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Sample records for deposit probe overfladetemperatur

  1. Electrospray deposition from fountain pen AFM probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, J.; Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Abelmann, Leon; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present for the first time electrospraying from fountain pen probes. By using electrospray contactless deposition in an AFM setup becomes possible. Experiments on a dedicated setup were carried out as first step towards this goal. Spraying from 8 and 2 µm apertures was observed. For

  2. Iron-sulfide crystals in probe deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming

    1998-01-01

    Iron-sulfides were observed in deposits collected on a probe inserted at the top of the furnace of a coal-fired power station in Denmark. The chemical composition of the iron-sulfides is equivalent to pyrrhotite (FeS). The pyrrhotites are present as crystals and, based on the shape of the crystals......: (1) impact of low viscous droplets of iron sulfide; and (2) sulfur diffusion. Previous research on the influence of pyrite on slagging focused on the decomposition of pyrite into pyrrhotite and especially on the oxidation stage of this product during impact on the heat transfer surfaces...

  3. Interpretation of plasma impurity deposition probes. Analytic approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangeby, P. C.

    1987-10-01

    Insertion of a probe into the plasma induces a high speed flow of the hydrogenic plasma to the probe which, by friction, accelerates the impurity ions to velocities approaching the hydrogenic ion acoustic speed, i.e., higher than the impurity ion thermal speed. A simple analytic theory based on this effect provides a relation between impurity fluxes to the probe Γimp and the undisturbed impurity ion density nimp, with the hydrogenic temperature and density as input parameters. Probe size also influences the collection process and large probes are found to attract a higher flux density than small probes in the same plasma. The quantity actually measured, cimp, the impurity atom surface density (m-2) net-deposited on the probe, is related to Γimp and thus to nimp by taking into account the partial removal of deposited material caused by sputtering and the redeposition process.

  4. Deposition probe measurements of impurities injected into a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Grote, H.; Herrmann, A.

    1985-01-01

    Impurity confinement behaviour has been studied by using a deposition probe in conjunction with pellet injection. Generally, an exponential decay of the impurity efflux and nearly symmetric ion/electron side toroidal flows have been observed. During phases of strong plasma disturbances, asymmetric flow is seen, indicative of edge transport and prompt recycling from local sources. The application of ECRH may cause such disturbances. (author)

  5. Development and evaluation of a long-term deposit probe for on-line monitoring of deposit growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, Anders; Lauren, Tor; Yrjas, Patrik; Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20540 Turku (Finland); Friesenbichler, Joachim [Institute for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems, Technical University Graz Inffeldg. 21b, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2007-12-15

    A newly designed air-cooled probe for on-line monitoring of deposition growth has been tested in a boiler firing three woody fuels. Thermocouples are mounted on both sides of the tube wall enabling measurements of the heat flux through the probe wall. Knowing the heat flux through the probe wall, it is possible to measure the additional heat transfer resistance caused by the deposit and to estimate the properties of the deposit. Calculating the deposit thickness using the collected temperature data indicated the thinnest deposit when wood was fired, followed by bark and waste wood. The calculated deposit thickness was larger than those found when analysing the deposit thickness after the probe had been removed. Nevertheless, the ranking of fuels by deposit build-up rate was the same. (author)

  6. Probe Measurements of Ash Deposit Formation Rate and Shedding in a Biomass Suspension-Fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    The aim of this study was to investigate ash deposit formation rate, heat uptake reduction and deposit removal by using advanced online ash deposition and sootblowing probes in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, utilizing wood and straw pellets as fuel. The influence of fuel type (straw share...

  7. Deposition of molecular probes in heavy ion tracks

    CERN Document Server

    Esser, M

    1999-01-01

    By using polarized fluorescence techniques the physical properties of heavy ion tracks such as the dielectric number, molecular alignment and track radius can be traced by molecular fluorescence probes. Foils of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were used as a matrix for the ion tracks wherein fluorescence probes such as aminostyryl-derivatives can be incorporated using a suitable solvent, e.g. N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) as transport medium. The high sensitivity of fluorescence methods allowed the comparison of the probe properties in ion tracks with the virgin material. From the fluorescence Stokes shift the dielectric constants could be calculated, describing the dielectric surroundings of the molecular probes. The lower dielectric constant in the tracks gives clear evidence that there is no higher accommodation of the highly polar solvent DMF in the tracks compared with the virgin material. Otherwise the dielectric constant in the tracks should be higher than in the virgin material. The orientation of t...

