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Sample records for deposit-feeding polychaete arenicola

  1. Biodynamic modelling and the prediction of accumulated trace metal concentrations in the polychaete Arenicola marina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado-Martinez, M. Carmen, E-mail: c.casado-martinez@nhm.ac.u [Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Smith, Brian D. [Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); DelValls, T. Angel [Unesco UNITWIN Wicop Chair, Department of Physical-Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Poligono Industrial Rio San Pedro s/n, C.P. 11510 Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Luoma, Samuel N. [John Muir Institute of the Environment, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Rainbow, Philip S. [Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The use of biodynamic models to understand metal uptake directly from sediments by deposit-feeding organisms still represents a special challenge. In this study, accumulated concentrations of Cd, Zn and Ag predicted by biodynamic modelling in the lugworm Arenicola marina have been compared to measured concentrations in field populations in several UK estuaries. The biodynamic model predicted accumulated field Cd concentrations remarkably accurately, and predicted bioaccumulated Ag concentrations were in the range of those measured in lugworms collected from the field. For Zn the model showed less but still good comparability, accurately predicting Zn bioaccumulation in A. marina at high sediment concentrations but underestimating accumulated Zn in the worms from sites with low and intermediate levels of Zn sediment contamination. Therefore, it appears that the physiological parameters experimentally derived for A. marina are applicable to the conditions encountered in these environments and that the assumptions made in the model are plausible. - Biodynamic modelling predicts accumulated field concentrations of Ag, Cd and Zn in the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina.

  2. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Hare, Landis; Galindo-Riaño, M Dolores; Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo

    2016-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) >80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20±0.13 to (0.30±0.56)×10(3) mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and -log(Ksp(MeS)/Ksp(pyr)) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn≈Mntrace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are preferentially accumulated by the polychaete, making it a useful biomonitor of sedimentary metal exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel, E-mail: huertam@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Hare, Landis [Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Galindo-Riaño, M. Dolores [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico)

    2016-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) > 80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20 ± 0.13 to (0.30 ± 0.56) × 10{sup 3} mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (< 25%) while degrees of sulfidization (DOS) were high (~ 50%) because of the contribution of acid volatile sulfide. DOP values correlated with DTMP values (p ≤ 0.001), indicating that metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and − log(K{sub sp(MeS)}/K{sub sp(pyr)}) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn ≈ Mn < Fe < Cd ≈ Pb < Ni ≈ Co < < Cu. Lastly, a strong correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.87, p < 0.01) was found between average reactive trace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are

  4. Effects of the polychaetes Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor on microbial pyrene mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Karen; Banta, Gary T.; Johnsen, Anders R.;

    2008-01-01

    The effects of 2 polychaetes, Nereis diversicolor and Arenicola marina, on the microbial mineralization of the organic contaminant pyrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), were followed over 44 d. We also examined whether the effect of the polychaetes was caused by enhanced oxygen supply,...... by the increased oxygen supply due to burrow construction and irrigation. In contrast, these worms decreased pyrene bioavailability and, hence, counteracted to some extent the stimulating effect of irrigation....

  5. Ocean acidification increases copper toxicity to the early life history stages of the polychaete Arenicola marina in artificial seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna L; Mangan, Stephanie; Ellis, Robert P; Lewis, Ceri

    2014-08-19

    The speciation and therefore bioavailability of the common pollutant copper is predicted to increase within the pH range anticipated under near-future ocean acidification (OA), hence the potential exists for copper toxicity to marine organisms to also increase. We investigated the impact of OA (seawater pH values of 7.77 (pCO2 1400 μatm) and 7.47 (pCO2 3000 μatm)) upon copper toxicity responses in early life history stages of the polychaete Arenicola marina and found both synergistic and additive toxicity effects of combined exposures depending on life history stage. The toxicity of copper on sperm DNA damage and early larval survivorship was synergistically increased under OA conditions. Larval survival was reduced by 24% when exposed to both OA and copper combined compared to single OA or copper exposures. Sperm motility was negatively affected by both OA and copper singularly with additive toxicity effects of the two stressors when combined. Fertilization success was also negatively affected by both OA and copper individually, but no additive effects when exposed as combined stressors were present for this stage. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that OA will act to increase the toxicity of copper to marine organisms, which has clear implications for coastal benthic ecosystems suffering chronic metal pollution as pCO2 levels rise and drive a reduction in seawater pH.

  6. The relative importance of water and diet for uptake and subcellular distribution of cadmium in the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella sp I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette; Forbes, Valery E.

    2004-01-01

    , starvation likewise influenced the distribution of protein between mitochondria and cytosol. Cutaneous uptake and accumulation of Cd from the water was related to surface area while dietary uptake was influenced by the amount of sediment passing through the gut. Irrespective of exposure route, Cd......The impact of dietary and water exposure on the accumulation and distribution of cadmium (Cd) in subcellular components of the polychaete Capitella sp. I was investigated. Worms were exposed to either dissolved Cd alone ('Water-Only' treatments; WO) or diet-bound Cd alone ('Algae-bound Only...

  7. Individual- and population-level effects of the synthetic musk, HHCB, on the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella sp. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Tina; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A life table response experiment lasting 120 d was used to investigate the effects of the synthetic polycyclic musk HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-benzopyrane; 0, 1.5, 26, 123, and 168 mg/kg dry wt sediment) on the life history of the infaunal polychaete...... Capitella species I. The HHCB exposure showed no detectable effects on adult survival, age at first reproduction, length of the reproductive period, number of broods, individual worm body volumes, or body size-specific egestion rates. In contrast, HHCB significantly affected juvenile survival (>= 123 mg...... and exposed groups were not significant. Thus, despite detectable effects of HHCB on individual life-history traits, the results suggest that environmentally realistic concentrations of HHCB are not likely to reduce the growth rate of Capitella sp. I populations....

  8. Biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Giessing, Anders; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2008-01-01

    Deposit-feeding polychaetes constitute the dominant macrofauna in marine environments that tend to be depositional centers for organic matter and contaminants. Polychaetes are known to accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from both particulate and dissolved phases but less is known...

  9. Pathways of trace metal uptake in the lugworm Arenicola marina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado-Martinez, M.C. [Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.casado-martinez@nhm.ac.uk; Smith, B.D. [Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Valls, T.A. del [Unesco UNITWIN Wicop Chair, Department of Physical-Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Poligono Industrial Rio San Pedro s/n, C.P. 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Rainbow, P.S. [Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-02

    Radiotracer techniques were used to determine the rates of trace metal (Ag, Cd and Zn) uptake and elimination (33 psu, 10 deg. C) from water and sediment by the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina, proposed as a test species for estuarine-marine sediments in whole-sediment toxicity tests. Metal uptake rates from solution increase with increasing dissolved metal concentrations, with uptake rate constants ({+-} SE) (l g{sup -1} d{sup -1}) of 1.21 {+-} 0.11 (Ag), 0.026 {+-} 0.002 (Zn) and 0.012 {+-} 0.001 (Cd). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediments were measured using a pulse-chase radiotracer feeding technique in two different lugworm populations, one from a commercial supplier (Blyth, Northumberland, UK) and the other a field-collected population from the outer Thames estuary (UK). Assimilation efficiencies ranged from 2 to 20% for Zn, 1 to 6% for Cd and 1 to 9% for Ag for the Northumberland worms, and from 3 to 22% for Zn, 6 to 70% for Cd and 2 to 15% for Ag in the case of the Thames population. Elimination of accumulated metals followed a two-compartment model, with similar efflux rate constants for Zn and Ag and lower rates of elimination of Cd from the slow pool. Efflux rate constants ({+-} SE) of Zn and Ag accumulated from the dissolved phase were 0.037 {+-} 0.002 and 0.033 {+-} 0.006 d{sup -1} whereas Cd was eliminated with an efflux rate constant one order of magnitude lower (0.003 {+-} 0.002 d{sup -1}). When metals were accumulated from ingested sediments, the efflux rate constants for the slow-exchanging compartment were of the same order of magnitude for the three metals, and of the same order of magnitude as those derived after the dissolved exposure for Zn and Ag (0.042 {+-} 0.004 and 0.056 {+-} 0.012 d{sup -1} for Zn and 0.044 {+-} 0.012 and 0.069 {+-} 0.016 d{sup -1} for Ag for the Northumberland and Thames populations, respectively). Cd accumulated from ingested sediments was eliminated with a rate constant not different from the

  10. On Arvicola arenicola de Sélys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1908-01-01

    Mr. G. S. Miller Jr. from the Washington Museum, presently studying in the British Museum, fixed my attention upon a paper, published in 1841 by de Sélys Longchamps, relating an Arvicola represented in the Leyden Museum and described by him as new under the name of A. arenicola; Mr. Miller suggested

  11. Ecological implications of changes in polychaetes population in a shallow Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu

    in this thesis evaluates the effect of population change in size and distribution of 3 polychaete species in a shallow Danish estuary - Odense Fjord: the 2 ecologically important Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor and the non-native species Marenzelleria viridis. We focus on the effect of the dynamic......Burrowing polychaetes are typically the most numerous and active class among macrobenthic infauna in Danish estuaries. Their ecological role is well-recognized and has been often associated with their bioturbating activities. Construction and maintenance of galleries as well as ingestion...... and defecation displace sediment particles. Ventilation of their burrow irrigates the sediment. These activities transform the environment for other species: from microbes to plants (MS5). Given the important relations between bioturbating polychaetes and their ecosystem, any significant changes in population...

  12. Burial of Zostera marina seeds in sediment inhabited by three polychaetes: laboratory and field studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Kristensen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The large number of seeds produced by eelgrass, Zostera marina, provides this plant with a potential to disperse widely and colonise newareas. After dispersal, seedsmust be buried into sediment for assuring long-term survival, successful germination and safe seedling development. Seedsmay be buried......–3200 ind m −2), Arenicola marina (20–80 ind m−2), and the invasive Marenzelleria viridis (400–1600 ind m −2). The obtained results were subsequently compared with burial rates of seed mimics in experimental field plots (1m2) dominated by the respective polychaetes. High recovery of seeds in the laboratory...... (97–100%) suggested that none of these polychaetes species feed on eelgrass seeds. N. diversicolor transported seeds rapidly (marina and M. viridis buried seeds by depositing their faeces on top of the sediment...

  13. Botanical features for identification of Gymnosporia arenicola dried leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Gustavo; Serrano, Rita; Gomes, Elsa Teixeira; Silva, Olga

    2015-11-01

    Gymnosporia arenicola Jordaan (Celastraceae) is a shrub or small tree, which naturally occurs in coastal sand dunes of Southern Mozambique and South Africa. Its dried leaf is often used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Hereby, we present results of studies carried out according to the pharmacopoeia standards for the identification of herbal drugs, in the whole, fragmented, and powdered plant material. These results were complemented with scanning electron microscopy and histochemical techniques. The leaf microscopic analysis revealed a typical dorsiventral mesophyll with a corresponding spongy parenchyma-palisade parenchyma ratio of 0.60, anomocytic and paracytic stomata, papillate cells with a diameter of 4.00 ± 0.40 µm, multicellular uniseriate nonglandular trichomes with a length of 27.00 ± 4.10 µm and cristalliferous idioblasts containing calcium oxalate cluster crystals with a diameter of 23.04 ± 5.84 µm. The present findings demonstrate that the G. arenicola leaf has both nonglandular trichomes and hypoderm, features not previously described in the corresponding botanical section (Gymnosporia sect. Buxifoliae Jordaan). The establishment of these new botanical markers for the identification of G. arenicola leaf is essential for quality, safety and efficacy reasons.

  14. Expression pattern of arenicins - the antimicrobial peptides of polychaete Arenicolamarina

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    Arina L. Maltseva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Immune responses of invertebrate animals are mediated through innate mechanisms, among which production of antimicrobial peptides play an important role. Although evolutionary Polychaetes represent an interesting group closely related to a putative common ancestor of other coelomates, their immune mechanisms still remain scarcely investigated. Previously our group has identified arenicins - new antimicrobial peptides of the lugworm Arenicola marina, since then these peptides were thoroughly characterized in terms of their structure and inhibitory potential. In the present study we addressed the question of the physiological functions of arenicins in the lugworm body. Using molecular and immunocytochemical methods we demonstrated that arencins are expressed in the wide range of the lugworm tissues - coelomocytes, body wall, extravasal tissue and the gut. The expression of arenicins is constitutive and does not depend on stimulation of various infectious stimuli. Most intensively arenicins are produced by mature coelomocytes where they function as killing agents inside the phagolysosome. In the gut and the body wall epithelia arenicins are released from producing cells via secretion as they are found both inside the epithelial cells and in the contents of the cuticle. Collectively our study showed that arenicins are found in different body compartments responsible for providing a first line of defence against infections, which implies their important role as key components of both epithelial and systemic branches of host defence.

  15. Metal pollution in a contaminated bay: relationship between metal geochemical fractionation in sediments and accumulation in a polychaete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhong; Xu, Zhizhen; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-08-01

    Jinzhou Bay in Northern China has been seriously contaminated with metals due to the impacts of smelting activities. In this study, we investigated the relationship between metal accumulation in a deposit-feeding polychaete Neanthes japonica and metal concentration and geochemical fractionation (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni) in sediments of Jinzhou Bay. Compared with the historical data, metals in the more mobile geochemical fraction (exchangeable and carbonate fractions) were gradually partitioned into the more stable fraction (Fe-Mn oxides) over time. Metal concentration and geochemical fractionation in sediment significantly affected metal bioavailability and accumulation in polychaetes, except for Ni. Metal accumulation in polychaetes was significantly influenced by Fe or Mn content, and to a lesser degree by organic matter. Prediction of metal bioaccumulation in polychaetes was greatly improved by normalizing metal concentrations to Mn content in sediment. The geochemical fractionation of metals in sediments including the exchangeable, organic matter and Fe-Mn oxides were important in controlling the sediment metal bioavailability to polychaetes.

  16. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part I: Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2012-01-01

    Of the factors which control the quantity and composition of organic matter (OM) buried in marine sediments, the links between infaunal ingestion and gut passage and sediment geochemistry have received relatively little attention. This study aimed to use feeding experiments and novel isotope tracing techniques to quantify amino acid net accumulation and loss during polychaete gut passage, and to link this to patterns of selective preservation and decay in sediments. Microcosms containing either Arenicolamarina or Hediste (formerly Nereis) diversicolor were constructed from defaunated sediment and filtered estuarine water, and maintained under natural temperature and light conditions. They were fed with 13C-labelled diatoms daily for 8 days, and animals were transferred into fresh, un-labelled sediment after ∼20 days. Samples of fauna, microcosm sediment and faecal matter were collected after 8, ∼20 and ∼40 days, and analysed for their bulk isotopic signatures and 13C-labelled amino acid compositions. Bulk isotopic data showed that, consistent with their feeding modes, Hediste assimilated added 13C more quickly, and attained a higher labelling level than Arenicola. Both species retained the added 13C in their biomass even after removal from the food. A principal component analysis of 13C-labelled amino acid mole percentages showed clear differences in composition between the algae, faunal tissues, and sediment plus faecal matter. Further, the two species of polychaete showed different compositions in their tissues. The amino acids phenylalanine, valine, leucine, iso-leucine, threonine and proline showed net accumulation in polychaete tissues. Serine, methionine, lysine, aspartic and glutamic acids and tyrosine were rapidly lost through metabolism, consistent with their presence in easily digestible cell components (as opposed to cell walls which offer physical protection). All sample types (polychaete tissues, sediments and faecal matter) were enriched in

  17. A census of abyssal polychaetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Gordon L. J.; Glover, Adrian G.; Barrio Froján, Christopher R. S.; Whitaker, Amoret; Budaeva, Nataliya; Chimonides, Jim; Doner, Stacy

    2009-09-01

    As part of the Census of Marine Life's programme of summarising existing knowledge of the oceans, records of all polychaete species collected below 2000 m have been collated from the literature. A total of 3633 records was assembled into a database, revealing that 768 species, 358 of which were new to science, have been reported from the deep sea over the past 200 years. The limitations of the dataset are also discussed. Most of the records were obtained from between 2000 m, the upper depth range of the study, and 4000 m. Analyses of the distribution of records with time reveals that the majority of records were added in the 1960s to early 1980s, coincidental with the introduction of new collecting technologies. However, following this period there was a gap between the collecting of samples and the publication of taxonomic results. To reduce this time lag we are encouraging the use of the world-wide web with new tools and protocols to bring together taxonomists working on different sample sets and allow them to share and compare taxonomic data. As this is the first collation of abyssal polychaetes, the records were analysed to determine whether there is a distinct hadal fauna and whether the fauna of individual trenches was distinctive or a subset of the abyssal plain fauna. The results suggest that the hadal fauna contains few endemic species and that the majority are elements of the abyssal fauna that have extended their bathymetric range.

  18. Burrowing Behavior of a Deposit Feeding Bivalve Predicts Change in Intertidal Ecosystem State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, T.J.; Bodnar, W.; Koolhaas, A.; Dekinga, A.; Holthuijsen, S.; Ten Horn, J.; McSweeney, N.; van Gils, J.A.; Piersma, T,

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  19. Burrowing behavior of a deposit feeding bivalve predicts change in intertidal ecosystem state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, Tanya J.; Bodnar, Wanda; Koolhaas, Anita; Dekinga, Anne; Holthuijsen, Sander; ten Horn, Job; McSweeney, Niamh; van Gils, Jan; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  20. Development and application of long-term sublethal whole sediment tests with Arenicola marina and Corophium volutator using Ivermectin as the test compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Yvonne T. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex, CM0 8HA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: yvonne.allen@cefas.co.uk; Thain, John E. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex, CM0 8HA (United Kingdom); Haworth, Sarah [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex, CM0 8HA (United Kingdom); Barry, Jon [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Burnham Laboratory, Remembrance Avenue, Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex, CM0 8HA (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Short-term whole sediment tests using the amphipod Corophium volutator and the polychaete Arenicola marina are now routinely used in Europe to assess the acute toxicity of marine sediments. However, there is still a need to develop longer-term assays which measure effects on sublethal endpoints that are more relevant to predicting impacts at the population level. The effect of increasing exposure times and measuring additional endpoints such as growth, on the sensitivity of these assays was investigated. The test compound used was the chemotherapeutant Ivermectin (IVM), used in aquaculture to treat sea lice infestations. IVM was found to be acutely toxic to both test organisms. Extending the lugworm test to 100 days increased sensitivity of survival by a factor of three; a significant reduction in casting rate was observed at concentrations an order of magnitude lower. This assay shows potential for detecting the sublethal effects of low concentrations of sediment contaminants. Increasing the exposure time did not seem to affect the sensitivity of the amphipod, but further method development is required. - Long-term sublethal sediment tests are more sensitive than standard acute tests when assessing the toxic effects of Ivermectin.

  1. Development and application of long-term sublethal whole sediment tests with Arenicola marina and Corophium volutator using Ivermectin as the test compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Yvonne T; Thain, John E; Haworth, Sarah; Barry, Jon

    2007-03-01

    Short-term whole sediment tests using the amphipod Corophium volutator and the polychaete Arenicola marina are now routinely used in Europe to assess the acute toxicity of marine sediments. However, there is still a need to develop longer-term assays which measure effects on sublethal endpoints that are more relevant to predicting impacts at the population level. The effect of increasing exposure times and measuring additional endpoints such as growth, on the sensitivity of these assays was investigated. The test compound used was the chemotherapeutant Ivermectin (IVM), used in aquaculture to treat sea lice infestations. IVM was found to be acutely toxic to both test organisms. Extending the lugworm test to 100 days increased sensitivity of survival by a factor of three; a significant reduction in casting rate was observed at concentrations an order of magnitude lower. This assay shows potential for detecting the sublethal effects of low concentrations of sediment contaminants. Increasing the exposure time did not seem to affect the sensitivity of the amphipod, but further method development is required.

  2. Variation in genetic traits of the lugworm Arenicola marina: temperature related expression of mitochondrial allozymes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, H.; Sommer, A.; Bogaards, R.H.; Portner, H.O.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic traits of the lugworm Arenicola marina were determined for 4 Atlantic populations from France to Norway and compared with a population from the sub-arctic White Sea in Russia. Seven loci were analysed using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. A low heterozygosity (0.09 to 0.17) and a non-

  3. Benthic polychaetes as good indicators of anthropogenic impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; Ingole, B.S.; Nanajkar, M.

    Seven stations were sampled within the Mormugao harbour area for benthos and environmental variables from September 2003 to July 2004. A total of 71 polychaete taxa were identified from the area. Polychaete abundance, biomass and species number...

  4. Cadmium distribution in sediment and the lugworm Arenicola marina in a low concentration exposure experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Everaarts, J.M.; Devi, K.S.

    /L), which is about 10 times the background concentration of the western Wadden Sea. Two aquaria were used as controls. The experiment lasted 36 days, with intermittent Cd dosing from days 0 to 5 and from days 15 to 25. The animals were not fed during... Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1996) 57:771-778 © 1996 Springer-Verlag New York Inc. Cadmium Distribution in Sediment and the Lugworm Arenicola marina in a Low Concentration Exposure Experiment J. M. Everaarts,1 K. SaralaDevi2 1Netherlands Institute...

  5. Spatial distribution of soft-bottom polychaete annelids in the Ensenada de Baiona (Ría de Vigo, Galicia, north-west Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Moreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of the polychaete fauna in the subtidal soft-bottoms of the Ensenada de Baiona (Galicia, NW Spain was studied by means of quantitative sampling and multivariate analyses. Several faunistic assemblages were determined, which were closely related to the sediment distribution pattern in the inlet. The coarse-medium sand fauna was mainly dominated by syllids and pisionids. Finer sediments (fine sand to mud showed a greater abundance of deposit-feeding species, mostly spionids, cirratulids and capitellids. The greatest number of species and diversity were found in mixed sediments with medium and fine sand. Organically enriched muds around Baiona harbour have an impoverished fauna, with a high dominance of Cossura pygodactylata Jones, 1956.

  6. Characterisation of esterases as potential biomarkers of pesticide exposure in the lugworm Arenicola marina (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannam, Marie L. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: marie.hannam@plymouth.ac.uk; Hagger, Josephine A.; Jones, Malcolm B.; Galloway, Tamara S. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    Here, we identify and characterise cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities in the body tissues of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina. Exposure to the organophosphorus pesticide azamethiphos yielded an in vitro IC{sub 50} of 5 {mu}g l{sup -1} for propionylcholinesterase (PChE). PChE was significantly inhibited in vivo after a 10 day exposure to 100 {mu}g l{sup -1} azamethiphos, equivalent to the recommended aquatic application rate (ANOVA; F = 2.75, P = 0.033). To determine sensitivity to environmental conditions, A. marina were exposed for 10 days to field collected sediments. PChE activity was significantly lower in worms exposed to sediments from an estuary classified to be at high risk from point source pollution by the UK Environment Agency (ANOVA; F = 15.33, P < 0.001). Whilst causality cannot be directly attributed from these latter exposures, they provide an important illustration of the potential utility of esterase activity as a biomarker of environmental quality in this ecologically relevant sentinel species. - This paper provides a preliminary characterisation of esterase enzyme activities in the tissues and body fluids of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina and explores their potential use as biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in the marine environment.

  7. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part II: Fatty acids and aldoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2014-07-01

    The activities of sediment-dwelling fauna are known to influence the rates of and pathways through which organic matter is cycled in marine sediments, and thus to influence eventual organic carbon burial or decay. However, due to methodological constraints, the role of faunal gut passage in determining the subsequent composition and thus degradability of organic matter is relatively little studied. Previous studies of organic matter digestion by benthic fauna have been unable to detect uptake and retention of specific biochemicals in faunal tissues, and have been of durations too short to fit digestion into the context of longer-term sedimentary degradation processes. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the aldose and fatty acid compositional alterations occurring to organic matter during gut passage by the abundant and ubiquitous polychaetes Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina, and to link these to longer-term changes typically observed during organic matter decay. This aim was approached through microcosm experiments in which selected polychaetes were fed with 13C-labelled algal detritus, and organisms, sediments, and faecal pellets were sampled at three timepoints over ∼6 weeks. Samples were analysed for their 13C-labelled aldose and fatty acid contents using GC-MS and GC-IRMS. Compound-selective net accumulation of biochemicals in polychaete tissues was observed for both aldoses and fatty acids, and the patterns of this were taxon-specific. The dominant patterns included an overall loss of glucose and polyunsaturated fatty acids; and preferential preservation or production of arabinose, microbial compounds (rhamnose, fucose and microbial fatty acids), and animal-synthesised fatty acids. These patterns may have been driven by fatty acid essentiality, preferential metabolism of glucose, and A. marina grazing on bacteria. Fatty acid suites in sediments from faunated microcosms showed greater proportions of saturated fatty acids and bacterial markers

  8. Linking Arenicola marina irrigation behavior to oxygen transport and dynamics in sandy sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Karen; Banta, Gary T.; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2007-01-01

    In this study we examine how the irrigation behavior of the common lugworm Arenicola marina affects the distribution, transport and dynamics of oxygen in sediments using microelectrodes, planar optodes and diagenetic modeling. The irrigation pattern was characterized by a regular recurring periods...... mediated oxygen uptake of the burrow wall. Approximately 28% of the oxygen was consumed by the feeding pocket/funnel characterized by advective porewater transport. Model simulations indicated that oxygen injected into the sediment was usually consumed in a very narrow zone around the feeding pocket...... concentration in the burrow was high (80% air saturation) and oxygen was detected at distances up to 0.7 mm from the burrow wall. Volume specific oxygen consumption rates calculated from measured oxygen profiles were up to 4 times higher for sediments surrounding worm burrows as compared to surface sediments...

  9. Arenicolsterol A, a Novel Cytotoxic Enolic Sulfated Sterol from a Marine Annelid Arenicola cristata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; SHEN Xian-Rong; KONG Ji-Lie

    2005-01-01

    Marine organisms are the important source of the bioactive metabolites. A novel enolic sulfated sterol, arenicolsterol A, has been isolated from a marine annelid Arenicola cristata collected in the coast of Mainland of China.The structure was elucidated using all sorts of spectroscopic data including ESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR etc. The cytotoxic bioactivity of this sterol was evaluated by MTT assay. It could inhibit the growth of human cervix cancer cell line (Hela) and human non-small cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-h6) with IC50 of (3.1 ±0.6) μg/mL and (7.6±0.8) μg/mL.

  10. La identidad de Schinus fasciculatus var. arenicola y rehabilitación de S. sinuatus (Anacardiaceae The identity of Schinus fasciculatus var. arenicola and the rehabilitation of S. sinuatus (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro E. Steibel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio del tipo nomenclatural y de numerosos ejemplares de distintos herbarios; el análisis extensivo de las plantas en su hábitat en las regiones argentinas Central y Nordpatagónica y el examen de las plántulas y juveniles cultivados a partir de semillas, nos permiten establecer la identidad de S. fasciculatus var. arenicola (Hauman F. A. Barkley, como un sinónimo de S. johnstonii F. A. Barkley. Esta variedad fue descripta originalmente por Hauman (1913 como S. dependens Ortega subsp. subintegra Engl. fo. arenicola Hauman, basada en un individuo juvenil. También la validez de Schinus sinuatus (Griseb. Engl. es discutida. Ambos taxones se describen e ilustran, se dan las características morfológico-foliares en las distintas edades de las plantas y del tipo de rama que las porta y se incluye una clave para identificar las especies afines.The study of the nomenclatural type and numerous specimens from different herbaria, the extensive analysis of plants in their habitat in Central and Northern Patagonian Argentinean regions, as well as the study of seedlings and juvenile individuals cultivated from seeds, allowed us to establish the identity of S. fasciculatus var. arenicola (Hauman F. A. Barkley as a synonym of S. johnstonii F. A. Barkley. This variety was described by Hauman (1913 as S. dependens Ortega subsp. subintegra Engl. fo. arenicola Hauman, based on a young individual of S. johnstonii. In addition, the validity of S. sinuatus (Griseb. Engl. is discussed. Both taxa are described and illustrated and leaf characteristics of the juvenile specimens are mentioned. The complete synonymy and a key to identify related species is included.

  11. Cloning, Expression and Activity Analysis of a Novel Fibrinolytic Serine Protease fromArenicola cristata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunling; JU Jiyu

    2015-01-01

    The full-length cDNA of a protease gene from a marine annelid Arenicola cristata was amplified through rapid amplifi-cation of cDNA ends technique and sequenced. The size of the cDNA was 936 bp in length, including an open reading frame encod-ing a polypeptide of 270 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequnce consisted of pro- and mature sequences. The protease belonged to the serine protease family because it contained the highly conserved sequence GDSGGP. This protease was novel as it showed a low amino acid sequence similarity (<40%) to other serine proteases. The gene encoding the active form ofA. cristata serine protease was cloned and expressed inE. coli. Purified recombinant protease in a supernatant could dissolve an artificial fibrin plate with plasminogen-rich fibrin, whereas the plasminogen-free fibrin showed no clear zone caused by hydrolysis. This result sug-gested that the recombinant protease showed an indirect fibrinolytic activity of dissolving fibrin, and was probably a plasminogen activator. A rat model with venous thrombosis was established to demonstrate that the recombinant protease could also hydrolyze blood clotin vivo. Therefore, this recombinant protease may be used as a thrombolytic agent for thrombosis treatment. To our knowledge, this study is the first of reporting the fibrinolytic serine protease gene inA. cristata.

  12. An ultrastructural study of spermatogenesis and sperm morula breakdown in Arenicola marina (L.) (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, A. A.; Bentley, M. G.

    1992-06-01

    Spermatogenesis in the lugworm Arenicola marina, in common with other members of Arenicolidae, occurs in the coelomic fluid and results in the formation of discs of mature spermatozoa known as a morulae. Within a morula, individual spermatozoa are connected by a common mass of cytoplasm called the cytophore and therefore make up a syncitium. Immediately prior to spawning, and in response to an endocrine substance known as “Sperm Maturation Factor” (SMF), the structure of the sperm morulae breaks down and free spermatozoa are liberated. These are subsequently spawned from the body cavity. The investigation described here uses transmission electron microscopy to investigate the ultrastructural changes, which accompany spermatogenesis and the breakdown of sperm morulae in response to SMF in vitro. The study demonstrates that the cytophore appears to have a key role both during spermatogenesis and during sperm morula breakdown. The ultrastructure of sperm morulae and of mature spermatozoa is described. The structure of spermatozoa is shown to be primitive with a single flagellum which appears to be coiled at its distal end. The phagocytosis of free spermatozoa by coelomocytes is also described and it is suggested that these may play a role in the resorption of unspawned gametes in vivo.

  13. Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besseling, Ellen; Wegner, Anna; Foekema, Edwin M; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Koelmans, Albert A

    2013-01-02

    It has been speculated that marine microplastics may cause negative effects on benthic marine organisms and increase bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, we provide the first controlled study of plastic effects on benthic organisms including transfer of POPs. The effects of polystyrene (PS) microplastic on survival, activity, and bodyweight, as well as the transfer of 19 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were assessed in bioassays with Arenicola marina (L.). PS was pre-equilibrated in natively contaminated sediment. A positive relation was observed between microplastic concentration in the sediment and both uptake of plastic particles and weight loss by A. marina. Furthermore, a reduction in feeding activity was observed at a PS dose of 7.4% dry weight. A low PS dose of 0.074% increased bioaccumulation of PCBs by a factor of 1.1-3.6, an effect that was significant for ΣPCBs and several individual congeners. At higher doses, bioaccumulation decreased compared to the low dose, which however, was only significant for PCB105. PS had statistically significant effects on the organisms' fitness and bioaccumulation, but the magnitude of the effects was not high. This may be different for sites with different plastic concentrations, or plastics with a higher affinity for POPs.

  14. Microplastics are taken up by mussels (Mytilus edulis) and lugworms (Arenicola marina) living in natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Claessens, Michiel; Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Janssen, Colin R

    2015-04-01

    We studied the uptake of microplastics under field conditions. At six locations along the French-Belgian-Dutch coastline we collected two species of marine invertebrates representing different feeding strategies: the blue mussel Mytilus edulis (filter feeder) and the lugworm Arenicola marina (deposit feeder). Additional laboratory experiments were performed to assess possible (adverse) effects of ingestion and translocation of microplastics on the energy metabolism (cellular energy allocation) of these species. Microplastics were present in all organisms collected in the field: on average 0.2 ± 0.3 microplastics g(-1) (M. edulis) and 1.2 ± 2.8 particles g(-1) (A. marina). In a proof of principle laboratory experiment, mussels and lugworms exposed to high concentrations of polystyrene microspheres (110 particles mL(-1) seawater and 110 particles g(-1) sediment, respectively) showed no significant adverse effect on the organisms' overall energy budget. The results are discussed in the context of possible risks as a result of the possible transfer of adsorbed contaminants.

  15. Cloning, expression and activity analysis of a novel fibrinolytic serine protease from Arenicola cristata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunling; Ju, Jiyu

    2015-06-01

    The full-length cDNA of a protease gene from a marine annelid Arenicola cristata was amplified through rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique and sequenced. The size of the cDNA was 936 bp in length, including an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 270 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequnce consisted of pro- and mature sequences. The protease belonged to the serine protease family because it contained the highly conserved sequence GDSGGP. This protease was novel as it showed a low amino acid sequence similarity (< 40%) to other serine proteases. The gene encoding the active form of A. cristata serine protease was cloned and expressed in E. coli. Purified recombinant protease in a supernatant could dissolve an artificial fibrin plate with plasminogen-rich fibrin, whereas the plasminogen-free fibrin showed no clear zone caused by hydrolysis. This result suggested that the recombinant protease showed an indirect fibrinolytic activity of dissolving fibrin, and was probably a plasminogen activator. A rat model with venous thrombosis was established to demonstrate that the recombinant protease could also hydrolyze blood clot in vivo. Therefore, this recombinant protease may be used as a thrombolytic agent for thrombosis treatment. To our knowledge, this study is the first of reporting the fibrinolytic serine protease gene in A. cristata.

  16. Neurogenesis suggests independent evolution of opercula in serpulid polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Nora; Wanninger, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The internal phylogenetic relationships of Annelida, one of the key lophotrochozoan lineages, are still heavily debated. Recent molecular analyses suggest that morphologically distinct groups, such as the polychaetes, are paraphyletic assemblages, thus questioning the homology...... of a number of polychaete morphological characters. Serpulid polychaetes are typically recognized by having fused anterior ends bearing a tentacular crown and an operculum. The latter is commonly viewed as a modified tentacle (= radiole) and is often used as an important diagnostic character in serpulid...... and the radioles in this species. Accordingly, the spirorbin operculum might not be homologous to the radioles or to the opercula of other serpulid taxa such as Serpula and Pomatoceros and is thus probably not a part of the tentacular crown. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that common morphological traits...

  17. Identification and characterization of a chitin-binding protein purified from coelomic fluid of the lugworm Arenicola marina defining a novel protein sequence family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitashenkova, Nina; Moeller, Jesper Bonnet; Leth-Larsen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    We have isolated a novel type of lectin named Arenicola marina lectin-1 (AML-1) from the lugworm Arenicola marina. The lectin was purified from the coelomic fluid by affinity chromatography on a GlcNAc-derivatized column and eluted with GlcNAc. On SDS-PAGE, AML-1 showed an apparent molecular mass...... by coelomocytes, in the nephridium and in round cells in epidermis and in eggs. Moreover, AML-1 expression was up-regulated in response to a parasitic infection. We conclude that AML-1 purified from coelomic fluid is encoded by AML-1b and represents a novel type of protein family that binds acetylated components....

  18. Combined effects of water flow and copper concentration on the feeding behavior, growth rate, and accumulation of copper in tissue of the infaunal polychaete Polydora cornuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Marienne A; Hentschel, Brian T; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-12-01

    We performed an experiment in a laboratory flume to test the effects of water flow speed and the concentration of aqueaous copper on the feeding behavior, growth rate, and accumulation of copper in the tissues of juvenile polychaetes Polydora cornuta. The experiment included two flow speeds (6 or 15 cm/s) and two concentrations of added copper (0 or 85 μg/L). Worms grew significantly faster in the faster flow and in the lower copper concentration. In the slower flow, the total time worms spent feeding decreased significantly as copper concentration increased, but copper did not significantly affect the time worms spent feeding in the faster flow. Across all treatments, there was a significant, positive relationship between the time individuals spent feeding and their relative growth rate. Worms were observed suspension feeding significantly more often in the faster flow and deposit feeding significantly more often in the slower flow, but copper concentration did not affect the proportion of time spent in either feeding mode. The addition of 85 μg/L copper significantly increased copper accumulation in P. cornuta tissue, but the accumulation did not differ significantly due to flow speed. There was a significant interaction between copper and flow; the magnitude of the difference in copper accumulation between the 0 and 85 μg/L treatments was greater in the faster flow than in the slower flow. In slow flows that favor deposit feeding, worms grow slowly and accumulate less copper in their tissue than in faster flows that favor suspension feeding and faster growth.

  19. On some Polychaetous Annelids from Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1922-01-01

    Though we know already a rather large number of Polychaetous Annelids from the Caribbean Sea, hitherto, as far as I know, no Annelids have been described from the coast of the island Curaçao and I therefore was very glad, that my colleague Dr. VAN DER HORST kindly placed in my hands for identificati

  20. Community structure and population genetics of Eastern Mediterranean polychaetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos eChatzigeorgiou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Species and genetic diversity are often found to co-vary since they are influenced by external factors in similar ways. In this paper, we analyse the genetic differences of the abundant polychaete Hermodice carunculata (Pallas, 1776 during two successive years at two locations in northern Crete (Aegean Sea and compare them to other populations in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The genetic analysis is combined with an analysis of ecological divergence of the total polychaete community structure (beta diversity at these locations. The phylogenetic analysis of all included H. carunculata populations revealed two main clades, one exclusively found in the Mediterranean and a second occurring in both the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. Genetic diversity indices reveal unexpectedly high differences between the two Cretan populations, despite the absence of apparent oceanographic barriers. A similarly high divergence, represented by a high beta diversity index, was observed between the polychaete communities at the two locations. This comparatively high divergence of the genetic structure of a dominant species and the total polychaete community might be explained by the strong influence of local environmental factors as well as inter-specific interactions between the dominance of a single species and the members of the community.

  1. Neurogenesis suggests independent evolution of opercula in serpulid polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Nora; Wanninger, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The internal phylogenetic relationships of Annelida, one of the key lophotrochozoan lineages, are still heavily debated. Recent molecular analyses suggest that morphologically distinct groups, such as the polychaetes, are paraphyletic assemblages, thus questioning the homology of a nu...... neurogenesis provide a novel set of characters that highlight the developmental plasticity of the segmented annelid nervous system....

  2. Effects of deposit-feeding macrofauna on benthic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa in a silty freshwater sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieltschnig, Claudia; Fischer, Ulrike R; Velimirov, Branko; Kirschner, Alexander K T

    2008-07-01

    In microcosm experiments, we simultaneously tested the effects of increased numbers of deposit-feeding macrofauna (chironomids, oligochaetes and cladocerans) on the standing stock, activities and interactions of heterotrophic bacteria, viruses, and bacterivorous protozoa (heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates) in the aerobic layer of a silty littoral freshwater sediment. On average, bacterial secondary production was stimulated between 11 and 29% by all macrofaunal groups compared to control experiments without macrofauna addition. Bacterial standing stock increased significantly by 8 and 13% in case of chironomids and cladocerans, respectively. Oligochaetes and chironomids produced significant negative effects on viral abundance while the results with cladocerans were inconsistent. The addition of oligochaetes and chironomids resulted in a significant decrease by on average 68 and 32% of viral decay rates, respectively, used as a measure of viral production. The calculated contribution of virus-induced lysis to benthic bacterial mortality was low, with 2.8 to 11.8% of bacterial secondary production, and decreased by 39 to 81% after the addition of macrofauna compared to the control. The abundances of heterotrophic nanoflagellates were significantly reduced by 20% by all tested macrofauna groups, while ciliates showed inconsistent results. The importance of heterotrophic nanoflagellate grazing on benthic bacteria was very low (virus-induced cell lysis and protozoan grazing.

  3. Polychaete community structure of Indian west coast shelf, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joydas, T.V.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Damodaran, R.

    CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 97, NO. 5, 10 SEPTEMBER 2009 634 Polychaete community structure of Indian west coast shelf, Arabian Sea Ellis 1 introduced the concept of taxono- mic sufficiency (TS) in which identifica- tion is required only to the level... the effects of pollution on marine communities. As TS moves progressively to species, costs, in terms of the expertise and time needed to identify organisms, decrease 4 . It is quicker and easier to train personnel to sort higher taxonomic levels than...

  4. Benthic polychaetes in the Ratnagiri bay, India: Influence of anthropogenic factors

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sukumaran, S.; Bhokepode, K.; Telavane, M.; Kubal, P.; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    by anthropogenic contamination. The study indicates that the polychaete distribution and diversity in the bay were governed primarily by variations in sediment texture rather than the anthropogenic disturbances....

  5. Flow variation and substrate type affect dislodgement of the freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakauskas, David M.; Wilson, Sarah J.; Wilzbach, Margaret A.; Som, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    We quantified microscale flow forces and their ability to entrain the freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa, the intermediate host for 2 myxozoan parasites (Ceratomyxa shasta and Parvicapsula minibicornis) that cause substantial mortalities in salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest. In a laboratory flume, we measured the shear stress associated with 2 mean flow velocities and 3 substrates and quantified associated dislodgement of polychaetes, evaluated survivorship of dislodged polychaetes, and observed behavioral responses of the polychaetes in response to increased flow. We used a generalized linear mixed model to estimate the probability of polychaete dislodgement for treatment combinations of velocity (mean flow velocity  =  55 cm/s with a shear velocity  =  3 cm/s, mean flow velocity  =  140 cm/s with a shear velocity  =  5 cm/s) and substrate type (depositional sediments and analogs of rock faces and the filamentous alga, Cladophora). Few polychaetes were dislodged at shear velocities affected by both substrate type and velocity. After accounting for substrate, odds of dislodgement were 8× greater at the higher flow. After accounting for velocity, probability of dislodgement was greatest from fine sediments, intermediate from rock faces, and negligible from Cladophora. Survivorship of dislodged polychaetes was high. Polychaetes exhibited a variety of behaviors for avoiding increases in flow, including extrusion of mucus, burrowing into sediments, and movement to lower-flow microhabitats. Our findings suggest that polychaete populations probably exhibit high resilience to flow-mediated disturbances.

  6. Distribution and abundance of macrobenthic polychaetes along the South Indian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musale, Amar S; Desai, Dattesh V

    2011-07-01

    Macrobenthic polychaetes play a significant role in marine benthic food chain. A study was carried out to observe the abundance and diversity of soft bottom macrobenthic polychaetes along the South Indian coast, along with observations on sediment characteristics. The present study indicated an increase in the polychaete diversity as compared to earlier reports. Sixty-three different forms of polychaetes were identified along the coast, which constitute the bulk of the macrobenthic fauna. Thirty-eight species of polychaetes showed higher abundance along the west coast, whereas 25 species showed higher abundance along the east coast. Seabed composition showed a spatial variation in its composition along the coast. Occurrence of Prionospio pinnata and Capitella capitata the deposit feeders and indicators of organic pollution suggesting the sampled area is organically rich. Polychaete abundance was found to be higher along the west coast and was attributed to loose texture of sediment due to high sand and sandy-silt resulting in higher interstitial space for organisms to harbor. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that majority of polychaete species preferred low organic carbon, sandy silt, or sandy-clay substratum. The lower polychaete abundance at high organic carbon and high silt and clay areas can be attributed to avoidance of organisms to rich organic matter and suboxic levels, being a possible indication that these characteristics adversely affects the polychaete abundance and distribution.

  7. Osmotic relations of the coelomic fluid and body wall tissues in Arenicola marina subjected to salinity change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Spaargaren, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    . In the body wall extracts, however, NPS accounts for at least one third of the osmotic concentration and for most of the substantial non-electrolyte fraction. There is no evidence from coelomic NPS measurements for extrusion of cellular amino acids during adaptation to lowered salinity. In diluted sea water...... nitrogenous organic molecules (ninhydrin-positive substances, NPS) in the body wall tissues and in the coelomic fluid of specimens of Arenicola in response to sudden changes in salinity. The coelomic solutes consist almost entirely of electrolytes and the osmotic contribution of NPS is essentially negligible...... the concentrations of the different solutes (including NPS) decrease by approximately similar rates and proportions, indicating responses to a common factor, such as tissue hydration. The concentration of chloride in the body wall tissues, however, showed distinctly greater decreases than that of other solutes...

  8. Experimental-study of the interactions between a natural C-14 radiolabeled sediment and a deposit-feeding bivalve : Abra alba

    OpenAIRE

    Amouroux, Jm; Gremare, A.; Cahet, G.

    1991-01-01

    Changes of radioactivity in a natural C-14 labelled sediment were monitored over a 120-hour period in the presence and in the absence of the deposit-feeding bivalve Abra alba. In both cases, the sediment showed great instability during the first ten hours of the experiment. The consequences of this result on the experimental protocol used for the study of the interactions between natural sediments and deposit-feeders are discussed. In controls, the instability is produced by an initial decrea...

  9. A combination of dynamic light scattering and polarized resonance Raman scattering applied in the study of Arenicola Marina extracellular hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernshøj, K D; Hassing, S; Olsen, L F

    2013-08-14

    Arenicola Marina extracellular hemoglobin (Hbl Hb) is considered to be a promising candidate as a blood substitute. To entangle some of the properties of extracellular giant hexagonal bilayer hemoglobin (Hbl Hb) of Arenicola Marina, we combined polarized resonance Raman scattering (532 nm excitation) with dynamic light scattering (DLS) (632.8 nm). An analysis of the depolarization ratio of selected a(2g) skeletal modes of the heme in native Hbl Hb and porcine Hb, shows that the distortion of the heme group away from its ideal fourfold symmetry is much smaller for heme groups bound in the Hbl Hb than for heme groups bound in porcine Hb. Using DLS, the average hydrodynamic diameter () of Hbl Hb was measured at pH = 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10. At pH = 5 to 7, the Hbl Hb was found in its native form with equal to 24.2 nm, while at pH = 8 and 9, a dissociation process starts to take place resulting in = 9 nm. At pH = 10, only large aggregates of fragmented Hbl Hb with larger than 1000 nm was detected, however, a comparison of the DLS results with the polarized resonance Raman scattering (RRS) revealed that the coupling between the fragments did not involve direct interaction between the heme groups, but also that the local heme environment seems to be comparable in the aggregates and in the native Hbl Hb. By comparing the unpolarized RRS results obtained for erythrocytes (RBC) with those for Hbl Hb, led us to the important conclusion that Hbl Hb is much easier photolyzed than porcine RBC.

  10. Biodiversity of benthic polychaetes from the coastal waters of Paradip, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    ) of macrofauna was higher at shallower depth (near-shore stations) mainly due to the dominance of polychaetes. A total of 79-macrofaunal invertebrate species belonging to 13 phyla and 45 families were identified. The fauna was mainly composed of polychaetes (41...

  11. Photonic crystal fiber in the polychaete worm Pherusa sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Tomasz M; Vukusic, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Setae of the polychaete worm Pherusa exhibit remarkably strong photonic effects, which arise from their two-dimensional-periodic internal structure of hexagonally packed cylindrical channels. The hexagonal order is limited to monocrystalline domains of different orientation, which results in an overall polycrystalline effect. A detailed experimental and theoretical investigation of this structure reveals that the internal photonic structure is carefully tuned with respect to its lattice constant in order to provide an optical response coinciding with the visible wavelength rage. A further optimization is observed for the packing fraction of cylindrical channels in order to maximize the width of photonic band gaps, and hence the reflectance of incident visible light.

  12. Antibacterial and biofilm inhibitory activities of bacteria associated with polychaetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellamnadar Vaikundavasagom Sunjaiy Shankar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities expressed by epibiotic bacteria associated with the polychaetes Platynereis dumerilii and Syllis sp. Methods: A total of 32 cultivable bacterial strains were isolated from the two polychaete species. The crude extracts were tested for antibacterial activity and biofilm inhibitory activity against pathogenic and biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Extracts of the strains which showed strong activity were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC and the bacterial strains were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Extracts of 13 bacterial strains showed inhibitory activity against pathogenic and biofilm-forming bacteria. The crude extracts also affected the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances and cell surface hydrophobicity of the Alteromonas sp. isolated from marine biofilm. The adhesion of Alteromonas sp. on glass surface showed significant variation between surface-associated bacterial crude extract treatment and control groups. Among the 13 bacteria, two strains PA8 and PA19 were further analyzed for bioactive fractions. Thinlayer chromatography indicated the presence of a single active fraction in the crude extract of both the bacterial strains. The epibiotic bacterial strains P8 and P19 were identified as Exiguobacterium sp. and Actinobacterium sp. respectively based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Conclusions: The present study indicates that bacteria associated with marine invertebrates inhabiting the coastal waters could be used as a potential source for the isolation of bioactive metabolites.

  13. Antibacterial and bioiflm inhibitory activities of bacteria associated with polychaetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sathianeson Satheesh; Nadarajan Viju

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities expressed by epibiotic bacteria associated with the polychaetes Platynereis dumerilii and Syllis sp. Methods:A total of 32 cultivable bacterial strains were isolated from the two polychaete species. The crude extracts were tested for antibacterial activity and biofilm inhibitory activity against pathogenic and biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Extracts of the strains which showed strong activity were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the bacterial strains were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results:Extracts of 13 bacterial strains showed inhibitory activity against pathogenic and biofilm-forming bacteria. The crude extracts also affected the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances and cell surface hydrophobicity of the Alteromonas sp. isolated from marine biofilm. The adhesion of Alteromonas sp. on glass surface showed significant variation between surface-associated bacterial crude extract treatment and control groups. Among the 13 bacteria, two strains PA8 and PA19 were further analyzed for bioactive fractions. Thin-layer chromatography indicated the presence of a single active fraction in the crude extract of both the bacterial strains. The epibiotic bacterial strains P8 and P19 were identified as Exiguobacterium sp. and Actinobacterium sp. respectively based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Conclusions:The present study indicates that bacteria associated with marine invertebrates inhabiting the coastal waters could be used as a potential source for the isolation of bioactive metabolites.

  14. Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Faulwetter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of ecosystem functioning – the role which organisms play in an ecosystem – is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (http://polytraits.lifewatchgreece.eu, a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida. At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources.

  15. Polychaetes of an artificial reef in the central mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, M. F.; Ardizzone, G. D.; Belluscio, A.

    1989-02-01

    The development of a polychaete community over five years on a man-made reef was analyzed. The reef was composed of 280 concrete blocks (2 × 2 × 2 m) and located in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy) 1.5 miles offshore and 12-14 m deep. Sixty-three species were collected—serpulids, nereids and cirratulids being the most abundant families. Ordination by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) technique showed three main stages in the colonization process: a pioneer phase, when mainly serpulids ( Pomatoceros triqueter, P. lamarckii, Hydroides pseuduncinata) occurred; a second phase, characterized by mussel ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) dominance and a more differentiated community structure with a lot of new species especially recurring on hard bottom ( Serpula concharum, H. dianthus, Ceratonereis costae); and a third phase, with an alteration of the substratum through soft deposits and the polychaete community characterized by also the occurrence of soft bottom species ( Heteromastus filiformis, Polydora ciliata, Dorvillea rubrovittata). From the trophic point of view, the structure of the community changed from dominance by filter feeders (97%) to a more differentiated situation with abundant detritic feeders ( c. 20%). The rates of immigration and extinction and the colonization curve showed that an actual stable steady-state was not reached.

  16. Integrative analysis of polychaete ontogeny: cell proliferation patterns and myogenesis in trochophore larvae of Sabellaria alveolata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Nora; Wanninger, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    arranged organ systems in polychaetes. The occurrence of three clusters of proliferating cells in the trunk region of the metatrochophore indicates synchronous subdivision of the larval mesoderm in the first three segments. Assuming a polychaete-like ancestor at the base of the annelid tree, comparative...... of this crucial mesoderm-derived organ system, particularly in indirect developing representatives of the Lophotrochozoa. Here, we document the temporal and spatial patterns of muscle formation and cell proliferation in the polychaete Sabellaria alveolata during planktotrophic larval development in order...

  17. Fine-scale spatial distribution of the common lugworm Arenicola marina, and effects of intertidal clam fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldina, Inna; Beninger, Peter G.

    2014-04-01

    Despite its ubiquity and its role as an ecosystem engineer on temperate intertidal mudflats, little is known of the spatial ecology of the lugworm Arenicola marina. We estimated lugworm densities and analyzed the spatial distribution of A. marina on a French Atlantic mudflat subjected to long-term clam digging activities, and compared these to a nearby pristine reference mudflat, using a combination of geostatistical techniques: point-pattern analysis, autocorrelation, and wavelet analysis. Lugworm densities were an order of magnitude greater at the reference site. Although A. marina showed an aggregative spatial distribution at both sites, the characteristics and intensity of aggregation differed markedly between sites. The reference site showed an inhibition process (regular distribution) at distances marina was clearly aggregated at both sites; however, the autocorrelation strength was much weaker at the impacted site. In addition, the non-impacted site presented multi-scale spatial distribution, which was not evident at the impacted site. The differences observed between the spatial distributions of the fishing-impacted vs. the non-impacted site reflect similar findings for other components of these two mudflat ecosystems, suggesting common community-level responses to prolonged mechanical perturbation: a decrease in naturally-occurring aggregation. This change may have consequences for basic biological characteristics such as reproduction, recruitment, growth, and feeding.

  18. Effects of conventional and biodegradable microplastics on a marine ecosystem engineer (Arenicola marina) and sediment nutrient cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Sigwart, Julia; Jiang, Shan; Rocha, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Effects of microplastic pollution on benthic organisms and ecosystem services provided by sedimentary habitats are largely unknown. An outdoor mesocosm experiment was done to realistically assess the effects of three different types of microplastic pollution (one biodegradable type; polylactic acid and two conventional types; polyethylene and polyvinylchloride) at increasing concentrations (0.02, 0.2 and 2% of wet sediment weight) on the health and biological activity of lugworms, Arenicola marina (Linnaeus, 1758), and on nitrogen cycling and primary productivity of the sediment they inhabit. After 31 days, A. marina produced less casts in sediments containing microplastics. Metabolic rates of A. marina increased, while microalgal biomass decreased at high concentrations, compared to sediments with low concentrations or without microplastics. Responses were strongest to polyvinylchloride, emphasising that different materials may have differential effects. Each material needs to be carefully evaluated in order to assess their risks as microplastic pollution. Overall, both conventional and biodegradable microplastics in sandy sediments can affect the health and behaviour of lugworms and directly or indirectly reduce primary productivity of these habitats.

  19. Effect of high organic enrichment of benthic polychaete population in an estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The benthic polychaete fauna of an estuarine region receiving domestic sewage and wastes from a nearby fish landing jetty was compared to that of a site having normal organic enrichment. The population density, biomass and species diversity were...

  20. Formation and erosion of biogeomorphological structures: A model study on the tube-building polychaete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, B.W.; Bouma, T.J.; Rabaut, M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Borsje, B.W.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    We study how organism traits and population densities of ecosystem engineering species, in combination withenvironmental factors, affect the formation and erosion rates of biogeomorphological structures, and focus on thewidely distributed marine tube-building polychaete Lanice conchilega, which live

  1. Impact of the changing ecology on intertidal polychaetes in an anthropogenically stressed tropical creek, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Quadros, G.; Sukumaran, S.; Athalye, R.P.

    ecology on intertidal polychaetes in an anthropogenically stressed tropical creek, India G. Quadros Æ Soniya Sukumaran Æ R. P. Athalye Received: 1 May 2008 / Accepted: 2 January 2009 / Published online: 24 January 2009 C211 Springer Science+Business Media... parameters and faunal assemblages. The highly polluted status of Thane creek and absence of scientific management plan offer an interesting opportunity to examine the effect of this increasingly stressed environment on polychaetes that form an important...

  2. Ordovician eunicid polychaetes of Estonia and surrounding areas: review of their distribution and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hints, O

    2000-12-01

    Scolecodonts, the jaws of polychaete worms, are common and diverse palynomorphs in the Ordovician rocks of Estonia and surrounding areas. Some 120 apparatus-based species representing about 40 genera have been recorded thus far. Relatively long stratigraphical ranges of the majority of species reflect a low rate of evolution of jawed polychaetes. However, some individual species, as well as structural changes in the assemblages, appear to be useful for stratigraphical purposes. Environmental events like those in the middle Caradoc and late Ashgill had some impact on polychaete faunas, but less than on several other groups. In order to study the spatial distribution of eunicids, faunas of particular intervals of the Ordovician were investigated. Quantitative analysis revealed that polychaete assemblages with a very consistent qualitative and quantitative composition were widespread over long distances within the belts of similar facies conditions in the Baltoscandian Palaeobasin. On the other hand, it appears that species of Ordovician jawed polychaetes were strongly influenced by particular facies, and accordingly well differentiated along the palaeobasin gradient. The decrease in diversity and abundance towards the deeper-water part of the palaeobasin indicates that the majority of Ordovician eunicids preferred relatively shallow-water conditions. The increase in differentiation of environments is accompanied by an increase in differentiation of polychaete assemblages.

  3. Polychaete Annelid Biomass Size Spectra: The Effects of Hypoxia Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Qu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative benthic samples were taken during spring and summer at three locations on the Louisiana continental shelf from 2004 to 2012 to assess the influence of hypoxia on the mean sizes (wet weight of polychaete annelid worms. While the mean body size over the entire study of 64 samples was 3.99 ± 4.66 mg wet weight per individual, the mean ranged from 2.97 ± 2.87 mg during consistently hypoxic conditions (2 mg/L. The variations in size within assemblages were estimated from conventional biomass size spectra (BSS and normalized biomass size spectra (NBSS across a broad range of oxygen concentrations. The decline in size was due to the elimination of large species under hypoxic conditions (<2 mg/L, not a reduction in size within species. At “severe” levels of hypoxia (<1 mg/L, the smallest species also declined in abundance, whereas the ubiquitous “medium-sized” Paraprionospio pinnata flourished. These results suggest that there will be enhanced selection for small sizes and species with enlarged branchial palps such as those in P. pinnata if, as predicted, hypoxia becomes more commonplace in time and space worldwide.

  4. Distribution patterns of shallow water polychaetes (Annelida along the Alexandria coast, Egypt (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. DORGHAM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shallow hard bottom and intertidal soft bottom polychaete assemblages of the Alexandria coast, southeastern Mediterranean (Levantine Sea, were studied during a complete annual cycle in order to analyze spatial temporal patterns of variation in assemblages, and relevant factors related to polychaete distribution. The present study recorded a total of 73 species, belonging to Syllidae (22 species, Nereididae (9 species, Serpulidae (6 species, Eunicidae (5 species and other 19 families. The assemblages experienced pronounced spatial and temporal variation throughout the study area, but spatial variation appeared more important in determining the observed patterns. Polychaete distribution related to variation of grain size and sessile macrobenthos cover suggesting that these structural variables accounted more than the physical-chemical ones (namely BOD, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon, organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH in influencing the patterns of assemblages’ distribution. The present study is the southeastern-most one dealing with ecology and distribution patterns of hard bottom polychaetes from the Mediterranean Sea, as well as one of the few studies dealing with intertidal soft bottom polychaetes in the Levant Basin.

