin oxide using an aqueous solution was optimised. • The conductivity was enhanced by thermal annealing in reducing atmosphere. • The conductivity of is comparable to the conductivity of sputtered films. • A relaxation process in the reduced thin film was observed after exposure in air.

  12. Minerals deposited as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Leyt, D.V. de; Custo, Graciela

    1987-01-01

    Free matrix effects are due to thin film deposits. Thus, it was decided to investigate this technique as a possibility to use pure oxide of the desired element, extrapolating its concentration from analytical curves made with avoiding, at the same time, mathematical corrections. The proposed method was employed to determine iron and titanium concentrations in geological samples. The range studied was 0.1-5%m/m for titanium and 5-20%m/m for iron. For both elements the reproducibility was about 7% and differences between this method and other chemical determinations were 15% for titanium and 7% for iron. (Author) [es

  13. All-Solution-Processed, Ambient Method for ITO-Free, Roll-Coated Tandem Polymer Solar Cells using Solution- Processed Metal Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Dam, Henrik Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    2014-01-01

    A solution-processed silver film is employed in the processing of top-illuminated indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free polymer solar cells in single- and double-junction (tandem) structures. The nontransparent silver film fully covers the substrate and serves as the bottom electrode whereas a PEDOT...... in terms of surface morphological and topographical properties and to ITO in terms of flexibility. The slot–die coated Ag film demonstrates extremely low roughness (a root-meansquare roughness of 3 nm was measured over 240_320 mm2 area), is highly conductive (

  14. Effect of light illumination and temperature on P3HT films, n-type Si, and ITO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scudiero, Louis, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Chemistry Department and Material Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States); Shen, Yang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, 351 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Gupta, Mool C., E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, 351 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The secondary electron (SE) cutoff energy region spectra are recorded before (dark), during (light) and after laser exposure (dark) for P3HT, Si, and ITO. An SE cutoff energy shift is observed when the bare n-type doped Si substrate is exposed to 532 nm light. This is attributed to the presence of a thin native oxide layer (∼1.5 nm) on Si. No energy shift is detected on the Ar sputtered clean Si. Also, no shift was observed for ITO. When exposed to light, a net SE energy cutoff shift was measured for P3HT deposited on both Si and ITO substrates at room temperature. However, no significant valence band maximum (VBM) energy shifts were measured for P3HT that was spun cast on both substrates under dark and light illumination. Furthermore, light effect was investigated at three different temperatures; 25, 70, and 160{sup o}C and it is found that for P3HT, the magnitude of the SE cutoff energy change is not only substrate dependent but also depends on temperature.

  15. Indium-tin oxide thin films deposited at room temperature on glass and PET substrates: Optical and electrical properties variation with the H2-Ar sputtering gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; de Andrés, A.; Prieto, C.

    2015-07-01

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. A clear evolution of optical transparency and sheet resistance with the content of H2 in the gas mixture of H2 and Ar during magnetron sputtering deposition is observed. An optimized performance of the transparent conductive properties ITO films on PET was achieved for samples prepared using H2/(Ar + H2) ratio in the range of 0.3-0.6%. Moreover, flexible ITO-PET samples show a better transparent conductive figure of merit, ΦTC = T10/RS, than their glass counterparts. These results provide valuable insight into the room temperature fabrication and development of transparent conductive ITO-based flexible devices.

  16. Synergetic effect of LaB6 and ITO nanoparticles on optical properties and thermal stability of poly(vinylbutyral) nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Hongbo; Su, Yuchang; Hu, Te; Liu, Shidong; Mu, Shijia; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    In this work, different compositions of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) and tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were doped into poly(vinylbutyral) (PVB) matrix to prepare PVB/LaB 6 -ITO nanocomposite (PLINC) films by a solution casting method. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectroscopy (UV-vis-NIR) were employed to characterize the PLINCs. The TGA and UV-vis-NIR results reveal that the nanocomposite films possessed outstanding thermal stability. The temperature where 5 % weight loss of the PVB matrix was improved after the addition of LaB 6 and ITO particles and the property for blocking near infrared light was also enhanced as compared with the case of pure PVB film. (orig.)

  17. Structural and optical properties of zirconia thin films deposited by reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Jin, Jie [Tianjin University, School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin (China); Cheng, Jui-Ching, E-mail: juiching@ntut.edu.tw [Chang-Gung University, Department of Electronics, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jyh-Wei [Ming Chi University of Technology, College of Materials Engineering, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Wu, Kuo-Hong [Chang-Gung University, Department of Electronics, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Cheng; Tsai, Jung-Ruey [Asia University, Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liu, Kou-Chen, E-mail: jacobliu@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Chang-Gung University, Department of Electronics, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    Zirconia films are deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) technology on glass and indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/glass substrates. Preparation, microstructure and optical characteristics of the films have been studied. During deposition, the influence of the target power and duty cycle on the peak current–voltage and power density has been observed in oxide mode. Transparent thin films under different oxygen proportions are obtained on the two substrates. Atomic force microscopy measurements showed that the surface roughness of the films was lower by reactive HiPIMS than DC sputtering for all oxygen contents. The transmission and reflectance properties of differently grown zirconia films were also investigated using an ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer. The optical transmittance of films grown on glass substrates by HiPIMS reached maximum values above 90%, which exceeded that by DC sputtering. The band edge near 5.86 eV shifted to a lower wavelength for zirconia films prepared with oxygen flow rates lower than 4.5 sccm. For the films prepared on ITO/glass substrates, the transmittance and the band gap of zirconia films were limited by ITO films; a maximum average transmittance of 84% was obtained at 4.5 sccm O{sub 2} and the energy band gap was in the range of 3.7–3.8 eV for oxygen flow rates ranging from 3.5 to 5.0 sccm. Finally, the electrical properties of zirconia films have also been discussed. - Highlights: • Zirconia films are deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering. • Low roughness films are obtained. • Films show a high transmittance (> 90%). • Films prepared on glass have a band gap of 5.9 eV.

  18. Sintering and electrical properties of titania- and zirconia-containing In2O3-SnO2 (ITO) ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadaud, N.; Nanot, M.; Bock, P.

    1994-01-01

    The deposition rate and film quality of In 2 O 3 -SnO 2 (ITO) transparent electrodes processed by sputtering are improved when using dense sputtering targets. Unfortunately, ITO ceramics do not sinter easily. It is shown that addition of TiO 2 ( 2 was also investigated

  19. Surface-potential undulation of Alq3 thin films prepared on ITO, Au, and n-Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Ito, Hiromi; Maeda, Mizuo; Hara, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    The surface potential (SP) morphology on thin films of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Alq3) was investigated with Kelvin probe force microscopy. Thin Alq3 films of 100 nm were prepared on ITO/glass substrates, Au/mica substrates, and n-Si substrates. Cloud-like morphologies of the SP undulation with 200-400 nm in lateral size were observed for all three types of the substrates. New larger peaks were observed in the cloud-like morphologies when the surfaces were exposed shortly to a light, while the SP average was reduced monotonically. The nonuniform distribution of charged traps and mobility was deduced from the SP undulation morphology and its photoexposure dependences.

  20. Excimer Laser Deposition of PLZT Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, GAry

    1991-01-01

    .... In order to integrate these devices into optical systems, the production of high quality thin films with high transparency and perovskite crystal structure is desired. This requires development of deposition technologies to overcome the challenges of depositing and processing PLZT thin films.

  1. Investigation of the optical property and structure of WO3 thin films with different sputtering depositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Jan, Der-Jun; Chen, Chien-Han; Huang, Kuo-Ting; Lo, Yen-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Hui

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the optical properties and structure of tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films that was deposited by different sputtering depositions. WO3 thin films deposited by two different depositions of direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and pulsed DC sputtering. A 99.95% WO3 target was used as the starting material for these depositions. These WO3 thin films were deposited on the ITO glass, PET and silicon substrate by different ratios of oxygen and argon. A shadow moiré interferometer would be introduced to measure the residual stress for PET substrate. RF magnetron sputtering had the large residual stress than the other's depositions. A Raman spectrum could exhibit the phase of oxidation of WO3 thin film by different depositions. At the ratio of oxygen and argon was about 1:1, and the WO3 thin films had the best oxidation. However, it was important at the change of the transmittance (ΔT = Tbleached - Tcolored) between the coloring and bleaching for the smart window. Therefore, we also found the WO3 thin films had the large variation of transmittance between the coloring and bleaching at the gas ratios of oxygen and argon of 1:1.

  2. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  3. Influence of Oxygen Concentration on the Performance of Ultra-Thin RF Magnetron Sputter Deposited Indium Tin Oxide Films as a Top Electrode for Photovoltaic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity for substantial efficiency enhancements of thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H solar photovoltaic (PV cells using plasmonic absorbers requires ultra-thin transparent conducting oxide top electrodes with low resistivity and high transmittances in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fabricating ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO films (sub-50 nm using conventional methods has presented a number of challenges; however, a novel method involving chemical shaving of thicker (greater than 80 nm RF sputter deposited high-quality ITO films has been demonstrated. This study investigates the effect of oxygen concentration on the etch rates of RF sputter deposited ITO films to provide a detailed understanding of the interaction of all critical experimental parameters to help create even thinner layers to allow for more finely tune plasmonic resonances. ITO films were deposited on silicon substrates with a 98-nm, thermally grown oxide using RF magnetron sputtering with oxygen concentrations of 0, 0.4 and 1.0 sccm and annealed at 300 °C air ambient. Then the films were etched using a combination of water and hydrochloric and nitric acids for 1, 3, 5 and 8 min at room temperature. In-between each etching process cycle, the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, 4-point probe (electrical conductivity, and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. All the films were polycrystalline in nature and highly oriented along the (222 reflection. Ultra-thin ITO films with record low resistivity values (as low as 5.83 × 10−4 Ω·cm were obtained and high optical transparency is exhibited in the 300–1000 nm wavelength region for all the ITO films. The etch rate, preferred crystal lattice growth plane, d-spacing and lattice distortion were also observed to be highly dependent on the nature of growth environment for RF sputter deposited ITO films. The structural, electrical

  4. Reactive Chemical Vapor Deposition Method as New Approach for Obtaining Electroluminescent Thin Film Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina V. Utochnikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The new reactive chemical vapor deposition (RCVD method has been proposed for thin film deposition of luminescent nonvolatile lanthanide aromatic carboxylates. This method is based on metathesis reaction between the vapors of volatile lanthanide dipivaloylmethanate (Ln(dpm3 and carboxylic acid (HCarb orH2Carb′ and was successfully used in case of HCarb. Advantages of the method were demonstrated on example of terbium benzoate (Tb(bz3 and o-phenoxybenzoate thin films, and Tb(bz3 thin films were successfully examined in the OLED with the following structure glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/TPD/Tb(bz3/Ca/Al. Electroluminescence spectra of Tb(bz3 showed only typical luminescent bands, originated from transitions of the terbium ion. Method peculiarities for deposition of compounds of dibasic acids H2Carb′ are established on example of terbium and europium terephtalates and europium 2,6-naphtalenedicarboxylate.

  5. Pulsed-laser deposition of smooth thin films of Er, Pr and Nd doped glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epurescu, G. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 16, RO- 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)], E-mail: george@nipne.ro; Vlad, A. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 16, RO- 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Johannes-Kepler-Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Bodea, M.A. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Johannes-Kepler-Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Vasiliu, C. [National Institute for Optoelectronics INOE 2000, Atomistilor 1, P.O. Box MG 05, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Dumitrescu, O. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Industrial Chemistry, Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials Department, Polizu Str. 1, sect. 1, Bucharest (Romania); Niciu, H. [National Institute of Glass, Department for Laser Glass Technology, 47 Th. Pallady Str., Sect.3, Bucharest (Romania); Elisa, M. [National Institute for Optoelectronics INOE 2000, Atomistilor 1, P.O. Box MG 05, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Siraj, K.; Pedarnig, J.D.; Baeuerle, D. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Johannes-Kepler-Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Filipescu, M.; Nedelcea, A. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 16, RO- 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Galca, A.C. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105bis, P.O. Box MG 07, RO- 77125, Magurele (Romania); Grigorescu, C.E.A. [National Institute for Optoelectronics INOE 2000, Atomistilor 1, P.O. Box MG 05, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG 16, RO- 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2009-03-01

    Thin films of complex oxides have been obtained by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) from glass targets belonging to the system Li{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-(RE){sub 2}O{sub 3}, with RE = Nd, Pr, Er. The films were deposited on quartz, silicon and ITO/glass substrates using a F{sub 2} laser ({lambda} = 157 nm, {iota} {approx} 20 ns) for ablation in vacuum. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the oxide films were investigated through IR and UV-VIS spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. The laser wavelength was found to be the key parameter to obtain thin films with very smooth surface. In this way new possibilities are opened to grow multilayer structures for photonic applications.

  6. Influence of ITO deposition and post annealing on HIT solar cell structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, D.; Tavakoliyaraki, A.; Wu, Y.; Van Swaaij, R.A.C.M.M.; Zeman, M.

    2011-01-01

    Heterojunction silicon with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cells that combine advanced thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and crystalline silicon (c-Si) technologies are promising because of the high performance at low cost. Due to the low conductivity of a-Si:H, indium tin oxide

  7. Effects of target bias voltage on indium tin oxide films deposited by high target utilisation sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calnan, Sonya; Upadhyaya, Hari M.; Dann, Sandra E.; Thwaites, Mike J.; Tiwari, Ayodhya N.

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited by reactive High Target Utilisation Sputtering (HiTUS) onto glass and polyimide substrates. The ion plasma was generated by an RF power source while the target bias voltage was varied from 300 V to 500 V using a separate DC power supply. The deposition rate, at constant target power, increased with DC target voltage due to increased ion energy reaching 34 nm/min at 500 V. All the films were polycrystalline and showed strong (400) and (222) reflections with the relative strength of latter increasing with target bias voltage. The resistivity was lowest at 500 V with values of 1.8 x 10 -4 Ω cm and 2.4 x 10 -4 Ω cm on glass and polyimide, respectively but was still less than 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 400 V. All films were highly transparent to visible light, (> 80%) but the NIR transmittance decreased with increasing target voltage due to higher free carrier absorption. Therefore, ITO films can be deposited onto semiconductor layers such as in solar cells, with minimal ion damage while maintaining low resistivity

  8. Efficient photocatalytic decolorization of some textile dyes using Fe ions doped polyaniline film on ITO coated glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haspulat, Bircan; Gülce, Ahmet; Gülce, Handan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The PANI/Fe film as photocatalyst was used for the first time. • It was possible to modify the surface roughness and wettability of the PANI films. • The photocatalytic decolorization of four dyes has been investigated. • The photocatalytical activity of the PANI matrix was increased by adding Fe ions. -- Abstract: In this study, the photocatalytic decolorization of four commercial textile dyes with different structures has been investigated using electrochemically synthesized polyaniline and Fe ions doped polyaniline on ITO coated glass substrate as photocatalyst in aqueous solution under UV irradiation for the first time. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, FT-IR spectra, UV–vis spectroscopy measurements were used to characterize the electrochemically synthesized polymer film photocatalyst. Film hydrophilicity was assessed from contact angle measurements. The results show that both of the polymer films exhibit good photocatalytic performance. Surprisingly, it was determined that by using Fe(II) ions during polymerization, it is possible to modify the surface roughness and wettability of the produced polyaniline films which favors their photocatalytic activity in water-based solutions. All four of the used dyes (methylene blue, malachite green, methyl orange and methyl red) were completely decolorizated in 90 min of irradiation under UV light by using Fe ions doped polyaniline at the dye concentration of 1.5 × 10 −5 M, while the decolorization of those dyes were between 43% and 83% by using polyaniline as photocatalyst. Hence, it may be a viable technique for the safe disposal of textile wastewater into waste streams

  9. Flexibility of the Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Conductive Film Deposited Onto the Plastic Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Kai Lu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we utilize the RF magnetron sputtering system to deposit the indium tin oxide (ITO conductive transparent film with low resistivity and high light transmittance to the polyethylene tetephthalate (PET plastic substrate and measure the film’s bending property and reliability at different tensile/compressive strain bending curvatures as well as the flexibility after cycling bending. The results show that the critical curvatures corresponded to the significant increase in the resistance of the 150 nm-thick ITO film deposited onto the PET substrate under tensile and compressive stress areO 14.1 mm and 5.4 mm, respectively. By observing the film’s surface crack and morphology, we can further discover that the critical curvature of the crack generated when the film is bent is quite consistent with the critical curvature at which the conductivity property degrades, and the film can withstand a higher compressive strain bending. In addition, the resistance and adhesion behavior of the film almost is unchanged after cycling bent for 1000 times with the curvature below the critical curvature.

  10. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T. O.; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  11. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  12. Ternary Ag-In-S polycrystalline films deposited using chemical bath deposition for photoelectrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wen-Sheng; Wu, Ching-Chen; Jeng, Ming-Shan; Cheng, Kong-Wei; Huang, Chao-Ming; Lee, Tai-Chou

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of ternary Ag-In-S thin films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The composition of the thin films was varied by changing the concentration ratio of [Ag]/[In] in the precursor solutions. The crystal structure, optical properties, and surface morphology of the thin films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). GIXRD results indicate that the samples consisted of AgInS 2 and/or AgIn 5 S 8 crystal phases, depending on the composition of the precursor solutions. The film thicknesses, electrical resistivity, flat band potentials, and band gaps of the samples were between 1.12 and 1.37 μm, 3.73 x 10 -3 and 4.98 x 10 4 Ω cm, -0.67 and -0.90 V vs. NHE, and 1.83 and 1.92 eV, respectively. The highest photocurrent density was observed in the sample with [Ag]/[In] = 4. A photocurrent density of 9.7 mA cm -2 was obtained with an applied potential of 0.25 V vs. SCE in the three-electrode system. The photoresponse experiments were conducted in 0.25 M K 2 SO 3 and 0.35 M Na 2 S aqueous electrolyte solutions under irradiation by a 300 W Xe light (100 mW cm -2 ). The results show that ternary Ag-In-S thin film electrodes have potential in water splitting applications.

  13. Ternary Ag-In-S polycrystalline films deposited using chemical bath deposition for photoelectrochemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Wen-Sheng [Energy and Environmental Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Hsin-Chu 310, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ching-Chen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Jeng, Ming-Shan [Energy and Environmental Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Hsin-Chu 310, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Kong-Wei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Ming [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, 949 Da Wan Road, Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien 710, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tai-Chou, E-mail: chmtcl@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of ternary Ag-In-S thin films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The composition of the thin films was varied by changing the concentration ratio of [Ag]/[In] in the precursor solutions. The crystal structure, optical properties, and surface morphology of the thin films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). GIXRD results indicate that the samples consisted of AgInS{sub 2} and/or AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} crystal phases, depending on the composition of the precursor solutions. The film thicknesses, electrical resistivity, flat band potentials, and band gaps of the samples were between 1.12 and 1.37 {mu}m, 3.73 x 10{sup -3} and 4.98 x 10{sup 4} {Omega} cm, -0.67 and -0.90 V vs. NHE, and 1.83 and 1.92 eV, respectively. The highest photocurrent density was observed in the sample with [Ag]/[In] = 4. A photocurrent density of 9.7 mA cm{sup -2} was obtained with an applied potential of 0.25 V vs. SCE in the three-electrode system. The photoresponse experiments were conducted in 0.25 M K{sub 2}SO{sub 3} and 0.35 M Na{sub 2}S aqueous electrolyte solutions under irradiation by a 300 W Xe light (100 mW cm{sup -2}). The results show that ternary Ag-In-S thin film electrodes have potential in water splitting applications.

  14. Structural, optical and electrical characterization of ITO, ITO/Ag and ITO/Ni transparent conductive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmad Hadi, E-mail: ahadi@uthm.edu.my [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia); Science Department, Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Johor (Malaysia); Shuhaimi, Ahmad [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Hassan, Zainuriah [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-01-01

    We report on the transparent conductive oxides (TCO) characteristics based on the indium tin oxides (ITO) and ITO/metal thin layer as an electrode for optoelectronics device applications. ITO, ITO/Ag and ITO/Ni were deposited on Si and glass substrate by thermal evaporator and radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Post deposition annealing was performed on the samples in air at moderate temperature of 500 °C and 600 °C. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the ITO and ITO/metal were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis spectrophotometer, Hall effect measurement system and atomic force microscope (AFM). The XRD spectrum reveals significant polycrystalline peaks of ITO (2 2 2) and Ag (1 1 1) after post annealing process. The post annealing also improves the visible light transmittance and electrical resistivity of the samples. Figure of merit (FOM) of the ITO, ITO/Ag and ITO/Ni were determined as 5.5 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1}, 8.4 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1} and 3.0 × 10{sup −5} Ω{sup −1}, respectively. The results show that the post annealed ITO with Ag intermediate layer improved the efficiency of the transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) as compared to the ITO and ITO/Ni.

  15. Structural, optical and electrical characterization of ITO, ITO/Ag and ITO/Ni transparent conductive electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Ahmad Hadi; Shuhaimi, Ahmad; Hassan, Zainuriah

    2014-01-01

    We report on the transparent conductive oxides (TCO) characteristics based on the indium tin oxides (ITO) and ITO/metal thin layer as an electrode for optoelectronics device applications. ITO, ITO/Ag and ITO/Ni were deposited on Si and glass substrate by thermal evaporator and radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Post deposition annealing was performed on the samples in air at moderate temperature of 500 °C and 600 °C. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the ITO and ITO/metal were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis spectrophotometer, Hall effect measurement system and atomic force microscope (AFM). The XRD spectrum reveals significant polycrystalline peaks of ITO (2 2 2) and Ag (1 1 1) after post annealing process. The post annealing also improves the visible light transmittance and electrical resistivity of the samples. Figure of merit (FOM) of the ITO, ITO/Ag and ITO/Ni were determined as 5.5 × 10 −3 Ω −1 , 8.4 × 10 −3 Ω −1 and 3.0 × 10 −5 Ω −1 , respectively. The results show that the post annealed ITO with Ag intermediate layer improved the efficiency of the transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) as compared to the ITO and ITO/Ni.

  16. Ion beam deposited epitaxial thin silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrman-Rossiter, K.G.; Al-Bayati, A.H.; Armour, D.G.; Donnelly, S.E.; Berg, J.A. van den

    1991-01-01

    Deposition of thin films using low energy, mass-separated ion beams is a potentially important low temperature method of producing epitaxial layers. In these experiments silicon films were grown on Si (001) substrates using 10-200 eV 28 Si + and 30 Si + ions at substrate temperatures in the range 273-1073 K, under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions (deposition pressure -7 Pa). The film crystallinity was assessed in situ using medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). Films of crystallinity comparable to bulk samples were grown using 10-40 eV 28 Si + and 30 Si + ions at deposition temperatures in the range 623-823 K. These experiments confirmed the role of key experimental parameters such as ion energy, substrate temperature during deposition, and the surface treatment prior to deposition. It was found that a high temperature in situ anneal (1350-1450 K) gave the best results for epitaxial nucleation, whereas low energy (20-40 eV) Cl + ion bombardment resulted in amorphous film growth. The deposition energy for good epitaxial growth indicates that it is necessary to provide enough energy to induce local mobility but not to cause atomic displacements leading to the buildup of stable defects, e.g. divacancies, below the surface layer of the growing film. (orig.)

  17. Fabrication of nickel oxide and Ni-doped indium tin oxide thin films using pyrosol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasa, Akihiko; Adachi, Mami; Usami, Hisanao; Suzuki, Eiji; Taniguchi, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) need indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes with highly smooth surface. The work function of ITO, about 4.8 eV, is generally rather lower than the optimum level for application to OLEDs. In this work, NiO was deposited by pyrosol process on pyrosol ITO film to increase the work function of the ITO for improving the performance of OLEDs. It was confirmed that NiO was successfully deposited on pyrosol ITO film and the NiO deposition increased the work function of pyrosol ITO, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and atmospheric photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, doping ITO with Ni succeeded in producing the Ni-doped ITO film with high work function and lower sheet resistance

  18. Chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyrovets, I.I.; Gritsyna, V.I.; Dudnik, S.F.; Opalev, O.A.; Reshetnyak, O.M.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    The brief review of the literature is devoted to synthesis of nanocrystalline diamond films. It is shown that the CVD method is an effective way for deposition of such nanostructures. The basic technological methods that allow limit the size of growing diamond crystallites in the film are studied.

  19. High rate deposition of transparent conducting oxide thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Ida, Satoshi; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2002-09-02

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films have been deposited at a high rate above 370 nm/min by vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) using sintered oxide fragments as the source material. It was found that the deposition rate of TCO films was strongly dependent on the deposition pressure, whereas the obtained electrical properties were relatively independent of the pressure. Resistivities of 5.6x10{sup -4} and 2.3x10{sup -4} {omega}{center_dot}cm and an average transmittance above 80% (with substrate included) in the visible range were obtained in Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films deposited at 100 and 350 deg. C, respectively. In addition, a resistivity as low as 1.4x10{sup -4} {omega}{center_dot}cm and an average transmittance above 80% were also obtained in indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films deposited at 300 deg. C. The deposited TCO films exhibited uniform distributions of resistivity and thickness on large area substrates.

  20. High rate deposition of transparent conducting oxide thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Ida, Satoshi; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2002-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films have been deposited at a high rate above 370 nm/min by vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) using sintered oxide fragments as the source material. It was found that the deposition rate of TCO films was strongly dependent on the deposition pressure, whereas the obtained electrical properties were relatively independent of the pressure. Resistivities of 5.6x10 -4 and 2.3x10 -4 Ω·cm and an average transmittance above 80% (with substrate included) in the visible range were obtained in Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films deposited at 100 and 350 deg. C, respectively. In addition, a resistivity as low as 1.4x10 -4 Ω·cm and an average transmittance above 80% were also obtained in indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films deposited at 300 deg. C. The deposited TCO films exhibited uniform distributions of resistivity and thickness on large area substrates

  1. Pulsed laser deposition of transparent conductive oxide thin films on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socol, G.; Socol, M.; Stefan, N.; Axente, E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Craciun, D.; Duta, L.; Mihailescu, C. N.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Stanculescu, A.; Visan, D.; Sava, V.; Galca, A. C.; Luculescu, C. R.; Craciun, V.

    2012-11-01

    The influence of target-substrate distance during pulsed laser deposition of indium zinc oxide (IZO), indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates was investigated. It was found that the properties of such flexible transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/PET electrodes critically depend on this parameter. The TCO films that were deposited at distances of 6 and 8 cm exhibited an optical transmittance higher than 90% in the visible range and electrical resistivities around 5 × 10-4 Ω cm. In addition to these excellent electrical and optical characteristics the films grown at 8 cm distance were homogenous, smooth, adherent, and without cracks or any other extended defects, being suitable for opto-electronic device applications.

  2. Fabrication of Cu–Zn–Sn–S–O Thin Films by the Electrochemical Deposition Method and Application to Heterojunction Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new multinary semiconductor Cu2ZnSnS4−O (CZTSO, which does not contain toxic elements and expensive rare metals, was fabricated by the electrochemical deposition (ECD method. CZTSO thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO- coated glass substrates by DC and two-step pulsed ECD from aqueous solutions containing CuSO4, ZnSO4, SnSO4, and Na2S2O3. The films deposited by pulsed ECD contained smaller amount of oxygen than those deposited by DC ECD. The films had band gap energies in a range from 1.5 eV and 2.1 eV. By a photoelectrochemical measurement, it was confirmed that CZTSO films showed p-type conduction and photosensitivity. CZTSO/ZnO heterojunctions exhibited rectification properties in a current-voltage measurement.

  3. ZnO film deposition on Al film and effects of deposition temperature on ZnO film growth characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Giwan; Yim, Munhyuk; Kim, Donghyun; Linh, Mai; Chai, Dongkyu

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the deposition temperature on the growth characteristics of the ZnO films were studied for film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR) device applications. All films were deposited using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. It was found that the growth characteristics of ZnO films have a strong dependence on the deposition temperature from 25 to 350 deg. C. ZnO films deposited below 200 deg. C exhibited reasonably good columnar grain structures with highly preferred c-axis orientation while those above 200 deg. C showed very poor columnar grain structures with mixed-axis orientation. This study seems very useful for future FBAR device applications

  4. Porous nanostructured ZnO films deposited by picosecond laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, Cornelia; Grigoriu, Constantin; Besleaga, Cristina; Mitran, Tudor; Ion, Lucian; Antohe, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We deposite porous nanostructured ZnO films by picoseconds laser ablation (PLA). ► We examine changes of the films structure on the experimental parameter deposition. ► We demonstrate PLA capability to produce ZnO nanostructured films free of particulates. - Abstract: Porous nanostructured polycrystalline ZnO films, free of large particulates, were deposited by picosecond laser ablation. Using a Zn target, zinc oxide films were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using a picosecond Nd:YVO 4 laser (8 ps, 50 kHz, 532 nm, 0.17 J/cm 2 ) in an oxygen atmosphere at room temperature (RT). The morpho-structural characteristics of ZnO films deposited at different oxygen pressures (150–900 mTorr) and gas flow rates (0.25 and 10 sccm) were studied. The post-deposition influence of annealing (250–550 °C) in oxygen on the film characteristics was also investigated. At RT, a mixture of Zn and ZnO formed. At substrate temperatures above 350 °C, the films were completely oxidized, containing a ZnO wurtzite phase with crystallite sizes of 12.2–40.1 nm. At pressures of up to 450 mTorr, the porous films consisted of well-distinguished primary nanoparticles with average sizes of 45–58 nm, while at higher pressures, larger clusters (3.1–14.7 μm) were dominant, leading to thicker films; higher flow rates favored clustering.

  5. Fractal morphological analysis of Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) layers deposited onto Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengadesh, P.; Muniandy, S.V.; Majid, W.H. Abd.

    2009-01-01

    Uniform Bacteriorhodopsin layers for the purpose of fabricating Bacteriorhodopsin-based biosensors were prepared by allowing drying of the layers under a constant electric field. To properly observe and understand the 'electric field effect' on the protein Bacteriorhodopsin, the electric and non-electric field influenced Bacteriorhodopsin layers prepared using a manual syringe-deposition method applied onto Indium Tin Oxide electrodes were structurally investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. The results yield obvious morphological differences between the electric and non-electric field assisted Bacteriorhodopsin layers and brings to attention the occurrence of the so-called 'coffee-ring' effect in the latter case. We applied stochastic fractal method based on the generalized Cauchy process to describe the morphological features surrounding the void. Fractal dimension is used to characterize the local regularity of the Bacteriorhodopsin clusters and the correlation exponent is used to describe the long-range correlation between the clusters. It is found that the Bacteriorhodopsin protein tends to exhibit with strong spatial correlation in the presence of external electric field compared to in absence of the electric field. Long-range correlation in the morphological feature may be associated to the enhancement of aggregation process of Bacteriorhodopsin protein in the presence of electric field, thereby inhibiting the formation of the so-called 'coffee-ring' effect. As such, the observations discussed in this work suggest some amount of control of surface uniformity when forming layers.

  6. Properties of Co-deposited indium tin oxide and zinc oxide films using a bipolar pulse power supply and a dual magnetron sputter source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Man-Soo; Seob Jeong, Heui; Kim, Won Mok; Seo, Yong Woon

    2003-01-01

    Multilayer coatings consisting of metal layers sandwiched between transparent conducting oxide layers are widely used for flat panel display electrodes and electromagnetic shield coatings for plasma displays, due to their high electrical conductivity and light transmittance. The electrical and optical properties of these multilayer films depend largely on the surface characteristics of the transparent conducting oxide thin films. A smoother surface on the transparent conducting oxide thin films makes it easier for the metal layer to form a continuous film, thus resulting in a higher conductivity and visible light transmittance. Indium tin oxide (ITO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) films were co-deposited using a dual magnetron sputter and a bipolar pulse power supply to decrease the surface roughness of the transparent conducting oxide films. The symmetric pulse mode of the power supply was used to simultaneously sputter an In 2 O 3 (90 wt %) : SnO 2 (10 wt %) target and a ZnO target. We varied the duty of the pulses to control the ratio of ITO : ZnO in the thin films. The electrical and optical properties of the films were studied, and special attention was paid to the surface roughness and the crystallinity of the films. By co-depositing ITO and ZnO at a pulse duty ratio of ITO:ZnO=45:45 using a dual magnetron sputter and a bipolar pulse power supply, we were able to obtain amorphous transparent conducting oxide films with a very smooth surface which had a Zn-rich buffer layer under a In-rich surface layer. All of the films exhibited typical electrical and optical properties of transparent conducting oxide films deposited at room temperature

  7. Effect of nitrogen incorporation on the structural, optical and dielectric properties of reactive sputter grown ITO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartner, M.; Stroescu, H. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Marin, A., E-mail: alexmarin@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Osiceanu, P. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Anastasescu, M., E-mail: manastasescu@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Stoica, M.; Nicolescu, M.; Duta, M.; Preda, S. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Aperathitis, E.; Pantazis, A.; Kampylafka, V. [FORTH-IESL, Crete (Greece); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Zaharescu, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Graded optical model for ITON films is presented. • ITON thin films retain an amorphous structure even after RTA at 500 °C in N{sub 2} ambient. • The lowest resistivity was 2 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm for films deposited in 75%N{sub 2} and RTA at 500 °C. • Films deposited in 75% N{sub 2} and RTA at 500 °C have degenerate semiconductor behavior. • Chemical composition before and after RTA has been analyzed by XPS depth profiling. - Abstract: The changes in the optical, microstructural and electrical properties, following the nitrogen incorporation into indium tin oxide thin films are investigated. The films are formed by r.f. sputtering from an indium-tin-oxide (80% In{sub 2}O{sub 3}–20% SnO{sub 2}) target in a mixture of Ar and N{sub 2} plasma (75% N{sub 2}–25% Ar and 100% N{sub 2} respectively) on fused silica glass substrate. The impact of rapid thermal annealing (up to 500 °C, in N{sub 2} ambient) on the properties of indium tin oxynitride (ITON) thin films is also reported. The UV–vis–NIR ellipsometry (SE) characterization of ITON films was performed assuming several realistic approaches based on various oscillator models, using a chemical composition gradient depth profiling, in agreement with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The Hall measurements show that the ITON films prepared by r.f. sputtering in 75% N{sub 2} and annealed at 500 °C behave as degenerate semiconductors. X-ray diffraction analysis proved that ITON thin films retain an amorphous structure even after RTA at 500 °C in N{sub 2} ambient and atomic force microscopy showed the formation of continuous and smooth ITON thin films, with a morphology consisting in quasispherical nanometric particles.