  8. Floating harmonic probe measurements in the low-temperature plasma jet deposition system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zanáška, M.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Čada, Martin; Kudrna, Pavel; Tichý, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2018), s. 1-8, č. článku 025205. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00863S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma diagnostic * floating harmonic probe * Langmuir probe * hollow cathode * non-conducting film deposition Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics ) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  9. Deposit Probe Measurements in Danish Grate and Pulverized Fuel Biomass Power Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    . Corresponding samples of fuels, ash deposits and fly ash have provided information on the transformation of inorganics in the boiler. Generally, grate fired boilers provide a fly ash containing high contents of K, Cl and S compared to the fuel ash, while suspension fired boilers fly ash has a composition nearly...... similar to the fuel ash. Inner most biomass deposits are always salt-rich, while thicker deposit layers also contain some Si and Ca. Deposit probe formation rate measurements have been performed in different ways on several boilers. Grate and suspension fired boilers seems to cause similar deposit...... formation rates. Suspension fired boilers generate more fly ash, while grate boilers form a fly ash with a higher fraction of melt formation (and thereby a higher sticking probability) at similar temperatures. For suspension fired units it is observed that wood with a lower ash content than straw gives rise...

  10. Overview of wall probes for erosion and deposition studies in the TEXTOR tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rubel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An overview of diagnostic tools – test limiters and collector probes – used over the years for material migration studies in the TEXTOR tokamak is presented. Probe transfer systems are shown and their technical capabilities are described. This is accompanied by a brief presentation of selected results and conclusions from the research on material erosion – deposition processes including tests of candidate materials (e.g. W, Mo, carbon-based composites for plasma-facing components in controlled fusion devices. The use of tracer techniques and methods for analysis of materials retrieved from the tokamak are summarized. The impact of research on the reactor wall technology is addressed.

  11. Study on electrostatic and electromagnetic probes operated in ceramic and metallic depositing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styrnoll, T; Bienholz, S; Awakowicz, P; Lapke, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses plasma probe diagnostics, namely the multipole resonance probe (MRP) and Langmuir probe (LP), operated in depositing plasmas. The aim of this work is to show that the combination of both probes provides stable and robust measurements and clear determination of plasma parameters for metallic and ceramic coating processes. The probes use different approaches to determine plasma parameters, e.g. electron density n e and electron temperature T e . The LP is a well-established plasma diagnostic, and its applicability in technological plasmas is well documented. The LP is a dc probe that performs a voltage sweep and analyses the measured current, which makes it insensitive against conductive metallic coating. However, once the LP is dielectrically coated with a ceramic film, its functionality is constricted. In contrast, the MRP was recently presented as a monitoring tool, which is insensitive to coating with dielectric ceramics. It is a new plasma diagnostic based on the concept of active plasma resonance spectroscopy, which uses the universal characteristic of all plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency. The MRP emits a frequency sweep and the absorption of the signal, the |S 11 | parameter, is analysed. Since the MRP concept is based on electromagnetic waves, which are able to transmit dielectrics, it is insensitive to dielectric coatings. But once the MRP is metallized with a thin conductive film, no undisturbed RF-signal can be emitted into the plasma, which leads to falsified plasma parameter. In order to compare both systems, during metallic or dielectric coating, the probes are operated in a magnetron CCP, which is equipped with a titanium target. We present measurements in metallic and dielectric coating processes with both probes and elaborate advantages and problems of each probe operated in each coating environment. (paper)

  12. Scanning probe microscopy investigation of gold clusters deposited on atomically flat substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandamme, N; Janssens, E; Vanhoutte, F; Lievens, P; Haesendonck, C van

    2003-01-01

    We systematically studied the influence of the substrate on the shape, mobility, and stability of deposited gold clusters. The Au n clusters were produced in a laser vaporization source and deposited with low kinetic energy (∼0.4 eV/atom) on atomically flat substrates (graphite, mica, and gold and silver films on mica) under UHV conditions. Their size distribution is probed with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ranges from dimers to several hundreds of atoms. Scanning probe microscopy is used to characterize the deposited clusters and the formation of islands by cluster aggregation. On all substrates, Au n islands can be clearly distinguished and the islands are flattened despite the small impact energy. The shape and size of the island configurations are strongly system dependent. Gold clusters deposited on Au(111) and Ag(111) films grown on mica do not aggregate, but deform due to strong cluster-substrate interactions. The clusters tend to grow epitaxially on these surfaces. On graphite and on mica, deposited clusters do diffuse and aggregate. On the graphite surface, large ramified islands are formed by juxtaposition of small islands and trapping of the clusters at the step edges. On the other hand, the diffusion of the clusters on mica results in a total coalescence of the Au n clusters into compact islands