  5. Distribution patterns of shallow water polychaetes (Annelida along the Alexandria coast, Egypt (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. DORGHAM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shallow hard bottom and intertidal soft bottom polychaete assemblages of the Alexandria coast, southeastern Mediterranean (Levantine Sea, were studied during a complete annual cycle in order to analyze spatial temporal patterns of variation in assemblages, and relevant factors related to polychaete distribution. The present study recorded a total of 73 species, belonging to Syllidae (22 species, Nereididae (9 species, Serpulidae (6 species, Eunicidae (5 species and other 19 families. The assemblages experienced pronounced spatial and temporal variation throughout the study area, but spatial variation appeared more important in determining the observed patterns. Polychaete distribution related to variation of grain size and sessile macrobenthos cover suggesting that these structural variables accounted more than the physical-chemical ones (namely BOD, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon, organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH in influencing the patterns of assemblages’ distribution. The present study is the southeastern-most one dealing with ecology and distribution patterns of hard bottom polychaetes from the Mediterranean Sea, as well as one of the few studies dealing with intertidal soft bottom polychaetes in the Levant Basin.

  6. Larval neurogenesis in Sabellaria alveolata reveals plasticity in polychaete neural patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Nora; Wanninger, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of neurogenesis in polychaetes not only facilitates insights into the developmental biology of this group, but also provides new data for phylogenetic analyses. This should eventually lead toward a better understanding of metazoan evolution including key issues such as the ontog......The investigation of neurogenesis in polychaetes not only facilitates insights into the developmental biology of this group, but also provides new data for phylogenetic analyses. This should eventually lead toward a better understanding of metazoan evolution including key issues...... reconstruction software. The overall pattern of neurogenesis in S. alveolata resembles the condition found in other planktonic polychaete trochophores where the larval neural body plan including a serotonergic prototroch nerve ring is directly followed by adult features of the nervous system...

  7. Testing the potential for improving quality of sediments impacted by mussel farms using bioturbating polychaete worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Per; Carlsson, Marita S; Lindegarth, Mats;

    2015-01-01

    Biodeposits from farmed mussels severely influence the biogeochemistry of sediments by increasing the levels of organic matter (OM). Mitigation of such negative impacts is important for the development of sustainable aquaculture operations. As a step towards developing methods for remediation...... of coastal sediments affected by mussel farming, the effects of the polychaete, Hediste diversicolor was evaluated experimentally. In a series of field- and laboratory experiments we tested hypotheses about the effects of polychaetes on sediment oxygen consumption, nutrient fluxes and sulphide pools under...... of OM. The accumulation of pore water sulphides were reduced and fluxes of nutrients across the sediment-water interface increased. Additional calculations suggest that the effects of polychaetes were mainly indirect and driven by increased microbial activity due to the borrowing activity...

  8. Sublethal toxicity of nano-titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes in a sediment dwelling marine polychaete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, Tamara, E-mail: t.s.galloway@exeter.ac.u [School of Biosciences, Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, EX4 4PS, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom); Lewis, Ceri [School of Biosciences, Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, EX4 4PS, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom); Dolciotti, Ida [Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Institute of Biology and Genetics, Via Ranieri, Monte Dago, 60121 Ancona (Italy); Johnston, Blair D. [School of Biosciences, Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, EX4 4PS, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom); Moger, Julian [School of Physics, Stocker Road, University of Exeter, Devon EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Regoli, Francesco [Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Institute of Biology and Genetics, Via Ranieri, Monte Dago, 60121 Ancona (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    The ecotoxicology of manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) in estuarine environments is not well understood. Here we explore the hypothesis that nanoTiO{sub 2} and single walled nanotubes (SWNT) cause sublethal impacts to the infaunal species Arenicola marina (lugworm) exposed through natural sediments. Using a 10 day OECD/ASTM 1990 acute toxicity test, no significant effects were seen for SWNT up to 0.03 g/kg and no uptake of SWNTs into tissues was observed. A significant decrease in casting rate (P = 0.018), increase in cellular damage (P = 0.04) and DNA damage in coelomocytes (P = 0.008) was measured for nanoTiO{sub 2}, with a preliminary LOEC of 1 g/kg. Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy (CARS) located aggregates of TiO{sub 2} of >200 nm within the lumen of the gut and adhered to the outer epithelium of the worms, although no visible uptake of particles into tissues was detected. - This study explores the hypothesis that nano-TiO{sub 2} and single walled nanotubes (SWNT) can cause sublethal impacts to Arenicola marina exposed through natural sediments.

  9. First documentation and molecular confirmation of three trematode species (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) infecting the polychaete Marenzelleria viridis (Annelida: Spionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Krystin; Blakeslee, April M H; Krause, Maureen; Williams, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Polychaete worms are hosts to a wide range of marine parasites; yet, studies on trematodes using these ecologically important species as intermediate hosts are lacking. During examination of the spionid polychaete Marenzelleria viridis collected on the north shore of Long Island, New York, putative trematode cysts were discovered in the body cavity of these polychaetes. In order to verify these cysts as metacercariae of trematodes, specimens of the eastern mudsnail Ilyanassa obsoleta (a very common first intermediate host of trematodes in the region) were collected for molecular comparison. DNA barcoding using cytochrome C oxidase I regions confirmed the presence of three species of trematodes (Himasthla quissetensis, Lepocreadium setiferoides, and Zoogonus lasius) in both M. viridis and I. obsoleta hosts. Brown bodies were also recovered from polychaetes, and molecular testing confirmed the presence of L. setiferoides and Z. lasius, indicating an immune response of the polychaete leading to encapsulation of the cysts. From the 125 specimens of M. viridis collected in 2014, 95 (76.8 %) were infected with trematodes; of these 95 infected polychaetes, 86 (90.5 %) contained brown bodies. This is the first confirmation that trematodes use M. viridis as a second intermediate host and that this intermediate host demonstrates a clear immune response to metacercarial infection. Future research should explore the role of these polychaetes in trematode life cycles, the effectiveness of the immune response, and transmission pathways to vertebrate definitive hosts.

  10. Swimming behavior and prey retention of the polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata (Johnston)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B.W.; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Andersen, Anders Peter

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of the ubiquitous estuarine planktotrophic spionid polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata was studied. We describe ontogenetic changes in morphology, swimming speed and feeding rates and have developed a simple swimming model using low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. In the model we assum...

  11. Temporal genetic structure in a poecilogonous polychaete: the interplay of developmental mode and environmental stochasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Kesäniemi, Jenni E; Mustonen, Marina;

    2014-01-01

    elegans, a poecilogonous polychaete with within-species variation in developmental mode. P. elegans produces either planktonic, benthic, or intermediate larvae, varying both among and within populations, providing a within-species test of the generality of a relationship between temporal genetic variation...

  12. Spatial relationships between polychaete assemblages and environmental variables over broad geographical scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi

    Full Text Available This study examined spatial relationships between rocky shore polychaete assemblages and environmental variables over broad geographical scales, using a database compiled within the Census of Marine Life NaGISA (Natural Geography In Shore Areas research program. The database consisted of abundance measures of polychaetes classified at the genus and family levels for 74 and 93 sites, respectively, from nine geographic regions. We tested the general hypothesis that the set of environmental variables emerging as potentially important drivers of variation in polychaete assemblages depend on the spatial scale considered. Through Moran's eigenvector maps we indentified three submodels reflecting spatial relationships among sampling sites at intercontinental (>10,000 km, continental (1000-5000 km and regional (20-500 km scales. Using redundancy analysis we found that most environmental variables contributed to explain a large and significant proportion of variation of the intercontinental submodel both for genera and families (54% and 53%, respectively. A subset of these variables, organic pollution, inorganic pollution, primary productivity and nutrient contamination was also significantly related to spatial variation at the continental scale, explaining 25% and 32% of the variance at the genus and family levels, respectively. These variables should therefore be preferably considered when forecasting large-scale spatial patterns of polychaete assemblages in relation to ongoing or predicted changes in environmental conditions. None of the variables considered in this study were significantly related to the regional submodel.

  13. Biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene in the marine polychaete Nereis virens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Glessing, Anders M B; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2005-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene was investigated in the marine polychaete Nereis virens. Assays were designed to characterize phase I and II enzymes isolated from gut tissue. High-pressure liquid chromatography measurement of 1-hydroxypyr...

  14. Oxygen dynamics and porewater transport in sediments inhabited by the invasive polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Larsen, Morten; Quintana, Cintia Organo

    2014-01-01

    The polychaete Marenzelleria viridis is an invasive species and often replaces the native Nereis diversicolor. This shift leads to more reduced conditions and changes in the biogeochemical function of the sediments. By combining imaging techniques for O2 (planar optodes) and irrigation patterns...

  15. Oxygen dynamics and porewater transport in sediments inhabited by the invasive polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Larsen, Morten; Quintana, Cintia Organo;

    2014-01-01

    The polychaete Marenzelleria viridis is an invasive species and often replaces the native Nereis diversicolor. This shift leads to more reduced conditions and changes in the biogeochemical function of the sediments. By combining imaging techniques for O2 (planar optodes) and irrigation patterns (...

  16. Eranno carrerai sp. nov., a new polychaete worm (Lumbrineridae) from coastal waters of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Wenqian; LI Xinzheng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new polychaete species, Eranno carrerai sp. nov. from coastal areas of China, is described based on specimens deposited in the Marine Biological Museum of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, collected during 1957 to 1976 from the Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea at depths of 9-210 m.

  17. Biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene by the marine polychaete Nereis virens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Giessing, Anders M. B.; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2005-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene was investigated in the marine polychaete Nereis virens. Assays were designed to characterize phase I and II enzymes isolated from gut tissue. High-pressure liquid chromatography measurement of 1-hydroxypyr...

  18. Pileolaria berkeleyana, a spirorbin polychaete worm introduced to the Netherlands (Polychaeta: Serpulidae: Spirorbinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faasse, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The spirorbin polychaete worm Pileolaria berkeleyana, new for the fauna of the Netherlands, was found at different localities in the Oosterschelde area in the province of Zeeland. They were found on empty shells and on boulders, which confirms their preference for hard substrates. The introduction

  19. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated silvernanoparticles in the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Yi; Banta, Gary Thomas; Selck, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the toxicities of sediment-associated silver added to sediment as commercially available silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 20 and 80 nm) and aqueous Ag (AgNO3) to the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor, were investigated for both individual and subcellular endpoints af...

  20. Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa l. lapponica eat polychaete worms wherever they winter in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, Sjoerd; Hidayati, Nur Annis; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Capsule: Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability. Aims: To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their win

  1. A tri-oceanic perspective: DNA barcoding reveals geographic structure and cryptic diversity in Canadian polychaetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Carr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although polychaetes are one of the dominant taxa in marine communities, their distributions and taxonomic diversity are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that many species thought to have broad distributions are actually a complex of allied species. In Canada, 12% of polychaete species are thought to occur in Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific Oceans, but the extent of gene flow among their populations has not been tested. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequence variation in a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene was employed to compare morphological versus molecular diversity estimates, to examine gene flow among populations of widespread species, and to explore connectivity patterns among Canada's three oceans. Analysis of 1876 specimens, representing 333 provisional species, revealed 40 times more sequence divergence between than within species (16.5% versus 0.38%. Genetic data suggest that one quarter of previously recognized species actually include two or more divergent lineages, indicating that richness in this region is currently underestimated. Few species with a tri-oceanic distribution showed genetic cohesion. Instead, large genetic breaks occur between Pacific and Atlantic-Arctic lineages, suggesting their long-term separation. High connectivity among Arctic and Atlantic regions and low connectivity with the Pacific further supports the conclusion that Canadian polychaetes are partitioned into two distinct faunas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results of this study confirm that COI sequences are an effective tool for species identification in polychaetes, and suggest that DNA barcoding will aid the recognition of species overlooked by the current taxonomic system. The consistent geographic structuring within presumed widespread species suggests that historical range fragmentation during the Pleistocene ultimately increased Canadian polychaete diversity and that the coastal British Columbia

  2. ORGANIC CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENTS, POLYCHAETES (NEREIS VIRENS) AND THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS IN A LABORATORY FOOD CHAIN EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passa...

  3. Sewage-induced disturbance on polychaetes inhabiting intertidal mussel beds of Brachidontes rodriguezii off Mar del Plata (SW Atlantic, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Elías

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous and short-term disturbances are produced on intertidal Brachidontes rodriguezii mussel beds by the sewage outfall of Mar del Plata, SW Atlantic. The effects on the associated polychaetes living on and between mussels were investigated, in both the spatial and short-term temporal scales. Multivariate methods show that the polychaete fauna was influenced by tidal level, total amount of sediment accumulated between mussels, distance from the sewage outfall, organic carbon of interstitial sediments, and sewage volume before and after the summer season. Environmental variables in the water column fitted with a spatial and temporal organic gradient. Capitella ‘capitata’ sp. showed typical opportunistic behaviour in relation to organic enrichment, as did Neanthes succinea, both being numerically dominant near the sewage discharge. Cirratulus sp., Caulleriella alata, and Boccardia polybranchia were common at intermediate distances from the outfall. Syllis prolixa, S. gracilis, and Protoariciella uncinata reached their highest abundance at intermediate stations and were characteristic of the control site. Close to the outfall mussel density and dominance is low, and opportunist polychaetes successfully colonize organically enriched interstitial sediments. At intermediate distances from the outfall sediments retained by mussels reach their maximum values, and density of polychaetes is also high. The control station is characterized by monolayered mussel beds and very low diversity of polychaetes. Opportunistic polychaetes increase in response to short-term increases of sewage discharge during the summer season (November-March.

  4. Optimization of hard clams, polychaetes, physical disturbance and denitrifying bacteria of removing nutrients in marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui; Thrush, Simon F; Wan, Xihe; Li, Hui; Qiao, Yi; Jiang, Ge; Sun, Ruijian; Wang, LiBao; He, Peimin

    2016-09-15

    Marine organisms are known to play important roles in transforming nutrients in sediments, however, guidelines to optimize sediment restoration are not available. We conducted a laboratory mesocosm experiment to investigate the role of hard clams, polychaetes, the degree of physical disturbance and denitrifying bacterial concentrations in removing total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total organic carbon (TOC) in marine sediments. Response surface methodology was employed to analyze the results of initial experiments and in a subsequent experiment identified optimal combinations of parameters. Balancing the TN, TP, TOC removal efficiency, our model predicted 39% TN removal, 33% TP removal, and 42% TOC removal for a 14-day laboratory bioremediation trial using hard clams biomass of 1.2kgm(-2), physical disturbance depth of 16.4cm, bacterial density of 0.18Lm(-2), and polychaetes biomass of 0.16kgm(-2), respectively. These results emphasize the value of combining different species in field-based bioremediation.

  5. Bioconcentration and Elimination of the Dithiocarbamate Fungicide Polycarbamate in Marine Teleost Fish and Polychaete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Takeshi; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Kono, Kumiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the bioconcentration and elimination of polycarbamate, a popular antifoulant classified as a dithiocarbamate fungicide, in a marine teleost fish, mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), and a polychaete (Perinereis nuntia). Following polycarbamate exposure and depuration, the calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) and elimination rate constant (k2) were 3.1 and 0.17 day(-1) in fish and 1.5-7.8 and 0.13-0.18 day(-1) in the polychaete, indicating that the fungicide has low bioconcentration potential in both organisms. Given the BCF of 3.1, the permissible environmental concentration level of polycarbamate in water was calculated to be 6.1 µg L(-1) to satisfy the threshold pesticide residue levels in fish permitted by law, which is far below the permissible levels in Hiroshima Bay, Japan. Therefore, we consider that the current polycarbamate contamination level in terms of bioconcentration is not likely to be an alarming issue in coastal environments.

  6. Management and Risk Assessment of Sabellid Polychaete Infestations in Abalone Mariculture Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kuris, Armand M.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1993, growers at some commercial abalone mariculture facilities (AMFs) in Southern California brought an interesting sabellid polychaete to our attention. The worm infested shells of cultured red abalone, Haliotis rufescens. Heavily infested abalone ceased growth. Their shells exhibited domed teratology often lacking respiratory holes. The worms appeared to bore into the shell. We discovered that all AMFs in California were infested; several were so heavily infest...

  7. Managing the marine aquarium trade: revealing the data gaps using ornamental polychaetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M Murray

    Full Text Available The marine aquarium industry has great potential to generate jobs in low-income coastal communities creating incentives for the maintenance of a healthy coral reef, if effectively managed. In the absence of current monitoring or legislation to govern the trade, baseline information regarding the species, number and source location of animals traded is missing despite being critical for its successful management and sustainability. An industry assessment to establish the number and provenance of species of ornamental polychaetes (sabellids and serpulids traded was undertaken across UK wholesalers and retailers. Six geographical regions exporting fan worms were identified. Singapore contributed the highest percentage of imports, but of only one worm "type" whereas Bali, the second largest source, supplied five different worm "types". Over 50% of UK retailers were supplied by one wholesaler while the remainder were stocked by a mixture of one other wholesaler and/or direct imports from the source country. We estimate that up to 18,500 ornamental polychaetes (16,980 sabellids and 1,018 serpulids are sold annually in the UK revealing a drastic underestimation of currently accepted trade figures. Incorrect identification (based on exporting region or visual characteristics of traded animals exacerbates the inaccuracy in market quantification, although identification of preserved sabellids using published keys proved just as inconclusive with high within-species variability and the potential for new or cryptic species. A re-description of the polychaete groups traded using a combination of molecular and morphological techniques is necessary for effective identification and market quantification. This study provides the first assessment of ornamental polychaetes but more importantly highlights the issues surrounding the collection of baseline information necessary to manage the aquarium trade. We recommend that future management should be community

  8. Hyperaccumulation of vanadium in the Antarctic polychaete Perkinsiana littoralis as a natural chemical defense against predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Daniele; Notti, Alessandra; Nigro, Marco; Regoli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Exceptionally high levels of trace metals have been reported in specific tissues of certain polychaetes. In the present study, the Antarctic fan worm Perkinsiana littoralis was shown to hyperaccumulate vanadium in the branchial tissues, and the hypothesis of an antipredatory strategy has been investigated. Trace metals (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Zn) were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in tissues of P. littoralis and, only for V, in two Antarctic bivalves and in various Mediterranean polychaetes. Subcellular distribution of vanadium was investigated in P. littoralis after differential centrifugations; feeding trials with the Antarctic rock cod Trematomus berancchii were performed to test the palatability of P. littoralis. Analyses of trace metals in tissues of P. littoralis confirmed the naturally high bioavailability of cadmium due to upwelling phenomena in the investigated area and revealed extremely high concentrations of vanadium up to 10,000 microg/g, in the branchial crowns; much lower concentrations were measured in the body portions and even less in the Antarctic bivalves and in Mediterranean polychaetes. The subcellular distribution indicated that this metal was associated in branchial crowns with both heavy components and vanadium binding proteins; the latter predominated in body tissues, although with a different pattern of molecular weight. Feeding trials suggested that the elevated levels of vanadium in branchial crown of P. littoralis act as chemical deterrents against predation in more exposed tissues. The hyperaccumulation of toxic metals might represent a common antipredatory strategy for unpalatable branchial crowns of sabellid polychaetes, as recently hypothesized also for the high concentrations of arsenic in the Mediterranean Sabella spallanzanii. The evolution of such adaptation and the reasons behind the possibility for different species to accumulate different metals represent a stimulating

  9. Errant polychaetes of the continental plattaform of Tamaulipas, México.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Hugo Delgado-Blas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 24 species of errant polychaetes have been recorded for the eastern Mexican continental shelf: Two Phyllodocidae, one Pilargidae, two Syllicdae, four Nereididae, two Glyceridae, two Goniadidae, three Nephtyidae, two Onuphidae, five Lumbrineridae y one Dorvilleidae. Two of these were the first to be recorded in Mexico, two from Mexican waters in the Gulf of Mexico and 11 new ones recorded in Tamaulipas.

  10. Trophic transfer of trace metals from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the polychaete N. virens and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Diet is an important exposure route for the uptake of trace metals by aquatic invertebrates, with trace metal trophic transfer depending on 2 stages - assimilation and subsequent accumulation by the predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of trace metals from the sediment-dwelling polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor from metal-rich estuarine sediments in southwestern UK to 2 predators - another polychaete N. virens (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe) and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ag, As, Mn). N. virens showed net accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from the prey; accumulation increased with increasing prey concentration, but a coefficient of trophic transfer decreased with increasing prey concentration, probably because a higher proportion of accumulated metal in the prey is bound in less trophically available (insoluble) detoxified forms. The trace metal accumulation patterns of P. varians apparently restricted significant net accumulation of metals from the diet of N. diversicolor to just Cd. There was significant mortality of the decapods fed on the diets of metal-rich worms. Metal-rich invertebrates that have accumulated metals from the rich historical store in the sediments of particular SW England estuaries can potentially pass these metals along food chains, with accumulation and total food chain transfer depending on the metal assimilation efficiencies and accumulation patterns of the animal at each trophic level. This trophic transfer may be significant enough to have ecotoxicological effects. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  11. Neuroanatomy of the vestimentiferan tubeworm Lamellibrachia satsuma provides insights into the evolution of the polychaete nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Miyamoto

    Full Text Available Vestimentiferan tubeworms are marine invertebrates that inhabit chemosynthetic environments, and although recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have suggested that vestimentiferan tubeworms are derived from polychaete annelids, they show some morphological features that are different from other polychaetes. For example, vestimentiferans lack a digestive tract and have less body segments and comparative neuroanatomy can provide essential insight into the vestimentiferan body plan and its evolution. In the present study, we investigated the adult nervous system in the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia satsuma using antibodies against synapsin, serotonin, FMRMamide and acetylated α-tubulin. We also examined the expressions of neural marker genes, elav and synaptotagmin to reveal the distribution of neuronal cell bodies. Brain anatomy shows simple organization in Lamellibrachia compared to other polychaetes. This simplification is probably due to the loss of the digestive tract, passing through the body between the brain and the subesophageal ganglion. In contrast, the ventral nerve cord shows a repeated organizational structure as in the other polychaetes, despite the absence of the multiple segmentation of the trunk. These results suggest that the brain anatomy is variable depending on the function and the condition of surrounding tissues, and that the formation of the rope ladder-like nervous system of the ventral nerve cord is independent from segmentation in polychaetes.

  12. Increasing Polychaete diversity as a consequence of increasing research effort in Greek waters: new records and exotic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing diversity of the Greek Polychaete fauna over the last seven decades, as illustrated graphically, shows an increasing trend which is proportionately related to the research effort exerted. Ongoing research activities mainly in the depths of the N. Aegean Sea, as a result of which 13 new records have been added to the Greek Polychaete fauna, confirming the above statement. The new species records are presented along with their geographical distribution and habitat. According to the latest checklist of the Greek Polychaeta, 753 species of Polychaetes have been recorded in Greek waters. Finally, it should be noted that 6 Lessepsian migrants and 16 species have been recorded in the Mediterranean for the first time. Their distribution within Greece and worldwide is given and their presence in Greek waters is discussed.

  13. Increasing Polychaete diversity as a consequence of increasing research effort in Greek waters: new records and exotic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing diversity of the Greek Polychaete fauna over the last seven decades, as illustrated graphically, shows an increasing trend which is proportionately related to the research effort exerted. Ongoing research activities mainly in the depths of the N. Aegean Sea, as a result of which 13 new records have been added to the Greek Polychaete fauna, confirming the above statement. The new species records are presented along with their geographical distribution and habitat. According to the latest checklist of the Greek Polychaeta, 753 species of Polychaetes have been recorded in Greek waters. Finally, it should be noted that 6 Lessepsian migrants and 16 species have been recorded in the Mediterranean for the first time. Their distribution within Greece and worldwide is given and their presence in Greek waters is discussed.

  14. Distribution of polychaete feeding guilds in sedimentary environments of the Campeche Bank, Southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Castanedo, Nayeli; Hernández Alcántara, Pablo; Solís-Weiss, Vivianne; Granados Barba, Alejandro

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the trophic structure of the polychaete assemblages found in the Campeche Bank, southern Gulf of Mexico and to examine the effect of the sediment composition on the spatial distribution of the feeding guilds. In all, 2,662 organisms belonging to 160 species and 16 feeding guilds were identified. Filter-feeders ( Fabricinuda trilobata and Bispira melanostigma) dominated. Five groups of stations were defined based on feeding guilds: one, in the southwest, characterized by motile jawed burrowers (17.14% contribution); the second, from the southeast to the northwest, characterized by seven guilds (45.25%), mainly filter-feeders and surface deposit-feeders; the third, in the southwest, characterized by three guilds (42.13%), mainly discretely motile tentaculate filter-feeders and motile unarmed burrowers; group four, in the east, was characterized by sessile tentaculate filter-feeders (63.68%); and group five, in the center and to the north, was characterized by four guilds (53.69%), mainly discretely motile tentaculate filter-feeders. The variety of feeding guilds was higher in the northwest with seven guilds, and the lowest variety was found in the east and south with only one or two guilds. Contrary to the starting hypothesis, the sediment composition was not the main factor that determined the distribution of the polychaete feeding guilds. Instead, salinity and depth were more important for the spatial arrangement of the trophic groups. The feeding guilds of polychaetes proved to be more sensitive to environmental changes than density or diversity.

  15. Is polychaete family-level sufficient to assess impact on tropical estuarine gradients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega-Silva, Climélia; Patrício, Joana; Marques, João Carlos; Olímpio, Monalisa dos Santos; Farias, Jéssica Natyelle Barros; Molozzi, Joseline

    2016-11-01

    Regular, robust monitoring programs set up to assess the environmental conditions of aquatic systems often target different biological groups. And, of these, macroinvertebrate communities and particularly the class Polychaeta are frequently used. Identifying these organisms takes time, money and specialized expertise to ensure correct identification to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Identification errors can lead to an erroneous assessment. The concept of taxonomic sufficiency has been proposed both to minimize errors and to save time and money. This study tested the usefulness of this concept in tropical estuaries in northeast Brazil. We selected two transitional systems with different degrees of human impact due to different land uses and different conservation systems: the Mamanguape estuary, which is in an environmental conservation unit for sustainable use, and the highly impacted, urban Paraíba do Norte estuary. The results clearly showed that nutrient concentrations were markedly higher in the Paraíba do Norte estuary in the dry season and that the composition of the polychaete assemblages differed between the two estuaries as well as along the spatial gradient of each estuary. The use of either genus or family level led to equivalent representation in each system in terms of taxon richness and both the Margalef and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices. Both taxonomic levels described similar changes in the polychaete assemblage along the estuarine gradients. Based on our findings, the use of a coarser taxonomic level (i.e., family) is a good option when the aim is to implement a monitoring program in tropical estuaries with the polychaete assemblages as one of the target groups. This time-efficient taxonomic resolution can help improve sampling designs and allow long-term monitoring studies without losing much vital information.

  16. Spatial patterns of biodiversity in the Black Sea: An assessment using benthic polychaetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surugiu, Victor; Revkov, Nikolai; Todorova, Valentina; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Valavanis, Vasilis; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2010-06-01

    The current study broadens the biodiversity information available for the Black Sea and neighbouring regions and improves our knowledge about the polychaete biogeographic patterns to be discerned in them. There appears to be a well-defined zoogeocline from the Marmara Sea and Bosphorus Strait to the inner parts of the region (Azov Sea), depicted both as a multivariate pattern and in terms of species (or taxa) numbers. The emergent multivariate pattern complies, to a certain extent, with Jakubova's (1935) views: three main sectors can be defined in the basin: (a) Prebosphoric, (b) the Black Sea and, (c) the Azov Sea, whereas the Bosphorus Strait and Marmara Sea show less faunal affinities with the afore-mentioned sectors. Patterns derived both from the cosmopolitan and Atlanto-Mediterranean species closely follow the one coming from the polychaete species and genera inventories. As a general trend, species numbers decrease along with the decrease in salinity towards the inner parts of the region. The trend is homologous to that seen in the benthic invertebrate inventories of all the major European semi-enclosed regional seas. Salinity and food availability appear to be the dominant abiotic factors correlated, though weakly, with the various patterns deriving from the taxonomic/zoogeographic categories. With the exception of the Anatolia, polychaete inventories from all sectors appear to be random samples of the total inventory of the region, in terms of taxonomic distinctness values. Therefore, these sectoral inventories can be used for future biodiversity/environmental impact assessment studies. A massive invasion of Mediterranean species after the opening of the Black Sea, in the lower Quaternary period, appears to be the likely biogeographic mechanism through which the old Sarmatic fauna was almost completely replaced by species of marine origin.

  17. Species diversity of Polychaete in coral reef ecosystem of Great Nicobar Island, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. SEKAR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Sekar V Rajasekaran R, Sachithanandam V, Sankar R, Sridhar R, Kingsley PW. 2016. Species diversity of Polychaete in coral reef ecosystem of Great Nicobar Island, India. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 71-76. Crypto fauna inhabiting the shelves of the coral reefs in Great Nicobar Islands are affected by bio-erosion caused by grazing and boring of organisms, hence present study revealed on two major components the opportunistic and true borers. Samples were collected from four stations from three different coral types (live coral, highly degraded & rubble of the Great Nicobar Islands. Of the total 401 individuals of Polychaetes collected from various sites 8 taxonomic species namely Terebella ehrenbergi, Idanthyrsus pennatus, Lysidice ninetta, L. collaris, Pseudonereis variegata, Perinereis cultrifera, P. nigropunctata, Eurythoe complanata were identified from the aforementioned three coral type sources. Among these P. variegata and L. collaris which accounted for 32.01% and 28.5% respectively, were the most dominant cryptic groups; whereas I. pennatus and T. ehrenbergi were the least records in all three habitats which accounted for 1.75%. In this study, the observations revealed that degraded corals were found in greater abundance than rubble and live corals. The species composition was observed maximum in Laxmi Nagar due to the availability of degraded coral patches than other stations. The study to evaluates the baseline knowledge of the coral inhabiting Polychaete distribution, it would be a pathway for forthcoming researchers on particular group taxonomy, and towards better understanding & utilization of coral reef ecosystem of the Great Nicobar Islands.

  18. Proteomic profiling during the pre-competent to competent transition of the biofouling polychaete Hydroides elegans

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yu

    2014-08-22

    The polychaete, Hydroides elegans, is a tube-building worm that is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical seas. It is a dominant fouling species and thus a major target organism in antifouling research. Here, the first high-throughput proteomic profiling of pre-competent and competent larvae of H. elegans is reported with the identification of 1,519 and 1,322 proteins, respectively. These proteins were associated with a variety of biological processes. However, a large proportion was involved in energy metabolism, redox homeostasis, and microtubule-based processes. A comparative analysis revealed 21 proteins that were differentially regulated in larvae approaching competency.

  19. Cellular toxicity and bioaccumulationof silver nanoparticles in the marine polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    cong, Yi; Banta, Gary Thomas; Selck, Henriette

    In this study, the toxicities of commercial silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 20 and 80 nm) were compared with the toxicities of Ag+ ions in the marine sediment-dwelling polychaete, Nereis diversicolor, after 10 d of sediment exposure, using lysosomal membrane stability (neutral red assay), DNA damage...... (comet assay) and bioaccumulation as endpoints. Prior to the toxicity experiment, the physical-chemical properties of Ag NPs were fully characterized. The nominal concentrations used in all exposure scenarios were 0, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 µg Ag/g dry weight (dw) sediment. Lysosomal membrane stability...

  20. 1-Hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of PAH exposure in the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Giessing, Anders; Hansen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    PAHs phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]flouranthene. After five days of exposure the concentrations of parent PAHs and 1-hydroxypyrene were identified using three different analytical methods, high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC....../F), synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). The 5FS measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene were validated by the more sensitive method HPLC/F. The positive correlation between total PAHs and 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in the polychaete tissues...

  1. Indirect control of the intracellular nitrate pool of intertidal sediment by the polychaete Hediste diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, Ines Maria; Kamp, Anja; Schramm, Angela T.;

    2012-01-01

    for anaerobic respiration processes. The origin and some of the ecological controls of this intracellular nitrate pool were investigated in a laboratory experiment. Sediment microcosms were set up with and without the abundant polychaete Hediste diversicolor that is known to stim- ulate nitrate production...... that of the photopigments chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin, strongly suggesting that diatoms were the main nitrate-storing organisms. Intra- cellular nitrate formation is thus stimulated by the interaction of phylogenetically distant groups of organisms: worms enhance nitrification by feeding on particulate organic matter...

  2. Indirect control of the intracellular nitrate pool of intertidal sediment by the polychaete Hediste diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, Ines Maria; Kamp, Anja; Schramm, Angela T.

    2012-01-01

    for anaerobic respiration processes. The origin and some of the ecological controls of this intracellular nitrate pool were investigated in a laboratory experiment. Sediment microcosms were set up with and without the abundant polychaete Hediste diversicolor that is known to stim- ulate nitrate production...... that of the photopigments chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin, strongly suggesting that diatoms were the main nitrate-storing organisms. Intra- cellular nitrate formation is thus stimulated by the interaction of phylogenetically distant groups of organisms: worms enhance nitrification by feeding on particulate organic matter...

  3. Proteomic profiling during the pre-competent to competent transition of the biofouling polychaete Hydroides elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Huoming; Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli H; Xu, Ying; He, Li-Sheng; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    The polychaete, Hydroides elegans, is a tube-building worm that is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical seas. It is a dominant fouling species and thus a major target organism in antifouling research. Here, the first high-throughput proteomic profiling of pre-competent and competent larvae of H. elegans is reported with the identification of 1,519 and 1,322 proteins, respectively. These proteins were associated with a variety of biological processes. However, a large proportion was involved in energy metabolism, redox homeostasis, and microtubule-based processes. A comparative analysis revealed 21 proteins that were differentially regulated in larvae approaching competency.

  4. Toxicological evaluation of sediment samples spiked with human pharmaceutical products: Energy status and neuroendocrine effects in marine polychaetes Hediste diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranho, L A; André, C; DelValls, T A; Gagné, F; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2015-08-01

    There is a lack of studies about the ecotoxicology of pharmaceutical products on marine environment. To predict possible adverse effects of pharmaceutical products on benthic biota, polychaetes Hediste diversicolor were exposed for 14-days to pharmaceutical-spiked sediments under laboratory conditions. Carbamazepine (CBZ), ibuprofen (IBP) and propranolol (PRO) at concentrations of 500ngg(-1), 50ngg(-1), 5ngg(-1), 0.5ngg(-1) and 0.05ngg(-1), fluoxetine (FX) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) at concentrations of 100ngg(-1), 10ngg(-1), 1ngg(-1), 0.1ngg(-1) and 0.01ngg(-1), including environmental concentrations (underlined), were spiked in marine sediment samples. After the exposure, cellular energy status (total lipids content - TLP; and mitochondrial electron transport activity - MET), metabolism of monoamines (monoamine oxidase activity - MAO) and inflammation properties (cyclooxygenase activity - COX) were observed in polychaetes. CBZ increased TLP content and MET activity, and decreased MAO activity in polychaetes. IBP did not interfere on the TLP level, but on the MET and MAO activities (environmental concentrations). FX did not cause changes in the energy status. Therefore, environmental concentration diminished MAO activity. EE2 did not affect the energy status, however, MAO activity was significantly lower in polychaetes exposed to environmental concentration. PRO increased TLP level in polychaetes, but not MET activity. MAO activity was significantly lower for polychaetes exposed to environmental concentration. Except FX, all pharmaceuticals showed anti-inflammatory properties confirmed by the decrease of COX activity. Pharmaceutical products affected H. diversicolor physiology and health. As a benthic top predator, adverse effects on sea-worms can potentially culminate in ecosystem perturbations.

  5. The influence of cadmium on the antioxidant enzyme activities in polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Chen, Aihua; Zhou, Yibing; Liu, Haiying; Yang, Dazuo

    2010-07-01

    The infaunal polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube, distributed widely along Asian coasts and estuaries, is considered a useful animal model in ecotoxicological tests and a promising candidate in biomonitoring programs. This paper deals with the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Px) in infaunal polychaete P. aibuhitensis exposed to a series of sublethal water-bound cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 0.34, 1.72, 3.44, 6.89, and 17.22 mg L-1) under a short-term exposure (1-8 d). The results indicate that the SOD and GSH-Px activities in P. aibuhitensis are stimulated first and then renewed to the original level. The CAT activity of worms decreases at an earlier exposure time but increases to the control values at a later exposure time. Our study suggests that Cd can interfere with the antioxidant defense system of P. aibuhitensis. However, the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities for this species do not show the best promise as biomarkers in Cd biomonitoring of estuarine and coastal zones because weak or non-dose-effect relationships between the antioxidant enzymes activities and Cd levels are found.

  6. Two new species of serpulid polychaetes (Annelida from the Barents Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vladimirovich Rzhavsky

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although Scandinavian Arctic polychaete fauna has been extensively investigated, new species are still being found in the Barents Sea. Polychaetes of the family Serpulidae are calcareous tubeworms that are most abundant at low latitudes and less common in Arctic and Antarctic waters. Because recent phylogenetic data indicate that the family Spirorbidae is a clade nested inside Serpulidae, spirorbins are treated here as subfamily Spirorbinae and their traditionally recognized subfamilies are thus lowered to the tribes Paralaeospirini, Spirorbini, Circeini, Romanchellini, Pileolariini and Januini. Here we report two new serpulid species, a filogranin Protis akvaplani sp. n. and a spirorbin Bushiella (Bushiella barentsii sp. n. collected from off the northern Norwegian coast. Protis akvaplani differs from other species of within the genus by its tube with a high longitudinal keel, six thoracic chaetigerous segments, and short thoracic membranes ending after the 3rd segment. Generic diagnosis of the genus Protis has been emended. Bushiella (B. barentsii differs from other species of the subgenus Bushiella by morphology of the opercular talon of operculum, incomplete fusing of primary operculum with brood chamber, and large tubes (up to 5 mm in coil diameter with 1-2 distinct longitudinal ridges.

  7. MidMedPol: Polychaetes from midlittoral rocky shores in Greece and Italy (Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keklikoglou, Kleoniki; Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzigeorgiou, Giorgos; Badalamenti, Fabio; Kitsos, Militiadis Spyridon; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a dataset of polychaetes (Annelida) from 14 midlittoral rocky shore sampling sites in Greece and Italy (Mediterranean Sea). The dataset combines the outcome of four different projects studying the hard substrate midlittoral zone in the Mediterranean between 1984 and 2009. Samples were collected by scraping and collecting the organisms from a framed area. The maximal sampling depth was 1.5 m. In total, 123 polychaete species were recorded, five of which are new records for the respective biogeographic sectors of the Mediterranean. The dataset contains 788 occurrence records, fully annotated with all required metadata. These data contribute to the knowledge of a previously very understudied regional habitat, since at present, comprehensive lists of the midlittoral communities in the Mediterranean are provided through only a few, paper-based, studies. This dataset is one of the first electronic data compilations of the Mediterranean midlittoral zone communities and certainly the most comprehensive of its kind, contributing to the ongoing efforts of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) which aims at filling the gaps in our current knowledge of the world's oceans. It is accessible at http://ipt.vliz.be/resource.do?r=mediterraneanpolychaetaintertidal.

  8. Abundance of the onuphids polychaete Onuphis eremita in Tranquebar, Southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeramuthu Sekar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the present study describe observations about the distribution of the intertidal polychaete Onuphis eremita along sandyshore of Tranquebar coast, southeast India. The samplings were collected from three different water levels during one year. In sandy shores thebeach worms were crowded. The tidal exposure and percentage composition of sediment particles and organic matter were the main factors influencingthe animal abundance. Highest density was 15.66/m2 in low water mark (LWM in summer and lowest density occurred during monsoon(4/m2 at high water mark (HWM. The larger animals (32.6 cm were collected at low water mark and smallest animals (9.2 cm at midwater mark levels. The environmental parameters showed significant variation with respect to the polychaete distribution. In general the lowwater mark level harbored a larger range of size and number of individuals than the mid water mark and high water mark levels. In addition,these worms had got importance in this region due to their use as bait for more common edible fishes like Sea boss, Groupers, Siver Sillago,Snappers, Rabbitfish and other smaller carangids.

  9. Proteomic analysis during larval development and metamorphosis of the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa

    KAUST Repository

    Mok, Flora SY

    2009-12-14

    Background: While the larval-juvenile transition (metamorphosis) in the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa involves gradual morphological changes and does not require substantial development of juvenile organs, the opposite occurs in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. We hypothesized that the proteome changes during metamorphosis in the spionids are less drastic than that in the barnacles. To test this, proteomes of pre-competent larvae, competent larvae (ready to metamorphose), and juveniles of P. vexillosa were compared using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and they were then compared to those of the barnacle.Results: Unlike the significant changes found during barnacle metamorphosis, proteomes of competent P. vexillosa larvae were more similar to those of their juveniles. Pre-competent larvae had significantly fewer protein spots (384 spots), while both competent larvae and juveniles expressed about 660 protein spots each. Proteins up-regulated during competence identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis included a molecular chaperon (calreticulin), a signal transduction regulator (tyrosin activation protein), and a tissue-remodeling enzyme (metallopeptidase).Conclusions: This was the first time to study the protein expression patterns during the metamorphosis of a marine polychaete and to compare the proteomes of marine invertebrates that have different levels of morphological changes during metamorphosis. The findings provide promising initial steps towards the development of a proteome database for marine invertebrate metamorphosis, thus deciphering the possible mechanisms underlying larval metamorphosis in non-model marine organisms. © 2009 Mok et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. MidMedPol: Polychaetes from midlittoral rocky shores in Greece and Italy (Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes a dataset of polychaetes (Annelida) from 14 midlittoral rocky shore sampling sites in Greece and Italy (Mediterranean Sea). The dataset combines the outcome of four different projects studying the hard substrate midlittoral zone in the Mediterranean between 1984 and 2009. Samples were collected by scraping and collecting the organisms from a framed area. The maximal sampling depth was 1.5 m. In total, 123 polychaete species were recorded, five of which are new records for the respective biogeographic sectors of the Mediterranean. The dataset contains 788 occurrence records, fully annotated with all required metadata. These data contribute to the knowledge of a previously very understudied regional habitat, since at present, comprehensive lists of the midlittoral communities in the Mediterranean are provided through only a few, paper-based, studies. This dataset is one of the first electronic data compilations of the Mediterranean midlittoral zone communities and certainly the most comprehensive of its kind, contributing to the ongoing efforts of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) which aims at filling the gaps in our current knowledge of the world's oceans. It is accessible at http://ipt.vliz.be/resource.do?r=mediterraneanpolychaetaintertidal. PMID:24723761

  11. MidMedPol: Polychaetes from midlittoral rocky shores in Greece and Italy (Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleoniki Keklikoglou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a dataset of polychaetes (Annelida from 14 midlittoral rocky shore sampling sites in Greece and Italy (Mediterranean Sea. The dataset combines the outcome of four different projects studying the hard substrate midlittoral zone in the Mediterranean between 1984 and 2009. Samples were collected by scraping and collecting the organisms from a framed area. The maximal sampling depth was 1.5 m. In total, 123 polychaete species were recorded, five of which are new records for the respective biogeographic sectors of the Mediterranean. The dataset contains 788 occurrence records, fully annotated with all required metadata. These data contribute to the knowledge of a previously very understudied regional habitat, since at present, comprehensive lists of the midlittoral communities in the Mediterranean are provided through only a few, paper-based, studies. This dataset is one of the first electronic data compilations of the Mediterranean midlittoral zone communities and certainly the most comprehensive of its kind, contributing to the ongoing efforts of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS which aims at filling the gaps in our current knowledge of the world's oceans. It is accessible at http://ipt.vliz.be/resource.do?r=mediterraneanpolychaetaintertidal.

  12. Proteomic analysis during larval development and metamorphosis of the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Pei-Yuan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the larval-juvenile transition (metamorphosis in the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa involves gradual morphological changes and does not require substantial development of juvenile organs, the opposite occurs in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. We hypothesized that the proteome changes during metamorphosis in the spionids are less drastic than that in the barnacles. To test this, proteomes of pre-competent larvae, competent larvae (ready to metamorphose, and juveniles of P. vexillosa were compared using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, and they were then compared to those of the barnacle. Results Unlike the significant changes found during barnacle metamorphosis, proteomes of competent P. vexillosa larvae were more similar to those of their juveniles. Pre-competent larvae had significantly fewer protein spots (384 spots, while both competent larvae and juveniles expressed about 660 protein spots each. Proteins up-regulated during competence identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis included a molecular chaperon (calreticulin, a signal transduction regulator (tyrosin activation protein, and a tissue-remodeling enzyme (metallopeptidase. Conclusions This was the first time to study the protein expression patterns during the metamorphosis of a marine polychaete and to compare the proteomes of marine invertebrates that have different levels of morphological changes during metamorphosis. The findings provide promising initial steps towards the development of a proteome database for marine invertebrate metamorphosis, thus deciphering the possible mechanisms underlying larval metamorphosis in non-model marine organisms.

  13. Differential expression of proteins and phosphoproteins during larval metamorphosis of the polychaete Capitella sp. I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Pei-Yuan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spontaneous metamorphosis of the polychaete Capitella sp. I larvae into juveniles requires minor morphological changes, including segment formation, body elongation, and loss of cilia. In this study, we investigated changes in the expression patterns of both proteins and phosphoproteins during the transition from larvae to juveniles in this species. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE followed by multiplex fluorescent staining and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis to identify the differentially expressed proteins as well as the protein and phosphoprotein profiles of both competent larvae and juveniles. Results Twenty-three differentially expressed proteins were identified in the two developmental stages. Expression patterns of two of those proteins were examined at the protein level by Western blot analysis while seven were further studied at the mRNA level by real-time PCR. Results showed that proteins related to cell division, cell migration, energy storage and oxidative stress were plentifully expressed in the competent larvae; in contrast, proteins involved in oxidative metabolism and transcriptional regulation were abundantly expressed in the juveniles. Conclusion It is likely that these differentially expressed proteins are involved in regulating the larval metamorphosis process and can be used as protein markers for studying molecular mechanisms associated with larval metamorphosis in polychaetes.

  14. DNA barcoding uncovers cryptic diversity in 50% of deep-sea Antarctic polychaetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasier, Madeleine J; Wiklund, Helena; Neal, Lenka; Jeffreys, Rachel; Linse, Katrin; Ruhl, Henry; Glover, Adrian G

    2016-11-01

    The Antarctic marine environment is a diverse ecosystem currently experiencing some of the fastest rates of climatic change. The documentation and management of these changes requires accurate estimates of species diversity. Recently, there has been an increased recognition of the abundance and importance of cryptic species, i.e. those that are morphologically identical but genetically distinct. This article presents the largest genetic investigation into the prevalence of cryptic polychaete species within the deep Antarctic benthos to date. We uncover cryptic diversity in 50% of the 15 morphospecies targeted through the comparison of mitochondrial DNA sequences, as well as 10 previously overlooked morphospecies, increasing the total species richness in the sample by 233%. Our ability to describe universal rules for the detection of cryptic species within polychaetes, or normalization to expected number of species based on genetic data is prevented by taxon-specific differences in phylogenetic outputs and genetic variation between and within potential cryptic species. These data provide the foundation for biogeographic and functional analysis that will provide insight into the drivers of species diversity and its role in ecosystem function.

  15. Reproductive toxicity assessment of benzo[a]pyrene in the marine polychaete Perinereis nuntia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingyang; Wang, Shuqi; Chen, Xiaopeng; Li, Ping

    2017-07-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is an increasingly present marine environmental pollutant, yet our understanding of the long-term consequences of reproductive toxicity in marine benthic polychaetes remains limited. To test the reproductive toxicity of B[a]P on polychaetes, Perinereis nuntia was exposed to B[a]P-contaminated artificial seawater and sexual maturation, the sex ratio, number of eggs spawned, fertilization and hatching rated, as well as vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression levels were analyzed. A low concentration of B[a]P (2.5 μg/L) had no effects on the rate of sexual maturation, spawning, or fertilization but significantly increased the sex ratio (female: male) from 1.6±0.15:1 to 2.3±0.18:1, inhibited hatching rate by 27%, and significantly increased VTG mRNA expression level by 3.7-fold following a 60-day exposure, compared with those in the solvent controls. A higher concentration of B[a]P (25 μg/L) caused more serious effects; sexual maturation, fertilization success, and hatching decreased by 31%, 17% and 46%, respectively, and the sex ratio (female: male) and VTG mRNA gene expression level increased by 54% and 7.1-fold, respectively. These results demonstrate that sublethal concentrations of B[a]P negatively affect reproductive performance of the sandworm P. nuntia.

  16. Differential expression of proteins and phosphoproteins during larval metamorphosis of the polychaete Capitella sp. I

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2011-09-03

    Background: The spontaneous metamorphosis of the polychaete Capitella sp. I larvae into juveniles requires minor morphological changes, including segment formation, body elongation, and loss of cilia. In this study, we investigated changes in the expression patterns of both proteins and phosphoproteins during the transition from larvae to juveniles in this species. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by multiplex fluorescent staining and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis to identify the differentially expressed proteins as well as the protein and phosphoprotein profiles of both competent larvae and juveniles.Results: Twenty-three differentially expressed proteins were identified in the two developmental stages. Expression patterns of two of those proteins were examined at the protein level by Western blot analysis while seven were further studied at the mRNA level by real-time PCR. Results showed that proteins related to cell division, cell migration, energy storage and oxidative stress were plentifully expressed in the competent larvae; in contrast, proteins involved in oxidative metabolism and transcriptional regulation were abundantly expressed in the juveniles.Conclusion: It is likely that these differentially expressed proteins are involved in regulating the larval metamorphosis process and can be used as protein markers for studying molecular mechanisms associated with larval metamorphosis in polychaetes. © 2011 Chandramouli et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  17. Interpreting toxicity data in a DEB framework: A case study for nonylphenol in the marine polychaete Capitella teleta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jager, Tjalling; Selck, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    framework. The case study we selected is a previously published data set for 4-n-nonylphenol in the polychaete worm Capitella teleta (formerly Capitella sp. I). Particular aspects of interest in this study are an apparent slow initial growth, and low-dose stimulation (hormesis) of growth and reproduction...

  18. Formation and erosion of biogeomorphological structures: A model study on the tube-building polychaete Lanice conchilega

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, B.W.; Bouma, T.J.; Rabaut, M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    We study how organism traits and population densities of ecosystem engineering species, in combination with environmental factors, affect the formation and erosion rates of biogeomorphological structures, and focus on the widely distributed marine tube-building polychaete Lanice conchilega, which li

  19. Effect of filtration action of the polychaete Sabellaria alveolata Linnaeus, 1767 on sole cultive environment Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Sousa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Farmers look for sustainable measures to control diseases in aquaculture. Vibrio harveyi has been described as a fish pathogen, affecting several species, such as Solea senegalensis (senegalensis sole. In this study, the application of a biofilter with Sabellaria alveolata, a filter feeding polychaete, aimed to test their ability to decrease bacterial load present in the production system of Solea senegalensis and also evaluate the effect on fish mortality. The system was composed by four circuits, two with S. alveolata biofilter and two without. Infection was induced through the water using a bacterial concentration >108 (LD50 Vibrio harveyi in some circuits of the sole system. Mortality rate was evaluated, so as the bacterial content in water of the different circuits over time. PCR analysis was performed to fish and polychaetes samples, before the infection, during and at the end of the experiment. Results showed the bacterial filtration efficiency of the polychaete. Mortality records obtained in circuits without bacterial infection, were statistically significant different from the infected circuits, suggest the possibility of the polychaete to be effective in a proportional relation with bacteria.

  20. Polychaete response to fresh food supply at organically enriched coastal sites: Repercussion on bioturbation potential and trophic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, N.; Pires-Vanin, A. M. S.; Salhi, M.; Bessonart, M.; Muniz, P.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the vertical distribution, abundance, specific and functional structure of polychaete assemblages at four organically enriched sites. The effects of fresh organic matter input from the water column driving by upwelling were evaluated. Temperature and salinity values indicate the intrusion of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in spring, a nutrient-rich water mass. The dominance of the conveyor belt transport (CONV) in the station influenced by SACW, in the spring survey, is associated with fresh organic matter input as indicated by higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, the predominance of the diffusive mixing (DIFF) bioturbation category, in the sites without SACW influence is related to the preferential accumulation of more refractive food resources as indicated by higher concentrations of short chain saturated fatty acids. At the site influenced by SACW, the changes in polychaete assemblages were not all evident during proceeding upwelling conditions, but may persist at the end of the upwelling. Polychaetes in the study area seemed to be limited by the quality but not the quantity of food. The delay in polychaete response to fresh food supply may be related to the organic enrichment and the prevalence of refractory material in the sediments.

  1. Larval growth in the dominant polychaete Polydora ciliata is food-limited in a eutrophic Danish estuary (Isefjord)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Møller; Almeda, Rodrigo; Fotel, Frank Lech;

    2010-01-01

    Food limitation in larval growth of the spionid polychaete Polydora ciliata was examined in a typical eutrophic estuary, Isefjord, in Denmark. In the field, food availability and the energetic requirements of the P. ciliata larval population were measured during 2 different periods in 2004 and 20...

  2. Predicting the composition of polychaete assemblages in the Aegean coast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Galanidi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic infaunal species and communities have been extensively used to evaluate quality of the marine environment. Within the MSFD, community composition is addressed most commonly through Descriptor 6 (Seafloor integrity, criterion 6.2 (Condition of benthic communities. At the same time, the Directive has stipulations for addressing and assessing indicators linked with pressures in an explicitly spatial manner. At larger scales, achieving this through point sampling may be impractical or unfeasible; hence predictive methods are being increasingly employed to produce the large scale spatial data that are often required for marine spatial planning and management.The aim of the current work was to develop statistical and spatial modelling tools that can predict the distribution of soft-sediment benthic polychaetes in the Aegean coast of Turkey. To do that, we employed Species Archetype Models (SAMs, a novel analytical and modelling framework which uses mixture models to cluster species responses to the environment, producing a number of archetypal responses assumed to represent species with similar ecological/physiological tolerances. Polychaete presence/absence data were obtained from the literature and modelling was performed against environmental variables reflecting the main natural and anthropogenic gradients in the region. The resulting models are interpreted in light of the sensitivity/tolerance classification scheme for benthic invertebrates.Three Species Archetypes were identified through the analysis. In brief, Species Archetype 1 consists of the most prevalent species in the dataset and primarily follows the salinity and temperature gradients. Species Archetype 2, present in the central and southern Aegean, is dominated by sensitive and indifferent species and responds negatively to chlorophyll a, whereas Species Archetype 3 represents mostly tolerant and opportunistic polychaetes with increased probability of occurrence in eutrophic

  3. An ultrastructural study of oogenesis in the polychaete Nephtys hombergi Savigny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M. G.

    1989-06-01

    The polychaete Nephtys hombergi has an annual cycle of reproduction. Ovaries were fixed for electron microscopy during the gametogenic phase from September to March, and during the breeding and post-breeding periol. Oogenesis takes place entirely within the ovary, the integrity of which is maintained by a network of simple follicle cells. Previtellogenic oocytes have close contacts with the peri-vasal cells which surround the genital blood capillaries. These contacts are lost as the oocytes enter vitellogenesis. The vitellogenic oocytes have a cytology typical of oocytes which are thought to undergo autosynthetic production of protein yolk. Biochemical studies would be required to establish whether heterosynthesis of yolk also occurs. As the oocytes proceed through vitellogenesis, cortical material is laid down near the periphery of the oocyte and a microvillous surface is developed. When the microvillous surface is complete the oocytes, by then hormone independent, are ovulated from the ovary and are ready to be spawned.

  4. Characterization of an anthraquinone fluor from the bioluminescent, pelagic polychaete Tomopteris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Warren R; Powers, Meghan L; Haddock, Steven H D

    2014-12-01

    Tomopteris is a cosmopolitan genus of polychaetes. Many species produce yellow luminescence in the parapodia when stimulated. Yellow bioluminescence is rare in the ocean, and the components of this luminescent reaction have not been identified. Only a brief description, half a century ago, noted fluorescence in the parapodia with a remarkably similar spectrum to the bioluminescence, which suggested that it may be the luciferin or terminal light-emitter. Here, we report the isolation of the fluorescent yellow-orange pigment found in the luminous exudate and in the body of the animals. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the mass to be 270 m/z with a molecular formula of C(15)H(10)O(5), which ultimately was shown to be aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone previously found in plants. We speculate that aloe-emodin could be a factor for resonant-energy transfer or the oxyluciferin for Tomopteris bioluminescence.

  5. Chaotic genetic patchiness and high relatedness of a poecilogonous polychaete in a heterogeneous estuarine landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Banta, Gary Thomas; Kesäniemi, Jenni E

    2014-01-01

    of individuals with different degrees of relatedness. Relatedness within a site could be increased by limited larval dispersal, collective dispersal of related larvae, sweepstakes reproductive success, or asexual reproduction, but distinguishing between these requires further study. Using a “seascape genetics......The genetic structure of benthic marine invertebrates is often described as “chaotic” when genetic structure cannot be explained and barriers to dispersal and gene flow cannot be identified. Here, chaotic patterns of genetic structure for the polychaete Pygospio elegans (Claparède) sampled at 16...... could be related to the genetic structure and possibly restrict gene flow in this species. Additionally, since P. elegans is poecilogonous, producing larvae with different pelagic developmental periods, we investigated whether observed developmental modes in the samples might clarify the genetic...

  6. Population and reproductive dynamics of the polychaete Pygospio elegans in a boreal estuary complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thonig, Anne; Knott, K Emily; Kesäniemi, Jenni E

    2016-01-01

    Pygospio elegans is an opportunistic, wide-spread spionid polychaete that reproduces asexually via fragmentation and can produce benthic and pelagic larvae, hence combining different developmental modes in one species. We documented the density, size distribution, and reproductive activity of P....... elegans at four sites in the Danish Isefjord-Roskilde Fjord estuary complex, where all modes of reproduction were reported. We compared population dynamics of this species to environmental parameters such as salinity, temperature, and sediment characteristics (grain size, sorting, porosity, water content......, organic content, C/N). We observed that new cohorts—resulting either from sexual or asexual reproduction—appeared in spring and fall, and old ones disappeared in late summer and winter. Sexual reproduction occurred from September until May, and although their timing was variable, there were two...

  7. A biogeographical analysis of the polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta from the gulf of Tehuantepec, México.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianne Solís-Weiss

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The biogeographic affinities of 84 species of annelid polychaetes collected in the continental shelf of the Gulf of Tehuantepec are surveyed in this study. Four predominant faunistic assemblages were found: Wide distribution (24,99%, Amphiamerican (21,42%, Pacific (42,84% and Disjunct (10,91%; those were defined from the eleven most generalized groups found there (Cosmopolitan, Circumtropical, Amphiamerican extended, Amphiamerican warm waters, Northeastern Pacific, Eastern tropical Pacific, Indopacific, Transpacific, Amphiamerican-Eastern Atlantic, Amphiamerican-Western Pacific, Eastern Pacific-Eastern Atlantic. The distribution patterns as well as the migration hypotheses that might explain the present distribution are discussed, and comparisons are made with recent biogeographic studies in nearby areas in the eastern Pacific such as Panama, Colombia and western Mexico.

  8. Swimming behavior and prey retention of the polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata (Johnston)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Jacobsen, Hans Henrik; Andersen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of the ubiquitous estuarine planktotrophic spionid polychaete larvae Polydora ciliata was studied. We describe ontogenetic changes in morphology, swimming speed and feeding rates and have developed a simple swimming model using low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. In the model we assumed...... that the ciliary swimming apparatus is primarily composed of the prototroch and secondarily by the telotroch. The model predicted swimming speeds and feeding rates that corresponded well with the measured speeds and rates. Applying empirical data to the model, we were able to explain the profound decrease...... in specific feeding rates and the observed increase in the difference between upward and downward swimming speeds with larval size. We estimated a critical larval length above which the buoyancy-corrected weight of the larva exceeds the propulsion force generated by the ciliary swimming apparatus and thus...