  8. Indium zinc oxide films deposited on PET by LF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Lyoung; Jung, Sang Kooun; Sohn, Sang Ho; Park, Duck Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) has attracted much attention recently for use in transparent oxide films compared with the ITO film. We carried out the deposition of IZO on a polyethylene terapthalate (PET) substrate at room temperature by a low-frequency (LF) magnetron sputtering system. These films have amorphous structures with excellent electrical stability, surface uniformity and high optical transmittance. The effects of LF applied voltage and O 2 flow rate were investigated. The electrical and optical properties were studied. At optimal deposition conditions, thin films of IZO with a sheet resistance of 32 Ω/sq and an optical transmittance of over 80% in the visible spectrum range were achieved. The IZO thin films fabricated by this method do not require substrate heating during the film preparation of any additional post-deposition annealing treatment. The experimental results show that films with good qualities of surface morphology, transmittance and electrical conduction can be grown by the LF magnetron sputtering method on PET which is recommendable

  9. High quality antireflective ZnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tec-Yam, S.; Rojas, J.; Rejón, V.; Oliva, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films for antireflective applications were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Chemical analysis of the soluble species permits to predict the optimal pH conditions to obtain high quality ZnS films. For the CBD, the ZnCl 2 , NH 4 NO 3 , and CS(NH 2 ) 2 were fixed components, whereas the KOH concentration was varied from 0.8 to 1.4 M. Groups of samples with deposition times from 60 to 120 min were prepared in a bath with magnetic agitation and heated at 90 °C. ZnS films obtained from optimal KOH concentrations of 0.9 M and 1.0 M exhibited high transparency, homogeneity, adherence, and crystalline. The ZnS films presented a band gap energy of 3.84 eV, an atomic Zn:S stoichiometry ratio of 49:51, a transmittance above 85% in the 300–800 nm wavelength range, and a reflectance below 25% in the UV–Vis range. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a cubic structure in the (111) orientation for the films. The thickness of the films was tuned between 60 nm and 135 nm by controlling the deposition time and KOH concentration. The incorporation of the CBD-ZnS films into ITO/ZnS/CdS/CdTe and glass/Mo/ZnS heterostructures as antireflective layer confirms their high optical quality. -- Highlights: ► High quality ZnS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD). ► Better CBD-ZnS films were achieved by using 0.9 M-KOH concentration. ► Reduction in the reflectance was obtained for ZnS films used as buffer layers.

  10. Iron films deposited on porous alumina substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro, E-mail: yyasu@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp; Tanabe, Kenichi; Nishida, Naoki [Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Kobayashi, Yoshio [The University of Electro-Communications (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Iron films were deposited on porous alumina substrates using an arc plasma gun. The pore sizes (120 – 250 nm) of the substrates were controlled by changing the temperature during the anodic oxidation of aluminum plates. Iron atoms penetrated into pores with diameters of less than 160 nm, and were stabilized by forming γ-Fe, whereas α-Fe was produced as a flat plane covering the pores. For porous alumina substrates with pore sizes larger than 200 nm, the deposited iron films contained many defects and the resulting α-Fe had smaller hyperfine magnetic fields. In addition, only a very small amount of γ-Fe was obtained. It was demonstrated that the composition and structure of an iron film can be affected by the surface morphology of the porous alumina substrate on which the film is grown.

  11. Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2002-01-01

    Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  12. A novel ITO/AZO/SiO2/p-Si frame SIS heterojunction fabricated by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bo; Wang, HongZhi; Li, YaoGang; Ma, ZhongQuan; Xu, Jing; Zhang, QingHong; Wang, ChunRui; Xing, HuaiZhong; Zhao, Lei; Rui, YiChuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Because the ITO/AZO double films lead to a great decrease of the lateral resistance. •The photon current can easily flow through top film entering the Cu front contact. •High photocurrent is obtained under a reverse bias. -- Abstract: The novel ITO/AZO/SiO 2 /p-Si SIS heterojunction has been fabricated by low temperature thermal oxidation an ultrathin silicon dioxide and RF sputtering deposition ITO/AZO double films on p-Si (1 0 0) polished substrate. The microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the ITO/AZO antireflection films were characterized by XRD, SEM, UV–VIS spectrophotometer, four point probe and Hall effect measurement, respectively. The results show that ITO/AZO films are of good quality. And XPS was carried out on the ultrathin SiO 2 film. The heterojunction shows strong rectifying behavior under a dark condition, which reveals that formation of a diode between AZO and p-Si. The ideality factor and the saturation current of this diode is 2.7 and 8.68 × 10 −5 A, respectively. High photocurrent is obtained under a reverse bias when the crystalline quality of ITO/AZO double films is good enough to transmit the light into p-Si. We can see that under reverse bias conditions the photocurrent of ITO/AZO/SiO 2 /p-Si SIS heterojunction is much higher than the photocurrent of AZO/SiO 2 /p-Si SIS heterojunction. Because the high quality crystallite and the good conductivity of ITO film which prepared by magnetron-sputtering on AZO film lead to a great decrease of the lateral resistance. The photon induced current can easily flow through ITO layer entering the Cu front contact. Thus, high photocurrent is obtained under a reverse bias

  13. Effect of content silver and heat treatment temperature on morphological, optical, and electrical properties of ITO films by sol-gel technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, Majid; Dolati, Abolghasem

    2014-09-01

    Silver-doped indium tin oxide thin films were synthesized using sol-gel dip-coating technique. The influence of different silver-dopant contents and annealing temperature on the electrical, optical, structural, and morphological properties of the films were characterized by means of four-point probe, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). XRD analysis confirmed the formation of cubic bixbyte structure of In2O3 with silver nanoparticles annealed at 350 °C. XPS analysis showed that divalent tin transformed to tetravalent tin through oxidization, and silver nanoparticles embedded into ITO matrix covered with silver oxide shell, resulting in high quality nanocomposite thin films. The embedment of polyvinylpyrrolidone inhibited the growth of silver nanoparticles and ITO annealed at 350 °C. Delafossite structure of tin-doped AgInO2 was found at higher annealing temperatures. XRD analysis and FESEM micrographs showed that the optimum temperature to prevent the formation of AgInO2 is 350 °C. The embedment of silver particles (5-10 nm) from reduction of silver ion in ITO thin films improved the electrical conductivity and optical transmittance of ITO nanolayers. The lowest stable sheet resistance of 1,952 Ω/Sq for a 321 nm thick and an average optical transmittance of 91.8 % in the visible region with a band gap of 3.43 eV were achieved for silver-doping content of 0.04 M.

  14. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  15. Optical Properties and Electrochemical Performance of LiFePO4 Thin Films Deposited on Transparent Current Collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HyunSeok; Yim, Haena; Kim, Kwang-Bum; Choi, Ji-Won

    2015-11-01

    LiFePO4 thin film cathodes are deposited on various transparent conducting oxide thin films on glass, which are used as cathode current collectors. The XRD patterns show that the thin films have the phase of LiFePO4 with an ordered olivine structure indexed to the orthorhombic Pmna space group. LiFePO4 thin film deposited on various TCO glass substrates exhibits transmittance of about 53%. The initial specific discharge capacities of LiFePO4 thin films are 25.0 μAh/cm2 x μm on FTO, 33.0 μAh/cm2 x μm on ITO, and 13.0 μAh/cm2 x μm on AZO coated glass substrates. Interestingly, the retention capacities of LiFePO4 thin films are 76.0% on FTO, 31.2% on ITO, and 37.7% on AZO coated glass substrates at 20th cycle. The initial specific discharge capacity of the LiFePO4/FTO electrode is slightly lower, but the discharge capacities of the LiFePO4/FTO electrode relatively decrease less than those of the others such as LiFePO4/ITO and LiFePO4/AZO with cycling. The results reported here provide the high transparency of LiFePO4 thin films cathode materials and the good candidate as FTO current collector of the LiFePO4 thin film cathode of transparent thin film rechargeable batteries due to its high transparency and cyclic retention.

  16. Role of the buffer solution in the chemical deposition of CdS films for CIGS solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sooho; Kim, Donguk; Baek, Dohyun; Hong, Byoungyou; Yi, Junsin; Lee, Jaehyeong [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yongseob [Chosun College of Science and and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wonseok [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, the effects of NH{sub 4}Ac on the structural and the electro-optical properties of CdS films were investigated. CdS thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass and indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass from a chemical bath containing 0.025 M cadmium acetate, 0 M ∼ 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.5 M thiourea, and ammonia. Cadmium acetate was the cadmium source, ammonium acetate served as a buffer, ammonia was the complexing agent, and thiourea was the source of sulfur. A commonly- available chemical bath deposition system was successfully modified to obtain precise control over the pH of the solution at 75 .deg. C during the deposition. Chemically deposited CdS films were studied by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical transmittance, and electrical resistivity measurements.

  17. Indium-tin oxide thin films deposited at room temperature on glass and PET substrates: Optical and electrical properties variation with the H2–Ar sputtering gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; Andrés, A. de; Prieto, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ITO deposition on glass and PET at room temperature by using H. • High transparency and low resistance is obtained by tuning the H. • The figure of merit for ITO films on PET becomes maximal for thickness near 100 nm. - Abstract: The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. A clear evolution of optical transparency and sheet resistance with the content of H 2 in the gas mixture of H 2 and Ar during magnetron sputtering deposition is observed. An optimized performance of the transparent conductive properties ITO films on PET was achieved for samples prepared using H 2 /(Ar + H 2 ) ratio in the range of 0.3–0.6%. Moreover, flexible ITO-PET samples show a better transparent conductive figure of merit, Φ TC = T 10 /R S , than their glass counterparts. These results provide valuable insight into the room temperature fabrication and development of transparent conductive ITO-based flexible devices

  18. Infinitely high etch selectivity during CH4/H2/Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of indium tin oxide (ITO) with photoresist mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.Y.; Ko, J.H.; Park, M.S.; Lee, N.-E.

    2008-01-01

    Under certain conditions during ITO etching using CH 4 /H 2 /Ar inductively coupled plasmas, the etch rate selectivity of ITO to photoresist (PR) was infinitely high because the ITO films continued to be etched, but a net deposition of the α-C:H layer occurred on the top of the PR. Analyses of plasmas and etched ITO surfaces suggested that the continued consumption of the carbon and hydrogen in the deposited α-C:H layer by their chemical reaction with In and Sn atoms in the ITO resulting in the generation of volatile metal-organic etch products and by the ion-enhanced removal of the α-C:H layer presumably play important roles in determining the ITO etch rate and selectivity

  19. Optimizing electrical conductivity and optical transparency of IZO thin film deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films of In2O3, SnO2, ZnO, and their mixtures have been extensively used in optoelectronic applications such as transparent electrodes in solar photovoltaic devices. In this project I deposited amorphous indium-zinc oxide (IZO) thin films by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from a In2O3-10 wt.% ZnO sintered ceramic target to optimize the RF power, argon gas flowing rate, and the thickness of film to reach the maximum conductivity and transparency in visible spectrum. The results indicated optimized conductivity and transparency of IZO thin film is closer to ITO's conductivity and transparency, and is even better when the film was deposited with one specific tilted angle. National Science Foundation (NSF) MRSEC program at University of Nebraska Lincoln, and was hosted by Professor Jeff Shields lab.

  20. Continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films by chemical vapor deposition for organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez De Arco, Lewis; Zhang, Yi; Schlenker, Cody W; Ryu, Koungmin; Thompson, Mark E; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-05-25

    We report the implementation of continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic photovoltaic cells. Graphene films were synthesized by CVD, transferred to transparent substrates, and evaluated in organic solar cell heterojunctions (TCE/poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/copper phthalocyanine/fullerene/bathocuproine/aluminum). Key to our success is the continuous nature of the CVD graphene films, which led to minimal surface roughness ( approximately 0.9 nm) and offered sheet resistance down to 230 Omega/sq (at 72% transparency), much lower than stacked graphene flakes at similar transparency. In addition, solar cells with CVD graphene and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were fabricated side-by-side on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and were confirmed to offer comparable performance, with power conversion efficiencies (eta) of 1.18 and 1.27%, respectively. Furthermore, CVD graphene solar cells demonstrated outstanding capability to operate under bending conditions up to 138 degrees , whereas the ITO-based devices displayed cracks and irreversible failure under bending of 60 degrees . Our work indicates the great potential of CVD graphene films for flexible photovoltaic applications.

  1. Continuous, Highly Flexible, and Transparent Graphene Films by Chemical Vapor Deposition for Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Gomez De Arco, Lewis

    2010-05-25

    We report the implementation of continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic photovoltaic cells. Graphene films were synthesized by CVD, transferred to transparent substrates, and evaluated in organic solar cell heterojunctions (TCE/poly-3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene:poly styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/copper phthalocyanine/fullerene/bathocuproine/aluminum). Key to our success is the continuous nature of the CVD graphene films, which led to minimal surface roughness (∼ 0.9 nm) and offered sheet resistance down to 230 Ω/sq (at 72% transparency), much lower than stacked graphene flakes at similar transparency. In addition, solar cells with CVD graphene and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were fabricated side-by-side on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and were confirmed to offer comparable performance, with power conversion efficiencies (η) of 1.18 and 1.27%, respectively. Furthermore, CVD graphene solar cells demonstrated outstanding capability to operate under bending conditions up to 138°, whereas the ITO-based devices displayed cracks and irreversible failure under bending of 60°. Our work indicates the great potential of CVD graphene films for flexible photovoltaic applications. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  2. Rf reactive sputtering of indium-tin-oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvarozek, V.; Novotny, I.; Harman, R.; Kovac, J.

    1986-01-01

    Films of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) have been deposited by rf reactive diode sputtering of metallic InSn alloy targets, or ceramic ITO targets, in an Ar and Ar+0 2 atmosphere. Electrical as well as optical properties of ITO films were controlled by varying sputtering parameters and by post-deposition heat-treatment in Ar, H 2 , N 2 , H 2 +N 2 ambients. The ITO films exhibited low resistivity approx. 2 x 10 -4 Ω cm, high transmittance approx. 90% in the visible spectral region and high reflectance approx. 80% in the near infra-red region. (author)

  3. Impact of first-step potential and time on the vertical growth of ZnO nanorods on ITO substrate by two-step electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Gyoum; Jang, Jin-Tak; Ryu, Hyukhyun; Lee, Won-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We grew vertical ZnO nanorods on ITO substrate using a two-step continuous potential process. •The nucleation for the ZnO nanorods growth was changed by first-step potential and duration. •The vertical ZnO nanorods were well grown when first-step potential was −1.2 V and 10 s. -- Abstract: In this study, we analyzed the growth of ZnO nanorods on an ITO (indium doped tin oxide) substrate by electrochemical deposition using a two-step, continuous potential process. We examined the effect of changing the first-step potential as well as the first-step duration on the morphological, structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods, measured via using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL), respectively. As a result, vertical ZnO nanorods were grown on ITO substrate without the need for a template when the first-step potential was set to −1.2 V for a duration of 10 s, and the second-step potential was set to −0.7 V for a duration of 1190 s. The ZnO nanorods on this sample showed the highest XRD (0 0 2)/(1 0 0) peak intensity ratio and the highest PL near band edge emission to deep level emission peak intensity ratio (NBE/DLE). In this study, the nucleation for vertical ZnO nanorod growth on an ITO substrate was found to be affected by changes in the first-step potential and first-step duration

  4. Preparation of flexible and heat-resisting conductive transparent film by the pyrosol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, Hisanao; Nakasa, Akihiko; Adachi, Mami; Suzuki, Eiji; Fujimatsu, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Tatsuya; Yamada, Shigeo; Tsugita, Kouhei; Taniguchi, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    A pyrosol process was successfully applied for the preparation of a flexible, conductive, and transparent inorganic film, a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) film lined with a thin mica layer. This flexible heat-resistant ITO-mica film exhibited high conductivity and transparency, comparable to ITO deposited on glass substrate. The minimum radius of bending for the film, without any recognizable change in the conductivity and appearance, was 8 mm. The ITO deposited on mica showed a large (222) diffraction peak with a smaller (400) peak, in contrast to ITO deposited with (400) orientation on an ordinary glass substrate. Using the ITO-mica film, a prototype model of a flexible organic light emitting diode was fabricated

  5. Understanding the mechanisms that change the conductivity of damaged ITO-coated polymeric films: A micro-mechanical investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Nasr Saleh, Mohamed; Lubineau, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Degradation from mechanical loading of transparent electrodes made of indium tin oxide (ITO) endangers the integrity of any material based on these electrodes, including flexible organic solar cells. However, how different schemes of degradation

  6. Understanding the mechanisms that change the conductivity of damaged ITO-coated polymeric films: A micro-mechanical investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Nasr Saleh, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    Degradation from mechanical loading of transparent electrodes made of indium tin oxide (ITO) endangers the integrity of any material based on these electrodes, including flexible organic solar cells. However, how different schemes of degradation change the conductivity of ITO devices remains unclear. We propose a systematic micro-mechanics-based approach to clarify the relationship between degradation and changes in electrical resistance. By comparing experimentally measured channel crack densities to changes in electrical resistance returned by the different micro-mechanical schemes, we highlight the key role played by the residual conductivity in the interface between the ITO electrode and its substrate after delamination. We demonstrate that channel cracking alone does not explain the experimental observations. Our results indicate that delamination has to take place between the ITO electrode and the substrate layers and that the residual conductivity of this delaminated interface plays a major role in changes in electrical resistance of the degraded device. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effects of annealing temperature on mechanical durability of indium-tin oxide film on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machinaga, Hironobu; Ueda, Eri; Mizuike, Atsuko; Takeda, Yuuki; Shimokita, Keisuke; Miyazaki, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the annealing temperature on mechanical durability of indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. The ITO films were annealed at the range from 150 °C to 195 °C after the DC sputtering deposition for the production of polycrystalline ITO layers on the substrates. The onset strains of cracking in the annealed ITO films were evaluated by the uniaxial stretching tests with electrical resistance measurements during film stretching. The results indicate that the onset strain of cracking in the ITO film is clearly increased by increasing the annealing temperature. The in-situ measurements of the inter-planer spacing of the (222) plane in the crystalline ITO films during film stretching by using synchrotron radiation strongly suggest that the large compressive stress in the ITO film increases the onset strain of cracking in the film. X-ray stress analyses of the annealed ITO films and thermal mechanical analyses of the PET substrates also clarifies that the residual compressive stress in the ITO film is enhanced with increasing the annealing temperature due to the considerably larger shrinkage of the PET substrate. - Highlights: • Indium-tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). • Mechanical durability of the ITO is improved by high temperature post-annealing. • The shrinkage in the PET increases with rising the post-annealing temperature. • The shrinkage of the PET enhances the compressive stress in the ITO film. • Large compressive stress in the ITO film may improve its mechanical durability

  8. Pulsed laser deposition of transparent conductive oxide thin films on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socol, G.; Socol, M.; Stefan, N.; Axente, E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Craciun, D.; Duta, L.; Mihailescu, C.N.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Stanculescu, A.; Visan, D.; Sava, V.; Galca, A.C.; Luculescu, C.R.; Craciun, V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TCO thin films were grown by PLD on PET substrate at low temperature. ► We found that the quality of TCO on PET substrate depends on the target–substrate distance. ► TCO with high transparency (>95%) and reduced electrical resistivity (∼5 × 10 −4 Ω cm) were obtained. ► Optimized TCO films deposited on PET were free of any cracks. - Abstract: The influence of target–substrate distance during pulsed laser deposition of indium zinc oxide (IZO), indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates was investigated. It was found that the properties of such flexible transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/PET electrodes critically depend on this parameter. The TCO films that were deposited at distances of 6 and 8 cm exhibited an optical transmittance higher than 90% in the visible range and electrical resistivities around 5 × 10 −4 Ω cm. In addition to these excellent electrical and optical characteristics the films grown at 8 cm distance were homogenous, smooth, adherent, and without cracks or any other extended defects, being suitable for opto-electronic device applications.

  9. Surface vertical deposition for gold nanoparticle film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, J J; Qiu, F S; Chen, G D; Reeves, M E

    2003-01-01

    In this rapid communication, we present the surface vertical deposition (SVD) method to synthesize the gold nanoparticle films. Under conditions where the surface of the gold nanoparticle suspension descends slowly by evaporation, the gold nanoparticles in the solid-liquid-gas junction of the suspension aggregate together on the substrate by the force of solid and liquid interface. When the surface properties of the substrate and colloidal nanoparticle suspension define for the SVD, the density of gold nanoparticles in the thin film made by SVD only depends on the descending velocity of the suspension surface and on the concentration of the gold nanoparticle suspension. (rapid communication)

  10. Study of obliquely deposited thin cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmaja, W.; Kozlowski, W.; Balcerski, J.; Kowalczyk, P.J.; Grobelny, J.; Cichomski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The paper reports simultaneously on the magnetic domain structure of obliquely deposited thin cobalt films (40 nm and 100 nm thick) and their morphological structure. Such studies are in fact rare (Refs. cited in the paper). → Moreover, to our knowledge, observations of the morphological structure of these films have not yet been carried out simultaneously by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). → The films of both thicknesses were found to have uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. → The magnetic microstructure of the films 40 nm thick was composed of domains running and magnetized predominantly in the direction perpendicular to the incidence plane of the vapor beam. → As the film thickness was changed from 40 nm to 100 nm, the magnetic anisotropy was observed to change from the direction perpendicular to parallel with respect to the incidence plane. → Thanks to the application of TEM and AFM, complementary information on the morphological structure of the films could be obtained. → In comparison with TEM images, AFM images revealed grains larger in size and slightly elongated in the direction perpendicular rather than parallel to the incidence plane. → These experimental findings clearly show that surface diffusion plays an important role in the process of film growth. → For the films 40 nm thick, the alignment of columnar grains in the direction perpendicular to the incidence plane was observed. → This correlates well with the magnetic domain structure of these films. → For the films 100 nm thick, the perpendicular alignment of columnar grains could also be found, although in fact with larger difficulty. → TEM studies showed that the films consisted mainly of the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) crystalline structure, but no preferred crystallographic orientation of the grains could be detected for the films of both thicknesses. → For the films 100 nm thick, the alignment of

  11. Effect of Target Density on Microstructural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guisheng; Zhi, Li; Yang, Huijuan; Xu, Huarui; Yu, Aibing

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, indium tin oxide (ITO) targets with different densities were used to deposit ITO thin films. The thin films were deposited from these targets at room temperature and annealed at 750°C. Microstructural, electrical, and optical properties of the as-prepared films were studied. It was found that the target density had no effect on the properties or deposition rate of radiofrequency (RF)-sputtered ITO thin films, different from the findings for direct current (DC)-sputtered films. Therefore, when using RF sputtering, the target does not require a high density and may be reused.

  12. High-rate deposition of high-quality Sn-doped In2O3 films by reactive magnetron sputtering using alloy targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Nobuto; Kawase, Yukari; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2012-01-01

    Sn-doped In 2 O 3 (ITO) films were deposited on heated (200 °C) fused silica glass substrates by reactive DC sputtering with mid-frequency pulsing (50 kHz) and a plasma control unit combined with a feedback system of the optical emission intensity for the atomic O* line at 777 nm. A planar In–Sn alloy target was connected to the switching unit, which was operated in the unipolar pulse mode. The power density on the target was maintained at 4.4 W cm −2 during deposition. The feedback system precisely controlled the oxidation of the target surface in “the transition region.” The ITO film with lowest resistivity (3.1 × 10 −4 Ω cm) was obtained with a deposition rate of 310 nm min −1 and transmittance in the visible region of approximately 80%. The deposition rate was about 6 times higher than that of ITO films deposited by conventional sputtering using an oxide target.

  13. Effect of thermal processing on silver thin films of varying thickness deposited on zinc oxide and indium tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, K.; Ngo, A. T.; Alford, T. L.; Iyer, S.

    2009-01-01

    Silver films of varying thicknesses (25, 45, and 60 nm) were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) on silicon and zinc oxide (ZnO) on silicon. The films were annealed in vacuum for 1 h at different temperatures (300-650 deg. C). Four-point-probe measurements were used to determine the resistivity of the films. All films showed an abrupt change in resistivity beyond an onset temperature that varied with thickness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements revealed agglomeration of the Ag films upon annealing as being responsible for the resistivity change. X-ray pole figure analysis determined that the annealed films took on a preferential texturing; however, the degree of texturing was significantly higher in Ag/ZnO/Si than in Ag/ITO/Si samples. This observation was accounted for by interface energy minimization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements revealed an increasing surface roughness of the annealed films with temperature. The resistivity behavior was explained by the counterbalancing effects of increasing crystallinity and surface roughness. Average surface roughness obtained from the AFM measurements were also used to model the agglomeration of Ag based on Ostwald ripening theory

  14. Ion-assisted deposition of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, S.A.; Choi, C.H.; Kaspi, R.; Millunchick, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work on low-energy ion-assisted deposition of epitaxial films is reviewed. Much of the recent interest in this area has been centered on the use of very low ion energies (∼ 25 eV) and high fluxes (> 1 ion per deposited atom) obtained using novel ion-assisted deposition techniques. These methods have been applied in ultra-high vacuum, allowing the preparation of high-purity device-quality semiconductor materials. The following ion-surface interaction effects during epitaxy are discussed: improvements in crystalline perfection during low temperature epitaxy, ion damage, improved homogeneity and properties in III-V alloys grown within miscibility gaps, and changes in nucleation mechanism during heteroepitaxial growth

  15. Chemical vapour deposition of thin-film dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, Vladislav Yu; Repinsky, Sergei M

    2005-01-01

    Data on the chemical vapour deposition of thin-film dielectrics based on silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride and silicon dioxide and on phosphorus- and boron-containing silicate glasses are generalised. The equipment and layer deposition procedures are described. Attention is focussed on the analysis and discussion of the deposition kinetics and on the kinetic models for film growth. The film growth processes are characterised and data on the key physicochemical properties of thin-film covalent dielectric materials are given.

  16. Effect of barrier layers on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films on soda lime glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Min; Choi, Byung-Hyun; Ji, Mi-Jung; An, Yong-Tae; Park, Jung-Ho; Kwon, Jae-Hong; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the electrical, structural and optical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited on soda lime glass (SLG) haven been investigated, along with high strain point glass (HSPG) substrate, through radio frequency magnetron sputtering using a ceramic target (In 2 O 3 :SnO 2 , 90:10 wt.%). The ITO films deposited on the SLG show a high electrical resistivity and structural defects compared with those deposited on HSPG due to the Na ions from the SLG diffusing to the ITO film by annealing. However, these properties can be improved by intercalating a barrier layer of SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 between the ITO film and the SLG substrate. SIMS analysis has confirmed that the barrier layer inhibits the Na ion's diffusion from the SLG. In particular, the ITO films deposited on the Al 2 O 3 barrier layer, show better properties than those deposited on the SiO 2 barrier layer.

  17. Effects of hydrogen gas on properties of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Geun; Lee, Sunghun; Lee, Gun-Hwan; Kwon, Sik-Chol

    2007-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films were deposited at ∼ 70 deg. C of substrate temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method using an In 2 O 3 -10% SnO 2 target. The effect of hydrogen gas ratio [H 2 / (H 2 + Ar)] on the electrical, optical and mechanical properties was investigated. With increasing the amount of hydrogen gas, the resistivity of the samples showed the lowest value of 3.5 x 10 -4 Ω.cm at the range of 0.8-1.7% of hydrogen gas ratio, while the resistivity increases over than 2.5% of hydrogen gas ratio. Hall effect measurements explained that carrier concentration and its mobility are strongly related with the resistivity of ITO films. The supplement of hydrogen gas also reduced the residual stress of ITO films up to the stress level of 110 MPa. The surface roughness and the crystallinity of the samples were investigated by using atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction, respectively

  18. Towards high quality ITO coatings: the impact of nitrogen admixture in HiPIMS discharges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straňák, V.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Sezemsky, P.; Wulff, H.; Kruth, A.; Smietana, M.; Kratochvíl, J.; Čada, Martin; Hubička, Zdeněk

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 335, Feb (2018), s. 126-133 ISSN 0257-8972 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : film properties * HiPIMS * ITO * plasma deposition Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016

  19. Amorphous Terfenol-D films using nanosecond pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, James; O'Brien, Daniel T.; Kovar, Desiderio

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of Terfenol-D were produced by nanosecond pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at two fluences. Electron dispersive spectroscopy conducted using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes showed that the film compositions were similar to that of the PLD target. Contrary to previous assertions that suggested that nanosecond PLD results in crystalline films, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the films produced at both fluences were amorphous. Splatters present on the film had similar compositions to the overall film and were also amorphous. Magnetic measurements showed that the films had high saturation magnetization and magnetostriction, similar to high quality films produced using other physical vapor deposition methods.

  20. Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition as a tool for deposition of thin film battery materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, J.F.M.; Dongen, van T.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition was utilized for the deposition of LiCoO2 cathode materials for all-solid-state thin-film micro-batteries. To obtain insight in the deposition process, the most important process parameters were optimized for the deposition of crystalline electrode films on

  1. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Research on low temperature deposition of polycrystalline thin films; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Teion seimaku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on research on a technology of low temperature deposition of polycrystalline thin films for solar cells. This research used ITO coated glass substrates, on which CdS was accumulated to a thickness of about 100 nm by using the CBD process, and over this deposition a CuInSe2 film was formed at 300{degree}C by using the ion cluster beam (ICB) process. The manufactured solar cells with a glass/ITO/CdS/CuInSe2/Au structure had an efficiency of 2%. In manufacturing a CuGaSe2 thin film by using the ICB process, effects of acceleration voltage relative to cluster beams and ionization current were investigated. It was found that the film morphology, the result of analysis by using X-ray diffraction, and the electric conductivity are sensitive to the ionization current. From these findings, an optimum film forming condition was derived. A CuGaSe2 thin film was manufactured by using the ICB process over a Cds thin film deposited by using the CDB process. Both of the surface morphology and X-ray diffraction patterns of the film did not show a large change, indicating a possibility of manufacturing cells with a reverse structure. Effects of heat treatment on CuInSe2 monocrystals were evaluated by using ESR and FTIR. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Electrical characterization of the ITO/NiPc/PEDOT : PSS junction diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Mutabar; Sayyad, M H; Karimov, Kh S; Wahab, Fazal, E-mail: mutabar_shah@hotmail.co, E-mail: mutabarshah@gmail.co [Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi, District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 23640 (Pakistan)

    2010-10-13

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of an ITO/NiPc/PEDOT : PSS junction diode. A thin film of nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) was deposited by the thermal vacuum deposition method on indium tin oxide (ITO) used as a substrate. The current-voltage characteristics of the diode were measured at room temperature under dark condition and showed rectifying behaviour. The values of several electrical parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, conductivity, and series and shunt resistances were calculated.

  3. Electrochemical deposition of molybdenum sulfide thin films on conductive plastic substrates as platinum-free flexible counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chao-Kuang; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo, E-mail: jack_hsieh@mail.mcut.edu.tw

    2015-06-01

    In this study, pulsed electrochemical deposition (pulsed ECD) was used to deposit molybdenum sulfide (MoS{sub x}) thin films on indium tin oxide/polyethylene naphthalate (ITO/PEN) substrates as flexible counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The surface morphologies and elemental distributions of the prepared MoS{sub x} thin films were examined using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The chemical states and crystallinities of the prepared MoS{sub x} thin films were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The optical transmission (T (%)) properties of the prepared MoS{sub x} samples were determined by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Tafel-polarization measurements were performed to analyze the electrochemical properties and catalytic activities of the thin films for redox reactions. The FE-SEM results showed that the MoS{sub x} thin films were deposited uniformly on the ITO/PEN flexible substrates via the pulsed ECD method. The CV and Tafel-polarization curve measurements demonstrated that the deposited MoS{sub x} thin films exhibited excellent performances for the reduction of triiodide ions. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSC produced with the pulsed ECD MoS{sub x} thin-film CE was examined by a solar simulator. In combination with a dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with the MoS{sub x} flexible CE showed a PCE of 4.39% under an illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW cm{sup −2}). Thus, we report that the MoS{sub x} thin films are active catalysts for triiodide reduction. The MoS{sub x} thin films are prepared at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and in a simple and rapid manner. This is an important practical contribution to the production of flexible low-cost thin-film CEs based on plastic substrates. The MoS{sub x

  4. Stress evaluation of chemical vapor deposited silicon dioxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Masahiko; Itsumi, Manabu

    2002-01-01

    Film stress of chemical vapor deposited silicon dioxide films was evaluated. All of the deposited films show tensile intrinsic stresses. Oxygen partial pressure dependence of the intrinsic stress is very close to that of deposition rate. The intrinsic stress increases with increasing the deposition rate under the same deposition temperature, and decreases with increasing substrate temperature. Electron spin resonance (ESR) active defects in the films were observed when the films were deposited at 380 deg. C and 450 deg. C. The ESR signal intensity decreases drastically with increasing deposition temperature. The intrinsic stress correlates very closely to the intensity of the ESR-active defects, that is, the films with larger intrinsic stress have larger ESR-active defects. It is considered that the intrinsic stress was generated because the voids caused by local bond disorder were formed during random network formation among the SiO 4 tetrahedra. This local bond disorder also causes the ESR-active defects

  5. Electrical Conductivity of CUXS Thin Film Deposited by Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin films of CuxS have successfully been deposited on glass substrates using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. The films were then investigated for their electrical properties. The results showed that the electrical conductivities of the CuxS films with different molarities (n) of thiourea (Tu), determined using ...

  6. Failure behavior of ITO diffusion barrier between electroplating Cu and Si substrate annealed in a low vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.H.; Chien, C.M.; Liu, W.L.; Chen, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    A structure of Cu/ITO(10 nm)/Si was first formed and then annealed at various temperatures for 5 min in a rapid thermal annealing furnace under 10 -2 Torr pressure. In Cu/ITO(10 nm)/Si structure, the ITO(10 nm) film was coated on Si substrate by sputtering process and the Cu film was deposited on ITO film by electroplating technique. The various Cu/ITO(10 nm)/Si samples were characterized by a four-point probe, a scanning electron microscope, an X-ray diffractometer, and a transmission electron microscope. The results showed that when the annealing temperature increases near 600 deg. C the interface between Cu and ITO becomes unstable, and the Cu 3 Si particles begin to form; and when the annealing temperature increases to 650 deg. C, a good many of Cu 3 Si particles about 1 μm in size form and the sheet resistance of Cu/ITO(10 nm)/Si structure largely increases.