  13. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Polymers Doped with Fluorescent Probes. Application to Environmental Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollar, E; Villavieja, Mm; Gaspard, S; Oujja, M; Corrales, T; Georgiou, S; Domingo, C; Bosch, P; Castillejo, M

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been used to obtain thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene doped with fluorescent probes, amino aromatic compounds S5 and S6, that could be used to sense the presence of contaminating environmental agents. These dopants both in solution and inserted in polymeric films are sensitive to changes in pH, viscosity and polarity, increasing their fluorescence emission and/or modifying the position of their emission band. Films deposits on quartz substrates, obtained by irradiating targets with a Ti:Sapphire laser (800 nm, 120 fs pulse) were analyzed by optical and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy, Laser-Induced Fluorescence, Micro Raman Spectroscopy and Flow Injection Analysis-Mass Spectrometry. The transfer of the polymer and the probe to the substrate is observed to be strongly dependent on the optical absorption coefficient of the polymeric component of the target at the irradiation wavelength

  14. Deposit Probe Measurements in Large Biomass-Fired Grate Boilers and Pulverized-Fuel Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    A number of full-scale deposit probe measuring campaigns conducted in grate-fired and suspension-fired boilers, fired with biomass, have been reviewed and compared. The influence of operational parameters on the chemistry of ash and deposits, on deposit build-up rates, and on shedding behavior has...... of the deposits formed is determined by the fly ash composition and the flue gas temperature; increases in the local flue gas temperature lead to higher contents of Si and Ca and lower contents of Cl in the deposits. The net deposit build-up rates in grate-fired and suspension-fired boilers are at similar levels....../wood-firing in suspension-fired boilers, shedding occurred by debonding with incomplete removal at flue gas temperatures of 600–1000 °C and by debonding with complete removal during wood-firing in suspension-fired boilers at high flue gas temperatures (1300 °C). Shedding events were not observed during wood suspension...

  15. Study of modification methods of probes for critical-dimension atomic-force microscopy by the deposition of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageev, O. A., E-mail: ageev@sfedu.ru [Southern Federal University, Institute for Nanotechnologies, Electronics, and Electronic Equipment Engineering (Russian Federation); Bykov, Al. V. [NT-MDT (Russian Federation); Kolomiitsev, A. S.; Konoplev, B. G.; Rubashkina, M. V.; Smirnov, V. A.; Tsukanova, O. G. [Southern Federal University, Institute for Nanotechnologies, Electronics, and Electronic Equipment Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The results of an experimental study of the modification of probes for critical-dimension atomicforce microscopy (CD-AFM) by the deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to improve the accuracy with which the surface roughness of vertical walls is determined in submicrometer structures are presented. Methods of the deposition of an individual CNT onto the tip of an AFM probe via mechanical and electrostatic interaction between the probe and an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are studied. It is shown that, when the distance between the AFM tip and a VACNT array is 1 nm and the applied voltage is within the range 20–30 V, an individual carbon nanotube is deposited onto the tip. On the basis of the results obtained in the study, a probe with a carbon nanotube on its tip (CNT probe) with a radius of 7 nm and an aspect ratio of 1:15 is formed. Analysis of the CNT probe demonstrates that its use improves the resolution and accuracy of AFM measurements, compared with the commercial probe, and also makes it possible to determine the roughness of the vertical walls of high-aspect structures by CD-AFM. The results obtained can be used to develop technological processes for the fabrication and reconditioning of special AFM probes, including those for CD-AFM, and procedures for the interoperational express monitoring of technological process parameters in the manufacturing of elements for micro- and nanoelectronics and micro- and nanosystem engineering.