  9. Polychaete richness and abundance enhanced in anthropogenically modified estuaries despite high concentrations of toxic contaminants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Dafforn

    Full Text Available Ecological communities are increasingly exposed to multiple chemical and physical stressors, but distinguishing anthropogenic impacts from other environmental drivers remains challenging. Rarely are multiple stressors investigated in replicated studies over large spatial scales (>1000 kms or supported with manipulations that are necessary to interpret ecological patterns. We measured the composition of sediment infaunal communities in relation to anthropogenic and natural stressors at multiple sites within seven estuaries. We observed increases in the richness and abundance of polychaete worms in heavily modified estuaries with severe metal contamination, but no changes in the diversity or abundance of other taxa. Estuaries in which toxic contaminants were elevated also showed evidence of organic enrichment. We hypothesised that the observed response of polychaetes was not a 'positive' response to toxic contamination or a reduction in biotic competition, but due to high levels of nutrients in heavily modified estuaries driving productivity in the water column and enriching the sediment over large spatial scales. We deployed defaunated field-collected sediments from the surveyed estuaries in a small scale experiment, but observed no effects of sediment characteristics (toxic or enriching. Furthermore, invertebrate recruitment instead reflected the low diversity and abundance observed during field surveys of this relatively 'pristine' estuary. This suggests that differences observed in the survey are not a direct consequence of sediment characteristics (even severe metal contamination but are related to parameters that covary with estuary modification such as enhanced productivity from nutrient inputs and the diversity of the local species pool. This has implications for the interpretation of diversity measures in large-scale monitoring studies in which the observed patterns may be strongly influenced by many factors that covary with anthropogenic

  10. Can seamounts provide a good habitat for polychaete annelids? Example of the northeastern Atlantic seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surugiu, Victor; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Gillet, Patrick; Ruellet, Thierry

    2008-11-01

    Two seamount groups in the northeastern Atlantic were investigated during the 1980s and 1990s: the first was located along the Iberian and African coasts (Galicia, to the north of Portugal; and the Ampere, Gorringe, Josephine and Seine banks near the Madeira-Canary Islands) and the second was located offshore of the southern part of the Azores Islands, included the Atlantis, Hyeres, Irving, Meteor and Plato banks. Among the invertebrates, Annelida, specifically Polychaeta, were studied as surrogates for the biogeographical relationship between coastal and mid-oceanic seamounts in the northeastern Atlantic and the fauna in these areas. The dominant families were Onuphidae (27.46%), Syllidae (18.23%), Eunicidae (15.65%), Amphinomidae (11.45%) and Nereididae (5.61%), representing 78.4% of the total fauna. Data analyses clearly distinguished two seamount groups, one for coastal seamounts and the other offshore. Although the species distinguished and the family composition at the sampled sites were different (i.e., most diversified at the Josephine site and most impoverished at the Irving site), no coastal/offshore faunal impoverishment gradient could be identified. Thus, it seems that seamount environments do not favour any relationship between planktotrophic development and the direct development of polychaetes. Though the number of apparent endemic species was low (<7%), it remained in keeping with other invertebrate groups. Still, while seamounts may well encourage oceanic biodiversity in some zoological groups, this was clearly not the case for the polychaetes. We offer two explanations for this paradox: pelagic productivity and local environmental conditions.

  11. Impact of predation on the polychaete Hediste diversicolor in estuarine intertidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Susana; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Vinagre, Catarina; França, Susana; Cabral, Henrique N.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2008-07-01

    In estuarine sediment flats benthic macroinvertebrates are intensively consumed by a variety of predators, such as aquatic birds and nekton (mostly fish and crustaceans). However, there is still a lack of conclusive studies that evaluate if this predation has a relevant impact on the populations of those invertebrates, which are a key element of the estuarine food chain. In the Tagus estuary we experimentally tested and quantified the impact of predation on the polychaete Hediste diversicolor, one of the most important prey for a variety of predators in many estuaries. Using an exclusion experiment, we compared the seasonal variation in the densities of H. diversicolor from February to November in sediment plots (1) available to both bird and nekton predators, (2) just to nekton, and (3) without predators. We also followed changes in the abundance of potential predators throughout the study. The lowest densities were systematically observed in the plots accessible to all predators, followed by those which excluded just birds, and finally by those that excluded all predators. The exclosures were in place for 9 months, at the end of which the average density of H. diversicolor in the plots protected from all predators was eight times greater than in those without any protection. These results demonstrate that predation had a major impact on the densities of H. diversicolor. The relative importance of bird and nekton predation varied along the study, and this seems to be determined by different peaks of abundance of the two types of predators. However, when present in high densities, birds and nekton seem to have a similar impact on H. diversicolor. Our results suggest that predation is a key factor on the population dynamics of H. diversicolor. In addition, the levels of predation that we observed suggest that this polychaete can be a limited resource, and this could have major ecological consequences for predators for which it is a key prey.

  12. Morphological distinction between estuarine polychaetes: Laeonereis culveri and L. nota (Phyllodocida: Nereididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus-Flores, Citlalli; Salazar-González, S Alejandro; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2016-03-01

    The family Nereididae includes more than 500 polychaete species described worldwide, and includes species common in many benthic environments, but some other species may tolerate freshwater or can even thrive in humid substrates in tropical forests. In estuarine environments, nereidid polychaetes can be abundant and relevant as a food source for resident or migratory birds. Laeonereis culveri (Webster, 1879) is a common estuarine species found in tropical and subtropical Atlantic American shores and was described from New Jersey; its median and posterior parapodia have upper notopodial ligules usually longer than the lower ones, and the latter are parallel to the notaciculae throughout the body. L. culveri distribution is from Connecticut to central Argentina; however, this wide distribution might be due to the inclusion of several other species as junior synonyms, despite that some morphological differences were found between them. One of such species is L. nota (Treadwell, 1941), that was described from Texas; its parapodia have notopodial ligules of about the same size, and the lower ones are oblique to the notaciculae. In order to clarify the differences between these two species, and to define which inhabits the Northwestern Caribbean region, topotype materials from these two species and specimens from Chetumal Bay were collected, and their morphological features were compared. Our results indicated that L. culveri and L. nota are different species and that the latter is found in Chetumal Bay. On the basis of mature specimens, L. culveri is hereby restricted to the Northern Gulf of Mexico and Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, and L. nota are reinstated and its distribution extends from Texas, in the Gulf of Mexico to Chetumal Bay, in the Northwestern Caribbean Sea. A key to identify all species in Laeonereis Hartman (1945) is also included.

  13. Application of “taxocene surrogation” and “taxonomic sufficiency” concepts to fish farming environmental monitoring. Comparison of BOPA index versus polychaete assemblage structure

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado Giménez, Felipe; Gairin Deulofeu, Joan Ignasi; Martinez-Garcia, Elena; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Victoria; Ballester-Moltó, Mateo; Cerezo-Valverde, Jesús; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    “Taxocene surrogation” and “taxonomic sufficiency” concepts were applied to the monitoring of soft bottoms macrobenthic assemblages influenced by fish farming following two approaches. Polychaete assemblage evaluation through multivariate analysis and the benthic index BOPA were compared. Six fish farms along the Spanish Mediterranean coast were monitored. Polychaete assemblage provided a suitable picture of the impact gradient, being correlated with total free sulphides. BOPA did not support...

  14. Polychaete Fauna of Seagrass Beds (Halodule wrightii Ascherson) Along the Coast of Rio de Janeiro (Southeast Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Omena, Elianne; Creed,Joel C.

    2004-01-01

    Trabalho completo: acesso restrito, p. 273–288 The polychaete community structure from six Halodule wrightii seagrass beds along the Rio de Janeiro coast (Southeast Brazil) was investigated. Variations in species diversity, overall density and species composition in relation to sediment grain size, seagrass biomass and selected plant structural features such as root and shoot length from the study sites were analysed. Ten core samples (0.02 m2) were randomly collected from each site. Three...

  15. Pyruvate Oxidoreductases Involved in Glycolytic Anaerobic Metabolism of Polychaetes from the Continental Shelf off Central-South Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

    2000-10-01

    The presence of low oxygen conditions in extensive areas of the continental shelf off central-south Chile has important effects on the biochemical adaptations of the organisms living in this ecosystem. Polychaetes assemblages cohabit on the shelf with an extensively distributed prokaryotic community made up of giant filamentous sulfur bacteria (mainly Thioploca sp.). The aim of this research was to characterize the pyruvate oxidoreductases enzymes involved in the biochemical adaptation of these benthic polychaetes. Nine polychaete species ( Paraprionospio pinnata, Nephtys ferruginea, Glycera americana, Haploscoloplos sp., Lumbrineris composita, Sigambra bassi, Aricidea pigmentata , Cossura chilensis, and Pectinaria chilensis) were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), octopine dehydrogenase (OPDH), strombine dehydrogenase (STRDH) and alanopine dehydrogenase (ALPDH). Each species had a characteristic number of the pyruvate oxidoreductases assayed ranging from 4 in Paraprionospio pinnata to 1 in Pectinaria chilensis . The pyruvate saturation curves obtained for the enzymes from all species analysed, except L. composita, suggest that NADH can be oxidized at different rates depending on the amino acid used in the reaction with pyruvate. Our results indicate that organisms having more that one pyruvate oxidoreductase present a greater metabolic capacity to cope with functional and environmental hypoxia because these enzymes would better regulate the pyruvate consumption rate during the transition period. Thus, the dominance of Paraprionospio pinnata in the study area and its worldwide distribution is consistent with its higher number of pyruvate oxidoreductases with different pyruvate consumption rates involved in anaerobic metabolism. Finally, a positive allometric relationship was found between body size and the specific activity of ALPDH, STRDH, and maximum pyruvate oxidoreductase specific activity. This latter result suggests a positive scaling of the specific

  16. Phytopigments and fatty acids in the gut of the deposit-feeding heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum in the southern North Sea: Selective feeding and its contribution to the benthic carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Arjen R.; Duineveld, Gerard C. A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a broader study on benthic-pelagic coupling in the southern North Sea, specimens of the common heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum were sampled for analyses on phytopigments and fatty acids in their guts. Results were interpreted in the context of feeding and ecological functioning of the heart urchins in the benthic system. Ingestion selection factors for both component groups were relatively high, 5 to 9 for chlorophyll a and 9 to 130 for total fatty acids. The data point to at least partially different sources of the pigments and of the fatty acids. Next to algal detritus, small infauna relatively rich in fatty acids might be preferentially co-ingested with the detritus. Due to digestive breakdown and absorption, the concentrations of pigments and fatty acids were importantly decreased, indicating a rather high digestion efficiency for this subsurface deposit feeder, up to 80%. The results indicate that E. cordatum increases its energy acquisition by strong selectivity and a high digestive efficiency. Optimal foraging is likely to apply on deposit-feeding invertebrates in relatively food-rich coastal environments as much as it does in the food-poor deep-sea environment. Using chlorophyll a as a proxy for carbon, the contribution of the urchin population to the momentary benthic carbon budget was calculated at 7% to 42%.

  17. Phosphoproteome analysis during larval development and metamorphosis in the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2011-05-25

    Background: The metamorphosis of the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa includes spontaneous settlement onto soft-bottom habitats and morphogenesis that can be completed in a very short time. A previous study on the total changes to the proteome during the various developmental stages of P. vexillosa suggested that little or no de novo protein synthesis occurs during metamorphosis. In this study, we used multicolor fluorescence detection of proteins in 2-D gels for differential analysis of proteins and phosphoproteins to reveal the dynamics of post-translational modification proteins in this species. A combination of affinity chromatography, 2D-PAGE, and mass spectrometry was used to identify the phosphoproteins in pre-competent larvae, competent larvae, and newly metamorphosed juveniles. Results: We reproducibly detected 210, 492, and 172 phosphoproteins in pre-competent larvae, competent larvae, and newly metamorphosed juveniles, respectively. The highest percentage of phosphorylation was observed during the competent larval stage. About 64 stage-specific phosphoprotein spots were detected in the competent stage, and 32 phosphoproteins were found to be significantly differentially expressed in the three stages. We identified 38 phosphoproteins, 10 of which were differentially expressed during metamorphosis. These phosphoproteins belonged to six categories of biological processes: (1) development, (2) cell differentiation and integrity, (3) transcription and translation, (4) metabolism, (5) protein-protein interaction and proteolysis, and (6) receptors and enzymes. Conclusion: This is the first study to report changes in phosphoprotein expression patterns during the metamorphosis of the marine polychaete P. vexillosa. The higher degree of phosphorylation during the process of attaining competence to settle and metamorphose may be due to fast morphological transitions regulated by various mechanisms. Our data are consistent with previous studies showing a

  18. Copper affects biofilm inductiveness to larval settlement of the serpulid polychaete Hydroides elegans (Haswell)

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Wei Yang

    2010-01-01

    Copper (Cu) contamination is a potential threat to the marine environment due to the use of Cu-based antifouling paints. Cu stress on larval settlement of the polychaete Hydroides elegans was investigated, and this was linked to Cu stress on biofilms and on the biofilm development process. The inductiveness of young biofilms was more easily altered by Cu stress than that of old biofilms, indicating the relative vulnerability of young biofilms. This might result from changes in bacterial survival, the bacterial community composition and the chemical profiles of young biofilms. Cu also affected biofilm development and the chemical high performance liquid chromatograph fingerprint profile. The results indicate that Cu affected larval settlement mainly through its effect on the process of biofilm development in the marine environment, and the chemical profile was crucial to biofilm inductiveness. It is strongly recommended that the effects of environmentally toxic substances on biofilms are evaluated in ecotoxicity bioassays using larval settlement of invertebrates as the end point. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

  19. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Marine Invertebrate (Polychaete and Assessment of Its Efficacy against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles by chemical and physical method makes the process often cumbersome due the usage of toxic and expensive chemicals. The present study reports the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine invertebrate (polychaete extract at room temperature. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by exhibiting the typical surface plasmon absorption maximum at 418–420 nm. Structure and composition of AgNPs were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM. Average particle size of AgNPs ranged from 40 to 90 nm, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX of the nanoparticles dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver signal, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD substantiated the crystalline nature of synthesized nanoparticle. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectral analysis showed the presence of amides phenols, ethers, and fatty acids as major biomolecules responsible for the reduction of silver ions. The possible mechanism responsible for the synthesis of AgNPs by these biomolecules was also illustrated by chemical reactions. The synthesized AgNPs showed comparatively good antibacterial activity against the tested human pathogens. This study advocates that not only plants and microbes but also marine invertebrates do have potential for synthesizing nanoparticles by a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach.

  20. Decoupling of cadmium biokinetics and metallothionein turnover in a marine polychaete after metal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Tania Y.-T. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Rainbow, Philip S. [Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Amiard, Jean-Claude [Universite de Nantes, Faculte de Pharmacie, MMS EA2160, Service d' ecotoxicologie, F-44000 Nantes (France); Wang Wenxiong [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: wwang@ust.hk

    2008-08-11

    This study investigated the kinetics of Cd bioaccumulation, detoxification, subcellular distribution, and efflux in the nereid polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis after Cd pre-exposure. Cd pre-exposure increased the Cd body burden in the worms, but did not affect the overall Cd uptake and efflux rates and metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) concentrations. During short-term exposure to dissolved Cd, Cd in the cytosolic fraction increased after Cd pre-exposure, and this fraction also increased during the Cd efflux period, indicating that the insoluble fraction of Cd was presumably lost at a faster rate than the loss of cytosolic Cd. Even though the MTLP concentration remained comparable after Cd pre-exposure, both the MTLP synthesis rate and the degradation rate increased, thus leading to a high MTLP turnover in the Cd-exposed worms. However, Cd uptake and efflux into different protein size fractions did not follow the patterns of MTLP synthesis and degradation, strongly suggesting that Cd kinetics is decoupled from the MTLP kinetics in the worms. Our study adds to an increasing body of evidence on the complicated relationship between metal biokinetics and MTLP kinetics in different groups of marine invertebrates which have strong contrasts in their metal handling strategies.

  1. Mechanics and kinematics of backward burrowing by the polychaete Cirriformia moorei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, James; Dorgan, Kelly M

    2010-12-15

    The polychaete Cirriformia moorei burrows in muddy sediments by fracture, using its hydrostatic skeleton to expand its anterior region and exert force against its burrow wall to extend a crack. Burrowing occurs in four phases: stretching forward into the burrow, extending the crack anteriorly, thickening the burrowing end to amplify stress at the tip of the crack, and bringing the rest of the body forward as a peristaltic wave travels posteriorly. Here, we show that C. moorei is also able to burrow with its posterior end using a similar mechanism of crack propagation and exhibiting the same four phases of burrowing. Worms burrowed backwards with similar speeds and stress intensity factors as forward burrowing, but were thinner and less blunt and did not slip as far away from the crack tip between cycles of burrowing. The anterior end is more muscular and rigid, and differences in body shapes are consistent with having reduce musculature to dilate the posterior segments while burrowing. Backward burrowing provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of morphology on burrowing mechanics within the same species under identical conditions.

  2. The benefits of polyandry in the free-spawning polychaete Galeolaria caespitosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, D J; Evans, J P

    2005-05-01

    In many species, females are thought to benefit from polyandry due to the reduced risks of fertilization by genetically incompatible sperm. However, few studies that have reported such benefits have directly attributed variation in female reproductive success to the interacting effects of males and females at fertilization. In this paper, we determine whether male x female interactions influence fertilization in vitro in the free-spawning, sessile polychaete Galeolaria caespitosa. Furthermore, we determined whether polyandry results in direct fertilization benefits for females by experimentally manipulating the number of males contributing towards staged spawning events. To test for male x female interaction effects we performed an initial experiment that crossed seven males with six females (in all 42 combinations), enabling us to assess fertilization rates for each specific male-female pairing and attribute variation in fertilization success to males, females and their interaction. This initial experiment revealed a strong interaction between males and females at fertilization, confirming that certain male-female combinations were more compatible than others. A second experiment tested the hypothesis that polyandry enhances female reproductive success by exposing each female's eggs to either a single male's sperm (monandry) or the sperm from three males simultaneously (polyandry). We performed this second experiment at two ecologically relevant sperm concentrations. This latter experiment revealed a strong fertilization benefit of polyandry, independent of the effects of sperm concentration (which were also significant). We suggest that these direct fertilization gains arising from polyandry will constitute an important source of selection on females to mate multiply in nature.

  3. Characterization and expression of calmodulin gene during larval settlement and metamorphosis of the polychaete Hydroides elegans

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhangfan

    2012-08-01

    The polychaete . Hydroides elegans (Serpulidae, Lophotrochozoa) is a problematic marine fouling organism in most tropical and subtropical coastal environment. Competent larvae of . H. elegans undergo the transition from the swimming larval stage to the sessile juvenile stage with substantial morphological, physiological, and behavior changes. This transition is often referred to as larval settlement and metamorphosis. In this study, we examined the possible involvement of calmodulin (CaM) - a multifunctional calcium metabolism regulator, in the larval settlement and metamorphosis of . H. elegans. A full-length . CaM cDNA was successfully cloned from . H. elegans (. He-CaM) and it contained an open reading frame of 450. bp, encoding 149 amino acid residues. It was highly expressed in 12. h post-metamorphic juveniles, and remained high in adults. . In situ hybridization conducted in competent larvae and juveniles revealed that . He-CaM gene was continuously expressed in the putative growth zones, branchial rudiments, and collar region, suggesting that . He-CaM might be involved in tissue differentiation and development. Our subsequent bioassay revealed that the CaM inhibitor W7 could effectively inhibit larval settlement and metamorphosis, and cause some morphological defects of unsettled larvae. In conclusion, our results revealed that CaM has important functions in the larval settlement and metamorphosis of . H. elegans. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

  4. Metabolism of polychaete Neanthes japonica Izuka: relations to temperature, salinity and body weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; XIAN Weiwei; SUN Shichun

    2009-01-01

    Polychaete Neanthesjaponica is a species geographically specific in China and Japan with important scientific implication and commercial value. In this study, the relations of body weight, salinity and temperature to oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of N. japonica were determined. Threedifferent groups in body weight (large: 2.34±0.36 g, middle: 1.50±0.21 g and small: 0.62±0.12 g) were set for all experiments. Results show that the body weight is negatively related to the rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion; and the relationship is significant. The oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion at 24℃ decreased at salinity from 5 to 30 and increased above 30, indicating that both lower and higher salinity are adverse and certain degree of salinity stress is necessary for enhancing the energy demand. At salinity 30, rising temperature from 18℃ to 30℃, the oxygen consumption increased before 27℃ and then decreased. However, the relation of ammonia excretion and temperature seems more complex. Two-way ANOVA shows that salinity, temperature and body weight all have a significant effect on the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of the worm. Moreover, interaction between salinity/temperature and body weight is also significant. O:N (oxygen/nitrogen) ratio varies greatly in this case from 5.97 to 463.22, indicating that N. japonica can regulate the type of metabolic substrate against environment changes.

  5. Proteomic Changes Associated with Successive Reproductive Periods in Male Polychaetous Neanthes arenaceodentata

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2015-09-04

    The polychaetous annelid Neanthes acuminata complex has a widespread distribution, with the California population referred to as N. arenaceodentata. The reproductive pattern in this complex is unique, in that the female reproduces once and then dies, whereas the male can reproduce up to nine times. The male incubates the embryos until the larvae leave the male’s tube 21–28 days later and commences feeding. Reproductive success and protein expression patterns were measured over the nine reproductive periods. The percent success of the male in producing juveniles increased during the first three reproductive periods and then decreased, but the number of juveniles produced was similar through all nine periods. iTRAQ based quantitative proteomics were used to analyze the dynamics of protein expression patterns. The expression patterns of several proteins were found to be altered. The abundant expression of muscular and contractile proteins may have affected body weight and reproductive success. Sperm have never been observed; fertilization occurs within the parent’s tube. Proteins associated with sperm maturation and fertilization were identified, including ATPase, clathrin, peroxiredoxins and enolase, which may provide clues to the molecular mechanisms enabling males to reproduce multiple times.

  6. Single and joint effects of petroleum hydrocarbons and cadmium on the polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using the concentration gradient and combined pollutant exposure method, the single and joint effects of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and cadmium (Cd) on polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube, an ecologically keystone species in estuarine and coastal environment, have been investigated. The results indicate that the toxicity of PHCs to P. aibuhitensis is stronger than that of Cd to the organism. There are positive correlations between the mortality of worms and the exposed concentration of single Cd or PHCs in solution. Similarly, the accumulation of Cd or PHCs in worms increases with increasing Cd- or PHC-exposed concentrations. All the correlation relationships can be described using unitary quadratic equations (Y or Z = aX2 + bX + c). It is calculated, on the basis of these expressions, that the median lethal dose (LC50) of P. aibuhitensis exposed to a single Cd or PHC is 793.4-13567.3 and 28.0-119.9 μg/L, respectively. The exposed time has some stimulative effect on the two pollutants and on the mortality of the worms. Thus, even a low concentration of a single Cd or PHC may have strong toxic effects on the worms when the exposed time becomes longer. The accumulation of Cd or PHCs in worms differs with an increase in exposure time at the given exposed concentration of a single Cd or PHC. Noticeably, the accumulation of PHCs in worms decreases with an increase in exposure time at the given high concentration of PHCs in solution. The joint effect of PHCs and Cd on P. aibuhitensis is very complicated and changes with the exposed concentrations of the two pollutants. At the given concentration of PHCs, the joint toxicity of the two pollutants on the worms changes from synergism to antagonism with an increase in Cd concentration. The accumulation of Cd in the worms significantly decreases with the addition of PHCs to exposure solution.

  7. DNA Methylation and Temperature Stress in an Antarctic Polychaete, Spiophanes tcherniai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G. Marsh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones are a primary mechanism by which gene expression activities may be modified in response to environmental stimuli. Here we characterize patterns of methyl-cytosine composition in the marine polychaete emph{Spiophanes tcherniai} from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. We cultured adult worms at two temperatures, -1.5 C (ambient control and +4 C (warm treatment, for four weeks. We observed a rapid capacity for emph{S. tcherniai} organismal respiration rates and underlying catalytic rates of citrate synthase to acclimate at +4 C and return to control levels. We profiled changes in the methylation states of CpG sites in these treatments using an NGS strategy to computationally reconstruct and quantify methylation status across the genome. In our analysis we recovered 120,000 CpG sites in assembled contigs from both treatments. Of those, we were able to align 28,000 CpG sites in common between the two sample groups. In comparing these aligned sites between treatments, only 3,000 (11% evidenced a change in methylation state, but over 85% of changes involved a gain of a 5-methyl group on a CpG site (net increase in methyation. The ability to score CpG sites as partially methylated among gDNA copies in a sample opens up a new avenue for assessing DNA methylation responses to changing environments. By quantitatively distinguishing a ``mixed'' population of copies of one CpG site, we can begin to identify dynamic, non-binary, continuous-response reactions in DNA methylation intensity or density that previously may have been overlooked as noise.

  8. Influences of petroleum on accumulation of copper and cadmium in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Fu-hong; ZHOU Qi-xing; ZHANG Qian-ru

    2006-01-01

    Using the exposure simulation experiment, the action of petroleum affecting the accumulation of the trace metals including copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in littoral polychaete Nereis diversicolor collected from the Shuangtaizi Estuary in Liaoning Province,China was examined. The results showed that there was a markedly non-linear relationship between the accumulation of Cu in worms and the experimental concentration of Cu in exposure solutions when the concentration of petroleum remained at 0, 100, and 220 μl/L, respectively. However, significantly non-linear relationship for worms exposed to Cd was observed only when the concentration of added petroleum was 0 and 220 μl/L. The accumulation of Cu in worms did not differ significantly among the three different levels of petroleum concentrations combined with various concentrations of Cu. So was the accumulation of Cd in worms (p>0.05).However, the addition of petroleum in exposure solutions brought about an increase in the accumulation of Cu in Nereis diversicolor,in comparison with single Cu pollution. On the other hand, when the concentration of added petroleum remained at 100 μl/L, the accumulation of Cd in worms was lower than that in worms exposed to various concentrations of only cadmium. However, the worms exposed to Cd and petroleum 220 μl/L did not show obvious and identical increase in the accumulation of Cd, compared with single Cd exposure. The accumulation of both Cu and Cd in worms did not increase significantly with the increases in concentrations of Cu or Cd in exposure solutions combined with petroleum (0, 100, and 220 μl/L) under the experimental conditions. Although Nereis diversicolor is exposed to very high Cu and Cd in exposure solutions, accumulation and detoxification mechanisms are sufficient to cope with the extra metal influx in order to survive.

  9. Trophic transfer of trace metals: Subcellular compartmentalization in a polychaete and assimilation by a decapod crustacean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical form of accumulated trace metal in prey is important in controlling the bioavailataility of dietary metal to a predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of radiolabelled Ag, Cd and Zn from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians. We used 2 populations of worms with different proportions of accumulated metals in different subcellular fractions as prey, and loaded the worms with radiolabelled metals either from sediment or from solution. Accumulated radiolabelled metals were fractionated into 5 components : metal-rich granules (MRG), cellular debris, organelles, metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP), and other (heat-sensitive) proteins (HSP). Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of the metals by P. varians were measured from the 4 categories of prey (i.e. 2 populations, radiolabelled from sediment or solution). There were significant differences for each metal between the AEs from the different prey categories, confirming that origin of prey and route of uptake of accumulated trace metal will cause intraspecific differences in subsequent metal assimilation. Correlations were sought between AEs and selected fractions or combinations of fractions of metals in the prey-MRG, Trophically Available Metal (TAM = MTLP + HSP + organelles) and total protein (MTLP + HSP). TAM explained 28% of the variance in AEs for Ag, but no consistent relationships emerged between AEs and TAM or total protein when the metals were considered separately. AEs did, however, show significant positive regressions with both TAM and total protein when the 3 metals were considered together, explaining only about 21 % of the variance in each case. A significant negative relationship was observed between MRG and AE for all metals combined. The predator (P. varians) can assimilate dietary metal from a range of the fractions binding metals in the prey (N. diversicolor), with different assimilation efficiencies summated across these

  10. Capitellid connections: contributions from neuromuscular development of the maldanid polychaete Axiothella rubrocincta (Annelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanninger Andreas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous phylogenetic analyses on polychaete annelids suggest a taxon Capitellida that comprises the three families Maldanidae, Arenicolidae and Capitellidae. Recent molecular studies support the position of the Echiura, traditionally ranked as a separate phylum, within the capitellids. In order to test the robustness of this molecular-based hypothesis we take a different approach using comparative analyses of nervous and muscle system development in the maldanid Axiothella rubrocincta. Employing immunocytochemistry in combination with confocal laserscanning microscopy, we broaden the database on capitellid organogenesis, thereby incorporating classical histological data in our analysis. Besides assessing possible shared features with the echiurans, we also discuss the variability of neural and muscular characters within the Capitellida. Results The scaffold of the adult central nervous system, which is already established in early developmental stages of Axiothella, consists of cerebral commissures that give rise to simple circumesophageal connectives with fused ventral and dorsal roots and a single ventral neurite bundle. From the latter arise segmental neurites that innervate the peripheral bodywall. Since there is no observable regular pattern, and individual neurites are lost during ontogeny, their exact arrangement remains elusive. The pharynx is encircled by a prominent stomatogastric nerve ring, with a pair of anterior and lateral proboscis neurites directly connecting it to the central nervous system. One pair of ventral and one pair of dorsal longitudinal muscles form the earliest rudiments of the bodywall musculature in late larval stages, while a continuous layer of circular muscles is lacking throughout ontogeny. Conclusions Comparative neurodevelopmental analysis of capitellid and echiuran species reveals several common characters, including simple circumesophageal connectives, a single fused ventral nerve

  11. Biodiversity and biogeographic relationships of the polychaete fauna in French Atlantic and Mediterranean waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Dauvin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the literature, including the recent systematic reviews, reveals that 934 polychaete species have been recorded in French Atlantic (including the English Channel and Mediterranean marine waters, including 818 species living on the continental shelf and 116 species that are strictly bathyal. These 934 species belong to 71 families, among which the Syllidae is the most diverse (97 species, followed by the Serpulidae (69 species, Spionidae and Phyllodocidae, each with more than 40 species. Forty-four families have fewer than 10 species recorded in each. The total number of species is spread over 11 continental shelf areas as well as the Atlantic and Mediterranean bathyal depths. In terms of species diversity, the richest areas are the Mediterranean coasts of Provence-Côte d’Azur (507 species and Languedoc-Roussillon (483 species, the western part of the English Channel (402 species, and the southern part of the Bay of Biscay (343 species. The lowest numbers of species were recorded in the eastern English Channel, due to an impoverishment of all the fauna in this part of the Channel. Other areas—for example, the Iroise Sea, the coast of Corsica and Mediterranean bathyal depths—also show low numbers, but this may only reflect the fact that insufficient information about these areas is available. A similarity analysis of 13 areas distinguishes four distinct faunal groups, each specific to one of four general locations: (1 the bathyal Atlantic and Mediterranean zones, including the coast of Corsica, (2 the two Mediterranean coastal areas (Provence-Côte d’Azur and Languedoc-Roussillon, (3 the four zones of the Atlantic continental shelf, and (4 the English Channel. The combined species can be separated into 17 different biogeographic groups.

  12. Relating divergence in polychaete musculature to different burrowing behaviors: a study using opheliidae (Annelida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Chris J; Dorgan, Kelly M; Rouse, Greg W

    2014-05-01

    Divergent morphologies among related species are often correlated with distinct behaviors and habitat uses. Considerable morphological and behavioral differences are found between two major clades within the polychaete family Opheliidae. For instance, Thoracophelia mucronata burrows by peristalsis, whereas Armandia brevis exhibits undulatory burrowing. We investigate the anatomical differences that allow for these distinct burrowing behaviors, then interpret these differences in an evolutionary context using broader phylogenetic (DNA-based) and morphological analyses of Opheliidae and taxa, such as Scalibregmatidae and Polygordiidae. Histological three-dimensional-reconstruction of A. brevis reveals bilateral longitudinal muscle bands as the prominent musculature of the body. Circular muscles are absent; instead oblique muscles act with unilateral contraction of longitudinal muscles to bend the body during undulation. The angle of helical fibers in the cuticle is consistent with the fibers supporting turgidity of the body rather than resisting radial expansion from longitudinal muscle contraction. Circular muscles are present in the anterior of T. mucronata, and they branch away from the body wall to form oblique muscles. Helical fibers in the cuticle are more axially oriented than those in undulatory burrowers, facilitating radial expansion during peristalsis. A transition in musculature accompanies the change in external morphology from the thorax to the abdomen, which has oblique muscles similar to A. brevis. Muscles in the muscular septum, which extends posteriorly to form the injector organ, act in synchrony with the body wall musculature during peristalsis: they contract to push fluid anteriorly and expand the head region following a direct peristaltic wave of the body wall muscles. The septum of A. brevis is much thinner and is presumably used for eversion of a nonmuscular pharynx. Mapping of morphological characters onto the molecular-based phylogeny shows

  13. Thiotaurine and hypotaurine contents in hydrothermal-vent polychaetes without thiotrophic endosymbionts: correlation With sulfide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Paul H; Ishikawa, Joanne; Meyer, Brigitte; Girguis, Peter R; Lee, Raymond W

    2009-07-01

    Invertebrates at hydrothermal vents and cold seeps must cope with toxic H(2)S. One proposed protection mechanism involves taurine derivatives: At vents and seeps, many animals have high levels of hypotaurine and thiotaurine (a product of hypotaurine and HS), originally found in animals with thiotrophic endosymbionts. To further test the role of these compounds, we analyzed them in vent polychaetes without endosymbionts: Paralvinella sulfincola, P. palmiformis and P. pandorae (paralvinellids) and Nicomache venticola (maldanid). P. sulfincola were collected from a high temperature (42-68 degrees C) and a warm site (21-35 degrees C). P. palmiformis and pandorae were from cool sites (12-18 degrees C) and N. venticola were from a cold site (4 degrees C). H(2)S concentrations in vent effluent largely correlate with temperature. Some specimens were frozen; other ones were kept alive in laboratory chambers, with and without sulfide. Tissues were analyzed for taurine derivatives and other solutes that serve as organic osmolytes. The major osmolyte of all species was glycine. Thiotaurine contents were significantly different among all species, in the order P. sulfincola hot>P. sulfincola warm>P. pandorae>P. palmiformis>N. venticola. P. sulfincola also had high levels of sarcosine; others species had none. Sarcosine and hypotaurine contents of P. sulfincola's branchiae were higher, while glycine contents were lower, than in main body. In P. palmiformis kept in pressure chambers with sulfide, thiotaurine contents were higher and hypotaurine lower than in those kept without sulfide. These results support the hypothesis that conversion of hypotaurine to thiotaurine detoxifies sulfide in vent animals without endosymbionts. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  14. Characterization of vibrios diversity in the mucus of the polychaete Myxicola infundibulum (Annellida, Polichaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabili, Loredana; Giangrande, Adriana; Pizzolante, Graziano; Caruso, Giorgia; Alifano, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Vibrios are among the most abundant culturable microbes in aquatic environments. They can be either free-living in the water column or associated with several marine organisms as mutualists, saprophytes, or parasites. In the present study we analysed vibrios abundance and diversity in the mucus of the polychaete Myxicola infundibulum, complementing culture-based with molecular methods. Vibrios reached 4.6 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1) thus representing a conspicuous component of the heterotrophic culturable bacteria. In addition, luminous vibrios accounted for about 60% of the total culturable vibrios in the mucus. The isolates were assigned to: Vibrio gigantis, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio jasicida, Vibrio crassostreae, Vibrio kanaloae, and Vibrio xuii. Two Vibrio isolates (MI-13 and MI-15) may belong to a new species. We also tested the ability of the Vibrio isolates to grow on M. infundibulum mucus as the sole carbon source. All strains showed appreciable growth in the presence of mucus, leading us to conclude that this matrix, which is abundant and covers the animal entirely, may represent a microcosm and a food source for some bacteria, playing a crucial role in the structuring of a mucus-associated beneficial microbial community. Moreover, the trophic relationship between vibrios and M. infundibulum mucus could be enhanced by the protection that mucus offers to vibrios. The results of this study represent a contribution to the growing evidence for complex and dynamic invertebrate-microbe associations present in nature and highlight the importance of exploring relationships that Vibrio species establish with marine invertebrates.

  15. Facilitation of macroalgae by the sedimentary tube forming polychaete Diopatra cuprea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, M. S.; McGlathery, K.

    2005-01-01

    Marine foundation organisms such as seagrasses, corals, and kelps facilitate the distribution of numerous organisms by creating refuges from environmental stressors and by providing food and substrate for settlement and growth. Barren soft-sediment systems often have faunal organisms that facilitate other species by habitat modification. We investigated how an abundant (21 m -2) tube cap forming polychaete, Diopatra cuprea, facilitates macroalgal distribution in Hog Island Bay, a turbid shallow tidal lagoon in Virginia (USA). Seventy percent of the number of mudflat macroalgae were found incorporated into protruding D. cuprea tube caps and field experiments showed that D. cuprea facilitates algal persistence by providing a stable substrate retaining algae against hydrodynamic forces such as tidal flushing and storm surge. If tube caps were removed, simulating storm-induced erosion, they were rebuilt within days and new drift algae incorporated. Also, D. cuprea facilitated the algal assemblage by fragmenting thalli in the attachment process, thereby ensuring a constant fragment supply for vegetative re-growth if storm-induced pruning occurs. On a species-specific level, Gracilaria verrucosa and Ulva curvata benefited more from tube cap construction compared to Fucus vesiculosus, Agardhiella subulata and the alien Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. This was partly because G. verrucosa and U. curvata were incorporated and fragmented more readily, and partly because they probably have physiological, morphological and biomechanical traits that enable them to better co-exist with D. cuprea. These results suggest that macroalgal distribution throughout Hog Island Bay to a large extent is linked to the distribution of D. cuprea. The processes of algal attachment, retainment, recovery, re-growth and fragmentation, can have important ecosystem implications because of the sheer abundance of the Diopatra- Gracilaria/Ulva association.

  16. Predicting the Dispersal Potential of an Invasive Polychaete Pest along a Complex Coastal Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Andrew A; Matthee, Conrad A; Loveday, Benjamin R; Simon, Carol A

    2016-10-01

    Boccardia proboscidea is a recently introduced polychaete in South Africa where it is a notorious pest of commercially reared abalone. Populations were originally restricted to abalone farms but a recent exodus into the wild at some localities has raised conservation concerns due to the species' invasive status in other parts of the world. Here, we assessed the dispersal potential of B. proboscidea by using a population genetic and oceanographic modeling approach. Since the worm is in its incipient stages of a potential invasion, we used the closely related Polydora hoplura as a proxy due its similar reproductive strategy and its status as a pest of commercially reared oysters in the country. Populations of P. hoplura were sampled from seven different localities and a section of the mtDNA gene, Cyt b and the intron ATPSa was amplified. A high resolution model of the coastal waters around southern Africa was constructed using the Regional Ocean Modeling System. Larvae were represented by passive drifters that were deployed at specific points along the coast and dispersal was quantified after a 12-month integration period. Our results showed discordance between the genetic and modeling data. There was low genetic structure (Φ = 0.04 for both markers) and no geographic patterning of mtDNA and nDNA haplotypes. However, the dispersal model found limited connectivity around Cape Point-a major phylogeographic barrier on the southern African coast. This discordance was attributed to anthropogenic movement of larvae and adult worms due to vectors such as aquaculture and shipping. As such, we hypothesized that cryptic dispersal could be overestimating genetic connectivity. Though wild populations of B. proboscidea could become isolated due to the Cape Point barrier, anthropogenic movement may play the critical role in facilitating the dispersal and spread of this species on the southern African coast.

  17. The effects of chronic radiation on reproductive success of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of lifetime exposure to chronic irradiation on reproductive success were assessed for laboratory populations of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata. Lifetime exposure was initiated upon the spawning of the P1 female and was terminated upon spawning of the F1 female. Groups of experimental worms received either no radiation (controls) or 0.19, 2.1, or 17 mGy/h. The total dose received by the worms was either background or approximately 0.55, 6.5, or 54 Gy, respectively. The broods from the F1 mated pairs were sacrificed before hatching occurred, and information was obtained on brood size, on the number of normal and abnormal embryos, and on the number of embryos that were living, dying, and dead. The mean number of embryos in the broods from the F1 females exposed to lifetime radiation of 0.19 and 2.1 mGy/h was not significantly different from the mean number of embryos from control females; however, the mean number of embryos was different from those F1 females exposed to 17 mGy/h. There was a significant reduction in the number of live embryos in the broods from the F1 mated pairs that were exposed to the lowest dose rate given, 0.19 mGy/h, as well as those exposed to 2.1 and 17 mGy/h. Also, increased percentages of abnormal embryos were determined in the broods of all the radiation-exposed groups. 39 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Transcriptome and quantitative proteome analysis reveals molecular processes associated with larval metamorphosis in the polychaete pseudopolydora vexillosa

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2013-03-01

    Larval growth of the polychaete worm Pseudopolydora vexillosa involves the formation of segment-specific structures. When larvae attain competency to settle, they discard swimming chaetae and secrete mucus. The larvae build tubes around themselves and metamorphose into benthic juveniles. Understanding the molecular processes, which regulate this complex and unique transition, remains a major challenge because of the limited molecular information available. To improve this situation, we conducted high-throughput RNA sequencing and quantitative proteome analysis of the larval stages of P. vexillosa. Based on gene ontology (GO) analysis, transcripts related to cellular and metabolic processes, binding, and catalytic activities were highly represented during larval-adult transition. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), calcium-signaling, Wnt/β-catenin, and notch signaling metabolic pathways were enriched in transcriptome data. Quantitative proteomics identified 107 differentially expressed proteins in three distinct larval stages. Fourteen and 53 proteins exhibited specific differential expression during competency and metamorphosis, respectively. Dramatic up-regulation of proteins involved in signaling, metabolism, and cytoskeleton functions were found during the larval-juvenile transition. Several proteins involved in cell signaling, cytoskeleton and metabolism were up-regulated, whereas proteins related to transcription and oxidative phosphorylation were down-regulated during competency. The integration of high-throughput RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics allowed a global scale analysis of larval transcripts/proteins associated molecular processes in the metamorphosis of polychaete worms. Further, transcriptomic and proteomic insights provide a new direction to understand the fundamental mechanisms that regulate larval metamorphosis in polychaetes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Benthic polychaete diversity patterns and community structure in the Whittard Canyon system and adjacent slope (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunton, Laetitia M.; Neal, Lenka; Gooday, Andrew J.; Bett, Brian J.; Glover, Adrian G.

    2015-12-01

    We examined deep-sea macrofaunal polychaete species assemblage composition, diversity and turnover in the Whittard Canyon system (NE Atlantic) using replicate megacore samples from three of the canyon branches and one site on the continental slope to the west of the canyon, all at ~3500 m water depth. A total of 110 polychaete species were recorded. Paramphinome jeffreysii was the most abundant species (2326 ind. m-2) followed by Aurospio sp. B (646 ind. m-2), Opheliidae sp. A (393 ind. m-2), Prionospio sp. I (380 ind. m-2), and Ophelina abranchiata (227 ind. m-2). Species composition varied significantly across all sites. From west to east, the dominance of Paramphinome jeffreysii increased from 12.9% on the slope to 39.6% in the Eastern branch. Ordination of species composition revealed that the Central and Eastern branches were most similar, whereas the Western branch and slope sites were more distinct. High abundances of P. jeffreysii and Opheliidae sp. A characterised the Eastern branch of the canyon and may indicate an opportunistic response to a possible recent input of organic matter inside the canyon. Species richness and diversity indices were higher on the slope compared with inside the canyon, and the slope site had higher species evenness. Within the canyon, species diversity between branches was broadly similar. Despite depressed diversity within the canyon compared with the adjacent slope, the fact that 46 of the 99 polychaete species found in the Whittard Canyon were not present on the adjacent slope suggests that this feature may enhance the regional species pool. However, our sampling effort on the adjacent slope was insufficient to confirm this conclusion.

  20. Characterisation of two novel CYP4 genes from the marine polychaete Nereis virens and their involvement in pyrene hydroxylase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Andersen, Ole

    2005-01-01

    genes isolated from N. virens gut tissue are reported. One named CYP342A1, the first member of a new family and the other named CYP4BB1, the first member of a new subfamily. This is the first investigation of specific CYP enzymes from marine polychaetes in which catalytic activity has been determined...... of the heme binding domain resulted in complete loss of monooxygenase activity of both CYP enzymes, indicating that this cysteine residue is indispensable for monooxygenase activity of invertebrate CYP enzymes, as has been well documented in vertebrates. Considering the important role of CYP enzymes...

  1. Udbredelse af den invasive polychaete Marenzelleria spp. i danske farvande samt effekten på sedimentmiljøet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Kenn L; Banta, Gary Thomas

    Sjælland mangler stadig, men forventes foretaget før mødet. På mødet præsenteres foreløbig data om Marenzellerias udbredelse og sedimentkarakteristika.. [1] Blank M., Laine A.O., Jürss K. and Bastrop R. 2007. Molecular identification key based on PCR/RFLP for three polychaete sibling species of the genus...... Marenzelleria, and the species’ current distribution in the Baltic Sea. Helgol Mar Res (2008) 62: 129-141....

  2. Polychaete Community of a Marine Protected Area along the West Coast of India-Prior and Post the Tropical Cyclone, Phyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Soniya; Vijapure, Tejal; Kubal, Priti; Mulik, Jyoti; Rokade, M A; Salvi, Shailesh; Thomas, Jubin; Naidu, V S

    2016-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery. This was achieved by comparison of the pre- and post-Phyan seasonal data from four different sites in and around the Sanctuary. MDS analyses and polychaete community parameters suggested conspicuous cyclone related effects on the polychaete community characteristics in the three outer stations off Malvan, whereas the relatively protected bay station remained more or less unscathed. Impacts, attributable to the cyclone apart from seasonal variations, included changes in polychaete composition, reductions in total polychaete density, species diversity, evenness and functional groups. Dominance of the opportunistic polychaete, Paraprionospiopatiens was all pervasive just after Phyan, resulting in poor diversity and evenness values. In the outer stations, diverse feeding modes present prior to the cyclone were replaced by microphagous feeders post the disturbance. However, the study also observed complete recovery as substantiated by the improvement inpolychaete density, diversity indices and re-instatement of multiple feeding guilds in affected areas. This resilience of the coastal waters off Malvan is attributed to its marine protected status, implying that reduced human interference aided rapid revival of damaged ecosystems.

  3. Ecological consequence of the introduction of the polychaete Marenzelleria cf. viridis into a shallow-water biotope of the northern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta, Jonne; Orav, Helen; Sandberg-Kilpi, Eva

    2001-12-01

    Effects of the North American polychaete Marenzelleria cf. viridis on a simple shallow-water benthic community of the northern Baltic Sea were studied in a field experiment combining natural densities of dominating macrofaunal species. The presence of M. cf. viridis increased benthic production (chlorophyll a) and reduced the survival of the native polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Adult Macoma balthica caused a significant mortality on M. cf. viridis whereas adult Cerastoderma glaucum had no effect on M. cf. viridis. We suggest that the competitive interactions between M. cf. viridis and M. balthica are a possible key factor determining the distribution pattern of M. cf. viridis in the Baltic Sea.

  4. 湄洲湾多毛类物种多样性及生态特点%Species diversity and ecological characteristics of polychaetes in Meizhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方少华; 张跃平; 骆巧琦; 吕小梅

    2011-01-01

    Meizhou Bay, to the east of the Taiwan Strait, is situated in the middle of the Fujian Province Coast. To assess the environmental impact of construction projects in Meizhou Bay, 16 sections in the intertidal zone and 50 sampling stations in the shallow sea of Meizhou Bay were taken to survey the benthos from May 2007 to May 2010, according to "The Specification for Marine Monitoring" ( GB 17378. 7-2007 ). Species diversity and ecological characteristics of polychaetes were studied from polychaete samples. The analysis showed that 177 species of poly-chaetes, belonging to 112 genera in 41 families, were identified in total, and the polychaete fauna of Meizhou Bay was found to have similar tropical and subtropical characteristics with that of the Taiwan Strait. In intertidal zone of Meizhou Bay, the number of species of polychaetes contributed to 31.65% ~48. 11% of the benthos at each section. The proportion of polychaete biomass to the total benthos biomass was 2. 22% ~40. 86%. The proportion of inhabiting density of polychaete to the total benthos was 19. 27% ~76. 81%. Meanwhile, in the shallow sea of Meizhou Bay, the proportions of polychaetes in the number of species, biomass, and inhabiting density of the benthos were 42. 11 % - 73. 47% , 0. 96% ~ 92. 99% , 44. 95% ~ 87. 72% , respectively. In this study, the role of polychaetes in the composition of species and abundance of benthos in the sampling area was analyzed. The ecological characteristics of polychaete-like diversity index were analyzed, providing ecological data on polychaetes for the ecological monitoring and environmental protection of Meizhou Bay.%于2007年5月至2010年5月间,在湄洲湾海域设置50个浅海测站,16条软相潮间带断面,进行底栖生物调查,根据调查采获的多毛类动物样品进行整理,研究湄洲湾多毛类物种多样性及生态特点,湄洲湾海域共鉴定有多毛类环节动物177种,隶属41科112属.湄洲湾多毛类的动物区系特点与台

  5. Proteomic Changes between Male and Female Worms of the Polychaetous Annelid Neanthes arenaceodentata before and after Spawning

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2013-08-30

    The Neanthes acuminata species complex (Polychaeta) are cosmopolitan in distribution. Neanthes arenaceodentata, complex, has been widely used as toxicological test animal in the marine environment. Method of reproduction is unique in this polychaete complex. Same sexes fight and opposite sexes lie side by side until egg laying. Females lose about 75% of their weight and die after laying eggs. The male, capable of reproducing up to nine times, fertilizes the eggs and incubates the embryos for 3-4 weeks. The objective of this study was to determine if there is any set of proteins that influences this unique pattern of reproduction. Gel-based two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and gel-free quantitative proteomics methods were used to identify differential protein expression patterns before and after spawning in both male and female N. arenaceodentata. Males showed a higher degree of similarity in protein expression patterns but females showed large changes in phosphoproteme before and after spawning. There was a decrease (about 70%) in the number of detected phosphoproteins in spent females. The proteins involved in muscular development, cell signaling, structure and integrity, and translation were differentially expressed. This study provides proteomic insights of the male and female worms that may serve as a foundation for better understanding of unusual reproductive patterns in polychaete worms. © 2013 Chandramouli et al.

  6. Proteomic changes between male and female worms of the polychaetous annelid Neanthes arenaceodentata before and after spawning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondethimmanahalli H Chandramouli

    Full Text Available The Neanthesacuminata species complex (Polychaeta are cosmopolitan in distribution. Neanthesarenaceodentata, Southern California member of the N. acuminata complex, has been widely used as toxicological test animal in the marine environment. Method of reproduction is unique in this polychaete complex. Same sexes fight and opposite sexes lie side by side until egg laying. Females lose about 75% of their weight and die after laying eggs. The male, capable of reproducing up to nine times, fertilizes the eggs and incubates the embryos for 3-4 weeks. The objective of this study was to determine if there is any set of proteins that influences this unique pattern of reproduction. Gel-based two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and gel-free quantitative proteomics methods were used to identify differential protein expression patterns before and after spawning in both male and female N. arenaceodentata. Males showed a higher degree of similarity in protein expression patterns but females showed large changes in phosphoproteme before and after spawning. There was a decrease (about 70% in the number of detected phosphoproteins in spent females. The proteins involved in muscular development, cell signaling, structure and integrity, and translation were differentially expressed. This study provides proteomic insights of the male and female worms that may serve as a foundation for better understanding of unusual reproductive patterns in polychaete worms.

  7. An overlooked alien species present on the coasts of Greece (Eastern Mediterranean: the polychaete Polycirrus twisti Potts (Polychaeta: Terebellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Terebellidae polychaete Polycirrus twisti Potts, 1928 had been confused in several previous records the Eastern Mediterranean with the co-generic species Polycirrus plumosusWollebaeck, 1912, because of incomplete specimens or unclear descriptions; therefore its presence in Greek seas had been overlooked. Specimens of Polycirrus twisti were currently identified from the Korinthiakos Gulf (Greece, Eastern Mediterranean, while older records from the Hellenic marine area, erroneously assigned toPolycirrus plumosus and recorded since 1983 (Rhodos island, Dodekanesse were emended. Polycirrus twisti is an alien species, most likely introduced to the Mediterranean from the Suez Canal, while it was recently reported from the Southern coasts of Turkey (Levantine Sea. Its identification and report in Greek Seas increases the number of alien polychaete species in this area to 37 and offers a further evidence and link of its introduction and dispersion dynamics from the Suez Canal to the Levantine and Aegean Sea. The presence of the previously reported species Polycirrus plumosus in the Mediterranean Sea is therefore strongly questionable.

  8. The effect of the dominant polychaete Scolelepis squamata on nematode colonisation in sandy beach sediments: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Tatiana F.; Esteves, André M.; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Vanreusel, Ann

    2011-09-01

    The effect of an abundant sandy beach polychaete, Scolelepis squamata, on the colonisation of defaunated sediments by marine nematodes indicates that sandy beach fauna can be partially controlled by biological interactions within and across size groups. Experimental cores, equipped with windows allowing infaunal colonisation, were filled with defaunated sandy beach sediment containing two different treatments with and without S. squamata. These cores were inserted into microcosms filled with sediment with indigenous meiofauna collected from the field. The treatments were incubated in the laboratory at ambient temperature and salinity for 2, 7, 14 and 21 days, in order to follow the colonisation process of the defaunated sediments by the indigenous nematode fauna over time. Nematodes initially colonised both treatments, with abundances of up to 10% of the densities in the control; after 2 weeks, nematode densities in the cores without S. squamata surpassed the control densities. Nematode assemblages in both treatments were not species rich, and also differed in composition from the natural assemblages. The most successful colonising species, Enoplolaimus litoralis, was rare in the surrounding sediment, suggesting that colonisation was determined by species-specific characteristics such as body size, motility and feeding strategy. Initially the presence of macrofauna did not affect the nematode community composition, but after 2 weeks of the experiment, the presence of the polychaete seemed to facilitate the earlier establishment of non-opportunistic species.

  9. Development of whole sediment bioassay using the marine/estuarine polychaetes Polydora cornuta Bosc 1802 and Boccardia proboscidea Hartman 1940

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocklington, P. [Arenicola Marine, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada); Doe, K.; Huybers, A.; Wade, S. [Environment Canada, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada). Environmental Quality Lab.; Lee, D. [Environment Canada, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Pacific Environmental Science Centre

    1995-12-31

    The growing need by Environment Canada for a battery of marine toxicity tests has prompted the development of chronic, sublethal, sediment bioassay tests using marine or estuarine annelids (polychaetes). Initially several species of polychaetes found in the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic waters were assessed and a few of these were selected for testing survival and sensitivity under laboratory conditions and sensitivity to reference toxicants using field collected specimens. From these experiments, the authors identified several promising species and attempts were made to culture them. To date they have been successful in culturing one species from the Atlantic coast--Polydora cornuta and one species from the Pacific Coast--Boccardia proboscidea. They have been able to generate sufficient numbers of same-age larvae, raise them under controlled conditions to juveniles/young adults, and, subject them to a variety of Non-Contaminant Effects Trials (NCETs) and Contaminant Effects Trials (CETs). In the NCETs the authors determined the effect of food type and food ration, temperature, salinity, grain size, length of test condition. They found them to be moderately robust in terms of variable environmental parameters. In the CETs they found this species to be sensitive to sediments considered by Environment Canada to be toxic. They also determined the animal`s sensitivity to a reference toxicant CdCl{sub 2} (96 hr LC50).

  10. Oxygen equilibria and ligand binding kinetics of erythrocruorins from two burrowing polychaetes of different modes of life, Marphysa sanguinea and Diopatra cuprea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Bonaventura, J.; Sullivan, B.;

    1978-01-01

    Oxygen equilibria, ligand-binding kinetics and some other physicochemical properties are reported for erythrocruorins of two intertidal polychaetes:Marphysa sanguinea, which inhabits simple, relatively stagnant burrows, andDiopatra cuprea, which inhabits impermeable, parchment-like tubes that are...

  11. Biodiversity and structure of the polychaete fauna from soft bottoms of Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castañeda, V.; Harris, L. H.

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes diversity patterns of the polychaete fauna in Bahı´a Todos Santos (Pacific Ocean, Baja California, Mexico). Thirty-nine stations were sampled in October 1994. Measurements of depth, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, organic content and sediment particle size were made. Polychaetes constituted 64% of all invertebrate macrofauna, with 13,757 specimens in 44 families representing 203 species. The best represented families were Spionidae, Capitellidae, Paraonidae, Cirratulidae, Maldanidae, Ampharetidae and Nephtyidae. Bahı´a Todos Santos presented high species richness (species/station); values varied between 6 (near the harbor) and 67 species (next to Estero Punta Banda). Higher species richness values (48 species to 67/station) were located in the southern section of the bay. Abundances (individuals/station) were generally high (120-1434) except for some coastal stations. Nearly one-third of the stations presented H‧ values higher than 4.00. Diversity (H‧) values ranged from 2.06 to 4.80; higher diversity values were found in the southern section of the bay. The stress-predictability modeling characterized approximately 70% of stations as presenting favorable and stable conditions. Pearson and Bray-Curtis coefficients separated stations in relation to their sediment particle size, depth and location in the bay. Principal component analysis determined that organic matter content, percentage of silt-clay, and water depth accounted for 95% of the total variance for all environmental factors measured. Correspondence analysis distinguished three groups of species: Group A species with an extensive distribution throughout the bay and relatively high abundances, Group B species abundant in the shallow areas, especially near the harbor, and Group C species present in the area of the submarine canyon. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis separated five groups of stations, depending on depth, grain size and location in the bay. Our

  12. Acute hypoxic exposure affects gamete quality and subsequent fertilization success and embryonic development in a serpulid polychaete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, P K S; Leung, J Y S; Qiu, J W; Ang, P O; Chiu, J M Y; Thiyagarajan, V; Cheung, S G

    2014-08-30

    Hypoxia likely compromises the reproductive success of those marine organisms carrying out external fertilization because their gametes and embryos are inevitably exposed to the external environment. Hydroides elegans, a dominant serpulid polychaete in Hong Kong waters, can spawn throughout the year but the number of recruits drops during summer when hypoxia commonly occurs. This study attempted to explain such observation by investigating the gamete quality, including sperm motility, egg size, complexity and viability, after 1-h hypoxic exposure (1 mg O2 l(-1)). In addition, how gamete quality affects fertilization success and embryonic development was examined. After 1-h hypoxic exposure, sperm motility was significantly reduced, compromising fertilization success. Although the eggs remained viable, more malformed embryos and retarded embryonic development were observed. We interpreted that the harmful effect of hypoxia on embryonic development was attributed to the teratogenicity and induced oxidative stress, ultimately causing the reduction in recruitment during summer.

  13. Biosurfactant activity, heavy metal tolerance and characterization of Joostella strain A8 from the Mediterranean polychaete Megalomma claparedei (Gravier, 1906).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Carmen; Michaud, Luigi; Graziano, Marco; De Domenico, Emilio; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf; Lo Giudice, Angelina

    2015-08-01

    The effect of heavy metals on the activity of biosurfactants produced by Joostella strain A8 from the polychaete Megalomma claparedei was investigated. Biosurfactant activity was first improved by evaluating the influence of abiotic parameters. Higher E(24) indices were achieved at 25 °C in mineral salt medium supplemented with 2 % glucose, 3 % sodium chloride (w/v) and 0.1 % ammonium chloride (w/v). Considerable surface tension reduction was never recorded. Heavy metal tolerance was preliminarily assayed by plate diffusion method resulting in the order of toxicity Cd > Cu > Zn. The activity of biosurfactants was then evaluated in the presence of heavy metals at different concentrations in liquid cultures that were incubated under optimal conditions for biosurfactant activity. The production of stable emulsions resulted generally higher in the presence of metals. These findings suggest that biosurfactant production could represent a bacterial adaptive strategy to defend cells from a stress condition derived from heavy metals in the bulk environment.