  7. Transparent ITO/Ag-Pd-Cu/ITO multilayer cathode use in inverted organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo-Joong; Kim, Han-Ki; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Kal, Jinha; Hahn, Jungseok

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of transparent ITO/Ag-Pd-Cu (APC)/ITO multilayer cathodes were investigated for use in inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs). The insertion of an APC interlayer into the ITO film effectively led to crystallization of the top ITO layer, unlike that in the Ag interlayer, and resulted in a low sheet resistance of 6.55 Ohm/square and a high optical transmittance of 84.14% without post annealing. In addition, the alloying of the Pd and Cu elements into Ag prevented agglomeration and oxidization of the metal interlayer and led to more stable ITO/APC/ITO films under ambient conditions. The microstructure and interfacial structure of the transparent ITO/APC/ITO cathode in the IOSCs were examined in detail by synchrotron X-ray scattering and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we suggested a possible mechanism to explain the lower PCE of the IOSCs with an ITO/APC/ITO cathode than that of a reference IOSC with a crystalline ITO cathode using the external quantum efficiency of the IOSCs

  8. Transparent ITO/Ag-Pd-Cu/ITO multilayer cathode use in inverted organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-Joong; Kim, Han-Ki, E-mail: imdlhkkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering for Information and Electronics, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Hwi [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Jigokro-127beon-gil, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kal, Jinha; Hahn, Jungseok [Future Technology Research Group, Kolon Central Research Park, 154 Mabukro, Giheung-ku, Yongin-si, Kyunggi-do, 16910 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The characteristics of transparent ITO/Ag-Pd-Cu (APC)/ITO multilayer cathodes were investigated for use in inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs). The insertion of an APC interlayer into the ITO film effectively led to crystallization of the top ITO layer, unlike that in the Ag interlayer, and resulted in a low sheet resistance of 6.55 Ohm/square and a high optical transmittance of 84.14% without post annealing. In addition, the alloying of the Pd and Cu elements into Ag prevented agglomeration and oxidization of the metal interlayer and led to more stable ITO/APC/ITO films under ambient conditions. The microstructure and interfacial structure of the transparent ITO/APC/ITO cathode in the IOSCs were examined in detail by synchrotron X-ray scattering and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we suggested a possible mechanism to explain the lower PCE of the IOSCs with an ITO/APC/ITO cathode than that of a reference IOSC with a crystalline ITO cathode using the external quantum efficiency of the IOSCs.

  9. Potential of ITO nanoparticles formed by hydrogen treatment in PECVD for improved performance of back grid contact crystalline silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Sourav; Mitra, Suchismita; Dhar, Sukanta; Ghosh, Hemanta; Banerjee, Chandan, E-mail: chandanbanerjee74@gmail.com; Datta, Swapan K.; Saha, Hiranmoy

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles as back scatterers in c-Si solar cells. • ITO NP have comparatively low dissipative losses and tunable optical properties. • ITO NP formed by hydrogen plasma treatment on sputtered ITO film. • Enhanced absorption and carrier collection at longer wavelengths due to enhanced light trapping. - Abstract: This paper discusses the prospect of using indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles as back scatterers in crystalline silicon solar cells instead of commonly used metal nanoparticles as ITO nanoparticles have comparatively low dissipative losses and tunable optical properties. ITO nanoparticles of ∼5–10 nm size is developed on the rear side of the solar cell by deposition of ∼5–10 nm thick ITO layer by DC magnetron sputtering followed by hydrogen treatment in PECVD. The silicon solar cell is fabricated in the laboratory using conventional method with grid metal contact at the back surface. Various characterizations like FESEM, TEM, AFM, XRD, EQE and IV characteristics are performed to analyze the morphology, chemical composition, optical characteristics and electrical performance of the device. ITO nanoparticles at the back surface of the solar cell significantly enhances the short circuit current, open circuit voltage and efficiency of the solar cell. These enhancements may be attributed to the increased absorption and carrier collection at longer wavelengths of solar spectrum due to enhanced light trapping by the ITO nanoparticles and surface passivation by the hydrogen treatment of the back surface.

  10. Annealing effects on the structural and optical properties of vanadium oxide film obtained by the hot-filament metal oxide deposition technique (HFMOD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarminio, Jair; Silva, Paulo Rogerio Catarini da, E-mail: scarmini@uel.br, E-mail: prcsilva@uel.br [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Gelamo, Rogerio Valentim, E-mail: rogelamo@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, MG (Brazil); Moraes, Mario Antonio Bica de, E-mail: bmoraes@mailhost.ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Vanadium oxide films amorphous, nonstoichiometric and highly absorbing in the optical region were deposited on ITO-coated glass and on silicon substrates, by the hot-filament metal oxide deposition technique (HFMOD) and oxidized by ex-situ annealing in a furnace at 200, 300, 400 and 500 deg C, under an atmosphere of argon and rarefied oxygen. X-ray diffraction, Raman and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy as well as optical transmission were employed to characterize the amorphous and annealed films. When annealed at 200 and 300 deg C the as-deposited opaque films become transparent but still amorphous. Under treatments at 400 and 500 deg C a crystalline nonstoichiometric V{sub 2}O{sub 5} structure is formed. All the annealed films became semiconducting, with their optical absorption coefficients changing with the annealing temperature. An optical gap of 2.25 eV was measured for the films annealed at 400 and 500 deg C. The annealing in rarefied oxygen atmosphere proved to be a useful and simple ex-situ method to modulate the structural and optical properties of vanadium oxide films deposited by HFMOD technique. This technique could be applied to other amorphous and non-absorbing oxide films, replacing the conventional and sometimes expensive method of modulate desirable film properties by controlling the film deposition parameters. Even more, the HFMOD technique can be an inexpensive alternative to deposit metal oxide films. (author)

  11. Flexible ITO-Free Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the material-of-choice for transparent conductors in any optoelectronic application. However, scarce resources of indium and high market demand of ITO have created large price fluctuations and future supply concerns. In polymer solar cells (PSCs), ITO is the single......-cost alternatives to ITO suitable for use in PSCs. These alternatives belong to four material groups: polymers; metal and polymer composites; metal nanowires and ultra-thin metal films; and carbon nanotubes and graphene. We further present the progress of employing these alternatives in PSCs and identify future...

  12. Deposition of low sheet resistance indium tin oxide directly onto functional small molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Franklin, Joseph B.

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We outline a methodology for depositing tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) directly onto semiconducting organic small molecule films for use as a transparent conducting oxide top-electrode. ITO films were grown using pulsed laser deposition onto copper(II)phthalocyanine (CuPc):buckminsterfullerene (C60) coated substrates. The ITO was deposited at a substrate temperature of 150 °C over a wide range of background oxygen pressures (Pd) (0.67-10 Pa). Deposition at 0.67 ≤ Pd ≤ 4.7 Pa led to delamination of the organic films owing to damage induced by the high energy ablated particles, at intermediate 4.7 ≤ Pd < 6.7 Pa pressures macroscopic cracking is observed in the ITO. Increasing Pd further, ≥ 6.7 Pa, supports the deposition of continuous, polycrystalline and highly transparent ITO films without damage to the CuPc:C60. The free carrier concentration of ITO is strongly influenced by Pd; hence growth at > 6.7 Pa induces a significant decrease in conductivity; with a minimum sheet resistance (Rs) of 145 /□ achieved for 300 nm thick ITO films. To reduce the Rs a multi-pressure deposition was implemented, resulting in the formation of polycrystalline, highly transparent ITO with an Rs of - 20/□ whilst maintaining the inherent functionality and integrity of the small molecule substrate.

  13. Deposition of low sheet resistance indium tin oxide directly onto functional small molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Franklin, Joseph B.; Fleet, Luke R.; Burgess, Claire H.; McLachlan, Martyn A.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We outline a methodology for depositing tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) directly onto semiconducting organic small molecule films for use as a transparent conducting oxide top-electrode. ITO films were grown using pulsed laser deposition onto copper(II)phthalocyanine (CuPc):buckminsterfullerene (C60) coated substrates. The ITO was deposited at a substrate temperature of 150 °C over a wide range of background oxygen pressures (Pd) (0.67-10 Pa). Deposition at 0.67 ≤ Pd ≤ 4.7 Pa led to delamination of the organic films owing to damage induced by the high energy ablated particles, at intermediate 4.7 ≤ Pd < 6.7 Pa pressures macroscopic cracking is observed in the ITO. Increasing Pd further, ≥ 6.7 Pa, supports the deposition of continuous, polycrystalline and highly transparent ITO films without damage to the CuPc:C60. The free carrier concentration of ITO is strongly influenced by Pd; hence growth at > 6.7 Pa induces a significant decrease in conductivity; with a minimum sheet resistance (Rs) of 145 /□ achieved for 300 nm thick ITO films. To reduce the Rs a multi-pressure deposition was implemented, resulting in the formation of polycrystalline, highly transparent ITO with an Rs of - 20/□ whilst maintaining the inherent functionality and integrity of the small molecule substrate.

  14. Effect of cerium doping on the electrical properties of ultrathin indium tin oxide films for application in touch sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Saewon; Cho, Sanghyun; Song, Pungkeun

    2014-01-01

    The electrical and microstructure properties of cerium doped indium tin oxide (ITO:Ce) ultrathin films were evaluated to assess their potential application in touch sensors. 10 to 150-nm ITO and ITO:Ce films were deposited on glass substrates (200 °C) by DC magnetron sputtering using different ITO targets (doped with CeO 2 : 0, 1, 3, 5 wt.%). ITO:Ce (doped with CeO 2 : 3 wt.%) films with thickness < 25 nm showed lower resistivity than ITO. This lower resistivity was accompanied by a significant increase in the Hall mobility despite a decrease in crystallinity. In addition, the surface morphology and wetting properties improved with increasing Ce concentration. This is related to an earlier transition from an island structure to continuous film formation caused by an increase in the initial nucleation density. - Highlights: • 10 to 150-nm InSnO 2 (ITO) and ITO:Ce thin films were deposited by sputtering. • ITO:Ce films with thickness < 25 nm showed lower resistivity than ITO. • Hall mobility was strongly affected by initial film formation. • Surface morphology and wetting property improved with increasing Ce concentration. • Such behavior is related to an earlier transition to continuous film formation

  15. Hydrazine-based deposition route for device-quality CIGS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitzi, David B.; Yuan, Min; Liu, Wei; Kellock, Andrew J.; Chey, S. Jay; Gignac, Lynne; Schrott, Alex G.

    2009-01-01

    A simple solution-based approach for depositing CIGS (Cu-In-Ga-Se/S) absorber layers is discussed, with an emphasis on film characterization, interfacial properties and integration into photovoltaic devices. The process involves incorporating all metal and chalcogenide components into a single hydrazine-based solution, spin coating a precursor film, and heat treating in an inert atmosphere, to form the desired CIGS film with up to micron-scaled film thickness and grain size. PV devices (glass/Mo/CIGS/CdS/i-ZnO/ITO) employing the spin-coated CIGS and using processing temperatures below 500 deg. C have yielded power conversion efficiencies of up to 10% (AM 1.5 illumination), without the need for a post-CIGS-deposition treatment in a gaseous Se source or a cyanide-based bath etch. Short-duration low-temperature (T < 200 deg. C ) oxygen treatment of completed devices is shown to have a positive impact on the performance of initially underperforming cells, thereby enabling better performance in devices prepared at temperatures below 500 deg. C

  16. Hydrazine-based deposition route for device-quality CIGS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitzi, David B. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, P. O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)], E-mail: dmitzi@us.ibm.com; Yuan, Min; Liu, Wei [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, P. O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kellock, Andrew J [IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Rd, San Jose, CA 95120 (United States); Chey, S Jay; Gignac, Lynne; Schrott, Alex G [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, P. O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2009-02-02

    A simple solution-based approach for depositing CIGS (Cu-In-Ga-Se/S) absorber layers is discussed, with an emphasis on film characterization, interfacial properties and integration into photovoltaic devices. The process involves incorporating all metal and chalcogenide components into a single hydrazine-based solution, spin coating a precursor film, and heat treating in an inert atmosphere, to form the desired CIGS film with up to micron-scaled film thickness and grain size. PV devices (glass/Mo/CIGS/CdS/i-ZnO/ITO) employing the spin-coated CIGS and using processing temperatures below 500 deg. C have yielded power conversion efficiencies of up to 10% (AM 1.5 illumination), without the need for a post-CIGS-deposition treatment in a gaseous Se source or a cyanide-based bath etch. Short-duration low-temperature (T < 200 deg. C ) oxygen treatment of completed devices is shown to have a positive impact on the performance of initially underperforming cells, thereby enabling better performance in devices prepared at temperatures below 500 deg. C.

  17. RF Magnetron Sputtering Deposited W/Ti Thin Film For Smart Window Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuz, Lutfi; Kiristi, Melek; Bozduman, Ferhat; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2014-10-01

    Electrochromic (EC) devices can change reversible and persistent their optical properties in the visible region (400-800 nm) upon charge insertion/extraction according to the applied voltage. A complementary type EC is a device containing two electrochromic layers, one of which is anodically colored such as vanadium oxide (V2 O5) while the other cathodically colored such as tungsten oxide (WO3) which is separated by an ionic conduction layer (electrolyte). The use of a solid electrolyte such as Nafion eliminates the need for containment of the liquid electrolyte, which simplifies the cell design, as well as improves safety and durability. In this work, the EC device was fabricated on a ITO/glass slide. The WO3-TiO2 thin film was deposited by reactive RF magnetron sputtering using a 2-in W/Ti (9:1%wt) target with purity of 99.9% in a mixture gas of argon and oxygen. As a counter electrode layer, V2O5 film was deposited on an ITO/glass substrate using V2O3 target with the same conditions of reactive RF magnetron sputtering. Modified Nafion was used as an electrolyte to complete EC device. The transmittance spectra of the complementary EC device was measured by optical spectrophotometry when a voltage of +/-3 V was applied to the EC device by computer controlled system. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Fig. 2). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) for EC device was performed by sweeping the potential between +/-3 V at a scan rate of 50 mV/s.

  18. Low temperature and self catalytic growth of ultrafine ITO nanowires by electron beam evaporation method and their optical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R. Rakesh; Rao, K. Narasimha; Rajanna, K.; Phani, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ITO nanowires were grown by e-beam evaporation method. • ITO nanowires growth done at low substrate temperature of 350 °C. • Nanowires growth was carried out without use of catalyst and reactive oxygen gas. • Nanowires growth proceeds via self catalytic VLS growth. • Grown nanowires have diameter 10–20 nm and length 1–4 μm long. • ITO nanowire films have shown good antireflection property. - Abstract: We report the self catalytic growth of Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires (NWs) over a large area glass and silicon substrates by electron beam evaporation method at low substrate temperatures of 250–400 °C. The ITO NWs growth was carried out without using an additional reactive oxygen gas and a metal catalyst particle. Ultrafine diameter (∼10–15 nm) and micron long ITO NWs growth was observed in a temperature window of 300–400 °C. Transmission electron microscope studies confirmed single crystalline nature of the NWs and energy dispersive spectroscopy studies on the NWs confirmed that the NWs growth proceeds via self catalytic vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism. ITO nanowire films grown on glass substrates at a substrate temperature of 300–400 °C have shown ∼2–6% reflection and ∼70–85% transmission in the visible region. Effect of deposition parameters was systematically investigated. The large area growth of ITO nanowire films would find potential applications in the optoelectronic devices

  19. Interfacial Energy Alignment at the ITO/Ultra-Thin Electron Selective Dielectric Layer Interface and Its Effect on the Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Eiji; Goto, Yoshinori; Saka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsutoshi

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated the photovoltaic properties of an inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cell in a device with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/electron selective layer (ESL)/P3HT:PCBM active layer/MoOx/Ag multilayered structure. The insertion of only single layer of poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) (PDDA) cationic polymer film (or poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) polymeric interfacial dipole layer) and titanium oxide nanosheet (TN) films as an ESL effectively improved cell performance. Abnormal S-shaped curves were observed in the inverted BHJ cells owing to the contact resistance across the ITO/active layer interface and the ITO/PDDA/TN/active layer interface. The series resistance across the ITO/ESL interface in the inverted BHJ cell was successfully reduced using an interfacial layer with a positively charged surface potential with respect to ITO base electrode. The positive dipole in PEI and the electronic charge phenomena at the electrophoretic deposited TN (ED-TN) films on ITO contributed to the reduction of the contact resistance at the electrode interface. The surface potential measurement revealed that the energy alignment by the transfer of electronic charges from the ED-TN to the base electrodes. The insertion of the ESL with a large positive surface potential reduced the potential barrier for the electron injection at ITO/TN interface and it improved the photovoltaic properties of the inverted cell with an ITO/TN/active layer/MoOx/Ag structure.

  20. Recent progress of obliquely deposited thin films for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Itoh, Tadayoshi; Taga, Yasunori

    1999-06-01

    More than 10 years ago, birefringent films of metal oxides were formed by oblique vapor deposition and investigated with a view of their application to optical retardation plates. The retardation function of the films was explained in terms of the birefringence caused by the characteristic anisotropic nanostructure inside the films. These films are now classified in the genre of the so-called sculptured thin films. However, the birefringent films thus prepared are not yet industrialized even now due to the crucial lack of the durability and the yield of products. In this review paper, we describe the present status of application process of the retardation films to the information systems such as compact disc and digital versatile disc devices with a special emphasis on the uniformity of retardation properties in a large area and the stability of the optical properties of the obliquely deposited thin films. Finally, further challenges for wide application of the obliquely deposited thin films are also discussed.

  1. In situ Observation of Direct Electron Transfer Reaction of Cytochrome c Immobilized on ITO Electrode Modified with 11-{2-[2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}undecylphosphonic Acid Self-assembled Monolayer Film by Electrochemical Slab Optical Waveguide Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Okabe, Hirotaka; Omura, Ayako; Nakano, Miki; Miyake, Koji

    2017-01-01

    To immobilize cytochrome c (cyt.c) on an ITO electrode while keeping its direct electron transfer (DET) functionality, the ITO electrode surface was modified with 11-{2-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}undecylphosphonic acid (CH 3 O (CH 2 CH 2 O) 3 C 11 H 22 PO(OH) 2 , M-EG 3 -UPA) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) film. After a 100-times washing process to exchange a phosphate buffer saline solution surrounding cyt.c and ITO electrode to a fresh one, an in situ observation of visible absorption spectral change with slab optical waveguide (SOWG) spectroscopy showed that 87.7% of the cyt.c adsorbed on the M-EG 3 -UPA modified ITO electrode remained on the ITO electrode. The SOWG absorption spectra corresponding to oxidized and reduced cyt.c were observed with setting the ITO electrode potential at 0.3 and -0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively, while probing the DET reaction between cyt.c and ITO electrode occurred. The amount of cyt.c was evaluated to be about 19.4% of a monolayer coverage based on the coulomb amount in oxidation and reduction peaks on cyclic voltammetry (CV) data. The CV peak current maintained to be 83.4% compared with the initial value for a M-EG 3 -UPA modified ITO electrode after 60 min continuous scan with 0.1 V/s between 0.3 and -0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl.

  2. New Copolymers Containing Charge Carriers for Organic Devices with ITO Films Treated by UV-Ozone Using High Intensity Discharge Lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Roberto SANTOS

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available For electroluminescent devices new copolymers were synthesized using a Suzuki cross-coupling reaction based on monomers (fluorine-alt-phenylene in conjugation with quinoline-alt-phenylene units. They were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FTIR. TGA measurements indicated that the copolymers have good thermal properties and no weight loss was observed up to 250 °C. The UV-Vis spectra were characterized by absorptions from the fluorene-alt-phenylene and quinoline-alt-phenylene segments in the backbone, while their photoluminescence (PL spectra dominated by emissions from the fluorene excimer. For devices assembly ITO films were treated using a High Intensity Discharge Lamp (HPMVL without outer bulb presenting high ozone concentration than that conventional germicidal lamp. The device with ITO treated revealed significant decrease of threshold voltage (or turn-on voltage compared by untreated with I-V curves. This decrease can be related by water and carbon dioxide extracted on surface after UV-Ozone treatment revealed by DRIFT measurements.

  3. Growth of Cu2ZnSnS4(CZTS) by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Thin film Photovoltaic Absorber Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandur, Abhishek; White, Bruce

    2014-03-01

    CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) has become the subject of intense interest because it is an ideal candidate absorber material for thin-film solar cells with an optimal band gap (1.5 eV), high absorption coefficient (104 cm-1) and abundant elemental components. Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) provides excellent control over film composition since thin films are deposited under high vacuum with excellent stoichiometry transfer from the target. CZTS thin films were deposited using PLD from a stoichiometrically close CZTS target (Cu2.6Zn1.1Sn0.7S3.44). The effects of laser energy fluence and substrate temperature and post-deposition sulfur annealing on the surface morphology, composition and optical absorption have been investigated. Optimal CZTS thin films exhibited a band gap of 1.54 eV with an absorption coefficient of 4x104cm-1. A solar cell utilizing PLD grown CZTS with the structure SLG/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/ITO showed a conversion efficiency of 5.85% with Voc = 376 mV, Jsc = 38.9 mA/cm2 and Fill Factor, FF = 0.40.

  4. Organic semiconductor rubrene thin films deposited by pulsed laser evaporation of solidified solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, N.; Gazda, M.; Jendrzejewski, R.; Majumdar, S.; Sawczak, M.; Śliwiński, G.

    2017-08-01

    Organic semiconductor rubrene (C42H28) belongs to most preferred spintronic materials because of the high charge carrier mobility up to 40 cm2(V·s)-1. However, the fabrication of a defect-free, polycrystalline rubrene for spintronic applications represents a difficult task. We report preparation and properties of rubrene thin films deposited by pulsed laser evaporation of solidified solutions. Samples of rubrene dissolved in aromatic solvents toluene, xylene, dichloromethane and 1,1-dichloroethane (0.23-1% wt) were cooled to temperatures in the range of 16.5-163 K and served as targets. The target ablation was provided by a pulsed 1064 nm or 266 nm laser. For films of thickness up to 100 nm deposited on Si, glass and ITO glass substrates, the Raman and AFM data show presence of the mixed crystalline and amorphous rubrene phases. Agglomerates of rubrene crystals are revealed by SEM observation too, and presence of oxide/peroxide (C42H28O2) in the films is concluded from matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight spectroscopic analysis.

  5. Boron doped nanostructure ZnO films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Seniye, E-mail: seniyek@ogu.edu.tr; Ozbas, Omer

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructure undoped and boron doped ZnO films were deposited by USP technique. • Influences of doping on the surface and optical properties of the ZnO films were investigated. • XRD spectra of the films exhibited a variation in crystalline quality depending on the B content. - Abstract: ZnO is an II–VI compound semiconductor with a wide direct band gap of 3.3 eV at room temperature. Doped with group III elements (B, Al or Ga), it becomes an attractive candidate to replace tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) or indium tin oxide (ITO) as transparent conducting electrodes in solar cell devices and flat panel display due to competitive electrical and optical properties. In this work, ZnO and boron doped ZnO (ZnO:B) films have been deposited onto glass substrates at 350 ± 5 °C by a cost-efficient ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanostructure undoped and ZnO:B films have been investigated. Electrical resistivity of films has been analyzed by four-probe technique. Optical properties and thicknesses of the films have been examined in the wavelength range 1200–1600 nm by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. The optical constants (refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k)) and the thicknesses of the films have been fitted according to Cauchy model. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Transmission spectra have been taken by UV spectrophotometer. It is found that both ZnO and ZnO:B films have high average optical transmission (≥80%). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the obtained ZnO has a hexagonal wurtzite type structure. The morphological properties of the films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface morphology of the nanostructure films is found to depend on the concentration of B. As a result, ZnO:B films are promising contender for their potential use as transparent window layer and

  6. Optimization of ITO layers for applications in a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla, J.; Tamasi, M.; Rizzoli, R.; Losurdo, M.; Centurioni, E.; Summonte, C.; Rubinelli, F

    2003-02-03

    A detailed study of the properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films used as antireflecting front electrodes in a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cells is presented. The deposition conditions of ITO layers by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering were optimized for heterojunction solar cells applications. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the deposited films allowed for a correlation between the film composition and the experimental parameters used in the sputtering process. The ITO thickness was optimized considering the thickness of the a-Si emitter layer, its optical characteristics and the heterojunction solar cell spectral response. In our devices, the optimal thickness calculated for the ITO film was in the range 80-95 nm, depending on the solar cell spectral response, and a thickness tolerance of {+-}10 nm was found to be suitable to limit the degradation of the device performance. Finally, device simulation results obtained by the 'Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures' code are reported.

  7. Electrical properties of indium-tin oxide films deposited on nonheated substrates using a planar-magnetron sputtering system and a facing-targets sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Hideo; Hoshi, Youichi; Kameyama, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Distribution of the electrical properties of indium-tin oxide (ITO) film prepared by both a planar-magnetron sputtering system (PMSS) and a facing-targets sputtering system (FTSS) at room temperature were investigated. It was found that the outstanding non-uniformities of the electrical properties in noncrystalline ITO films are mainly due to the variation of the oxygen stoichiometry dependent on film positions on substrate surfaces. Furthermore, ITO film with uniform distribution of electrical properties was obtainable using FTSS

  8. Three-dimensionally embedded indium tin oxide (ITO) films in photosensitive glass: a transparent and conductive platform for microdevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beke, S.; Sugioka, K.; Midorikawa, K.; Koroesi, L.; Dekany, I.

    2011-01-01

    A new method for embedding transparent and conductive two- and three-dimensional microstructures in glass is presented. We show that the internal surface of hollow structures fabricated by femtosecond-laser direct writing inside the photosensitive glass can be coated by indium tin oxide (Sn-doped In 2 O 3 , ITO) using a sol-gel process. The idea of combining two transparent materials with different electrical properties, i.e., insulating and conductive, is very promising and hence it opens new prospects in manufacturing cutting edge microdevices, such as lab-on-a-chips (LOCs) and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). (orig.)

  9. Atomic layer deposition of a MoS₂ film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lee Kheng; Liu, Bo; Teng, Jing Hua; Guo, Shifeng; Low, Hong Yee; Tan, Hui Ru; Chong, Christy Yuen Tung; Yang, Ren Bin; Loh, Kian Ping

    2014-09-21

    A mono- to multilayer thick MoS₂ film has been grown by using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique at 300 °C on a sapphire wafer. ALD provides precise control of the MoS₂ film thickness due to pulsed introduction of the reactants and self-limiting reactions of MoCl₅ and H₂S. A post-deposition annealing of the ALD-deposited monolayer film improves the crystallinity of the film, which is evident from the presence of triangle-shaped crystals that exhibit strong photoluminescence in the visible range.

  10. Lanthanoid titanate film structure deposited at different temperatures in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushkov, V.D.; Zaslavskij, A.M.; Mel'nikov, A.V.; Zverlin, A.V.; Slivinskaya, A.Eh.

    1991-01-01

    Influence of deposition temperature on the structure of lanthanoid titanate films, prepared by the method of high-rate vacuum condensation. It is shown that formation of crystal structure, close to equilibrium samples, proceeds at 1100-1300 deg C deposition temperatures. Increase of temperature in this range promotes formation of films with higher degree of structural perfection. Amorphous films of lanthanoid titanates form at 200-1000 deg C. Deposition temperature shouldn't exceed 1400 deg C to prevent the formation of perovskite like phases in films

  11. Modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Kaufman, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Many thin film deposition techniques involve some form of energetic particle bombardment of the growing film. The degree of bombardment greatly influences the film composition, structure and other properties. While in some techniques the degree of bombardment is secondary to the original process design, in recent years more deposition systems are being designed with the capability for controlled ion bombardment of thin films during deposition. The highest degree of control is obtained with ion beam sources which operate independently of the vapor source providing the thin film material. Other plasma techniques offer varying degrees of control of energetic particle bombardment. Deposition methods involving ion bombardment are described, and the basic processes with which film properties are modified by ion bombardment are summarized. (Auth.)

  12. Stripe domains and magnetoresistance in thermally deposited nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, P.D.; Stern, N.P.; Snowden, D.S.; Kappus, B.A.; Checkelsky, J.G.; Harberger, S.S.; Fusello, A.M.; Eckert, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    We report a study of the domain structure and magnetoresistance of thermally deposited nickel films. For films thicker than 17 nm, we observe striped domains with period varying with film thickness as a power law with exponent 0.21±0.02 up to 120 nm thickness. There is a negative magnetoresistance for fields out of the plane

  13. Stripe domains and magnetoresistance in thermally deposited nickel films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, P. D.; Stern, N. P.; Snowden, D. S.; Kappus, B. A.; Checkelsky, J. G.; Harberger, S. S.; Fusello, A. M.; Eckert, J. C.

    2004-05-01

    We report a study of the domain structure and magnetoresistance of thermally deposited nickel films. For films thicker than 17nm, we observe striped domains with period varying with film thickness as a power law with exponent 0.21+/-0.02 up to 120nm thickness. There is a negative magnetoresistance for fields out of the plane.

  14. Stripe domains and magnetoresistance in thermally deposited nickel films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, P.D. E-mail: sparks@hmc.edu; Stern, N.P.; Snowden, D.S.; Kappus, B.A.; Checkelsky, J.G.; Harberger, S.S.; Fusello, A.M.; Eckert, J.C

    2004-05-01

    We report a study of the domain structure and magnetoresistance of thermally deposited nickel films. For films thicker than 17 nm, we observe striped domains with period varying with film thickness as a power law with exponent 0.21{+-}0.02 up to 120 nm thickness. There is a negative magnetoresistance for fields out of the plane.

  15. Properties of electrophoretically deposited single wall carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Junyoung; Jalali, Maryam; Campbell, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes techniques for rapidly producing a carbon nanotube thin film by electrophoretic deposition at room temperature and determines the film mass density and electrical/mechanical properties of such films. The mechanism of electrophoretic deposition of thin layers is explained with experimental data. Also, film thickness is measured as a function of time, electrical field and suspension concentration. We use Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy to determine the film mass density. Films created in this manner have a resistivity of 2.14 × 10 −3 Ω·cm, a mass density that varies with thickness from 0.12 to 0.54 g/cm 3 , and a Young's modulus between 4.72 and 5.67 GPa. The latter was found to be independent of thickness from 77 to 134 nm. We also report on fabricating free-standing films by removing the metal seed layer under the CNT film, and selectively etching a sacrificial layer. This method could be extended to flexible photovoltaic devices or high frequency RF MEMS devices. - Highlights: • We explain the electrophoretic deposition process and mechanism of thin SWCNT film deposition. • Characterization of the SWCNT film properties including density, resistivity, transmittance, and Young's modulus. • The film density and resistivity are found to be a function of the film thickness. • Techniques developed to create free standing layers of SW-CNTs for flexible electronics and mechanical actuators

  16. Plasma-deposited a-C(N) H films

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, D E

    2000-01-01

    The growth behaviour, film structure and mechanical properties of plasma-deposited amorphous hydrogenated carbon-nitrogen films are shortly reviewed. The effect of nitrogen-containing gas addition to the deposition to the hydrocarbon atmospheres used is discussed, considering the modifications observed in the chemical composition growth kinetics, carbon atom hybridisation and chemical bonding arrangements of a-C(N):H films. The overall structure behaviour is correlated to the variation of the mechanical properties.

  17. Influence of deposition time on the properties of chemical bath deposited manganese sulfide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Manganese sulfide thin films were chemically deposited from an aqueous solution containing manganese sulfate, sodium thiosulfate and sodium tartrate. The influence of deposition time (2, 3, 6 and 8 days on the properties of thin films was investigated. The structure and surface morphology of the thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. In addition, in order to investigate the optical properties of the thin films, the UV-visible spectrophotometry was used. The XRD results indicated that the deposited MnS2 thin films exhibited a polycrystalline cubic structure. The number of MnS2 peaks on the XRD patterns initially increased from three to six peaks and then decreased to five peaks, as the deposition time was increased from 2 to 8 days. From the AFM measurements, the film thickness and surface roughness were found to be dependent on the deposition time.

  18. Low-cost fabrication of WO{sub 3} films using a room temperature and low-vacuum air-spray based deposition system for inorganic electrochromic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Ik [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sooyeun, E-mail: sooyeunk@u.washington.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Oh; Song, Ji-Hyeon [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Taya, Minoru [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ahn, Sung-Hoon, E-mail: ahnsh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Advanced Machines and Design, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-31

    We report the deposition of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates by using a room-temperature deposition system based on low-vacuum air-spray for the fabrication of inorganic electrochromic windows. The structure of the WO{sub 3} films was characterized using X-ray diffraction, and the surface morphology and film thickness were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The color of the prepared WO{sub 3} films changed from slight yellow to dark blue under applied voltages, demonstrating electrochromism. The WO{sub 3} film coated FTO glass exhibited a large electrochromic contrast of up to 50% at a wavelength of 800 nm. The electrochemical properties of the films were examined using cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry. - Highlights: • WO{sub 3} thin films were fabricated using an air-spray based deposition system at room temperature under low-vacuum conditions. • Dry WO{sub 3} particles were directly deposited on FTO and ITO glasses by using a low-cost deposition system. • The FTO glass based WO{sub 3} film showed the optical contrast of 50% at a wavelength of 800 nm.

  19. Controllable deposition of gadolinium doped ceria electrolyte films by magnetic-field-assisted electrostatic spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksapabutr, Bussarin; Chalermkiti, Tanapol; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra; Panapoy, Manop

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a simple and low-temperature approach to fabrication of dense and crack-free gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) thin films with controllable deposition by a magnetic-field-assisted electrostatic spray deposition technique. The influences of external permanent magnets on the deposition of GDC films were investigated. The coating area deposited using two magnets with the same pole arrangement decreased in comparison with the case of no magnets, whereas the largest deposition area was obtained in the system of the opposite poles. Analysis of as-deposited films at 450 °C indicated the formation of uniform, smooth and dense thin films with a single-phase fluorite structure. The films produced in the system using same poles were thicker, smaller in crystallite size and smoother than those fabricated under other conditions. Additionally, the GDC film deposited using the same pole arrangement showed the maximum in electrical conductivity of about 2.5 × 10 −2 S/cm at a low operating temperature of 500 °C. - Highlights: • Magnetic-field-assisted electrostatic spray allows a controllable coating. • Dense, crack-free thin films were obtained at low process temperature of 450 °C. • Control of deposition, thickness and uniformity is easy to achieve simultaneously. • Films from the same pole were thicker, smaller in crystal size and smoother. • The maximum conductivity of doped ceria film was 2.5 × 10 −2 S/cm at 500 °C

  20. Modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Kaufman, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Deposition methods involving ion bombardment are described, and the basic processes with which film properties are modified by ion bombardment are summarized. Examples of thin film property modification by ion bombardment during deposition, including effects which are primarily compositional as well as those which are primarily structural are presented. The examples demonstrate the usefulness of ion beam techniques in identifying and controlling the fundamental deposition parameters. 68 refs.; 15 figs.; 1 table

  1. Hydrothermal crystallization of amorphous titania films deposited using low temperature atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.R.G. [Institute of Materials Engineering, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail: drm@ansto.gov.au; Triani, G.; Zhang, Z. [Institute of Materials Engineering, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2008-10-01

    A two stage process (atomic layer deposition, followed by hydrothermal treatment) for producing crystalline titania thin films at temperatures compatible with polymeric substrates (< 130 deg. C) has been assessed. Titania thin films were deposited at 80 deg. C using atomic layer deposition. They were extremely flat, uniform and almost entirely amorphous. They also contained relatively high levels of residual Cl from the precursor. After hydrothermal treatment at 120 deg. C for 1 day, > 50% of the film had crystallized. Crystallization was complete after 10 days of hydrothermal treatment. Crystallization of the film resulted in the formation of coarse grained anatase. Residual Cl was completely expelled from the film upon crystallization. As a result of the amorphous to crystalline transformation voids formed at the crystallization front. Inward and lateral crystal growth resulted in voids being localized to the film/substrate interface and crystallite perimeters resulting in pinholing. Both these phenomena resulted in films with poor adhesion and film integrity was severely compromised.