  14. Boccardia sp. (Polychaete: Spionidae presence in Crassostrea gigas [Thunberg, 1873] oysters reared in the mid coast of the Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gallo-García

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1997 se han realizado varios estudios acerca del cultivo del ostión del Pacífico, Crassostrea gigas, en la Laguna de Barra de Navidad (Jalisco, México. La presencia de ampollas de lodo en las valvas internas del ostión causadas por gusanos barrenadores de la concha, ha representado uno de los principales problemas en el cultivo. Boccardia sp. (Polychaete: Spionidae fue identificado de una muestra de 60 ostiones estudiados. A pesar del efecto de este gusano en el cultivo de ostión, se carece de información sobre su impacto en la industria ostrícola mexicana. El presente trabajo representa un primer reporte sobre la ocurrencia de este poliqueto en los cultivos de C. gigas que se localizan en la costa media del Pacífico mexicano

  15. What lies within; Annelid polychaetes found in micro-habitats of coral/carbonate material from SW Indian ocean seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.; Rea, T.; Serpetti, N.; Lamont, P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Individual corals, coral framework and rubble are generally quite abundant on seamounts, with carbonate materials derived from an unknown source also being found. These micro-habitats are known to often harbour higher abundance of smaller sized fauna and thus potentially increases the biodiversity of that region. However, very few studies have examined what may reside within the coral and carbonate structures themselves, if anything at all. Samples that were collected on five seamounts during a research cruise to the South West Indian Ocean Ridge in 2011, were examined opportunistically in order to determine if there were any animals to be found inside the hard coral framework/rubble material. The hard material was dissolved away using 10% acetic acid and was examined on a twice daily basis to remove any animals that had been released through the dissolution process. There were a surprising number of phyla found inside the micro-habitats created by the coral rubble/framework material including sponges, brachiopods and a number of different polychaete families. As the polychaetes were more numerous, they were investigated more closely and a total of 34 different families were identified, with the Syllidae being found in every sample examined. The methodology presented here highlights that a ;controlled; weak acid dissolution can be used to release the fauna from deep inside the coral rubble/framework material. Frequent removal (twice daily or more often) of liberated material meant that the fauna released were exposed to the acid for a minimum amount of time resulting in specimens in better condition and with more identifiable features. The preliminary results also illustrate the importance of sampling the dead coral framework/rubble/carbonate material, not only to identify them for what they are, but to look more closely at the fauna residing inside the structure themselves.

  16. Freshwater polychaetes (Manayunkia speciosa) near the Detroit River, western Lake Erie: Abundance and life‐history characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Malakauskas, David M.; Malakauskas, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater polychaetes are relatively rare and little-studied members of the benthos of lakes and rivers. We studied one polychaete species (Manayunkia speciosa) in Lake Erie near the mouth of the Detroit River. Abundances at one site were determined between 1961 and 2013 and life‐history characteristics at two sites were determined seasonally (March–November) in 2009–2010 and 2012–2013. Life‐history characteristics included abundances, length‐frequency distributions, presence/absence of constructed tubes, sexual maturity, and number and maturation of young of year (YOY) in tubes. Long-term abundances decreased in successive time periods between 1961 and 2003 (mean range = 57,570 to 2583/m2) but few changes occurred between 2003 and 2013 (mean = 5007/m2; range/y = 2355–8216/m2). Seasonal abundances varied substantially between sites and years, but overall, abundances were low in March–April, high in May–August, and low in September–November. Although reproduction was continuous throughout warmer months, en masse recruitment, as revealed by length–frequency distributions, occurred in a brief period late‐June to mid-July, and possibly in early-September. All life history characteristics, including tube construction, were dependent on water temperatures (> 5 °C in spring and < 15 °C in fall). These results generally agree with and complement laboratory studies of M. speciosa in the Pacific Northwest where M. speciosa hosts parasites that cause substantial fish mortalities. Although abundance ofM. speciosa near the mouth of the Detroit River was 33-fold lower in 2013 than it was in 1961, this population has persisted for five decades and, therefore, has the potential to harbor parasites that may cause fish mortalities in the Great Lakes.

  17. Larval development and post-settlement metamorphosis of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus Pilsbry and the serpulid polychaete Pomatoleios kraussii Baird: Impact of a commonly used antifouling biocide, Irgarol 1051

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Desai, D.V.; Shirayama, Y.

    , metamorphosis rates decreased Cyprids were prevented from metamorphosing completely by biofilms treated at the highest concentration of Irgarol 1051 Inhibition of metamorphosis was also observed in the case of competent polychaete larvae when exposed to Irgarol...

  18. Polychaetes from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara with the description of a new species of Polydora (Annelida: Polychaeta: Spionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. ÇINAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft-bottom material collected from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara (off Küçükçekmece included a total of 67 species belonging to 24 polychaete families. Three species (Brania pusilla, Lysidice cf. margaritacea and Sabellaria spinulosa are new records for the Sea of Marmara. Three alien species (Polydora cornuta, Prionospio pulchra and Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata were found at the shallow-water stations. Different polychaete assemblages occurred in the area and the mud percentage of sediment and salinity were the main factors related to their distribution. A new Polydora species, which is mainly characterized in having brownish pigmentation solely on the antero-dorsal sides of the body, and falcate major spines with only a bulge (anterior ones or with a bulge and a small tooth, is described.

  19. Alien freshwater polychaetes Hypania invalida (Grube 1860 and Laonome calida Capa 2007 in the Upper Odra River (Baltic Sea catchment area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabis Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two polychaete species, Hypania invalida and Laonome calida, were found in the Upper Odra River in 2016. Both species were recorded close to a natural river bank down to 1 m depths. They inhabited sandy-gravelly and sandy-muddy sediments. H. invalida is an alien invasive Ponto-Caspian species, previously known in Poland from the Odra River estuary only. Our results may indicate a further rapid dispersal of H. invalida upstream the Odra River or an accidental introduction. This study is the first record of L. calida in the Baltic Sea catchment. This Australian species has been recently introduced into Europe. Prior to this study, it had been reported from Dutch rivers only. The present data suggest accidental introduction of the species to European rivers; however, our findings show an urgent need for a close monitoring of the polychaete in Europe.

  20. Polychaetes from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara with the description of a new species of Polydora (Annelida: Polychaeta: Spionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. ÇINAR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft-bottom material collected from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara (off Küçükçekmece included a total of 67 species belonging to 24 polychaete families. Three species (Brania pusilla, Lysidice cf. margaritacea and Sabellaria spinulosa are new records for the Sea of Marmara. Three alien species (Polydora cornuta, Prionospio pulchra and Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata were found at the shallow-water stations. Different polychaete assemblages occurred in the area and the mud percentage of sediment and salinity were the main factors related to their distribution. A new Polydora species, which is mainly characterized in having brownish pigmentation solely on the antero-dorsal sides of the body, and falcate major spines with only a bulge (anterior ones or with a bulge and a small tooth, is described.

  1. Inventory and new records of polychaete species from the Cap Bon Peninsula, north-east coast of Tunisia, Western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZAABI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of Polychaete species is recorded from the North east coast of Tunisia with an historic review of the previous literature from Tunisian coasts. Altogether 40 families, 146 genera, and 238 species are currently known from the area in which 86 taxa, 4 families (Chrysopetalidae, Pilargidae, Protodrilidae and Saccocirridae and 40 genera (Saccocirrus, Protodrilus, Parathelepus, Thelepus, Petta, Isolda, Brada, Tharyx, Paraprionospio, Jasmineira, Hypsicomus, Euchone, Pseudobranchiomma, Laonome, Galathowenia, Lugia, Pseudomystides, Protomystides, Pirakia, Mysta, Eurysyllis, Parapionosyllis, Streptosyllis, Paraehlersia, Sigambra, Ancistrosyllis, Kefersteinia, Chrysopetalum, Bhawania, Fimbriosthenelais, Subadyte, Panthalis, Dorvillea, Scalibregma, Paradoneis, Cirrophorus, Metasychis, Websterinereis, Euniphysa and Mastobranchus are new additions to the Polychaete fauna of Tunisia. The list, which provides a synthesis of the regional taxonomica work, including coastal areas from Sidi Daoud to the area of Menzel Hurr (Cap Bon Peninsula, Western Mediterranean Sea, can serve as a baseline survey for future studies.

  2. Inventory and new records of polychaete species from the Cap Bon Peninsula, north-east coast of Tunisia, Western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZAABI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of Polychaete species is recorded from the North east coast of Tunisia with an historic review of the previous literature from Tunisian coasts. Altogether 40 families, 146 genera, and 238 species are currently known from the area in which 86 taxa, 4 families (Chrysopetalidae, Pilargidae, Protodrilidae and Saccocirridae and 40 genera (Saccocirrus, Protodrilus, Parathelepus, Thelepus, Petta, Isolda, Brada, Tharyx, Paraprionospio, Jasmineira, Hypsicomus, Euchone, Pseudobranchiomma, Laonome, Galathowenia, Lugia, Pseudomystides, Protomystides, Pirakia, Mysta, Eurysyllis, Parapionosyllis, Streptosyllis, Paraehlersia, Sigambra, Ancistrosyllis, Kefersteinia, Chrysopetalum, Bhawania, Fimbriosthenelais, Subadyte, Panthalis, Dorvillea, Scalibregma, Paradoneis, Cirrophorus, Metasychis, Websterinereis, Euniphysa and Mastobranchus are new additions to the Polychaete fauna of Tunisia. The list, which provides a synthesis of the regional taxonomica work, including coastal areas from Sidi Daoud to the area of Menzel Hurr (Cap Bon Peninsula, Western Mediterranean Sea, can serve as a baseline survey for future studies.

  3. Polychaetes and oligochaetes associated with intertidal rocky shores in a semi-enclosed industrial and urban embayment, with the description of two new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parapar, Julio; Martínez-Ansemil, Enrique; Caramelo, Carlos; Collado, Rut; Schmelz, Rüdiger

    2009-12-01

    The species composition and relative abundance of the annelid benthic macrofauna (Polychaeta and Oligochaeta) inhabiting the rocky intertidal zone of the ria of Ferrol (Galicia, NW Spain) were studied during field collections, from 2000 to 2002. A total of 14,619 specimens (11,585 polychaetes belonging to 76 species and 24 families and 3,034 oligochaetes belonging to 18 species and two families) were collected from 98 quantitative samples taken from 13 sampling sites. The general spatial distribution of the annelid fauna reflects an increase of the diversity from the inner to the outer part of the ria. The general patterns found in the annelid composition suggest that the assemblages were dominated by oligochaetes in the inner sheltered sampling sites and polychaetes in the outer more exposed sites. Several faunistical and taxonomical remarks on selected species are presented. Two new species of oligochaetes are described: Coralliodrilus artabrensis sp. n. and Pirodrilus fungithecatus sp. n. (Naididae, Phallodrilinae). A new biological index, based on the oligochaete/polychaete ratio (O/P), is proposed as tool to evaluate environmental quality and to monitor future changes in the environment.

  4. A physiological study of integument secretions in the marine polychaete Eulalia viridis and their potential biotechnological value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patrícia Rodrigo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in marine bioproducts, especially in those with life improving potential to humans. Marine invertebrates, in particular, possess particular interest due to their high diversity, abundance and ecological importance. However, the physiology of such a wide and diverse group of organisms is far from understood. Marine annelids, in particular (Class Polychaeta, are of especial interest, in large part owing to their ecological representativity and easy handling. Still only few studies have been focusing on physiological traits of the polychaeta that may relate to the production of bioproducts of potential biotechnological applications. The secretion of substances by polychaetes is acknowledged to relate primarily with locomotion and feeding, but also thought to have an important role in egg protection, prevention against infection and even as defence mechanisms against possible predators. As such, the present work aims at identifying, isolating and analysing the nature of integumentary secretions of E. viridis, a common intertidal worm of rocky shores. Histological analyses revealed a more complex microanatomy of the skin than it could be anticipated. Several cell types were identified in the integument, each bearing different functions such as structural support, pigmentation and sensorial, to which is added secretion as one of the most important roles. Due to the great complexity of the integument, the identification of the chemical nature of all types of secretions is particularly challenging. However, more detailed histochemical analyses and electron microscopy enabled the identification of different secretory cells and their chemical nature and role. The analyses was complemented by protein isolation from mucous and homogenates trough SDS-PAGE. Extracts revealed, for instance, that peptidic substances produced by the skin are potentially biocidal, as assessed through the Microtox Assay. Overall, the results enhance the

  5. Smelling danger - alarm cue responses in the polychaete Nereis (Hediste diversicolor (Muller, 1776 to potential fish predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Elisa Schaum

    Full Text Available The harbour ragworm, Nereis (Hediste diversicolor is a common intertidal marine polychaete that lives in burrows from which it has to partially emerge in order to forage. In doing so, it is exposed to a variety of predators. One way in which predation risk can be minimised is through chemical detection from within the relative safety of the burrows. Using CCTV and motion capture software, we show that H. diversicolor is able to detect chemical cues associated with the presence of juvenile flounder (Platichthys flesus. Number of emergences, emergence duration and distance from burrow entrance are all significantly reduced during exposure to flounder conditioned seawater and flounder mucous spiked seawater above a threshold with no evidence of behavioural habituation. Mucous from bottom-dwelling juvenile plaice (Pleuronectes platessa and pelagic adult herring (Clupea harengus elicit similar responses, suggesting that the behavioural reactions are species independent. The data implies that H. diversicolor must have well developed chemosensory mechanisms for predator detection and is consequently able to effectively minimize risk.

  6. Proceraea exoryxae sp. nov. (Annelida, Syllidae, Autolytinae, the first known polychaete miner tunneling into the tunic of an ascidian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While studying organisms living in association with the solitary tunicate Phallusia nigra (Ascidiacea, Ascidiidae from a shallow fringing reef at Zeytouna Beach (Egyptian Red Sea, one of the collected ascidians showed peculiar perforations on its tunic. Once dissected, the perforations revealed to be the openings of a network of galleries excavated in the inner tunic (atrium by at least six individuals of a polychaetous annelid. The worms belonged to the Autolytinae (Syllidae, a subfamily that is well known to include specialized predators and/or symbionts, mostly associated with cnidarians. The Red Sea worms are here described as Proceraea exoryxae sp. nov., which are anatomically distinguished by the combination of simple chaetae only in anterior chaetigers, and a unique trepan with 33 teeth in one outer ring where one large tooth alternates with one medium-sized tricuspid tooth, and one inner ring with small teeth located just behind the large teeth. Male and female epitokes were found together with atokous individuals within galleries. Proceraea exoryxae sp. nov. constitutes the first known miner in the Autolytinae and the second species in this taxon known to live symbiotically with ascidians. The implications of finding this specialized parasite are discussed considering that Phallusia nigra has been introduced worldwide, in tropical and sub-tropical ecosystems, where it has the potential of becoming invasive.

  7. Assessment of field-related influences on polychlorinated biphenyl exposures and sorbent amendment using polychaete bioassays and passive sampler measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, E.M.; Oen, A.M.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Field-related influences on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure were evaluated by employing caged deposit-feeders, Neanthes arenaceodentata, along with polyoxymethylene (POM) samplers using parallel in situ and ex situ bioassays with homogenized untreated or activated carbon (AC) amended sediment. The AC amendment achieved a remedial efficiency in reducing bioaccumulation by 90% in the laboratory and by 44% in the field transplants. In situ measurements showed that PCB uptake by POM samplers was greater for POM placed in the surface sediment compared with the underlying AC amendment, suggesting that tidal exchange of surrounding material with similar PCB availability as untreated sediment was redeposited in the cages. Polychlorinated biphenyls bioaccumulation with caged polychaetes from untreated sediment was half as large under field conditions compared with laboratory conditions. A biodynamic model was used to confirm and quantify the different processes that could have influenced these results. Three factors appeared most influential in the bioassays: AC amendment significantly reduces bioavailability under laboratory and field conditions; sediment deposition within test cages in the field partially masks the remedial benefit of underlying AC-amended sediment; and deposit-feeders exhibit less PCB uptake from untreated sediment when feeding is reduced. Ex situ and in situ experiments inevitably show some differences that are associated with measurement methods and effects of the environment. Parallel ex situ and in situ bioassays, passive sampler measurements, and quantifying important processes with a model can tease apart these field influences. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  8. Lethal and sub-lethal responses of the biogenic reef forming polychaete Sabellaria alveolata to aqueous chlorine and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, K S; Hendrick, V J; Beveridge, C M; Roberts, D A; Wilding, T A

    2016-06-01

    Sabellaria alveolata, a reef-forming marine polychaete, was exposed to aqueous chlorine which is routinely used as an anti-fouling agent in power station cooling water. Worms were treated to a range of chlorination levels (0, 0.02, 0.1 and 0.5 mg l(-1) Total Residual Oxidant referred to as control, low, intermediate and high TRO) at mean and maximum summer temperatures (18 and 23 °C respectively). Overall mortality was relatively low, however a combination of high temperature and intermediate and high TRO resulted in a significant increase in mortality compared to the control and low TRO treatments. In contrast the extension of dwelling tubes was reduced at high TRO, but increased at low and intermediate TRO levels relative to the controls independent of temperature. Finally, tube strength was found to decrease with increasing TRO, again independent of temperature. On the basis of these findings, S. alveolata can be considered tolerant of one month exposures to low TRO at water temperatures up to and including the summer maxima for southern UK waters. However, at higher TRO levels and during warm weather, high mortality would be predicted.

  9. Smelling Danger – Alarm Cue Responses in the Polychaete Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor (Müller, 1776) to Potential Fish Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, C. Elisa; Batty, Robert; Last, Kim S.

    2013-01-01

    The harbour ragworm, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor is a common intertidal marine polychaete that lives in burrows from which it has to partially emerge in order to forage. In doing so, it is exposed to a variety of predators. One way in which predation risk can be minimised is through chemical detection from within the relative safety of the burrows. Using CCTV and motion capture software, we show that H. diversicolor is able to detect chemical cues associated with the presence of juvenile flounder (Platichthys flesus). Number of emergences, emergence duration and distance from burrow entrance are all significantly reduced during exposure to flounder conditioned seawater and flounder mucous spiked seawater above a threshold with no evidence of behavioural habituation. Mucous from bottom-dwelling juvenile plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and pelagic adult herring (Clupea harengus) elicit similar responses, suggesting that the behavioural reactions are species independent. The data implies that H. diversicolor must have well developed chemosensory mechanisms for predator detection and is consequently able to effectively minimize risk. PMID:24155953

  10. Exposure to copper and a cytotoxic polyunsaturated aldehyde induces reproductive failure in the marine polychaete Nereis virens (Sars).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Gary S; Lewis, Ceri; Pickavance, Georgia; Taylor, Rebecca L; Bentley, Matthew G

    2011-07-01

    A number of metabolites from microalgae, including polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), have been implicated as inducers of reproductive failure in aquatic invertebrates. Current work describes the impacts of the model PUA 2E, 4E-decadienal and copper sulphate applied in isolation and combination on the reproductive performance of the infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens (Sars). The reproductive and life cycle parameters investigated were; fertilisation success, larval survival, sperm motility (percent motility and curvilinear velocity) and sperm DNA damage. Exposure to decadienal and copper sulphate in isolation resulted in dose- and time-dependent reductions for each evaluated endpoint. Fertilisation success was heavily impacted at concentrations of up to 10μM for both compounds. Copper sulphate was more toxic in larval survival assays. Sperm motility impacts, although variable, exhibited rapid onset with pronounced reductions in sperm swimming performance observed within 3min of exposure. The extent of DNA damage was dose-dependent, and in the case of decadienal, rapid in onset. Dual compound exposures resulted in enhanced overall toxicity in all assays. Logistic regression analysis of fertilisation and larval survival assays showed significant synergistic interactions between decadienal and copper sulphate; an increase in concentration of either compound resulted in enhanced toxicity of the other. Longer exposure durations during larval survival assays demonstrated a further increase in both toxicity and synergism. The results indicate that the effects of additional environmental stressors must be considered when attempting to extrapolate laboratory-derived single compound exposures to field situations.

  11. Alien reef-building polychaete drives long-term changes in invertebrate biomass and diversity in a small, urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, K. A.; Griffiths, C. L.

    2014-02-01

    Two of the greatest threats to native biodiversity are the construction of artificial structures in natural environments and the introduction of invasive species. As the development and urbanisation of estuaries continues at an increasing rate worldwide, these environments are being simultaneously affected by these threats. This study quantifies the spread of an invasive reef-building polychaete, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, in a small, highly manipulated urban estuary in South Africa and investigates its role as an ecosystem engineer. Anthropogenic changes to the Zandvlei Estuary, including construction of a rubble weir and canalisation near the estuary mouth, construction of an extensive marina development and hardening of the banks with concrete, have facilitated the expansion of F. enigmaticus. The standing stock of F. enigmaticus increased from 13.69 t, as measured in 1986, to 50.03 t in 2012, due both to increase in the total area colonised and standing stock per m2. Since F. enigmaticus reefs support a greater biomass of infauna than adjacent sandy areas, total invertebrate biomass in the estuary is estimated to have increased from less than 0.30 t in 1942, to over 56.80 t in 2012, due mainly to hardening of banks in parts of the main estuary with concrete and construction of a marina system. A positive correlation between reef mass and infaunal biomass, density and diversity was also found.

  12. Survival and Growth of the Marine Polychaete, Neanthes arenaceodentata, Following Laboratory Exposure to Copper-Spiked Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Timothy J; Gaertner, Karin E; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Call, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile marine polychaetes, Neanthes arenaceodentata, were exposed for 28 days to copper (Cu)-spiked sediment at six concentrations ranging from 48.3 to 2380 mg Cu/kg dry sediment, plus control. Survival was reduced (p ≤ 0.05) at concentrations ≥1190 mg Cu/kg. Growth was inhibited at Cu concentrations ≥506 mg Cu/kg. Dose-response relationships yielded LC10 and LC50 estimates of 514 and 1230 mg Cu/kg, respectively. The growth effect EC50 estimate was 409 mg Cu/kg. Ranges for the no observable effect concentration and lowest observable effect concentration were 506-1190 mg Cu/kg for survival, and 230-506 mg Cu/kg for growth. Pore water concentrations of Cu were 38.7-65.8 µg Cu/L in exposures where toxic effects were observed, compared to a range of 15.1-22.4 µg Cu/L in exposures where significant effects were not evident. The results of the study were compared with empirical and mechanistic sediment quality guidelines for the protection of benthic organisms.

  13. Phylogeography and reproductive variation of the poecilogonous polychaete Boccardia proboscidea (Annelida: Spionidae) along the West Coast of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzun, Fernanda X; Mahon, Andrew R; Swalla, Billie J; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    The ability to produce more than one kind of offspring, or poecilogony, is a striking example of reproductive variability. Traditionally, larval nutrition has been classified as a dichotomy: if offspring obtain nutrition from their mothers (lecithotrophy), there is lower fecundity and greater chance of offspring survival than when they get their nutrition from plankton (planktotrophy). The polychaete Boccardia proboscidea (Spionidae) produces both types of embryos using three different reproductive strategies. In this study, we examined the roles of genetic history and phenotypic plasticity on explaining natural variation in B. proboscidea along the Pacific coast of the United States using two genetic mitochondrial markers, 16S rDNA and Cyt b, and common garden experiments. These data show a single North American West Coast network that is structured, geographically, by the well-documented biogeographic break near Point Conception, California. The southern group within this network covers a smaller range, but has larger haplotype diversity, than the northern group. Some individuals differing in reproductive type had the same haplotype, indicating independence of these features; however, differences between laboratory and field data suggest additional geographic variation within one of the reproductive types. Females from higher latitudes provide offspring with larger supplies of extra embryonic nutrition than females from southern latitudes. Results herein suggest that both genetic history and developmental plasticity are playing a role in the maintenance of this reproductive polymorphism.

  14. Rapid treatment of vessels fouled with an invasive polychaete, Sabella spallanzanii, using a floating dock and chlorine as a biocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, Donald J; Depree, Craig V; Hickey, Christopher W; McKenzie, Don S; Middleton, Irene; Smith, Matt D; Stewart, Michael; Thompson, Karen J

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine solution was added to the water encapsulated within a proprietary 'floating dock' to treat a vessel infested with the invasive polychaete Sabella spallanzanii. The chlorine was added as sodium dichloroisocyanurate ('dichlor') at an initial concentration of 200 mg l(-1) of free available chlorine (FAC). This concentration killed 99% of S. spallanzanii in their tubes during a 4-h exposure in laboratory tests (EC99 160 mg FAC l(-1)). The concentration of FAC in the floating dock declined to ~50 mg l(-1) after 4 h and < 10 mg l(-1) after 16 h. Residual FAC was neutralised with thiosulphate at completion of exposure. A sample of 30 S. spallanzanii individuals collected from the hull after treatment all showed morphological damage and 28 showed no response to touch. Re-examination of the hull after 6 d found no live worms or other fouling organisms. This method provides a cost-effective, rapid means of treating hull fouling.

  15. Intestinal solubilization of particle-associated organic and inorganic mercury as a measure of bioavailability to benthic invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, A.L.; McAloon, K.M.; Mason, R.P. [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States). Center for Environmental Science; Mayer, L.M. [Univ. of Maine, Walpole, ME (United States). Dept. of Oceanography

    1999-06-01

    The bioavailability of particle-associated inorganic mercury (Hg{sub I}) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) was evaluated in vitro using digestive fluid of the deposit feeding lugworm, Arenicola marina. Digestive fluid, removed from the midgut of the polychaete, was incubated with contaminated sediment, and the proportion of Hg{sub I} or MMHg solubilized by the digestive fluid was determined. Digestive fluid was found to be a more effective solvent than seawater in solubilizing particle-associated Hg{sub I} or MMHg. A greater percentage of MMHg than Hg{sub I} was solubilized from most sediments, suggesting that sediment-associated MMHg is generally more readily available from sediment for biological uptake. The proportion of MMHg released from the sediment was inversely correlated with sediment organic matter content, decreasing exponentially with increasing organic matter content of the sediment. The results for Hg{sub I} were equivocal. MMHg bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) from previous studies showed a similar trend with organic content of sediment, suggesting that solubilization may be the process limiting the bioaccumulation of particle-bound MMHg. It is concluded that in vitro extraction with a deposit feeder`s digestive fluid provides a potential tool to study the process of Hg bioaccumulation via ingestion routes, although its application to various sediments and organisms needs further investigation.

  16. 2D Gel-Based Multiplexed Proteomic Analysis during Larval Development and Metamorphosis of the Biofouling Polychaete Tubeworm Hydroides elegans

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yu

    2010-09-03

    Larval settlement and metamorphosis of a common biofouling polychaete worm, Hydroides elegans, involve remarkable structural and physiological changes during this pelagic to sessile habitat shift. The endogenous protein molecules and post-translational modifications that drive this larval transition process are not only of interest to ecologists but also to the antifouling paint industry, which aims to control the settlement of this biofouling species on man-made structures (e.g., ship hulls). On the basis of our recent proteomic studies, we hypothesize that rapid larval settlement of H. elegans could be mediated through changes in phosphorylation status of proteins rather than extensive de novo synthesis of proteins. To test this hypothesis, 2D gel-based multiplexed proteomics technology was used to monitor the changes in protein expression and phosphorylation status during larval development and metamorphosis of H. elegans. The protein expression profiles of larvae before and after they reached competency to attach and metamorphose were similar in terms of major proteins, but the percentage of phosphorylated proteins increased from 41% to 49% after competency. Notably, both the protein and phosphoprotein profiles of the metamorphosed individuals (adult) were distinctly different from that of the larvae, with only 40% of the proteins phosphorylated in the adult stage. The intensity ratio of all phosphoprotein spots to all total protein spots was also the highest in the competent larval stage. Overall, our results indicated that the level of protein phosphorylation might play a crucial role in the initiation of larval settlement and metamorphosis. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  17. Spatio-temporal variability of Borer Polychaetes in Posidonia oceanica beds and its relation to meadow structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. VASAPOLLO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Posidonia oceanica forms an extremely productive and complex ecosystem in the coastal Mediterranean Sea providing a suitable habitat for hundreds of plant and animal species. Among motile invertebrates associated to Posidonia meadows,  polychaete borers of the plant sheaths represent a unique group which exploit a peculiar microhabitat. They belong to the family Eunicidae with three dominant species, Lysidice collaris, L. ninetta and L. unicornis. Due to their strong association with Posidonia shoots, these animals are particularly suitable to study the plant and animal spatial relationships and their pattern of variability. The aim of this work was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of these animals (Index of Borer, IB at different spatial and temporal (summer vs winter scales in two Posidonia meadows off the Ischia Island (Gulf of Naples, Italy, which are exposed to different degrees of human impact and of hydrological conditions. Results showed IB values of L. collaris (the most abundant species significantly different between meadows and at scales from 10s to 100s of meters, as well as between summer and winter. The IB of L. ninetta showed significant differences only at scales of 10s of meters while, on the contrary, the IB of L. unicornis (the less abundant species did not show variability at any spatial and temporal scales. Most of the variance was at the more impacted and less water movement exposed meadow, suggesting higher level of small and intermediate scales of patchiness of borers at this meadow. These variation patterns  are discussed in relation  to local environmental differences between the studied Posidonia beds.

  18. Involvement of a novel p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in larval metamorphosis of the polychaete Hydroides elegans (Haswell)

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2010-04-19

    Hydroides elegans is a common marine fouling organism in most tropical and subtropical waters. The life cycle of H. elegans includes a planktonic larval stage in which swimming larvae normally take 5 days to attain competency to settle. Larval metamorphosis marks the beginning of its benthic life; however, the endogenous molecular mechanisms that regulate metamorphosis remain largely unknown. In this study, a PCR-based suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed to screen the genes expressed in competent larvae but not in precompetent larvae. Among the transcripts isolated from the library, 21 significantly matched sequences in the GenBank. Many of these isolated transcripts have putative roles in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal transduction pathway or in response to ROS stress. A putative novel p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which was also isolated with SSH screen, was then cloned and characterized. The MAPK inhibitors assay showed that both p38 MAPK inhibitors SB202190 and SB203580 effectively inhibited the biofilm-induced metamorphosis of H. elegans. A cell stressors assay showed that H2O2 effectively induced larval metamorphosis of H. elegans, but the inductivity of H2O2 was also inhibited by both SB inhibitors. The catalase assay showed that the catalase could effetely inhibit H. elegans larvae from responding to inductive biofilm. These results showed that the p38 MAPK-dependent pathway plays critical role in controlling larval metamorphosis of the marine polychaete H. elegans, and the reactive oxygen radicals produced by biofilm could be the cue inducing larval metamorphosis. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Temporal and spatial variations in the polychaete (Annelida) populations on the upper continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fangyuan; Wang, Yuning; Rowe, Gilbert T.

    2017-01-01

    Polychaete worms (Annelida), the dominant macrofaunal taxon in most fine-grained marine sediments, were sampled in 1983-85 and then again in 2000-02 at nine locations at depths of 324-1454 m. on the upper continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The assemblages exhibited relative stability in abundance and diversity, but fell into six separate groups of species (>35% similarity) that were related to time-of-sampling, location, depth. This depth gradient experiences an increase in oxygen from 2.5 to 4.5 ml/L, a six degree decrease in temperature (10-12° down to 4 °C) and a decline of 30-37 mg C m-2 day-1 down to 7 mg C m-2 day-1 in estimates of the particulate organic carbon (POC) input to the sea floor, but these steep gradients had secondary effects on species turnover or depth-related zonation (Beta diversity). The species composition of four of the six groups was separated on the basis of sampling between 1983-85 and 2000-02 as opposed to depth or location. The species composition of the two groups on the eastern transect was different from the western sites and the two eastern groups differed in species composition from each other between 1983-85 and 2000-02. The two groups of species at the three deeper sites to the west (864-1410 m) were also separated on the basis of time-of-sampling but the group of species located at the three shallow locations (324-625 m) was not; it was a mixture of the two sampling periods. Significantly higher densities (pseasonal recruitment may have occurred but the higher densities were attributed to only two species.

  20. Revealing polychaetes invasion patterns: Identification, reproduction and potential risks of the Korean ragworm, Perinereis linea (Treadwell), in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Andrés; Richter, Alexandra; Anadón, Nuria; Glasby, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    An established population of the polychaetous annelid Perinereis linea (Treadwell) is reported for the first time outside its native distribution range (NW Pacific). This exotic worm has reached the Western Mediterranean (Mar Menor lagoon) via importing live fishing-bait as it is commonly used by anglers in Mar Menor lagoon, an area largely used for recreational fishing. To avoid confusion with other related species, and because the scientific name has been in synonymy for many years, P. linea is redescribed and illustrated. We focus on the reproductive biology and ecology of P. linea to help to understand its introduction, naturalization and spread along this coastal lagoon. Comparison between the Mediterranean population with a native population from South Korea revealed that the species exhibits a great reproductive plasticity and adaptability, which depends on the environmental conditions. Perinereis linea can reproduce after acquiring the epitokous form or prior to complete epitokal modification. In the Mar Menor lagoon population females release eggs asynchronically without completing epitokal modifications. However, under particular laboratory conditions females produce eggs synchronically and release them after complete epitokal transformations. Fertilization can occur internally in the female coelom, and females release zygotes and larvae through openings in their body walls; they are then incubated in gelatinous masses attached to the female parapodia. The sperm morphology is of the ent-aquasperm type. The eggs and larvae are attacked by symbiotic ciliate protozoa that feed on their yolk reserves. These foreign ciliates may act as carriers of disease in native beachworms and constitute an important risk for the ecosystem health. Finally, we provide recommendations on the prevention of the adverse effects that this exotic ragworm can cause in receiving ecosystems.

  1. Integumentary L-histidine transport in a euryhaline polychaete worm: regulatory roles of calcium and cadmium in the transport event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, H R; Ahearn, G A; Gomme, J

    2000-09-01

    Integumentary uptake of L-[(3)H]histidine by polychaete worms (Nereis succinea) from estuarine waters of Oahu, Hawaii was measured in the presence and absence of calcium and cadmium using a physiological saline that approximated the ion composition of 60 % sea water. In this medium 1 micromol L(-1) cadmium significantly increased (P<0.01) the uptake of 10 micromol L(-1)L-[(3)H]histidine, while 1 micromol L(-1) cadmium plus 25 micromol L(-1)L-leucine significantly decreased (P<0.01) amino acid uptake. L-[(3)H]histidine influx was a sigmoidal function (n=2. 21+/-0.16, mean +/- s.e.m.) of [L-histidine] (1?50 micromol L(-1)) in the absence of cadmium, but became a hyperbolic function with the addition of 1 micromol L(-1) cadmium. A decrease of calcium concentration from 6 to 0 mmol L(-1) (lithium substitution) significantly increased (P<0.01) amino acid influx in the presence and absence of cadmium. Calcium significantly reduced (P<0.01), and cadmium significantly increased (P<0.01), L-[(3)H]histidine influx J(max), without either divalent cation affecting amino acid influx K(t). Variation in external sodium concentration (0?250 mmol L(-1)) had no effect on 10 micromol L(-1)L-[(3)H]histidine influx, but amino acid entry was a sigmoidal function of both [cadmium] (n=2.34+/-0.44) and [lithium] (n=1.91+/-0.39) in the absence of calcium. A model is proposed for transapical L-[(3)H]histidine influx by a transporter that resembles the classical sodium-independent L-system carrier protein that is regulated by the external divalent cations calcium and cadmium.

  2. The development of the larval nervous system, musculature and ciliary bands of Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida: heterochrony in polychaetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimeld Sebastian M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the evolution of animals it is essential to have taxon sampling across a representative spread of the animal kingdom. With the recent rearrangement of most of the Bilateria into three major clades (Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa and Deuterostomia it has become clear that the Lophotrochozoa are relatively poorly represented in our knowledge of animal development, compared to the Ecdysozoa and Deuterostomia. We aim to contribute towards redressing this balance with data on the development of the muscular, nervous and ciliary systems of the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii (Serpulidae. We compare our data with other lophotrochozoans. Results P. lamarckii develops locomotory and feeding structures that enable it to become a swimming, planktotrophic larva within 24 hours. Formation of the trochophore includes development of a prototroch, metatroch and neurotroch, development of apical and posterior nervous elements at similar times, and development of musculature around the ciliary bands and digestive tract prior to development of any body wall muscles. The adult nervous and muscular systems are essentially preformed in the late larva. Interestingly, the muscular systems of the larvae and juvenile worms do not include the circular muscles of the body wall, which are considered to be plesiomorphic for annelids, although the possibility that circular muscles develop after these stages cannot be ruled out at this point. Conclusion A comparison between polychaetes shows variability in the timing (heterochrony of development of body wall muscles and elements of the nervous system. These heterochronies are one route for evolution of different life history strategies, such as adaptations to feeding requirements.

  3. New species for the biomitigation of a super-intensive marine fish farm effluent: Combined use of polychaete-assisted sand filters and halophyte aquaponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Bruna; Calado, Ricardo; Lillebø, Ana I

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to test an innovative biomitigation approach, where polychaete-assisted (Hediste diversicolor) sand filters were combined with the production of Halimione portulacoides in aquaponics, to remediate an organic-rich effluent generated by a super intensive fish farm operating a land-based RAS (Recirculating aquaculture system). The set up included four different experimental combinations that were periodically monitored for 5months. After this period, polychaete-assisted sand filters reduced in 70% the percentage of OM and the average densities increased from ≈400ind.m(-2) to 7000ind.m(-2). H. portulacoides in aquaponics contributed to an average DIN (Dissolved inorganic Nitrogen) decrease of 65%, which increased to 67% when preceded by filter tanks stocked with polychaetes. From May until October (5months) halophytes biomass increased from 1.4kgm(-2)±0.7 (initial wet weight) to 18.6kgm(-2)±4.0. Bearing in mind that the uptake of carbon is mostly via photosynthesis and not though the uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon, this represents an approximate incorporation of ≈1.3kgm(-2) carbon (C), ≈15gm(-2) nitrogen (N) and ≈8gm(-2) phosphorus (P) in the aerial part (76% of total biomass), and an approximate incorporation of ≈0.5kgm(-2) carbon (C), ≈3gm(-2) nitrogen (N) and ≈2gm(-2) phosphorus (P) in the roots (24% of total biomass). In the present study, the potential of the two extractive species for biomitigation of a super-intensive marine fish farm effluent could be clearly demonstrated, contributing in this way to potentiate the implementation of more sustainable practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of marine gregarine parasites (Apicomplexa) from tube-forming polychaetes (Sabellariidae, Cirratulidae and Serpulidae), including descriptions of two new species of Selenidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Kevin C; Leander, Brian S

    2013-01-01

    Selenidium is a genus of gregarine parasites that infect the intestines of marine invertebrates and have morphological, ecological, and motility traits inferred to reflect the early evolutionary history of apicomplexans. Because the overall diversity and phylogenetic position(s) of these species remain poorly understood, we performed a species discovery survey of Selenidium from tube-forming polychaetes. This survey uncovered five different morphotypes of trophozoites (feeding stages) living within the intestines of three different polychaete hosts. We acquired small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences from single-cell (trophozoite) isolates, representing all five morphotypes that were also imaged with light and scanning electron microscopy. The combination of molecular, ecological, and morphological data provided evidence for four novel species of Selenidium, two of which were established in this study: Selenidium neosabellariae n. sp. and Selenidium sensimae n. sp. The trophozoites of these species differed from one another in the overall shape of the cell, the specific shape of the posterior end, the number and form of longitudinal striations, the presence/absence of transverse striations, and the position and shape of the nucleus. A fifth morphotype of Selenidium, isolated from the tube worm Dodecaceria concharum, was inferred to have been previously described as Selenidium cf. echinatum, based on general trophozoite morphology and host association. Phylogenetic analyses of the SSU rDNA sequences resulted in a robust clade of Selenidium species collected from tube-forming polychaetes, consisting of the two new species, the two additional morphotypes, S. cf. echinatum, and four previously described species (Selenidium serpulae, Selenidium boccardiellae, Selenidium idanthyrsae, and Selenidium cf. mesnili). Genetic distances between the SSU rDNA sequences in this clade distinguished closely related and potential cryptic species of Selenidium that were otherwise very

  5. Assessment of soft-bottom polychaete assemblages in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) based on a mesoscale survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrune, Céline; Grémare, Antoine; Amouroux, Jean-Michel; Sardá, Rafael; Gil, João; Taboada, Sergi

    2007-01-01

    Ninety-two stations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 m depth) located on 21 inshore-offshore transects between the French-Spanish border and the mouth of the Rhône River were sampled during the 1998 Fall. Their polychaete fauna was analyzed to: (1) describe the distribution pattern of polychaete assemblages at the scale of the whole Gulf of Lions, (2) identify the relationships between these assemblages and the main environmental parameters, (3) establish a link between these assemblages and the benthic communities already described for Northwestern Mediterranean, and (4) assess recent historical changes in trends in densities and α diversity between assemblages. Three polychaete assemblages were identified using cluster analysis and associated procedures. These assemblages were tightly associated with depth and sediment granulometry as indicated by the concordance between their spatial distributions and the sedimentary map of the Gulf of Lions. Assemblage I contained most of the 10 and 20 m deep stations and was associated with littoral fine sands. Assemblage I was found all over the Gulf of Lions and was characterized by high abundance and high biomass due to the presence of large numbers of the serpulid Ditrupa arietina. Assemblage II was mostly composed of 30 m deep stations and was associated with littoral sandy mud. Assemblage II was dominated by the lumbrinerid Lumbrineris latreilli. It was composed of two sub-assemblages (IIa and IIb) in relation with sediment granulometry. Sub-assemblage IIb was associated with finer sediment than sub-assemblage IIa. Sub-assemblage IIa was only found in the Southern part of the Gulf of Lions, whereas sub-assemblage IIb was mostly found in the Northern part of the Gulf of Lions. This pattern is probably indicative of the sedimentation of fine particles originating from the Rhône River at intermediate depth as suggested by: (1) the sedimentary map of the Gulf of Lions, and (2) the outputs of recent models of sediment transport in

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and changes in the trophic structure of polychaete assemblages in sediments of Todos os Santos Bay, Northeastern, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, N; Tommasi, L R

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the trophic structure of polychaete assemblages were studied in sediments at 28 stations in Todos os Santos Bay. Total PAH concentrations varied from 8 to 4163 ng g(-1) dry weight. The indexes used for the determination of PAH origin suggested both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. A total of 397 individuals of polychaetes was recorded which were classified in three trophic groups. The PCA ordination resulted in the formation of three groups of stations, Group I characterised by sandy sediments, low organic content, low total PAH concentration and percentage of potentially harmful PAH was dominated by subsurface deposit-feeders. The other two groups (IIa and IIb), showed similar percentages of silt and clay, however, Group IIb formed by those stations with high total organic carbon, total nitrogen, sulphur contents, high total PAH concentration and percentage of potentially harmful PAH was dominated by carnivores. Trophic changes could be explained by the level of exposure to PAH effects relative to differences in the life style and feeding strategies between deposit-feeders and carnivores.

  7. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Small-scale spatial variation of soft-bottom polychaete biomass in an Antarctic glacial fjord (Ezcurra Inlet, South Shetlands): comparison of sites at different levels of disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabis, Krzysztof; Sobczyk, Robert

    2015-03-01

    There is still only a small number of studies dedicated to Southern Ocean benthic biomass, especially on species level. Here, we analyze polychaete biomass in two areas of the Antarctic fjord Ezcurra Inlet characterized by different levels of disturbance associated with activity of glaciers. Material was collected in March 2007 in the 90-130 m depth range. Twenty van Veen grab (0.1 m2) samples were collected in the inner area of the fjord and 20 in the fjord mouth. Cluster analysis clearly separated those two parts of the fjord. Mean total biomass was significantly higher in the outer region (14.4 ± 5.5 g/0.1 m2) compared with the inner part (3.6 ± 0.8 g/0.1 m2). The highest biomass in the outer, not disturbed area was noted for Amphitrite kerguelensis, Aphelochaeta/Chaetozone, Scalibregma inflatum, Euchone pallida and Maldane sarsi antarctica, while in the inner region, only Aphelochaeta/Chaetozone had high biomass values. Average individual biomass and biomass of majority of polychaete functional groups was also higher in the outer area. Comparison of species composition and abundance with data collected 30 years ago in the studied area revealed also important differences in community structure.

  9. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Haplozoon praxillellae n. sp. (Dinoflagellata): a novel intestinal parasite of the maldanid polychaete Praxillella pacifica Berkeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckert, Sonja; Leander, Brian S

    2008-11-01

    The genus Haplozoon comprises a group of endoparasites infecting the intestines of polychaete worms. Comparative studies using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and small subunit rDNA have shown that these organisms are very unusual dinoflagellates. To date, there is only one species known from the Pacific Ocean, namely Haplozoon axiothellae Siebert. In this study, we describe Haplozoon praxillellae n. sp. from the intestine of the Pacific maldanid polychaete Praxillella pacifica Berkeley. The parasites are relatively small, oblong and about 35-125mum in length, consisting of the trophocyte (anterior-most compartment), rectangular gonocytes and bulbous sporocytes. The trophocyte bears an attachment apparatus with a prominent 'suction disc' and numerous stylets. We were able to detect spherical vesicles near the ventral surface of each gonocyte. The whole organism is covered with thecal barbs of different shape and size, except for the caudal end of the posterior-most sporocyte, which is instead covered with hexagonal or pentagonal alveoli. A continuous membrane encloses the whole pseudocolony. Molecular phylogenetic data, host specificity and morphological differences clearly distinguish H. praxillellae n. sp. from H. axiothellae.

  10. Hidden in the crowd: primordial germ cells and somatic stem cells in the mesodermal posterior growth zone of the polychaete Platynereis dumerillii are two distinct cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebscher Nicole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the polychaete Platynereis, the primordial germ cells (PGCs emerge from the vasa, piwi, and PL10 expressing mesodermal posterior growth zone (MPGZ at the end of larval development, suggesting a post-embryonic formation from stem cells. Methods In order to verify this hypothesis, embryos and larvae were pulse labeled with the proliferation marker 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU at different stages of development. Subsequently, the PGCs were visualized in 7-day-old young worms using antibodies against the Vasa protein. Results Surprisingly, the primordial germ cells of Platynereis incorporate EdU only shortly before gastrulation (6-8 hours post fertilization (hpf, which coincides with the emergence of four small blastomeres from the mesoblast lineage. We conclude that these so-called 'secondary mesoblast cells' constitute the definitive PGCs in Platynereis. In contrast, the cells of the MPGZ incorporate EdU only from the pre-trochophore stage onward (14 hpf. Conclusion While PGCs and the cells of the MPGZ in Platynereis are indistinguishable in morphology and both express the germline markers vasa, nanos, and piwi, a distinct cluster of PGCs is detectable anterior of the MPGZ following EdU pulse-labeling. Indeed the PGCs form independently from the stem cells of the MPGZ prior to gastrulation. Our data suggest an early PGC formation in the polychaete by preformation rather than by epigenesis.

  11. Ecological release and niche partitioning under stress: Lessons from dorvilleid polychaetes in sulfidic sediments at methane seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Ziebis, Wiebke; Mendoza, Guillermo F.; Bertics, Victoria J.; Washington, Tracy; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Thurber, Andrew R.; Ebbe, Brigitte; Lee, Raymond W.

    2013-08-01

    assemblages (measured by Total Hull Area and Standard Elliptical Area using species averages) and functional redundancy or species packing (measured as distance to nearest neighbor) among species and individuals were generally higher at ER, where sulfide levels were lower than at HR. In contrast, average trophic diversity among individuals within a species was greater at HR than ER. In colonization experiments involving agar-based manipulations of sulfide in tray sediments that mimicked clam bed and mat conditions, dorvilleids comprised 68% and 48% of colonists at ER and HR, respectively. Dorvilleid species richness was higher in trays that were initially more sulfidic. However, habitat exerted stronger influence on the composition of colonizing dorvilleids than did sulfide additions. In the NE Pacific, regional, habitat and vertical (down-core) variation in hydrogen sulfide creates complex environmental heterogeneity at methane seeps, promoting high diversity of stress-tolerant taxa such as dorvilleid polychaetes.

  12. Udbredelse af den invasive polychaete Marenzelleria spp. i danske farvande samt effekten på sedimentmiljøet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Kenn L; Banta, Gary Thomas

    samt lave oxygen niveauer og har derfor stort potentiale for at sprede sig og invadere nye områder. Status over dens udbredelse i danske farvande er dog ikke velkendt. Marenzelleria spp. er observeret adskillige steder i Danmark af personer, der har arbejdet med andre organismer, men der er ikke lavet...... Sjælland mangler stadig, men forventes foretaget før mødet. På mødet præsenteres foreløbig data om Marenzellerias udbredelse og sedimentkarakteristika.. [1] Blank M., Laine A.O., Jürss K. and Bastrop R. 2007. Molecular identification key based on PCR/RFLP for three polychaete sibling species of the genus...... Marenzelleria, and the species’ current distribution in the Baltic Sea. Helgol Mar Res (2008) 62: 129-141....

  13. Implications for oxygen, nutrient fluxes and denitrification rates during the early stage of sediment colonisation by the polychaete Nereis spp. in four estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizzoli, Daniele; Bartoli, Marco; Cooper, Martin; Welsh, David T.; Underwood, Graham J. C.; Viaroli, Pierluigi

    2007-10-01

    In this work, bioturbation effects by the polychaete Nereis spp. on oxygen demand, denitrification and solute fluxes in four European coastal areas (Goro lagoon in Italy, Tagus estuary in Portugal, Colne estuary in England and Tjärnö bay in Sweden) are compared. The studied areas are very heterogeneous with respect to tidal regimes, primary producers communities, sediment composition and organic matter content and nutrient concentrations in the water column. At each site, with the same methodological approach, undisturbed sediment cores and cores with different numbers of polychaetes added were incubated in the dark. Oxygen, inorganic nutrients (NH 4+, NO 3-, Dissolved Reactive Silica-SiO 2 and Soluble Reactive Phosphorous-SRP) fluxes and coupled-uncoupled denitrification rates were quantified on the same set of cores. Nereis bioturbation had a considerable effect on biogeochemical processes and, at all sites, resulted in an immediate stimulation (from 1.5- to 4-fold higher) of oxygen and ammonium fluxes between the sediment and the water column; on the contrary bioturbation had site specific effects on reactive silica and phosphorus fluxes. Bioturbation also stimulated denitrification of water column nitrate ( Dw, from 1.3 to 3 times higher than in control sediments); this process removed a major fraction (>50%) of the nitrogen lost through denitrification. Overall, the strong relationship between benthic macrofauna activity and sediment biogeochemistry is confirmed by this study. Comparison of the relative stimulation of processes in different geographical areas reveals that the degree by which processes and fluxes (intensity and direction) are affected are site specific and influenced by initial macrofauna densities and sediment and water chemistry.

  14. Native and non-indigenous boring polychaetes in Chile: a threat to native and commercial mollusc species Poliquetos perforadores nativos y no indígenas en Chile: una amenaza para moluscos nativos y comerciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO A MORENO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Boring polychaetes infesting the shells of aquacultured molluscs affect host fitness and cause serious economic problems for the aquaculture industry. In Chile, knowledge of the native and non-indigenous polychaete fauna associated with mollusc hosts is limited, in spite of the fact that numerous native and non-indigenous mollusc species are actively harvested. We present the first complete list of boring polychaete species present in Chile, with a review of the information regarding each species' status as a native or non-indigenous species (NIS, together with information on native and introduced ranges, affected host species, likely vectors of introduction and donor areas. We recorded a total of nine boring polychaetes present along the Chilean coast including native and NIS. Within the NIS category we provide the first published report of the Sabellid Terebrasabella heterouncinata in South America. Boring polychaetes utilized both native and introduced host species. The finding of polychaete species which utilized multiple native and NIS hosts, indicates a potential risk for spread between aquaculture facilities and the natural environment. Our analysis suggests that aquaculture activities are probably the primary introduction vector for boring polychaete species to Chile and that this region does not differ in the magnitude of introduced boring polychaetes relative to other regions of the world. We discuss current laws and management regarding polychaete infestations and make recommendations for future management in Chile, which should contemplate a rational compromise between the socio-economic needs of the country and plans to protect and preserve the nation's biodiversityLa colonización de especies de poliquetos perforadores sobre conchas de moluscos de cultivos puede afectar la adecuación biológica del hospedador y causar serios problemas económicos para la industria acuícola. En Chile, el conocimiento de la fauna de poliquetos

  15. Polychaete annelid (segmented worms) abundance and species composition in the proximity (6-9 km) of the Deep Water Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill in the Deep Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fangyuan; Nunnally, Clifton C.; Lemanski, Joseph R.; Wade, Terry L.; Amon, Rainer M. W.; Rowe, Gilbert T.

    2016-07-01

    Polychaete annelids (segmented worms) dominated the macrobenthos in sediments located 6-9 km from the Deep Water Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill site five months after the event, based on nine 0.2 m2 box core samples. Numbers of species, abundance, and biodiversity indices in the polychaete taxa were significantly lower than pre-spill values from similar depths in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Both non-selective and selective deposit feeders were the most frequent feeding guilds, as expected, but their abundances were significantly lower. An increase in the number of carnivorous Sigalionidae may be a response to an accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons on the sediment. The concentration of oil in the sediments was low and the source of the oil remains equivocal. Multivariate analyses illustrated the differences between communities near the DWH and those from prior studies in similar deep GoM habitats. In summary, Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill appears to have had a measurable impact on the polychaetes.

  16. Macrobenthic community response to the Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta) invasion of a Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary; Canal Vergés, Paula

    2012-01-01

    and to investigate its effect on the native benthic community with focus on the two common polychaetes, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor and Arenicola marina. M. viridis colonized Odense Fjord rapidly and within 3 years it had spread to about 50% of the estuary. The population development of M. viridis in Odense Fjord...

  17. Macrobenthic community response to the Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta) invasion of a Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary Thomas; Canal Vergés, Paula

    2012-01-01

    with focus on the 2 common polychaetes, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor and Arenicola marina. Marenzelleria viridis colonized Odense Fjord rapidly, and within 3 yr it had spread to ~50% of the estuary. The population development of M. viridis in Odense Fjord followed the ‘boom-bust’ pattern that is typical...

  18. Effects of macroalgae on the recruitment, growth, and body condition of an invasive reef forming polychaete in a south-western Atlantic coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazterrica, María Cielo; Bruschetti, Carlos Martín; Alvarez, María Fernanda; Iribarne, Oscar; Botto, Florencia

    2014-04-01

    Species interactions could mediate species invasive processes. In Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon (37° 40‧S, 57° 23´W, Argentine), the invasive reef building polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Fauvel 1923) enhances the biomass of the red alga Polysiphonia subtilissima Montagne 1840 on reef surfaces, and excludes green macroalgae (mainly Cladophora sp. Kützing, 1843) from sediment between reefs. In turn, macroalgae could have several community structuring effects (e.g., as food or by competing for space). Therefore, macroalgae may affect F. enigmaticus. To evaluate this hypothesis we studied (1) the interaction between macroalgae and F. enigmaticus during the colonization of new substrates and (2) the effects of macroalgae on the recruitment, growth, and body condition of F. enigmaticus. Field sampling and experiments suggested a lack of competition on new substrates. However, there was a positive effect of macroalgae on F. enigmaticus during the warm season, since its recruitment, tube length, and body condition were higher in areas with macroalgae on reef surfaces. Considering that previous studies showed that reefs positively affect macroalgae, our results suggest that there is a positive feedback on F. enigmaticus created by macroalgae on established reefs and during the reefs' growing season. This interaction may contribute to the maintenance and growth of established reefs.

  19. Pigmented eyes, photoreceptor-like sense organs and central nervous system in the polychaete Scoloplos armiger (Orbiniidae, Annelida) and their phylogenetic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Verena; Purschke, Günter

    2009-11-01

    The phylogenetic position of Orbiniidae within Annelida is unresolved. Conflicting hypotheses place them either in a basal taxon Scolecida, close to Spionida, or in a basal position in Aciculata. Because Aciculata have a specific type of eye, the photoreceptive organs in the orbiniid Scoloplos armiger were investigated to test these phylogenetic hypotheses. Two different types of prostomial photoreceptor-like sense organs were found in juveniles and one additional in subadults. In juveniles there are four ciliary photoreceptor-like phaosomes with unbranched cilia and two pigmented eyes. The paired pigmented eyes lie beside the brain above the circumoesophageal connectives. Each consists of one pigmented cell, one unpigmented supportive cell and three everse rhabdomeric sensory cells with vestigial cilia. During development the number of phaosomes increases considerably and numerous unpigmented sense organs appear consisting of one rhabdomeric photoreceptor cell and one supportive cell. The development and morphology of the pigmented eyes of S. armiger suggest that they represent miniaturized eyes of the phyllodocidan type of adult eye rather than persisting larval eyes resulting in small inverse eyes typical of Scolecida. Moreover, the structure of the brain indicates a loss of the palps. Hence, a closer relationship of Orbiniidae to Phyllodocida is indicated. Due to a still extensive lack of ultrastructural data among polychaetes this conclusion cannot be corroborated by considering the structure of the unpigmented ciliary and rhabdomeric photoreceptor-like sense organs.

  20. The role of the invasive polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Fauvel, 1923) (Serpulidae) as facilitator of parasite transmission in Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegoin, J A; Merlo, M J; Parietti, M

    2012-09-01

    In Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon (Argentina), the reefs of the invasive polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Serpulidae) serve as concentration areas for invertebrates and vertebrates and as potential foci of parasite transmission (mainly digeneans). To analyse the role of F. enigmaticus as facilitator of parasite transmission, and to evaluate the influence of the habitats selected by 2 species of cochliopid snails (Heleobia conexa and Heleobia australis), on the richness and on the prevalence of the digenean assemblages that parasitize them, 1945 snails were collected from 2 sampling sites. The comparisons between larval digenean communities parasitizing both snail hosts revealed significant differences related to the overall prevalence and the prevalence contributed by birds in the snails collected from reefs. These results support the idea that the reefs may increase the number of links between intermediate and definitive hosts of digeneans, facilitating parasite transmission only when the aggregates of F. enigmaticus become the unique habitat of the snail host. This first report of an exotic species acting as facilitator of parasite transmission in an estuarine area highlights the importance of analysing the effects of the assimilation process of exotic species by recently colonized environments (including the possible effects on parasite transmission).

  1. Understanding the life of a sandy beach polychaete of functional importance - Scolelepis squamata (Polychaeta: Spionidae) on Belgian sandy beaches (northeastern Atlantic, North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speybroeck, Jeroen; Alsteens, Lotte; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2007-08-01

    The cosmopolitan sandy beach polychaete Scolelepis squamata constitutes an important food resource for juvenile flatfish and wading birds in the northeastern Atlantic, thus playing an important role in sandy beach ecosystem functioning. However, its population dynamics and life history in this part of the world have gone widely uninvestigated. Eight beach transects on Belgian sandy beaches were sampled monthly from October 2003 until October 2004, in order to investigate seasonal trends in the species' abundance, biomass, secondary production, and patterns in reproduction and zonation. Average density, modal density and modal biomass (ash-free dry weight) (mean average density = 169 ± 9 SE ind/m 2; mean modal density = 505 ± 38 SE ind/m 2; mean modal biomass = 0.25 ± 0.02 SE g/m 2) did not exhibit major seasonal changes, whereas average biomass (0.081 ± 0.005 SE g/m 2) and individuals and biomass per strip transect (IST = 16286 ± 1330 SE ind/m; BMST = 7.8 + 0.7 SE g/m) did, peaking in May 2004. Production was calculated at 1.9 g/(m 2*year) (size-frequency method, SFM) and 0.88 g/(m 2*year) (mass specific growth rate method, MSGR) and mean annual biomass was 0.797 g/m 2; resulting in a P/B ratio of 2.40/year (SFM) and 1.11/year (MSGR), which is intermediate to moderately low compared to other polychaete species. Gravid individuals were found from February until August and a single recruitment period was observed from July until September. An average sex ratio of 1.41 ± 0.08 SE was calculated, with a female predominance. Highest densities (>200 ind/m 2) were mostly found above 3 m above MLLWS and at a median grain size from 190 to 320 μm. Average modal or peak density along each transect was situated from 3.95 m up to 4.40 m above MLLWS, in contrast to some other studies where the species was restricted to mid-tidal levels. Significant differences in elevation of peak density were found between non-gravid (411 ± 4 SE cm) and gravid (402 ± 5 SE cm) animals

  2. First record of the polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960 (Annelida, Serpulidae in the Colombian Caribbean, South America

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    Catalina Arteaga-Florez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Ficopomatus (Serpulidae consists of sessile, tubicolous polychaete annelid worms that may colonize a diversity of substrata, and tolerate considerable variations in salinity. Thus, members of this genus, including Ficopomatus uschakovi, in some cases are exotic and maybe invasive. The purpose of our research was to collect and identify marine organisms associated with the submerged roots of mangrove trees in the Gulf of Urabá, Colombian Caribbean, South America. Within the Gulf, there is a well-developed forest of the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, along the margins of El Uno Bay. We sampled the roots of R. mangle from five stations of the bay, and we identified specimens of F. uschakovi from each of those stations. Ficopomatus uschakovi was found to be more abundant in regions of the bay that exhibit the lowest salinity. Based on a morphological comparison of the present specimens with the original species description, revised descriptions, and other records from the Indo-West Pacific, Mexican Pacific, and Venezuelan and Brazilian Caribbean, we suggest that F. uschakovi has a broader geographical distribution. Furthermore, because of this broad distribution, and the observed tolerance for low salinity in our study, we also suggest that F. uschakovi is a euryhaline species. It is also likely that F. uschakovi will be found in other localities in the Gulf of Urabá, and in other regions of the Colombian Caribbean. Thus, this record extends the distribution of the species to the Colombian Caribbean, giving the species a continuous distribution across the northern coast of South America.

  3. The spatial and temporal expression of Ch-en, the engrailed gene in the polychaete Chaetopterus, does not support a role in body axis segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaver, E. C.; Paulson, D. A.; Irvine, S. Q.; Martindale, M. Q.

    2001-01-01

    We are interested in understanding whether the annelids and arthropods shared a common segmented ancestor and have approached this question by characterizing the expression pattern of the segment polarity gene engrailed (en) in a basal annelid, the polychaete Chaetopterus. We have isolated an en gene, Ch-en, from a Chaetopterus cDNA library. Genomic Southern blotting suggests that this is the only en class gene in this animal. The predicted protein sequence of the 1.2-kb cDNA clone contains all five domains characteristic of en proteins in other taxa, including the en class homeobox. Whole-mount in situ hybridization reveals that Ch-en is expressed throughout larval life in a complex spatial and temporal pattern. The Ch-en transcript is initially detected in a small number of neurons associated with the apical organ and in the posterior portion of the prototrochophore. At later stages, Ch-en is expressed in distinct patterns in the three segmented body regions (A, B, and C) of Chaetopterus. In all segments, Ch-en is expressed in a small set of segmentally iterated cells in the CNS. In the A region, Ch-en is also expressed in a small group of mesodermal cells at the base of the chaetal sacs. In the B region, Ch-en is initially expressed broadly in the mesoderm that then resolves into one band/segment coincident with morphological segmentation. The mesodermal expression in the B region is located in the anterior region of each segment, as defined by the position of ganglia in the ventral nerve cord, and is involved in the morphogenesis of segment-specific feeding structures late in larval life. We observe banded mesodermal and ectodermal staining in an anterior-posterior sequence in the C region. We do not observe a segment polarity pattern of expression of Ch-en in the ectoderm, as is observed in arthropods. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Histology and Mucous Histochemistry of the Integument and Body Wall of a Marine Polychaete Worm, Ophryotrocha n. sp. (Annelida: Dorvilleidae Associated with Steelhead Trout Cage Sites on the South Coast of Newfoundland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Murray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Histology and mucous histochemistry of the integument and body wall of a marine polychaete worm, Ophryotrocha n. sp. (Annelida: Dorvilleidae associated with Steelhead trout cage sites on the south coast of Newfoundland. A new species of polychaete (Ophryotrocha n. sp. (Annelida: Dorvilleidae was identified from sediment below Steelhead trout cages on the south coast of Newfoundland, Canada. The organisms were observed to produce a network of mucus in which groups of individuals would reside. Questions regarding the nature and cellular source of the mucus were addressed in this study. Samples of worms were taken from below cages and transported to the laboratory where individuals were fixed for histological study of the cuticle and associated mucus histochemistry. The body wall was organized into segments with an outer cuticle that stained strongly for acid mucopolysaccharides. The epidermis was thin and supported by loose fibrous connective tissue layers. Channels separating individual segments were lined with cells staining positive for Alcian blue. Mucoid cellular secretions appeared thick and viscous, strongly staining with Alcian blue and Periodic Acid Schiff Reagent. It was noted that lateral channels were connected via a second channel running through the anterior/posterior axis. The role of mucus secretion is discussed.

  5. Determining gene flow and the influence of selection across the equatorial barrier of the East Pacific Rise in the tube-dwelling polychaete Alvinella pompejana

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    Plouviez Sophie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative phylogeography recently performed on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI gene from seven deep-sea vent species suggested that the East Pacific Rise fauna has undergone a vicariant event with the emergence of a north/south physical barrier at the Equator 1-2 Mya. Within this specialised fauna, the tube-dwelling polychaete Alvinella pompejana showed reciprocal monophyly at mtCOI on each side of the Equator (9°50'N/7°25'S, suggesting potential, ongoing allopatric speciation. However, the development of a barrier to gene flow is a long and complex process. Secondary contact between previously isolated populations can occur when physical isolation has not persisted long enough to result in reproductive isolation between genetically divergent lineages, potentially leading to hybridisation and subsequent allelic introgression. The present study evaluates the strength of the equatorial barrier to gene flow and tests for potential secondary contact zones between A. pompejana populations by comparing the mtCOI gene with nuclear genes. Results Allozyme frequencies and the analysis of nucleotide polymorphisms at three nuclear loci confirmed the north/south genetic differentiation of Alvinella pompejana populations along the East Pacific Rise. Migration was oriented north-to-south with a moderate allelic introgression between the two geographic groups over a narrow geographic range just south of the barrier. Multilocus analysis also indicated that southern populations have undergone demographic expansion as previously suggested by a multispecies approach. A strong shift in allozyme frequencies together with a high level of divergence between alleles and a low number of 'hybrid' individuals were observed between the northern and southern groups using the phosphoglucomutase gene. In contrast, the S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase gene exhibited reduced diversity and a lack of population differentiation possibly due to

  6. Evolution of the bomolochiform superfamily complex (Copepoda: Cyclopoida): new insights from ssrDNA and morphology, and origin of Umazuracolids from polychaete-infesting ancestors rejected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Rony; Fatih, Farrah; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Poecilostome cyclopoids are among the most morphologically diverse copepods, having established symbiotic relationships with teleosts, elasmobranchs and invertebrate hosts belonging to no fewer than 14 marine phyla. Many parasitic lineages display radically divergent body plans and on that basis have traditionally been placed at higher taxonomic rank than they deserve. The most recent example is the monotypic family Umazuracolidae, established for a derived fish parasite with bomolochiform affinities. Phylogenetic analysis of complete ssrDNA (18S) sequences of 44 species belonging to 21 families of cyclopoid copepods shows that there is no support for the familial distinctiveness of the Umazuracolidae. Both maximum parsimony tree reconstruction and Bayesian inference, operating under the GTR+I+Γ model of nucleotide substitution, unambiguously placed Umazuracola elongatus in the Taeniacanthidae within the predominantly fish parasitic bomolochiform complex, refuting the original suggestion of a shared most recent common ancestry with polychaete symbionts. The phylogenies also revealed that the bomolochiform families and the Clausidiidae (and allies) form a monophyletic group, the clausidiiform complex, with high nodal support under both methods. Bayesian inference suggested a diphyletic origin of the "Poecilostomatoida" with the clausidiiform family-group holding a basal position while the traditional cyclopoid families form a monophyletic group in apposition to a second poecilostomatoid clade; however, maximum parsimony results were equivocal, depending on outgroup selection. Scrutiny of the morphological characters diagnosing the monotypic families Tegobomolochidae and Tuccidae demonstrated that they merely represent derived lineages within more inclusive taxa, the former being related to a group of nostril-inhabiting genera within the Bomolochidae, the latter forming the sistergroup of Taeniacanthodes within the Taeniacanthidae. The taeniacanthid genus

  7. Vision in the nocturnal wandering spider Leucorchestris arenicola (Araneae: Sparassidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Henschel, Joh R

    2008-01-01

    in the posterior and anteriomedian eyes, and at approximately 540 nm in the anteriolateral eyes. Theoretical calculations of photon catches showed that the eyes are likely to employ a combination of spatial and temporal pooling in order to function at night. Under starlit conditions, the raw spatial and temporal...

  8. First records of pelagic polychaetes in southern Chile (Boca del Guafo - Elefantes Channel Primeros registros de poliquetos pelágicos en el sur de Chile (Boca del Guafo - Canal Elefantes

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    Marcela Bilbao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelagic polychaetes collected at 29 oceanographic stations in the southern channels of Chile between Boca del Guafo and Elefantes Channel (spring 1998, summer 1999 were analyzed. Seven species of pelagic polychaetes were identified: Tomopterisplanktonis Apstein, T. septentrionalis Steenstrup, Pelagobia longicirrata Greeff, Lopadorhynchus krohnii (Claparede, Maupasia caeca Viguier, Typhloscolex muelleri Busch, and Phalacrophorus pictus Greeff. Seven species were collected in spring and five in summer. All the identified species are cosmopolitan and were recorded for the first time in this sector of southern Chile's interior waters. Maupasia caeca, Lopadorhynchus krohnii, and Typhloscolex muelleri are recorded for the first time in the southeastern Pacific Ocean and the southern distribution limit of Phalacrophorus pictus was extended to the coast of Chile.Se analizaron los poliquetos pelágicos colectados en 29 estaciones oceanógraficas en canales australes chilenos localizados entre la boca del Guafo y el estero Elefantes, en primavera de 1998 y verano de 1999. Se identificaron siete especies de poliquetos pelágicos: Tomopteris planktonis Apstein, T. septentrionalis Steenstrup, Pelagobia longicirrata Greeff, Lopadorhynchus krohnii (Claparede, Maupasia caeca Viguier, Typhloscolex muelleri Busch y Phalacrophorus pictus Greeff. Siete especies se colectaron en primavera y cinco en verano. Todas las especies identificadas son cosmopolitas y se registran por primera vez en este sector de aguas interiores del sur de Chile. Maupasia caeca, Lopadorhynchus krohnii y Typhloscolex muelleri se registran por primera vez en aguas del Pacífico suroriental y Phalacrophorus pictus extiende su límite de distribución sur hasta la costa de Chile.

  9. Determining Steady-state Tissue Residues for Invertebrates in Contaminated Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    day tissue resi- dues may underestimate bioaccumulation and subsequently risk to benthos and higher trophic level organisms. The results of this...Christensen, M., O. Anderso, and G. T. Banta. 2002. Metabolism of pyrene by the polychaetes Nereis diversicolor and Arenicola marina . Aquatic Toxicology 58:15...Lamberson, R. J. Ozretich, R. C. Randall, K. R. Rukavina, D. W. Schults, K. A. Sercu, D. T. Specht, R. C. Swartz, and D. R. Young. 1994. Ecological

  10. Algunos poliquetos holoplanctónicos (Annelida: Polychaeta del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Some holoplanktonic polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta from the Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

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    Soledad Jiménez-Cueto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los poliquetos holoplanctónicos no han sido estudiados en las aguas oceánicas adyacentes al Parque Isla del Coco. Se estudiaron estas formas pelágicas a partir del análisis de muestras de zooplancton recolectadas en esta área protegida. Las muestras fueron obtenidas mediante redes de plancton estándar (0.2-0.5mm de malla, 0.49m de diámetro de boca en arrastres horizontales y verticales en la isla oceánica Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental. Los poliquetos pelágicos de esta zona fueron analizados taxonómicamente. El material obtenido incluye representantes de seis especies y cinco familias: Alciopidae, Lopadorhynchidae, Tomopteridae, Polynoidae y Typhloscolecidae. Se presentan diagnosis breves, sino- nimias, análisis morfológicos comparativos, ilustraciones taxonómicas y la distribución conocida de las especies recolectadas en el plancton de Isla del Coco. El registro de Drieschia pellucida Moore es el primero en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental; nuestro espécimen muestra algunas diferencias respecto a la descripción original. El resto de las especies han sido encontradas previamente en aguas del Pacífico Tropical Oriental y en el Domo de Costa Rica, pero son los primeros registros para esta área protegida.The holoplanktonic polychaetes have not been surveyed in the oceanic waters adjacent to Isla del Coco. These pelagic forms are studied based on the analysis of zooplankton samples collected in the area. Samples were obtained both at night and daytime by standard plankton nets (0.2-0.5 mm meshes, 0.49 m mouth diameter hauled horizontally and vertically off the oceanic island Isla del Coco, Costa Rica in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Pelagic polychaetes were collected in one of the night samples and were taxonomically analyzed. The material obtained includes representatives of six species and five families: Alciopidae, Lopadorrhynchidae, Tomopteridae, Polynoidae, and Typhloscolecidae. Brief diagnoses

  11. Expression of the pair-rule gene homologs runt, Pax3/7, even-skipped-1 and even-skipped-2 during larval and juvenile development of the polychaete annelid Capitella teleta does not support a role in segmentation

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    Seaver Elaine C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annelids and arthropods each possess a segmented body. Whether this similarity represents an evolutionary convergence or inheritance from a common segmented ancestor is the subject of ongoing investigation. Methods To investigate whether annelids and arthropods share molecular components that control segmentation, we isolated orthologs of the Drosophila melanogaster pair-rule genes, runt, paired (Pax3/7 and eve, from the polychaete annelid Capitella teleta and used whole mount in situ hybridization to characterize their expression patterns. Results When segments first appear, expression of the single C. teleta runt ortholog is only detected in the brain. Later, Ct-runt is expressed in the ventral nerve cord, foregut and hindgut. Analysis of Pax genes in the C. teleta genome reveals the presence of a single Pax3/7 ortholog. Ct-Pax3/7 is initially detected in the mid-body prior to segmentation, but is restricted to two longitudinal bands in the ventral ectoderm. Each of the two C. teleta eve orthologs has a unique and complex expression pattern, although there is partial overlap in several tissues. Prior to and during segment formation, Ct-eve1 and Ct-eve2 are both expressed in the bilaterial pair of mesoteloblasts, while Ct-eve1 is expressed in the descendant mesodermal band cells. At later stages, Ct-eve2 is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system, and in mesoderm along the dorsal midline. In late stage larvae and adults, Ct-eve1 and Ct-eve2 are expressed in the posterior growth zone. Conclusions C. teleta eve, Pax3/7 and runt homologs all have distinct expression patterns and share expression domains with homologs from other bilaterians. None of the pair-rule orthologs examined in C. teleta exhibit segmental or pair-rule stripes of expression in the ectoderm or mesoderm, consistent with an independent origin of segmentation between annelids and arthropods.

  12. Understanding Small-Scale Processes Controlling the Bioavailability of Organic Contaminants to Deposit-Feeding Benthos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Biogeochemical Cycling in Marine Sediments held at Hel, Poland, August 1997.......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Biogeochemical Cycling in Marine Sediments held at Hel, Poland, August 1997....

  13. Effects of sediment-associated copper to the deposit-feeding snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Chengfang; Selck, Henriette; Misra, Superb K

    2012-01-01

    the case of metal oxide NPs using CuO to understand if the effects of NPs differ from micron-sized particles of CuO and aqueous Cu (CuCl2). To address this issue, we compared effects of copper added to the sediment as aqueous Cu, nano- (6 nm) and micro- (snail...

  14. An Investigation of the Effects of Deposit Feeding Invertebrates on the Structural Properties of Clay Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    North nerica and the Gulf of Mexico reportedm bothosts f Nor ic a o-Mei(Hartman, 1969). Although H. filiformis Is considered a non-s lective Ul . . .. I... Mollusca . New York, Pergamon Press, 560 p. Pryor, W. A. (1975) Biogenic sedimentation and alteration of argillaceous sediments in shallow marine

  15. Phytopigments and fatty acids in the gut of the deposit-feeding heart urchin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, A.R.; Duineveld, G.C.A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a broader study on benthic–pelagic coupling in the southern North Sea, specimens of the common heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum were sampled for analyses on phytopigments and fatty acids in their guts. Results were interpreted in the context of feeding and ecological functioni

  16. Research on polychaete annelid osmoregulatory peptide(s) by immunocytochemical and physiological approaches. Computer reconstruction of the brain and evidence for a role of angiotensin-like molecules in Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor OF Müller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewou, J; Dhainaut-Courtois, N

    1995-01-01

    Immunohistochemical and physiological studies were carried out on Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor OF Müller in order to obtain evidence concerning the neuroendocrine control of polychaete osmoregulation. The occurrence in this animal of peptides immunologically related to mammalian angiotensin II and I (AII and AI) and oxytocin (OT) was demonstrated in the brain and the ventral nerve cord (VNC) perikarya and nerve fibres as well as in a few peripheral structures (peripheral nerves, epithelial cells, nuchal organ, intestine and nephridia). The exact localization of immunoreactive cells was achieved by serial sections of brain and ventral nerve cord followed by a three-dimensional reconstruction of brain ganglionic nuclei using the CATIA ('Conception Assistée Tridimensionnelle Inter Active') Dassault system program. Injections of polyclonal antisera against AII or OT provoked a partial inhibition of the increase in body weight in Nereis exposed to hypo-osmotic medium. The effect of a-AII seemed more pronounced than that of a-OT. In a subsequent test, injections of synthetic AII and AII-amide (peptide recently isolated from an achaete (Salzet et al (1995) J Biol Chem 270, 1575-1582) enhanced the increase in body weight and, therefore, strengthened the hypothesis of the neuroendocrine control of Nereis osmoregulation. The antidiuretic effect of both synthetic peptides in this study was indicative of the exact role of Nereis endogenous molecule(s). AII was less potent than its amidated form. If AI-like can easily be struck off the list of putative endogenous osmoregulatory factors, the role of OT-like substance in Nereis osmoregulation, which is partially demonstrated in this study, needs to be clarified by further physiological experiments using injection of synthetic peptide(s) or endogenous substance(s). All these results are discussed and compared to those recently obtained in an achaete annelid (Salzet et al (1993) Brain Res 631, 247-255; Salzet et al (1993) Brain

  17. Tissue partitioning of micro-essential metals in the vent bivalve Bathymodiolus azoricus and associated organisms (endosymbiont bacteria and a parasite polychaete) from geochemically distinct vents of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Enikõ; Costa, Valentina; Santos, Ricardo S.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2006-07-01

    Hydrothermal communities are built on highly specialised organisms possessing effective adaptation mechanisms to tolerate elevated levels of toxic heavy metals typical of these extreme habitats. Bioavailability and tissue compartmentalisation of micro-essential metals (Cu, Zn, and Fe) were investigated in the bivalve Bathymodiolus azoricus from three geochemically distinct hydrothermal vents (Rainbow, Lucky Strike, Menez Gwen). Additionally , in order to make inferences on the effect of biological interactions on the metal uptake, the bivalves' endosymbiont bacteria and commensal parasite Branchipolynoe seepensis were analysed for metal bioaccumulation. Micro-essential metal concentrations in byssus threads exceeded many-fold concentrations in the gill and digestive gland, which in turn were consistently one order of magnitude above levels measured in the mantle. In spite of its high metal concentrations, the byssus is unlikely to be an active bioaccumulator. Its high surface to mass ratio and its binding sites for metals suggest a reversible adsorption of micro-essential metals in the vent mussel. Inter-site comparison showed highest Fe concentrations in tissues of mussels from the Rainbow site, whereas Zn and Cu in all tissues were highest in mussels from the Lucky Strike site, reflecting metal concentrations in the water surrounding macro-invertebrates at these vent sites. The omnipresence of the commensal parasite polychaete in gills of B. azoricus from the Lucky Strike vent field, unlike the other sites, is suggested to be an adaptation to the typically elevated Fe concentrations in the water column near mussel beds. Unprecedented Fe concentrations measured in the digestive gland of mussels from the Rainbow site (4000 μg g - 1 , three times higher than levels in bivalves from polluted sites) call for further post-capture ecotoxicological investigations of potentially novel Fe-handling strategies. We provide the first information on the bioaccumulation

  18. Evaluation of Sampling and Sample Preparation Modifications for Soil Containing Metallic Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    L. W. Pace. 1999. An in virto gastrointestinal method to estimate bioavailable arsenic in contaminated soils and solid media. Environmental Science...and Technology 33: 642−649. Ruby, M. V., A. Davis, R. Schoof, S. Eberle, and C. M. Sellstone. 1996. Estimation of lead and arsenic bioavailability ...2011. Relating the sediment phase speciation of As, Cd, and Cr with their bioavailability for the deposit-feeding polychaete Nereis succinea

  19. Cloning and expression of the metalloprotein (MPⅡ) gene from polychaetes Perinereis aibuhitensis (Annelida: Polychaeta)%双齿围沙蚕金属结合蛋白(MPⅡ)基因克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨大佐; 周一兵; 陈雪; 周笑孝; 王斌; 袁秀堂; 孙静波

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the partial cDNA of metalloprotein Ⅱ (MPIT) was amplified from the total RNA of epidermis muscle of the polychaete, Perinereis aibuhitensis, by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with the primers designed based upon the homologous cDNA sequence of MPⅡ from Nereis diversicolor. Other primers were designed according to the partial sequence of Perinereis aibuhitensis MPII and two fragments of approximately 600 bp and 250 bp were obtained using 3'- and S'-RACE, and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed a 904 bp cDNA containing an 81 bp 5'-untranslated region, 463 bp 3'-untranslated regions, and 357 bp open reading frame putatively encoding a protein of 119 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of MPⅡ was subjected to BLAST search for similarity with published sequences and it was found that MPⅡ shared high identity (81.51%) with Periserrula leucophryna hemerythrin, also with myohemerythrin of Nereis diversicolor (77.12%), and with the hemerythrin of Themiste zostericola (61.02%). Furthermore, the deduced amino acid sequence of MPII contained the conserved motif (HX29HX3EX16HX3HX23/28HX4D) of the hemerythrin family of proteins, suggesting that MPII belongs to the hemerythrin family. The expression levels of Perinereis aibuhitensis MPII were detected after exposure to 40 mg/L Cd2+ for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h using quantitative PCR. The expression levels of MPⅡ mRNA during 15 d were also detected under three concentrations of Cd2+. The current study showed that the expression levels of the MPII were approximately 12.6-fold higher (P<0.01) than control group at 40 mg/L Cd2+ after 72 h. The level of MPII mRNA produced in the muscle tissue of sandworm increased significantly following exposure to Cd2+ of 5, 10, and 20 mg/L after 15 d, and were above 4.8-fold than control group (P<0.05). Therefore, the expression level of the MPII increased with increasing concentrations of Cd2+. We suggest that heavy metal Cd2+ is associated

  20. Ecologia e contribuição dos anelídeos poliquetos para a biomassa bêntica da zona das marés, no litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo The ecology and contribution of polychaetous annelids to the benthic biomass of the tidal zones in the northern coast of São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cecília Z Amaral

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa visou ao conhecimento das condições biológicas de algumas praias do litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, tendo sido os poliquetos os organismos indicadores. O material estudado proveio de um total de 191 estações, distribuídas em vários níveis da zona das marés, em onze praias da Enseada do Flamengo (continente e Enseada das Palmas (Ilha Anchieta. Em cada estação foi amostrada uma área de 1/20 m² , com uma profundidade de 10 cm e medidos a temperatura, pH, salinidade e o teor de oxigênio dissolvido da água intersticial. Simultaneamente foram coletadas amostras da água do mar ao nível da baixa-mar, para medida dos mesmos parâmetros. As amostras de sedimento colhidas entre 5 e 10 cm de profundidade, foram analisadas quanto à granulometria, porosidade, conteúdo de calcário e de matéria orgânica. Os resultados mostram que tanto a granulometria, e o teor de matéria orgânica do substrato quanto às características da água intersticial têm papel relevante no condicionamento da endofauna dessas praias. Observou-se ainda ausência de macrofauna em praias de areia grossa com arrebentação intensa. Quando a areia da praia é fina e homogênea, constitui um substrato compacto, praticamente imune a ação das vagas, Esse tipo de substrato ocorre na Praia da Enseada (no continente e Praia Grande da Ilha Anchieta. Nessas praias constatou-se a existencia das mesmas especies de poliquetos: Nerine agilis, Arenicola bvasiliensis e Diopatra cf. cuprea. Os fatores mais seletivos forama salinidade e o teor de matéria orgânica. As espécies amplamente eurialinas, como Laeonereis culveri e Nevine agilis têm uma larga distribuição na faixa entre-marés; porem alcançam sua maior concentração em áreas de salinidade abaixo de 10‰. A Praia do Saco da Ribeira mostrou ser a mais diversificada, com 20 espécies de poliquetos, entre as quais Laeonereis culveri e Diopatra cf. cuprea, que, devido à alta freq

  1. Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the lugworm Arenicola marina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, E.; Wegner, A.; Foekema, E.M.; Heuvel_Greve, van den M.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been speculated that marine microplastics may cause negative effects on benthic marine organisms and increase bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, we provide the first controlled study of plastic effects on benthic organisms including transfer of POPs. The effects of

  2. Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the lugworm Arenicola marina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, E.; Wegner, A.; Foekema, E.M.; Heuvel_Greve, van den M.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been speculated that marine microplastics may cause negative effects on benthic marine organisms and increase bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, we provide the first controlled study of plastic effects on benthic organisms including transfer of POPs. The effects of

  3. Irrigation patterns in permeable sediments induced by burrow ventilation: a case study of Arenicola marina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Galaktionov, O.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    In sandy sediments, a strong connection exists between the physics of flow and the ecology of burrow-ventilating macrofauna. We developed a general modelling procedure that quantifies this link involving 3 steps. (1) Burrow-ventilating organisms can be described as mechanical pumps. (2) The pumping

  4. Irrigation patterns in permeable sediments induced by burrow ventilation: a case study of Arenicola marina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Galaktionov, O.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    In sandy sediments, a strong connection exists between the physics of flow and the ecology of burrow-ventilating macrofauna. We developed a general modelling procedure that quantifies this link involving 3 steps. (1) Burrow-ventilating organisms can be described as mechanical pumps. (2) The pumping

  5. Bioaccumulation and effects of different-shaped copper oxide nanoparticles in the deposit-feeding snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Tina; Selck, Henriette; Banta, Gary Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , the influence of CuO NP shape on bioavailability and toxicity in the sediment-dwelling freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum was examined. In 2 separate studies, snails were exposed to either clean sediment or sediment spiked with either aqueous Cu or CuO NPs of different shapes (rods, spheres......, or platelets) at 240 µg Cu/g dry weight of sediment (nominal). In neither of the studies was survival found to be related to Cu form (i.e., free ion vs particle) or shape, whereas snail growth was severely influenced by both form and shape. Reproduction was affected (by CuO NP spheres and aqueous Cu) only when...... estimated as the total number (live plus dead) of juveniles produced per snail per week. Both the aqueous and particulate forms of Cu were available for uptake by snails when mixed into sediment. However, Cu body burden was not directly related to observed effects. The present study stresses the need...

  6. Bioaccumulation and effects of different-shaped copper oxide nanoparticles in the deposit-feeding snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Tina; Selck, Henriette; Banta, Gary; Misra, Superb K; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Forbes, Valery E

    2014-09-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) are among the most widely used engineered NPs and are thus likely to end up in the environment, predominantly in sediments. Copper oxide NPs have been found to be toxic to a variety of (mainly pelagic) organisms, but to differing degrees. In the present study, the influence of CuO NP shape on bioavailability and toxicity in the sediment-dwelling freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum was examined. In 2 separate studies, snails were exposed to either clean sediment or sediment spiked with either aqueous Cu or CuO NPs of different shapes (rods, spheres, or platelets) at 240 µg Cu/g dry weight of sediment (nominal). In neither of the studies was survival found to be related to Cu form (i.e., free ion vs particle) or shape, whereas snail growth was severely influenced by both form and shape. Reproduction was affected (by CuO NP spheres and aqueous Cu) only when estimated as the total number (live plus dead) of juveniles produced per snail per week. Both the aqueous and particulate forms of Cu were available for uptake by snails when mixed into sediment. However, Cu body burden was not directly related to observed effects. The present study stresses the need for both a better understanding of uptake mechanisms and internal distribution pathways of NPs and an assessment of long-term consequences of NP exposure. © 2014 SETAC.

  7. ROLE OF SOURCE MATRIX IN THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS TO DEPOSIT-FEEDING BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to benthic organisms is complicated by the variety of ways that they are introduced to coastal waters (dissolved, as nonaqueous phase liquids, and tightly bound to soot, coal, tire rubber, and eroded shale). In order ...

  8. Polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta described for the Mexican Pacific: an historical review and an updated checklist Los poliquetos (Annelida: Polychaeta descritos en el Pacífico mexicano: revisión histórica y lista faunística actualizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Hernández-Alcántara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of the polychaete species described for the Mexican Pacific and an historic review of their study are presented. The taxonomic list includes nomenclature references, data of the type locality and synonyms based on systematic revisions. In the study area, 313 species of polychaetes and 21 genera have been described, of which 278 species are currently valid. Several descriptions (28% of the valid species failed to indicate the habitat of the type locality. The remaining 199 valid species were described for a large variety of habitats: algae (11 species, mangroves (2, hard bottoms (22, soft bottoms (continental shelf = 65 species; deep sea = 78 species, hydrothermal vents (17, and others (parasites, larval planktonic forms, epitokes (4. The species descriptions for the Mexican Pacific can be divided into four main periods: the first, during the 1910s, includes mainly Chamberlin's studies of deep sea fauna. The second, in the 1940s, comprises studies carried out by Rioja (intertidal zone and Hartman (including specimens from the Allan Hancock Foundation collection. The third period began around the 1970s when Fauchald's studies were published and 77 currently valid species were described for western Mexico. The fourth period began in the 1980s and continues to date, being characterized by descriptions of species done mainly by Mexican scientists. The differences in the number of species described during each period and for the different regions of the Mexican Pacific are directly related to the sampling effort carried out along these coasts.Se presenta una lista taxonómica de las especies de poliquetos descritos en el Pacífico mexicano y una revisión histórica de su estudio. El listado incluye referencias nomenclaturales, información sobre la localidad tipo y sinonimias basadas en revisiones sistemáticas. Un total de 313 especies y 21 géneros han sido descritos en el área de estudio, de ellas, 278 especies son

  9. Spermatogenesis and sperm ultrastructure in the polychaete genus Ophryotrocha (Dorvilleidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannenstiel, Hans-Dieter; Grünig, Charlotte

    1990-06-01

    The details of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis are described for Ophryotrocha puerilis. The ultrastructure of mature sperm is shown for O. puerilis, O. hartmanni, O. gracilis, O. diadema, O. labronica, and O. notoglandulata. Clusters of sixteen cells each are proliferated by two stem cells in each setigerous segment of O. puerilis representing the very early stages of both oogenesis and spermatogenesis. In each spermatocyte-I cluster, the cells are interconnected by cytoplasmic bridges. Early, clusters are enveloped by peritoneal sheath cells. These transient gonad walls break down prior to meiosis. The meiotic processes may start in the clusters with the cells still interconnected, or during breakdown of the original cluster, giving rise to smaller subclusters of both spermatocytes I and spermatocytes II with various numbers of cells. Finally, spermatid tetrads are present. As spermiogenesis progresses, the tetrads disintegrate. Golgi vesicles in both spermatocytes and spermatids contain electron-dense material, presumably preacrosomal. The acrosome is formed by such vesicles. In the six species studied here, the acrosomes appear to be of a similar overall structure but are of different shape. Centrioles are usually located beneath the acrosome. The distal centriole forms the basal body of a flagellum-like cytoplasmic process. The microtubules of these flagellar equivalents do not show a normal ciliar arrangement. The flagellar equivalent appears to be non-motile. In O. hartmanni and in O. notoglandulata, a flagellar equivalent is missing. Microtubules originating from the proximal end of the distal centriole stretch to the nuclear envelope. This feature appears to be especially conspicuous in O. puerilis and in O. labronica. In O. labronica and in O. notoglandulata, bundles of microtubules paralleling the cell perimeter appear to stabilise the sperm. Various numbers of mitochondria are either randomly distributed around the nucleus or accumulate on one side, often directly under the acrosome.

  10. Effects of Sewage Discharge on Polychaete Communities in East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Center for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Change - Faculdade de Ciências da ... d'accés a la Cala Sant Francesc, 14, E-17300 Blanes (Girona), Spain; 6Departamentio de. Biologia ... undertaken on organic enrichment in aquatic.

  11. Authentic FMRFamide is present in the polychaete Nereis virens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajniak, K G; Price, D A

    1990-01-01

    The tetrapeptide FMRFamide is but one member of a large family of invertebrate neuropeptides which includes another tetrapeptide, FLRFamide, and several longer peptides terminating in one or the other of these tetrapeptide sequences. These peptides have been isolated from both molluscs and arthropods, but so far not one has been isolated from an annelid. Since the annelid worms are believed to share a common ancestor with molluscs and arthropods, they should contain FMRFamide-like peptides. We found two immunoreactive peaks in Nereis virens, but microsequencing and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry revealed that they represent only one native peptide, FMRFamide. (The other peak is its methionyl sulfoxide derivative.) Each worm contained only 100 to 600 fmols of peptide, which is at least 10-100 times less than the levels in molluscs. Our identification of a tetrapeptide, and only a tetrapeptide, in this worm suggests that the tetrapeptides are the more ancient members of the family, and were probably present in the common ancestors of the annelids, arthropods, and molluscs.

  12. Fertilization success in marine invertebrates: the influence of gamete age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark Elliott; Bentley, Matthew Graeme

    2002-02-01

    Gamete age has been postulated to be unimportant to the fertilization ecology of marine invertebrates. However, recent research suggests that, for some species at least, it may have a direct impact upon fertilization success. We present comparative data on the influence of gamete age on fertilization and development success in several marine invertebrates: the polychaetes Arenicola marina and Nereis virens and the asteroid echinoderm Asterias rubens. Oocytes are much longer lived in the polychaetes than in the echinoderm, with A. marina oocytes still capable of fertilizing and developing normally 96 h post-spawning. Developmental abnormalities and failure to reach blastula tend to occur well before the fertilizable life of the oocytes has expired. Sperm are similarly longer lived in the polychaetes; however, fertilizing capacity is markedly reduced following incubation in conspecific egg-conditioned seawater. These results are discussed in terms of the fertilization strategies of the three species. We further suggest that, for A. marina at least, longer-lived sperm and eggs are central to the fertilization strategy of this species.

  13. Inhibition of embryonic development and fertilization in broadcast spawning marine invertebrates by water soluble diatom extracts and the diatom toxin 2-trans,4-trans decadienal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Gary S; Olive, Peter J W; Bentley, Matthew G

    2002-10-02

    Water soluble diatom extracts and the diatom aldehyde 2-trans,4-trans decadienal were assayed on the gametes and embryos of the broadcast spawning polychaetes Arenicola marina and Nereis virens and the echinoderms Asterias rubens and Psammechinus miliaris. Both crude cellular extracts and purified aldehyde were found to inhibit fertilization, embryogenesis and hatching success in a dose dependent manner. Intact diatom cells had no discernable effect on fertilization or development. Extracts of Skeletonema costatum were generally more effective than Nitzschia commutata in inhibiting development and fertilization. There was considerable interspecific variation in terms of toxin sensitivity. The polychaetes were more sensitive to the effects than the echinoderms. Within the polychaetes A. marina was the more tolerant in terms of developmental competence but N. virens had a higher fertilization rate. Echinoid embryos were more tolerant than asteroid embryos. This is the first study to present data on the inhibition of fertilization success by diatom extracts and aldehydes. Our observations are discussed in relation to temporal patterns in spawning and possible adaptive mechanisms to avoid diatom toxicity.

  14. The effect of microplastic on chemical uptake by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.) under environmentally relevant conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, E.; Foekema, E.M.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that ingestion of microplastic increases exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic contaminants. To date, most laboratory studies investigated chemical transfer from ingested microplastic without taking other exposure pathways into account. Therefore we studied the effect

  15. Production of N-acyl homoserine lactones by the sponge-associated marine actinobacteria Salinispora arenicola and Salinispora pacifica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Utpal; Ortori, Catharine A; Sarmad, Sarir; Barrett, David A; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Hodson, Mark P; Fuerst, John A; Shaw, P Nicholas; Boden, Rich

    2017-01-01

    The structures of acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) compounds and their quantification were accomplished using an integrated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach. The precursor and product ions, along with retention times of peaks, were searched against an in-house database of AHLs and structures confirmed by accurate mass and by comparison with authentic AHL standards. The two compounds, N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone and N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, were characterised and quantified in Salinispora sp. cultures. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Apoptosis inducing capacity of Holothuria arenicola in CT26 colon carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Our data confirmed this notion that sea cucumber administrates anti-cancer effect that can be used as complementary in preclinical experiments, so further characterization are recommended for detection sea cucumber metabolites and clinical application.

  17. Assessing the nutritional value of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis biodeposits as a possible food source for deposit-feeding holothurians in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Irisarri

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted on two mussel rafts from the Lorbé raft polygon (Ría Ares-Betanzos, Galicia, NW Spain. The first raft was located on the innermost side of the polygon at 14 m depth and 500-700 m N of the nearest coastline. The second raft was moored at the outer side of the polygon at 16 m depth and 700-1000 m N of the coast. Rafts were visited during the summer (July 2010, autumn (October 2010 and 2011 for any inter-annual variability, winter (February 2011 and spring (May 2011. Mussels of homogeneous size (50-60 mm shell length were placed in a 19 l mesocosm to collect the feces. Seawater was pumped from 3 m depth into a header tank and sieved through a 50 µm mesh to eliminate large particles before being distributed to the mesocosm (Filgueira et al., 2006. The mesocosm consisted of three replicate tanks, each divided into 16 compartments, each containing 3-4 mussels. Six replicate mussel feces samples were collected from each tank 3 to 4 h after being harvested, each replicate comprised feces from 12 individuals. Three replicate samples of seawater were collected from a tank left empty as a control to determine the biochemical composition of the seston. Seston was filtered through pre-washed and pre-combusted Whatman GF/F filters (ø 0.7 µm and rinsed with isotonic ammonium formate. Feces samples were filtered on Whatman GF/F filters and rinsed like seston samples. The particulate organic matter (POM of the seston and organic content (OC of the feces was calculated as the difference between the dry weight (DW and the ashed weight. Proteins were determined following Lowry et al. (1951 after alkaline hydrolysis with 0.5 N NaOH at 30°C for 24 h. Carbohydrates were quantified with the phenol-sulphuric acid method (Strickland and Parsons, 1968 using glucose as the standard. Lipids were extracted following the Bligh and Dyer (1959 method modified by Fernández-Reiriz et al. (1989 and colorimetrically determined using tripalmitin as a standard (Marsh and Weinstein, 1966. Results were expressed as relative %DW and as energy content in Joules l-1 (seston or Joules mg-1 (feces, after conversion with the factors proposed by Beukema and De Bruin (1979. Seasonal and spatial differences in composition were tested with a two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD as a post-hoc test. Normality and

  18. How to bite the dust : morphology, motion pattern and function of the feeding appendages of the deposit-feeding thalassinid shrimp Callianassa subterranea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, EJ; Dauwe, B; Videler, JJ

    1998-01-01

    The morphology of the mouthparts of Callianassa subterranea (Montagu, 1808) was studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. All the mouthparts except the mandible, but including the mandibular palp, appeared to be supplied with a wide variety of setae. The setae of the medial ri

  19. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883 and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper L. Mfilinge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS, foregut (FG, midgut (MG, hindgut (HG, and faecal pellets (FPs indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, and branched fatty acids (BrFAs were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems.

  20. Toxicity and accumulation of silver nanoparticles during development of the marine polychaete Platynereis dumerilii

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, Javier; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Neus; Misra, Superb K.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Luoma, Samuel N.; Rainbow, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Pollutants affecting species at the population level generate ecological instability in natural systems. The success of early life stages, such as those of aquatic invertebrates, is highly affected by adverse environmental conditions. Silver released into the environment from emerging nanotechnology represents such a threat. Sediments are sinks for numerous pollutants, which aggregate and/or associate with depositing suspended particles. Deposit feeder such as the annelid Platynereis dumerilii, which has a large associated literature on its development, is an excellent model organism for exposure studies in coastal environments. We exposed eggs, larvae, juveniles and adults of P. dumerilii to various concentrations of citrate (cit-Ag NPs) or humic acid (HA-Ag NPs) capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as well to dissolved Ag (added as AgNO3). We showed that mortality and abnormal development rate increased with younger life stages. While adults and juvenile were the most tolerant life stages, fertilized eggs were highly sensitive to AgNO3, cit-Ag NPs and HA-Ag NPs. Exposures to HA-Ag NPs triggered the highest cute toxicity responses in P. dumerilii and in most cases both Ag NPs were more toxic than AgNO3. Uptake rate of HA-Ag NPs in adult worms was also higher than from other Ag forms, consistent with toxicity to other life stages. The early stages of the life cycle of marine coastal organisms are more affected by Ag NPs than the juvenile or adult life stages, indicating that exposure experiments at the larval level contribute to realistic eco-toxicological studies in aquatic environments.

  1. Distribution and abundance of macrobenthic polychaetes along the South Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Musale, A.S.; Desai, D.V.

    include microbial (bacteria, microalgae, protists and fungi), meiobial and organic substance (Shou et al. 2009). In the trophic system, benthic fauna plays a significant role as they exploit all forms of food available in the sediment and form...

  2. Biotransformation of dissolved and sediment-bound fluoranthene in the polychaete, Capitella sp. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette; Palmqvist, Annemette; Forbes, Valery E.

    2003-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely distributed in the marine environment and have physicochemical properties that make them likely to bioaccumulate. The main purpose of this study was to investigate fluoranthene (FLU) uptake, biotransformation and elimination in the deposit...... with the dependency of elimination on exposure route, demonstrates the potential importance of these processes in controlling the fate and effects of PAH and possibly other organic toxicants in contaminated marine sediments....

  3. A new Capitella polychaete worm (Annelida: Capitellidae) living inside whale bones in the abyssal South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camila F.; Shimabukuro, Maurício; Alfaro-Lucas, Joan M.; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Amaral, Antonia C. Z.

    2016-02-01

    A new species of the genus Capitella, Capitella iatapiuna sp. nov., has been found in deep sea whale-fall samples, São Paulo Ridge-Southwest Atlantic. The new species is mainly characterized by a bluntly rounded prostomium and a very distinct peristomium forming a complete ring. Ribosomal 16S sequences were obtained and used for inter-specific comparisons. This species is herein described and compared to others species of the genus. Its ecological role in the whale-fall community is also discussed.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the polychaete annelidPlatynereis dumerilii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-08-15

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are now available for 126 metazoans (see Boore 1999; Mitochondrial Genomics link at http://www.jgi.doe.gov), but the taxonomic representation is highly biased. For example, 80 are from a single phylum, Chordata, and show little variation for many molecular features. Arthropoda is represented by 16 taxa, Mollusca by eight, and Echinodermata by five, with only 17 others from the remaining {approx}30 metazoan phyla. With few exceptions (see Wolstenholme 1992 and Boore 1999) these are circular DNA molecules, about 16 kb in size, and encode the same set of 37 genes. A variety of non-standard names are sometimes used for animal mitochondrial genes; see Boore (1999) for gene nomenclature and a table of synonyms. Mitochondrial genome comparisons serve as a model of genome evolution. In this system, much smaller and simpler than that of the nucleus, are all of the same factors of genome evolution, where one may find tractable the changes in tRNA structure, base composition, genetic code, gene arrangement, etc. Further, patterns of mitochondrial gene rearrangements are an exceptionally reliable indicator of phylogenetic relationships (Smith et al.1993; Boore et al. 1995; Boore, Lavrov, and Brown 1998; Boore and Brown 1998, 2000; Dowton 1999; Stechmann and Schlegel 1999; Kurabayashi and Ueshima 2000). To these ends, we are sampling further the variation among major animal groups in features of their mitochondrial genomes.

  5. Parasabella Bush, 1905, replacement name for the polychaete genus Demonax Kinberg, 1867 (Annelida, Polychaeta, Sabellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Tovar-Hernández

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Parasabella Bush, 1905 is reintroduced as a replacement name for Demonax Kinberg, 1867 (Annelida: Polychaeta: Sabellidae which is a junior homonym of Demonax Thomson, 1860 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae.

  6. First record of the polychaetous annelid Diopatra micrura Pires et al., 2010 in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ARIAS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Until now the only recognised species of the onuphid genus Diopatra in the Mediterranean Sea was D. neapolitana. This paper reports the presence of another species, D. micrura, in the western Mediterranean, occurring in shallow waters along the coasts of southeastern Spain.

  7. Burrow ventilation and associated porewater irrigation by the polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Cintia Organo; Hansen, Tanja; Delefosse, Matthieu;

    2011-01-01

    Burrow ventilation of benthic infauna generates water currents that irrigate the interstices of the sediments surrounding the burrow walls. Such activities have associated effects on biogeochemical processes affecting ultimately important ecosystem processes. In this study, the ventilation and ir...

  8. Uptake and effect of nano-and ionic gold on the polychaete, Capitella teleta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Lina; Banta, Gary Thomas; Selck, Henriette

    2010-01-01

    environment via sewage treatment plants, waste handling or aerial deposition. Compared to ‘common metal’, metal ENPs have high reactivity due to their small size which may have implications for bioavailability and thus toxicity in aquatic organisms. Due to the chemical and physiological properties of metals...... to form? -Does Capitella teleta affect the environmental fate of Au and does the fate depend on metal form?...

  9. On a remarquable fresh-water Polychaete "Nereis nouhuysi" from the East-Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1918-01-01

    In the year 1905 Mr. J. W. van Nouhuys presented to our Museum some Nereis-specimens, collected in the Miha at the South-coast of the isle of Taliaboe, at a distance of two hours from the mouth of the river, that moreover was shut off by a bank of gravel 1). There are eleven specimens, ten females a

  10. A Polychaete's powerful punch: venom gland transcriptomics of Glycera reveals a complex cocktail of toxin homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Björn M; Campbell, Lahcen I; Richter, Sandy; Hering, Lars; Sykes, Dan; Hetmank, Jörg; Jenner, Ronald A; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2014-09-05

    Glycerids are marine annelids commonly known as bloodworms. Bloodworms have an eversible proboscis adorned with jaws connected to venom glands. Bloodworms prey on invertebrates, and it is known that the venom glands produce compounds that can induce toxic effects in animals. Yet, none of these putative toxins has been characterized on a molecular basis. Here we present the transcriptomic profiles of the venom glands of three species of bloodworm, Glycera dibranchiata, Glycera fallax and Glycera tridactyla, as well as the body tissue of G. tridactyla. The venom glands express a complex mixture of transcripts coding for putative toxin precursors. These transcripts represent 20 known toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as transcripts potentially coding for Glycera-specific toxins. The toxins represent five functional categories: Pore-forming and membrane-disrupting toxins, neurotoxins, protease inhibitors, other enzymes, and CAP domain toxins. Many of the transcripts coding for putative Glycera toxins belong to classes that have been widely recruited into venoms, but some are homologs of toxins previously only known from the venoms of scorpaeniform fish and monotremes (stonustoxin-like toxin), turrid gastropods (turripeptide-like peptides), and sea anemones (gigantoxin I-like neurotoxin). This complex mixture of toxin homologs suggests that bloodworms employ venom while predating on macroscopic prey, casting doubt on the previously widespread opinion that G. dibranchiata is a detritivore. Our results further show that researchers should be aware that different assembly methods, as well as different methods of homology prediction, can influence the transcriptomic profiling of venom glands. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of nano-, micron- and ionic-Ag in the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    cong, Yi; Banta, Gary Thomas; Selck, Henriette

    There is increasing concern about the toxicities and potential risks, both still poorly understood, of silver nanoparticles for the aquatic environment after their eventual release. In this study, the toxicities of nano (< 100 nm)-, micron (2-3.5 µm)- and ionic (AgNO3)-Ag on the sediment-dwelling...

  12. First record of the polychaetous annelid Diopatra micrura Pires et al., 2010 in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ARIAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Until now the only recognised species of the onuphid genus Diopatra in the Mediterranean Sea was D. neapolitana. This paper reports the presence of another species, D. micrura, in the western Mediterranean, occurring in shallow waters along the coasts of southeastern Spain. 

  13. [Morphological characteristics of the pharynx of Nereis diversicolor Müller, 1776 (Polychaetes, Nereidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zghal, F; Ben Amor, Z

    1986-01-01

    Within the biometrical study of the Nereidae and in order to characterize the different populations, we looked for the most relevant biometrical characteristics. In fact, for these sea-animals, the weight and length remain just significant statements within certain limits; on the other hand the length of the maxillary, the number of paragnaths which decorate the proboscis can be precisely known.

  14. Polychaete diversity and its relevance in the rapid environmental assessment of Mumbai Port

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sukumaran, S.; SaralaDevi, K.

    maintenance dredg- ing of the waterway. Stations 1 and 5, which had rela- tively better diversity, were away from the main port activities and waste disposal sites in the creek. Thus, the subtidal segment of the port area revealed moderate to severe...

  15. Effects of teflubenzuron on sediment processing by members of the Capitella species-complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Nuria [Laboratorio de Invertebrados Bentonicos, Unidad Academica Mazatlan, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 811, Mazatlan, Sinaloa 82000 (Mexico)]. E-mail: nuri@ola.icmyl.unam.mx

    2006-01-15

    The cosmopolitan deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella is widely used as an indicator of organic pollution and plays an important role in waste recycling at aquaculture sites. Teflubenzuron is currently employed by salmon farms as an in-feed compound to control ectoparasite infestations. Its occurrence in sediments could pose a hazard to local sediment infauna. A bioassay to investigate the effects of exposing Capitella sp I and Capitella sp B to sediment spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of teflubenzuron (8.4, 25 and 41.8 {mu}g/g dry wt. sediment) is described. No mortality was recorded for Capitella sp I, but increasing teflubenzuron concentrations significantly reduced egestion rates. Capitella sp B exhibited mortality, although egestion was not affected. These results using Capitella spp. indicated that teflubenzuron could affect the rate of sediment processing by polychaetes close to fish farms treated with this compound. Further studies are recommended to assess the potential of contaminants in aquaculture wastes. - Capitella sp I reduces its feeding activity at concentrations from 8.4 to 41.8 {mu}g/g dry wt. sediment of the insecticide teflubenzuron.

  16. Species-specific effect of macrobenthic assemblages on meiobenthos and nematode community structure in shallow sandy sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Malinga, Barbara; Drgas, Aleksander; Gromisz, Sławomira; Barnes, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Three functionally different macrofaunal species (the filter- and/or surface deposit-feeding polychaete Hediste diversicolor, and the suspension-feeding bivalves Mya arenaria and Cerastoderma glaucum) were introduced as single- and two-species treatments into microcosms containing sandy sediment with a natural meiofaunal community. H. diversicolor is a burrowing species building a system of galleries, C. glaucum lives actively near the sediment surface acting as a biodiffuser and M. arenaria buries deeply and leads a sessile lifestyle. It is shown that H. diversicolor extended the vertical distribution of meiofauna into deeper sediment layers compared to the control and non-Hediste treatments. The response of the nematode community varied significantly among treatments and was dependant on the macrobenthic species composition but not on the species number. Nematode assemblages in all treatments with the polychaete, both in monoculture and with either bivalve, differed significantly from those recorded in other treatments and were more similar than replicates within any other single treatment. H. diversicolor also appeared to have stimulated nematode species diversity. The present study demonstrated that the impact of macrobenthic assemblages on meiofauna is not a simple summation of individual species effects but is species specific.

  17. Bioaccumulation, toxicokinetics, and effects of copper from sediment spiked with aqueous Cu, nano-CuO, or micro-CuO in the deposit-feeding snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Chengfang; Selck, Henriette; Banta, Gary Thomas

    2013-01-01

    wt of sediment) added as aqueous Cu (CuCl2), nano- (6 nm, 100 nm), or micro- (snails was measured. In experiment 2, a more comprehensive analysis of the toxicokinetics of Cu (aqueous Cu, 6 nm, or 100 nm) was conducted. In experiment 3, the effects of Cu form (aqueous Cu...... and 6 nm CuO) on juvenile growth and survival at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg Cu/g dry weight sediment were assessed. Snails took up less of the 5-mm CuO particles than nano-CuO or aqueous Cu. A substantial fraction of Cu taken up was associated with shell, and this was rapidly lost when snails were...... not statistically significant. Juvenile snails in the highest exposure concentrations (aqueous Cu and 6-nm CuO groups pooled) reduced their growth by 0.18 mm on average (67%) compared with the control group. Although we observed minor differences in toxicity among Cu forms, effects on juvenile snail growth occurred...

  18. Polychaeta, Annelida, and Articulata are not monophyletic: articulating the Metameria (Metazoa, Coelomata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltécio de Oliveira Almeida

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Polychaetes are metameric worms recognized for having parapodia, chaetae, and nuchal organs. Some authors have extended the Annelida to include Pogonophora, Echiura, and Clitellata. These suggestions are insufficient to generate a monophyletic group. They do not take into account two very large and important clades that in a cladistic analysis at a higher level are shown to be nested within the Annelida: the Ecdysozoa (arthropods and related taxa and Enterocoela (deuterostomes and related taxa. Evolutionary histories of most characters across metazoan phyla are still very poorly known. Metameres and coeloms have been considered homoplastic in the literature, and yet the homeobox genes responsible for the expression of metamerism and of paired appendages, at least, are very largely distributed among the Metazoa. A phylogenetic analysis was performed for the ingroups of Polychaeta, including Clitellata, Enterocoela, and Ecdysozoa as terminal taxa. The remaining non-metameric phyla Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, Mollusca, and Sipuncula were included to root the tree within the Bilateria. Empirical data was obtained from the literature and run with the software Hennig86 with two comparative interpretations of a priori hypotheses of primary homology: one with negative characters (coding losses and another considering only positive characters (without assumptions about losses. The most relevant conclusions are: (1 Annelida and Polychaeta are non-monophyletic, even when including Echiura, Clitellata, and Pogonophora; (2 Articulata, as traditionally circumscribed for Annelida and Arthropoda, is also not monophyletic; (3 Metameria becomes monophyletic only when Ecdysozoa and Enterocoela are included in addition to the traditional annelid taxa; (4 Ecdysozoa are the sister group of Aphrodita; (5 Clitellata are related to deposit-feeding sedentary polychaetes (scolecids, and Questidae represent their sister group; (6 Owenia plus Enterocoela form a monophyletic

  19. Maternal inheritance of twist and analysis of MAPK activation in embryos of the polychaete annelid Platynereis dumerilii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pfeifer

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the specification of the 4d (mesentoblast lineage in Platynereis dumerilii. We employ RT-PCR and in situ hybridization against the Platynereis dumerilii twist homolog (Pdu-twist to reveal mesodermal specification within this lineage. We show that Pdu-twist mRNA is already maternally distributed. After fertilization, ooplasmatic segregation leads to relocation of Pdu-twist transcripts into the somatoblast (2d lineage and 4d, indicating that the maternal component of Pdu-twist might be an important prerequisite for further mesoderm specification but does not represent a defining characteristic of the mesentoblast. However, after the primordial germ cells have separated from the 4d lineage, zygotic transcription of Pdu-twist is exclusively observed in the myogenic progenitors, suggesting that mesodermal specification occurs after the 4d stage. Previous studies on spiral cleaving embryos revealed a spatio-temporal correlation between the 4d lineage and the activity of an embryonic organizer that is capable to induce the developmental fates of certain micromeres. This has raised the question if specification of the 4d lineage could be connected to the organizer activity. Therefore, we aimed to reveal the existence of such a proposed conserved organizer in Platynereis employing antibody staining against dpERK. In contrast to former observations in other spiralian embryos, activation of MAPK signaling during 2d and 4d formation cannot be detected which questions the existence of a conserved connection between organizer function and specification of the 4d lineage. However, our experiments unveil robust MAPK activation in the prospective nephroblasts as well as in the macromeres and some micromeres at the blastopore in gastrulating embryos. Inhibition of MAPK activation leads to larvae with a shortened body axis, defects in trunk muscle spreading and improper nervous system condensation, indicating a critical function for MAPK signaling for the reorganization of embryonic tissues during the gastrulation process.

  20. Notes on Hydroides elegans (Haswell, 1883) and Mercierella enigmatica Fauvel, 1923, alien serpulid Polychaetes introduced into the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, ten Harry A.

    1974-01-01

    The occurrence of Hydroides elegans in Dutch waters is observed for the first time. Differences with H. norvegica are discussed. Possible ways of introduction of H. elegans and Mercierella enigmatica are discussed.

  1. On the role of the polychaete Dendronereis spp. i the transmission of white spot syndrome virus in shrimp ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrina, Haryadi

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is by far the most devastating shrimp virus. Control measures have lowered the WSSV incidence to various degrees, but the pathogen remains plaguing shrimp culture worldwide. Continuous exposure may cause WSSV to adapt and infect non-crustacean benthic fauna in ponds

  2. Field Verification Program (Aquatic Disposal). Sister Chromatid Exchange in Marine Polychaetes Exposed to Black Rock Harbor Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    improbable that relationships would be detected given the variability inherent in the data. With a sample size of seven, the correlation coefficient would have...strain TA2637) with metabolic activation (Tikkanen, Matsushima, and Natori 1983), possibly via the generation of active oxygen (Brown 1980; Chesis ...Exchange as an Indicator of Mutagenesis," Nature (London), Vol 2- , p 551-553. Chesi , P. I., Levin, D. E., Smith, M. T., Ernster, L., and Ames, B. N. 1984

  3. Record of bi-operculate fouling serpulid polychaete, Hydroides operculatus (Treadwell, 1929) from Diu, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kubal, P.; Sukumaran, S.; Vijapure, T.

    chaetae (Fig. 2Ib) were embedded within the thoracic membrane (Figure 2Ia). Bayonet chaetae (Figure 2G) were smooth, with two blunt-elongate teeth (Figure 2Gb) and 116 µm long distal blade (Figure 2Ga). Figure 2. A]Bi-operculate Hydroides... view of operculum (a) radii. F] Abdominal trumpet shaped chaetae G] Bayonet chaetae (a) distal blade (b) teeth. H] Abdominal uncini. I] Thoracic chaetae (a) thoracic membrane (b) hooded capillary chaeta. J] Dorsal spine of verticil (a) internal spinule...

  4. Intense predation cannot always be detected experimentally: A case study of shorebird predation on nereid polychaetes in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalejta, B.

    The effect of predation by curlew sandpipers Calidris ferruginea L. and grey plovers Pluvialis squatarola (L.) on populations of nereid worms Ceratonereis keiskama (Day) and C. erythraeensis (Fauvel) was studied at the Berg River estuary, South Africa, by comparing observations of shorebird-foraging intensity with the results of a population study of two species of nereid worms within and outside bird exclosures. The study was carried out during the four-month period prior to northward migration of shorebirds. Population structure of the two nereid species differed considerably. Ceratonereis keiskama reproduced earlier than C. erythraeensis and only young individuals were present during the study. By contrast, old C. erythraeensis were available to the birds at the start of the experiment and young animals entered the population during the experiment. Despite selective predation on certain size classes of nereids by the birds, no significant changes in the population structure of either nereid were detected by the cage experiment. Numbers and biomass of both Ceratonereis spp. in paired controls and cages tracked each other and did not diverge as predicted. A consistent difference in the depth stratification of the two nereids may, however, have been due to predation pressure. Curlew sandpipers were calculated to remove 3112 nereids per m 2 during the three months, equivalent to 4.4. g (dry weight) per m 2. This represents 58% of the initial numbers and 77% of the initial biomass of nereids. Although predation on nereids by waders was exceptionally high at the Berg River estuary, any depletion in numbers or biomass of nereids caused by these predators was masked by the reproduction of the nereids. The fact that the predators' high energy requirements prior to northward migration coincide with the period of peak production of invertebrate prey makes the Berg River estuary an exceptionally favourable wintering area.