  2. Control and enhancement of the oxygen storage capacity of ceria films by variation of the deposition gas atmosphere during pulsed DC magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb, Asmaa; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; McCoy, Anthony; Venkatanarayanan, Anita; Yaremchenko, Aleksey A.; Surendran, Rajesh; McGlynn, Enda; Daniels, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In this study, nanostructured ceria (CeO2) films are deposited on Si(100) and ITO coated glass substrates by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering using a CeO2 target. The influence on the films of using various gas ambients, such as a high purity Ar and a gas mixture of high purity Ar and O2, in the sputtering chamber during deposition are studied. The film compositions are studied using XPS and SIMS. These spectra show a phase transition from cubic CeO2 to hexagonal Ce2O3 due to the sputtering process. This is related to the transformation of Ce4+ to Ce3+ and indicates a chemically reduced state of CeO2 due to the formation of oxygen vacancies. TGA and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies show that films deposited in an Ar atmosphere have a higher oxygen storage capacity (OSC) compared to films deposited in the presence of O2. CV results specifically show a linear variation with scan rate of the anodic peak currents for both films and the double layer capacitance values for films deposited in Ar/O2 mixed and Ar atmosphere are (1.6 ± 0.2) × 10-4 F and (4.3 ± 0.5) × 10-4 F, respectively. Also, TGA data shows that Ar sputtered samples have a tendency to greater oxygen losses upon reduction compared to the films sputtered in an Ar/O2 mixed atmosphere.

  3. Effects of deposition time in chemically deposited ZnS films in acidic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, H.; Chelouche, A., E-mail: azeddinechelouche@gmail.com; Talantikite, D.; Merzouk, H.; Boudjouan, F.; Djouadi, D.

    2015-08-31

    We report an experimental study on the synthesis and characterization of zinc sulfide (ZnS) single layer thin films deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition technique in acidic solution. The effect of deposition time on the microstructure, surface morphology, optical absorption, transmittance, and photoluminescence (PL) was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis–NIR spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results showed that the samples exhibit wurtzite structure and their crystal quality is improved by increasing deposition time. The latter, was found to affect the morphology of the thin films as showed by SEM micrographs. The optical measurements revealed a high transparency in the visible range and a dependence of absorption edge and band gap on deposition time. The room temperature PL spectra indicated that all ZnS grown thin films emit a UV and blue light, while the band intensities are found to be dependent on deposition times. - Highlights: • Single layer ZnS thin films were deposited by CBD in acidic solution at 95 °C. • The effect of deposition time was investigated. • Coexistence of ZnS and ZnO hexagonal structures for time deposition below 2 h • Thicker ZnS films were achieved after monolayer deposition for 5 h. • The highest UV-blue emission observed in thin film deposited at 5 h.

  4. Characterization of transparent silica films deposited on polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, K.; Sugimura, H.; Inoue, Y.; Takai, O.

    2002-01-01

    Silica films were synthesized by capacitively coupled RF PECVD using mixtures of organo-silane and oxygen as a source. The chemical bonding states and compositions of the films deposited were evaluated with FTIR and XPS. Film surfaces and cross-sections were observed by SEM. Oxygen transmission rates (OTR) of the films coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were measured by an isopiestic method. (Authors)

  5. One-step electrodeposition process of CuInSe2: Deposition time effect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    CuInSe2 thin films were prepared by one-step electrodeposition process using a simplified two- electrodes system. ... homojunctions or heterojunctions (Rincon et al 1983). Efficiency of ... deposition times onto indium thin oxide (ITO)-covered.

  6. SnS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition, dip coating and SILAR techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    The SnS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD), dip coating and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. In them, the CBD thin films were deposited at two temperatures: ambient and 70 °C. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the thin films. The electrical transport properties studies on the as-deposited thin films were done by measuring the I-V characteristics, DC electrical resistivity variation with temperature and the room temperature Hall effect. The obtained results are deliberated in this paper.

  7. Limits of ZnO Electrodeposition in Mesoporous Tin Doped Indium Oxide Films in View of Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dunkel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Well-ordered 3D mesoporous indium tin oxide (ITO films obtained by a templated sol-gel route are discussed as conductive porous current collectors. This paper explores the use of such films modified by electrochemical deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO on the pore walls to improve the electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Mesoporous ITO film were dip-coated with pore sizes of 20–25 nm and 40–45 nm employing novel poly(isobutylene-b-poly(ethylene oxide block copolymers as structure-directors. After electrochemical deposition of ZnO and sensitization with the indoline dye D149 the films were tested as photoanodes in DSSCs. Short ZnO deposition times led to strong back reaction of photogenerated electrons from non-covered ITO to the electrolyte. ITO films with larger pores enabled longer ZnO deposition times before pore blocking occurred, resulting in higher efficiencies, which could be further increased by using thicker ITO films consisting of five layers, but were still lower compared to nanoporous ZnO films electrodeposited on flat ITO. The major factors that currently limit the application are the still low thickness of the mesoporous ITO films, too small pore sizes and non-ideal geometries that do not allow obtaining full coverage of the ITO surface with ZnO before pore blocking occurs.

  8. Limits of ZnO Electrodeposition in Mesoporous Tin Doped Indium Oxide Films in View of Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Christian; von Graberg, Till; Smarsly, Bernd M.; Oekermann, Torsten; Wark, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Well-ordered 3D mesoporous indium tin oxide (ITO) films obtained by a templated sol-gel route are discussed as conductive porous current collectors. This paper explores the use of such films modified by electrochemical deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the pore walls to improve the electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Mesoporous ITO film were dip-coated with pore sizes of 20–25 nm and 40–45 nm employing novel poly(isobutylene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers as structure-directors. After electrochemical deposition of ZnO and sensitization with the indoline dye D149 the films were tested as photoanodes in DSSCs. Short ZnO deposition times led to strong back reaction of photogenerated electrons from non-covered ITO to the electrolyte. ITO films with larger pores enabled longer ZnO deposition times before pore blocking occurred, resulting in higher efficiencies, which could be further increased by using thicker ITO films consisting of five layers, but were still lower compared to nanoporous ZnO films electrodeposited on flat ITO. The major factors that currently limit the application are the still low thickness of the mesoporous ITO films, too small pore sizes and non-ideal geometries that do not allow obtaining full coverage of the ITO surface with ZnO before pore blocking occurs. PMID:28788618

  9. High precision patterning of ITO using femtosecond laser annealing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chung-Wei; Lin, Cen-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We have reported a process of fabrication of crystalline indium tin oxide (c-ITO) patterns using femtosecond laser-induced crystallization with a Gaussian beam profile followed by chemical etching. • The experimental results have demonstrated that the ablation and crystallization threshold fluences of a-ITO thin film are well-defined, the line width of the c-ITO patterns is controllable. • Fast fabrication of the two parallel sub-micro (∼0.5 μm) c-ITO line patterns using a single femtosecond laser beam and a single scanning path can be achieved. • A long-length sub-micro c-ITO line pattern is fabricated, and the feasibility of fabricating c-ITO patterns is confirmed, which are expected to be used in micro-electronics devices. - Abstract: High precision patterning of crystalline indium tin oxide (c-ITO) patterns on amorphous ITO (a-ITO) thin films by femtosecond laser-induced crystallization with a Gaussian beam profile followed by chemical etching is demonstrated. In the proposed approach, the a-ITO thin film is selectively transformed into a c-ITO structure via a low heat affect zone and the well-defined thresholds (ablation and crystallization) supplied by the femtosecond laser pulse. The experimental results show that by careful control of the laser fluence above the crystallization threshold, c-ITO patterns with controllable line widths and ridge-free characteristics can be accomplished. By careful control of the laser fluence above the ablation threshold, fast fabrication of the two parallel sub-micro c-ITO line patterns using a single femtosecond laser beam and single scanning path can be achieved. Along-length sub-micro c-ITO line pattern is fabricated, and the feasibility of fabricating c-ITO patterns is confirmed, which are expected to be used in micro-electronics devices

  10. Thin film deposition using rarefied gas jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.

    2017-06-01

    The rarefied gas jet of aluminium is studied at Mach number Ma = (Uj /√{ kbTj / mg }) in the range .01 PVD) process for the development of the highly oriented pure metallic aluminum thin film with uniform thickness and strong adhesion on the surface of the substrate in the form of ionic plasma, so that the substrate can be protected from corrosion and oxidation and thereby enhance the lifetime and safety, and to introduce the desired surface properties for a given application. Here, H is the characteristic dimension, U_j and T_j are the jet velocity and temperature, n_d is the number density of the jet, m and d are the molecular mass and diameter, and kbis the Boltzmann constant. An important finding is that the capture width (cross-section of the gas jet deposited on the substrate) is symmetric around the centerline of the substrate, and decreases with increased Mach number due to an increase in the momentum of the gas molecules. DSMC simulation results reveals that at low Knudsen number ((Kn=0.01); shorter mean free paths), the atoms experience more collisions, which direct them toward the substrate. However, the atoms also move with lower momentum at low Mach number, which allows scattering collisions to rapidly direct the atoms to the substrate.

  11. Differences observed in the surface morphology and microstructure of Ni-Fe-Cu ternary thin films electrochemically deposited at low and high applied current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarac, U; Kaya, M; Baykul, M C

    2016-01-01

    In this research, nanocrystalline Ni-Fe-Cu ternary thin films using electrochemical deposition technique were produced at low and high applied current densities onto Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated conducting glass substrates. Change of surface morphology and microstructural properties of the films were investigated. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements showed that the Ni-Fe-Cu ternary thin films exhibit anomalous codeposition behaviour during the electrochemical deposition process. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, it was revealed that there are two segregated phases such as Cu- rich and Ni-rich within the films. The crystallographic structure of the films was face-centered cubic (FCC). It was also observed that the film has lower lattice micro-strain and higher texture degree at high applied current density. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed that the films have rounded shape particles on the base part and cauliflower-like structures on the upper part. The film electrodeposited at high current density had considerably smaller rounded shape particles and cauliflower-like structures. From the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses, it was shown that the film deposited at high current density has smaller particle size and surface roughness than the film grown at low current density. (paper)

  12. Vacuum-integrated electrospray deposition for highly reliable polymer thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyung; Lee, Younjoo; Yi, Yeonjin

    2012-10-01

    Vacuum electrospray deposition (ESD) equipment was designed to prepare polymer thin films. The polymer solution can be injected directly into vacuum system through multi-stage pumping line, so that the solvent residues and ambient contaminants are highly reduced. To test the performance of ESD system, we fabricated organic photovoltaic cells (OPVCs) by injecting polymer solution directly onto the substrate inside a high vacuum chamber. The OPVC fabricated has the structure of Al∕P3HT:PCBM∕PEDOT:PSS∕ITO and was optimized by varying the speed of solution injection and concentration of the solution. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the optimized OPVC is 3.14% under AM 1.5G irradiation without any buffer layer at the cathode side. To test the advantages of the vacuum ESD, we exposed the device to atmosphere between the deposition steps of the active layer and cathode. This showed that the PCE of the vacuum processed device is 24% higher than that of the air exposed device and confirms the advantages of the vacuum prepared polymer film for high performance devices.

  13. Electrical circuit model of ITO/AZO/Ge photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Joondong

    2017-10-01

    In this data article, ITO/AZO/Ge photodetector was investigated for electrical circuit model. Due to the double (ITO and AZO) transparent metal-oxide films (DOI:10.1016/j.mssp.2016.03.007) (Yun et al., 2016) [1], the Ge heterojunction device has a better interface quality due to the AZO layer with a low electrical resistance due to the ITO layer (Yun et al., 2015) [2]. The electrical and interfacial benefitted ITO/AZO/Ge heterojunction shows the quality Schottky junction. In order to investigate the device, the ITO/AZO/Ge heterojunction was analyzed by R-C circuit model using the impedance spectroscopy.

  14. Nickel films: Nonselective and selective photochemical deposition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, N.V.; Boitsova, T.B.; Gorbunova, V.V.; Alekseeva, L.V.; Pronin, V.P.; Kon'uhov, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    Nickel films deposited on quartz surfaces by the photochemical reduction of a chemical nickel plating solution were studied. It was found that the deposition of the films occurs after an induction period, the length of which depends on the composition of the photolyte and the light intensity. Ni particles with a mean diameter of 20-30 nm were detected initially by transmission electron microscopy. The particles then increased in size (50 nm) upon irradiation and grouped into rings consisting of 4-5 particles. Irradiation with high-intensity light produces three-dimensional films. The calculated extinction coefficient of the nickel film was found to be 4800 L mol -1 cm -1 . Electron diffraction revealed that the prepared amorphous nickel films crystallize after one day of storage. It was determined that the films exhibit catalytic activity in the process of nickel deposition from nickel plating solution. The catalytic action remains for about 5-7 min after exposure of the films to air. The processes of selective and nonselective deposition of the nickel films are discussed. The use of poly(butoxy titanium) in the process of selective photochemical deposition enables negative and positive images to be prepared on quartz surfaces

  15. Sputter deposition of BSCCO films from a hollow cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanagan, M.T.; Kampwirth, R.T.; Doyle, K.; Kowalski, S.; Miller, D.; Gray, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    High-T c superconducting thin films were deposited onto MgO single crystal substrates from a hollow cathode onto ceramic targets with the nominal composition of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O x . Films similar in composition to those used for the targets were deposited on MgO substrates by rf sputtering. The effects of sputtering time, rf power, and post-annealing on film microstructure and properties were studied in detail. Substrate temperature was found to have a significant influence on the film characteristics. Initial results show that deposition rates from a hollow cathode are an order of magnitude higher than those of a planar magnetron source at equivalent power levels. Large deposition rates allow for the coating of long lengths of wire

  16. ZnSe thin films by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Patil, P.S.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CS, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CG, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-04

    The ZnSe thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates by the simple chemical bath deposition method using selenourea as a selenide ion source from an aqueous alkaline medium. The effect of Zn ion concentration, bath temperature and deposition time period on the quality and thickness of ZnSe films has been studied. The ZnSe films have been characterized by XRD, TEM, EDAX, TRMC (time-resolved microwave conductivity), optical absorbance and RBS techniques for their structural, compositional, electronic and optical properties. The as-deposited ZnSe films are found to be amorphous, Zn rich with optical band gap, Eg, equal to 2.9 eV

  17. Chemical solution deposition of functional oxide thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Schneller, Theodor; Kosec, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) is a highly-flexible and inexpensive technique for the fabrication of functional oxide thin films. Featuring nearly 400 illustrations, this text covers all aspects of the technique.

  18. Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro

    2015-02-03

    Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.

  19. Capillary assisted deposition of carbon nanotube film for strain sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zida; Xue, Xufeng; Lin, Feng; Wang, Yize; Ward, Kevin; Fu, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    Advances in stretchable electronics offer the possibility of developing skin-like motion sensors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), owing to their superior electrical properties, have great potential for applications in such sensors. In this paper, we report a method for deposition and patterning of CNTs on soft, elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates using capillary action. Micropillar arrays were generated on PDMS surfaces before treatment with plasma to render them hydrophilic. Capillary force enabled by the micropillar array spreads CNT solution evenly on PDMS surfaces. Solvent evaporation leaves a uniform deposition and patterning of CNTs on PDMS surfaces. We studied the effect of the CNT concentration and micropillar gap size on CNT coating uniformity, film conductivity, and piezoresistivity. Leveraging the piezoresistivity of deposited CNT films, we further designed and characterized a device for the contraction force measurement. Our capillary assisted deposition method of CNT films showed great application potential in fabrication of flexible CNT thin films for strain sensing.

  20. Chemical bath ZnSe thin films: deposition and characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, C. D.; Patil, P. S.; Ennaoui, A.; Tributsch, H.

    1998-01-01

    The zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films have been deposited by a simple and inexpensive chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The selenourea was used as a selenide ion source. The ZnSe films have been characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), Rutherford back scattering (RBS), and optical absorption. The as-deposited ZnSe films on various substrates are found to be amorphous and contain O2 and N2 in addition to Zn and Se. The optical band gap of the film is estimated to be 2.9 eV. The films are photoactive as evidenced by time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC).

  1. Nitrogen incorporation in sputter deposited molybdenum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stöber, Laura, E-mail: laura.stoeber@tuwien.ac.at; Patocka, Florian, E-mail: florian.patocka@tuwien.ac.at; Schneider, Michael, E-mail: michael.schneider@tuwien.ac.at; Schmid, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.e366.schmid@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, TU Wien, Gußhausstraße 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Konrath, Jens Peter, E-mail: jenspeter.konrath@infineon.com; Haberl, Verena, E-mail: verena.haberl@infineon.com [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstraße 2, 9500 Villach (Austria)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, the authors report on the high temperature performance of sputter deposited molybdenum (Mo) and molybdenum nitride (Mo{sub 2}N) thin films. Various argon and nitrogen gas compositions are applied for thin film synthetization, and the amount of nitrogen incorporation is determined by Auger measurements. Furthermore, effusion measurements identifying the binding conditions of the nitrogen in the thin film are performed up to 1000 °C. These results are in excellent agreement with film stress and scanning electron microscope analyses, both indicating stable film properties up to annealing temperatures of 500 °C.

  2. Electromechanical properties of amorphous In-Zn-Sn-O transparent conducting film deposited at various substrate temperatures on polyimide substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sung; Lee, Eun Kyung; Eun, Kyoungtae; Choa, Sung-Hoon

    2015-09-01

    The electromechanical properties of the amorphous In-Zn-Sn-O (IZTO) film deposited at various substrate temperatures were investigated by bending, stretching, twisting, and cyclic bending fatigue tests. Amorphous IZTO films were grown on a transparent polyimide substrate using a pulsed DC magnetron sputtering system at different substrate temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200 °C. A single oxide alloyed ceramic target (In2O3: 80 wt %, ZnO: 10 wt %, SnO2: 10 wt % composition) was used. The amorphous IZTO film deposited at 150 °C exhibited an optimized electrical resistivity of 5.8 × 10-4 Ω cm, optical transmittance of 87%, and figure of merit of 8.3 × 10-3 Ω-1. The outer bending tests showed that the critical bending radius decreased as substrate temperature increased. On the other hand, in the inner bending tests, the critical bending radius increased with an increase in substrate temperature. The differences in the bendability of IZTO films for the outer and inner bending tests could be attributed to the internal residual stress of the films. The uniaxial stretching tests also showed the effects of the internal stress on the mechanical flexibility of the film. The bending and stretching test results demonstrated that the IZTO film had higher bendability and stretchability than the conventional ITO film. The IZTO film could withstand 10,000 bending cycles at a bending radius of 10 mm. The effect of the surface roughness on the mechanical durability of all IZTO films was very small due to their very smooth surfaces.

  3. Highly flexible transparent and conductive ZnS/Ag/ZnS multilayer films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhinong; Leng, Jian; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Ting; Jiang, Yurong; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Dongpu

    2012-01-01

    ZnS/Ag/ZnS (ZAZ) multilayer films were prepared on polyethene terephthalate (PET) by ion beam assisted deposition at room temperature. The structural, optical and electrical characteristics of ZAZ multilayers dependent on the thickness of silver layer were investigated. The ZAZ multilayers exhibit a low sheet resistance of about 10 Ω/sq., a high transmittance of 92.1%, and the improved resistance stabilities when subjected to bending. When the inserted Ag thickness is over 12 nm, the ZAZ multilayers show good resistance stabilities due to the existence of a ductile Ag metal layer. The results suggest that ZAZ film has better optoelectrical and anti-deflection characteristics than conventional indium tin oxide (ITO) single layer.

  4. Spin-coating deposition of PbS and CdS thin films for solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Jayesh; Mighri, Frej [Laval University, CREPEC, Department of Chemical Engineering, Quebec, QC (Canada); Ajji, Abdellah [Ecole Polytechnique, CREPEC, Chemical Engineering Department, Montreal, QC (Canada); Tiwari, Devendra; Chaudhuri, Tapas K. [Charotar University of Science and Technology (CHARUSAT), Dr. K.C. Patel Research and Development Centre, Anand District, Gujarat (India)

    2014-12-15

    In this work, we describe a simple spin-coating deposition technique for lead sulphide (PbS) and cadmium sulphide (CdS) films from a methanolic metal-thiourea complex. The characterization of the films by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques revealed that pure cubic phase PbS and CdS layers were formed via this method. As shown by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy results, both films were homogeneous and presented a smooth surface. Optical properties showed that the energy band gap of PbS and CdS films were around 1.65 and 2.5 eV, respectively. The PbS film is p-type in nature with an electrical conductivity of around 0.8 S/cm. The hole concentration and mobility were 2.35 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and 2.16 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/V/s, respectively, as determined from Hall measurement. Both films were used to develop a thin film solar cell device of graphite/PbS/CdS/ITO/glass. Device characterization showed the power conversion efficiency of around 0.24 %. The corresponding open circuit voltage, short circuit current and fill factor were 0.570 V, 1.32 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.32, respectively. (orig.)

  5. Atomic layer deposition of copper thin film and feasibility of deposition on inner walls of waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuqing, XIONG; Hengjiao, GAO; Ni, REN; Zhongwei, LIU

    2018-03-01

    Copper thin films were deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition at low temperature, using copper(I)-N,N‧-di-sec-butylacetamidinate as a precursor and hydrogen as a reductive gas. The influence of temperature, plasma power, mode of plasma, and pulse time, on the deposition rate of copper thin film, the purity of the film and the step coverage were studied. The feasibility of copper film deposition on the inner wall of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic waveguide with high aspect ratio was also studied. The morphology and composition of the thin film were studied by atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The square resistance of the thin film was also tested by a four-probe technique. On the basis of on-line diagnosis, a growth mechanism of copper thin film was put forward, and it was considered that surface functional group played an important role in the process of nucleation and in determining the properties of thin films. A high density of plasma and high free-radical content were helpful for the deposition of copper thin films.

  6. Electrochromism of the electroless deposited cuprous oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neskovska, R.; Ristova, M.; Velevska, J.; Ristov, M.

    2007-01-01

    Thin cuprous oxide films were prepared by a low cost, chemical deposition (electroless) method onto glass substrates pre-coated with fluorine doped tin oxide. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the Cu 2 O composition of the films. Visible transmittance spectra of the cuprous oxide films were studied for the as-prepared, colored and bleached films. The cyclic voltammetry study showed that those films exhibited cathode coloring electrochromism, i.e. the films showed change of color from yellowish to black upon application of an electric field. The transmittance across the films for laser light of 670 nm was found to change due to the voltage change for about 50%. The coloration memory of those films was also studied during 6 h, ex-situ. The coloration efficiency at 670 nm was calculated to be 37 cm 2 /C

  7. Cadmium sulfide thin films growth by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariech, S.; Aida, M. S.; Bougdira, J.; Belmahi, M.; Medjahdi, G.; Genève, D.; Attaf, N.; Rinnert, H.

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been prepared by a simple technique such as chemical bath deposition (CBD). A set of samples CdS were deposited on glass substrates by varying the bath temperature from 55 to 75 °C at fixed deposition time (25 min) in order to investigate the effect of deposition temperature on CdS films physical properties. The determination of growth activation energy suggests that at low temperature CdS film growth is governed by the release of Cd2+ ions in the solution. The structural characterization indicated that the CdS films structure is cubic or hexagonal with preferential orientation along the direction (111) or (002), respectively. The optical characterization indicated that the films have a fairly high transparency, which varies between 55% and 80% in the visible range of the optical spectrum, the refractive index varies from 1.85 to 2.5 and the optical gap value of which can reach 2.2 eV. It can be suggested that these properties make these films perfectly suitable for their use as window film in thin films based solar cells.

  8. Nanocomposite film prepared by depositing xylan on cellulose nanowhiskers matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qining Sun; Anurag Mandalika; Thomas Elder; Sandeep S. Nair; Xianzhi Meng; Fang Huang; Art J. Ragauskas

    2014-01-01

    Novel bionanocomposite films have been prepared by depositing xylan onto cellulose nanowhiskers through a pH adjustment. Analysis of strength properties, water vapour transmission, transparency, surface morphology and thermal decomposition showed the enhancement of film performance. This provides a new green route to the utilization of biomass for sustainable...

  9. Ellipsometric investigations of pyrolytically deposited thin indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, U.

    1980-01-01

    Ellipsometric measurements have been carried out of thin indium oxide films deposited pyrolytically on glass substrates. It was found that the roughness of the films affected the measuring results. Therefore, only after applying a two-layer model a reasonable interpretation of the measuring results became possible

  10. Photoluminescence properties of poly (p-phenylene vinylene) films deposited by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedelian, Cynthia A.; Rajanna, K.C.; Premerlani, Brian; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectra of PPV at varying thicknesses and temperatures have been studied. A study of the quenching of the polymer film using a modified version of fluorescence spectroscopy reveals interface effects dominating at thicknesses below about 600 Å, while bulk effects dominate at higher thicknesses. The application of the Stern–Volmer equation to solid film is discussed. Stern–Volmer plots were nonlinear with downward deviations at higher thickness of the film which was explained due to self-quenching in films and larger conformational change and increased restriction from change in electron density due to electron transition during excitation in bulk polymer films over 60 nm thick. PPV deposited into porous (∼4 nm in diameter) nanostructured substrate shows a larger 0–0 than 0–1 transition peak intensity and decreased disorder in the films due to structure imposed by substrate matrix. Temperature dependent effects are measured for a film at 500 Å, right on the border between the two areas. PPV films deposited on porous methyl silsesquioxane (MSQ) were also examined in order to compare the flat film to a substrate that allows for the domination of interface effects. The enthalpies of the first two peaks are very similar, but the third peak demonstrates a lower enthalpy and a larger wavelength shift with temperature. Films deposited inside pores show a smaller amount of disorder than flat films. Calculation of the Huang–Rhys factor at varying temperatures for the flat film and film in porous MSQ shows large temperature dependence for the flat film but a smaller amount of disorder in the nanostructured film. -- Highlights: • Poly (p-phenylene vinylene) films deposited by chemical vapor deposition exhibited photoluminescence properties. • Fluorescence spectra of the polymer films revealed interface effects dominating at thicknesses below about 600 Å, while bulk effects dominate at higher thicknesses. • Stern–Volmer plots were

  11. Pulsed laser deposition and characterisation of thin superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morone, A [CNR, zona industriale di Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy). Istituto per i Materiali Speciali

    1996-09-01

    Same concepts on pulsed laser deposition of thin films will be discussed and same examples of high transition temperature (HTc) BiSrCaCuO (BISCO) and low transition temperature NbN/MgO/NbN multilayers will be presented. X-ray and others characterizations of these films will be reported and discussed. Electrical properties of superconducting thin films will be realized as a function of structural and morphological aspect.

  12. Physical properties of chemical vapour deposited nanostructured carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadik, D.B.; Shinde, S.S.; Bhosale, C.H.; Rajpure, K.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: In the present paper, nanostructured carbon films are grown using a natural precursor 'turpentine oil (C 10 H 16 )' as a carbon source in the simple thermal chemical vapour deposition method. The influence of substrate surface topography (viz. stainless steel, fluorine doped tin oxide coated quartz) and temperature on the evolution of carbon allotropes surfaces topography/microstructural and structural properties are investigated and discussed. - Abstract: A simple thermal chemical vapour deposition technique is employed for the deposition of carbon films by pyrolysing the natural precursor 'turpentine oil' on to the stainless steel (SS) and FTO coated quartz substrates at higher temperatures (700-1100 deg. C). In this work, we have studied the influence of substrate and deposition temperature on the evolution of structural and morphological properties of nanostructured carbon films. The films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. XRD study reveals that the films are polycrystalline exhibiting hexagonal and face-centered cubic structures on SS and FTO coated glass substrates respectively. SEM images show the porous and agglomerated surface of the films. Deposited carbon films show the hydrophobic nature. FTIR study displays C-H and O-H stretching vibration modes in the films. Raman analysis shows that, high ID/IG for FTO substrate confirms the dominance of sp 3 bonds with diamond phase and less for SS shows graphitization effect with dominant sp 2 bonds. It reveals the difference in local microstructure of carbon deposits leading to variation in contact angle and hardness, which is ascribed to difference in the packing density of carbon films, as observed also by Raman.

  13. Luminescent thin films by the chemical aerosol deposition technology (CADT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, F.J.; Martin, F.J.; Albers, H.; Lambeck, Paul; Popma, T.J.A.; van de Velde, G.M.H.

    1992-01-01

    Zinc sulphide thin films have been deposited with CART using zinc chlorideand zinc acetylacetonate as Zn compounds and thiourea and 1,1,3,3-tetramethylthiourea as S compounds soluted in methanol, ethanol, isopropanol and cellosolve. After optimalization of the deposition process homogeneous layers

  14. Deposition of metal chalcogenide thin films by successive ionic layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) method, has emerged as one of the solution methods to deposit a variety of compound materials in thin film form. The SILAR method is inexpensive, simple and convenient for large area deposition. A variety of substrates such as insulators, ...

  15. Deposition of silicon films in presence of nitrogen plasma— A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A design, development and validation work of plasma based 'activated reactive evaporation (ARE) system' is implemented for the deposition of the silicon films in presence of nitrogen plasma on substrate maintained at room temperature. This plasma based deposition system involves evaporation of pure silicon by.

  16. CuOX thin films by direct oxidation of Cu films deposited by physical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Santos-Cruz

    Full Text Available Thin films of Cu2O and CuO oxides were developed by direct oxidation of physical vapor deposited copper films in an open atmosphere by varying the temperature in the range between 250 and 400 °C. In this work, the influence of oxidation temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of copper oxide films has been discussed. The characterization results revealed that at lower temperatures (<300 °C, it is feasible to obtained coper (I oxide whereas at temperatures higher than 300 °C, the copper (II oxide is formed. The band gap is found to vary in between 1.54 and 2.21 eV depending on the oxidation temperature. Both oxides present p-type electrical conductivity. The carrier concentration has been increased as a function of the oxidation temperature from 1.61 × 1012 at 250 °C to 6.8 × 1012 cm−3 at 400 °C. The mobility has attained its maximum of 34.5 cm2 V−1 s−1 at a temperature of 300 °C, and a minimum of 13.8 cm2 V−1 s−1 for 400 °C. Finally, the resistivity of copper oxide films decreases as a function of oxidation temperature from 5.4 × 106 to 2.4 × 105 Ω-cm at 250 and 400 °C, respectively. Keywords: PVD, Oxidizing annealed treatment, Non-toxic material

  17. On the structure and surface chemical composition of indium-tin oxide films prepared by long-throw magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, M.J.; Huang, H.F.; Wen, C.H.; Chu, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Structures and surface chemical composition of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films prepared by long-throw radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique have been investigated. The ITO films were deposited on glass substrates using a 20 cm target-to-substrate distance in a pure argon sputtering environment. X-ray diffraction results showed that an increase in substrate temperature resulted in ITO structure evolution from amorphous to polycrystalline. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs suggested that the ITO films were free of bombardment of energetic particles since the microstructures of the films exhibited a smaller grain size and no sub-grain boundary could be observed. The surface composition of the ITO films was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Oxygen atoms in both amorphous and crystalline ITO structures were observed from O 1 s XPS spectra. However, the peak of the oxygen atoms in amorphous ITO phase could only be found in samples prepared at low substrate temperatures. Its relative peak area decreased drastically when substrate temperatures were larger than 200 o C. In addition, a composition analysis from the XPS results revealed that the films deposited at low substrate temperatures contained high concentration of oxygen at the film surfaces. The oxygen-rich surfaces can be attributed to hydrolysis reactions of indium oxides, especially when large amount of the amorphous ITO were developed near the film surfaces.

  18. Laser-assisted deposition of thin C60 films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela; Fæster, Søren

    Metal and metal oxide films with controlled thickness from a fraction of a monolayer up more than 1000 nm and known stoichiometry can be produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) relatively easily, and (PLD) is now a standard technique in all major research laboratories within materials science...... of the matrix material, anisole, with a concentration of 0.67 wt% C60. At laser fluences below 1.5 J/cm2, a dominant fraction of the film molecules are C60 transferred to the substrate without any fragmentation. High-resolution SEM images of MAPLE deposited films reveal large circular features on the surface...

  19. Deposit of thin films for Tokamaks conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia A, R.

    2006-01-01

    discharge plasma, created in a calibrated mixture of methane-hydrogen during the hydrogenated amorphous carbon film deposit on the vessel wall of Novillo tokamak, were determined by mass spectrometry. By way of measuring the emission lines of the carbon and oxygen impurities in intense discharges, the time required by the plasma to interact with the wall was estimated. In addition to it, the temporal conduct of the emission line intensity of these impurities was observed by means of an intensified CCD detector. Once an ∼ 10 % of helium was introduced in the operating gas of the tokamak discharges, a 25-42 eV time variation of the electron temperature was measured using the intensity ratio technique. (Author)

  20. Aluminosilicate glass thin films elaborated by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, Thibault [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Saitzek, Sébastien [Univ. Artois, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Lille, UMR 8181, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide (UCCS), F-62300 Lens (France); Méar, François O., E-mail: francois.mear@univ-lille1.fr [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Blach, Jean-François; Ferri, Anthony [Univ. Artois, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Lille, UMR 8181, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide (UCCS), F-62300 Lens (France); Huvé, Marielle; Montagne, Lionel [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Successfully deposition of a glassy thin film by PLD. • A good homogeneity and stoichiometry of the coating. • Influence of the deposition temperature on the glassy thin-film structure. - Abstract: In the present work, we report the elaboration of aluminosilicate glass thin films by Pulsed Laser Deposition at various temperatures deposition. The amorphous nature of glass thin films was highlighted by Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction and no nanocristallites were observed in the glassy matrix. Chemical analysis, obtained with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy, showed a good transfer and homogeneous elementary distribution with of chemical species from the target to the film a. Structural studies performed by Infrared Spectroscopy showed that the substrate temperature plays an important role on the bonding configuration of the layers. A slight shift of Si-O modes to larger wavenumber was observed with the synthesis temperature, assigned to a more strained sub-oxide network. Finally, optical properties of thins film measured by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry are similar to those of the bulk aluminosilicate glass, which indicate a good deposition of aluminosilicate bulk glass.