  5. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Ryer: Polychaete worm tubes modify juvenile northern rock sole Lepidopsetta polyxystra depth distribution in Kodiak nurseries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study that evaluates whether inter-annual variability in the depth distribution of juvenile northern rock sole on their nursery grounds around...

  6. Tolerance to metals and assessment of energy reserves in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor in clean and contaminated estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durou, C; Mouneyrac, C; Amiard-Triquet, C

    2005-02-01

    Estuaries are subject to anthropogenic activities. Because the intrasedimentary worm Nereis diversicolor has ecological characteristics and bioindicator abilities, its use was pertinent in investigating the concepts and cost of tolerance to heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn). In this context, two approaches were carried out, performing toxicity tests and estimating energy reserves (glycogen and lipids), in populations originating from a contaminated site (Seine estuary) compared with those from a clean site (Authie estuary). Mean lethal times (LT(50)s) of organisms exposed to zinc from the Seine estuary were higher than those from the Authie estuary, but not of organisms exposed to Cd or Cu. The influence of animal weight and salinity on the sensitivity of worms also was studied. The biggest worms were more tolerant to zinc than the smallest ones, and worms survived longer at a reduced salinity (15 per thousand). Concentrations of glycogen and lipids in each sampling season were higher in specimens from the Authie estuary than in worms from the Seine estuary. No influence of salinity on glycogen and lipid levels was observed. Glycogen concentrations were not influenced by the weight of specimens, whereas lipid concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with weight. In conclusion, worms from the Seine estuary exhibited tolerance to Zn, and the depletion of energy reserves observed in this population could be interpreted as a cost of tolerance. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. POLYCHAETES FROM RED MANGROVE (Rhizophora mangle AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH THE WATER CONDITIONS IN THE GULF OF URABÁ, COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa FERNÁNDEZ-RODRÍGUEZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los poliquetos tienen un papel importante en la ecología de las comunidades bénticas, dominan la infauna, reciclan nutrientes de la columna de agua y son comúnmente usados como indicadores biológicos. En el Golfo de Urabá (Caribe Colombiano, específicamente para las zonas de Bahía Marirrío y Ensenada de Rionegro no existen estudios sobre la ecología de los poliquetos, solo se han desarrollado algunos estudos taxonómicos. En esta investigación se evaluó la relación entre algunas variables fisicoquímicas y las especies de poliquetos encontradas. Adicionalmente, se realizaron algunas observaciones sobre las distribución espacial de estas especies en las dos zonas de estudio. Se encontró que las variables que mejor explican las segregación de las especies de poliquetos fueron el oxígeno disuelto y la conductividad eléctrica; la temperatura no tuvo un efecto significativo. En términos de distribución espacial se encontró que las especies Alitta succinea, Capitella cf. capitata y Ficopomatus miamiensis ocuparon las zonas interna, media y externa de las dos áreas de estudio en las dos temporadas de muestreo; mientras que Ficopomatus uschakovi (temporada de lluvia y Stenoninereis sp. 1 (ambas temporadas fueron registradas solamente la Ensenada de Rionegro en diferentes temporadas. Finalmente, las especies Nicolea modesta es registrada por primera vez para el Golfo de Urabá.

  8. Molecular evidence of undescribed Ceratonova sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) in the freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa, from western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakauskas, David M.; Snipes, Robert Benjamin; Thompson, Ann M.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    2016-01-01

    We used PCR to screen pooled individuals of Manayunkia speciosa from western Lake Erie, Michigan, USA for myxosporean parasites. Amplicons from positive PCRs were sequenced and showed a Ceratonova species in an estimated 1.1% (95% CI = 0.46%, 1.8%) of M. speciosa individuals. We sequenced 18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and most of the 28S rDNA regions of this Ceratonova sp., and part of the protein-coding EF2 gene. Phylogenetic analyses of ribosomal and EF2 sequences showed the Lake Erie Ceratonova sp. is most similar to, but genetically distinct from, Ceratonova shasta. Marked interspecific polymorphism in all genes examined, including the ITS barcoding genes, along with geographic location suggests this is an undescribed Ceratonova species. COI sequences showed M. speciosa individuals in Michigan and California are the same species. These findings represent a third parasite in the genus Ceratonovapotentially hosted by M. speciosa.

  9. Population dynamics of the spionid polychaete Pygospio elegans in Isefjord and Roskilde Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thonig, Anne; Banta, Gary Thomas; Kesäniemi, Jenni;

    We sampled populations of Pygospio elegans at four locations (Lynæs, Lammefjord, Vellerup, Herslev) in the Isefjord - Roskilde Fjord estuary complex with approximately monthly intervals from March to November 2014. The goal of this study is to compare the population dynamics, with special focus o...

  10. FILTER-NET STRUCTURE AND PUMPING ACTIVITY IN THE POLYCHAETE NEREIS-DIVERSICOLOR - EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND PUMP-MODELING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H.U.; Vedel, A.; Boye, H.

    1992-01-01

    and a halving of the net cycle length. At low temperatures a tendency towards an extended pause between pumping periods was noticed. The N. diversicolor pump was modelled as a positive displacement leaking unit, and earlier data on back pressure characteristics were examined in light of the proposed model....... diversicolor muscular positive displacement pump (unlike for viscous ciliary pumps)....... on water processing were measured as clearance of suspended algal cells or measured directly. Pumping activity (undulating body movements of worms kept in glass tubes) was monitored using an infrared phototransducer technique. In the temperature interval from 5 to about 15-degrees-C there was a linear...

  11. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part I: Amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woulds, C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Cowie, G.L.

    2012-01-01

    Of the factors which control the quantity and composition of organic matter (OM) buried in marine sediments, the links between infaunal ingestion and gut passage and sediment geochemistry have received relatively little attention. This study aimed to use feeding experiments and novel isotope tracing

  12. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of nano-, micron- and aqueous-Ag in the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    cong, Yi

    to the importance of fully characterizing nanoparticles for interpretation of toxicity results, the crystal structure, particle size and morphology of commercial nano (.... diversicolor were investigated. Mortality, burrowing behavior, bioaccumulation, lysosomal membrane stability (neutral red assay) and DNA damage were used as endpoints as a result of 10 d of exposure, with the purpose to decipher if toxic effects were different between the two nano-Ag particle sizes...... of the wider size range and larger sizes of worms used in experiment II. Worm size (expressed as dry weight) significantly affected Ag body burden, such that smaller worms accumulated more Ag per body weight than larger worms. Lysosomal membrane stability of worm coelomocytes, which was measured by neutral red...

  13. Geographical patterns of dominant bivalves and a polychaete in Europe: no metapopulations in the marine coastal zone?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, H.

    2003-01-01

    The genetic diversity, differentiation and performance of some dominant invertebrates in the marine coastal zone of Europe are reviewed in order to discuss the use of the metapopulation concept in the marine coastal realm. A consistently high genetic diversity of the species studied (mussels of the

  14. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of nano-, micron-, and ionic-Ag on the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Yi; Banta, Gary Thomas; Selck, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the toxicities and potential risks, both still poorly understood, of silver nanoparticles for the aquatic environment after their eventual release via wastewater discharges. In this study, the toxicities of sediment associated nano (<100 nm)-, micron (2–3.5 m)- a...

  15. First occurrence of the Indo-Pacific polychaete species Glycinde bonhourei Gravier, 1904 in the Hellenic seas (Northern Evvoikos Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A specimen of Glycinde bonhourei Gravier, 1904, an Indo-Pacific species, was found at a station near the metalliferous waste disposal in the Northern Evvoikos Gulf (Aegean Sea, eastern Mediterranean. This is the second report of this species in the Mediterranean Sea after its first finding in the Levantine basin (Israel and Egypt. This paper provides new information on its distributional range in the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Laurel: Effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbance on polychaete worm tubes and age-0 flatfish distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a field experiment that examined how juvenile flatfish distribution changed with worm tube heterogeneity, i.e. density and patchiness.

  17. Benthic ecology of the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Part I. Environmental characteristics and macrofaunal community structure, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Arny L.; Parris, Carrie L.; Knowlton, Ann L.; Wade, Nicole R.

    2013-09-01

    Spatial variations of processes driving macrofaunal distributions can arise from interactions among topographic features and oceanographic patterns, and are not understood at small scales in the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Benthic macrofauna and environmental characteristics were measured to determine factors driving macrofaunal distributions as part of a multidisciplinary environmental program in the northeastern Chukchi Sea from 2008 to 2010. Macrofauna were sampled in three study areas, named Klondike, Burger, and Statoil, with a van Veen grab at up to 82 stations each year, as well as an area where marine mammals were seen feeding. The macrofaunal assemblages in all study areas were similar in species-composition with deposit-feeding polychaetes (53% of density and of 26% biomass) and bivalves (15% of density and 52% of biomass) collectively the most prominent groups. Maldane sarsi dominated the polychaetes in terms of both density and biomass, while bivalves were numerically dominated by Ennucula tenuis, but their biomass was dominated by larger species such as Macoma calcarea and Astarte borealis. Exceptions occurred in the marine mammal feeding area that was dominated by amphipods (71% of density and 30% biomass). Average densities were higher in Burger than in Klondike or Statoil, while biomass values were similar between Burger and Statoil, and higher in these two study areas than in Klondike. Overall, the distributions, biomass and density of benthic macrofauna reflect the high volume of production reaching the seafloor in the shallow waters of the Chukchi Sea. Variations in community structure among study areas were correlated with water depth and bottom-water temperature. Short-term temporal differences in community structure covaried with interannual oceanographic variations that may have altered food availability, macrofaunal survival, or larval recruitment. Topographic control over circulation appears to be a primary driver in structuring benthic

  18. Influence of benthic macrofauna community shifts on ecosystem functioning in shallow estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eKristensen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We identify how ecosystem functioning in shallow estuaries is affected by shifts in benthic fauna communities. We use the shallow estuary, Odense Fjord, Denmark, as a case study to test our hypotheses that (1 shifts in benthic fauna composition and species functional traits affect biogeochemical cycling with cascading effects on ecological functioning, which may (2 modulate pelagic primary productivity with feedbacks to the benthic system. Odense Fjord is suitable because it experienced dramatic shifts in benthic fauna community structure from 1998 to 2008. We focused on infaunal species with emphasis on three dominating burrow-dwelling polychaetes: the native Nereis (Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina, and the invasive Marenzelleria viridis. The impact of functional traits in the form of particle reworking and ventilation on biogeochemical cycles, i.e. sediment metabolism and nutrient dynamics, was determined from literature data. Historical records of summer nutrient levels in the water column of the inner Odense Fjord show elevated concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- (DIN during the years 2004-2006, exactly when the N. diversicolor population declined and A. marina and M. viridis populations expanded dramatically. In support of our first hypothesis, we show that excess NH4+ delivery from the benthic system during the A. marina and M. viridis expansion period enriched the overlying water in DIN and stimulated phytoplankton concentration. The altered benthic-pelagic coupling and stimulated pelagic production may, in support of our second hypothesis, have feedback to the benthic system by changing the deposition of organic material. We therefore advice to identify the exact functional traits of the species involved in a community shift before studying its impact on ecosystem functioning. We also suggest studying benthic community shifts in shallow environments to obtain knowledge about the drivers and controls before exploring deep

  19. Exposure to 2,4-decadienal negatively impacts upon marine invertebrate larval fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Gary S; Lewis, Ceri; Olive, Peter J W; Bentley, Matthew G

    2005-06-01

    Diatoms liberate volatile, biologically active unsaturated aldehydes following cell damage, which negatively impact upon invertebrate reproductive processes such as fertilization, embryogenesis and larval survival. 2,4-Decadienal is frequently identified among the aldehydes produced and is one of the more biologically active. The majority of studies which have examined the toxic effects of diatom aldehydes to invertebrate reproduction have scored egg production and/or hatching success as indicators of biological impacts. There are very few studies which have dealt specifically with the impacts of diatom-derived aldehydes on larval fitness. Larval stages of the polychaetes Arenicola marina and Nereis virens and the echinoderms Asterias rubens and Psammechinus miliaris exposed to 2,4-decadienal at sub 1 microg ml(-1) concentrations suffered reduced survival over the incubation period (day 1-8 post fertilization) with detectable differences for the polychates at a concentration of 0.005 and 0.01-0.1 microg ml(-1) for the echinoderms. Susceptibility of larval N. virens was investigated using stage specific 24 h exposures at 2,4-decadienal concentrations up to 1.5 microg ml(-1). A clear stage specific effect was found, with earlier larval stages most vulnerable. Nectochaete larvae (9-10 d) showed no reduction in survival at the concentrations assayed. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined as random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry, was used to analyse fitness of larval P. miliaris exposed to 2,4-decadienal at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 microg ml(-1). The degree and frequency of asymmetrical development increased with increasing 2,4-decadienal concentration. Equally, as FA increased larval survival decreased. These results provide further support for the teratogenic nature of 2,4-decadienal and its negative impact on invertebrate larval fitness.

  20. Linking benthic biodiversity to the functioning of coastal ecosystems subjected to river runoff (NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmelin–Vivien, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Continental particulate organic matter (POM plays a major role in the functioning of coastal marine ecosystems as a disturbance as well as an input of nutrients. Relationships linking continental inputs from the Rhone River to biodiversity of the coastal benthic ecosystem and fishery production were investigated in the Golfe du Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea. Macrobenthic community diversity decreased when continen¬tal inputs of organic matter increased, whereas ecosystem production, measured by common sole (Solea solea fishery yields in the area, increased. Decreases in macrobenthic diversity were mainly related to an increasing abundance of species with specific functional traits, particularly deposit-feeding polychaetes. The decrease in macrobenthic diversity did not result in a decrease, but an increase in ecosystem production, as it enhanced the transfer of continental POM into marine food webs. The present study showed that it is necessary to consider functional traits of species, direct and indirect links between species, and feedback loops to understand the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning and productivity.

  1. Metals in sediments and benthic organisms in the Mersey estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, W. J.

    1986-08-01

    Concentrations of twelve metals were determined in sediments, seaweed ( Fucus vesiculosus), winkles ( Littorina littorea), polychaetes ( Nereis diversicolor), suspension feeding bivalves ( Mytilus edulis, Cerastoderma edule) and deposit feeding bivalves ( Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana) collected from the Mersey estuary between April 1980 and June 1984. Sediments and organisms in the Mersey are moderately contaminated with most of the metals measured, but mercury concentrations are consistently higher than in other United Kingdom estuaries. Comparisons with other sites in the North West of England indicate that mercury residues in organisms, though primarily dependent on sediment concentrations, are also influenced by complexation with particulate organic matter which reduces the availability of mercury. The biological availability of arsenic in Mersey sediments is similarly influenced by complexation with iron oxyhydroxides. Nereis diversicolor and Macoma balthica are the most suitable indicator species in terms of abundance and widespread distribution along the estuary, and, for the majority of metals, tissue concentrations increase upstream, reflecting corresponding gradients in sediment contamination. However mid-estuarine peaks for tin, chromium copper and nickel in Nereis indicate more localised inputs to the estuary. Correlations between lead in sediments and organisms are poor; it is suggested that hydrophilic alkyl lead compounds may be the predominant biologically available forms. Progressive reductions in mercury contamination in sediments and mercury and lead in organisms have occurred in recent years, which coincide with efforts to reduce inputs of these metals to teh Mersey estuary.

  2. Community structure of macrozoobenthic feeding guilds in responses to eutrophication in Jakarta Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM AZBAS TAURUSMAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Taurusman AA (2010 Community structure of macrozoobenthic feeding guilds in responses to eutrophication in Jakarta Bay. Biodiversitas 11: 133-138. The group of benthic fauna which feed on the same food sources are classified as a feeding guild. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the distribution and composition of macrozoobenthic feeding guilds along gradient of organic enrichment (trophic states in Jakarta Bay. The result of the present study was shown that at the hypertrophic stations of the bay dominated by species of surface deposit feeding polychaetes such as, Dodecaceria sp., Cirratulus sp., Capitella sp., and Spionidae. The eutrophic zone of the bay was dominated by suspension feeding bivalves Mactra sp., Chione sp. The offshore area (mesotrophic zone showed a high diversity of species and feeding guilds compared to other areas. The patterns of feeding guilds in the mesotrophic zone indicated a higher stability of macrozoobenthos community, indicated by the presence of deep-deposit feeder (e.g. Acetes sp., surface deposit feeders (e.g. Prionospio sp., suspension feeders (e.g. Chione sp., and carnivores (e.g. Nepthys sp. in comparable proportions. The structure of macrozoobenthic feeding guilds in an eutrophic coastal water is positively related to the quantity and quality of organic matters (eutrophic states, and the capability of benthic species in adaptation to such environmental condition.

  3. Stable isotopes reveal habitat-related diet shifts in facultative deposit-feeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Baeta, Alexandra; Marques, João C.

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass patches interspersed in a sediment matrix may vary environmental conditions and affect feeding habits of consumers and food-web structure. This paper investigates diet shifts between bare sediments and a Zostera noltei (Hornemann, 1832) meadow for three facultative deposit-feeding macrofaunal consumers, notably the bivalve Scrobicularia plana (da Costa, 1778), the polychaete Hediste diversicolor (O.T. Müller, 1776), and the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant, 1778). In July 2008, one eelgrass meadow and two bare sediment locations were chosen in the Mondego estuary (40° 08″ N, 8° 50‧ W, Portugal) and sampled for stable isotope signatures (δ13C and δ15N) of macrofauna consumers and some of their potential basal food sources, such as sedimentary organic matter (SOM), microphytobenthos (MPB), seagrass shoots, leaves and seaweeds laying on the surface sediment. The δ15N of H. diversicolor was 3‰ higher in the eelgrass meadow than in bare sediment, indicating a change of trophic position, whereas the Bayesian stable-isotope mixing model showed that S. plana assimilated more macroalgal detritus than microphytobenthos in the eelgrass bed. Such habitat-related diet shifts have the potential to change structure and spatial dynamics of benthic food webs.

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1327 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1327 ref|ZP_01648217.1| putative ABC transporter permease protein [Salinispora arenicola... CNS205] gb|ABV98616.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01648217.1 1e-38 37% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-10-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-10-0002 ref|ZP_01649534.1| hypothetical protein SareDRAFT_0855 [Salinispora arenicola... CNS205] gb|ABV96792.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01649534.1 0.005 27% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-14-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-14-0008 ref|ZP_01650692.1| protein of unknown function DUF81 [Salinispora arenicola... CNS205] gb|ABV98083.1| protein of unknown function DUF81 [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01650692.1 0.001 27% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-04-0045 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-04-0045 ref|ZP_01649449.1| hypothetical protein SareDRAFT_1509 [Salinispora arenicola... CNS205] gb|ABV97463.1| hypothetical protein Sare_1567 [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01649449.1 1.2 38% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-07-0048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein [Salinispora arenicola CNS205] gb|ABV98555.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01648159.1 0.015 28% ... ...CBRC-HSAP-07-0048 ref|ZP_01648159.1| putative ABC-2 type transport system permease

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0539 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0539 ref|ZP_01649941.1| glycosyl transferase, family 51 [Salinispora arenicola... CNS205] gb|ABV99811.1| glycosyl transferase family 51 [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01649941.1 9.9 28% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2845 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2845 ref|ZP_01649121.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Salinispora arenicola... CNS205] gb|ABV99981.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01649121.1 3.1 37% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-01-0097 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-01-0097 ref|ZP_01647447.1| oxidoreductase-like [Salinispora arenicola CNS...205] gb|ABV97571.1| oxidoreductase domain protein [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01647447.1 0.71 29% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1327 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein [Salinispora arenicola CNS205] gb|ABV98555.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01648159.1 9e-42 38% ... ...CBRC-CREM-01-1327 ref|ZP_01648159.1| putative ABC-2 type transport system permease

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-1927 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-1927 ref|ZP_01650371.1| glycosyl transferase, family 39 [Salinispora arenicola... CNS205] gb|ABV98138.1| glycosyl transferase family 39 [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01650371.1 1.6 35% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0076 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0076 ref|YP_001535031.1| hypothetical protein Sare_0105 [Salinispora arenicola... CNS-205] gb|ABV96040.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] YP_001535031.1 0.089 30% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0721 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0721 ref|YP_001537951.1| Beta-ketoacyl synthase [Salinispora arenicola... CNS-205] gb|ABV98960.1| Beta-ketoacyl synthase [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] YP_001537951.1 0.52 40% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-07-0051 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein [Salinispora arenicola CNS205] gb|ABV98555.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01648159.1 0.003 27% ... ...CBRC-HSAP-07-0051 ref|ZP_01648159.1| putative ABC-2 type transport system permease

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-08-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein [Salinispora arenicola CNS205] gb|ABV98555.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01648159.1 4e-04 27% ... ...CBRC-PABE-08-0010 ref|ZP_01648159.1| putative ABC-2 type transport system permease

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1275 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1275 ref|ZP_01646394.1| heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase [Salinispora arenicola... CNS205] gb|ABV96465.1| heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01646394.1 1e-123 72% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0500 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0500 ref|ZP_01650268.1| major facilitator superfamily MFS_1 [Salinispora arenicola... CNS205] gb|ABV98438.1| major facilitator superfamily MFS_1 [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01650268.1 0.75 34% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1365 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1365 ref|ZP_01647653.1| hypothetical protein SareDRAFT_3349 [Salinispora arenicola... CNS205] gb|ABV99270.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01647653.1 7e-28 43% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OSAT-11-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OSAT-11-0006 ref|ZP_01647180.1| putative membrane protein [Salinispora arenicola... CNS205] gb|ABW00506.1| protein of unknown function DUF571 [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01647180.1 0.006 28% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1355 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1355 ref|ZP_01647712.1| anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase [Salinispora arenicola... CNS205] gb|ABV99332.1| anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01647712.1 2e-82 53% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1370 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1370 ref|ZP_01646325.1| major facilitator superfamily MFS_1 [Salinispora arenicola... CNS205] gb|ABV96388.1| major facilitator superfamily MFS_1 [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01646325.1 3e-35 39% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-1354 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-1354 ref|YP_001537546.1| hypothetical protein Sare_2718 [Salinispora arenicola... CNS-205] gb|ABV98555.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] YP_001537546.1 0.002 27% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CPOR-01-0137 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CPOR-01-0137 ref|ZP_01650035.1| DNA internalization-related competence protein... ComEC/Rec2 [Salinispora arenicola CNS205] gb|ABV99640.1| DNA internalization-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01650035.1 0.19 28% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CPOR-01-0386 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CPOR-01-0386 ref|ZP_01650035.1| DNA internalization-related competence protein... ComEC/Rec2 [Salinispora arenicola CNS205] gb|ABV99640.1| DNA internalization-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] ZP_01650035.1 0.52 27% ...

  7. Mesoderm patterning and morphogenesis in the polychaete Alitta virens (Spiralia, Annelida): Expression of mesodermal markers Twist, Mox, Evx and functional role for MAP kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozin, Vitaly V; Filimonova, Daria A; Kupriashova, Ekaterina E; Kostyuchenko, Roman P

    2016-05-01

    Mesoderm represents the evolutionary youngest germ layer and forms numerous novel tissues in bilaterian animals. Despite the established conservation of the gene regulatory networks that drive mesoderm differentiation (e.g. myogenesis), mechanisms of mesoderm specification are highly variable in distant model species. Thus, broader phylogenetic sampling is required to reveal common features of mesoderm formation across bilaterians. Here we focus on a representative of Spiralia, the marine annelid Alitta virens, whose mesoderm development is still poorly investigated on the molecular level. We characterize three novel early mesodermal markers for A. virens - Twist, Mox, and Evx - which are differentially expressed within the mesodermal lineages. The Twist mRNA is ubiquitously distributed in the fertilized egg and exhibits specific expression in endomesodermal- and ectomesodermal-founder cells at gastrulation. Twist is expressed around the blastopore and later in a segmental metameric pattern. We consider this expression to be ancestral, and in support of the enterocoelic hypothesis of mesoderm evolution. We also revealed an early pattern of the MAPK activation in A. virens that is different from the previously reported pattern in spiralians. Inhibition of the MAPK pathway by U0126 disrupts the metameric Twist and Mox expression, indicating an early requirement of the MAPK cascade for proper morphogenesis of endomesodermal tissues.

  8. A biochemical approach to assessment of effects of organic pollution on the metabolism of the non-opportunistic polychaete, Glycera alba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, J.

    1980-03-01

    Loch Creran and Loch Eil, sea lochs in the west of Scotland, both receive discharges of particulate organic effluent from industrial installations. Glycera alba (Müller) is widely distributed in the sediments of both lochs, and assays of activities of enzymes associated with energy-yielding metabolism have been done on crude extracts of specimens collected from variously affected areas. Mean phosphofructokinase activities were low in extracts of G. alba collected some 400 m from the source of effluent from a seaweed processing factory, increased to a maximum at 900 m and declined slightly at 1150 m where the sediment is little affected by the effluent. Pyruvate kinase activities exhibited qualitatively similar changes of lesser magnitude and no differences in a-glycerophosphate or malate dehydrogenase activities were observed. In G. alba from Loch Eil a relationship was established between phosphofructokinase activity and Eh at 4 cm in the sediment and the maximum change in phosphofructokinase was found at low Eh, below -50 mV. The data are interpreted with reference to results from biological and environmental monitoring in Lochs Eil and Creran. It is suggested that the low phosphofructokinase activities in G. alba from the most affected areas of each loch may constitute a consistent biochemical response to effects of the organic inputs.

  9. Effects of the invasive polychaete, Marenzelleria viridis, on the fate of sediment associated pollutants – a microcosm study with 14C-labelled pyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banta, Gary Thomas; Hedman, Jenny Elisabet

    the impact of depositing labile organic matter (seston) on the sediment surface. Worms clearly enhanced the release of pyrene and degradation metabolites from the sediment to the overlying water in all cases, mostly due to the initial flushing of sediments during burrow establishment. Surprisingly...... on the fate of deeply buried sediment-associated pollutants in the historically polluted Baltic Sea. We report here the results of an experimental microcosm study examining the fate of 14C radiolabelled pyrene (a 4-ring PAH) in sediment microcosms with and without Marenzelleria viridis. We also investigated......, there was no clear effect of worms on the mineralization of pyrene to CO2, where a complicated interaction between bioturbation and the presence of labile organic matter was observed. Furthermore, the ultimate fate of the increased release of sediment-associated pyrene and its metabolites to the water is unknown....

  10. The search for a filter-feeding alternative for integrated shrimp aquacultures– a preliminary study with the polychaete Sabella spallanzanii for water quality improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Granada; Nádia Sousa; Sara Marques; Filipe Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aquaculture practices, like any other human activity, affect the environment in different ways. Some can be considered beneficial while others are in conflict with long-term sustainability of natural ecosystems. Recently, some attention has been dedicated to the effects of discharges of effluents from certain types of aquaculture. Aquaculture operations cause the release of metabolic waste products such as faeces, pseudofaeces, excreta and uneaten food which is considered ...

  11. Adaptation and acclimatization to ocean acidification in marine ectotherms : an in situ transplant experiment with polychaetes at a shallow CO2 vent system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calosi, Piero; Rastrick, Samuel P. S.; Lombardi, Chiara; de Guzman, Heidi J.; Davidson, Laura; Jahnke, Marlene; Giangrande, Adriana; Hardege, Joerg D.; Schulze, Anja; Spicer, John I.; Gambi, Maria-Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic rate determines the physiological and life-history performances of ectotherms. Thus, the extent to which such rates are sensitive and plastic to environmental perturbation is central to an organism's ability to function in a changing environment. Little is known of long-term metabolic plas

  12. Influence of copper oxide nanoparticle shape on bioaccumulation, cellular internalization and effects in the estuarine sediment-dwelling polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thit, Amalie; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Købler, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    CuO nanoparticles (NPs) released into the aquatic environment will likely accumulate in the sediment. Here we synthesized and characterized CuO NPs with different shapes and thus sizes: spheres, rods and spindles. Nereis diversicolor were exposed for 10 days to control sediment or sediment spiked...

  13. Molecular identification key based on PCR/RFLP for three polychaete sibling species of the genus Marenzelleria, and the species' current distribution in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, M.; Laine, A. O.; Jürss, K.; Bastrop, R.

    2008-06-01

    Studies of Marenzelleria species were often hampered by identification uncertainties when using morphological characters only. A newly developed PCR/RFLP protocol allows a more efficient discrimination of the three species Marenzelleria viridis, Marenzelleria neglecta and Marenzelleria arctia currently known for the Baltic Sea. The protocol is based on PCR amplification of two mitochondrial DNA gene segments (16S, COI) followed by digestion with restriction enzymes. As it is faster and cheaper than PCR/sequencing protocols used so far, the protocol is recommended for large-scale analyses. The markers allow an undoubted determination of species irrespective of life stage or condition of the worms in the samples. The protocol was validated on about 950 specimens sampled at more than 30 sites of the Baltic and the North Sea, and on specimens from populations of the North American east coast. Besides this test we used mitochondrial DNA sequences (16S, COI, Cytb) and starch gel electrophoresis to further investigate the distribution of the three Marenzelleria species in the Baltic Sea. The results show that M. viridis (formerly genetic type I or M. cf. wireni) occurred in the Öresund area, in the south western as well as in the eastern Baltic Sea, where it is found sympatric with M. neglecta. Allozyme electrophoresis indicated an introduction by range expansion from the North Sea. The second species, M. arctia, was only found in the northern Baltic Sea, where it sometimes occurred sympatric with M. neglecta or M. viridis. For Baltic M. arctia, the most probable way of introduction is by ship ballast water from the European Arctic. There is an urgent need for a new genetic analysis of all Marenzelleria populations of the Baltic Sea to unravel the current distribution of the three species.

  14. Soil-dwelling polychaetes: enigmatic as ever? Some hints on their phylogenetic relationships as suggested by a maximum parsimony analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rota, Emilia; Martin, Patrick; Erséus, Christer

    2001-01-01

    To re-evaluate the various hypotheses on the systematic position of Parergodrilus heideri Reisinger, 1925 and Hrabeiella periglandulata Pizl & Chalupský, 1984, the sole truly terrestrial non-clitellate annelids known to date, their phylogenetic relationships were investigated using a data set of new

  15. Soil-dwelling polychaetes: enigmatic as ever? Some hints on their phylogenetic relationships as suggested by a maximum parsimony analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rota, Emilia; Martin, Patrick; Erséus, Christer

    2001-01-01

    To re-evaluate the various hypotheses on the systematic position of Parergodrilus heideri Reisinger, 1925 and Hrabeiella periglandulata Pizl & Chalupský, 1984, the sole truly terrestrial non-clitellate annelids known to date, their phylogenetic relationships were investigated using a data set of new

  16. Ribosomal DNA identification of Nosema/Vairimorpha in freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa, from Oregon/California and the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakauskas, David M; Altman, Emory C; Malakauskas, Sarah J; Thiem, Suzanne M; Schloesser, Donald W

    2015-11-01

    We examined Manayunkia speciosa individuals from the Klamath River, Oregon/California and Lake Erie, Michigan, USA for the presence of Microsporidia. We identified microsporidian spores and sequenced their SSU, ITS, and part of the LSU rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA indicated spores from both populations belonged to the Nosema/Vairimorpha clade. PCR showed an infection prevalence in Lake Erie M. speciosa of 0.6% (95% CI=0.5%, 0.7%). This represents the first known example of molecularly characterized Nosema/Vairimorpha isolates infecting a non-arthropod host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical and biological impact on marine benthic Polychaetes due to dredging in the Mormugao harbour, Goa and its restoration after dredging

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rathod, V.

    The proportion of gravel in the sediment of the dredged site increased after-dredging, while that of organic matter decreased The impact on community was estimated at species level, using both univariate and multivariate analyses Maximum negative effect...

  18. Expression of the Lhx genes apterous and lim1 in an errant polychaete: implications for bilaterian appendage evolution, neural development, and muscle diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winchell Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropod and vertebrate appendages appear to have evolved via parallel co-option of a plesiomorphic gene regulatory network. Our previous work implies that annelids evolved unrelated appendage-forming mechanisms; we therefore found no support for homology of parapodia and arthropodia at the level of the whole appendage. We expand on that study here by asking whether expression of the LIM homeobox (Lhx genes apterous and lim1 in the annelid Neanthes arenaceodentata supports homology of the dorsal branches as well as the proximodistal axes of parapodia and arthropodia. In addition, we explore whether the neural expression of apterous and lim1 in Neanthes supports the putative ancestral function of the Lhx gene family in regulating the differentiation and maintenance of neuronal subtypes. Results Both genes exhibit continuous expression in specific portions of the developing central nervous system, from hatching to at least the 13-chaetiger stage. For example, nerve cord expression occurs in segmentally iterated patterns consisting of diffuse sets of many lim1-positive cells and comparatively fewer, clustered pairs of apterous-positive cells. Additionally, continuous apterous expression is observed in presumed neurosecretory ganglia of the posterior brain, while lim1 is continuously expressed in stomatogastric ganglia of the anterior brain. apterous is also expressed in the jaw sacs, dorsal parapodial muscles, and a presumed pair of cephalic sensory organs, whereas lim1 is expressed in multiple pharyngeal ganglia, the segmental peripheral nervous system, neuropodial chaetal sac muscles, and parapodial ligules. Conclusions The early and persistent nervous system expression of apterous and lim1 in Neanthes juveniles supports conservation of Lhx function in bilaterian neural differentiation and maintenance. Our results also suggest that diversification of parapodial muscle precursors involves a complementary LIM code similar to those generating distinct neuronal identities in fly and mouse nerve cords. Expression of apterous and lim1 in discrete components of developing parapodia is intriguing but does not map to comparable expression of these genes in developing arthropod appendages. Thus, annelid and arthropod appendage development apparently evolved, in part, via distinct co-option of the neuronal regulatory architecture. These divergent patterns of apterous and lim1 activity seemingly reflect de novo origins of parapodia and arthropodia, although we discuss alternative hypotheses.

  19. Effects of estuarine sediment contamination on feeding and on key physiological functions of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor: Laboratory and in situ assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Susana M; Lima, Inês; Ribeiro, Rui; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2006-06-15

    This study aimed at integrating postexposure feeding and some biochemical parameters in the responses of the estuarine polychaeta, Hediste diversicolor, to controlled laboratory exposure conditions and to in situ exposures scenario of sediment contamination. Since H. diversicolor feeding may be considered as a major rate-limiting step in the processing of detritus in European estuaries, a reduction in feeding activity may have implications not only at the individual and population level of the species but also in detritus processing and in organic matter decomposition rates at the ecosystem level. The biochemical parameters were chosen as indicators of four key physiological functions: neurotransmission, metabolic condition, detoxification processes and antioxidant defences. The Mira and Sado estuaries, located in the Southwest coast of Portugal and classified as undisturbed and impacted, respectively, were selected as sites for this study. A significant depression in H. diversicolor postexposure feeding (from 30 to 70%) was consistently detected in all impacted sediments, supporting the sensitivity and responsiveness of feeding as a sublethal toxicity endpoint. Alongside with a reduced energy intake, an increased rate of organisms' anaerobic metabolism, as evidenced by an enhancement of lactate dehydrogenase activity (up to 1.5-fold), suggested a rapid need of additional energy to ameliorate chemical stress. Moreover, oxidative stress was shown to be an important mechanism of toxicity of the impacted sediments in H. diversicolor, as evidenced by a marked reduction in the glutathione redox status (up to 6.5-fold) and an increase in lipid peroxides levels (up to 2.3-fold) in organisms exposed to the most impacted sediments. Results of the in situ assay, conducted to assess the ecological relevance of sediment laboratory toxicity estimates and their application to make valid field extrapolations, revealed a lack of agreement in the response of catalase in organisms exposed to moderate impacted sediments. Our results support the utility of integrating responses at individual and sub-individual level to evaluate potential toxicant-induced changes in key physiological functions of H. diversicolor and to interpret their potential ecological consequences.

  20. On the Occurrence and Established Populations of the Alien Polychaete Polydora cornuta Bosc, 1802 (Polychaeta: Spionidae in the Sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus Strait (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.U. KARHAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the first occurrence of Polydora cornuta in the Bosphorus Strait and its finding in a new locality in the Sea of Marmara, providing a link with its Aegean and Black Sea populations. The probable vector for the introduction of P. cornuta into the Sea of Marmara is shipping through the Dardanelles Strait. Both soft and hard-bottom populations were examined and the importance and prevalence of this species within the native macrozoobenthic communities were elucidated. Its abundance ranged between 40 and 3390 ind.m-2 (mean:1320 ±1199.45 SD and its percent contribution to the total faunal populations ranged between 3.31 and 75.56 (mean:27.79 ±25.00 SD in the Sea of Marmara softbottom community. During the sampling period, P. cornuta contributed little to the total faunal abundance of the hard-bottom communities in the Bosphorus Strait. Its mean abundance in the hard substrate ranged between 8.33 and 1000 ind.m-2 (mean:117.36 ±279.73 SD and its percent contribution to the total faunal populations ranged between 0.02 and 21.86 (mean:2.07 ±6.25 SD.The role of this invasive species in the soft-bottom macrobenthic community at an organically enriched site examined in the Sea of Marmara is highlighted, and a comparison with Aegean Sea populations of the species is also included.

  1. Effects of the invasive polychaete, Marenzelleria viridis, on the fate of sediment associated pollutants – a microcosm study with 14C-labelled pyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banta, Gary Thomas; Hedman, Jenny Elisabet

    on the fate of deeply buried sediment-associated pollutants in the historically polluted Baltic Sea. We report here the results of an experimental microcosm study examining the fate of 14C radiolabelled pyrene (a 4-ring PAH) in sediment microcosms with and without Marenzelleria viridis. We also investigated...

  2. The search for a filter-feeding alternative for integrated shrimp aquacultures– a preliminary study with the polychaete Sabella spallanzanii for water quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Granada

    2014-06-01

    Relatively to bacteriological analysis, the density of heterotrophic bacteria at 37ºC decreased substantially (Fig. 1a. The abundance of heterotrophic bacteria at 22ºC increased from T0 to T3 (Fig. 1b. This increasing density pattern of heterotrophic bacteria at 22ºC is in accordance with Stabili et al. (2010. The author stated that could be related with the effect of temperature, assessed by Pomeroy & Wiebe (2001. However, in this study no large temperature changes occur. Thus, more intensive bacteriological analyses should be done before performing any assumptions. Regarding culturable presumptive vibrios, the abundance decreased from T0 to T3 at 22 and 35ºC (Fig. 2. Regarding to E.coli, it was possible to observe a density decrease of 90% at the end of the experiment (Fig. 3. According with the decree-law n.º 236/98 of August 1st (N.º 176 – 1998, the maximum value allowable for faecal coliforms is 2000 per 100 mL, and the maximum value recommended is 100 per 100 mL. The results for E. coli stated previously are in accordance with the decree-law requirements. The use of S. spallanzanii as bioremediator of microbial pollution revealed to be efficient in a more complex culture system. The integration of this species in the culture system plays an important role since it is able to filter, accumulate and remove several bacterial groups from the water, including human potential pathogens, and thus, reduces susceptibility to disease outbreaks.

  3. Disparity, decimation and the Cambrian "explosion": comparison of early Cambrian and present faunal communities with emphasis on velvet worms (Onychophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, J; Hou, X

    2000-01-01

    The controversy about a Cambrian "explosion" of morphological disparity (followed by decimation), cladogenesis and fossilization is of central importance for the history of life. This paper revisits the controversy (with emphasis in onychophorans, which include emblematic organisms such as Hallucigenia), presents new data about the Chengjiang (Cambrian of China) faunal community and compares it and the Burgess Shale (Cambrian of Canada) with an ecologically similar but modern tropical marine site where onychophorans are absent, and with a modern neotropical terrestrial onychophoran community. Biovolume was estimated from material collected in Costa Rica and morphometric measurements were made on enlarged images of fossils. Cambrian tropical mudflats were characterized by the adaptive radiation of two contrasting groups: the vagile arthropods and the sessile poriferans. Arthropods were later replaced as the dominant benthic taxon by polychaetes. Vagility and the exoskeleton may explain the success of arthropods from the Cambrian to the modern marine and terrestrial communities, both in population and biovolume. Food ecological displacement was apparent in the B. Shale, but not in Chengjiang or the terrestrial community. When only hard parts were preserved, marine and terrestrial fossil deposits of tropical origin are even less representative than deposits produced by temperate taxa, Chengjiang being an exception. Nutrient limitations might explain why deposit feeding is less important in terrestrial onychophoran communities, where carnivory, scavenging and omnivory (associated with high motility and life over the substrate) became more important. Fossil morphometry supports the interpretation of "lobopod animals" as onychophorans, whose abundance in Chengjiang was equal to their abundance in modern communities. The extinction of marine onychophorans may reflect domination of the infaunal habitat by polychaetes. We conclude that (1) a mature ecological community

  4. Habitat selection and adult-recruit interactions in Pectinaria koreni (Malmgren) (Annelida: Polychaeta) post-larval populations: Results of flume experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Frédéric; Desroy, Nicolas; Retière, Christian

    1996-12-01

    The fate of recently settled populations of soft-bottom invertebrates depends not only on dispersal of pelagic larvae by tidal currents but also on other physical ( e. g. resuspension) and biological mechanisms ( e.g. habitat selection and adult-recruit interactions) acting at the water-substratum interface. To assess the relative importance of such processes under megatidal conditions in the Abra alba community of the eastern Baie de Seine (English Channel), flume experiments were conducted on post-larvae of the dominant polychaete species, Pectinaria koreni. Habitat selection by post-larvae of P. koreni was determined in a first set of experiments, where individuals were sowed either on a suitable or on an unsuitable substratum. Once resuspended, post-larvae were given a choice between two highly contrasting treatments with a natural organic-rich muddy sand and a bare flat PVC surface. P. koreni post-larvae were able to leave an unfavourable substratum into which they had initially burrowed and reach a more suitable substrate by drifting (induced by the secretion of mucus) before final settlement. The influence of adults on habitat selection and survival of P. koreni post-larvae was analysed in a second set of experiments, where individuals were sowed onto a suitable sediment with adults (test treatment) or without (control treatment). The presence of conspecific adults induced a high resuspension rate of the post-larvae. Drifting occurred mainly just after the introduction of the current and affected the whole experimental population, regardless of size. Such a response seems to be related to the intense bioturbation caused by the sub-surface deposit-feeding habit of the adults, which alters the boundary-layer flow. In contrast, the presence of adults of Owenia fusiformis, another dominant polychaete of the Abra alba community, led to an enhanced recruitment by a reduction in post-larvae resuspension. In fact, at low shear velocities, dense aggregates of tubes

  5. Explaining differences between bioaccumulation measurements in laboratory and field data through use of a probabilistic modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selck, Henriette; Drouillard, Ken; Eisenreich, Karen; Koelmans, Albert A.; Palmqvist, Annemette; Ruus, Anders; Salvito, Daniel; Schultz, Irv; Stewart, Robin; Weisbrod, Annie; van den Brink, Nico W.; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine

    2012-01-01

    In the regulatory context, bioaccumulation assessment is often hampered by substantial data uncertainty as well as by the poorly understood differences often observed between results from laboratory and field bioaccumulation studies. Bioaccumulation is a complex, multifaceted process, which calls for accurate error analysis. Yet, attempts to quantify and compare propagation of error in bioaccumulation metrics across species and chemicals are rare. Here, we quantitatively assessed the combined influence of physicochemical, physiological, ecological, and environmental parameters known to affect bioaccumulation for 4 species and 2 chemicals, to assess whether uncertainty in these factors can explain the observed differences among laboratory and field studies. The organisms evaluated in simulations including mayfly larvae, deposit-feeding polychaetes, yellow perch, and little owl represented a range of ecological conditions and biotransformation capacity. The chemicals, pyrene and the polychlorinated biphenyl congener PCB-153, represented medium and highly hydrophobic chemicals with different susceptibilities to biotransformation. An existing state of the art probabilistic bioaccumulation model was improved by accounting for bioavailability and absorption efficiency limitations, due to the presence of black carbon in sediment, and was used for probabilistic modeling of variability and propagation of error. Results showed that at lower trophic levels (mayfly and polychaete), variability in bioaccumulation was mainly driven by sediment exposure, sediment composition and chemical partitioning to sediment components, which was in turn dominated by the influence of black carbon. At higher trophic levels (yellow perch and the little owl), food web structure (i.e., diet composition and abundance) and chemical concentration in the diet became more important particularly for the most persistent compound, PCB-153. These results suggest that variation in bioaccumulation

  6. Effects of experimental releases of oil and dispersed oil on Arctic nearshore macrobenthos. 1. Infauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, W.E.; Thomson, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental subsurface release of chemically dispersed oil at Cape Hatt, northern Baffin Island, resulted in short-term, relatively high oil concentrations in the waters of two adjacent bays, whereas untreated oil released onto the surface of a third bay could not be detected in the water below a depth of 1 m. Observations revealed no apparent short-term effects of untreated oil on shallow water infauna, whereas market acute effects on infauna, including emergence from the substrate and narcosis, were apparent in the dipsersed oil bays within 24 h of the release. Analysis of systematic samples at depths of 3 and 7 m showed that most affected animals recovered. Neither type of oil release caused any large-scale mortality of benthic infauna. Multivariate analyses showed no significant change in infaunal community structure, and effects attributable to oil were found in only 3 of 72 univariate analyses of density, biomass or size data for individual taxa. A progressive decrease in the condition of the filter-feeding bivalve Serripes groenlandicus in the reference bay was apparently the result of exposure to dilute dispersed oil for several days. A similar effect on condition in the surface deposit-feeding bivalve Mocoma calcarea was apparently caused by relatively low oil concentrations in the sediments of the dispersed and surface oil release bays. There were no apparent effects on recruitment in bivalve species with plantonic larvae, but density changes in the polychaete Spio indicated that oil in the sediments of the surface oil release and dispersed oil release bays affected reproductive processes. Effects on the condition of the bivalves were still evident two years post-spill in 1983, the last year of sampling. 75 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Density of Key-Species Determines Efficiency of Macroalgae Detritus Uptake by Intertidal Benthic Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes M L Karlson

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that increased biodiversity has a positive effect on ecosystem functioning, but the mechanisms that underpin this positive relationship are contentious. Complete extinctions of regional species pools are comparatively rare whereas compositional changes and reductions in abundance and biomass are common, although seldom the focus of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning studies. We use natural, small-scale patchiness in the density of two species of large bivalves with contrasting feeding modes (the suspension-feeding Austrovenus stutchburyi and deposit-feeding Macomona liliana to examine their influence on the uptake of nitrogen from macroalgae detritus (i.e. measure of ecosystem function and food web efficiency by other infauna in a 10-d laboratory isotope-tracer experiment. We predicted that densities of these key bivalve species and functional group diversity (calculated as Shannons H, a density-independent measure of community composition of the intact infaunal community will be critical factors explaining variance in macroalgal per capita uptake rates by the community members and hence determine total uptake by the community. Results show that only two species, M. liliana and a large orbiniid polychaete (Scoloplos cylindrifer dominated macroalgal nitrogen taken up by the whole community due to their large biomass. However, their densities were mostly not important or negatively influenced per capita uptake by other species. Instead, the density of a head-down deposit-feeder (the capitellid Heteromastus filiformis, scavengers (mainly nemertines and nereids and species and functional group diversity, best explained per capita uptake rates in community members. Our results demonstrate the importance of species identity, density and large body size for ecosystem functioning and highlight the complex interactions underlying loss of ecological functions with declining biodiversity and compositional changes.

  8. Sexual Satellites, Moonlight and the Nuptial Dances of Worms: the Influence of the Moon on the Reproduction of Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M. G.; Olive, P. J. W.; Last, K.

    The evidence that the moon has a profound effect on the timing of reproductive activities of marine animals is compelling. Some moon phase related spawning events are revealed by the constant phase relationship between the timing of ``once per year'' spawning events and the lunar phase as in the highly synchronised breeding of the palolo worm Palola viridis and the Japanese crinoid Comanthus japonicus In other cases there is a repeated lunar cycle of reproductive activity and again the marine worms provide many good examples. The breeding of the palolo worm involves the highly synchronised release of what are in effect detached sexual satellites and the timing of this has annual (solar year), lunar, daily and tidal rhythm components. In a similar way, the onset of sexual maturation and participation in the nuptial dance of Platynereis dumerilli has strong lunar components. Sexual reproduction is the culmination of a process of sexual maturation that takes many months for completion and the mechanisms by which moon phase relationships are imposed on this process must have been selected for by mechanisms relating to reproductive success. The polychaetes provide excellent models for investigation of both the selective advantage and the physiological processes involved in reproductive synchrony. We have recently shown that the spawning of the lugworm Arenicola marina has lunar components and we conclude that an interaction between solar and lunar signals is widespread in the timing of reproduction in marine animals. Carl Hauenschild was the first to demonstrate the existence of a free-running circa-lunar rhythm in marine animals using captive populations of Platynereis dumerilli His experiments also provided clear evidence for the influence of moonlight (light at night) as the zeitgeber for this rhythm. This implies a high level of sensitivity to light, and the operation of appropriate endogenous biological rhythms. Using Nereis virens we have demonstrated a high level

  9. Complex effects of ecosystem engineer loss on benthic ecosystem response to detrital macroalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, F.; Gribsholt, B.; Gazeau, F.; Di Santo, V.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem engineers change abiotic conditions, community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Consequently, their loss may modify thresholds of ecosystem response to disturbance and undermine ecosystem stability. This study investigates how loss of the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina modifies t

  10. Complex Effects of Ecosystem Engineer Loss on Benthic Ecosystem Response to Detrital Macroalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, F.; Gribsholt, B.; Gazeau, F.; Di Santo, V.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem engineers change abiotic conditions, community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Consequently, their loss may modify thresholds of ecosystem response to disturbance and undermine ecosystem stability. This study investigates how loss of the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina modifies t

  11. Larvae of fouling organisms and macrofouling at New Mangalore Port, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, D.C.; Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.

    Polychaetes, bryozoans, barnacles and ascidians were the dominant groups in the fouling community at New Mangalore Port. Polychaete and cirripede larvae were encountered throughout the year. Even though bivalve were present in the planktonic hauls...

  12. Chesapeake Bay Low Freshwater Inflow Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    quinquecirrha sea nettle Mnemiopsis leidyi comb jelly, ctenophore Streblospio benedicti polychaete worm Mulinia lateralis coot clam Mercenaria...Mnemiopous leidyi - comb jelly, ctenophore ment freshwater inflows during all Streblospio benedicti - polychaete worm seasons of the year thereby providing

  13. Nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria is utilized by deposit-feeders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karlson, Agnes M L; Gorokhova, Elena; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    .... Here, we examine utilization of cyanobacterial nitrogen by deposit-feeding benthic macrofauna following a cyanobacteria bloom at three stations during two consecutive years and link these changes...

  14. Nitrogen Fixed By Cyanobacteria Is Utilized By Deposit-Feeders: e104460

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agnes M L Karlson; Elena Gorokhova; Ragnar Elmgren

    2014-01-01

    .... Here, we examine utilization of cyanobacterial nitrogen by deposit-feeding benthic macrofauna following a cyanobacteria bloom at three stations during two consecutive years and link these changes...

  15. An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Faulwetter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979 and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided.

  16. 四溴双酚-A污染对颤蚓的氧化胁迫及毒性%Oxidation Stress and Toxicity of TBBPA Pollution on Polychaete Tubifex (Monopylephorus limosus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚宁; 周启星; 胡献刚; 罗义

    2008-01-01

    在实验室模拟条件下分别采用动、静态生物慢性实验的方法,研究了不同浓度的四溴双酚-A(Tetrabromobisphenol A, TBBPA)对颤蚓(Monopylephorus limosus)体内抗氧化酶系统及相Ⅱ结合酶系统活性的影响以及颤蚓暴露于单一浓度的TBBPA后,其体内抗氧化酶系统的活性随时间的响应.结果表明,暴露 8d 后,颤蚓体内SOD的活性发生显著变化,变化趋势明显分为升高、降低、再升高3阶段,在0.05ms/L时SOD的活性被最大诱导(p<0.01),达到对照组的7.8倍,各浓度组SOD的活性均显著高于对照组,由对照组的1.5倍到对照组的7.8倍;同时, CAT的活性变化则呈升高、降低、再升高、再降低4阶段,0.5mg/L时其活性达到最大值(p<0.01),除0.005mg/L和0.25mg/L浓度组CAT活性受抑制外,其余浓度组CAT的活性均高于对照组,由对照组的1.1倍到1.9倍,染毒浓度为0.25ms/L时, GST的活性达到最大诱导(p<0.01),其活性先缓慢上升后下降,并且各处理组GST的活性均显著高于对照组(p<0.05).在单一浓度TBBPA污染暴露的10d时间内,颤蚓体内SOD的活性变化趋势形成了一个变形的"M" 形曲线,在第3d时其活性达到最大诱导,而CAT活性的变化则表现为一个不规则的"N"形曲线,在第5d,时其活性达到最大诱导,并且SOD的活性比CAT的活性受时间的影响小,相对来说更稳定.可见, SOD与GST的活性变化似乎更能反映出TBBPA对颤蚓的污染效应及其毒性作用,而SOD的活性变化似乎更为灵敏,但是二者能否作为指示TBBPA污染的生物标志物尚需进一步研究.

  17. Field Verification Program (Aquatic Disposal). Effects of Black Rock Harbor Dredged Material on the Histopathology of The Blue Mussel Mytilus edulis and Polychaete Worm Nephtys incisa After Laboratory and Field Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    above the byssus threads so that the tip of the knife was between the mantle and the shell. With a sweeping motion, the muscle and mantle were cut loose...palps, the esophagus, the stomach, the intestine and digestive diverticula ducts and tubules), the byssus organ, the muscles, and the connective...100 20 100 Kidney 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 25 GI tractt 20 0 20 0 20 50 20 65 Muscle 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 10 Byssus organ 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 10 * N = Number of

  18. Physical and chemical effects of grain aggregates on the Palos Verdes margin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, David E.; Eganhouse, Robert; McArthur, William

    2002-05-01

    Large discharges of wastewater and particulate matter from the outfalls of the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts onto the Palos Verdes shelf since 1937 have produced an effluent-affected sediment deposit characterized by low bulk density, elevated organic matter content, and a high percentage of fine silt and clay particles relative to underlying native sands and sandy silts. Comparison of the results of grain-size analyses using a gentle wet-sieving technique that preserves certain grain aggregates to the results of standard size analyses of disaggregated particles shows that high percentages (up to 50%) of the silt and clay fractions of the effluent-affected mud are incorporated in aggregates having intermediate diameters in the fine-to-medium sand size range (63-500 μm). Scanning electron microscope images of the aggregates show that they are predominantly oval fecal pellets or irregularly shaped fragments of pellets. Deposit-feeding polychaete worms such as Capitella sp . and Mediomastus sp ., abundant in the mud-rich effluent-affected sediment on Palos Verdes shelf, are probably responsible for most of the grain aggregates through fecal pellet production. Particle settling rates and densities, and the concentrations of organic carbon and p, p'-DDE, a metabolite of the hydrophobic pesticide DDT, were determined for seven grain-size fractions in the effluent-affected sediment. Fecal pellet grain densities ranged from about 1.2 to 1.5 g/cc, and their average settling rates were reduced to the equivalent of about one phi size relative to spherical quartz grains of the same diameter. However, repackaging of fine silt and clay grains into the sand-sized fecal pellets causes an effective settling rate increase of up to 3 orders of magnitude for the smallest particles incorporated in the pellets. Moreover, organic carbon and p, p'-DDE exhibit a bimodal distribution with relatively high concentrations in the finest size fraction (0-20 μm), as expected, and a

  19. Integration of aquatic ecology and biological oceanographic knowledge for development of area-based eutrophication assessment criteria leading to water resource remediation and utilization management: a case study in Tha Chin, the most eutrophic river of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meksumpun, Charumas; Meksumpun, Shettapong

    2008-01-01

    This research was carried out in Tha Chin Watershed in the central part of Thailand with attempts to apply multidisciplinary knowledge for understanding ecosystem structure and response to anthropogenic pollution and natural impacts leading to a proposal for an appropriate zonation management approach for sustainable utilization of the area. Water quality status of the Tha Chin River and Estuary had been determined by analyzing ecological, hydrological, and coastal oceanographic information from recent field surveys (during March 2006 to November 2007) together with secondary data on irrigation, land utilization, and socio-economic status.Results indicated that the Tha Chin River and Estuary was eutrophic all year round. Almost 100% of the brackish to marine areas reflected strongly hypertrophic water condition during both dry and high-loading periods. High NH(4)(+) and PO(4)(3-) loads from surrounding agricultural land use, agro-industry, and community continuously flew into the aquatic environment. Deteriorated ecosystem was clearly observed by dramatically low DO levels (ca 1 mg/l) in riverine to coastal areas and Noctiluca and Ceratium red tide outbreaks occurred around tidal front closed to the estuary. Accordingly, fishery resources were significantly decreased. Some riverine benthic habitats became dominated by deposit-feeding worms e.g. Lumbriculus, Branchiura, and Tubifex, while estuarine benthic habitats reflected succession of polychaetes and small bivalves. Results on analysis on integrated ecosystem responses indicated that changing functions were significantly influenced by particulates and nutrients dynamics in the system.Based on the overall results, the Tha Chin River and Estuary should be divided into 4 zones (I: Upper freshwater zone; II: Middle freshwater zone; III Lower freshwater zone; and IV: Lowest brackish to marine zone) for further management schemes on water remediation. In this study, the importance of habitat morphology and water flow

  20. Disparity, decimation and the Cambrian "explosion": comparison of early Cambrian and Present faunal communities with emphasis on velvet worms (Onychophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The controversy about a Cambrian "explosion" of morphological disparity (followed by decimation, cladogenesis and fossilization is of central importance for the history of life. This paper revisits the controversy (with emphasis in onychophorans, which include emblematic organisms such as Hallucigenia, presents new data about the Chengjiang (Cambrian of China faunal community and compares it and the Burgess Shale (Cambrian of Canada with an ecologically similar but modern tropical marine site where onychophorans are absent, and with a modern neotropical terrestrial onychophoran community. Biovolume was estimated from material collected in Costa Rica and morphometric measurements were made on enlarged images of fossils. Cambrian tropical mudflats were characterized by the adaptive radiation of two contrasting groups: the vagile arthropods and the sessile poriferans. Arthropods were later replaced as the dominant benthic taxon by polychaetes. Vagility and the exoskeleton may explain the success of arthropods from the Cambrian to the modern marine and terrestrial communities, both in population and biovolume. Food ecological displacement was apparent in the B. Shale, but not in Chengjiang or the terrestrial community. When only hard parts were preserved, marine and terrestrial fossil deposits of tropical origin are even less representative than deposits produced by temperate taxa, Chengjiang being an exception. Nutrient limitations might explain why deposit feeding is less important in terrestrial onychophoran communities, where carnivory, scavenging and omnivory (associated with high motility and life over the substrate became more important. Fossil morphometry supports the interpretation of "lobopod animals" as onychophorans, whose abundance in Chengjiang was equal to their abundance in modern communities. The extinction of marine onychophorans may reflect domination of the infaunal habitat by polychaetes. We conclude that (1 a mature ecological

  1. A new species of Cissampelos (Menispermaceae from Bolivia and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ortiz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The new species Cissampelos arenicola M. Nee & R. Ortiz, from the Bolivian and Paraguayan Chaco is described, its affinities are discussed, and its preliminary conservation status is evaluated. The species is at present known from 13 collections from sand dunes or dry forests. Cissampelos arenicola is distinguished from all other American species in the genus by its ovate- to subreniform-trilobed leaves, 8-locular synandria, and relatively large, and scarcely ornamented endocarps. The most common perianth condition in the pistillate flowers of Cissampelos is one sepal and one antesepalous petal, and while these may vary in number, they are always found adaxial to the carpel, and although the southern African taxon called Cissampelos capensis, whose generic position is uncertain, superficially resembles Cissampelos arenicola, its sepals and petals are consistently lateral to the carpel and not adaxial.

  2. A meta-analysis approach to the effects of fish farming on soft bottom polychaeta assemblages in temperate regions

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Garcia, Elena; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Aguado Giménez, Felipe; Ávila, Pablo; Guerrero, Alejandro; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Victoria; González, Nieves; Gairin Deulofeu, Joan Ignasi; Carballeira, Carlos; García García, Benjamín; Carreras, Jordi; Macías, José Carlos; Carballeira, Alejo; Collado, Cayetano

    2013-01-01

    Marine fish farms could cause environmental disturbances on the sediment due to uneaten food and fish faeces that impact the marine benthos. Polychaete assemblages are considered good indicators of environmental perturbations. The present study aimed to establish groups of polychaetes as potential indicators of fish farm pollution. This study was carried out in ten fish farms along the Spanish coast. Changes in polychaete assemblage were analyzed with meta-analysis and multivariate techniques...

  3. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dorgan, Kelly M; Law, Chris J; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-01-01

    .... However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards...

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12455-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available myxalamid b... 53 4e-05 AJ132222_1( AJ132222 |pid:none) Streptomyces natalensis p...1) - Mycobacter... 45 0.009 AJ278573_3( AJ278573 |pid:none) Streptomyces natalensis pimaricin ... 45 0.009 A...pora arenicola CNS-205, ... 45 0.011 AJ278573_4( AJ278573 |pid:none) Streptomyces natalens

  5. Genomic islands link secondary metabolism to functional adaptation in marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kevin; Jenkins, Caroline; Nett, Markus; Udwary, Daniel W; Gontang, Erin A; McGlinchey, Ryan P; Foster, Brian; Lapidus, Alla; Podell, Sheila; Allen, Eric E; Moore, Bradley S; Jensen, Paul R

    2009-10-01

    Genomic islands have been shown to harbor functional traits that differentiate ecologically distinct populations of environmental bacteria. A comparative analysis of the complete genome sequences of the marine Actinobacteria Salinispora tropica and Salinispora arenicola reveals that 75% of the species-specific genes are located in 21 genomic islands. These islands are enriched in genes associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis providing evidence that secondary metabolism is linked to functional adaptation. Secondary metabolism accounts for 8.8% and 10.9% of the genes in the S. tropica and S. arenicola genomes, respectively, and represents the major functional category of annotated genes that differentiates the two species. Genomic islands harbor all 25 of the species-specific biosynthetic pathways, the majority of which occur in S. arenicola and may contribute to the cosmopolitan distribution of this species. Genome evolution is dominated by gene duplication and acquisition, which in the case of secondary metabolism provide immediate opportunities for the production of new bioactive products. Evidence that secondary metabolic pathways are exchanged horizontally, coupled with earlier evidence for fixation among globally distributed populations, supports a functional role and suggests that the acquisition of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters represents a previously unrecognized force driving bacterial diversification. Species-specific differences observed in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat sequences suggest that S. arenicola may possess a higher level of phage immunity, whereas a highly duplicated family of polymorphic membrane proteins provides evidence for a new mechanism of marine adaptation in Gram-positive bacteria.

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16339-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available let... 124 4e-47 CP001101_941( CP001101 |pid:none) Chlorobium phaeobacteroides BS1,... 114 1e-46 AY926577_1( AY926577 |pid:none) Jako...0( CP000850 |pid:none) Salinispora arenicola CNS-205, ... 134 2e-46 DQ384296_1( DQ384296 |pid:none) Jakoba l

  7. New taxa of Aneilema R. Br. (Commelinaceae from southern and tropical East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Faden

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of Aneilema are described: A. indehiscens Faden, with subsp. indehiscens (Kenya, Tanzania and subsp. lilacinum Faden (Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa; A. arenicola Faden (Mozambique, South Africa; A. brunneospermum Faden (Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa; and A. tanaense Faden (Kenya. A new subspecies, Aneilema dregeanum Kunth subsp, mossambicense Faden (Mozambique, is also described, and A. johmtonii K. Schum. is lectotypified.

  8. Duurzaamheid van de mechanische wadpierenvisserij in de Waddenzee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.; Bos, O.G.

    2009-01-01

    In de Waddenzee beoefenen vier bedrijven de mechanische wadpierenvisserij: drie bedrijven op het oostelijke Balgzand en één bedrijf bij Texel. Samen vissen zij momenteel jaarlijks rond de 11,5 miljoen wadpieren (Arenicola marina) op. De pieren dienen als aas in de sportvisserij. Het bedrijf bij Texe

  9. New taxa of Aneilema R. Br. (Commelinaceae from southern and tropical East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Faden

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of Aneilema are described: A. indehiscens Faden, with subsp. indehiscens (Kenya, Tanzania and subsp. lilacinum Faden (Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa; A. arenicola Faden (Mozambique, South Africa; A. brunneospermum Faden (Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa; and A. tanaense Faden (Kenya. A new subspecies, Aneilema dregeanum Kunth subsp, mossambicense Faden (Mozambique, is also described, and A. johmtonii K. Schum. is lectotypified.

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0729 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0729 ref|YP_001536931.1| binding-protein-dependent transport systems i...nner membrane component [Salinispora arenicola CNS-205] gb|ABV97940.1| binding-protein-dependent transport systems

  11. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haryadi, D.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Vlak, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina e

  12. Preliminary observations of cadmium and copper effects on juveniles of the polychaete Capitella sp. Y (Annelida: Polychaeta from Estero del Yugo, Mazatlán, México Observaciones preliminares de los efectos de cadmio y cobre sobre juveniles del poliqueto Capitella sp. Y (Annelida: Polychaeta del Estero del Yugo, Mazatlán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURIA MÉNDEZ

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu on cultured juveniles of Capitella sp. Y were investigated. Seven-day old juveniles were exposed to 13 (control, 60, 160, 240 and 340 mg Cd L-1 and 17 (control, 50, 120 and 150 mg Cu L-1 for 30 days. Mortality significantly increased with increasing Cu concentrations, but in Cd exposures, it was only evident at 340 mg L-1. Body size and faecal pellet production were reduced earlier in juveniles exposed to Cu than those exposed to Cd, especially in the higher Cu concentrations. These facts indicate that juveniles are more sensitive to Cu in terms of mortality, feeding and growth. Haemoglobin production was inhibited due to the scarcity of food in the experimental sediment rather than to metal exposure. Tube building was not affected by the presence of metals or by the scarcity of food. This study suggests that Cu concentrations from 50 to 150 mg L-1 and 340 mg L-1 of Cd could affect the population dynamics of this species in natural ecosystemsSe investigaron los efectos de cadmio (Cd y cobre (Cu sobre juveniles cultivados de Capitella sp. Y. Organismos juveniles de siete días de edad fueron expuestos a 13 (control, 60, 160, 240 y 340 mg Cd L-1 y a 17 (control, 50, 120 y 150 mg Cu L-1 durante 30 días. La mortalidad se incrementó significativamente al aumentar las concentraciones de Cu y, en las exposiciones a Cd, solamente fue evidente a 340 mg L-1. El tamaño corporal y la producción de heces fecales disminuyeron antes en los especímenes expuestos a Cu que en los expuestos a Cd, especialmente en las concentraciones más altas de Cu. Estos resultados indican que los juveniles son más sensibles al Cu en términos de mortalidad, alimentación y crecimiento. La producción de hemoglobina fue inhibida debido a la escasez de alimento en el sedimento experimental, más que a exposición a los metales. La formación de tubos no fue afectada por la presencia de metales ni por la escasez de alimento. Este estudio sugiere que concentraciones entre 50 y 150 mg L-1 de Cu y de 340 mg L-1 de Cd, podrían afectar la dinámica poblacional de esta especie en ecosistemas naturales

  13. An Integrated Field and Laboratory Study of the Bioavailability of Metal Contaminants in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    J.M., Mayer, L.M., 2004. Commercially available chemicals that mimic a deposit feeder’s (Arenicola marina) digestive solubilization of lipids ...B.D., Gay, J.M., 2003. Organic matter and benthic metabolism in euphotic sediments along shallow sub-tropical estuaries, northern New South Wales...digestive fluid which can solubilize metals from sediment and surfactants which can solubilize PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) (Mayer et al

  14. Influence of advective bio-irrigation on carbon and nitrogen cycling in sandy sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Na, T.; Gribsholt, B.; Galaktionov, O. S.; T. Lee; Meysman, F. J. R.

    2008-01-01

    In sandy sediments, the burrow ventilation activity of benthic macrofauna can generate substantial advective flows within the sediment surrounding their burrows. Here we investigated the effects of such advective bio-irrigation on carbon and nitrogen cycling in sandy sediments. To this end, we combined a range of complementary experimental and modelling approaches in a microcosm study of the lugworm Arenicola marina (Polychaeta: Annelida). Bio-irrigation rates were determined using uranine as...

  15. Nuevos registros del género Cissampelos (Menispermaceae para la flora Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Peña-Chocarro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cissampelos andromorpha DC. y C. arenicolaM. Nee & R. Ortiz se citan por primera vez para la flora Argentina. Se presentan descripciones e imágenes de pliegos de herbario de las especies mencionadas y se actualizan sus distribuciones geográficas. Se incluye una clave para la identificación de las cuatro especies de Cissampelospresentes en Argentina

  16. Developmental cycle and pharmaceutically relevant compounds of Salinispora actinobacteria isolated from Great Barrier Reef marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Yi Kai; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Webb, Richard; Shaw, P Nicholas; Fuerst, John A

    2013-04-01

    The developmental cycle of the obligate marine antibiotic producer actinobacterium Salinispora arenicola isolated from a Great Barrier Reef marine sponge was investigated in relation to mycelium and spore ultrastructure, synthesis of rifamycin antibiotic compounds, and expression of genes correlated with spore formation and with rifamycin precursor synthesis. The developmental cycle of S. arenicola M413 on solid agar medium was characterized by substrate mycelium growth, change of colony color, and spore formation; spore formation occurred quite early in colony growth but development of black colonies occurred only at late stages, correlated with a change in spore maturity in relation to cell wall layers. Rifamycins were detected throughout the growth cycle, but changed in relative quantity at particular phases in the cycle, with a marked increase after 32 days. Expression of the spore division gene ssgA and the rifK gene for 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoate synthase responsible for rifamycin precursor synthesis was seen even at early stages of the growth cycle. ssgA expression significantly increased between days 26 and 31, but rifK expression effectively remained constant throughout the growth cycle, consistent with the early synthesis of rifamycin. Factors other than precursor synthesis may be responsible for an observed late increase in rifamycin production. A useful approach for measuring and exploring the regulation of antibiotic synthesis and gene expression in the marine natural product producer S. arenicola has been established.

  17. Feeding behaviour and food selection in the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A; Mishra, J.K.; Parulekar, A

    The Indian horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas, is a benthic feeder which subsists mainly on molluscs, decayed organic matter and polychaetes, in order of prevalence. A strong and positive preference was recorded for molluscs over other food organisms...

  18. Benthic macro and meiofauna of seagrass (Thalassia hemprichii) bed at Minicoy, Lakshadweep

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.

    Macrofauna, comprising 9 groups, was dominated by polychaete worms, while meiofauna, comprising 10 groups, was dominated by nematodes Densities of both macro and meiofauna were higher near the shore where biomass of Thalassia hemprichii was maximum...

  19. Size Matters: The Contribution of Mega-Infauna to the Food Webs and Ecosystem Services of an Oregon Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large-bodied, invertebrates are common to infaunal communities of NE Pacific estuaries (e.g., bivalves, polychaetes, burrowing shrimps), but their contribution to the ecological structure, function and ecosystem services of most estuaries has been poorly characterized because the...

  20. Distribution of meiobenthos and macrobenthos at the mouth of some rivers of the East coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Chatterji, A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    ) in the top 10 cm layer of the bottom deposits Macrofaunal density varied from 90/m super(2) to 4785/m super(2) Nematodes, harpacticoids and polychaetes were the important faunal taxa Meiobenthic population was contagiously distributed...

  1. Soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates of Rajapur Bay, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Thirtyfour species of soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates were recorded in Rajapur Bay at the proposed effluent discharge location of nuclear power plant. The fauna mainly composed of polychaetes (42.52%), molluscs (39.03%), crustaceans (7...

  2. A meta-analysis approach to the effects of fish farming on soft bottom polychaeta assemblages in temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, Elena; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Aguado-Giménez, Felipe; Ávila, Pablo; Guerrero, Alejandro; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Victoria; González, Nieves; Gairin, Joan Ignasi; Carballeira, Carlos; García-García, Benjamín; Carreras, Jordi; Macías, Jose Carlos; Carballeira, Alejo; Collado, Cayetano

    2013-04-15

    Marine fish farms could cause environmental disturbances on the sediment due to uneaten food and fish faeces that impact the marine benthos. Polychaete assemblages are considered good indicators of environmental perturbations. The present study aimed to establish groups of polychaetes as potential indicators of fish farm pollution. This study was carried out in ten fish farms along the Spanish coast. Changes in polychaete assemblage were analyzed with meta-analysis and multivariate techniques. Abundance, richness and diversity showed significant decreases under fish farm conditions. Distribution patterns of polychaetes responded to combinations of physicochemical variables. The main ones are sulfide concentration, silt and clays percentage, and stable nitrogen isotope ratio. The results showed that some families are tolerant, Capitellidae, Dorvilleidae, Glyceridae, Nereididae, Oweniidae and Spionidae; while others are sensitive to fish farm pollution, Magelonidae, Maldanidae, Nephtyidae, Onuphidae, Paralacydoniidae, Paraonide, Sabellidae and also Cirratulidae in spite of being reported as a tolerant family.

  3. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...

  4. Survival and bioturbation effects of common marine macrofauna in coastal soils newly flooded with seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdemarsen, Thomas Bruun; Quintana, Cintia Organo; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe;

    of polychaetes on CO2 and nutrient fluxes for 4 weeks, and by the end quantified survival and bioirrigation activity. Results show that polychaetes stimulate benthic metabolism and nutrient release in flooded soil and therefore accelerate the transformation of soils into sediments. Furthermore it appears......Low-lying coastal soils are at risk of being permanently flooded due to global sea level rise, but how will these areas develop as habitat for marine species? We conducted an experiment to evaluate the habitat quality of flooded soils for common marine polychaetes (Marenzelleria viridis, Nereis...... diversicolor and Scoloplos armiger). Soil cores were collected at Gyldensteen Beach (Northern Fyn, Denmark), where a 200 ha area is designated for flooding as part of a nature restoration project. Soils cores were experimentally flooded for 1 month before adding polychaetes. We measured the effect...

  5. Benthic fauna of Kakinada bay and backwaters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rathod, V.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Quantitative distribution of macro and meiofauna from Kakinada Bay and backwaters was studied. Total macrofauna abundance (no.m/2) ranged from 67 to 116 and 94 to 186 in the backwaters and near-shore environment respectively. Polychaetes...

  6. Influence of environmental properties on macrobenthos in the northwest Indian shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayaraj, K.A.; Jayalakshmi, K.V.; Saraladevi, K.

    groups observed in deeper depths counter balanced the opposite trend shown by polychaete species. Generally benthos preferred medium grain sized texture with low organic matter and high organic matter had an adverse effect especially on filter feeders...

  7. Diets of Diplodus sargus capensis and D. cervinus hottentotus (Pisces: Sparidae) on the Tsitsikamma coast, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Diets of Diplodus sargus capensis and D. cervinus hottentotus, sampled on the Tsitsikamma coast, are described. D. sargus was a generalist, feeding on a wide variety of reef associated invertebrates and algae. D. cervinus was more of a specialist feeding on comparatively few prey groups, the most important being polychaetes and amphipods. Juveniles of both species showed considerable spatial and dietary overlap, feeding predominantly on amphipods, polychaetes and harpacticoid copepods. Larger...

  8. Deep-sea fungi as a source of alkaline and cold-tolerant proteases

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Muraleedharan, U.; Raghukumar, S.

    and Chang CS. Bleach resistant alkaline protease produced by a Bacillus sp. Isolated from the Korean polychaete, Periserrula leucophryna. Proc Biochem 2004;39:1441-7. [12] Turkiewicz M, Gromek E, Kalinowska H and Zielinska M, Biosynthesis and properties... o C Serine protease [33] Paecilomyces lilacinus Biocontrol agent Azocasein [34] Bacillus sp Korean polychaete Casein 1?g tyrosine min -1 10.0 45-50 o C Serine protease [11] Aspergillus ustus NIOCC #20 Deep-sea sediment Azocasein 1639 ACU m...

  9. Effects of a brine discharge over soft bottom Polychaeta assemblage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilar-Ruso, Yoana del [Dpto. de Ciencias del Mar y Biologia Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig, Ap. 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: yoana.delpilar@ua.es; Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio de la; Gimenez-Casalduero, Francisca; Sanchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis [Dpto. de Ciencias del Mar y Biologia Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig, Ap. 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Desalination is a growing activity that has introduced a new impact, brine discharge, which may affect benthic communities. Although the role of polychaetes as indicators to assess organic pollution is well known, their tolerance to salinity changes has not been examined to such a great extent. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of brine discharge over soft bottom polychaete assemblage along the Alicante coast (Southeast Spain) over a two year period. Changes in the polychaete assemblage was analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques. We compared a transect in front of the discharge with two controls. At each transect we sampled at three depths (4, 10 and 15 m) during winter and summer. We have observed different sensitivity of polychaete families to brine discharges, Ampharetidae being the most sensitive, followed by Nephtyidae and Spionidae. Syllidae and Capitellidae showed some resistance initially, while Paraonidae proved to be a tolerant family. - The Polychaete assemblage is affected by the brine discharge of the Alicante desalination plant and we detect different sensitivity levels in polychaete families to brine impact.

  10. Diet selectivity of juvenile blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) in Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Rochelle D; Knick, Kathleen E; Westphal, Miranda

    2011-10-01

    Shallow coves in Chesapeake Bay have abundant food and serve as nursery grounds for juvenile blue crabs. In this study, we examined the relationships between the diet of very small (4-40 mm CW) juvenile blue crabs and the benthic infauna in shallow, unvegetated nursery coves. We compared infauna in benthic samples with gut contents of juvenile blue crabs from six shallow coves in each of two sub-estuaries (Rappahannock and York Rivers) in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, USA. Benthic communities differed depending on river and location, with abundant clams in upriver regions and abundant polychaetes in downriver regions. Juvenile crabs, like adults, appeared to be opportunistic feeders, with gut contents including clams, amphipods, polychaetes, small crustaceans, plant matter, and detritus. There was a positive relationship between polychaetes in the benthic samples and in crab guts, suggesting that juvenile crabs are opportunistic feeders on polychaetes in the benthos. Moreover, Ivlev's electivity index and foraging ratio showed that clams and polychaetes were selectively eaten at all locations. Alternatively, crabs selectively rejected amphipods. Crab densities corresponded positively with polychaete densities, which suggests that there may be bottom-up control of crab distributions and that food resources are important in nursery habitats.

  11. Invertebrate assemblages in the lower Klamath River, with reference to Manayunkia speciosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakauskas, David M.; Wilzbach, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa Leidy (Canalipalpata Sabellidae), is the intermediate host for two myxozoan pathogens (Ceratomyxa shasta and Parvicapsula minibicornis) that cause substantial mortalities of juvenile salmon in the Pacific Northwest, particularly in the Klamath River below Iron Gate Dam in California. Information on the distribution of M. speciosa in the Klamath River may facilitate targeted control of polychaete populations to disrupt the parasites that affect fish populations. We sampled invertebrate assemblages in the lower Klamath River in the summer and fall of 2005 and 2006 to estimate distribution patterns of M. speciosa and to characterize assemblage structure of invertebrates in reaches where the polychaete was both collected and not collected. The polychaete was most often found in a reach of river extending 100 km downstream from the Shasta River (river km 185-287). The reach in which it was found supported high taxonomic richness of invertebrates and a high abundance of filtering collectors including marine relicts such as sponges, unioinid mussels, and bryozoans. We suggest that the large, stable substrate on which these were found represents primary, optimal habitat for the polychaete, also a marine relict. Reaches above and below the zone where we collected polychaetes showed a general trend of reduced taxonomic richness as distance away from the polychaete zone increased, and also showed differing relative abundances of non-insect taxa and functional feeding groups. Differences in invertebrate assemblages between years were coincident with large differences in water flows. We suggest flows and food resources may play important roles in invertebrate distribution patterns.

  12. Foraging Behaviour Patterns of Four Sympatric Demersal Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labropoulou, M.; Papadopoulou-Smith, K.-N.

    1999-08-01

    The trophic relationships of four sympatric demersal fish species (Mullus barbatus, Mullus surmuletus, Pagrus pagrus and Gobius niger) which dominate the shallow coastal areas (25-30 m) of Iraklion Bay (S Aegean, NE Mediterranean) were investigated from samples collected on a monthly basis (August 1990-August 1992). Stomach content analysis revealed that all four species were carnivorous, feeding mainly on benthic invertebrates. Although these species displayed different feeding modes based on principal prey type utilization, they all consumed a considerable number of polychaetes. In order to understand any underlying patterns of predation on polychaetes, prey items were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. The polychaete species were further classified into groups according to their microhabitat (surface or burrowing) and feeding (feeding mode, motility and morphology) guilds. Comparisons of the feeding habits were made using the percentage contribution by number of each prey species in the diet of the predators. Similarities in the diets between the fish species were calculated and cluster analysis was used to describe interspecific variations in food selection, concerning polychaetes. The predatory preferences of each fish species were related to the microhabitat distribution of prey species in the sediment. The differential exploitation of polychaete species was a good indicator of disparate foraging behaviour among the fish species examined, since it reflects a transition from a non-selective to a specialized feeding method. The effects of predator size and morphology of feeding apparatus and the availability of polychaete species in the environment are also discussed to explain the differential exploitation of polychaetes exhibited by the fish.

  13. Mercury levels in fish, invertebrates and sediment in a recently recorded polluted area (Nissum Broad, western Limfjord, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, Flemming; Ulrik Riisgård, Hans

    1983-01-01

    High concentrations of mercury were measured in sediment and animals collected in the immediate vicinity of a closed-down chemical factory. Sediment contained up to 22 ppm (dry wt) of mercury, deposit-feeding bivalves between 1.4 and 4.4 ppm (wet wt), suspension-feeding bivalves between 0.9 and 1...

  14. Facilitation on an intertidal mudflat : the effect of siphon nipping by flatfish on burying depth of the bivalve Macoma balthica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goeij, P; Luttikhuizen, PC; van der Meer, J; Piersma, T

    2001-01-01

    During deposit feeding on benthic microalgae, the siphon of buried tellinid bivalves like Macoma balthica is vulnerable to nipping by plaice Pleuronectes platessa and other flatfish. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that siphon nippers facilitate predation on the entire bivalve (by shorebirds

  15. Similar effects of bottom trawling and natural disturbance on composition and function of benthic communities across habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Denderen, Pieter Daniël; Bolam, S.G.; Hiddink, J.G.;

    2015-01-01

    bed shear stress, responses to trawling were detected and resulted in community compositions comparable with those in areas subject to high natural disturbance, with communities being composed of either small-sized, deposit-feeding animals or mobile scavengers and predators. The findings highlight...

  16. Transplantation of Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) sporocysts into the intermediate host, Terebella sp. (Polychaeta: Terebellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Yukitaka; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Iwanaga, Shunsuke; Kanai, Kinya

    2017-02-01

    Cardicola opisthorchis is a blood fluke pathogen significantly affecting cultured Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis in Japan. It is known that the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis is a terebellid polychaete Terebella sp. In order to study the intrapolychaete larval development of C. opisthorchis, we transplanted sporocysts, which contained a large number of cercariae, of C. opisthorchis obtained from Terebella sp. into sporocyst-free Terebella sp., which had been maintained at 20°C. The transplanted sporocysts switched from cercarial to sporocystal production by 17days after transplantation (d.a.t.) and daughter sporocysts were released into the polychaete body cavity at 25d.a.t. Subsequently, the released daughter sporocysts produced daughter sporocysts again. Thereafter, daughter sporocysts that contained cercariae appeared at 38d.a.t. and gradually increased. At 51d.a.t., 136 sporocysts that had multiplied from the original two transplanted sporocysts were observed in the body of one polychaete, and cercariae were released from daughter sporocysts inside the polychaete body cavity. Subsequently the cercariae were found to be released outside the polychaete at 57d.a.t. This is the first successful case of in situ observation of the development of a blood fluke within the intermediate host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Asexual reproduction in Pygospio elegans claparède (Annelida, Polychaeta) in relation to parasitism by Lepocreadium setiferoides (Miller and Northup) (Platyhelminthes, Trematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, D G

    2001-08-01

    Life-history theory predicts that parasitized hosts should alter their investment in reproduction in ways that maximize host reproductive success. I examined the timing of asexual reproduction (fragmentation and regeneration) in the polychaete annelid Pygospio elegans experimentally exposed to cercariae of the trematode Lepocreadium setiferoides. Consistent with adaptive host response, polychaetes that became infected by metacercariae of trematodes fragmented sooner than unexposed controls. Parasites were not directly associated with fission in that exposed polychaetes that did not become infected also fragmented earlier than controls. For specimens of P. elegans that were not exposed to trematodes, new fragments that contained original heads were larger than those that contained original tails, whereas original head and tail fragments did not differ in size for infected polychaetes. In infected specimens, metacercariae were equally represented in original head and tail fragments and were more likely to be found in whichever fragment was larger. Despite early reproduction, parasitism was still costly because populations of P. elegans exposed to parasites were smaller than controls when measured 8 weeks later and because exposure to cercariae reduced survivorship of newly divided polychaetes. Taken together, my results suggest that early fragmentation is a host response to minimize costs associated with parasitism.

  18. Discovering the recondite secondary metabolome spectrum of Salinispora species: a study of inter-species diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal Bose

    Full Text Available Patterns of inter-species secondary metabolite production by bacteria can provide valuable information relating to species ecology and evolution. The complex nature of this chemical diversity has previously been probed via directed analyses of a small number of compounds, identified through targeted assays rather than more comprehensive biochemical profiling approaches such as metabolomics. Insights into ecological and evolutionary relationships within bacterial genera can be derived through comparative analysis of broader secondary metabolite patterns, and this can also eventually assist biodiscovery search strategies for new natural products. Here, we investigated the species-level chemical diversity of the two marine actinobacterial species Salinispora arenicola and Salinispora pacifica, isolated from sponges distributed across the Great Barrier Reef (GBR, via their secondary metabolite profiles using LC-MS-based metabolomics. The chemical profiles of these two species were obtained by UHPLC-QToF-MS based metabolic profiling. The resultant data were interrogated using multivariate data analysis methods to compare their (biochemical profiles. We found a high level of inter-species diversity in strains from these two bacterial species. We also found rifamycins and saliniketals were produced exclusively by S. arenicola species, as the main secondary metabolites differentiating the two species. Furthermore, the discovery of 57 candidate compounds greatly increases the small number of secondary metabolites previously known to be produced by these species. In addition, we report the production of rifamycin O and W, a key group of ansamycin compounds, in S. arenicola for the first time. Species of the marine actinobacteria harbour a much wider spectrum of secondary metabolites than suspected, and this knowledge may prove a rich field for biodiscovery as well as a database for understanding relationships between speciation, evolution and chemical

  19. Competitive strategies differentiate closely related species of marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, Nastassia V; Duncan, Katherine R; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Jensen, Paul R

    2016-02-01

    Although competition, niche partitioning, and spatial isolation have been used to describe the ecology and evolution of macro-organisms, it is less clear to what extent these principles account for the extraordinary levels of bacterial diversity observed in nature. Ecological interactions among bacteria are particularly challenging to address due to methodological limitations and uncertainties over how to recognize fundamental units of diversity and link them to the functional traits and evolutionary processes that led to their divergence. Here we show that two closely related marine actinomycete species can be differentiated based on competitive strategies. Using a direct challenge assay to investigate inhibitory interactions with members of the bacterial community, we observed a temporal difference in the onset of inhibition. The majority of inhibitory activity exhibited by Salinispora arenicola occurred early in its growth cycle and was linked to antibiotic production. In contrast, most inhibition by Salinispora tropica occurred later in the growth cycle and was more commonly linked to nutrient depletion or other sources. Comparative genomics support these differences, with S. arenicola containing nearly twice the number of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters as S. tropica, indicating a greater potential for secondary metabolite production. In contrast, S. tropica is enriched in gene clusters associated with the acquisition of growth-limiting nutrients such as iron. Coupled with differences in growth rates, the results reveal that S. arenicola uses interference competition at the expense of growth, whereas S. tropica preferentially employs a strategy of exploitation competition. The results support the ecological divergence of two co-occurring and closely related species of marine bacteria by providing evidence they have evolved fundamentally different strategies to compete in marine sediments.

  20. Isolation and Identification of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Rhizosheric Soil of Tree-peony Grown in the Main Cultivation Area of China%中国牡丹主栽培区根围土壤中的丛枝菌根真菌的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭绍霞; 张玉刚; 王莲英; 刘润进

    2010-01-01

    对中国牡丹主栽培区河南洛阳和山东菏泽栽培牡丹(Paeonia suffruticosa)根围土壤中丛枝菌根(arbuscular mycorrhizae,AM)真菌资源状况进行了调查,共分离鉴定出AM真菌35种:Acaulospora属12种,Archaespora属1种,Glomus 属17种,Gigaspora属2种,Scutellospora属3种.其中Glomus lacteum和Scutellospora arenicola 为国内新记录种.

  1. Sewage impact on the composition and distribution of Polychaeta associated to intertidal mussel beds of the Mar del Plata rocky shore, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Rodolfo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The polychaete composition and distribution within mussel beds were studied in order to assess organic pollution due to domestic sewage in a rocky shore of Mar del Plata (Argentina during 1997. Four stations and a control site were randomly sampled around the local effluent. Quantitative data on polychaetes, as well as sediment accumulated among mussels and its organic carbon content were measured. Polychaete distribution patterns are related to the organic matter gradient, being Capitella cf. capitata, Neanthes succinea (Frey & Leuckart, 1847 and Boccardia polybranchia (Haswell, 1885 the dominant indicator species close to the effluent. At medial distances, the cirratulids Caulleriella alata (Southern, 1914 and Cirratulus cirratus (Müller, 1776 are very important in abundance. The syllids Syllis prolixa Ehlers, 1901 and S. gracilis Grube, 1840 are distributed along the study area, but dominate at the medial stations and at the control site. The orbiniid Protoariciella uncinata Hartmann-Schröder, 1962 is subdominant at the control station.

  2. Calcareous tubeworms of the Phanerozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinn, Olev

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological similarities indicate that Palaeozoic problematic tubeworms, e.g. tentaculitids, cornulitids, microconchids, trypanoporids, Anticalyptraea, and Tymbochoos, form a monophyletic group. This group may also include hederelloids. Members of this group share affinities with lophophorates and their evolution could have partly been driven by predation. The extinction of Palaeozoic tubeworms in the Middle Jurassic was possibly at least partly caused by the ecological pressure by serpulid and sabellid polychaetes. The input of Palaeozoic tubeworms to the general ocean biocalcification system may have been smaller in the Ordovician to Jurassic than that of calcareous polychaetes in the Late Triassic to Recent. There seems to have been some correlation between the aragonite–calcite seas and the skeletal mineralogy of Triassic–Recent polychaete tubeworms.

  3. Telothelepodidae, Thelepodidae and Trichobranchidae (Annelida, Terebelliformia) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Pat; de Matos Nogueira, João Miguel; Carrerette, Orlemir

    2015-09-18

    In a survey of the polychaetes of the Lizard Island region, six species of polychaetes belonging to the families Telothelepodidae Nogueira, Fitzhugh & Hutchings, 2013, Thelepodidae Hessle, 1917 and Trichobranchidae Malmgren, 1866 were found, from material collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Taxonomic Workshop, and material collected by previous projects undertaken by the Australian Museum. This material includes one new species of Rhinothelepus Hutchings, 1974 (Telothelepodidae); one new species of each of the genera, Euthelepus McIntosh, 1885, Streblosoma Sars, 1872, and Thelepus Leuckart, 1849 (Thelepodidae); and one new species of Terebellides Sars, 1835 and another of Trichobranchus Malmgren, 1866 (Trichobranchidae). Keys for identification of these species are provided, together with full descriptions for all species, as well as comparisons with the morphologically most similar congeners.

  4. Diets of Diplodus sargus capensis and D. cervinus hottentotus (Pisces: Sparidae on the Tsitsikamma coast, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Q. Mann

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Diets of Diplodus sargus capensis and D. cervinus hottentotus, sampled on the Tsitsikamma coast, are described. D. sargus was a generalist, feeding on a wide variety of reef associated invertebrates and algae. D. cervinus was more of a specialist feeding on comparatively few prey groups, the most important being polychaetes and amphipods. Juveniles of both species showed considerable spatial and dietary overlap, feeding predominantly on amphipods, polychaetes and harpacticoid copepods. Larger fish showed an increase in the range of prey species taken and dietary overlap was diminished. The dietary differences between these two species are thought to contribute to greater abundance and habitat range in D. sargus.

  5. Bioaccumulation of 51Cr, 63Ni and 14C in Baltic Sea benthos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumblad, L; Bradshaw, C; Gilek, M

    2005-03-01

    The Baltic Sea is a species-poor, semi-enclosed, brackish sea, whose sediments contain a wide range of contaminants, including sediment-associated metals and radionuclides. In this study, we have examined and compared bioaccumulation kinetics and assimilation efficiencies of sediment-associated (51)Cr, (63)Ni and (14)C in three key benthic invertebrates (the deposit-feeding Monoporeia affinis, the facultative deposit-feeding Macoma baltica, and the omnivorous Halicryptus spinulosus). Our results demonstrate that (i) all radionuclides were accumulated, (ii) the different radionuclides were accumulated to various extents, (iii) small changes in organic carbon concentration can influence the accumulation, and (iv) the degree of accumulation differed only slightly between species. These processes, together with sediment resuspension and bioturbation, may remobilise trace metals from the sediment to the water and to higher trophic levels, and therefore should be taken into account in exposure models and ERAs.

  6. Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Part I. Spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2010-11-01

    Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 76 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion’s share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.

  7. Macrobenthic Community in the Xiaoqing River Estuary in Laizhou Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xianxiang; ZHANG Shanshan; YANG Jianqiang; PAN Jinfen; TIAN Lin; ZHANG Longjun

    2013-01-01

    The macrobenthic community of the Xiaoqing River Estuary and the adjacent sea waters was investigated in May and November 2008,August 2009,and May and September 2010,respectively.A total of 95 species of macrobenthos were identified in the five cruises and most of them were polychaetes (46.39%),mollusks (28.86%) and crustaceans (20.62%).The Shannon-Wiener index of macrobenthos was lower than 2 in 67% sites.Along the stream channel,estuary and the coastal waters,the species of polychaetes reduced gradually,while the abundance increased at first and then decreased.The abundance was the biggest at regions with salinity of 5-20 in the estuary.The species and abundance of mollusks and crustaceans increased gradually.As for seasonal distribution,the species,abundance and biomass were higher in spring and lower in summer and autumn.Contemporaneously compared with Laizhou Bay and Yellow River Estuary,the species of macrobenthos appeared in the Xiaoqing River Estuary were much less,while the percentage of polychaetes was higher.Abundance and biomass were higher in Xiaoqing River estuary,then consequently followed by Laizhou Bay and Yellow River Estuary.The dominant species in Xiaoqing River Estuary was polychaete,and Layzhou Bay mollusk.The community structure characteristics of macrobenthos in the Xiaoqing River Estuary revealed a significant pollution status in this region.

  8. Spionidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Falcón, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, D; Viéitez, J M

    2002-03-01

    Five species of polychaetes (Spionidae) were found associated to Thalassia testudinum meadows in Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. We included a guide for their identification and present range extensions for the Venezuelan coasts and Southern Caribbean Sea. The species are: Dipolydora socialis, Prionospio (Minuspio) cirrifera, P. (Prionospio) fallax, P. (P.) steenstrupi, and Spio pettiboneae.

  9. Downstream collecting in ciliary suspension feeders: the catch-up principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Nielsen, Claus; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2000-01-01

    Based on observations of feeding structures and currents in the polychaete Spirorbis tridentatus, the entoproct Loxosoma pectinaricola and the cycliophore Symbion pandora, which all possess compound cilia, it is hypothesized that their capture mechanism is based on the catch-up principle. Accordi...

  10. Macrobenthic community response to the Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta) invasion of a Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary; Canal Vergés, Paula

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing biological invasions, we investigated the invasion of the non-native polychaete Marenzelleria viridis in a shallow Danish estuary, Odense Fjord. Three datasets with different spatial and temporal resolution were examined to describe the invasion of M. viridis and to i...

  11. Spionidae (Polychaeta) of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, Nancy Marie

    1971-01-01

    Although there have been several collections of polychaetous annelids from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, very few spionids have been included in the published species lists. This is not because they are poorly represented in this area but probably a result of their small size and the fact

  12. Meiobenthic and Macrobenthic Community Structure in Carbonate Sediments of Rocas Atoll (North-east, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, S. A.; Warwick, R. M.; Attrill, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rocas is the only atoll of the South Atlantic and it is built almost exclusively by coralline red algae, vermetid gastropods and encrusting foraminiferans. Patterns in the community structure of meiofauna and macrofauna, particularly nematodes and polychaetes, at Rocas Atoll, north-east Brazil, are determined and compared for different habitats: sublittoral, tidal flat, reef pools and lagoon. Nematodes and copepods were the most abundant meiofaunal taxa. In all studied habitats at Rocas Atoll, oligochaetes, nematodes and polychaetes numerically dominate the macrofauna. Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal clear differences in community structure between the habitats of the atoll, especially between the sublittoral and the inner habitats. The number of species, total density, diversity (H') and trophic structure vary significantly between the habitats, but the differences are dependent on which faunistic category (meiobenthic or macrobenthic) is analysed. Nematodes belonging to the Epsilonematidae and Draconematidae, together with a diverse community of meiobenthic polychaetes, characterize the sublittoral habitat of Rocas Atoll. Both meiofauna and macrofauna are depressed in the tidal flat, and the local sediment instability particularly affects the polychaete abundance. Reef pools and lagoons support a very dense aggregation of invertebrates, particularly the macrofauna, when compared with other carbonate reef sediments. However, differences in the structure of meiofauna and macrofauna communities between reef pools and lagoons are not significant. Changes in meiobenthic and macrobenthic community structure are related to the gradation in the physical environment of the atoll.

  13. A bio-engineered soft-bottom environment: The impact of Lanice conchilega on the benthic species-specific densities and community structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaut, M.; Guilini, K.; Van Hoey, V.H.; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of the tube-building, habitat structuring polychaete Lanice conchilega on the macrobenthic community and sediment characteristics of its habitat. To investigate which factors make species occur in a well-known bio-engineered habitat, macrofaunal and sedimentological d

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of macrobenthos in different mangrove ecosystems of Tamil Nadu Coast, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samidurai, K; Saravanakumar, A; Kathiresan, K

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with the spatial distribution and diversity of macrobenthos and their relationships between physico-chemical parameters of the water and sediment in different mangrove habitats of Tamil Nadu, India during different seasons (2008). Among the different ecosystems of mangrove benthic faunal assemblages, macrofauna species number, density, richness, and Shannon-Wiener index were the highest and the Simpson dominance index was medial at riverine mangrove community. However, the Pielou Evenness index of riverine mangrove community was slightly lower than other communities. The similarities among the macrobenthic communities at different sampling sites were determined using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient and ordinations of non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS). Thirty-one species were recorded in developing (16 polychaetes, six bivalves, seven gastropods, and two crustaceans), 35 species were recorded in riverine (20 polychaetes, six bivalves, five gastropods, and four crustaceans) and 31 species were recorded in island mangrove ecosystem (19 polychaetes, four bivalves, five gastropods, and three crustaceans). Among the three ecosystems, a total of 46 benthic macrofauna consisting of 27 species of polychaetes, eight species of gastropods, seven species of bivalves, and four species of crustaceans were recorded. However, there were obvious differences among the community structures in the three mangrove habitats. This result implied that the different mangrove ecosystem had different effects on the macrofauna communities and shed light on the macrofauna adaptation capability to specific habitats.

  15. Bar-tailed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Hidayati, N.A.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability.Aims To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their winter

  16. Note on additional diagnostic characters for

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutchings, P.; Glasby, C.J.; Wijnhoven, S.

    2012-01-01

    Recently specimens of the polychaete Marphysa sanguinea (Montagu, 1813) (Annelida: Eunicida: Eunicidae) were reported as an introduction to the Eastern Scheldt in southwestern Netherlands. In order to confirm the species identity, material was examined with SEM and compared with material from

  17. Note on additional diagnostic characters for Marphysa sanguinea (Montagu, 1813) (Annelida: Eunicida: Eunicidae), a recently introduced species in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutchings, P.; Glasby, C.J.; Wijnhoven, S.

    2012-01-01

    Recently specimens of the polychaete Marphysa sanguinea (Montagu, 1813) (Annelida: Eunicida: Eunicidae) were reported as an introduction to the Eastern Scheldt in southwestern Netherlands. In order to confirm the species identity, material was examined with SEM and compared with material from Devon

  18. Juvenile Salmonid and Baitfish Distribution, Abundance and Prey Resources in Selected Areas of Grays Harbor, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Hydrozoa , Spionidiae (polychaetes), Calanus spp., Epilabidocera a.mphi- 2 trites, Acartia tonsa, Harpacticoida (copepods), Neotmysis mercedis, Leucon...justified on the basis of their low occurrence and excessive biomass. Based upon the revised data set, juvenile and adult Crangon franciscorum

  19. Oxygen distribution and bioirrigation in Arctic fjord sediments (Svalbard, Barents Sea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, BB; Glud, RN; Holby, O.

    2005-01-01

    % of the total oxygen uptake of the sediments as measured in situ by a flux chamber lander. The sediments were densely populated by fauna such as tube-dwelling polychaetes. Inhabited and relict tubes of 1 to 2.5 mm diameter reached densities of up to 1 cm(-2), and about 15 % of all oxygen microprofiles showed...

  20. Disturbance, productivity and diversity in deep-sea canyons: A worm's eye view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterson, G.L.J.; Glover, A.G.; Cunha, M.R.; Neal, L.; de Stigter, H.C.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Billett, D.S.M.; Wolff, G.A.; Tiago, A.; Ravara, A.; Lamont, P.; Tyler, P.

    2011-01-01

    The abundance, diversity and assemblage structure of polychaetes from the Nazare, Setubal and Cascais Canyons along the Iberian Margin were studied as part of the EU project HERMES. A Dynamic Equilibrium Model (DEM) was used to identify the main environmental factors structuring the assemblages. Box

  1. Catalogue of the Polychaeta collected by the Siboga Expedition and type specimens of Polychaeta in the Zoological Museum of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, J.; Spoel, van der S.

    1992-01-01

    The polychaetous worms collected by the Siboga-Expedition (1899-1900) are listed with some annotations. A few specimens – identified by Augener and Pettibone but never published – are added, so that this list gives a complete survey of all Polychaeta collected by the mentioned expedition. The types

  2. Zooplankton body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinousforms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals becomeincreasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body compo...

  3. Meiofauna of some sandy beaches of Andaman Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.

    Comparatively high meiofauna numbers were recorded from beaches having fine sand particles than those having coarse to medium sand particles The fauna was dominated mainly by nematodes (53.7%), harpacticoids (13.7%) and polychaetes (12.8%) On all...

  4. Particle-capture mechanisms in suspension-feeding invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2010-01-01

    A large number of suspension-feeding animals (e.g. bivalves, polychaetes, ascidians, bryozoans, crustaceans, sponges, echinoderms, cnidarians) have specialized in grazing on not only the 2 to 200 µm phytoplankton but frequently also the 0.5 to 2 µm free-living bacteria in the aquatic environment...

  5. Spionidae (Polychaeta) of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, Nancy Marie

    1971-01-01

    Although there have been several collections of polychaetous annelids from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, very few spionids have been included in the published species lists. This is not because they are poorly represented in this area but probably a result of their small size and the fact th

  6. Errata to the Review Article (Medit. Mar. Sci. 11/2, 2010, 381-493: "Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Part I. Spatial distribution"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2011-12-01

    Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 76 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion’s share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.

  7. Catalogue of the Polychaeta collected by the Siboga Expedition and type specimens of Polychaeta in the Zoological Museum of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, J.; Spoel, van der S.

    1992-01-01

    The polychaetous worms collected by the Siboga-Expedition (1899-1900) are listed with some annotations. A few specimens – identified by Augener and Pettibone but never published – are added, so that this list gives a complete survey of all Polychaeta collected by the mentioned expedition. The types

  8. A new species of Streblosoma Sars, 1872 (Polychaeta, Terebellidae, Thelepodinae) from Brazil, with comments on Streblosoma oligobranchiatum Nogueira & Amaral, 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Nogueira, de João Miguel; Garraffoni, André Rinaldo Senna; Montrezoro Alves, Tarsila

    2004-01-01

    A new species of Streblosoma is described and the diagnosis of S. oligobranchiatum is emended, based on material collected on intertidal rocky shores along the State of São Paulo, Brazil, associated with algae, sponges, ascidians and other sedentary polychaetes. Streblosoma porchatensis n. sp. is ch

  9. Effects of bioturbation on the fate of oil in coastal sandy sediments - An in situ experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Karen; Banta, Gary T.; Klinge, Lars

    2011-01-01

    –MS and bioturbation activity (feces production and irrigation) was measured regularly during the experiment and used as input parameters in a mechanistic model describing the effects of A. marina on the transport and degradation of oil compounds in the sediment. The chemical analytical data and model results......Effects of bioturbation by the common lugworm Arenicola marina on the fate of oil hydrocarbons (alkanes and PAHs) were studied in situ during a simulated oil spill in a shallow coastal area of Roskilde fjord, Denmark. The fate of selected oil compounds was monitored during 120 d using GC...... indicated that A. marina had profound and predictable effects on the distribution, degradation and preservation of oil and that the net effect depended on the initial distribution of oil. In sediment with an oil contaminated subsurface-layer A. marina buried the layer deeper in the sediment which clearly...

  10. Three enzymatic activities catalyze the oxidation of sulfide to thiosulfate in mammalian and invertebrate mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tatjana M; Grieshaber, Manfred K

    2008-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a potent toxin of aerobic respiration, but also has physiological functions as a signalling molecule and as a substrate for ATP production. A mitochondrial pathway catalyzing sulfide oxidation to thiosulfate in three consecutive reactions has been identified in rat liver as well as in the body-wall tissue of the lugworm, Arenicola marina. A membrane-bound sulfide : quinone oxidoreductase converts sulfide to persulfides and transfers the electrons to the ubiquinone pool. Subsequently, a putative sulfur dioxygenase in the mitochondrial matrix oxidizes one persulfide molecule to sulfite, consuming molecular oxygen. The final reaction is catalyzed by a sulfur transferase, which adds a second persulfide from the sulfide : quinone oxidoreductase to sulfite, resulting in the final product thiosulfate. This role in sulfide oxidation is an additional physiological function of the mitochondrial sulfur transferase, rhodanese.

  11. Two peptides, cycloaspeptide A and nazumamide A from a sponge associated marine actinobacterium Salinispora sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Utpal; Hodson, Mark P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Fuerst, John A; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2014-04-01

    Marine sponges are a major component of benthic communities and act as a reservoir for microbial species. In terms of biomass, they are the richest source of secondary metabolite production, with the potential to influence both benthic and pelagic systems. In most cases it is the sponge-associated microbes that account for many of the secondary metabolites assigned to the host. Here we report the occurrence of cycloaspeptide A, a fungus-derived cyclic peptide, in a culturable bacterium Salinispora arenicola. We have also identified nazumamide A, a sponge-derived linear tetrapeptide currently used as a thrombin inhibitor, in Salinispora pacifica. Their structures were determined using an integrated approach consisting of: (1) HPLC-UV-Vis-QToF-MS analysis with multimode ionization (ESI and APCI) and fast polarity switching; (2) database searching and matching of monoisotopic masses, retention times, mass spectra of the precursor and product ions of the compounds of interest and the authentic reference standards thereof.

  12. Linking mycorrhizas to sporocarps: a new species, Geopora cercocarpi, on Cercocarpus ledifolius (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Darlene; Frank, Jonathan L

    2011-01-01

    Mycorrhizal assemblages characterized by molecular data frequently differ from collections of mycorrhizal sporocarps at the same site. Geopora species are frequent mycobionts of ectomycorrhizal roots, but except for G. cooperi they are rarely identified to species by molecular methods. Among the mycobionts of ectomycorrhizas with Cercocarpus ledifolius (Rosaceae) was a fungal species with a 91% BLAST match to G. arenicola. To determine the species of Geopora we surveyed for hypogeous sporocarps under C. ledifolius at sites in southern Oregon where the Geopora mycorrhizas had been collected and identified by DNA sequences of the ITS region. We found sporocarps of a Geopora species with 100% BLAST match to the mycorrhizas. Morphological characters of a white hymenium, inrolled entire margin and large spores, along with a hypogeous habit and a mycorrhizal host of C. ledifolius, distinguished these specimens from previously described species. Here we describe a new species, Geopora cercocarpi.

  13. Cross-fostering alters advertisement vocalizations of grasshopper mice (Onychomys): Evidence for the developmental stress hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Bret; Abbasi, Mustafa Z; Wilson, Macey; Zhao, Daniel; Searle, Jeremy B; Webster, Michael S; Rice, Aaron N

    2016-04-01

    Nutritional stress can have lasting impacts on the development of traits involved in vocal production. Cross-fostering experiments are often used to examine the propensity for vocal learning in a variety of taxa, but few studies assess the influence of malnourishment that can occur as a byproduct of this technique. In this study, we reciprocally cross-fostered sister taxa of voluble grasshopper mice (genus Onychomys) to explore their propensity for vocal learning. Vocalizations of Onychomys leucogaster did not differ between control and cross-fostered animals, but cross-fostered Onychomys arenicola produced vocalizations that were higher in frequency in a direction away from tutors. These same animals exhibited a transient reduction in body mass early in development, indicative of malnutrition. Our findings simultaneously refute vocal learning and support the developmental stress hypothesis to highlight the importance of early ontogeny on the production of vocalizations later in life.

  14. Ability of 3 extraction methods (BCR, Tessier and protease K) to estimate bioavailable metals in sediments from Huelva estuary (Southwestern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Daniel; Usero, José; Morillo, José

    2016-01-15

    The bioavailable fraction of metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, Ni, Fe, and Cr) in sediments of the Huelva estuary and its littoral of influence has been estimated carrying out the most popular methods of sequential extraction (BCR and Tessier) and a biomimetic approach (protease K extraction). Results were compared to enrichment factors found in Arenicola marina. The linear correlation coefficients (R(2)) obtained between the fraction mobilized by the first step of the BCR sequential extraction, by the sum of the first and second steps of the Tessier sequential extraction, and by protease K, and enrichment factors in A. marina, are at their highest for protease K extraction (0.709), followed by BCR first step (0.507) and the sum of the first and second steps of Tessier (0.465). This observation suggests that protease K represents the bioavailable fraction more reliably than traditional methods (BCR and Tessier), which have a similar ability.

  15. Combinatorics of giant hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanin, L G; Vinogradov, S N

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses combinatorial and probabilistic models allowing to characterize various aspects of spacial symmetry and structural heterogeneity of the giant hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins (HBL Hb). Linker-dodecamer configurations of HBL are described for two and four linker types (occurring in the two most studied HBL Hb of Arenicola and Lumbricus, respectively), and the most probable configurations are found. It is shown that, for HBL with marked dodecamers, the number of 'normal-marked' pairs of dodecamers in homological position follows a binomial distribution. The group of symmetries of the dodecamer substructure of HBL is identified with the dihedral group D6. Under natural symmetry assumptions, the total dipole moment of the dodecamer substructure of HBL is shown to be zero. Biological implications of the mathematical findings are discussed.

  16. The relative significance of biological and physical disturbance: an example from intertidal and subtidal sandy bottom communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Thomas

    1991-10-01

    The effects of biological disturbance caused by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.) on the abundance of the macrobenthic fauna were investigated at three subtidal stations (0·5 m, 12 m and 19 m water depth) in Kiel Bay (western Baltic) and on an intertidal flat in the German Wadden Sea. Different effects of biological disturbance were observed (1) between funnel and cast of the lugworm burrow, (2) among stations, (3) between seasons, and (4) among taxa and groups of different living mode of the macrofauna. The strength of the impact of A. marina on the abundance of a certain macrobenthic species depends on three factors: (1) species behaviour and living mode, (2) A. marina activity, and (3) hydrodynamic conditions. In general, the most distinct effects were observed at the intertidal station during summer, followed by the two deeper subtidal stations. At the very shallow station, only weak effects were detected.

  17. Revision of Chone Krøyer, 1856 (Polychaeta: Sabellidae from the eastern central Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea with descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ana Tovar-Hernández

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A neotype specimen is designated for Chone acustica (Claparède, 1870 with a full description. The original descriptions of Chone arenicola Langerhans, 1880 and Chone collaris Langerhans, 1880, both from Madeira, did not include some details and incomplete or misleading information was provided, so both species are redescribed. Amendments to the description of Chone longiseta Giangrande, 1992 are also given together with the methyl green staining pattern of Chone usticensis Giangrande et al. 2006. Two new species are described: Chone gambiae sp. nov., from the Gulf of Naples and Chone dunerificta sp. nov., from the Gulf of Salerno. This study shows the distribution of Chone duneri Krøyer, 1856, and Chone filicaudata Southern, 1914, to be restricted to the Arctic seas and North Atlantic Ocean, respectively. Records from the Mediterranean Sea are found to be erroneous.

  18. Genomic islands predict functional adaptation in marine actinobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, Kevin; Jenkins, Caroline; Nett, Markus; Udwary, Daniel; Gontang, Erin; McGlinchey, Ryan; Foster, Brian; Lapidus, Alla; Podell, Sheila; Allen, Eric; Moore, Bradley; Jensen, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Linking functional traits to bacterial phylogeny remains a fundamental but elusive goal of microbial ecology 1. Without this information, it becomes impossible to resolve meaningful units of diversity and the mechanisms by which bacteria interact with each other and adapt to environmental change. Ecological adaptations among bacterial populations have been linked to genomic islands, strain-specific regions of DNA that house functionally adaptive traits 2. In the case of environmental bacteria, these traits are largely inferred from bioinformatic or gene expression analyses 2, thus leaving few examples in which the functions of island genes have been experimentally characterized. Here we report the complete genome sequences of Salinispora tropica and S. arenicola, the first cultured, obligate marine Actinobacteria 3. These two species inhabit benthic marine environments and dedicate 8-10percent of their genomes to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Despite a close phylogenetic relationship, 25 of 37 secondary metabolic pathways are species-specific and located within 21 genomic islands, thus providing new evidence linking secondary metabolism to ecological adaptation. Species-specific differences are also observed in CRISPR sequences, suggesting that variations in phage immunity provide fitness advantages that contribute to the cosmopolitan distribution of S. arenicola 4. The two Salinispora genomes have evolved by complex processes that include the duplication and acquisition of secondary metabolite genes, the products of which provide immediate opportunities for molecular diversification and ecological adaptation. Evidence that secondary metabolic pathways are exchanged by Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) yet are fixed among globally distributed populations 5 supports a functional role for their products and suggests that pathway acquisition represents a previously unrecognized force driving bacterial diversification

  19. Exploring interactions among intertidal macrozoobenthos of the Dutch Wadden Sea using population growth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, I. D.; van der Meer, J.; Dekker, R.; Beukema, J. J.; Holmes, S. P.

    2004-11-01

    Using data taken from three long-term monitoring programs, we modelled the population dynamics of 13 common macrozoobenthic species of the Balgzand, an approximately 50 km 2 intertidal area in the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea. In order to identify likely interactions among species, while accounting as much as possible for other factors influencing population dynamics, models included both 'environmental' (water temperature, and phytoplankton concentration) and 'biological' (biomass of potentially interacting species) variables. This approach appeared to be effective at identifying certain types of interactions acting over relatively short time-frames, such as predation and competition for food. Among the species we considered, the strongest effects of this kind appeared to be from what we presume to be predation by Nephtys hombergii, and from competition for food among bivalves. Several of the strongest results of our analysis corroborated expectations derived from previous small-scale surveys or experimental studies, but there were also a number of highly significant results indicating possible interactions which were not immediately explicable, including the apparent positive effect of Macoma balthica on Arenicola marina, and the apparent negative effect of Nephtys hombergii on Mya arenaria. Our results also suggest that year to year changes in Cerastoderma edule and Arenicola marina populations did not have substantial and widespread influences on the population dynamics of the majority of other common infauna, which is not to deny the likely critical importance of recruitment effects and biogenic transformation of the intertidal environment by these species over longer time frames. Our modelling approach could be applied to other long-term data sets, and will become more useful as longer time series become available.

  20. [Benthic fauna associated to a Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae) bed in Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C; Villamizar, E

    2000-12-01

    The benthic fauna and diel variation in a shallow seagrass bed (Thalassia testudinum) were studied in Playa Mero, Venezuela. Samples of organisms and sediments were taken using PVC cylinders, 5cm in diameter, along a transect perpendicular to the coast. Seagrass cover, shoot density and biomass were estimated. The seagrass cover was homogeneous along the transect. The intermediate zone had the highest number of shoots and of above-ground and rhizome biomass. Composition and abundance of benthic organisms were related with seagrass and sediment characteristics. Sediment organic matter content and organism abundance were highest near the shore Molluscs, polychaetes, oligochaetes and nematodes were the most abundant groups. Species richness was higher in daytime (40 versus 28 at night). Gastropods were the most abundant organisms both at day and night while polychaetes and crustaceans increased during the day, and holoturids were more numerous at night.

  1. A deep sea community at the Kebrit brine pool in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Vestheim, Hege

    2015-02-26

    Approximately 25 deep sea brine pools occur along the mid axis of the Red Sea. These hypersaline, anoxic, and acidic environments have previously been reported to host diverse microbial communities. We visited the Kebrit brine pool in April 2013 and found macrofauna present just above the brine–seawater interface (~1465 m). In particular, inactive sulfur chimneys had associated epifauna of sea anemones, sabellid type polychaetes, and hydroids, and infauna consisting of capitellid polychaetes, gastropods of the genus Laeviphitus (fam. Elachisinidae), and top snails of the family Cocculinidae. The deep Red Sea generally is regarded as extremely poor in benthos. We hypothesize that the periphery along the Kebrit holds increased biomass and biodiversity that are sustained by prokaryotes associated with the brine pool or co-occurring seeps.

  2. Impact of flood events on macrobenthic community structure on an intertidal flat developing in the Ohta River Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Wataru; Nakano, Yoichi; Nakai, Satoshi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2013-09-15

    We investigated the effects of river floods on the macrobenthic community of the intertidal flat in the Ohta River Estuary, Japan, from 2005 to 2010. Sediment erosion by flood events ranged from about 2-3 cm to 12 cm, and the salinity dropped to 0‰ even during low-intensity flood events. Cluster analysis of the macrobenthic population showed that the community structure was controlled by the physical disturbance, decreased salinity, or both. The opportunistic polychaete Capitella sp. was the most dominant species in all clusters, and populations of the long-lived polychaete Ceratonereis erythraeensis increased in years with stable flow and almost disappeared in years with intense flooding. The bivalve Musculista senhousia was also an important opportunistic species that formed mats in summer of the stable years and influenced the structure of the macrobenthic community. Our results demonstrate the substantial effects of flood events on the macrobenthic community structure.