  1. Plasma deposition of polymer composite films incorporating nanocellulose whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samyn, P.; Airoudj, A.; Laborie, M.-P.; Mathew, A. P.; Roucoules, V.

    2011-11-01

    In a trend for sustainable engineering and functionalization of surfaces, we explore the possibilities of gas phase processes to deposit nanocomposite films. From an analysis of pulsed plasma polymerization of maleic anhydride in the presence of nanocellulose whiskers, it seems that thin nanocomposite films can be deposited with various patterns. By specifically modifying plasma parameters such as total power, duty cycle, and monomer gas pressure, the nanocellulose whiskers are either incorporated into a buckled polymer film or single nanocellulose whiskers are deposited on top of a polymeric film. The density of the latter can be controlled by modifying the exact positioning of the substrate in the reactor. The resulting morphologies are evaluated by optical microscopy, AFM, contact angle measurements and ellipsometry.

  2. Aerosol deposition of (Cu,Ti) substituted bismuth vanadate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exner, Jörg, E-mail: Functional.Materials@Uni-Bayreuth.de [University of Bayreuth, Department of Functional Materials, Universitätsstraße 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Fuierer, Paul [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Moos, Ralf [University of Bayreuth, Department of Functional Materials, Universitätsstraße 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2014-12-31

    Bismuth vanadate, Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 11}, and related compounds with various metal (Me) substitutions, Bi{sub 4}(Me{sub x}V{sub 1−x}){sub 2}O{sub 11−δ}, show some of the highest ionic conductivities among the known solid oxide electrolytes. Films of Cu and Ti substituted bismuth vanadate were prepared by an aerosol deposition method, a spray coating process also described as room temperature impact consolidation. Resultant films, several microns in thickness, were dense with good adhesion to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy and high temperature X-ray diffraction were used to monitor the effects of temperature on the structure and microstructure of the film. The particle size remained nano-scale while microstrain decreased rapidly up to 500 °C, above which coarsening and texturing increased rapidly. Impedance measurements of films deposited on inter-digital electrodes revealed an annealing effect on the ionic conductivity, with the conductivity exceeding that of a screen printed film, and approaching that of bulk ceramic. - Highlights: • Cu and Ti doped bismuth vanadate films were prepared by aerosol deposition (AD). • Dense 3–5 μm thick films were deposited on alumina, silicon and gold electrodes. • Annealing of the AD-layer increases the conductivity by 1.5 orders of magnitude. • Effect of temperature on structure and microstructure was investigated.

  3. Picosecond and subpicosecond pulsed laser deposition of Pb thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gontad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pb thin films were deposited on Nb substrates by means of pulsed laser deposition (PLD with UV radiation (248 nm, in two different ablation regimes: picosecond (5 ps and subpicosecond (0.5 ps. Granular films with grain size on the micron scale have been obtained, with no evidence of large droplet formation. All films presented a polycrystalline character with preferential orientation along the (111 crystalline planes. A maximum quantum efficiency (QE of 7.3×10^{-5} (at 266 nm and 7 ns pulse duration was measured, after laser cleaning, demonstrating good photoemission performance for Pb thin films deposited by ultrashort PLD. Moreover, Pb thin film photocathodes have maintained their QE for days, providing excellent chemical stability and durability. These results suggest that Pb thin films deposited on Nb by ultrashort PLD are a noteworthy alternative for the fabrication of photocathodes for superconductive radio-frequency electron guns. Finally, a comparison with the characteristics of Pb films prepared by ns PLD is illustrated and discussed.

  4. Deposition of antimony telluride thin film by ECALE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Xianhui; YANG; Junyou; ZHU; Wen; HOU; Jie; BAO; Siqian; FAN; Xi'an; DUAN; Xingkai

    2006-01-01

    The process of Sb2Te3 thin film growth on the Pt substrate by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (ECALE) was studied. Cyclic voltammetric scanning was performed to analyze the electrochemical behavior of Te and Sb on the Pt substrate. Sb2Te3 film was formed using an automated flow deposition system by alternately depositing Te and Sb atomic layers for 400 circles. The deposited Sb2Te3 films were characterized by XRD, EDX, FTIR and FESEM observation. Sb2Te3 compound structure was confirmed by XRD pattern and agreed well with the results of EDX quantitative analysis and coulometric analysis. FESEM micrographs showed that the deposit was composed of fine nano particles with size of about 20 nm. FESEM image of the cross section showed that the deposited films were very smooth and dense with thickness of about 190 nm. The optical band gap of the deposited Sb2Te3 film was determined as 0.42 eV by FTIR spectroscopy, and it was blue shifted in comparison with that of the bulk Sb2Te3 single crystal due to its nanocrystalline microstructure.

  5. Effects of surface deposition and droplet injection on film cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jin; Cui, Pei; Vujanović, Milan; Baleta, Jakov; Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cooling effectiveness is significantly affected by the deposition size. • Coverage area for model without mist is reduced by increasing the deposition height. • Wall temperature is decreased by 15% with 2% mist injection. • Cooling coverage is increased by more than three times with 2% mist injection. • Cooling effectiveness for mist models is improved by increasing deposition height. - Abstract: In the present research, the influence of the particle dispersion onto the continuous phase in film cooling application was analysed by means of numerical simulations. The interaction between the water droplets and the main stream plays an important role in the results. The prediction of two-phase flow is investigated by employing the discrete phase model (DPM). The results present heat transfer characteristics in the near-wall region under the influence of mist cooling. The local wall temperature distribution and film cooling effectiveness are obtained, and results show that the film cooling characteristics on the downstream wall are affected by different height of surface deposits. It is also found that smaller deposits without mist injection provide a lower wall temperature and a better cooling performance. With 2% mist injection, evaporation of water droplets improves film cooling effectiveness, and higher deposits cause lateral and downstream spread of water droplets. The results indicate that mist injection can significantly enhance film cooling performance.

  6. UV laser deposition of metal films by photogenerated free radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. K.; Mantei, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    A novel photochemical method for liquid-phase deposition of metal films is described. In the liquid phase deposition scheme, a metal containing compound and a metal-metal bonded carbonyl complex are dissolved together in a polar solvent and the mixture is irradiated using a UV laser. The optical arrangement consists of a HeCd laser which provides 7 mW of power at a wavelength of 325 nm in the TEM(OO) mode. The beam is attenuated and may be expanded to a diameter of 5-20 mm. Experiments with photochemical deposition of silver films onto glass and quartz substrates are described in detail. Mass spectrometric analysis of deposited silver films indicated a deposition rate of about 1 A/s at incident power levels of 0.01 W/sq cm. UV laser-induced copper and palladium films have also been obtained. A black and white photograph showing the silver Van Der Pauw pattern of a solution-deposited film is provided.

  7. ITO-TiN-ITO Sandwiches for Near-Infrared Plasmonic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaonan; Wang, Zhewei; Wu, Ke; Chong, Haining; Xu, Zemin; Ye, Hui

    2018-05-02

    Indium tin oxide (ITO)-based sandwich structures with the insertion of ultrathin (ITO layers show TiN-thickness-dependent properties, which lead to moderate and tunable effective permittivities for the sandwiches. The surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) of the ITO-TiN-ITO sandwich at the telecommunication window (1480-1570 nm) are activated by prism coupling using Kretschmann configuration. Compared with pure ITO films or sandwiches with metal insertion, the reflectivity dip for sandwiches with TiN is relatively deeper and wider, indicating the enhanced coupling ability in plasmonic materials for telecommunications. The SPP spatial profile, penetration depth, and degree of confinement, as well as the quality factors, demonstrate the applicability of such sandwiches for NIR plasmonic materials in various devices.

  8. Chromium carbide thin films deposited by ultra-short pulse laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teghil, R.; Santagata, A.; De Bonis, A.; Galasso, A.; Villani, P.

    2009-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition performed by a laser with a pulse duration of 250 fs has been used to deposit films from a Cr 3 C 2 target. Due to the different processes involved in the laser ablation when it is performed by an ultra-short pulse source instead of a conventional short pulse one, it has been possible to obtain in vacuum films containing only one type of carbide, Cr 3 C 2 , as shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On the other hand, Cr 3 C 2 is not the only component of the films, since a large amount of amorphous carbon is also present. The films, deposited at room temperature, are amorphous and seem to be formed by the coalescence of a large number of particles with nanometric size. The film composition can be explained in terms of thermal evaporation from particles ejected from the target.

  9. Comparison study of transparent RF-sputtered ITO/AZO and ITO/ZnO bilayers for near UV-OLED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Mahdiyar Nouri; Manavizadeh, Negin; Abadi, Ehsan Mohammadi Nasr; Nadimi, Ebrahim; Boroumand, Farhad Akbari

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid inorganic/organic light-emitting diodes have attracted much attention in the field of luminescent electronics due to the desired incorporation of high optoelectronic features of inorganic materials with the processability and variety of organic polymers. To generate and emit a near ultraviolet (N-UV) ray, wide band gap semiconductors can be applied in the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films are deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering above the ITO electrode and poly [2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV) conjugated polymer is utilized as a complementary p-type semiconductor in OLED structure. The impact of ZnO and AZO thickness on the structural, electrical, optical and morphological properties of ITO/AZO and ITO/ZnO bilayers are scrutinized and compared. Results show that with the enlargement of both ZnO and AZO film thickness, the physical properties are gradually improved resulting in the better quality of transparent conducting thin film. The average electrical resistivity of 8.4 × 10-4 and 1.1 × 10-3 Ω-cm, average sheet resistance of 32.9 and 42.3 Ω/sq, average transmittance of 88.3 and 87.3% and average FOM of 1.0 × 104 and 7.4 × 103 (Ω-cm)-1 are obtained for ITO/AZO and ITO/ZnO bilayers, respectively. Moreover, comparing the results indicates that the strain and the stress within the ITO/AZO bilayer are decreased nearly 19% with respect to ITO/ZnO bilayer which yield higher quality of crystal. Consequently, the physical properties of ITO/AZO bilayer is found to be superior regarding ITO/ZnO bilayer. For fabricated UV-OLEDs, the turn-on voltages, the characteristic energy (Et) and the total concentration of traps (Nt) for the devices with the structures of ITO/ZnO/MEH-PPV/Al and ITO/AZO/MEH-PPV/Al are obtained 12 and 14 V, 0.108 and 0.191 eV, 9.33 × 1016 and 5.22 × 1016 cm-3, respectively. Furthermore, according to the electroluminescence

  10. High Transparent and Conductive TiO2/Ag/TiO2 Multilayer Electrode Films Deposited on Sapphire Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loka, Chadrasekhar; Moon, Sung Whan; Choi, YiSik; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2018-03-01

    Transparent conducting oxides attract intense interests due to its diverse industrial applications. In this study, we report sapphire substrate-based TiO2/Ag/TiO2 (TAT) multilayer structure of indium-free transparent conductive multilayer coatings. The TAT thin films were deposited at room temperature on sapphire substrates and a rigorous analysis has been presented on the electrical and optical properties of the films as a function of Ag thickness. The optical and electrical properties were mainly controlled by the Ag mid-layer thickness of the TAT tri-layer. The TAT films showed high luminous transmittance 84% at 550 nm along with noteworthy low electrical resistance 3.65 × 10-5 Ω-cm and sheet resistance of 3.77 Ω/square, which is better are than those of amorphous ITO films and any sapphire-based dielectric/metal/dielectric multilayer stack. The carrier concentration of the films was increased with respect to Ag thickness. We obtained highest Hackke's figure of merit 43.97 × 10-3 Ω-1 from the TAT multilayer thin film with a 16 nm thick Ag mid-layer.

  11. Thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technique for magnesium thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbag, M.Z., E-mail: zbalbag@ogu.edu.t [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Education Faculty, Primary Education, Meselik Campus, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Pat, S.; Ozkan, M.; Ekem, N. [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Art and Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Musa, G. [Ovidius University, Physics Department, Constanta (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, magnesium thin films were deposited on glass substrate by the Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) technique for the first time. We present a different technique for deposition of high-quality magnesium thin films. By means of this technique, the production of films is achieved by condensing the plasma of anode material generated using Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) under high vacuum conditions onto the surface to be coated. The crystal orientation and morphology of the deposited films were investigated by using XRD, EDX, SEM and AFM. The aim of this study is to search the use of TVA technique to coat magnesium thin films and to determine some of the physical properties of the films generated. Furthermore, this study will contribute to the scientific studies which search the thin films of magnesium or the compounds containing magnesium. In future, this study will be preliminary work to entirely produce magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) superconductor thin film with the TVA technique.

  12. Heat treatment of cathodic arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, S.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G. [and others

    1997-02-01

    Amorphous hard carbon films of varying sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} fractions have been deposited on Si using filtered cathodic are deposition with pulsed biasing. The films were heat treated in air up to 550 C. Raman investigation and nanoindentation were performed to study the modification of the films caused by the heat treatment. It was found that films containing a high sp{sup 3} fraction sustain their hardness for temperatures at least up to 400 C, their structure for temperatures up to 500 C, and show a low thickness loss during heat treatment. Films containing at low sp{sup 3} fraction graphitize during the heat treatment, show changes in structure and hardness, and a considerable thickness loss.

  13. Structural characterization of chemically deposited PbS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lima, F.A.; Gonzalez-Alfaro, Y.; Larramendi, E.M.; Fonseca Filho, H.D.; Maia da Costa, M.E.H.; Freire, F.L.; Prioli, R.; Avillez, R.R. de; Silveira, E.F. da; Calzadilla, O.; Melo, O. de; Pedrero, E.; Hernandez, E.

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of lead sulfide (PbS) grown using substrate colloidal coating chemical bath depositions were characterized by RBS, XPS, AFM and GIXRD techniques. The films were grown on glass substrates previously coated with PbS colloidal particles in a polyvinyl alcohol solution. The PbS films obtained with the inclusion of the polymer showed non-oxygen-containing organic contamination. All samples maintained the Pb:S 1:1 stoichiometry throughout the film. The amount of effective nucleation centers and the mean grain size have being controlled by the substrate colloidal coating. The analysis of the polycrystalline PbS films showed that a preferable (1 0 0) lattice plane orientation parallel to the substrate surface can be obtained using a substrate colloidal coating chemical bath deposition, and the orientation increases when a layer of colloid is initially dried on the substrate

  14. Remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volintiru, I.; Creatore, M.; Hemmen, van J.L.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum oxide films were deposited using remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from oxygen/trimethylaluminum mixtures. Initial studies by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry demonstrated that the aluminum oxide films deposited at temperatures

  15. Atomic-Layer-Deposition of Indium Oxide Nano-films for Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Zheng, He-Mei; Shao, Yan; Zhu, Bao; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, David Wei

    2018-01-09

    Atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) of In 2 O 3 nano-films has been investigated using cyclopentadienyl indium (InCp) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as precursors. The In 2 O 3 films can be deposited preferentially at relatively low temperatures of 160-200 °C, exhibiting a stable growth rate of 1.4-1.5 Å/cycle. The surface roughness of the deposited film increases gradually with deposition temperature, which is attributed to the enhanced crystallization of the film at a higher deposition temperature. As the deposition temperature increases from 150 to 200 °C, the optical band gap (E g ) of the deposited film rises from 3.42 to 3.75 eV. In addition, with the increase of deposition temperature, the atomic ratio of In to O in the as-deposited film gradually shifts towards that in the stoichiometric In 2 O 3 , and the carbon content also reduces by degrees. For 200 °C deposition temperature, the deposited film exhibits an In:O ratio of 1:1.36 and no carbon incorporation. Further, high-performance In 2 O 3 thin-film transistors with an Al 2 O 3 gate dielectric were achieved by post-annealing in air at 300 °C for appropriate time, demonstrating a field-effect mobility of 7.8 cm 2 /V⋅s, a subthreshold swing of 0.32 V/dec, and an on/off current ratio of 10 7 . This was ascribed to passivation of oxygen vacancies in the device channel.

  16. High-quality AlN films grown on chemical vapor-deposited graphene films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bin-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the growth of high-quality AlN films on graphene. The graphene films were synthesized by CVD and then transferred onto silicon substrates. Epitaxial aluminum nitride films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on both graphene as an intermediate layer and silicon as a substrate. The structural characteristics of the AlN films and graphene were investigated. Highly c-axis-oriented AlN crystal structures are investigated based on the XRDpatterns observations.

  17. Room temperature deposition of magnetite thin films on organic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisi, E.; Bergenti, I.; Cavallini, M.; Murgia, M.; Riminucci, A.; Ruani, G.; Dediu, V.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the growth of magnetite films directly on thin layers of organic semiconductors by means of an electron beam ablation method. The deposition was performed at room temperature in a reactive plasma atmosphere. Thin films show ferromagnetic (FM) hysteresis loops and coercive fields of hundreds of Oersted. Micro Raman analysis indicates no presence of spurious phases. The morphology of the magnetite film is strongly influenced by the morphology of the underlayer of the organic semiconductor. These results open the way for the application of magnetite thin films in the field of organic spintronics

  18. Defect control in room temperature deposited cadmium sulfide thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Como, N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75080 (United States); Martinez-Landeros, V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75080 (United States); Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 66600, México (Mexico); Mejia, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75080 (United States); Aguirre-Tostado, F.S. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 66600, México (Mexico); Nascimento, C.D.; Azevedo, G. de M; Krug, C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, 91509-900 (Brazil); Quevedo-Lopez, M.A., E-mail: mquevedo@utdallas.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75080 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The control of defects in cadmium sulfide thin films and its impact on the resulting CdS optical and electrical characteristics are studied. Sulfur vacancies and cadmium interstitial concentrations in the CdS films are controlled using the ambient pressure during pulsed laser deposition. CdS film resistivities ranging from 10{sup −1} to 10{sup 4} Ω-cm are achieved. Hall Effect measurements show that the carrier concentration ranges from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} and is responsible for the observed resistivity variation. Hall mobility varies from 2 to 12 cm{sup 2}/V-s for the same pressure regime. Although the energy bandgap remains unaffected (∼ 2.42 eV), the optical transmittance is reduced due to the increase of defects in the CdS films. Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy shows the dependence of the CdS films stoichiometry with deposition pressure. The presence of CdS defects is attributed to more energetic species reaching the substrate, inducing surface damage in the CdS films during pulsed laser deposition. - Highlights: • CdS thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature. • The optical, electrical and structural properties were evaluated. • Carrier concentration ranged from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}. • The chemical composition was studied by Rutherford back scattering. • The density of sulfur vacancies and cadmium interstitial was varied.

  19. Defect control in room temperature deposited cadmium sulfide thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Como, N.; Martinez-Landeros, V.; Mejia, I.; Aguirre-Tostado, F.S.; Nascimento, C.D.; Azevedo, G. de M; Krug, C.; Quevedo-Lopez, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The control of defects in cadmium sulfide thin films and its impact on the resulting CdS optical and electrical characteristics are studied. Sulfur vacancies and cadmium interstitial concentrations in the CdS films are controlled using the ambient pressure during pulsed laser deposition. CdS film resistivities ranging from 10 −1 to 10 4 Ω-cm are achieved. Hall Effect measurements show that the carrier concentration ranges from 10 19 to 10 13 cm −3 and is responsible for the observed resistivity variation. Hall mobility varies from 2 to 12 cm 2 /V-s for the same pressure regime. Although the energy bandgap remains unaffected (∼ 2.42 eV), the optical transmittance is reduced due to the increase of defects in the CdS films. Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy shows the dependence of the CdS films stoichiometry with deposition pressure. The presence of CdS defects is attributed to more energetic species reaching the substrate, inducing surface damage in the CdS films during pulsed laser deposition. - Highlights: • CdS thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature. • The optical, electrical and structural properties were evaluated. • Carrier concentration ranged from 10 19 to 10 13 cm −3 . • The chemical composition was studied by Rutherford back scattering. • The density of sulfur vacancies and cadmium interstitial was varied

  20. Highly transparent and conductive double-layer oxide thin films as anodes for organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yu; Wang Lian; Yan He; Jin Shu; Marks, Tobin J.; Li Shuyou

    2006-01-01

    Double-layer transparent conducting oxide thin film structures containing In-doped CdO (CIO) and Sn-doped In 2 O 3 (ITO) layers were grown on glass by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and ion-assisted deposition (IAD), respectively, and used as anodes for polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). These films have a very low overall In content of 16 at. %. For 180-nm-thick CIO/ITO films, the sheet resistance is 5.6 Ω/□, and the average optical transmittance is 87.1% in the 400-700 nm region. The overall figure of merit (Φ=T 10 /R sheet ) of the double-layer CIO/ITO films is significantly greater than that of single-layer CIO, IAD-ITO, and commercial ITO films. CIO/ITO-based PLEDs exhibit comparable or superior device performance versus ITO-based control devices. CIO/ITO materials have a much lower sheet resistance than ITO, rendering them promising low In content electrode materials for large-area optoelectronic devices

  1. Study on stability of a-SiCOF films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shijin; Zhang Qingquan; Wang Pengfei; Zhang Wei; Wang Jitao

    2001-01-01

    Low-dielectric-constant a-SiCOF films have been prepared from TEOS, C 4 F 8 and Ar by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. With the aid of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the chemical bonding configuration, thermal stability and resistance to water of the films are explored

  2. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I.; Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl 2 , KOH, NH 4 NO 3 and CS(NH 2 ) 2 as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  3. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I., E-mail: aoliva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl{sub 2}, KOH, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  4. Measurement of core level and band offsets at the interface of ITO/Hg_3In_2Te_6(1 1 0) heterojunction by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yapeng; Fu, Li; Sun, Jie; Ibrahim, Kurash; Wang, Jia-ou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The valence band maximum of ITO film and MIT were measured to be 1.6 eV and 0.6 eV, respectively. • The concentration of In element presented a trend of increasing first and then decreasing from MIT to ITO. • The valence band offsets of the ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction was confirmed to be a type-II band alignment phenomenon. - Abstract: The Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) film was deposited on the surface of Hg_3In_2Te_6 (short for MIT) (1 1 0) for the fabrication of ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction by using the pulsed laser deposition method. In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to examine the band offsets and core level of ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunctions. The result showed that the valence band maximum of ITO films and MIT(1 1 0) were 1.6 eV and 0.6 eV, respectively. Meanwhile, it was found that the binding energy of Te 3d, Sn 3d and Hg 4f remained unchanged during the ITO deposition process. However, the binding energy of O 1s and In 3d_5_/_2 increased about 0.3 eV and 0.2 eV, respectively, with the thickness increasing of ITO film from 3.5 nm to 5 nm. This may due to the elements diffusion at the interface region during the film growing process. According to the core level spectrum, it can be speculated that no significant chemical reaction occurred at the interface of ITO/MIT(1 1 0). In addition, the valence band offset of the ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction can be calculated to be −1 ± 0.15 eV by the means of the photoelectron spectroscopy methods. The conduction band offset is deduced to be −3.96 ± 0.15 eV from the known valence band offset value, indicating that the band offsets of ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction is a type-II band alignment.

  5. Measurement of core level and band offsets at the interface of ITO/Hg{sub 3}In{sub 2}Te{sub 6}(1 1 0) heterojunction by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yapeng [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Fu, Li, E-mail: fuli@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Sun, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Ibrahim, Kurash; Wang, Jia-ou [Laboratory of Synchrotron Radiation, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • The valence band maximum of ITO film and MIT were measured to be 1.6 eV and 0.6 eV, respectively. • The concentration of In element presented a trend of increasing first and then decreasing from MIT to ITO. • The valence band offsets of the ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction was confirmed to be a type-II band alignment phenomenon. - Abstract: The Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) film was deposited on the surface of Hg{sub 3}In{sub 2}Te{sub 6} (short for MIT) (1 1 0) for the fabrication of ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction by using the pulsed laser deposition method. In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to examine the band offsets and core level of ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunctions. The result showed that the valence band maximum of ITO films and MIT(1 1 0) were 1.6 eV and 0.6 eV, respectively. Meanwhile, it was found that the binding energy of Te 3d, Sn 3d and Hg 4f remained unchanged during the ITO deposition process. However, the binding energy of O 1s and In 3d{sub 5/2} increased about 0.3 eV and 0.2 eV, respectively, with the thickness increasing of ITO film from 3.5 nm to 5 nm. This may due to the elements diffusion at the interface region during the film growing process. According to the core level spectrum, it can be speculated that no significant chemical reaction occurred at the interface of ITO/MIT(1 1 0). In addition, the valence band offset of the ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction can be calculated to be −1 ± 0.15 eV by the means of the photoelectron spectroscopy methods. The conduction band offset is deduced to be −3.96 ± 0.15 eV from the known valence band offset value, indicating that the band offsets of ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction is a type-II band alignment.

  6. Plasma deposited fluorinated films on porous membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gancarz, Irena [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Bryjak, Marek, E-mail: marek.bryjak@pwr.edu.pl [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Kujawski, Jan; Wolska, Joanna [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Kujawa, Joanna; Kujawski, Wojciech [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Chemistry, 7 Gagarina St., 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2015-02-01

    75 KHz plasma was used to modify track etched poly(ethylene terephthalate) membranes and deposit on them flouropolymers. Two fluorine bearing monomers were used: perflourohexane and hexafluorobenzene. The modified surfaces were analyzed by means of attenuated total reflection infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and wettability. It was detected that hexaflourobenxene deposited to the larger extent than perflourohaxane did. The roughness of surfaces decreased when more fluoropolymer was deposited. The hydrophobic character of surface slightly disappeared during 20-days storage of hexaflourobenzene modified membrane. Perfluorohexane modified membrane did not change its character within 120 days after modification. It was expected that this phenomenon resulted from post-reactions of oxygen with radicals in polymer deposits. The obtained membranes could be used for membrane distillation of juices. - Highlights: • Plasma deposited hydrophobic layer of flouropolymers. • Deposition degree affects the surface properties. • Hydrohilization of surface due to reaction of oxygen with entrapped radicals. • Possibility to use modified porous membrane for water distillation and apple juice concentration.

  7. Indium tin oxide films prepared by atmospheric plasma annealing and their semiconductor-metal conductivity transition around room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yali; Li Chunyang; He Deyan; Li Junshuai

    2009-01-01

    We report the synthesis of indium tin oxide (ITO) films using the atmospheric plasma annealing (APA) technique combined with the spin-coating method. The ITO film with a low resistivity of ∼4.6 x 10 -4 Ω cm and a high visible light transmittance, above 85%, was achieved. Hall measurement indicates that compared with the optimized ITO films deposited by magnetron sputtering, the above-mentioned ITO film has a higher carrier concentration of ∼1.21 x 10 21 cm -3 and a lower mobility of ∼11.4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . More interestingly, these electrical characteristics result in the semiconductor-metal conductivity transition around room temperature for the ITO films prepared by APA.

  8. Ultraviolet laser deposition of graphene thin films without catalytic layers

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2013-01-09

    In this letter, the formation of nanostructured graphene by ultraviolet laser ablation of a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite target under optimized conditions is demonstrated, without a catalytic layer, and a model for the growth process is proposed. Previously, graphene film deposition by low-energy laser (2.3 eV) was explained by photo-thermal models, which implied that graphene films cannot be deposited by laser energies higher than the C-C bond energy in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (3.7 eV). Here, we show that nanostructured graphene films can in fact be deposited using ultraviolet laser (5 eV) directly over different substrates, without a catalytic layer. The formation of graphene is explained by bond-breaking assisted by photoelectronic excitation leading to formation of carbon clusters at the target and annealing out of defects at the substrate.

  9. Ultraviolet laser deposition of graphene thin films without catalytic layers

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, the formation of nanostructured graphene by ultraviolet laser ablation of a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite target under optimized conditions is demonstrated, without a catalytic layer, and a model for the growth process is proposed. Previously, graphene film deposition by low-energy laser (2.3 eV) was explained by photo-thermal models, which implied that graphene films cannot be deposited by laser energies higher than the C-C bond energy in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (3.7 eV). Here, we show that nanostructured graphene films can in fact be deposited using ultraviolet laser (5 eV) directly over different substrates, without a catalytic layer. The formation of graphene is explained by bond-breaking assisted by photoelectronic excitation leading to formation of carbon clusters at the target and annealing out of defects at the substrate.

  10. Polycrystalline thin films of antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition and post deposition treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Lazcano, Y.; Pena, Yolanda; Nair, M.T.S.; Nair, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining thin films of polycrystalline antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition followed by heating the thin films at 573 K in selenium vapor. The thin films deposited from chemical baths containing one or more soluble complexes of antimony, and selenosulfate initially did not show X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns corresponding to crystalline antimony selenide. Composition of the films, studied by energy dispersive X-ray analyses indicated selenium deficiency. Heating these films in presence of selenium vapor at 573 K under nitrogen (2000 mTorr) resulted in an enrichment of Se in the films. XRD peaks of such films matched Sb 2 Se 3 . Evaluation of band gap from optical spectra of such films shows absorption due to indirect transition occurring in the range of 1-1.2 eV. The films are photosensitive, with dark conductivity of about 2 x 10 -8 (Ω cm) -1 and photoconductivity, about 10 -6 (Ω cm) -1 under tungsten halogen lamp illumination with intensity of 700 W m -2 . An estimate for the mobility life time product for the film is 4 x 10 -9 cm 2 V -1

  11. Cobalt Xanthate Thin Film with Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. A. Kariper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt xanthate thin films (CXTFs were successfully deposited by chemical bath deposition, onto amorphous glass substrates, as well as on p- and n-silicon, indium tin oxide, and poly(methyl methacrylate. The structure of the films was analyzed by far-infrared spectrum (FIR, mid-infrared (MIR spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. These films were investigated from their structural, optical, and electrical properties point of view. Electrical properties were measured using four-point method, whereas optical properties were investigated via UV-VIS spectroscopic technique. Uniform distribution of grains was clearly observed from the photographs taken by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The transmittance was about 70–80% (4 hours, 50°C. The optical band gap of the CXTF was graphically estimated to be 3.99–4.02 eV. The resistivity of the films was calculated as 22.47–75.91 Ω·cm on commercial glass depending on film thickness and 44.90–73.10 Ω ·cm on the other substrates. It has been observed that the relative resistivity changed with film thickness. The MIR and FIR spectra of the films were in agreement with the literature analogues. The expected peaks of cobalt xanthate were observed in NMR analysis on glass. The films were dipped in chloroform as organic solvent and were analyzed by NMR.

  12. Supramolecular structure of a perylene derivative in thin films deposited by physical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Jose D.; Aoki, Pedro H.B.; Constantino, Carlos J.J.; Junior, Wagner D.M.; Teixeira, Silvio R.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Thin films of a perylene derivative, the bis butylimido perylene (BuPTCD), were produced using thermal evaporation (PVD, physical vapor deposition). The main objective is to investigate the supramolecular structure of the BuPTCD in these PVD films, which implies to control the thickness and to determine the molecular organization, morphology at micro and nanometer scales and crystallinity. This supramolecular structure is a key factor in the optical and electrical properties of the film. The ultraviolet-visible absorption revealed an uniform growth of the PVD films. The optical and atomic force microscopy images showed a homogeneous surface of the film at micro and nanometer scales. A preferential orientation of the molecules in the PVD films was determined via infrared absorption. The X-ray diffraction showed that both powder and PVD film are in the crystalline form. (author)

  13. Electron-beam deposition of vanadium dioxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvel, R.E.; Appavoo, K. [Vanderbilt University, Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Nashville, TN (United States); Choi, B.K. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nashville, TN (United States); Nag, J. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Haglund, R.F. [Vanderbilt University, Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University, Institute for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Developing a reliable and efficient fabrication method for phase-transition thin-film technology is critical for electronic and photonic applications. We demonstrate a novel method for fabricating polycrystalline, switchable vanadium dioxide thin films on glass and silicon substrates and show that the optical switching contrast is not strongly affected by post-processing annealing times. The method relies on electron-beam evaporation of a nominally stoichiometric powder, followed by fast annealing. As a result of the short annealing procedure we demonstrate that films deposited on silicon substrates appear to be smoother, in comparison to pulsed laser deposition and sputtering. However, optical performance of e-beam evaporated film on silicon is affected by annealing time, in contrast to glass. (orig.)