  3. Benthic infauna variability in relation to environmental factors and organic pollutants in tropical coastal lagoons from the northern Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk-Dzul, J Gabriel; Gold-Bouchot, G; Ardisson, P-L

    2012-12-01

    We examine the abundance and species composition variability of benthic infauna from tropical coastal lagoons in relation to environmental factors and organic pollutants. Sediment samples were collected at 40 sites in four lagoons in the northern Yucatan Peninsula. A total of 7985 individuals belonging to 173 species were sampled. While the eastern lagoons were dominated by polychaetes, the western ones were dominated by crustaceans. Overall, polychaetes had the highest abundance (48%), followed by crustaceans (42%). According to canonical correspondence analysis, species attributes were correlated with water salinity, pH and temperature, but also with sediment pentachlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene, and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Some pollutants exceeded sediment quality guidelines, representing a potential environmental risk to benthic infauna. Together, environmental factors and pollutants explained 52% of the variance in abundance and species composition among sites.

  4. Survival and bioturbation effects of common marine macrofauna in coastal soils newly flooded with seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdemarsen, Thomas Bruun; Quintana, Cintia Organo; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe

    Low-lying coastal soils are at risk of being permanently flooded due to global sea level rise, but how will these areas develop as habitat for marine species? We conducted an experiment to evaluate the habitat quality of flooded soils for common marine polychaetes (Marenzelleria viridis, Nereis...... that some species (M. viridis) show decreased bioirrigation activity and avoidance behavior when exposed to flooded soil, while others (N. diversicolor and S. armiger) showed high survival and unaffected bioirrigation activity. Overall it appears that flooded coastal soils can rapidly support diverse...... diversicolor and Scoloplos armiger). Soil cores were collected at Gyldensteen Beach (Northern Fyn, Denmark), where a 200 ha area is designated for flooding as part of a nature restoration project. Soils cores were experimentally flooded for 1 month before adding polychaetes. We measured the effect...

  5. Structuring factors of the spatio-temporal variability of macrozoobenthos assemblages in a southern Mediterranean lagoon: How useful for bioindication is a multi-biotic indices approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedhri, Ines; Afli, Ahmed; Aleya, Lotfi

    2017-01-15

    The authors investigated the impact of the extension of the El Kantra Channel on the composition and structure of macrobenthic assemblages in Boughrara Lagoon (Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia along with the use of 4 biotic indices (AMBI, BENTIX, M-AMBI and TUBI). Thirteen stations were sampled seasonally in 2012-2013. Forty-one species were found in 2012-2013 not recorded in 2009-2010, including 20 species of polychaetes belonging to the trophic groups of deposit-feeders and carnivores which are expected to increase in areas disturbed by organic pollution. During the survey, we recorded a high fish mortality, essentially caused by the development of harmful algal blooms (HAB) which increased organic matter deposition, thus inducing polychaete development. This seems to weaken the bio-indicating power of biotic indices used here which, paradoxically, classified all sampled stations at a high ecological status. A review of these indices and their applicability to all marine environments is recommended.

  6. Ingestion and transfer of microplastics in the planktonic food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Outi; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2014-02-01

    Experiments were carried out with different Baltic Sea zooplankton taxa to scan their potential to ingest plastics. Mysid shrimps, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, polychaete larvae and ciliates were exposed to 10 μm fluorescent polystyrene microspheres. These experiments showed ingestion of microspheres in all taxa studied. The highest percentage of individuals with ingested spheres was found in pelagic polychaete larvae, Marenzelleria spp. Experiments with the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the mysid shrimp Neomysis integer showed egestion of microspheres within 12 h. Food web transfer experiments were done by offering zooplankton labelled with ingested microspheres to mysid shrimps. Microscopy observations of mysid intestine showed the presence of zooplankton prey and microspheres after 3 h incubation. This study shows for the first time the potential of plastic microparticle transfer via planktonic organisms from one trophic level (mesozooplankton) to a higher level (macrozooplankton). The impacts of plastic transfer and possible accumulation in the food web need further investigations.

  7. Die Biomasse mariner Makrobenthos-Gesellschaften im Einflußbereich der Klärschlammverklappung vor der Elbemündung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlenhardt-Siegel, U.

    1981-12-01

    The macrofauna of a dumping area in the eastern part of the German Bight (North Sea) was investigated in July, August and November, 1978 at five stations situated on a transect including central and peripheral areas of the dumping region. Abundance and biomass (ash free dry weight) of the macrofauna and its variation from July to November were analysed as well as the biomass of different taxa. Molluscs dominated over polychaetes, crustaceans and echinoderms. A positive correlation seemed to exist between mud content and biomass at the peripherally situated stations. In the central sewage sludge area, however, the biomass values were reduced. In late autumn the biomass decreased in the entire area due to the death of Diastylis rathkei, Abra alba and Pectinaria koreni. These species were replaced by the mollusc Nucula turgida and polychaete Nephtys hombergii. In autumn the biomass values also showed a distinct minimum at the central stations.

  8. Serpulidae (Annelida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanova, Elena K; Sun, Yanan; Hove, Harry A Ten; Wong, Eunice; Rouse, Greg W

    2015-09-18

    Serpulidae are obligatory sedentary polychaetes inhabiting calcareous tubes that are most common in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. This paper describes serpulid polychaetes collected from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia in 1983-2013 and deposited in Australian museums and overseas. In total, 17 serpulid genera were recorded, but although the study deals with 44 nominal taxa, the exact number of species remains unclear because a number of genera (i.e., Salmacina, Protula, Serpula, Spirobranchus, and Vermiliopsis) need world-wide revisions. Some species described herein are commonly found in the waters around Lizard Island, but had not previously been formally reported. A new species of Hydroides (H. lirs) and two new species of Semivermilia (S. annehoggettae and S. lylevaili) are described. A taxonomic key to all taxa found at Lizard Island is provided.

  9. Spionidae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: the genera Aonides, Dipolydora, Polydorella, Prionospio, Pseudopolydora, Rhynchospio, and Tripolydora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radashevsky, Vasily I

    2015-09-18

    Nineteen species in seven genera of spionid polychaetes are described and illustrated based on new material collected from the intertidal and shallow waters around the Lizard Island Group, northern Great Barrier Reef. Only one of these species had been previously reported from the Reef. Six species are described as new to science, and the taxonomy of seven species should be clarified in the future. Prionospio sensu lato is the most diverse group with 11 species identified in the present study. One species is identified in each of the genera Dipolydora, Polydorella, Rhynchospio and Tripolydora, and two species are identified in each of the genera Aonides and Pseudopolydora. The fauna of spionid polychaetes of the Great Barrier Reef seems to be more diverse than previously described and more species are expected to be found in the future. An identification key is provided to 16 genera of Spionidae reported from or likely to be found on the Great Barrier Reef.

  10. Model estimates of the impact of bioirrigation activity of Marenzelleria spp. on the Gulf of Finland ecosystem in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, A. V.; Eremina, T. R.; Ryabchenko, V. A.; Savchuk, O. P.

    2017-07-01

    Drastic changes have occurred in the Eastern Gulf of Finland ecosystem after recent invasion and establishment of polychaete Marenzelleria spp. Possible mechanisms of these changes are explored with the help of three-dimensional ecosystem model SPBEM. Relative significance of bioirrigation activity is studied by comparison of two climate change scenario simulations, which include or disregard Marenzelleria effects. The novel results obtained with this approach demonstrate that on a system level biogeochemical consequences of both implemented climate changes scenario and polychaete activity are equivalent to a weakening of ;vicious circle; of the Baltic Sea eutrophication. The eutrophication-mitigating effects of the Marenzelleria invasion into the Eastern Gulf of Finland, revealed by the long-term field measurements, are explained by simulation-based considerations.

  11. Mumbai harbour, India: gateway for introduction of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, C A; Sawant, S S; Anil, A C; Venkat, K; Harkantra, S N

    2010-04-01

    Ships have been identified as one of the important vectors in the translocation of organisms from one bioregion to another leading to bioinvasion. In this context, harbours serve as a gateway for the introduction of alien species. Surveys were carried out in the vicinity of ports of Mumbai for macrobenthic fauna, zooplankton and hard substratum community on three different occasions during 2001-2002. The study shows that 14 polychaete species are recently introduced to this area. Mytilopsis sallei, a bivalve, which is an invasive species in the Indian context continued to be present but was restricted to enclosed docks, indicating preference for embayed water bodies. The polychaete Protula tubularia was abundant in the hard substratum community and is being reported as a possible ship-mediated introduction.

  12. Redescriptions of Nereis oligohalina (Rioja, 1946) and N. garwoodi González-Escalante & Salazar-Vallejo, 2003 and description of N. confusa sp. n. (Annelida, Nereididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Vela, Víctor M; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2015-01-01

    Type material of several polychaete species described by Enrique Rioja from Mexican coasts are lost, and the current status of some species is doubtful. Nereis oligohalina (Rioja, 1946) was described from the Gulf of Mexico, but it has been considered a junior synonym of Nereis occidentalis Hartman, 1945, or regarded as a distinct species with an amphiamerican distribution. On the other hand, Nereis garwoodi González-Escalante & Salazar-Vallejo, 2003, described from Chetumal Bay, Caribbean coasts, could be confused with Nereis oligohalina. In order to clarify these uncertainties, Nereis oligohalina is redescribed based on specimens from the Mexican Gulf of Mexico, including a proposed neotype; further, Nereis garwoodi is redescribed including the selection of lectotype and paralectotypes, and Nereis confusa sp. n. is described with material from the Gulf of California. A key for the identification of similar species and some comments about speciation in nereidid polychaetes are also included.

  13. Macro-ecology of Gulf of Mexico cold seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Erik E; Bergquist, Derk C; Fisher, Charles R

    2009-01-01

    Shortly after the discovery of chemosynthetic ecosystems at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, similar ecosystems were found at cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico. Over the past two decades, these sites have become model systems for understanding the physiology of the symbiont-containing megafauna and the ecology of seep communities worldwide. Symbiont-containing bi-valves and siboglinid polychaetes dominate the communities, including five bathymodiolin mussel species and six vestimentiferan (siboglinid polychaete) species in the Gulf of Mexico. The mussels include the first described examples of methanotrophic symbiosis and dual methanotrophic/thiotrophic symbiosis. Studies with the vestimentiferans have demonstrated their potential for extreme longevity and their ability to use posterior structures for subsurface exchange of dissolved metabolites. Ecological investigations have demonstrated that the vestimentiferans function as ecosystem engineers and identified a community succession sequence from a specialized high-biomass endemic community to a low-biomass community of background fauna over the life of a hydrocarbon seep site.

  14. Macrobenthic community structure in the northern Saudi waters of the Gulf, 14years after the 1991 oil spill

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal Viswanathan

    2012-02-01

    The 1991 Gulf oil spill heavily impacted the coastal areas of the Saudi waters of the Arabian Gulf and recent studies have indicated that even 15. years after the incident, macrobenthos had not completely recovered in the sheltered bays in the affected region such as, Manifa Bay. This study investigates the community conditions of macrobenthos in the open waters in one of the impacted areas, Al-Khafji waters, about 14. years after the spill. Diversity measures and community structure analyses indicate a healthy status of polychaete communities. The BOPA index reveals that oil sensitive amphipods were recolonized in the study area. This confirms that the benthic communities of the oil spill impacted area had taken only <14 years to recover in the open waters of the impacted areas. The study also reveals the existence of three distinct polychaete communities along the depth and sediment gradients. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Changes in the soft-bottom macrobenthic diversity and community structure from the ports of Mumbai, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Harkantra, S.N.

    samples were transported to the laboratory and identified to species level using a microscope with the help of available taxonomic literature (Satyamurti 1952, 1956; Fauvel 1953; Day 1967; Hartman 1974a, 1974b; Srikrishnadhas et al. 1987; Subba Rao et al..., west coast of India. Current Science, 85(10), 1458-1464. Hartman, O. (1974a). Polychaetous annelids of the Indian Ocean including an account of species collected by members of the International Indian Ocean Expeditions, 1963-64 and a catalogue...

  16. Assessing Impacts of Navigation Dredging on Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    fresh and saltwater interfaces, these areas may serve as juvenile nursery habitat. Deep-water habitats or “sturgeon holes ” are known to exist in the...James River. McCord (2003) reported that Atlantic sturgeon overwintered in deep channels and holes within coastal sounds and bays. Atlantic sturgeon...are known to be opportunistic benthivores, feeding primarily on mollusks, polychaete worms , amphipods, isopods, shrimps and small bottom-dwelling

  17. Are assemblages of the fireworm Hermodice carunculata enhanced in sediments beneath offshore fish cages?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo Riera; Oscar Prez; Myriam Rodrguez; Eva Ramos; scar Monterroso

    2014-01-01

    Abundances of the fireworm Hermodice carunculata were counted through a monitoring assessment study of fish cages in Barranco Hondo (NE Tenerife). Seven campaigns were conducted from November 2007 to June 2010 and temporal variations were found, as well as differences among sampling stations. The poly-chaete H. carunculata obtained its highest abundance in sediments beneath fish cages throughout the study period. Thus, the assemblages of this omnivorous species were favoured by the presence of fish cages.

  18. Hydrogen Sulfide Induces Oxidative Damage to RNA and DNA in a Sulfide-Tolerant Marine Invertebrate

    OpenAIRE

    Joyner-Matos, Joanna; Predmore, Benjamin L.; Stein, Jenny R.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Julian, David

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide acts as an environmental toxin across a range of concentrations and as a cellular signaling molecule at very low concentrations. Despite its toxicity, many animals, including the mudflat polychaete Glycera dibranchiata, are periodically or continuously exposed to sulfide in their environment. We tested the hypothesis that a broad range of ecologically relevant sulfide concentrations induces oxidative stress and oxidative damage to RNA and DNA in G. dibranchiata. Coelomocytes ...

  19. Chesapeake Bay Future Conditions Report. Volume 11. Biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    macroinvertebrates. There was a heavy mortality of polychaetes , amphipods , mantis shrimp (Squilla empusa), sand shrimp (Crangon septemspinosa) mud shrimp ...Clam 99 Copepod 105 Glass or Grass Shr imp 110 Sand Shrimp 113 H Mud Crab 116 Blue—Backed Herring 121 Mummichog 127 White Perch 144 Spot 158 Northern...include the sand dollar Mellita, the starfish Asterias, the shrimp Ogyrides and most notably, the increasingly restr icted areas in which oysters can

  20. Biotic and Abiotic Interactions of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent-Endemic Fish on the East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    17 1.2 9°N segment of the East Pacific Rise 18 2.1 Typical habitats of Thermarces cerberus and Thermichthys hollisi 34 2.2 Suction ...symbionts for nutrition . These structural species provide habitat for a suite of other vent-endemic fauna such as limpets, amphipods, crabs, polychaetes...and fish that may or may not directly utilize chemoautotrophic microbes for nutrition , but are ultimately dependent upon this carbon fixation

  1. Comparative neuroanatomy suggests repeated reduction of neuroarchitectural complexity in Annelida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Carsten M; Müller, Carsten Hg; Todt, Christiane; Loesel, Rudi

    2010-05-04

    Paired mushroom bodies, an unpaired central complex, and bilaterally arranged clusters of olfactory glomeruli are among the most distinctive components of arthropod neuroarchitecture. Mushroom body neuropils, unpaired midline neuropils, and olfactory glomeruli also occur in the brains of some polychaete annelids, showing varying degrees of morphological similarity to their arthropod counterparts. Attempts to elucidate the evolutionary origin of these neuropils and to deduce an ancestral ground pattern of annelid cerebral complexity are impeded by the incomplete knowledge of annelid phylogeny and by a lack of comparative neuroanatomical data for this group. The present account aims to provide new morphological data for a broad range of annelid taxa in order to trace the occurrence and variability of higher brain centers in segmented worms. Immunohistochemically stained preparations provide comparative neuroanatomical data for representatives from 22 annelid species. The most prominent neuropil structures to be encountered in the annelid brain are the paired mushroom bodies that occur in a number of polychaete taxa. Mushroom bodies can in some cases be demonstrated to be closely associated with clusters of spheroid neuropils reminiscent of arthropod olfactory glomeruli. Less distinctive subcompartments of the annelid brain are unpaired midline neuropils that bear a remote resemblance to similar components in the arthropod brain. The occurrence of higher brain centers such as mushroom bodies, olfactory glomeruli, and unpaired midline neuropils seems to be restricted to errant polychaetes. The implications of an assumed homology between annelid and arthropod mushroom bodies are discussed in light of the 'new animal phylogeny'. It is concluded that the apparent homology of mushroom bodies in distantly related groups has to be interpreted as a plesiomorphy, pointing towards a considerably complex neuroarchitecture inherited from the last common ancestor, Urbilateria

  2. Environmental Assessment for Restoration and Stabilization of Eastern Shoreline MacDill AFB, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    1990). Dense seagrasses also serve as shelter or nursery grounds for many invertebrates and fish, including marine snails, clams, scallops, polychaete...989, the U.S. Air Force conducted an assessment of the potential environmental consequences associated with implementation of the following Proposed... associated with implementation of the Proposed Action are summarized below and are discussed in detail in Section 4.0 of the EA. Page 1 of4 Finding of No

  3. A Pilot Study of Post-Hurricane Katrina Floodwater Pumping on Marsh Infauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    to habitat and other biological resources. This report presents preliminary data concerning the effects of pumping of floodwaters on assemblages...with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...all sites and were also most abundant at pumped sites. Cyclopoid copepods and nemerteans were abundant only at pumped sites, while the polychaete

  4. Amage imajimai sp. nov., a new species of Ampharetidae (Annelida: Polychaeta from Japanese waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Reuscher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new polychaete species of the family Ampharetidae, Amage imajimai sp. nov., is described from deep waters of Sagami Bay, Japan. It is characterized by the possession of four pairs of branchiae, twelve thoracic uncinigers, eleven abdominal uncinigers, and the lack of thoracic notopodial cirri. The new species is named in honor of the renowned Japanese polychaetologist Minoru Imajima. An identification key for all Amage species from Japanese waters is provided.

  5. Nereididae (Annelida, Polychaeta da costa nordeste do Brasil: II. Gêneros Namalycastis, Ceratocephale, Laeonereis e Rullierinereis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Cinthya S. G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Six polychaete species belonging to the genera Namalycastis Hartman, 1959, Ceratocephale Malmgren, 1867, Laeonereis Hartman, 1945, and Rullierinereis Pettibone, 1970 were recorded as part of a systematic survey of the family Nereididae in estuaries, exposed sandy beaches, shelly soft bottoms, atolls and coral reefs of the Brazilian northeastern coast. Two new species, Rullierinereis auxiliadorae, from Ceará coast and Ceratocephale rocaensis, from Atol das Rocas, are described.

  6. Frequency patterns of chitinozoans, scolecodonts, and conodonts in the upper Llandovery and lower Wenlock of the Paatsalu core, western Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor, Viiu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequency patterns of chitinozoans, scolecodonts (polychaete jaws, and conodonts in the upper Llandovery and lower Wenlock of the Paatsalu core, western Estonia, are described. Chitinozoans are represented by nearly 50 species and constitute the most abundant group, outnumbering scolecodonts and conodonts by 10–100 times. Jawed polychaetes with about 60 species and up to thousands of specimens per kilogram of rock are the most diverse but least varying group. Conodonts display marked variations in abundance and relative frequency, which are partly caused by global evolutionary patterns of conodont faunas.The Llandovery Rumba Formation is characterized by large numbers of scolecodonts, common and diverse chitinozoans, and very rare conodonts. Good correlation between the abundance of microfossils and lithology in the Rumba Formation most likely indicates variations in the deposition/compaction rate. Interestingly, the lithologically sharp Rumba–Velise boundary is indistinct in chitinozoan and polychaete faunas; marked changes occur above the boundary. The Velise Formation, except its basal part, is characterized by a decreased number of scolecodonts and abundant conodonts. The changes in chitinozoan and conodont faunas at the Llandovery–Wenlock boundary are sharp, partly on account of a stratigraphical gap. The abundance of chitinozoans increases 10 times, whilst that of conodonts decreases; both groups display a significant turnover in assemblages and decrease in diversity. Changes in jawed polychaete faunas are less conspicuous, although a major change in relative frequency of dominating forms can be observed. The Wenlock Jaani Formation is characterized by maximum abundance of chitinozoans and scolecodonts, and decreased abundance and diversity of conodonts. The last group was most affected by the Ireviken Event.

  7. Anelídeos poliquetos associados ao briozoário Schizoporella unicornis (Johnston: IV. Phyllodocidae e Hesionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa H. Morgado

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of the family Phyllodocidae and two of Hesionidae were found in colonies of the bryozoan Schizoporella unicornis (Johnston on the beaches of Ubatuba and São Sebastião, São Paulo State, Brazil. Among these, Eumida sanguinea (Phyllodocidae is registered for the first time on the Brazilian coast. Among the other species Ophiodromus pugettensis (Hesionidae was one of the most abundant polychaetous annelids of the bryzoan fauna.

  8. Onuphidae (Annelida, Polychaeta da região de Ubatuba, litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil Onuphidae (Annelida, Polychaeta from Ubatuba, north coast of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa H Morgado

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten species of onuphid polychaetes were identified from the sublitoral of Ubatuba, on the coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil: Diopatra cuprea (Bosc, 1802; Diopatra tridentata Hartman, 1944; Kinhergonuphis difficilis (Fauchald, 1982; Kinhergonuphis fauchaldi Lana, 1991; Kinhergonuphis orensanzi (Fauchald, 1982; Kinhergonuphis tenuis (Hansen, 1882; Mooreonuphis nebulosa (Moore, 1911; Mooreonuphis pallidula (Hartman, 1965; Mooreonuphis intermedia (Kinberg, 1865; Onuphis dibranchiala Willey, 1905. A discussion on the characteristics of the species found and related species is also provided.

  9. Polychaeta (Annelida from Muros de Nalón (Asturias, Cantabrian Sea, with three new records for the coast of Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cepeda, Patricia Lattig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The benthic Polychaete fauna associated with shallow water macroalgae assemblages from an Asturian littoral beach (northern Spain, central Cantabrian Sea was studied. Twenty-six species are recorded, including the first records for Myrianida brachycephala and Nudisyllis pulligera for the Asturian coasts and Nerilla mediterranea for the Cantabrian Sea. Relevant taxonomic and ecological remarks are also provided for some of the collected species.

  10. Comparative neuroanatomy suggests repeated reduction of neuroarchitectural complexity in Annelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todt Christiane

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paired mushroom bodies, an unpaired central complex, and bilaterally arranged clusters of olfactory glomeruli are among the most distinctive components of arthropod neuroarchitecture. Mushroom body neuropils, unpaired midline neuropils, and olfactory glomeruli also occur in the brains of some polychaete annelids, showing varying degrees of morphological similarity to their arthropod counterparts. Attempts to elucidate the evolutionary origin of these neuropils and to deduce an ancestral ground pattern of annelid cerebral complexity are impeded by the incomplete knowledge of annelid phylogeny and by a lack of comparative neuroanatomical data for this group. The present account aims to provide new morphological data for a broad range of annelid taxa in order to trace the occurrence and variability of higher brain centers in segmented worms. Results Immunohistochemically stained preparations provide comparative neuroanatomical data for representatives from 22 annelid species. The most prominent neuropil structures to be encountered in the annelid brain are the paired mushroom bodies that occur in a number of polychaete taxa. Mushroom bodies can in some cases be demonstrated to be closely associated with clusters of spheroid neuropils reminiscent of arthropod olfactory glomeruli. Less distinctive subcompartments of the annelid brain are unpaired midline neuropils that bear a remote resemblance to similar components in the arthropod brain. The occurrence of higher brain centers such as mushroom bodies, olfactory glomeruli, and unpaired midline neuropils seems to be restricted to errant polychaetes. Conclusions The implications of an assumed homology between annelid and arthropod mushroom bodies are discussed in light of the 'new animal phylogeny'. It is concluded that the apparent homology of mushroom bodies in distantly related groups has to be interpreted as a plesiomorphy, pointing towards a considerably complex

  11. Ciona intestinalis as a Marine Model System to Study Some Key Developmental Genes Targeted by the Diatom-Derived Aldehyde Decadienal

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Lettieri; Rosaria Esposito; Adrianna Ianora; Antonietta Spagnuolo

    2015-01-01

    The anti-proliferative effects of diatoms, described for the first time in copepods, have also been demonstrated in benthic invertebrates such as polychaetes, sea urchins and tunicates. In these organisms PUAs (polyunsaturated aldehydes) induce the disruption of gametogenesis, gamete functionality, fertilization, embryonic mitosis, and larval fitness and competence. These inhibitory effects are due to the PUAs, produced by diatoms in response to physical damage as occurs during copepod grazin...

  12. Aquatic Field Survey at Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant, Chattanooga, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-24

    MailaBgji8iiMMggMMMHMig^iiiliIMtiaM(aMBM|M m ..„....„„ ,„,.,.... ^,... —^^n^^g^ Table B-6 shows only one species, Oedogonium spp., at Station A, in...X X X X X X X X Chlorophyceae Chaetopeltis sp. Choleochaete spp. Cylindrocapsa geminella Mougeotia spp. Oedogonium sp. 1 Ulothrix spp...Chlorophyceae Aphanochaete polychaete Bulbochaete sp. Choleochaete spp. j Cylindrocapsa geminella j Mougeotia spp. Oedogonium sp. 1

  13. Molecular and morphological evidence of Alvinellidae relationships (Terebelliformia, Polychaeta, Annelida)

    OpenAIRE

    Rousset, Vincent; Rouse, Greg; Feral, Jean-Pierre; Desbruyeres, Daniel; Pleijel, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    In this study we assessed the phylogenetic relationships of the hydrothermal vent polychaete group Alvinellidae, based on parsimony analyses of combined morphological and molecular data. Morphological data were obtained from newly examined specimens and literature information of 16 terminal taxa belonging to Alvinellidae, Ampharetidae, Pectinariidae, Terebellidae, Trichobranchidae, and the outgroups Oweniidae and Sabellidae. Molecular data were based on 28S rRNA from 13 of the 16 morphologica...

  14. Small-scale distribution of Solea solea and Solea senegalensis juveniles in the Tagus estuary (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, C.; Maia, A.; Reis-Santos, P.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2009-02-01

    The distribution of Solea solea and Solea senegalensis in the Tagus estuary was studied following a small-scale approach. Preliminary sampling revealed that sole concentrated in two areas within their nursery grounds, the main subtidal channel and a large intertidal mudflat. Beam trawls were conducted intensively in the two areas in July 2006. Depth, salinity and water temperature were measured. Substrate samples were collected for sediment type determination and macrobenthos identification and quantification. Generalized linear models were applied in order to explain the occurrence and variability of soles' densities, using depth, salinity, water temperature and abundance of polychaetes, oligochaetes, amphipods, isopods and bivalves as explanatory variables. While S. solea was more abundant in the main subtidal channel, a deeper, warmer and lower salinity area, S. senegalensis abundance was highest at the intertidal mudflat area. Presence of both species in the two areas was associated with abundance of polychaetes (generally with another variable associated), and for S. senegalensis in the subtidal channel it was associated with amphipods and depth. Abundance of S. solea in the main subtidal channel was associated mainly with polychaetes abundance, while that of S. senegalensis was associated with amphipods density. In the intertidal mudflat, bivalves and polychaetes presented significant relationships with both species densities. Some of the factors that had been reported to be important for the distribution of these species in previous studies also do so at a finer scale; however, this small-scale approach provided an in-depth knowledge on habitat selection and spatial segregation of these species within this nursery area.

  15. Trophic relationships in the community of the upper Tagus estuary (Portugal): A preliminary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, F.; Assis, C. A.; Almeida, P. R.; Costa, J. L.; Costa, M. J.

    1992-06-01

    The diet of 25 invertebrate and fish species occurring in the upper Tagus estuary are compared. Multivariate methods are used to define trophic groups and identify key prey species, fundamental links in the understanding of the estuarine food web. Four trophic groups are described: microalgae, macroinfauna, mysid and fish and decapod eaters. It was found that the food web of this area heavily relies on the polychaete Nereis diversicolor and the crustacean Crangon crangon.

  16. Species Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Macroinvertebrates on the Intertidal Zone of Rajamangala Beach, Trang Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khwanta Tantikamton

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study on species diversity and spatial distribution of macro-invertebrates on the intertidal zone of Rajamangala beach, Trang province, Thailand aims to investigate species, numbers and spatial distribution changes of polychaetes, mollusks and crabs along the 2 km beach. Four sampling stations from an adjacent of the estuary to the end at the beach, located near a hill, were examined. Each station was divided into four lines: highest tide, 100 m, 200 m and 300 m in distance from the high tide line. Quadrate sampling method was applied for sample collection in monsoon and dry seasons with three replicates in a season. The results showed that 23 polychaete, 23 mollusk and 19 crab species were found. The highest polychaete diversity was recorded at the lowest tide line. At 200 m and 300 m from the highest tide line, there was the highest diversity of mollusk species, whereas at 100 m from the highest tide line, the diversity of crab species was highest. Lumbrineris punctata McIntosh, 1885 and Scoloplos spp. were dominated polychaete species of the 200 m and 300 m whereas Glycera spp. were frequently found at the 100 m from the highest tide line. For mollusk species, high densities of Nassarius spp., Pilucina sp. and Donax incarnatus Gmelin, 1791 were found. Crab species found on the beach were in Infraorder Brachyura (15 species and Anomura (four species. The most abundant species was Dotilla myctiroides (Milne-Edwards, 1852 followed by Scopimera proxima Kemp, 1919. The species diversity of all sampling stations had similar distribution, but from the highest tide line to the lowest tide line, a different pattern of macroinvertebrate species distribution was found.

  17. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds

    OpenAIRE

    Dorgan, Kelly M.; Law, Chris J.; Rouse, Greg W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards...

  18. Invasive Marine and Estuarine Animals of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Schyphozoan 1 1 Porifera 6 3 1 7 Anthozoan 1 3 1 3 Platyhelminth 2 2 Polychaete 13 16 2 21 Oligochaete 4 3 6 Bivalve 17...Gonothyraea clarki Hydrozoan OR Obelia sp. Hydrozoan WA OR Aurelia aurita Schyphozoan WA Clathria prolifera Porifera WA Clionoa thoosina... Porifera WA Cliona sp. Porifera WA OR AK Halichondria bowerbanki Porifera WA OR Haliclona loosanoffi Porifera OR Haliclona luciae Porifera WA

  19. Use of Marine Fouling Communities to Evaluate the Ecological Effects of Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Family Ceramiaceae E Phylum Phaeophyta Scytosiphon lornentaria P - E Kingdom Animalia Phylum Porifera Halichondria panicea E PE E Haliclona sp. E E E...BRYOZOA PORIFERA VCryptosulc paflonaiono V Bugulo spp. OHaliChondrio panicco 4$ Holicolno sp. AWatersipora sp. WHoloperelo brurineo *Hymelaocidon sp...POLYCHAETE 0 Hydroides pocificus M Uridentirted Tunicat. * Soirorbis so. 0 II. pacificus + Spirorbis BRYOZOA PORIFERA VCyptosu~o poflonsiona V Bugula $pp

  20. Invasive Marine and Estuarine Animals of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    4 3 5 Porifera 5 5 5 3 7 Polychaete 7 45 13 15 47 Oligochaete 1 4 4 5 Bivalve 16 25 12 6 26 Gastropod 16 23 14 6 26 Nudibranch 2 2 2 2...ballast water, they include species of 13 hydrozoans, 7 sponges ( porifera ), 5 anemones (anthozoans), 3 barnacles, 14 bryozoans, 2 entoprocts, 15...ST SF HU Obelia geniculata Hydrozoan ST Aurelia aurita Scyphozoan NB ST SF HU Phyllorhiza punctatus Scyphozoan NB ST Cliona sp. Porifera

  1. Measurement of the adenylate energy charge in Nereis diversicolor and Nephtys sp. (Polychaeta: Annelida): evaluation of the usefulness of AEC in pollution monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Verschraegen, K.; P. M. J. Herman; Van Gansbeke, D.; Braeckman, A.

    1985-01-01

    ATP-content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) ratios were determined in two polychaete species (Nereis diversicolor and Nephtys sp.), sampled in ten stations along the heavily polluted Western Scheldt estuary (N. Belgium, S. Holland). The samples were taken between 27 December 1982 and 6 January 1983. Nereis diversicolor was also sampled in an unpolluted brackish water pond, and subjected to artificial stress by drying the organisms on filter paper. Adenine nucleotide levels were determined u...

  2. In situ effects of simulated overfishing and eutrophication on settlement of benthic coral reef invertebrates in the Central Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Christian; Voolstra, Christian R; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the Central Red Sea, healthy coral reefs meet intense coastal development, but data on the effects of related stressors for reef functioning are lacking. This in situ study therefore investigated the independent and combined effects of simulated overfishing through predator/grazer exclusion and simulated eutrophication through fertilizer addition on settlement of reef associated invertebrates on light-exposed and -shaded tiles over 4 months. At the end of the study period invertebrates had almost exclusively colonized shaded tiles. Algae were superior settling competitors on light-exposed tiles. On the shaded tiles, simulated overfishing prevented settlement of hard corals, but significantly increased settlement of polychaetes, while simulated eutrophication only significantly decreased hard coral settlement relative to controls. The combined treatment significantly increased settlement of bryozoans and bivalves compared to controls and individual manipulations, but significantly decreased polychaetes compared to simulated overfishing. These results suggest settlement of polychaetes and hard corals as potential bioindicators for overfishing and eutrophication, respectively, and settlement of bivalves and bryozoans for a combination of both. Therefore, if the investigated stressors are not controlled, phase shifts from dominance by hard corals to that by other invertebrates may occur at shaded reef locations in the Central Red Sea.

  3. Marine organisms as heavy metal bioindicators in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozadeh, E; Malek, M; Rashidinejad, R; Nabavi, S; Karbassi, M; Ghayoumi, R; Ghorbanzadeh-Zafarani, G; Salehi, H; Sures, B

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, cadmium and lead concentrations were compared in barnacles, ghost shrimps, polychaetes, bivalves, and sediment from ten different locations along the intertidal zone of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. The results revealed significant differences in the heavy metal concentrations between the organisms with barnacles showing, by far, the highest metal concentrations. The bioaccumulation factor of Cd in different animals follows this pattern with barnacles>bivalves>polychaetes>ghost shrimps, while the pattern for Pb was barnacles>polychaetes>bivalves>ghost shrimps. In most of the stations, sediments showed the lowest lead and cadmium concentrations. Therefore, it is concluded that barnacles with Pb concentrations between 0.17 and 2,016.1 μg/g and Cd concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 147.1 μg/g are the best organisms to be employed in monitoring programs designed to assess pollution with bioavailable metals in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

  4. Zinc and mechanical prowess in the jaws of Nereis, a marine worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenegger, Helga C; Schöberl, Thomas; Ruokolainen, Janne T; Cross, Julie O; Heald, Steve M; Birkedal, Henrik; Waite, J Herbert; Stucky, Galen D

    2003-08-05

    Higher animals typically rely on calcification to harden certain tissues such as bones and teeth. Some notable exceptions can be found in invertebrates: The fangs, teeth, and mandibles of diverse arthropod species have been reported to contain high levels of zinc. Considerable quantities of zinc also occur in the jaws of the marine polychaete worm Nereis sp. High copper levels in the polychaete worm Glycera dibranchiata recently were attributed to a copper-based biomineral reinforcing the jaws. In the present article, we attempt to unravel the role of zinc in Nereis limbata jaws, using a combination of position-resolved state-of-the-art techniques. It is shown that the local hardness and stiffness of the jaws correlate with the local zinc concentration, pointing toward a structural role for zinc. Zinc always is detected in tight correlation with chlorine, suggesting the presence of a zinc-chlorine compound. No crystalline inorganic phase was found, however, and results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy further exclude the presence of simple inorganic zinc-chlorine compounds in amorphous form. The correlation of local histidine levels in the protein matrix and zinc concentration leads us to hypothesize a direct coordination of zinc and chlorine to the protein. A comparison of the role of the transition metals zinc and copper in the jaws of two polychaete worm species Nereis and Glycera, respectively, is presented.

  5. Dietary composition and prey selectivity of juvenile porcupine rays Urogymnus asperrimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, C; von Brandis, R G; Cowley, P D

    2017-08-01

    Fifty-five juvenile porcupine ray Urogymnus asperrimus were collected in the isolated St Joseph Atoll, Seychelles. Stomach contents were sampled using non-lethal gastric lavage to determine the dietary composition, degree of prey selectivity and whether sex or size affected their diet. Sediment samples were collected to quantify prey availability so that prey selectivity could be estimated. Two phyla (Sipuncula and Nemertea) and 11 polychaete and crustacean families were recorded in stomach contents. Juvenile U. asperrimus appeared to specialize on one polychaete family, Capitellidae, which was the most important prey item (index of importance = 35%). This polychaete family was also most abundant in the sediment samples and U. asperrimus are thus considered opportunistic predators. There was evidence of a size-related shift in the crustacean families consumed by juvenile U. asperrimus. Data collected at this remote location provides important baseline ecological information that may prove useful in developing conservation strategies for this ecologically important species. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Metabolic rates, enzyme activities and chemical compositions of some deep-sea pelagic worms, particularly Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, Erik V.; Childress, James J.

    1993-05-01

    Investigations of metabolic rate, enzyme activity and chemical composition were undertaken on two abundant deep-sea pelagic worms: Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta). Six other species of worms ( Pelagonemertes brinkmanni (Nemertea) and the following polychaetes: Pelagobia species A, Tomopteris nisseni, Tomopteris pacifica, Tomopteris species A, and Traviopsis lobifera) were captured in smaller numbers and used for comparison in the physiological and biochemical measurements. Polychaete worms had the highest oxygen consumption rates and, along with N. mirabilis, displayed significant size effects on metabolic rate. Poeobius meseres had the lowest rates of oxygen consumption and displayed no significant relationship of oxygen consumption rate to wet weight. No significant effect of size on the activities of citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase or pyruvate kinase was observed in P. meseres or N. mirabilis. Lipid content was higher than protein content for all the worms in this study. Carbohydrate was of little significance in these worms and was usually <0.01% of the total weight. Citrate synthase activities of pelagic worms showed excellent correlation with metabolic rates. It appears that polychaete worms as a group have higher metabolic rates than bathypelagic shrimps, copepods and fishes, and may be the animals with the highest metabolic rates in the bathypelagic regions of the world's oceans.

  7. Macrobenthos of the subtidal Wadden Sea: revisited after 55 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesen, W.; Reise, K.

    1982-12-01

    During the years 1923 1926 Hagmeier & Kändler (1927) sampled the macrofauna of subtidal shallows and channels of the Wadden Sea close to the Island of Sylt (German Bight, North Sea). Reinvestigating this study area in 1980, a substantially altered faunal composition was recorded. An approach is made to quantify the comparison in terms of abundance, species richness and diversity of invertebrate taxa. Human interference is assumed to be responsible for the major changes. Natural oyster beds have been overexploited and the local population of Ostrea edulis has been driven to extinction. Subsequently, mussels (Mytilus edulis) spread in the entire region, promoted by shell fishery. Particularly barnacles and many polychaetes took advantage of the expansion of mussel banks which is substantiated by correlation analysis. Reefs of the colonial polychaete Sabellaria spinulosa stood in the way of shrimp trawling and became destroyed together with the associated fauna. A subtidal Zostera marina bed was wiped out in 1934 by a natural epidemic disease but never succeeded in reestablishing itself. The associated fauna disappeared. Large epibenthic predators and scavengers (crabs, snails and starfish) survived all these changes. The total number of species remained approximately at the same level but molluscs experienced losses and polychaetes diversified. Overall abundance increased with a disproportionately large share of a few species (Mytilus edulis, Balanus crenatus, Cerastoderma edule, Scoloplos armiger). The subtidal fauna of the Wadden Sea proved to be vulnerable to human disturbance; thus, the present community can no longer be viewed as the outcome of entirely natural processes.

  8. Genetic diversity of Timarete punctata (Annelida: Cirratulidae): Detection of pseudo-cryptic species and a potential biological invader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Victor Corrêa; Zanol, Joana; Magalhães, Wagner F.; Paiva, Paulo Cesar

    2017-10-01

    Among the processes that drive biological invasions, the presence of asexual reproduction, as observed in many polychaetes, is an important feature because it allows a rapid spread and colonization in the invaded site. Despite its ecological importance for benthic communities, studies on the biological invasive context are rare for this abundant taxon. Here, the phylogeographic pattern of a common asexual reproducer polychaete, Timarete punctata, was analyzed at five sites along the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to investigate if its wide distribution is associated to human-mediated transport. Sequences of COI and 16S revealed the presence of two cryptic species. One of them exhibits a wide distribution range (∼14,000 km), very low level of genetic diversity and a high frequency of shared haplotypes along sampled sites. The genetic pattern indicates that this species has probably been introduced in all sampled sites, and its wide distribution is associated to human-mediated transport. In addition, the great capability of T. punctata to reproduce by fragmentation makes the colonization process easier. Thus, the number of alien polychaete species is probably underestimated and future studies are necessary to reach a more realistic perspective.

  9. Food utilization of adult flatfishes co-occurring in the Bohai Sea of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuozeng, Dou

    Stomach contents were examined of 4527 adult individuals of 12 flatfish species collected during the 1982-1983 Bohai Sea Fisheries Resources Investigation. Their food habits, diet diversity, similarity of prey taxa, trophic niche breadth and diet overlap were systematically analysed. Ninety-seven prey species belonging to the Coelenterata, Nemertinea, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and fish were found and five of them were considered to be principal prey for flatfishes: Alpheus japonicus, Oratosquilla oratoria, Alpheus distinguendus, Loligo japonicus and Crangon affinis. Among the flatfishes, Paralichthys olivaceus was piscivorous, whereas Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae and Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini both had polychaetes and molluscs as their main prey groups. Pleuronichthys cornutus was classified as a polychaete-mollusc eater, with a strong preference for crustaceans. Verasper variegatus, Cynoglossus semilaevis, Eopsetta grigorjewi and Cleisthenes herzensteini ate crustaceans. Kareius bicoloratus was classified as a mollusc-crustacean eater. Cynoglossus abbreviatus, Cynoglossus joyneri and Zebrias zebra were grouped as crustacean-fish eaters. However, Z. zebra also took polychaetes and C. abbreviatus and C. joyneri preyed on some molluscs. Trophic relationships among the flatfishes were complicated, but they occupied distinctive microhabitats in different seasons and selected their specific prey items, which was favourable to the stability of the flatfish community in the Bohai Sea.

  10. In situ effects of simulated overfishing and eutrophication on settlement of benthic coral reef invertebrates in the Central Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Jessen, Christian

    2014-04-08

    In the Central Red Sea, healthy coral reefs meet intense coastal development, but data on the effects of related stressors for reef functioning are lacking. This in situ study therefore investigated the independent and combined effects of simulated overfishing through predator/grazer exclusion and simulated eutrophication through fertilizer addition on settlement of reef associated invertebrates on light-exposed and -shaded tiles over 4 months. At the end of the study period invertebrates had almost exclusively colonized shaded tiles. Algae were superior settling competitors on light-exposed tiles. On the shaded tiles, simulated overfishing prevented settlement of hard corals, but significantly increased settlement of polychaetes, while simulated eutrophication only significantly decreased hard coral settlement relative to controls. The combined treatment significantly increased settlement of bryozoans and bivalves compared to controls and individual manipulations, but significantly decreased polychaetes compared to simulated overfishing. These results suggest settlement of polychaetes and hard corals as potential bioindicators for overfishing and eutrophication, respectively, and settlement of bivalves and bryozoans for a combination of both. Therefore, if the investigated stressors are not controlled, phase shifts from dominance by hard corals to that by other invertebrates may occur at shaded reef locations in the Central Red Sea.

  11. In situ effects of simulated overfishing and eutrophication on settlement of benthic coral reef invertebrates in the Central Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jessen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Central Red Sea, healthy coral reefs meet intense coastal development, but data on the effects of related stressors for reef functioning are lacking. This in situ study therefore investigated the independent and combined effects of simulated overfishing through predator/grazer exclusion and simulated eutrophication through fertilizer addition on settlement of reef associated invertebrates on light-exposed and -shaded tiles over 4 months. At the end of the study period invertebrates had almost exclusively colonized shaded tiles. Algae were superior settling competitors on light-exposed tiles. On the shaded tiles, simulated overfishing prevented settlement of hard corals, but significantly increased settlement of polychaetes, while simulated eutrophication only significantly decreased hard coral settlement relative to controls. The combined treatment significantly increased settlement of bryozoans and bivalves compared to controls and individual manipulations, but significantly decreased polychaetes compared to simulated overfishing. These results suggest settlement of polychaetes and hard corals as potential bioindicators for overfishing and eutrophication, respectively, and settlement of bivalves and bryozoans for a combination of both. Therefore, if the investigated stressors are not controlled, phase shifts from dominance by hard corals to that by other invertebrates may occur at shaded reef locations in the Central Red Sea.

  12. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleidorn Christoph

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annelida comprises an ancient and ecologically important animal phylum with over 16,500 described species and members are the dominant macrofauna of the deep sea. Traditionally, two major groups are distinguished: Clitellata (including earthworms, leeches and "Polychaeta" (mostly marine worms. Recent analyses of molecular data suggest that Annelida may include other taxa once considered separate phyla (i.e., Echiura, and Sipuncula and that Clitellata are derived annelids, thus rendering "Polychaeta" paraphyletic; however, this contradicts classification schemes of annelids developed from recent analyses of morphological characters. Given that deep-level evolutionary relationships of Annelida are poorly understood, we have analyzed comprehensive datasets based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes, and have applied rigorous testing of alternative hypotheses so that we can move towards the robust reconstruction of annelid history needed to interpret animal body plan evolution. Results Sipuncula, Echiura, Siboglinidae, and Clitellata are all nested within polychaete annelids according to phylogenetic analyses of three nuclear genes (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, EF1α; 4552 nucleotide positions analyzed for 81 taxa, and 11 nuclear and mitochondrial genes for 10 taxa (additional: 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, ATP8, COX1-3, CYTB, NAD6; 11,454 nucleotide positions analyzed. For the first time, these findings are substantiated using approximately unbiased tests and non-scaled bootstrap probability tests that compare alternative hypotheses. For echiurans, the polychaete group Capitellidae is corroborated as the sister taxon; while the exact placement of Sipuncula within Annelida is still uncertain, our analyses suggest an affiliation with terebellimorphs. Siboglinids are in a clade with other sabellimorphs, and clitellates fall within a polychaete clade with aeolosomatids as their possible sister group. None of our analyses support the major polychaete

  13. Profiling bacterial communities associated with sediment-based aquaculture bioremediation systems under contrasting redox regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Georgina; Caldwell, Gary S.; Wade, Matthew J.; Free, Andrew; Jones, Clifford L. W.; Stead, Selina M.

    2016-12-01

    Deposit-feeding invertebrates are proposed bioremediators in microbial-driven sediment-based aquaculture effluent treatment systems. We elucidate the role of the sediment reduction-oxidation (redox) regime in structuring benthic bacterial communities, having direct implications for bioremediation potential and deposit-feeder nutrition. The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra was cultured on sediments under contrasting redox regimes; fully oxygenated (oxic) and redox stratified (oxic-anoxic). Taxonomically, metabolically and functionally distinct bacterial communities developed between the redox treatments with the oxic treatment supporting the greater diversity; redox regime and dissolved oxygen levels were the main environmental drivers. Oxic sediments were colonised by nitrifying bacteria with the potential to remediate nitrogenous wastes. Percolation of oxygenated water prevented the proliferation of anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria, which were prevalent in the oxic-anoxic sediments. At the predictive functional level, bacteria within the oxic treatment were enriched with genes associated with xenobiotics metabolism. Oxic sediments showed the greater bioremediation potential; however, the oxic-anoxic sediments supported a greater sea cucumber biomass. Overall, the results indicate that bacterial communities present in fully oxic sediments may enhance the metabolic capacity and bioremediation potential of deposit-feeder microbial systems. This study highlights the benefits of incorporating deposit-feeding invertebrates into effluent treatment systems, particularly when the sediment is oxygenated.

  14. Profiling bacterial communities associated with sediment-based aquaculture bioremediation systems under contrasting redox regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Georgina; Caldwell, Gary S.; Wade, Matthew J.; Free, Andrew; Jones, Clifford L. W.; Stead, Selina M.

    2016-01-01

    Deposit-feeding invertebrates are proposed bioremediators in microbial-driven sediment-based aquaculture effluent treatment systems. We elucidate the role of the sediment reduction-oxidation (redox) regime in structuring benthic bacterial communities, having direct implications for bioremediation potential and deposit-feeder nutrition. The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra was cultured on sediments under contrasting redox regimes; fully oxygenated (oxic) and redox stratified (oxic-anoxic). Taxonomically, metabolically and functionally distinct bacterial communities developed between the redox treatments with the oxic treatment supporting the greater diversity; redox regime and dissolved oxygen levels were the main environmental drivers. Oxic sediments were colonised by nitrifying bacteria with the potential to remediate nitrogenous wastes. Percolation of oxygenated water prevented the proliferation of anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria, which were prevalent in the oxic-anoxic sediments. At the predictive functional level, bacteria within the oxic treatment were enriched with genes associated with xenobiotics metabolism. Oxic sediments showed the greater bioremediation potential; however, the oxic-anoxic sediments supported a greater sea cucumber biomass. Overall, the results indicate that bacterial communities present in fully oxic sediments may enhance the metabolic capacity and bioremediation potential of deposit-feeder microbial systems. This study highlights the benefits of incorporating deposit-feeding invertebrates into effluent treatment systems, particularly when the sediment is oxygenated. PMID:27941918

  15. Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2012. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Part 2. Introduction trends and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 60 marine non-indigenous species (NIS have been removed from previous lists and 84 species have been added, bringing the total to 986 alien species in the Mediterranean [775 in the eastern Mediterranean (EMED, 249 in the central Mediterranean (CMED, 190 in the Adriatic Sea (ADRIA and 308 in the western Mediterranean (WMED]. There were 48 new entries since 2011 which can be interpreted as approximately one new entry every two weeks. The number of alien species continues to increase, by 2-3 species per year for macrophytes, molluscs and polychaetes, 3-4 species per year for crustaceans, and 6 species per year for fish. The dominant group among alien species is molluscs (with 215 species, followed by crustaceans (159 and polychaetes (132. Macrophytes are the leading group of NIS in the ADRIA and the WMED, reaching 26-30% of all aliens, whereas in the EMED they barely constitute 10% of the introductions. In the EMED, molluscs are the most species-rich group, followed by crustaceans, fish and polychaetes. More than half (54% of the marine alien species in the Mediterranean were probably introduced by corridors (mainly Suez. Shipping is blamed directly for the introduction of only 12 species, whereas it is assumed to be the most likely pathway of introduction (via ballasts or fouling of another 300 species. For approximately 100 species shipping is a probable pathway along with the Suez Canal and/or aquaculture. Approximately 20 species have been introduced with certainty via aquaculture, while >50 species (mostly macroalgae, occurring in the vicinity of oyster farms, are assumed to be introduced accidentally as contaminants of imported species. A total of 18 species are assumed to have been introduced by the aquarium trade. Lessepsian species decline westwards, while the reverse pattern is evident for ship-mediated species and for those introduced with aquaculture. There is an increasing trend in new introductions via the Suez Canal and via

  16. Diversity, abundance and community structure of benthic macro- and megafauna on the Beaufort shelf and slope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nephin

    Full Text Available Diversity and community patterns of macro- and megafauna were compared on the Canadian Beaufort shelf and slope. Faunal sampling collected 247 taxa from 48 stations with box core and trawl gear over the summers of 2009-2011 between 50 and 1,000 m in depth. Of the 80 macrofaunal and 167 megafaunal taxa, 23% were uniques, present at only one station. Rare taxa were found to increase proportional to total taxa richness and differ between the shelf (< 100 m where they tended to be sparse and the slope where they were relatively abundant. The macrofauna principally comprised polychaetes with nephtyid polychaetes dominant on the shelf and maldanid polychaetes (up to 92% in relative abundance/station dominant on the slope. The megafauna principally comprised echinoderms with Ophiocten sp. (up to 90% in relative abundance/station dominant on the shelf and Ophiopleura sp. dominant on the slope. Macro- and megafauna had divergent patterns of abundance, taxa richness (α diversity and β diversity. A greater degree of macrofaunal than megafaunal variation in abundance, richness and β diversity was explained by confounding factors: location (east-west, sampling year and the timing of sampling with respect to sea-ice conditions. Change in megafaunal abundance, richness and β diversity was greatest across the depth gradient, with total abundance and richness elevated on the shelf compared to the slope. We conclude that megafaunal slope taxa were differentiated from shelf taxa, as faunal replacement not nestedness appears to be the main driver of megafaunal β diversity across the depth gradient.

  17. Macrobenthos monitoring in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed M.El - Komi

    2008-01-01

    The biogeography of macrobenthic communities with large-scale differences in species distribution and abundance was studied along the eastern and western coastal regions of the Gulf of Suez to indicate biodiversity of benthos in relation to the prevailing en-virunmental conditions.In general,benthos have a wide variety of species of mainly polychaet worms,crustaceans,bivalves,and other bottom invertebrates hying in burrows in/or on the sediment surface.Coastal development clearly affects the ecosystem after the construction of coastal projects.The highest values of benthic diversity,evenness,richness and dominance are found at the Gulf of Suez (WG 1,WG 3),Ras Gharib ( WG 7,WG 8) and Ras Shukier (WG 9a) by contrast to others.The abundance of macrobenthic organsims along the coasts of Gulf of Suez can be arranged in the following sequence:other groups (34%) greater than crustaceans (25%) greater than polychaetes (22%) greater than molluscs (17%) greater than echinoderms (2%).The biomass of benthic assemblages at different sampling sites can also be ranked as follows:echinoderms (52%) greater than mol-luscs (27%) greater than crustaceans (16%) greater than polychaetes (2%) greater than other groups (3%).Some benthic groups or species indicated a distinctive correlation to pollution sources in the marine ecosystem which obviously increased in the coastal areas due to the extension of the coastal development.These activities needed regular information to establish database for the biology and distribution of marine benthic communities.The density and diversity of benthos are significantly affected by eu-trophication at Ain Sukhna,whereas the benthos in the open Gulf of Suez do not seem to be adversely affected by pollution.

  18. Antioxidant responses in estuarine invertebrates exposed to repeated oil spills: Effects of frequency and dosage in a field manipulative experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Pereira, Letícia; Martins, César C; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Camus, Lionel; Lana, Paulo C

    2016-08-01

    We have experimentally investigated the effects of repeated diesel spills on the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana, the gastropod Neritina virginea and the polychaete Laeonereis culveri, by monitoring the responses of oxidative stress biomarkers in a subtropical estuary. Three frequencies of exposure events were compared against two dosages of oil in a factorial experiment with asymmetrical controls. Hypotheses were tested to distinguish between (i) the overall effect of oil spills, (ii) the effect of diesel dosage via different exposure regimes, and (iii) the effect of time since last spill. Antioxidant defense responses and oxidative damage in the bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri were overall significantly affected by frequent oil spills compared to undisturbed controls. The main effects of diesel spills on both species were the induction of SOD and GST activities, a significant increase in LPO levels and a decrease in GSH concentration. N. virginea was particularly tolerant to oil exposure, with the exception of a significant GSH depletion. Overall, enzymatic activities and oxidative damage in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were induced by frequent low-dosage spills compared to infrequent high-dosage spills, although the opposite pattern was observed for N. virginea antioxidant responses. Antioxidant responses in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were not affected by timing of exposure events. However, our results revealed that N. virginea might have a delayed response to acute high-dosage exposure. Experimental in situ simulations of oil exposure events with varying frequencies and intensities provide a useful tool for detecting and quantifying environmental impacts. In general, antioxidant biomarkers were induced by frequent low-dosage exposures compared to infrequent high-dosage ones. The bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri are more suitable sentinels due to their greater responsiveness to oil and also to their wider geographical

  19. Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2012. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Part 2. Introduction trends and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. ZENETOS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 60 marine non-indigenous species (NIS have been removed from previous lists and 84 species have been added, bringing the total to 986 alien species in the Mediterranean [775 in the eastern Mediterranean (EMED, 249 in the central Mediterranean (CMED, 190 in the Adriatic Sea (ADRIA and 308 in the western Mediterranean (WMED]. There were 48 new entries since 2011 which can be interpreted as approximately one new entry every two weeks. The number of alien species continues to increase, by 2-3 species per year for macrophytes, molluscs and polychaetes, 3-4 species per year for crustaceans, and 6 species per year for fish. The dominant group among alien species is molluscs (with 215 species, followed by crustaceans (159 and polychaetes (132. Macrophytes are the leading group of NIS in the ADRIA and the WMED, reaching 26-30% of all aliens, whereas in the EMED they barely constitute 10% of the introductions. In the EMED, molluscs are the most species-rich group, followed by crustaceans, fish and polychaetes. More than half (54% of the marine alien species in the Mediterranean were probably introduced by corridors (mainly Suez. Shipping is blamed directly for the introduction of only 12 species, whereas it is assumed to be the most likely pathway of introduction (via ballasts or fouling of another 300 species. For approximately 100 species shipping is a probable pathway along with the Suez Canal and/or aquaculture. Approximately 20 species have been introduced with certainty via aquaculture, while >50 species (mostly macroalgae, occurring in the vicinity of oyster farms, are assumed to be introduced accidentally as contaminants of imported species. A total of 18 species are assumed to have been introduced by the aquarium trade. Lessepsian species decline westwards, while the reverse pattern is evident for ship-mediated species and for those introduced with aquaculture. There is an increasing trend in new introductions via the Suez Canal and via

  20. Mechanisms generating modification of benthos following tidal flat invasion by a Spartina hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Carlos; Grosholz, Edwin D; Levin, Lisa A; Blake, Rachael

    2006-08-01

    Many coastal habitats are being substantially altered by introduced plants. In San Francisco Bay, California, USA, a hybrid form of the eastern cordgrass Spartina alterniflora is rapidly invading open mudflats in southern and central sections of the Bay, altering habitat, reducing macrofaunal densities, and shifting species composition. The invasion has resulted in significant losses of surface-feeding amphipods, bivalves, and cirratulid polychaetes, while subsurface feeding groups such as tubificid oligochaetes and capitellid polychaetes have been unaffected. In the present paper, we document the causes and mechanisms underlying the changes observed. Through a series of in situ manipulative experiments we examined the influence of hybrid Spartina canopy on a range of physical, chemical, and biological properties. The hybrid Spartina canopy exerted a strong influence on the hydrodynamic regime, triggering a series of physical, chemical, and biological changes in the benthic system. Relative to tidal flats, water velocity was reduced in hybrid patches, promoting deposition of fine-grained, organic-rich particles. The resulting changes in the sediment environment included increased porewater sulfide concentrations and anoxia, which led to poor survivorship of surface feeders such as bivalves, amphipods, and polychaetes. These are key taxa that support higher trophic levels including migratory shorebirds that feed on tidal flats. Altered flow in the Spartina canopy further contributed to changes in barnacle recruitment and resuspension of adult benthic invertebrates. Increased crab-induced predation pressure associated with Spartina invasion also contributed to changes in benthic invertebrate communities. Our results suggest that multiple physical, chemical, biotic, and trophic impacts of the Spartina invasion have resulted in substantial changes in benthic communities that are likely to have important effects on the entire ecosystem.