  14. Electrocolorimetry of electrochromic materials on flexible ITO electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Carlos [Requimte, Dep. Quimica, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); YDreams, Madan Parque, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Parola, A.J.; Pina, F. [Requimte, Dep. Quimica, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Fonseca, J.; Freire, C. [Requimte, Dep. Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2008-08-15

    Electrochromic materials are characterized by their colour changes upon applied voltage. Colour can mean many things: a certain kind of light, its effect on the human eye, or the result of this effect in the mind of the viewer. Since the electrochromic materials are developed towards real life applications it is relevant to characterize them with the usual commercial colour standards. A colorimetric study of electrogenerated Prussian blue and electrogenerated polymers based on salen-type complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pd(II) deposited over transparent flexible electrodes of polyethylene terephthalate coated with indium tin oxide (PET/ITO electrodes) was carried out using the CIELAB coordinates. A cuvette with a designed adapter to allow potentiostatic control was placed on an integrating sphere installed in the sample compartment of a spectrophotometer to run the colorimetric measurements. The colour evolution in situ was measured through the transmittance of the films by potentiostatic control. Chronocoulometry/chronoabsorptometry was used to evaluate maximum coloration efficiencies for the coloration step: 184 (Pd), 161 (Cu) and 83 cm{sup 2}/C (Ni) and for bleaching: 199 (Pd), 212 (Cu) and 173 cm{sup 2}/C (Ni) of the Pd, Cu and Ni polymer films, respectively. The Prussian Blue/Prussian White states over the PET/ITO films were relatively reversible while the reversibility and stability of the polymers based on the metals salen-type complexes depends on the metal, Pd being the most stable. (author)

  15. Cracking and delamination of vapor-deposited tantalum films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.M.; Duan, J.Z.; Liu, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on tantalum films which begin to crack and spall during vapor deposition on glass at a thickness of 180 nm. Islands and ribbons, 10 - 30 μm in size, delaminate by crack growth along the Ta/glass interface for several μm after which the crack penetrates into the glass to a depth of 0.5 - 1 μm and complete spalling occurs. X-ray diffraction showed that about 50% of the original bct, β-tantalum, phase had transformed to the bcc α-Ta phase. When Ta was deposited on glass that was first covered with 52 nm of copper, spalling was observed to begin at a thickness of 105 nm. In this case, the film first cracks and then peels along the Cu/glass interface and curls into scrolls indicating the presence of a small stress gradient. X-ray diffraction of the as-deposited film, and electron diffraction of ion-milled flakes, showed that the Ta films deposited on Cu-coated glass almost completely transform to bcc α-Ta. The critical thickness for delamination along the Cu/glass interface is about 1/2 that for cracking in the glass substrate when an intermediate layer of Cu is not present. All of the above findings are in good agreement with previous observations on Cr films

  16. Quality improvement of organic thin films deposited on vibrating substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Y.A.; Caldas, P.G.; Prioli, R.; Cremona, M., E-mail: cremona@fis.puc-rio.br

    2011-12-30

    Most of the Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) have a multilayered structure composed of functional organic layers sandwiched between two electrodes. Thin films of small molecules are generally deposited by thermal evaporation onto glass or other rigid or flexible substrates. The interface state between two organic layers in OLED device depends on the surface morphology of the layers and affects deeply the OLED performance. The morphology of organic thin films depends mostly on substrate temperature and deposition rate. Generally, the control of the substrate temperature allows improving the quality of the deposited films. For organic compounds substrate temperature cannot be increased too much due to their poor thermal stability. However, studies in inorganic thin films indicate that it is possible to modify the morphology of a film by using substrate vibration without increasing the substrate temperature. In this work, the effect of the resonance vibration of glass and silicon substrates during thermal deposition in high vacuum environment of tris(8-quinolinolate)aluminum(III) (Alq{sub 3}) and N,N Prime -Bis(naphthalene-2-yl)-N,N Prime -bis(phenyl)-benzidine ({beta}-NPB) organic thin films with different deposition rates was investigated. The vibration used was in the range of hundreds of Hz and the substrates were kept at room temperature during the process. The nucleation and subsequent growth of the organic films on the substrates have been studied by atomic force microscopy technique. For Alq{sub 3} and {beta}-NPB films grown with 0.1 nm/s as deposition rate and using a frequency of 100 Hz with oscillation amplitude of some micrometers, the results indicate a reduction of cluster density and a roughness decreasing. Moreover, OLEDs fabricated with organic films deposited under these conditions improved their power efficiency, driven at 4 mA/cm{sup 2}, passing from 0.11 lm/W to 0.24 lm/W with an increase in their luminance of about 352 cd/m{sup 2

  17. Glancing angle deposition of thin films engineering the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkeye, Matthew M; Brett, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a highly practical treatment of GLAD technology, gathering existing procedures, methodologies, and experimental designs into a single, cohesive volume which will be useful both as a ready reference for those in the field and as a definitive guide for those entering it. It covers: History and development of GLAD techniquesProperties and Characterization of GLAD fabricated filmsDesign and engineering of optical GLAD films including fabrication and testingPost-deposition processing and integrationDeposition systems for GLAD fabrication Also includes a patent survey of relevant literature and a survey of GLAD's wide range of material properties and diverse applications.

  18. Optical emission spectroscopy during fabrication of indium-tin-oxynitride films by RF-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koufaki, M.; Sifakis, M.; Iliopoulos, E.; Pelekanos, N.; Modreanu, M.; Cimalla, V.; Ecke, G.; Aperathitis, E.

    2006-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and indium-tin-oxynitride (ITON) films have been deposited on glass by rf-sputtering from an ITO target, using Ar plasma and N 2 plasma, respectively, and different rf-power. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was employed to identify the species present in the plasma and to correlate them with the properties of the ITO and ITON thin films. Emission lines of ionic In could only be detected in N 2 plasma, whereas in the Ar plasma additional lines corresponding to atomic In and InO, were detected. The deposition rate of thin films was correlated with the In species, rather than the nitrogen species, emission intensity in the plasma. The higher resistivity and lower carrier concentration of the ITON films, as compared to the respective properties of the ITO films, were attributed to the incorporation of nitrogen, instead of oxygen, in the ITON structure

  19. Fabrication and characterization of vacuum deposited fluorescein thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalkanen, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.jalkanen@gmail.co [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Nanoscience center (NSC), P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kulju, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.j.kulju@jyu.f [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Nanoscience center (NSC), P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Arutyunov, Konstantin, E-mail: konstantin.arutyunov@jyu.f [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Nanoscience center (NSC), P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Antila, Liisa, E-mail: liisa.j.antila@jyu.f [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Chemistry, Nanoscience center (NSC) P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Myllyperkioe, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.myllyperkio@jyu.f [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Chemistry, Nanoscience center (NSC) P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Ihalainen, Teemu, E-mail: teemu.o.ihalainen@jyu.f [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biology, Nanoscience center (NSC), P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kaeaeriaeinen, Tommi, E-mail: tommi.kaariainen@lut.f [Lappeenranta University of Technology, ASTRal, P.O. Box 181, FI-50101 Mikkeli (Finland); Kaeaeriaeinen, Marja-Leena, E-mail: marja-leena.kaariainen@lut.f [Lappeenranta University of Technology, ASTRal, P.O. Box 181, FI-50101 Mikkeli (Finland); Korppi-Tommola, Jouko, E-mail: jouko.korppi-tommola@jyu.f [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biology, Nanoscience center (NSC), P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2011-03-31

    Simple vacuum evaporation technique for deposition of dyes on various solid surfaces has been developed. The method is compatible with conventional solvent-free nanofabrication processing enabling fabrication of nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Thin films of fluorescein were deposited on glass, fluorine-tin-oxide (FTO) coated glass with and without atomically layer deposited (ALD) nanocrystalline 20 nm thick anatase TiO{sub 2} coating. Surface topology, absorption and emission spectra of the films depend on their thickness and the material of supporting substrate. On a smooth glass surface the dye initially forms islands before merging into a uniform layer after 5 to 10 monolayers. On FTO covered glass the absorption spectra are similar to fluorescein solution in ethanol. Absorption spectra on ALD-TiO{sub 2} is red shifted compared to the film deposited on bare FTO. The corresponding emission spectra at {lambda} = 458 nm excitation show various thickness and substrate dependent features, while the emission of films deposited on TiO{sub 2} is quenched due to the effective electron transfer to the semiconductor conduction band.

  20. Novel doped hydroxyapatite thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duta, L.; Oktar, F.N.; Stan, G.E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Serban, N.; Luculescu, C.; Mihailescu, I.N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► HA coatings synthesized by pulsed laser deposition. ► Comparative study of commercial vs. animal origin materials. ► HA coatings of animal origin were rougher and more adherent to substrates. ► Animal origin films can be considered as promising candidates for implant coatings. - Abstract: We report on the synthesis of novel ovine and bovine derived hydroxyapatite thin films on titanium substrates by pulsed laser deposition for a new generation of implants. The calcination treatment applied to produce the hydroxyapatite powders from ovine/bovine bones was intended to induce crystallization and to prohibit the transmission of diseases. The deposited films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Pull-off adherence and profilometry measurements were also carried out. X-ray diffraction ascertained the polycrystalline hydroxyapatite nature of the powders and films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy evidenced the vibrational bands characteristic to a hydroxyapatite material slightly carbonated. The micrographs of the films showed a uniform distribution of spheroidal particulates with a mean diameter of ∼2 μm. Pull-off measurements demonstrated excellent bonding strength values between the hydroxyapatite films and the titanium substrates. Because of their physical–chemical properties and low cost fabrication from renewable resources, we think that these new coating materials could be considered as a prospective competitor to synthetic hydroxyapatite used for implantology applications.

  1. Experiment and equipment of depositing diamond films with CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Erqing; Song Chang'an

    2002-01-01

    CVD (chemical vapor deposition) emerged in recent years is a new technique for thin film deposition, which play a key role in development of modern physics. It is important to predominate the principle and technology of CVD for studying modern physics. In this paper, a suit of CVD experimental equipment for teaching in college physics is presented, which has simple design and low cost. The good result was gained in past teaching practices

  2. Chemical bath deposited and dip coating deposited CuS thin films - Structure, Raman spectroscopy and surface study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Jiten P.; Khimani, Ankurkumar J.; Chaki, Sunil H.

    2018-05-01

    The crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy and surface microtopography study on as-deposited CuS thin films were carried out. Thin films deposited by two techniques of solution growth were studied. The thin films used in the present study were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and dip coating deposition techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of both the as-deposited thin films showed that both the films possess covellite phase of CuS and hexagonal unit cell structure. The determined lattice parameters of both the films are in agreement with the standard JCPDS as well as reported data. The crystallite size determined by Scherrer's equation and Hall-Williamsons relation using XRD data for both the as-deposited thin films showed that the respective values were in agreement with each other. The ambient Raman spectroscopy of both the as-deposited thin films showed major emission peaks at 474 cm-1 and a minor emmision peaks at 265 cm-1. The observed Raman peaks matched with the covellite phase of CuS. The atomic force microscopy of both the as-deposited thin films surfaces showed dip coating thin film to be less rough compared to CBD deposited thin film. All the obtained results are presented and deliberated in details.

  3. Morphological Study Of Palladium Thin Films Deposited By Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo, K L; Rodriguez, C A [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Ingenieria Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia); Perez, F A [WNANO, West Virginia University (United States); Riascos, H [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a morphological analysis of thin films of palladium (Pd) deposited on a substrate of sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) at a constant pressure of 3.5 mbar at different substrate temperatures (473 K, 523 K and 573 K). The films were morphologically characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); finding a relation between the roughness and the temperature. A morphological analysis of the samples through AFM was carried out and the roughness was measured by simulating the X-ray reflectivity curve using GenX software. A direct relation between the experimental and simulation data of the Palladium thin films was found.

  4. Morphological Study Of Palladium Thin Films Deposited By Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcedo, K L; Rodriguez, C A; Perez, F A; Riascos, H

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a morphological analysis of thin films of palladium (Pd) deposited on a substrate of sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ) at a constant pressure of 3.5 mbar at different substrate temperatures (473 K, 523 K and 573 K). The films were morphologically characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); finding a relation between the roughness and the temperature. A morphological analysis of the samples through AFM was carried out and the roughness was measured by simulating the X-ray reflectivity curve using GenX software. A direct relation between the experimental and simulation data of the Palladium thin films was found.

  5. Optical properties of vacuum deposited polyaniline ultra-thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, M. R. A.; Din, M.; Yunus, W. M. M.; Hasan, Z. A.; Kasim, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Ultra-thin films of emeraldine base (EB) and emeraldine salt (ES) form of polyaniline (PANi) were prepared using electron-gun vacuum deposition. Thickness range studied was between 100AA and 450AA. Dielectric permittivity of the films determined from Kretchmann Configuration Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) angles-scanning set-up show shifts and narrowing of the SPR dip. Absorbance spectra of S-polarized and P-polarized light show the aging effect on orientation of the film. The effect of aging on its conductivity and photoluminescence is also correlated to the surface morphology

  6. Thin NiTi Films Deposited on Graphene Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, S.; Schulze, A.; Böhme, M.; Hahn, T.; Wagner, M. F.-X.

    2017-03-01

    We present experimental results on the deposition of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) films on graphene substrates using a PVD magnetron sputter process. Characterization of the 2-4 micron thick NiTi films by electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy shows that grain size and orientation of the thin NiTi films strongly depend on the type of combination of graphene and copper layers below. Our experimental findings are supported by density functional theory calculations: a theoretical estimation of the binding energies of different NiTi-graphene interfaces is in line with the experimentally determined microstructural features of the functional NiTi top layer.

  7. Pulsed laser deposition of hydroxyapatite thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koch, C.F.; Johnson, S.; Kumar, D.; Jelínek, Miroslav; Chrisey, D.B.; Doraiswamy, A.; Jin, C.; Narayan, R.J.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2007), s. 484-494 ISSN 0928-4931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : hydroxyapatite * pulsed laser deposition * bioactive ceramic s Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.486, year: 2007

  8. Germanium films by polymer-assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Quanxi; Burrell, Anthony K.; Bauer, Eve; Ronning, Filip; McCleskey, Thomas Mark; Zou, Guifu

    2013-01-15

    Highly ordered Ge films are prepared directly on single crystal Si substrates by applying an aqueous coating solution having Ge-bound polymer onto the substrate and then heating in a hydrogen-containing atmosphere. A coating solution was prepared by mixing water, a germanium compound, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and polyethyleneimine to form a first aqueous solution and then subjecting the first aqueous solution to ultrafiltration.

  9. Coaxial carbon plasma gun deposition of amorphous carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, D. M.; Gulino, D. A.; Rutledge, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    A unique plasma gun employing coaxial carbon electrodes was used in an attempt to deposit thin films of amorphous diamond-like carbon. A number of different structural, compositional, and electrical characterization techniques were used to characterize these films. These included scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction and absorption, spectrographic analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Optical absorption and electrical resistivity measurements were also performed. The films were determined to be primarily amorphous, with poor adhesion to fused silica substrates. Many inclusions of particulates were found to be present as well. Analysis of these particulates revealed the presence of trace impurities, such as Fe and Cu, which were also found in the graphite electrode material. The electrodes were the source of these impurities. No evidence of diamond-like crystallite structure was found in any of the film samples. Details of the apparatus, experimental procedure, and film characteristics are presented.

  10. Deposition and characterisation of epitaxial oxide thin films for SOFCs

    KAUST Repository

    Santiso, José

    2010-10-24

    This paper reviews the recent advances in the use of thin films, mostly epitaxial, for fundamental studies of materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. These studies include the influence of film microstructure, crystal orientation and strain in oxide ionic conducting materials used as electrolytes, such as fluorites, and in mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials used as electrodes, typically oxides with perovskite or perovskite-related layered structures. The recent effort towards the enhancement of the electrochemical performance of SOFC materials through the deposition of artificial film heterostructures is also presented. These thin films have been engineered at a nanoscale level, such as the case of epitaxial multilayers or nanocomposite cermet materials. The recent progress in the implementation of thin films in SOFC devices is also reported. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Coaxial carbon plasma gun deposition of amorphous carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sater, D.M.; Gulino, D.A.

    1984-03-01

    A unique plasma gun employing coaxial carbon electrodes was used in an attempt to deposit thin films of amorphous diamond-like carbon. A number of different structural, compositional, and electrical characterization techniques were used to characterize these films. These included scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction and absorption, spectrographic analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Optical absorption and electrical resistivity measurements were also performed. The films were determined to be primarily amorphous, with poor adhesion to fused silica substrates. Many inclusions of particulates were found to be present as well. Analysis of these particulates revealed the presence of trace impurities, such as Fe and Cu, which were also found in the graphite electrode material. The electrodes were the source of these impurities. No evidence of diamond-like crystallite structure was found in any of the film samples. Details of the apparatus, experimental procedure, and film characteristics are presented

  12. Electrochemical Deposition of Lanthanum Telluride Thin Films and Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Su (Ike); Farias, Stephen; Cammarata, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Tellurium alloys are characterized by their high performance thermoelectric properties and recent research has shown nanostructured tellurium alloys display even greater performance than bulk equivalents. Increased thermoelectric efficiency of nanostructured materials have led to significant interests in developing thin film and nanowire structures. Here, we report on the first successful electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films and nanowires. The electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films is performed in ionic liquids at room temperature. The synthesis of nanowires involves electrodepositing lanthanum telluride arrays into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membranes. These novel procedures can serve as an alternative means of simple, inexpensive and laboratory-environment friendly methods to synthesize nanostructured thermoelectric materials. The thermoelectric properties of thin films and nanowires will be presented to compare to current state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the deposited films and nanowires are characterized using SEM and EDAX analysis.

  13. Deposition and characterization of aluminum magnesium boride thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yun

    Boron-rich borides are a special group of materials possessing complex structures typically comprised of B12 icosahedra. All of the boron-rich borides sharing this common structural unit exhibit a variety of exceptional physical and electrical properties. In this work, a new ternary boride compound AlMgB14, which has been extensively studied in bulk form due to its novel mechanical properties, was fabricated into thin film coatings by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technology. The effect of processing conditions (laser operating modes, vacuum level, substrate temperature, and postannealing, etc.) on the composition, microstructure evolution, chemical bonding, and surface morphology of AlMgB14 thin film coatings has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry; the mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of AlMgB14 thin films have been characterized by nanoindentation, four-point probe, van der Pauw Hall measurement, activation energy measurement, and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. Experimental results show that AlMgB14 films deposited in the temperature range of 300 K - 873 K are amorphous. Depositions under a low vacuum level (5 x 10-5 Torr) can introduce a significant amount of C and O impurities into AlMgB14 films and lead to a complex oxide glass structure. Orthorhombic AlMgB14 phase cannot be obtained by subsequent high temperature annealing. By contrast, the orthorhombic AlMgB 14 crystal structure can be attained via high temperature-annealing of AlMgB14 films deposited under a high vacuum level (boride films, high vacuum level-as deposited AlMgB14 films also possess a low n-type electrical resistivity, which is a consequence of high carrier concentration and moderate carrier mobility. The operative electrical transport mechanism and doping behavior for high vacuum level-as deposited AlMgB14

  14. Ion assisted deposition of thermally evaporated Ag and Al films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Lingg, L.J.; Lehan, J.P.; Macleod, H.A.; Makous, J.L.; Kim, S.Y.; University of Arizona, Physics Department, Tucson, Arizona 85721; Aju University, Physics Department, Suwon, Korea)

    1989-01-01

    Optical, electrical, and microstructural effects of Ar ion bombardment and Ar incorporation on thermally evaporated Ag and Al thin films are investigated. The results show that as the momentum supplied to the growing films by the bombarding ions per arriving metal atom increases, the refractive index at 632.8 nm increases and the extinction coefficient decreases, lattice spacing expands, grain size decreases, electrical resistivity increases, and trapped Ar increases slightly. In Ag films, stress reverses from tensile to compressive and in Al films compressive stress increases. In the Al films the change in optical constants can be explained by the variation in void volume. The reversal of stress from tensile to compressive in Ag films requires a threshold level of momentum. The increase in electrical resistivity is related to the decrease in grain size and increase in trapped Ar in both types of film. Many of these properties correlate well with the momentum transferred, suggesting that the momentum is an important physical parameter in describing the influence of ion beam on growing thin films and determining the characteristics of thin metal films prepared by ion assisted deposition

  15. Deposition of polymer films in low pressure reactive plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederman, H.

    1981-12-11

    Sputtering and plasma polymerization have found wide application as deposition techniques and have been extensively studied. R.f. sputtering of plastics, in particular of polytetrafluoroethylene, are discussed in the first part of this paper. In the second part, the general concept of plasma polymerization is considered and some examples of applications of plasma-polymerized films are presented. Special attention is paid to fluorocarbon and fluorochlorocarbon films. It has been suggested that these films could be used in thin film capacitors or as passivating layers for integrated circuits. In the optical field some of these films have been used as convenient moisture-resistant, protective and antireflecting coatings. Their mechanical properties have also been examined with the intention of using them for reducing surface friction. More recently some metals have been incorporated into fluorocarbon films to obtain layers with novel properties. Experiments in which films were prepared by the plasma polymerization of certain Freons are described. Some electrical and optical properties of these films are presented. High dielectric losses were obtained in a metal/film/metal sandwich configuration and the possible influence of ambient atmospheric effects on these measurements is discussed.

  16. Reactive ion assisted deposition of aluminum oxynitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Lingg, L.J.; Lehan, J.P.; Macleod, H.A.; Suits, F.

    1989-01-01

    Optical properties, stoichiometry, chemical bonding states, and crystal structure of aluminum oxynitride (AlO/sub x/N/sub y/) thin films prepared by reactive ion assisted deposition were investigated. The results show that by controlling the amount of reactive gases the refractive index of aluminum oxynitride films at 550 nm is able to be varied from 1.65 to 1.83 with a very small extinction coefficient. Variations of optical constants and chemical bonding states of aluminum oxynitride films are related to the stoichiometry. From an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis it is observed that our aluminum oxynitride film is not simply a mixture of aluminum oxide and aluminum nitride but a continuously variable compound. The aluminum oxynitride films are amorphous from an x-ray diffraction analysis. A rugate filter using a step index profile of aluminum oxynitride films was fabricated by nitrogen ion beam bombardment of a growing Al film with backfill oxygen pressure as the sole variation. This filter shows a high resistivity to atmospheric moisture adsorption, suggesting that the packing density of aluminum oxynitride films is close to unity and the energetic ion bombardment densifies the film as well as forming the compound

  17. The influences of target properties and deposition times on pulsed laser deposited hydroxyapatite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Quanhe; Chen Chuanzhong; Wang Diangang; Liu Junming

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite films were produced by pulsed laser deposition from three kinds of hydroxyapatite targets and with different deposition times. A JXA-8800R electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) with a Link ISIS300 energy spectrum analyzer was used to give the secondary electron image (SE) and determine the element composition of the films. The phases of thin film were analyzed by a D/max-γc X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to characterize the hydroxyl, phosphate and other functional groups. The results show that deposited films were amorphous which mainly composed of droplet-like particles and vibration of PO 4 3- groups. With the target sintering temperature deposition times increasing, the density of droplets is decreased. While with deposition times increasing, the density of droplets is increased. With the target sintering temperature and deposition time increasing, the ratio of Ca/P is increasing and higher than that of theoretical value of HA

  18. Synthesis of layered birnessite-type manganese oxide thin films on plastic substrates by chemical bath deposition for flexible transparent supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Yu; Zhu Hongwei; Wang Jun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen Zhenxing, E-mail: chenzx65@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2011-10-20

    Highlights: > Layered birnessite-type MnO{sub 2} thin films are fabricated on ITO/PET substrates through a facile chemical bath deposition at room temperature. > The transmittance of the MnO{sub 2} thin films at 550 nm is up to 77.4%. > MnO{sub 2} thin films exhibit a special capacitance of 229.2 F g{sup -1} and 9.2 mF cm{sup -2}. > MnO{sub 2} thin films show a capacitance retention ratio of 83% after 1000 CV cycles. > MnO{sub 2} thin film electrodes show great mechanical flexibility and electrochemical stability even after 200 tensile and compressive bending cycles. - Abstract: Layered birnessite-type manganese oxide thin films are successfully fabricated on indium tin oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate substrates for flexible transparent supercapacitors by a facile, effective and inexpensive chemical bath deposition technology from an alkaline KMnO{sub 4} aqueous solution at room temperature. The effects of deposition conditions, including KMnO{sub 4} concentration, initial molar ratio of NH{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O and KMnO{sub 4}, bath temperature, and reaction time, on the electrochemical properties of MnO{sub 2} thin films are investigated. Layered birnessite-type MnO{sub 2} thin films deposited under optimum conditions display three-dimensional porous morphology, high hydrophilicity, and a transmittance of 77.4% at 550 nm. A special capacitance of 229.2 F g{sup -1} and a capacitance retention ratio of 83% are obtained from the films after 1000 cycles at 10 mV s{sup -1} in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Compressive and tensile bending tests show that as-prepared MnO{sub 2} thin film electrodes possess excellent mechanical flexibility and electrochemical stability.

  19. Li ion transport in sputter deposited LiCoO{sub 2} thin films and glassy borate membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockhoff, Tobias; Gallasch, Tobias; Schmitz, Guido [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Materialphysik, Muenster (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    LiCoO{sub 2} membranes are key components of current battery technology. We investigate sputter-deposited thin films of these materials aiming at the application in all-solid-state thin film batteries. For this, LiCoO{sub 2} films (10-200 nm) were deposited onto ITO-coated glass substrates by ion beam sputtering. In addition, a part of these films are coated by an ion-conductive membrane of Li{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses in the thickness range of 50 to 300 nm. Structural, chemical and electrical properties of the layers are studied by means of TEM(EELS) and various electrical methods (cyclic voltammetry, chrono-amperometry/-potentiometry). Since the color of the LiCoO{sub 2} films changes from red-brown to grey during de-intercalation of Li and the substrate as well as the glassy membrane deposited on top are optical transparent, reversible Li de- and intercalation can be directly demonstrated and quantified by a measurement of light transmission through the layered system. Samples coated with an ion-conductive membrane reveal a characteristic delay in switching optical transparency which is due to the slower transport across the membrane. Varying the thickness of the glassy membrane, the d.c. ion-conductivity and permeation through the membrane is determined quantitatively. Using thin membranes in the range of a few tens of nanometers the critical current densities are way sufficient for battery applications.

  20. The atmospheric chemical vapour deposition of coatings on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, Kevin David

    1996-01-01

    The deposition of thin films of indium oxide, tin doped indium oxide (ITO) and titanium nitride for solar control applications have been investigated by Atmospheric Chemical Vapour Deposition (APCVD). Experimental details of the deposition system and the techniques used to characterise the films are presented. Results from investigations into the deposition parameters, the film microstructure and film material properties are discussed. A range of precursors were investigated for the deposition of indium oxide. The effect of pro-mixing the vaporised precursor with an oxidant source and the deposition temperature has been studied. Polycrystalline In 2 O 3 films with a resistivity of 1.1 - 3x10 -3 Ω cm were obtained with ln(thd) 3 , oxygen and nitrogen. The growth of ITO films from ln(thd) 3 , oxygen and a range of tin dopants is also presented. The effect of the dopant precursor, the doping concentration, deposition temperature and the effect of additives on film growth and microstructure is discussed. Control over the preferred orientation growth of ITO has been achieved by the addition of acetate species during film growth. Insitu infra-red spectroscopy has been used to identify the gas phase species and identify the species responsible for the film modification. ITO films with a resistivities of 1.5 - 4x10 -4 Ω cm have been achieved. The deposition of titanium nitride by the APCVD of Ti(NMe 2 ) 4 and a mixture of Ti(NMe 2 ) 4 and ammonia is reported. Contamination of the films and pro-reaction between the precursors in the gas phase is discussed, and the synthesis of new precursors for the deposition of titanium nitride is reported. New precursors have been synthesised under anaerobic conditions and characterised by infra-red spectroscopy, 1 H and 13 C NMR, mass spectrometry, thermal gravemetric analysis and three by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Deposition of titanium nitride utilising two new precursors is reported. (author)

  1. In situ measurement of conductivity during nanocomposite film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, Christoph O.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flame-made nanosilver dynamics are elucidated in the gas-phase & on substrates. • The resistance of freshly depositing nanosilver layers is monitored. • Low T g polymers facilitate rapid synthesis of conductive films. • Conductive nanosilver films form on top of or within the polymer depending on MW. - Abstract: Flexible and electrically conductive nanocomposite films are essential for small, portable and even implantable electronic devices. Typically, such film synthesis and conductivity measurement are carried out sequentially. As a result, optimization of filler loading and size/morphology characteristics with respect to film conductivity is rather tedious and costly. Here, freshly-made Ag nanoparticles (nanosilver) are made by scalable flame aerosol technology and directly deposited onto polymeric (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)) films during which the resistance of the resulting nanocomposite is measured in situ. The formation and gas-phase growth of such flame-made nanosilver, just before incorporation onto the polymer film, is measured by thermophoretic sampling and microscopy. Monitoring the nanocomposite resistance in situ reveals the onset of conductive network formation by the deposited nanosilver growth and sinternecking. The in situ measurement is much faster and more accurate than conventional ex situ four-point resistance measurements since an electrically percolating network is detected upon its formation by the in situ technique. Nevertheless, general resistance trends with respect to filler loading and host polymer composition are consistent for both in situ and ex situ measurements. The time lag for the onset of a conductive network (i.e., percolation) depends linearly on the glass transition temperature (T g ) of the host polymer. This is attributed to the increased nanoparticle-polymer interaction with decreasing T g . Proper selection of the host polymer in combination with in situ resistance monitoring

  2. Fundamental Mechanisms of Roughening and Smoothing During Thin Film Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headrick, Randall [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2016-03-18

    In this research program, we have explored the fundamental limits for thin film deposition in both crystalline and amorphous (i.e. non-crystalline) materials systems. For vacuum-based physical deposition processes such as sputter deposition, the background gas pressure of the inert gas (usually argon) used as the process gas has been found to be a key variable. Both a roughness transition and stress transition as a function of pressure have been linked to a common mechanism involving collisions of energetic particles from the deposition source with the process inert gas. As energetic particles collide with gas molecules in the deposition process they lose their energy rapidly if the pressure (and background gas density) is above a critical value. Both roughness and stress limit important properties of thin films for applications. In the area of epitaxial growth we have also discovered a related effect; there is a critical pressure below which highly crystalline layers grow in a layer-by-layer mode. This effect is also though to be due to energetic particle thermalization and scattering. Several other important effects such as the observation of coalescence dominated growth has been observed. This mode can be likened to the behavior of two-dimensional water droplets on the hood of a car during a rain storm; as the droplets grow and touch each other they tend to coalesce rapidly into new larger circular puddles, and this process proceeds exponentially as larger puddles overtake smaller ones and also merge with other large puddles. This discovery will enable more accurate simulations and modeling of epitaxial growth processes. We have also observed that epitaxial films undergo a roughening transition as a function of thickness, which is attributed to strain induced by the crystalline lattice mismatch with the substrate crystal. In addition, we have studied another physical deposition process called pulsed laser deposition. It differs from sputter deposition due to the

  3. Laser deposition and analysis of biocompatible ceramic films - experiences andoverview

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Dostálová, T.; Fotakis, C.; Studnička, Václav; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Havránek, V.; Grivas, C.; Pospíchal, M.; Kadlec, J.; Peřina, Vratislav

    1996-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (1996), s. 144-149 ISSN 1054-660X Institutional research plan: CEZ:A02/98:Z1-010-914 Keywords : laser deposition * hydroxyapatite * ceramic films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  4. Mobility activation in thermally deposited CdSe thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of illumination on mobility has been studied from the photocurrent decay characteristics of thermally evaporated CdSe thin films deposited on suitably cleaned glass substrate held at elevated substrate temperatures. The study indicates that the mobilities of the carriers of different trap levels are activated due to the ...

  5. Flame spray pyrolysis synthesis and aerosol deposition of nanoparticle films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoli, Antonio; Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal

    2012-01-01

    The assembly of nanoparticle films by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) synthesis and deposition on temperature‐controlled substrates (323–723 K) was investigated for several application‐relevant conditions. An exemplary SnO2 nanoparticle aerosol was generated by FSP and its properties (e.g., particle...

  6. Optimizing growth conditions for electroless deposition of Au films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Optimizing growth conditions for electroless deposition of Au films on. Si(111) substrates. BHUVANA and G U KULKARNI*. Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit and DST Unit on Nanoscience, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for. Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur PO, Bangalore 560 064, India. MS received 24 March 2006.

  7. Physical vapor deposition of cubic boron nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kester, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride was successfully deposited using physical vapor-deposition methods. RF-sputtering, magnetron sputtering, dual-ion-beam deposition, and ion-beam-assisted evaporation were all used. The ion-assisted evaporation, using boron evaporation and bombardment by nitrogen and argon ions, led to successful cubic boron nitride growth over the widest and most controllable range of conditions. It was found that two factors were important for c-BN growth: bombardment of the growing film and the presence of argon. A systematic study of the deposition conditions was carried out. It was found that the value of momentum transferred into the growing from by the bombarding ions was critical. There was a very narrow transition range in which mixed cubic and hexagonal phase films were prepared. Momentum-per-atom value took into account all the variables involved in ion-assisted deposition: deposition rate, ion energy, ion flux, and ion species. No other factor led to the same control of the process. The role of temperature was also studied; it was found that at low temperatures only mixed cubic and hexagonal material are deposited

  8. Progress on sputter-deposited thermotractive titanium-nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grummon, D.S.; Hou Li; Zhao, Z.; Pence, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    It is now well established that titanium-nickel alloys fabricated as thin films by physical vapor deposition can display the same transformation and shape-memory effects as their ingot-metallurgy counterparts. As such they may find important application to microelectromechanical and biomechanical systems. Furthermore, we show here that titanium-nickel films may be directly processed so as to possess extremely fine austenite grain size and very high strength. These films display classical transformational superelasticity, including high elastic energy storage capacity, the expected dependence of martensite-start temperature on transformation enthalpy, and large, fully recoverable anelastic strains at temperatures above A f . Processing depends on elevated substrate temperatures during deposition, which may be manipulated within a certain range to control both grain size and crystallographic texture. It is also possible to deposit crystalline titanium-nickel films onto polymeric substrates, making them amenable to lithographic patterning into actuator elements that are well-suited to electrical excitation of the martensite reversion transformation. Finally, isothermal annealing of nickel-rich films, under conditions of controlled extrinsic residual stress, leads to topotaxial orientation of Ni 4 Ti 3 -type precipitates, and the associated possibility of two-way memory effects. Much work remains to be done, especially with respect to precise control of composition. (orig.)

  9. Electrical and optical properties of thin indium tin oxide films produced by pulsed laser ablation in oxygen or rare gas atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup, B.; Schou, Jørgen; Nordskov, A.

    1999-01-01

    Films of indium tin oxide (ITO) have been produced in different background gases by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The Films deposited in rare gas atmospheres on room temperature substrates were metallic, electrically conductive, but had poor transmission of visible light. For substrate temperatu......Films of indium tin oxide (ITO) have been produced in different background gases by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The Films deposited in rare gas atmospheres on room temperature substrates were metallic, electrically conductive, but had poor transmission of visible light. For substrate...

  10. Diamond-like carbon films deposited on polycarbonates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, C.T. [Department of Computer and Communication, Diwan College of Management, 72141 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ctguo@dwu.edu.tw

    2008-04-30

    Diamond-like carbon films were coated on optical polycarbonate using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A mixture of SiH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} gases was utilized to reduce the internal compressive stress of the deposited films. The structure of the DLC films was characterized as a function of film thickness using Raman spectroscopy. The dependence of G peak positions and the intensity ratio of I{sub D}/I{sub G} on the DLC film thicknesses was analyzed in detail. Other studies involving atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet visible spectrometry, and three adhesion tests were conducted. Good transparency in the visible region, and good adhesion between diamond-like carbon films and polycarbonate were demonstrated. One-time recordings before and after a DLC film was coated on compact rewritable disc substrates were analyzed as a case study. The results reveal that the diamond-like carbon film overcoating the optical polycarbonates effectively protects the storage media.

  11. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Tungsten Thin Films on Graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, W.; Tabbal, M.; Roumie, M.

    2011-01-01

    Thin coatings of Tungsten were deposited on substrates fabricated by pre-depositing graphite thin layers on Si(100) wafers. We ablate pure W target using a 20 ns KrF excimer laser (248 nm) in an Ar ambient. The effect of background gas pressure, substrate temperature, and laser fluence, on the properties of the deposited W layers is studied using several techniques including X-Ray Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, surface profilometry, and Rutherford Back-Scattering spectrometry. Our results indicate that the deposited layers consist of the well-crystallized body-centered-cubic α-W phase with bulk-like properties, particularly for films deposited at a substrate temperature of 450 0 C, laser fluence greater than 400mJ, and pressure of about 10mTorr. (author)

  12. Deposition of SiC thin films by PECVD

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, N I; Kim, C K

    1999-01-01

    The SiC films were deposited on Si substrate by the decomposition of CH sub 3 SiCl sub 3 (methylthrichlorosilane) molecules in a high frequency discharge field. From the Raman spectra, it is conjectured that the deposited film are formed into the polycrystalline structure. The photon absorption measurement reveal that the band gap of the electron energy state are to be 2.4 eV for SiC, and 2.6 eV for Si sub 0 sub . sub 4 C sub 0 sub . sub 6 , respectively. In the high power density regime, methyl-radicals decompose easily and increases the carbon concentration in plasma and result in the growing films.

  13. Pulsed laser deposition of high Tc superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Narayan, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the pulsed laser evaporation (PLE) technique for deposition of thin films characterized by a number of unique properties. Based on the experimental characteristics, a theoretical model is developed which considers the formation and anisotropic three dimensional expansion of the laser generated plasma. This model explains most of the experimental features observed in PLE. We have also employed the PLE technique for in-situ fabrication of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 superconducting thin films on different substrates in the temperature range of 500--650 degrees C. At temperatures below 600 degrees C, a biased interposing ring between the substrate and the target was found to significantly improve the superconducting properties. The minimum ion channeling yields were between 3--3.5% for films deposited on (100) SrTiO 3 and (100) LaAlO 3 substrates

  14. Bath parameter dependence of chemically deposited Copper Selenide thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mamun; Islam, A.B.M.O.

    2004-09-01

    In this article, a low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation Of Cu 2-x Se thin films on to glass substrate. Different thin fms (0.2-0.6/μm) were prepared by adjusting the bath parameter like concentration of ammonia, deposition time, temperature of the solution, and the ratios of the mixing composition between copper and selenium in the reaction bath. From these studies, it reveals that at low concentration of ammonia or TEA, the terminal thicknesses of the films are less, which gradually increases with the increase of concentrations and then drop down at still higher concentrations. It has been found that completing the Cu 2+ ions with EA first, and then addition of ammonia yields better results than the reverse process. The film thickness increases with the decrease of value x of Cu 2-x Se. (author)

  15. Effects of substrate heating and vacuum annealing on optical and electrical properties of alumina-doped ZnO films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Jaing, Cheng-Chung

    2011-10-01

    Alumina-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films have wide range of applications in optical and optoelectronic devices. AZO films have advantage in high transparency, high stability to hydrogen plasma and low cost to alternative ITO film. AZO film was prepared by direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering from ceramic ZnO:Al2O3 target. The AZO films were compared in two different conditions. The first is substrate heating process, in which AZO film was deposited by different substrate temperature, room temperature, 150 °C and 250 °C. The second is vacuum annealing process, in which AZO film with deposited at room temperature have been annealed at 250 °C and 450 °C in vacuum. The optical properties, electrical properties, grain size and surface structure properties of the films were studied by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer, Hall effect measurement equipment, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The resistivity, carrier mobility, carrier concentration, and grain size of AZO films were 1.92×10-3 Ω-cm, 6.38 cm2/Vs, 5.08×1020 #/cm3, and 31.48 nm respectively, in vacuum annealing of 450 °C. The resistivity, carrier mobility, carrier concentration, and grain size of AZO films were 8.72×10-4 Ω-cm, 6.32 cm2/Vs, 1.13×1021 #/cm3, and 31.56 nm, respectively, when substrate temperature was at 250 °C. Substrate heating process is better than vacuum annealed process for AZO film deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering.

  16. Comparison of lanthanum substituted bismuth titanate (BLT) thin films deposited by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besland, M.P.; Djani-ait Aissa, H.; Barroy, P.R.J.; Lafane, S.; Tessier, P.Y.; Angleraud, B.; Richard-Plouet, M.; Brohan, L.; Djouadi, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bi 4-x La x Ti 3 O 12 (BLT x ) (x = 0 to 1) thin films were grown on silicon (100) and platinized substrates Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si using RF diode sputtering, magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Stoichiometric home-synthesized targets were used. Reactive sputtering was investigated in argon/oxygen gas mixture, with a pressure ranging from 0.33 to 10 Pa without heating the substrate. PLD was investigated in pure oxygen, at a chamber pressure of 20 Pa for a substrate temperature of 400-440 deg. C. Comparative structural, chemical, optical and morphological characterizations of BLT thin films have been performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Spectro-ellipsometric measurements (SE) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Both sputtering techniques allow to obtain uniform films with thickness ranging from 200 to 1000 nm and chemical composition varying from (Bi,La) 2 Ti 3 O 12 to (Bi,La) 4.5 Ti 3 O 12 , depending on deposition pressure and RF power. In addition, BLT films deposited by magnetron sputtering, at a pressure deposition ranging from 1.1 to 5 Pa, were well-crystallized after a post-deposition annealing at 650 deg. C in oxygen. They exhibit a refractive index and optical band gap of 2.7 and 3.15 eV, respectively. Regarding PLD, single phase and well-crystallized, 100-200 nm thick BLT films with a stoichiometric (Bi,La) 4 Ti 3 O 12 chemical composition were obtained, exhibiting in addition a preferential orientation along (200). It is worth noting that BLT films deposited by magnetron sputtering are as well-crystallized than PLD ones

  17. Cathodic electrochemical deposition of Magnéli phases TinO2n−1 thin films at different temperatures in acetonitrile solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertekin, Zeliha; Tamer, Uğur; Pekmez, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO x films were prepared by cathodic electrodeposition in acetonitrile. • One-step electrodeposition of TiO x films without heat treatment process. • Different crystalline Ti n O 2n−1 films (γTi 3 O 5 , λTi 3 O 5 , Ti 4 O 7 , Ti 5 O 9 ) were obtained. - Abstract: The Magnéli phase titanium oxide films prepared by cathodic electrodeposition on indium–tin-oxide coated glass substrates from saturated peroxo-titanium solution in acetonitrile. Electrodeposited brownish semi-conductor thin films were identified via X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of different potentials and temperatures on the crystallinity of the thin films have been discussed. Ti 3 O 5 , Ti 4 O 7 and Ti 5 O 9 as the most favorable forms of the Ti n O 2n−1 were electrodeposited on ITO electrode at electrochemical deposition potentials and different temperatures. The present investigation reveals that the electrochemical deposition of crystalline Ti n O 2n−1 films by a simple one-step electrodeposition method (without any heat treatment) in acetonitrile solution is possible and very promising as a preparation method for electrochemical applications

  18. UV pulsed laser deposition of magnetite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parames, M.L.; Mariano, J.; Rogalski, M.S.; Popovici, N.; Conde, O.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetite thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition in O 2 reactive atmosphere from Fe 3 O 4 targets. The ablated material was deposited onto Si(1 0 0) substrates at various temperatures up to 623 K. The temperature dependence of structure and stoichiometry was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The XRD results show that films grown between 483 and 623 K are obtained as pure phase magnetite with an estimated average crystallite size increasing from 14 to 35 nm, respectively. This is in agreement with the CEMS spectra analysis, indicating isomer shift and internal field values for both the T d and O h sites close to those reported for the bulk material and a random orientation of the magnetic moments. The influence of the deposition temperature on the estimated Fe (9-x)/3 O 4 stoichiometry is related to an increase in the vacancy concentration from 483 to 623 K

  19. Vacuum deposition onto webs, films and foils

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition is the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll and provides a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating than deposition onto single pieces or non-flexible surfaces, such as glass. This technology has been used in industrial-scale applications for some time, including a wide range of metalized packaging (e.g. snack packets). Its potential as a high-speed, scalable process has seen an increasing range of new products emerging that employ this cost-effective technology: solar energy products are moving from rigid panels onto flexible substrates, which are cheaper and more versatile; in a similar way, electronic circuit 'boards' can be produced on a flexible polymer, creating a new range of 'flexible electronics' products; and, flexible displays are another area of new technology in vacuum coating, with flexible display panels and light sources emerging. Charles Bishop has written this book to meet the need he identified, as a t...

  20. Deposition of thermal and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition copper thin films on patterned substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D

    2011-09-01

    In this work we study the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) of copper films on blanket and patterned substrates at high filament temperatures. A vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor was used in which the chemical reactions were assisted by a tungsten filament heated at 650 degrees C. Hexafluoroacetylacetonate Cu(I) trimethylvinylsilane (CupraSelect) vapors were used, directly injected into the reactor with the aid of a liquid injection system using N2 as carrier gas. Copper thin films grown also by thermal and hot-wire CVD. The substrates used were oxidized silicon wafers on which trenches with dimensions of the order of 500 nm were formed and subsequently covered with LPCVD W. HWCVD copper thin films grown at filament temperature of 650 degrees C showed higher growth rates compared to the thermally ones. They also exhibited higher resistivities than thermal and HWCVD films grown at lower filament temperatures. Thermally grown Cu films have very uniform deposition leading to full coverage of the patterned substrates while the HWCVD films exhibited a tendency to vertical growth, thereby creating gaps and incomplete step coverage.

  1. Quality of YBCO thin films grown on LAO substrates exposed to the film deposition - film removal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagoev, B; Nurgaliev, T [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mozhaev, P B [Institute of Physics and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sardela, M; Donchev, T [Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, 104 South Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)], E-mail: blago_sb@yahoo.com

    2008-05-01

    The characteristics are investigated of high temperature superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) films grown on LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) substrates being exposed a different number of times to YBCO film deposition and acid-solution-based cleaning procedures. Possible mechanisms of degradation of the substrate surface quality reflecting on the growing YBCO film parameters are discussed and analyzed.

  2. Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lee, Kuan-Shiang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2008-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO(2)) thin films were prepared by different deposition methods. The methods were E-gun evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD), radio-frequency (RF) ion-beam sputtering, and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. Residual stress was released after annealing the films deposited by RF ion-beam or DC magnetron sputtering but not evaporation, and the extinction coefficient varied significantly. The surface roughness of the evaporated films exceeded that of both sputtered films. At the annealing temperature of 300 degrees C, anatase crystallization occurred in evaporated film but not in the RF ion-beam or DC magnetron-sputtered films. TiO(2) films deposited by sputtering were generally more stable during annealing than those deposited by evaporation.

  3. Temperature dependence of InN film deposition by an RF plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Mutsukura, Nobuki

    2005-01-01

    Indium nitride (InN) films were deposited on Si(100) substrates using a radiofrequency (RF) plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique at various substrate temperatures. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the InN films suggest that the InN films deposited at substrate temperatures up to 370 deg C were cubic crystalline InN; and at 500 deg C, the InN film was hexagonal crystalline InN. In a scanning electron microscope image of the InN film surface, facets of cubic single-crystalline InN grains were clearly observed on the InN film deposited at 370 deg C. The inclusion of metallic indium appeared on the InN film deposited at 500 deg C

  4. Vacuum deposition of high quality metal films on porous substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthell, B.L.; Duchane, D.V.

    1982-01-01

    A composite mandrel has been developed consisting of a core of low density polymethylpentene foam overcoated with a thin layer of film-forming polymer. The surface tension and viscosity of the coating solution are important parameters in obtaining a polymer film which forms a continuous, smooth skin over the core without penetrating into the foam matrix. Water soluble film formers with surface tensions in the range of 45 dyn/cm and minimum viscosities of a few hundred centipoises have been found most satisfactory for coating polymethylpentene foam. By means of this technique, continuous polymer fims with thicknesses of 10--20 μm have been formed on the surface of machined polymethylpentene foam blanks. Aluminum has been vacuum deposited onto these composite mandrels to produce metal films which appear smooth and generally defect free even at 10 000 times magnification

  5. Polarized Raman spectroscopy of chemically vapour deposited diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Weiser, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    Polarized micro-Raman spectra of chemically vapour deposited diamond films are presented. It is shown that important parameters often extracted from the Raman spectra such as the ratio of the diamond to non-diamond component of the films and the estimation of the level of residual stress depend on the orientation of the diamond crystallites with respect to the polarization of the incident laser beam. The dependence originates from the fact that the Raman scattering from the non-diamond components in the films is almost completely depolarized whilst the scattering from the diamond components is strongly polarized. The results demonstrate the importance of taking polarization into account when attempting to use Raman spectroscopy in even a semi-quantitative fashion for the assessment of the purity, perfection and stress in CVD diamond films. 8 refs., 1 tab. 2 figs

  6. Study of hard diamond-like carbon films deposited in an inductively coupled plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shiji; Ma Tengcai

    2003-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition of the hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was achieved using an inductively coupled plasma source (ICPS). The microscopy, microhardness, deposition rate and structure characteristic of the DLC films were analyzed. It is shown that the ICPS is suitable for the hard DLC film deposition at relatively low substrate negative bias voltage, and the substrate negative bias voltage greatly affects chemical vapor deposition of the DLC film and its quality

  7. RF sputtering deposited a-IGZO films for LCD alignment layer application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G.M.; Liu, C.Y.; Sahoo, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • a-IGZO nanolayer has been presented for alignment of liquid crystals in LCD. • RF sputtering deposition at an oblique angle has been performed to grow the films. • High transparency over 90% was obtained in the visible wavelength range. • The OCB cells exhibited fast on-off and short response time of 5.04 ms. • V–T characteristics proved high contrast ratio for LCD display applications. - Abstract: In this paper, amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) inorganic films were deposited at a fixed oblique angle using radio-frequency sputtering on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass as alternative alignment layer for liquid crystal displays. A series of experiments have been carried out to reveal the physical characteristics of the a-IGZO films, such as optical transmittance, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The special treatment a-IGZO films were used to fabricate liquid crystal (LC) cells and investigate the performances of these cells. Pretilt angles were measured with anti-parallel LC cells and voltage–transmittance (V–T) curve, contrast ratio, and response time were evaluated with optically compensated bend (OCB) LC cells. The electro-optical characteristics of the aligned homogenous LCs, and OCB mode cells based on the a-IGZO alignment layer were compared to those based on rubbing processed polyimide (PI). The results showed that the average transmittance in the visible wavelength range was higher than 90% for the a-IGZO alignment layer. The LC pretilt angle has been determined at about 6°. The evaluted cell critical voltage at maximum transmittance was 1.8 V, lower than the control cell using PI alignment layer. The OCB cell rise time and fall time were 1.55 ms and 3.49 ms, respectivly. A very quick response time of 5.04 ms has thus been achived. In addition, the study of V–T characteristics suggested higher contrast ratio for LCD display applications.

  8. RF sputtering deposited a-IGZO films for LCD alignment layer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G.M., E-mail: wu@mail.cgu.edu.tw; Liu, C.Y.; Sahoo, A.K.

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • a-IGZO nanolayer has been presented for alignment of liquid crystals in LCD. • RF sputtering deposition at an oblique angle has been performed to grow the films. • High transparency over 90% was obtained in the visible wavelength range. • The OCB cells exhibited fast on-off and short response time of 5.04 ms. • V–T characteristics proved high contrast ratio for LCD display applications. - Abstract: In this paper, amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) inorganic films were deposited at a fixed oblique angle using radio-frequency sputtering on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass as alternative alignment layer for liquid crystal displays. A series of experiments have been carried out to reveal the physical characteristics of the a-IGZO films, such as optical transmittance, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The special treatment a-IGZO films were used to fabricate liquid crystal (LC) cells and investigate the performances of these cells. Pretilt angles were measured with anti-parallel LC cells and voltage–transmittance (V–T) curve, contrast ratio, and response time were evaluated with optically compensated bend (OCB) LC cells. The electro-optical characteristics of the aligned homogenous LCs, and OCB mode cells based on the a-IGZO alignment layer were compared to those based on rubbing processed polyimide (PI). The results showed that the average transmittance in the visible wavelength range was higher than 90% for the a-IGZO alignment layer. The LC pretilt angle has been determined at about 6°. The evaluted cell critical voltage at maximum transmittance was 1.8 V, lower than the control cell using PI alignment layer. The OCB cell rise time and fall time were 1.55 ms and 3.49 ms, respectivly. A very quick response time of 5.04 ms has thus been achived. In addition, the study of V–T characteristics suggested higher contrast ratio for LCD display applications.

  9. Atomic-Layer-Deposited SnO2 as Gate Electrode for Indium-Free Transparent Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Fwzah Hamud; Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Wang, Zhenwei; Aljawhari, Hala; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic-layer-deposited SnO2 is used as a gate electrode to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in thin-film transistors and circuits for the first time. The SnO2 films deposited at 200 °C show low electrical resistivity of ≈3.1 × 10−3 Ω cm with ≈93

  10. Deposition of controllable preferred orientation silicon films on glass by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junshuai; Wang Jinxiao; Yin Min; Gao Pingqi; He Deyan; Chen Qiang; Li Yali; Shirai, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system with the adjustable distance between the inductance coil and substrates was designed to effectively utilize the spatial confinement of ICP discharge, and then control the gas-phase transport process. The effects of the gas phase processes on the crystallinity and preferred orientation of silicon films deposited on glass were systematically investigated. The investigation was conducted in the ICP-chemical vapor deposition process with the precursor gas of a SiH 4 /H 2 mixture at a substrate temperature of 350 deg. Highly crystallized silicon films with different preferred orientations, (111) or (220), could be selectively deposited by adjusting the SiH 4 dilution ratio [R=[SiH 4 ]/([SiH 4 ]+[H 2 ])] or total working pressure. When the total working pressure is 20 Pa, the crystallinity of the silicon films increases with the increase of the SiH 4 dilution ratio, while the preferred orientation was changed from (111) to (220). In the case of the fixed SiH 4 dilution (10%), the silicon film with I (220) /I (111) of about 3.5 and Raman crystalline fraction of about 89.6% has been deposited at 29.7 nm/min when the total working pressure was increased to 40 Pa. At the fixed SiH 4 partial pressure of 2 Pa, the film crystallinity decreases and the preferred orientation is always (111) with increasing the H 2 partial pressure from 18 to 58 Pa. Atomic force microscope reveals that the film deposited at a relatively high H 2 partial pressure has a very rough surface caused by the devastating etching of H atoms to the silicon network

  11. Titanium dioxide thin films by atomic layer deposition: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Janne-Petteri; Marin, Giovanni; Karppinen, Maarit

    2017-09-01

    Within its rich phase diagram titanium dioxide is a truly multifunctional material with a property palette that has been shown to span from dielectric to transparent-conducting characteristics, in addition to the well-known catalytic properties. At the same time down-scaling of microelectronic devices has led to an explosive growth in research on atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a wide variety of frontier thin-film materials, among which TiO2 is one of the most popular ones. In this topical review we summarize the advances in research of ALD of titanium dioxide starting from the chemistries of the over 50 different deposition routes developed for TiO2 and the resultant structural characteristics of the films. We then continue with the doped ALD-TiO2 thin films from the perspective of dielectric, transparent-conductor and photocatalytic applications. Moreover, in order to cover the latest trends in the research field, both the variously constructed TiO2 nanostructures enabled by ALD and the Ti-based hybrid inorganic-organic films grown by the emerging ALD/MLD (combined atomic/molecular layer deposition) technique are discussed.

  12. P-doped strontium titanate grown using two target pulsed laser deposition for thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Hamdi

    Thin-film solar cells made of Mg-doped SrTiO3 p-type absorbers are promising candidates for clean energy generation. This material shows p-type conductivity and also demonstrates reasonable absorption of light. In addition, p-type SrTiO3 can be deposited as thin films so that the cost can be lower than the competing methods. In this work, Mg-doped SrTiO3 (STO) thin-films were synthesized and analyzed in order to observe their potential to be employed as the base semiconductor in photovoltaic applications. Mg-doped STO thin-films were grown by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using a frequency quadrupled Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) laser and with a substrate that was heated by back surface absorption of infrared (IR) laser light. The samples were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and it was observed that Mg atoms were doped successfully in the stoichiometry. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) spectroscopy proved that the thin films were polycrystalline. Kelvin Probe work function measurements indicated that the work function of the films were 4.167 eV after annealing. UV/Vis Reflection spectroscopy showed that Mg-doped STO thin-films do not reflect significantly except in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum where the reflection percentage increased up to 80%. Self-doped STO thin-films, Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films and stainless steel foil (SSF) were studied in order to observe their characteristics before employing them in Mg-doped STO based solar cells. Self-doped STO thin films were grown using PLD and the results showed that they are capable of serving as the n-type semiconductor in solar cell applications with oxygen vacancies in their structure and low reflectivity. Indium Tin Oxide thin-films grown by PLD system showed low 25-50 ?/square sheet resistance and very low reflection features. Finally, commercially available stainless steel foil substrates were excellent substrates for the inexpensive growth of

  13. Production of selective membranes using plasma deposited nanochanneled thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amorim Motta Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolization of thin films obtained by tetraethoxysilane plasma polymerization results in the formation of a nanochanneled silicone like structure that could be useful for the production of selective membranes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to test the permeation properties of hydrolyzed thin films. The films were tested for: 1 permeation of polar organic compounds and/or water in gaseous phase and 2 permeation of salt in liquid phase. The efficiency of permeation was tested using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM technique in gas phase and conductimetric analysis (CA in liquid phase. The substrates used were: silicon for characterization of the deposited films, piezoelectric quartz crystals for tests of selective membranes and cellophane paper for tests of permeation. QCM analysis showed that the nanochannels allow the adsorption and/or permeation of polar organic compounds, such as acetone and 2-propanol, and water. CA showed that the films allow salt permeation after an inhibition time needed for hydrolysis of the organic radicals within the film. Due to their characteristics, the films can be used for grains protection against microorganism proliferation during storage without preventing germination.

  14. Particulate generation during pulsed laser deposition of superconductor thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The nature of evaporation/ablation characteristics during pulsed laser deposition strongly controls the quality of laser-deposited films. To understand the origin of particulates in laser deposited films, the authors have simulated the thermal history of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 targets under intense nanosecond laser irradiation by numerically solving the heat flow equation with appropriate boundary conditions. During planar surface evaporation of the target material, the sub-surface temperatures were calculated to be higher than the surface temperatures. While the evaporating surface of the target is constantly being cooled due to the latent heat of vaporization, subsurface superheating occurs due to the finite absorption depth of the laser beam. Sub-surface superheating was found to increase with decreasing absorption coefficient and thermal conductivity of the target, and with increasing energy density. The superheating may lead to sub-surface nucleation and growth of the gaseous phase which can expand rapidly leading to microexplosions and ''volume expulsion'' of material from the target. Experiments conducted by the authors and other research groups suggest a strong relation between degree of sub-surface superheating and particle density in laser-deposited films

  15. Deposition and consolidation of porous ceramic films for membrane separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal; Tricoli, Antonio; Johannessen, Tue

    The deposition of porous ceramic films for membrane separation can be done by several processes such as thermophoresis [1], dip-coating [2] and spray pyrolysis [3]. Here we present a high-speed method, in which ceramic nano-particles form a porous film by filtration on top of a porous ceramic...... substrate [4]. Ceramic nano-particles are generated in a flame, using either a premixed (gas) flame, in which a metal-oxide precursor is evaporated in an N2 stream, which is combusted with methane and air, or using a flame spray pyrolysis, in which a liquid metal-oxide precursor is sprayed through a nozzle...

  16. Monocrystalline zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachnicki, L.; Krajewski, T.; Luka, G.; Witkowski, B.; Kowalski, B.; Kopalko, K.; Domagala, J.Z.; Guziewicz, M.; Godlewski, M.; Guziewicz, E.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work we report on the monocrystalline growth of (00.1) ZnO films on GaN template by the Atomic Layer Deposition technique. The ZnO films were obtained at temperature of 300 o C using dietylzinc (DEZn) as a zinc precursor and deionized water as an oxygen precursor. High resolution X-ray diffraction analysis proves that ZnO layers are monocrystalline with rocking curve FWHM of the 00.2 peak equals to 0.07 o . Low temperature photoluminescence shows a sharp and bright excitonic line with FWHM of 13 meV.

  17. Ultraviolet optical properties of aluminum fluoride thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, John, E-mail: john.j.hennessy@jpl.nasa.gov; Jewell, April D.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Nikzad, Shouleh [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Aluminum fluoride (AlF{sub 3}) is a low refractive index material with promising optical applications for ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. An atomic layer deposition process using trimethylaluminum and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride has been developed for the deposition of AlF{sub 3} at substrate temperatures between 100 and 200 °C. This low temperature process has resulted in thin films with UV-optical properties that have been characterized by ellipsometric and reflection/transmission measurements at wavelengths down to 200 nm. The optical loss for 93 nm thick films deposited at 100 °C was measured to be less than 0.2% from visible wavelengths down to 200 nm, and additional microstructural characterization demonstrates that the films are amorphous with moderate tensile stress of 42–105 MPa as deposited on silicon substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows no signature of residual aluminum oxide components making these films good candidates for a variety of applications at even shorter UV wavelengths.

  18. A new thin film deposition process by cathodic plasma electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulmier, T.; Kiriakos, E.; Bell, J.; Fredericks, P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A new technique, called atmospheric pressure plasma deposition (APPD), has been developed since a few years for the deposition of carbon and DLC, Titanium or Silicon films on metal and metal alloys substrates. A high voltage (2kV) is applied in a liquid electrolytic solution between an anode and a cathode, both electrodes being cylindrical: a glow discharge is then produced and confined at the vicinity of the cathode. The physic of the plasma in the electrolytic solution near the cathode is very different form the other techniques of plasma deposition since the pressure is here close to the atmospheric pressure. We describe here the different physico-chemical processes occurring during the process. In this cathodic process, the anodic area is significantly larger than the cathode area. In a first step, the electrolytic solution is heated by Joule effect induced by the high voltage between the electrodes. Due to the high current density, the vaporization of the solution occurs near the cathode: a large amount of bubbles are produced which are stabilized at the electrode by hydrodynamic and electromagnetic forces, forming a vapour sheath. The electric field and voltage drop are then concentrated in this gas envelope, inducing the ionization of the gas and the ignition of a glow discharge at the surface of the material. This plasma induces the formation of ionized and reactive species which diffuse and are accelerated toward the cathode. These excited species are the precursors for the formation of the deposition material. At the same time, the glow discharge interacts with the electrolyte solution inducing also ionization, convection and polymerization processes in the liquid: the solution is therefore a second source of the deposition material. A wide range of films have been deposited with a thickness up to 10 micrometers. These films have been analyzed by SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The electrolytic solution has been characterized by GC-MS and the

  19. Defect studies of thin ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlček, M; Čížek, J; Procházka, I; Novotný, M; Bulíř, J; Lančok, J; Anwand, W; Brauer, G; Mosnier, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Thin ZnO films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on four different substrates: sapphire (0 0 0 1), MgO (1 0 0), fused silica and nanocrystalline synthetic diamond. Defect studies by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) revealed significantly higher concentration of defects in the studied films when compared to a bulk ZnO single crystal. The concentration of defects in the films deposited on single crystal sapphire and MgO substrates is higher than in the films deposited on amorphous fused silica substrate and nanocrystalline synthetic diamond. Furthermore, the effect of deposition temperature on film quality was investigated in ZnO films deposited on synthetic diamond substrates. Defect studies performed by SPIS revealed that the concentration of defects firstly decreases with increasing deposition temperature, but at too high deposition temperatures it increases again. The lowest concentration of defects was found in the film deposited at 450° C.

  20. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, V.; Aleksandrova, M.; Stefanov, P.; Grechnikov, A.; Gadjanova, V.; Dilova, T.; Angelov, Ts

    2014-12-01

    A study of NO2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO2 concentration >= 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO2 concentration. When the NO2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO2 in the air at room temperature.

  1. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Gadjanova, V; Angelov, Ts; Aleksandrova, M; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Stefanov, P; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Dilova, T; Grechnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    A study of NO 2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO 2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO 2 concentration ≥ 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO 2 concentration. When the NO 2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO 2 in the air at room temperature

  2. Structural and Optical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited Silver Oxide Thin Films: Role of Deposition Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nwanya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a temperature of 50°C by chemical bath deposition technique under different deposition times using pure AgNO3 precursor and triethanolamine as the complexing agent. The chemical analysis based on EDX technique shows the presence of Ag and O at the appropriate energy levels. The morphological features obtained from SEM showed that the AgxO structures varied as the deposition time changes. The X-ray diffraction showed the peaks of Ag2O and AgO in the structure. The direct band gap and the refractive index increased as the deposition time increased and was in the range of 1.64–1.95 eV and 1.02–2.07, respectively. The values of the band gap and refractive index obtained indicate possible applications in photovoltaic and photothermal systems.

  3. The properties of nanocomposite aluminium-silicon based thin films deposited by filtered arc deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendavid, A.; Martin, P.J.; Takikawa, H

    2002-12-02

    Thin films of aluminium silicon oxynitride have been deposited on conducting (100) silicon wafers by filtered arc deposition (FAD) under nitrogen and/or oxygen gas flow. The influence of the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} flow ratio on the crystal structure, optical and mechanical properties has been investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction showed that the film structure comprised of an AlN crystallite with amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiO{sub x}. The optical properties over the range of 350-800 nm were measured using spectroscopic ellipsometry and found to be strongly dependent on N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} flow ratio. The refractive index values of the films were measured to be in the range of 2.2-1.64 at a wavelength of 670 nm for oxygen flow range of 0-100%. The hardness of the films was found to be strongly dependent on the oxygen content in the film. The hardness range of the films was between 10 and 22 GPa and for the stress between 0.3 and 1.2 GPa.

  4. Effect of deposition temperature on the properties of Al-doped ZnO films prepared by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering for transparent electrodes in thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo-Soo; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Shin, Beom-Ki; Moon, Kyeong-Ju; Son, Myoungwoo; Ham, Moon-Ho; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2012-10-01

    A simple but scalable approach to the production of surface-textured Al-doped ZnO(AZO) films for low-cost transparent electrode applications in thin-film solar cells is introduced in this study by combining pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with wet etching in sequence. First, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the AZO films prepared by a PDMS were investigated as functions of deposition temperature to obtain transparent electrode films that can be used as indium-free alternative to ITO electrodes. Increase in the deposition temperature to 230 °C accompanied the improvement in crystalline quality and doping efficiency, which enabled the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.16 × 10-4 Ω cm with the carrier concentration of 1.65 × 1021 cm-3 and Hall mobility of 11.3 cm2/V s. The wet etching of the films in a diluted HCl solution resulted in surface roughening via the formation of crater-like structures without significant degradation in the electrical properties, which is responsible for the enhanced light scattering capability required for anti-reflective electrodes in thin film solar cells.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of a CuO/ITO heterojunction with a graphene transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageshwari, K.; Han, Sanghoo; Park, Jinsub

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electrical properties of a CuO-ITO heterojunction diode with the use of a graphene transparent electrode by current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. CuO thin films were deposited onto an ITO substrate by a simple sol-gel spin coating method and annealed at 500 °C. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the CuO thin films revealed the polycrystalline nature of CuO and exhibited a monoclinic crystal structure. FESEM images showed a uniform and densely packed particulate morphology. The optical band gap of CuO thin films estimated using UV-vis absorption spectra was found to be 2.50 eV. The I-V characteristics of the fabricated CuO-ITO heterojunction showed a well-defined rectifying behavior with improved electrical properties after the insertion of graphene. The electronic parameters of the heterostructure such as barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance were determined from the I-V measurements, and the possible current transport mechanism was discussed.

  6. Apparatus and process for deposition of hard carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaiesh, Ali R.; Garwin, Edward L.

    1989-01-03

    A process and an apparatus for depositing thin, amorphous carbon films having extreme hardness on a substrate is described. An enclosed chamber maintained at less than atmospheric pressure houses the substrate and plasma producing elements. A first electrode is comprised of a cavity enclosed within an RF coil which excites the plasma. A substrate located on a second electrode is excited by radio frequency power applied to the substrate. A magnetic field confines the plasma produced by the first electrode to the area away from the walls of the chamber and focuses the plasma onto the substrate thereby yielding film deposits having higher purity and having more rapid buildup than other methods of the prior art.

  7. Pulsed laser deposition and characterization of cellulase thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicco, N.; Morone, A.; Verrastro, M.; Viggiano, V.

    2013-08-01

    Thin films of cellulase were obtained by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on an appropriate substrate. Glycoside hydrolase cellulase has received our attention because it emerges among the antifouling enzymes (enzymes being able to remove and prevent the formation of micro-organism biofilms) used in industry and medicine field. Pressed cellulase pellets, used as target material, were ablated with pulses of a Nd-YAG laser working at wavelength of 532 nm. In this work, we evaluated the impact of PLD technique both on molecular structure and hydrolytic activity of cellulase. Characteristic chemical bonds and morphology of deposited layers were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and SEM respectively. The hydrolytic activity of cellulase thin films was detected by a colorimetric assay.

  8. Purity and surface roughness of vacuum deposited aluminium films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhere, N G; Arsenio, T P [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Patnaik, B K [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Assuncao, F C.R.; de Souza, A M [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia

    1975-04-01

    The authors studied the purity, surface roughness and grain size of vacuum-deposited aluminium films, using an intermetallic crucible and a continuous feed of pure aluminium wire. The grain size and roughness were studied by electron difraction, X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope. Purity was determined by X-ray fluorescence produced by proton bombardment in the Van de Graaff accelerator and by X-ray and optical emission spectrometry.

  9. Film growth kinetics and electric field patterning during electrospray deposition of block copolymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Kristof; Hu, Hanqiong; Choo, Youngwoo; Loewenberg, Michael; Osuji, Chinedum

    The delivery of sub-micron droplets of dilute polymer solutions to a heated substrate by electrospray deposition (ESD) enables precisely controlled and continuous growth of block copolymer (BCP) thin films. Here we explore patterned deposition of BCP films by spatially varying the electric field at the substrate using an underlying charged grid, as well as film growth kinetics. Numerical analysis was performed to examine pattern fidelity by considering the trajectories of charged droplets during flight through imposed periodic field variations in the vicinity of the substrate. Our work uncovered an unexpected modality for improving the resolution of the patterning process via stronger field focusing through the use of a second oppositely charged grid beneath a primary focusing array, with an increase in highly localized droplet deposition on the intersecting nodes of the grid. Substrate coverage kinetics are considered for homopolymer deposition in the context of simple kinetic models incorporating temperature and molecular weight dependence of diffusivity. By contrast, film coverage kinetics for block copolymer depositions are additionally convoluted with preferential wetting and thickness-periodicity commensurability effects. NSF GRFP.

  10. Superconducting niobium nitride films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaya, J.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Carrera 30 Numero 45-03, Bogota (Colombia); Huerta, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, CU Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Rodil, S.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, CU Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail: ser42@iim.unam.mx; Escamilla, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, CU Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2008-10-01

    Niobium nitride (NbN) thin films were deposited under different configurations of the magnetic field using a magnetron sputtering system. The magnetic field configuration varied from balanced to unbalanced leading to different growth conditions and film properties. The aim of the paper was to identify correlations between deposition conditions, film properties and the electrical properties, specially the superconductive critical temperature (T{sub C}). The results suggested that there is a critical deposition condition, having an optimum ion-atom arrival ratio that promotes a well ordered and textured nanocrystalline structure (cubic phase) with the minimum residual stress and only under this condition a high critical temperature (16K) was obtained. Lower T{sub C} values around 12K were obtained for the NbN samples having a lower degree of structural perfection and texture, and a larger fraction of intergranular voids. On the other hand, analysis of valence-band spectra showed that the contribution of the Nb 4d states remained essentially constant while the higher T{sub C} was correlated to a higher contribution of the N 2p states.

  11. Superconducting niobium nitride films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaya, J.J.; Huerta, L.; Rodil, S.E.; Escamilla, R.

    2008-01-01

    Niobium nitride (NbN) thin films were deposited under different configurations of the magnetic field using a magnetron sputtering system. The magnetic field configuration varied from balanced to unbalanced leading to different growth conditions and film properties. The aim of the paper was to identify correlations between deposition conditions, film properties and the electrical properties, specially the superconductive critical temperature (T C ). The results suggested that there is a critical deposition condition, having an optimum ion-atom arrival ratio that promotes a well ordered and textured nanocrystalline structure (cubic phase) with the minimum residual stress and only under this condition a high critical temperature (16K) was obtained. Lower T C values around 12K were obtained for the NbN samples having a lower degree of structural perfection and texture, and a larger fraction of intergranular voids. On the other hand, analysis of valence-band spectra showed that the contribution of the Nb 4d states remained essentially constant while the higher T C was correlated to a higher contribution of the N 2p states

  12. Supercritical fluid molecular spray film deposition and powder formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Solid films are deposited, or fine powders formed, by dissolving a solid material into a supercritical fluid solution at an elevated pressure and then rapidly expanding the solution through a short orifice into a region of relatively low pressure. This produces a molecular spray which is directed against a substrate to deposit a solid thin film thereon, or discharged into a collection chamber to collect a fine powder. Upon expansion and supersonic interaction with background gases in the low pressure region, any clusters of solvent are broken up and the solvent is vaporized and pumped away. Solute concentration in the solution is varied primarily by varying solution pressure to determine, together with flow rate, the rate of deposition and to control in part whether a film or powder is produced and the granularity of each. Solvent clustering and solute nucleation are controlled by manipulating the rate of expansion of the solution and the pressure of the lower pressure region. Solution and low pressure region temperatures are also controlled.

  13. Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous ruthenium-phosphorus alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin Jinhong; Waheed, Abdul; Winkenwerder, Wyatt A.; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Agapiou, Kyriacos; Jones, Richard A.; Hwang, Gyeong S.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition growth of amorphous ruthenium-phosphorus films on SiO 2 containing ∼ 15% phosphorus is reported. cis-Ruthenium(II)dihydridotetrakis-(trimethylphosphine), cis-RuH 2 (PMe 3 ) 4 (Me = CH 3 ) was used at growth temperatures ranging from 525 to 575 K. Both Ru and P are zero-valent. The films are metastable, becoming increasingly more polycrystalline upon annealing to 775 and 975 K. Surface studies illustrate that demethylation is quite efficient near 560 K. Precursor adsorption at 135 K or 210 K and heating reveal the precursor undergoes a complex decomposition process in which the hydride and trimethylphosphine ligands are lost at temperatures as low at 280 K. Phosphorus and its manner of incorporation appear responsible for the amorphous-like character. Molecular dynamics simulations are presented to suggest the local structure in the films and the causes for phosphorus stabilizing the amorphous phase

  14. Thermoluminescence of Zn O thin films deposited by chemical bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho A, M. C.; Cruz V, C.; Bernal H, R.; Berman M, D.; Castano M, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Zn O films on Si were synthesized using a deposition method by chemical bath and thermally treated at 900 degrees C for 12 h in air. The morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy reveals that uniform films were obtained. To investigate the thermoluminescent properties of the films were exposed to irradiation with beta particles with doses in the range from 0.5 to 128 Gy. The brightness curves obtained using a heating rate of 5 degrees C have two peaks, one at 124 and another at 270 degrees C, and a linear dependence of the integrated thermoluminescence as a function of dose. The second maximum reveals the existence of localized trapping states of potential utility in thermoluminescent dosimetry. (Author)

  15. Effect of deposition temperature on the properties of Al-doped ZnO films prepared by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering for transparent electrodes in thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Doo-Soo; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Shin, Beom-Ki; Moon, Kyeong-Ju [Information and Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Myoungwoo [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Moon-Ho [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woong [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Myoung, Jae-Min, E-mail: jmmyoung@yonsei.ac.kr [Information and Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface-textured AZO films were achieved by combining PDMS method with wet etching. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AZO film deposited at 230 Degree-Sign C by PDMS exhibited the best performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is due to the higher plasma density supplied from PDMS system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wet etching of the films produces a crater-like rough surface morphology. - Abstract: A simple but scalable approach to the production of surface-textured Al-doped ZnO(AZO) films for low-cost transparent electrode applications in thin-film solar cells is introduced in this study by combining pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with wet etching in sequence. First, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the AZO films prepared by a PDMS were investigated as functions of deposition temperature to obtain transparent electrode films that can be used as indium-free alternative to ITO electrodes. Increase in the deposition temperature to 230 Degree-Sign C accompanied the improvement in crystalline quality and doping efficiency, which enabled the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.16 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm with the carrier concentration of 1.65 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} and Hall mobility of 11.3 cm{sup 2}/V s. The wet etching of the films in a diluted HCl solution resulted in surface roughening via the formation of crater-like structures without significant degradation in the electrical properties, which is responsible for the enhanced light scattering capability required for anti-reflective electrodes in thin film solar cells.

  16. Effect of deposition temperature on the properties of Al-doped ZnO films prepared by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering for transparent electrodes in thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Doo-Soo; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Shin, Beom-Ki; Moon, Kyeong-Ju; Son, Myoungwoo; Ham, Moon-Ho; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Surface-textured AZO films were achieved by combining PDMS method with wet etching. ► The AZO film deposited at 230 °C by PDMS exhibited the best performance. ► It is due to the higher plasma density supplied from PDMS system. ► Wet etching of the films produces a crater-like rough surface morphology. - Abstract: A simple but scalable approach to the production of surface-textured Al-doped ZnO(AZO) films for low-cost transparent electrode applications in thin-film solar cells is introduced in this study by combining pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with wet etching in sequence. First, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the AZO films prepared by a PDMS were investigated as functions of deposition temperature to obtain transparent electrode films that can be used as indium-free alternative to ITO electrodes. Increase in the deposition temperature to 230 °C accompanied the improvement in crystalline quality and doping efficiency, which enabled the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.16 × 10 −4 Ω cm with the carrier concentration of 1.65 × 10 21 cm −3 and Hall mobility of 11.3 cm 2 /V s. The wet etching of the films in a diluted HCl solution resulted in surface roughening via the formation of crater-like structures without significant degradation in the electrical properties, which is responsible for the enhanced light scattering capability required for anti-reflective electrodes in thin film solar cells.

  17. Atomic layer deposition of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic magnetite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Yuepeng; Chen, Xing; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2015-01-01

    One of the key challenges in realizing superparamagnetism in magnetic thin films lies in finding a low-energy growth way to create sufficiently small grains and magnetic domains which allow the magnetization to randomly and rapidly reverse. In this work, well-defined superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic Fe 3 O 4 thin films are successfully prepared using atomic layer deposition technique by finely controlling the growth condition and post-annealing process. As-grown Fe 3 O 4 thin films exhibit a conformal surface and poly-crystalline nature with an average grain size of 7 nm, resulting in a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 210 K. After post-annealing in H 2 /Ar at 400 °C, the as-grown α−Fe 2 O 3 sample is reduced to Fe 3 O 4 phase, exhibiting a ferrimagnetic ordering and distinct magnetic shape anisotropy. Atomic layer deposition of magnetite thin films with well-controlled morphology and magnetic properties provides great opportunities for integrating with other order parameters to realize magnetic nano-devices with potential applications in spintronics, electronics, and bio-applications

  18. A direct method to measure the fracture toughness of indium tin oxide thin films on flexible polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Rwei-Ching; Tsai, Fa-Ta; Tu, Chin-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a straightforward method to measure the fracture toughness of thin films deposited on flexible substrates. A 200 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film is deposited on a 188 μm thick terephthalate (PET) substrate by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering machine. Using nanoindentation to induce brittle fracture on the ITO thin films, the energy release is calculated from integrating the resulting load–depth curve. An approach that directly measures the fracture toughness of thin films deposited on flexible substrates is proposed. A comparison shows that the results of the proposed method agree well with those of other reports. Furthermore, in order to improve the toughness of the ITO thin films, a copper interlayer is added between the ITO thin film and PET substrate. It shows that the fracture toughness of the ITO thin film deposited on the copper interlayer is higher than that of the one without the interlayer, which agrees well with the critical load tested by micro scratch. Further observations on optical and electric performances are also discussed in this work. - Highlights: • A straightforward method to measure the film's toughness • Directly using the load-depth curve of nanoindentation • The toughness is consistent with the critical load tested by micro scratch. • Interlayers can improve the film's toughness. • Optical and electric performances are also discussed

  19. Ellipsometric study of nanostructured carbon films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereznai, M.; Budai, J.; Hanyecz, I.; Kopniczky, J.; Veres, M.; Koos, M.; Toth, Z.

    2011-01-01

    When depositing carbon films by plasma processes the resulting structure and bonding nature strongly depends on the plasma energy and background gas pressure. To produce different energy plasma, glassy carbon targets were ablated by laser pulses of different excimer lasers: KrF (248 nm) and ArF (193 nm). To modify plume characteristics argon atmosphere was applied. The laser plume was directed onto Si substrates, where the films were grown. To evaluate ellipsometric measurements first a combination of the Tauc-Lorentz oscillator and the Sellmeier formula (TL/S) was applied. Effective Medium Approximation models were also used to investigate film properties. Applying argon pressures above 10 Pa the deposits became nanostructured as indicated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Above ∼ 100 and ∼ 20 Pa films could not be deposited by KrF and ArF laser, respectively. Our ellipsometric investigations showed, that with increasing pressure the maximal refractive index of both series decreased, while the optical band gap starts with a decrease, but shows a non monotonous course. Correlation between the size of the nanostructures, bonding structure, which was followed by Raman spectroscopy and optical properties were also investigated.

  20. Transport Properties of LCMO Granular Films Deposited by the Pulsed Electron Deposition Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Leiming; XU Bin; ZHANG Yan; CHEN Zhenping

    2011-01-01

    By finely controlling the deposition parameters in the pulsed electron deposition process,granular La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 (LCMO) film was grown on silicon substrates.The substrate temperature,ambient pressure in the deposition chamber and acceleration potential for the electron beam were all found to affect the grain size of the film,resulting in different morphologies of the samples.Transport properties of the obtained granular films,especially the magnetoresistance (MR),were studied.Prominent low-field MR was observed in all samples,indicating the forming of grain boundaries in the sample.The low-field MR show great sensitive to the morphology evolution,which reaches the highest value of about 40% for the sample with the grain size of about 250 nm.More interestingly,positive-MR (p-MR) was also detected above 300 K when low magnetic field applying,whereas it disappeared with higher magnetic field applied up to 1.5 and 2 Tesla.Instead of the spinpolarized tunneling process being commonly regarded as a responsible reason,lattice mismatch between LCMO film and silicon substrate appears to be the origin of the p-MR

  1. Deposition and Tribological Properties of Sulfur-Doped DLC Films Deposited by PBII Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutthanun Moolsradoo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-doped diamond-like carbon films (S-DLC fabricated from C2H2 and SF6 mixtures were used to study the effects of sulfur content and negative pulse bias voltage on the deposition and tribological properties of films prepared by plasma-based ion implantation (PBII. The structure and relative concentration of the films were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Hardness and elastic modulus of films were measured by nanoindentation hardness testing. Tribological characteristics of films were performed using a ball-on-disk friction tester. The results indicate that with the increasing sulfur content, the hardness and elastic modulus decrease. Additionally, by changing the negative pulse bias voltage from 0 kV to −5 kV, the hardness and elastic modulus increase, while the friction coefficient and specific wear rate tends to decrease. Moreover, at a negative pulse bias voltage of −5 kV and flow-rate ratio of 1 : 2, there is considerable improvement in friction coefficient of 0.05 under ambient air is due to the formation of a transfer films on the interface. The decrease in the friction coefficient of films doped with 4.9 at.% sulfur is greater under high vacuum (0.03 than under ambient air (>0.1.

  2. Organic Photovoltaic Devices Based on Oriented n-Type Molecular Films Deposited on Oriented Polythiophene Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokuro, Toshiko; Tanigaki, Nobutaka; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Shibata, Yousei; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki

    2018-04-01

    The molecular orientation of π-conjugated molecules has been reported to significantly affect the performance of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) based on molecular films. Hence, the control of molecular orientation is a key issue toward the improvement of OPV performance. In this research, oriented thin films of an n-type molecule, 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic Bisbenzimida-zole (PTCBI), were formed by deposition on in-plane oriented polythiophene (PT) films. Orientation of the PTCBI films was evaluated by polarized UV-vis spectroscopy and 2D-Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Results indicated that PTCBI molecules on PT film exhibit nearly edge-on and in-plane orientation (with molecular long axis along the substrate), whereas PTCBI molecules without PT film exhibit neither. OPVs composed of PTCBI molecular film with and without PT were fabricated and evaluated for correlation of orientation with performance. The OPVs composed of PTCBI film with PT showed higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of film without PT. The experiment indicated that in-plane orientation of PTCBI molecules absorbs incident light more efficiently, leading to increase in PCE.

  3. Morphology evolution in spinel manganite films deposited from an aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Song Won; Li, Jing; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Spinel manganite films were deposited by the spin spray technique at low deposition temperatures ( 1000, agglomeration of small particles was dominant, which suggests that homogeneous nucleation is dominant during deposition. Heterogeneous nucleation was critical to obtain dense films. - Highlights: ► Film microstructure depends on supersaturation. ► Heterogeneous nucleation induces dense and continuous films. ► The spin spray technique enables use of a variety of substrates.

  4. Radio frequency magnetron sputter-deposited indium tin oxide for use as a cathode in transparent organic light-emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Choong-Heui; Ko, Young-Wook; Kim, Yong-Hae; Sohn, Choong-Yong; Hye Yong Chu; Ko Park, Sang-Hee; Lee, Jin Ho

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature, for use as a cathode in a transparent organic light-emitting diode (TOLED). To minimize damage to the TOLED by the ITO sputtering process, the target-to-substrate distance was increased to 20 cm. An ITO film deposited at the optimum oxygen partial pressure exhibited an electrical resistivity as low as 4.06 x 10 -4 Ω cm and a high optical transmittance of 91% in the visible range. The film was used as a transparent cathode for a TOLED with structure of an ITO coated glass substrate / Naphthylphenyldiamide (60 nm) / Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (60 nm) / LiF (1 nm) / Al (2 nm) / Ag (8 nm) / ITO cathode (100 nm). A maximum luminance of 37,000 cd/m 2 was obtained. The device performance was comparable to a conventional OLED

  5. P-type thin films transistors with solution-deposited lead sulfide films as semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo-Castillo, A.; Salas-Villasenor, A.; Mejia, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas. 800 West Campbell Rd, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Aguirre-Tostado, S. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C. Alianza Norte 202, Parque de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, C.P. 666000 (Mexico); Gnade, B.E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas. 800 West Campbell Rd, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Quevedo-Lopez, M.A., E-mail: mxq071000@utdallas.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas. 800 West Campbell Rd, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States)

    2012-01-31

    In this paper we demonstrate p-type thin film transistors fabricated with lead sulfide (PbS) as semiconductor deposited by chemical bath deposition methods. Crystallinity and morphology of the resulting PbS films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Devices were fabricated using photolithographic processes in a bottom gate configuration with Au as source and drain top contacts. Field effect mobility for as-fabricated devices was {approx} 0.09 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} whereas the mobility for devices annealed at 150 Degree-Sign C/h in forming gas increased up to {approx} 0.14 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Besides the thermal annealing, the entire fabrications process was maintained below 100 Degree-Sign C. The electrical performance of the PbS-thin film transistors was studied before and after the 150 Degree-Sign C anneal as well as a function of the PbS active layer thicknesses. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin film transistors with PbS as semiconductor deposited by chemical bath deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photolithography-based thin film transistors with PbS films at low temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron mobility for anneal-PbS devices of {approx} 0.14 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest mobility reported in thin film transistors with PbS as the semiconductor.

  6. Effects of deposition period on the chemical bath deposited Cu4SnS4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, Anuar; Wee Tee, Tan; Soon Min, Ho.; Nagalingam, Saravanan

    2010-01-01

    Cu 4 SnS 4 thin films were prepared by simple chemical bath deposition technique. The influence of deposition period on the structural, morphological and optical properties of films was studied. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the films were polycrystalline with prominent peak attributed to (221) plane of orthorhombic crystal structure. The films prepared at 80 min showed significant increased in the intensity of all diffractions. According to AFM images, these films indicated that the surface of substrate was covered completely. The obtained films also produced higher absorption characteristics when compared to the films prepared at other deposition periods based on optical absorption studies. The band gap values of films deposited at different deposition periods were in the range of 1.6-2.1 eV. Deposition for 80 min was found to be the optimum condition to produce good quality thin films under the current conditions. (author).

  7. Ag films deposited on Si and Ti: How the film-substrate interaction influences the nanoscale film morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, F.; Torrisi, V.

    2017-11-01

    Submicron-thick Ag films were sputter deposited, at room temperature, on Si, covered by the native SiO2 layer, and on Ti, covered by the native TiO2 layer, under normal and oblique deposition angle. The aim of this work was to study the morphological differences in the grown Ag films on the two substrates when fixed all the other deposition parameters. In fact, the surface diffusivity of the Ag adatoms is different on the two substrates (higher on the SiO2 surface) due to the different Ag-SiO2 and Ag-TiO2 atomic interactions. So, the effect of the adatoms surface diffusivity, as determined by the adatoms-substrate interaction, on the final film morphology was analyzed. To this end, microscopic analyses were used to study the morphology of the grown Ag films. Even if the homologous temperature prescribes that the Ag film grows on both substrates in the zone I described by the structure zone model some significant differences are observed on the basis of the supporting substrate. In the normal incidence condition, on the SiO2/Si surface a dense close-packed Ag film exhibiting a smooth surface is obtained, while on the TiO2/Ti surface a more columnar film morphology is formed. In the oblique incidence condition the columnar morphology for the Ag film occurs both on SiO2/Si and TiO2/Ti but a higher porous columnar film is obtained on TiO2/Ti due to the lower Ag diffusivity. These results indicate that the adatoms diffusivity on the substrate as determined by the adatom-surface interaction (in addition to the substrate temperature) strongly determines the final film nanostructure.

  8. Crystal structures of sol-gel deposited zirconia thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.M.; Cheary, R.W.; Rice, M.; Ben-Nissan, B.; Cocking, J.L.; Johnstone, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors reports on the crystal structure of zirconia thin films by high temperature x-ray diffraction. The films were deposited by sol-gel processing onto polished stainless steel substrates, and dried at 200 deg C. X-ray diffraction at temperatures between 400 deg C and 800 deg C was carried out using an APEX diffractometer with a position sensitive detector. Previous results indicated that there was a transformation between the tetragonal phase and the monoclinic phase at approximately 770 deg C. Two experiments have been carried out: temperature runs, where the structure evolution is studied as a function of temperature; and time evolution of the structure at fixed temperatures. The results for both experiments, including structural analysis of the different phases found in the thin zirconia films and an analysis of the kinetics of the phase transformation(s) from the time evolution work are presented. This will include a comparison with theories of nucleation and crystallisation in single element films. Impurity phases introduced by interaction of the zirconia with the substrate have been observed, and the effect of increasing annealing time on the substrate-film interaction will also be discussed. 17 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  9. Deposition of yttrium oxysulfide thin films by atomic layer epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukli, K.; University of Tartu, Tartu,; Johansson, L-S.; Nykaenen, E.; Peussa, M.; Ninistoe, L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Yttrium oxysulfide is a highly interesting material for optoelectronic applications. It is industrially exploited in the form of doped powder in catholuminescent phosphors, e.g. Y 2 O 2 S: Eu 3+ for colour TV. Attempts to grow thin films of Y 2 O 2 S have not been frequent and only partially successful due to the difficulties in obtaining crystalline films at a reasonable temperature. Furthermore, sputtering easily leads to a sulphur deficiency. Evaporation of the elements from a multi-source offers a better control of the stoichiometry resulting in hexagonal (0002) oriented films at 580 deg C. In this paper we present the first successful thin film growth experiments using a chemical process with molecular precursors. Atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) allows the use of a relatively low deposition temperature and thus compatibility with other technologies. Already at 425 deg C the reaction between H 2 S and Y(thd) 3 (thd = 2,2,6,6 - tetramethyl-heptane-3,5- dione) yields a crystalline Y 2 O 2 S thin film which was characterized by XRD, XRF and XPS

  10. Electrical circuit model of ITO/AZO/Ge photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkeshkumar Patel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, ITO/AZO/Ge photodetector was investigated for electrical circuit model. Due to the double (ITO and AZO transparent metal-oxide films (DOI:10.1016/j.mssp.2016.03.007 (Yun et al., 2016 [1], the Ge heterojunction device has a better interface quality due to the AZO layer with a low electrical resistance due to the ITO layer (Yun et al., 2015 [2]. The electrical and interfacial benefitted ITO/AZO/Ge heterojunction shows the quality Schottky junction. In order to investigate the device, the ITO/AZO/Ge heterojunction was analyzed by R–C circuit model using the impedance spectroscopy.

  11. Short review on chemical bath deposition of thin film and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugle, Dhananjay, E-mail: dhananjayforu@gmail.com; Jadhav, Ghanshyam, E-mail: ghjadhav@rediffmail.com [Depertment of Physics, Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji College, Omerga-413606 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This reviews the theory of early growth of the thin film using chemical deposition methods. In particular, it critically reviews the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for preparation of thin films. The different techniques used for characterizations of the chemically films such as X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Electrical conductivity and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) are discussed. Survey shows the physical and chemical properties solely depend upon the time of deposition, temperature of deposition.

  12. Vacuum deposition and pulsed modification of Ge thin films on Si. Structure and photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalov, R.I.; Bayazitov, R.M.; Novikov, G.A.; Shustov, V.A.; Bizyaev, D.A.; Gajduk, P.I.; Ivlev, G.D.; Prokop'ev, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    Vacuum deposition of Ge thin films onto Si substrates by magnetron sputtering was studied. During deposition sputtering time and substrate temperature were varied. Nanosecond pulsed annealing of deposited films by powerful laser or ion beams was performed. The dependence of the structure and optical properties of Ge/Si films on parameters of pulsed treatments was investigated. Optimum parameters of deposition and pulsed treatments resulting into light emitting monocrystalline Ge/Si layers are determined. (authors)

  13. Sputter deposition of tantalum-nitride films on copper using an rf-plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, K.C.; Fetherston, R.P.; Sridharan, K.; Chen, A.; Shamim, M.M.; Conrad, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    A tantalum-nitride film was successfully deposited at ambient temperature on copper with a modified ion-assisted-deposition (IAD) technique. The process uses an argon and nitrogen plasma to sputter deposit from a tantalum rf-cathode and ion implant the deposited film simultaneously. Both argon and nitrogen ions are used for sputtering and ion implantation. Auger spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize the resulting film

  14. The Effects of Two Thick Film Deposition Methods on Tin Dioxide Gas Sensor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bakrania, Smitesh D.; Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates the variability in performance between SnO2 thick film gas sensors prepared using two types of film deposition methods. SnO2 powders were deposited on sensor platforms with and without the use of binders. Three commonly utilized binder recipes were investigated, and a new binder-less deposition procedure was developed and characterized. The binder recipes yielded sensors with poor film uniformity and poor structural integrity, compared to the binder-less deposition meth...

  15. Analysis of process parameters for a DCMS process of a rotating ceramic ITO target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, Patrick; Wuttig, Matthias [Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    ITO is the most commonly used but at the same time rather expensive Transparent Conducting Oxide. This fact is due to the high Indium to Tin ratio of 90:10 that is necessary to obtain the best electrical conductivity. If it is possible to find another ratio with similar electrical properties but higher Tin content, this would be of great industrial relevance. To accomplish this goal and to check the hypothesis an in-house developed serial co-sputtering system is employed. The tool consists of a rotating primary cathode and up to two secondary cathodes for co-sputtering processes. The process parameters of a DC-sputtered ceramic ITO target installed on the primary cathode are analyzed and correlations with the thin film properties, especially the resistance and the transmittance are shown. The resistance behavior upon changing the Tin content via a co-deposition process from a secondary cathode will be presented.

  16. Optimum deposition, structure, and properties of tantalum oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.C.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous, ductile, and uniform Ta 2 O 5 films that acted as diffusion barriers were developed by sputter depositing Ta metal on Al single crystals (99.99%) and subsequently anodizing these thin films. The morphology, microstructure, composition and properties were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, surface and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and fluorescence. Superior corrosion resistance in a water saturated Cl 2 atmosphere was provided by Ta 2 O 5 coating on Al single crystal substrates but not on Al alloys. The strong Ta-O bond, the non-porous nature of the film and good adhesion to the substrate are attributed to the outstanding corrosion resistance of these oxide coatings. Al alloy surfaces are not protected, since the anodic film formed over grain boundaries, processing lines and emergent precipitates is poorly adherent, thus providing loci for corrosion. These problems were eliminated by casting a 400 A layer of tantalum oxyhydroxide polymer from ethanol solution onto Al substrate and curing to a Ta 2 O 5 layer that effectively resisted attack by wet Cl 2 . The mechanical properties of Ta 2 O 5 films on Al alloys were studied at various pH's by in-situ fatigue loading coupled with electrochemical measurements of corrosion potential and corrosion current. These results indicate the fatigue resistance of this oxide film effectively protects the underlying metal from strong HCl solution attack. The very unusual ductility and high corrosion resistance of Ta 2 O 5 films could be related to the graphite-like structure that exists in the amorphous state of this oxide

  17. Roughness evolution in Ga doped ZnO films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yunyan; Cheng Chuanfu; Yang Shanying; Song Hongsheng; Wei Gongxiang; Xue Chengshan; Wang Yongzai

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the morphology evolution of the Ga doped ZnO(GZO) films deposited on quartz substrates by a laser deposition system. The surface morphologies of the film samples grown with different times are measured by the atomic force microscope, and they are analyzed quantitatively by using the image data. In the initial stage of the growth time shorter than 8 min, our analysis shows that the GZO surface morphologies are influenced by such factors as the random fluctuations, the smoothening effects in the deposition, the lateral strain and the substrate. The interface width uw(t) and the lateral correlation length ξ(t) at first decrease with deposition time t. For the growth time larger than 8 min, w(t) and ξ(t) increase with time and it indicates the roughening of the surface and the surface morphology exhibits the fractal characteristics. By fitting data of the roughness w(t) versus deposition time t larger than 4 min to the power-law function, we obtain the growth exponent β is 0.3; and by the height-height correlation functions of the samples to that of the self-affine fractal model, we obtain the value of roughness exponent α about 0.84 for all samples with different growth time t.

  18. Liquid films and droplet deposition in a BWR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damsohn, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the upper part of boiling water reactors (BWR) the flow regime is dominated by a steam-water droplet flow with liquid films on the nuclear fuel rod, the so called (wispy) annular flow regime. The film thickness and liquid flow rate distribution around the fuel rod play an important role especially in regard to so called dryout, which is the main phenomenon limiting the thermal power of a fuel assembly. The deposition of droplets in the liquid film is important, because this process sustains the liquid film and delays dryout. Functional spacers with different vane shapes have been used in recent decades to enhance droplet deposition and thus create more favorable conditions for heat removal. In this thesis the behavior of liquid films and droplet deposition in the annular flow regime in BWR bundles is addressed by experiments in an adiabatic flow at nearly ambient pressure. The experimental setup consists of a vertical channel with the cross-section resembling a pair of neighboring subchannels of a fuel rod bundle. Within this double subchannel an annular flow is established with a gas-water mixture. The impact of functional spacers on the annular flow behavior is studied closely. Parameter variations comprise gas and liquid flow rates, gas density and spacer shape. The setup is instrumented with a newly developed liquid film sensor that measures the electrical conductance between electrodes flush to the wall with high temporal and spatial resolution. Advanced post-processing methods are used to investigate the dynamic behavior of liquid films and droplet deposition. The topic is also assessed numerically by means of single-phase Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes CFD simulations of the flow in the gas core. For this the commercial code STAR-CCM+ is used coupled with additional models for the liquid film distribution and droplet motion. The results of the experiments show that the liquid film is quite evenly distributed around the circumference of the fuel rods. The

  19. Morphological Characteristics of Au Films Deposited on Ti: A Combined SEM-AFM Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ruffino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Deposited Au films and coatings are, nowadays, routinely used as active or passive elements in several innovative electronic, optoelectronic, sensing, and energy devices. In these devices, the physical properties of the Au films are strongly determined by the films nanoscale structure. In addition, in these devices, often, a layer of Ti is employed to promote adhesion and, so, influencing the nanoscale structure of the deposited Au film. In this work, we present experimental analysis on the nanoscale cross-section and surface morphology of Au films deposited on Ti. In particular, we sputter-deposited thick (>100 nm thickness Au films on Ti foils and we used Scanning Electron Microscopy to analyze the films cross-sectional and surface morphology as a function of the Au film thickness and deposition angle. In addition, we analyzed the Au films surface morphology by Atomic Force Microscopy which allowed quantifying the films surface roughness versus the film thickness and deposition angle. The results establish a relation between the Au films cross-sectional and surface morphologies and surface roughness to the film thickness and deposition angle. These results allow setting a general working framework to obtain Au films on Ti with specific morphological and topographic properties for desired applications in which the Ti adhesion layer is needed for Au.

  20. Effect of residual gas on structural, electrical and mechanical properties of niobium films deposited by magnetron sputtering deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanruo; Zhong, Yuan; Li, Jinjin; Cao, Wenhui; Zhong, Qing; Wang, Xueshen; Li, Xu

    2018-04-01

    Magnetron sputtering is an important method in the superconducting thin films deposition. The residual gas inside the vacuum chamber will directly affect the quality of the superconducting films. In this paper, niobium films are deposited by magnetron sputtering under different chamber residual gas conditions. The influence of baking and sputtering process on residual gas are studied as well. Surface morphology, electrical and mechanical properties of the films are analysed. The residual gas analysis result before the sputtering process could be regarded as a reference condition to achieve high quality superconducting thin films.

  1. Structure and properties of TiC, VC, and TiC/VC thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzanowski, J.E.; Leuchtner, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    A study has been conducted on the mechanical, tribological and chemical properties of pulsed laser deposited (PLD) TiC, VC and TiC/VC thin films. The TiC films were deposited at 375 C and 5 mTorr Ar, while the TiC/VC films were deposited from a composite target at 475 C at pressures of base vacuum and 50 mTorr Ar. XRD analysis revealed the films had the expected B1 structure, although XPS analysis showed a significant oxygen content. Tribological studies were conducted using a ball-on-disk test, and the wear behavior depended on the surface condition and film composition. One TiC/VC film exhibited little wear but caused significant ball wear, indicating mixed carbide films are promising candidates for wear-resistant coatings

  2. Morphology and structural studies of WO_3 films deposited on SrTiO_3 by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalhori, Hossein; Porter, Stephen B.; Esmaeily, Amir Sajjad; Coey, Michael; Ranjbar, Mehdi; Salamati, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly oriented WO_3 stoichiometric films were determined using pulsed laser deposition method. • Effective parameters on thin films including temperature, oxygen partial pressure and laser energy fluency was studied. • A phase transition was observed in WO_3 films at 700 °C from monoclinic to tetragonal. - Abstract: WO_3 films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO_3 (001) substrates. The effects of substrate temperature, oxygen partial pressure and energy fluence of the laser beam on the physical properties of the films were studied. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns during and after growth were used to determine the surface structure and morphology. The chemical composition and crystalline phases were obtained by XPS and XRD respectively. AFM results showed that the roughness and skewness of the films depend on the substrate temperature during deposition. Optimal conditions were determined for the growth of the highly oriented films.

  3. Direct-current substrate bias effects on amorphous silicon sputter-deposited films for thin film transistor fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Seung-Ik; Rack, Philip D.; McKnight, Timothy E.; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect that direct current (dc) substrate bias has on radio frequency-sputter-deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si) films has been investigated. The substrate bias produces a denser a-Si film with fewer defects compared to unbiased films. The reduced number of defects results in a higher resistivity because defect-mediated conduction paths are reduced. Thin film transistors (TFTs) that were completely sputter deposited were fabricated and characterized. The TFT with the biased a-Si film showed lower leakage (off-state) current, higher on/off current ratio, and higher transconductance (field effect mobility) than the TFT with the unbiased a-Si film

  4. ZnO film deposition by DC magnetron sputtering: Effect of target configuration on the film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakelova, E.; Khachatryan, A.; Kteyan, A.; Avjyan, K.; Grigoryan, S.

    2016-08-01

    Ballistic transport model for target-to-substrate atom transfer during magnetron sputter deposition was used to develop zinc target (cathode) configuration that enabled growth of uniform zinc oxide films on extensive surfaces and provided reproducibility of films characteristics irrespective of the cathode wear-out. The advantage of the developed target configuration for high-quality ZnO film deposition was observed in the sputtering pressure range of 5− 50 mTorr, and in the range of cathode-to-substrate distances 7–20 cm. Characteristics of the deposited films were demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction analysis, as well as optical and electrical measurements. - Highlights: • Change of target configuration for optimization of magnetron sputtering deposition is proposed. • Improvement of ZnO film properties due to use of this target is demonstrated. • This configuration provided reproducibility of the deposited films properties.

  5. Very High Output Thermoelectric Devices Based on ITO Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, Gustave; Gregory, Otto J.

    2009-01-01

    A material having useful thermoelectric properties was synthesized by combining indium-tin-oxide (ITO) with a NiCoCrAlY alloy/alumina cermet. This material had a very large Seebeck coefficie