  16. Electrostatic deposition of a micro solder particle using a single probe by applying a single rectangular pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakabayashi, Daizo; Sawai, Kenji; Saito, Shigeki; Takahashi, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, micromanipulation techniques have been in high demand. A technique to deposit a metal microparticle onto a metal substrate by using a single metal probe has been proposed as one of the techniques. A solder particle with a diameter of 20–30 µm, initially adhering to the probe tip, is detached and deposited onto a substrate. The success rate of the particle deposition was 44% in the previous research, and is insufficient for industrial applications. In this paper, a technique of particle deposition by applying a single rectangular pulse is proposed, and the mechanism of the deposition is described. In the mechanism, an electric discharge between the probe and the particle when the particle reaches the substrate plays an important role in the particle deposition. Moreover, the mechanism of the proposed technique is verified by experiments of particle deposition, which are observed using a high-speed camera, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an oscilloscope. The success rate of the particle deposition has increased to 93% by the proposed technique. Furthermore, the damage to the particle by the electric discharge is evaluated using an RC circuit model, and the applicability of the proposed technique is discussed. (paper)

  17. Impurity deposition on surface probes during different operation modes at EXTRAP T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowska, I.; Bergsaker, H.; Hellblom, G.

    1991-01-01

    Surface probes were used in the impurity control program during initial operation of the EXTRAP T1 device. The EXTRAP concept, design and operation characteristics are given elsewhere. The dimensions of the device are R/a=0.5m/0.06m. Four different modes of operation were studied: pure EXTRAP, mixed EXTRAP, RFP and ULQ. Briefly, all four are toroidal plasma discharges, with poloidal magnetic field due to the toroidal plasma current. In the ULQ case, a relatively strong external toroidal magnetic field is applied. In the RFP, and in the mixed mode, an external toroidal field is applied early in the discharge, and the plasma subsequently relaxes into a state with self-generated toroidal field. In the EXTRAP and mixed EXTRAP modes, an additional strong external octupole field is applied, breaking the poloidal symmetry. Throughout the initial period of operation of the device, the plasma performance was largely dominated by impurities, in particular fluorine, which was present due to an accidental contamination of the vessel. Probes have been exposed in wall/liner position, and the objective has been to measure erosion and deposition and try to identify which mechanisms are mainly responsible for impurity production. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Foil deposition alpha collector probe for TFTR's D-T phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, H.W.; Darrow, D.S.; Timberlake, J.; Zweben, S.J.; Chong, G.P.; Pitcher, C.S.; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G.

    1995-03-01

    A new foil deposition alpha collector sample probe has been developed for TFTR's D-T phase. D-T fusion produced alpha particles escaping from the plasma are implanted in nickel foils located in a series of collimating ports on the detector. The nickel foils are removed from the tokamak after exposure to one or more plasma discharges and analyzed for helium content. This detector is intended to provide improved alpha particle energy resolution and pitch angle coverage over existing lost alpha detectors, and to provide an absolutely calibrated cross-check with these detectors. The ability to resolve between separate energy components of alpha particle loss is estimated to be ∼ 20%. A full 360 degree of pitch angle coverage is provided for by 8 channels having an acceptance range of ∼ 53 degree per channel. These detectors will be useful in characterizing classical and anomalous alpha losses and any collective alpha instabilities that may be excited during the D-T campaign of TFTR

  19. Smart near-infrared fluorescence probes with donor-acceptor structure for in vivo detection of β-amyloid deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Mengchao; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Liu, Boli; Saji, Hideo

    2014-03-05

    The deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the parenchymal and cortical brain is accepted as the main pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, early detection of AD still presents a challenge. With the assistance of molecular imaging techniques, imaging agents specifically targeting Aβ plaques in the brain may lead to the early diagnosis of AD. Herein, we report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a series of smart near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging probes with donor-acceptor architecture bridged by a conjugated π-electron chain for Aβ plaques. The chemical structure of these NIRF probes is completely different from Congo Red and Thioflavin-T. Probes with a longer conjugated π system (carbon-carbon double bond) displayed maximum emission in PBS (>650 nm), which falls in the best range for NIRF probes. These probes were proved to have affinity to Aβ plaques in fluorescent staining of brain sections from an AD patient and double transgenic mice, as well as in an in vitro binding assay using Aβ(1-42) aggregates. One probe with high affinity (K(i) = 37 nM, K(d) = 27 nM) was selected for in vivo imaging. It can penetrate the blood-brain barrier of nude mice efficiently and is quickly washed out of the normal brain. Moreover, after intravenous injection of this probe, 22-month-old APPswe/PSEN1 mice exhibited a higher relative signal than control mice over the same period of time, and ex vivo fluorescent observations confirmed the existence of Aβ plaques. In summary, this probe meets most of the requirements for a NIRF contrast agent for the detection of Aβ plaques both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. In situ detection of denitrifying bacteria by mRNA-targeted nucleic acid probes and catalyzed reporter deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Michael Vedel; Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten

    can be designed to target a broader range of denitrifying bacteria; however, they require two-pass CARD-FISH, which may result in (too) high background fluorescence. In a first application example, habitat-specific polynucleotide probes were used to quantify bacteria expressing narG and nos...... reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen gas, is essential for the removal of fixed nitrogen from natural and engineered ecosystems. However, community structure and activity dynamics of denitrifying bacteria in most systems are poorly understood, partially due to difficulties in identifying and quantifying...... and catalyzed fluorescent reporter deposition (CARD-FISH). The general feasibility of the approach was first tested with pure cultures of Pseudomonas stutzeri and various denitrifying and nitrate-reducing isolates. Detailed studies of probe specificity and hybridization conditions using Clone-FISH of nar...

  1. Danish Experiences with Deposit Probe Measurements in Grate and Pulverized Fuel Biomass Power Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Several measuring campaigns with focus on deposition behavior have been conducted at full-scale power plants firing biomass in Denmark. These campaigns have been reviewed in this work. The focus is the obtained experiences on deposit formation, shedding and chemistry. When comparing results from...

  2. Atomic Layer Deposition Alumina-Passivated Silicon Nanowires: Probing the Transition from Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor to Electrolytic Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboriau, Dorian; Boniface, Maxime; Valero, Anthony; Aldakov, Dmitry; Brousse, Thierry; Gentile, Pascal; Sadki, Said

    2017-04-19

    Silicon nanowires were coated by a 1-5 nm thin alumina layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to replace poorly reproducible and unstable native silicon oxide by a highly conformal passivating alumina layer. The surface coating enabled probing the behavior of symmetric devices using such electrodes in the EMI-TFSI electrolyte, allowing us to attain a large cell voltage up to 6 V in ionic liquid, together with very high cyclability with less than 4% capacitance fade after 10 6 charge/discharge cycles. These results yielded fruitful insights into the transition between an electrochemical double-layer capacitor behavior and an electrolytic capacitor behavior. Ultimately, thin ALD dielectric coatings can be used to obtain hybrid devices exhibiting large cell voltage and excellent cycle life of dielectric capacitors, while retaining energy and power densities close to the ones displayed by supercapacitors.

  3. Detection of iron-depositing Pedomicrobium species in native biofilms from the Odertal National Park by a new, specific FISH probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Burga; Richert, Inga; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2009-10-01

    Iron-depositing bacteria play an important role in technical water systems (water wells, distribution systems) due to their intense deposition of iron oxides and resulting clogging effects. Pedomicrobium is known as iron- and manganese-oxidizing and accumulating bacterium. The ability to detect and quantify members of this species in biofilm communities is therefore desirable. In this study the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was used to detect Pedomicrobium in iron and manganese incrusted biofilms. Based on comparative sequence analysis, we designed and evaluated a specific oligonucleotide probe (Pedo 1250) complementary to the hypervariable region 8 of the 16S rRNA gene for Pedomicrobium. Probe specificities were tested against 3 different strains of Pedomicrobium and Sphingobium yanoikuyae as non-target organism. Using optimized conditions the probe hybridized with all tested strains of Pedomicrobium with an efficiency of 80%. The non-target organism showed no hybridization signals. The new FISH probe was applied successfully for the in situ detection of Pedomicrobium in different native, iron-depositing biofilms. The hybridization results of native bioflims using probe Pedo_1250 agreed with the results of the morphological structure of Pedomicrobium bioflims based on scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Suspension-firing of wood with coal ash addition: Probe measurements of ash deposit build-up at Avedøre Power Plant (AVV2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood-firing. Investigat...... to the gas phase as HCl(g). Effect of boiler operational parameters on gas emissions has also been investigated.......This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood...... and boiler load on ash deposition propensity was investigated. Results of ash deposition propensity showed increasing trend with increasing flue gas temperature. Video monitoring revealed that the deposits formed were not sticky and could be easily removed, and even at very high flue gas temperatures (> 1350...

  5. High Throughput Nanofabrication of Silicon Nanowire and Carbon Nanotube Tips on AFM Probes by Stencil-Deposited Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engstrøm, Daniel Southcott; Savu, Veronica; Zhu, Xueni

    2011-01-01

    scale nanostencil lithography. Individual vertical SiNWs were grown epitaxially by a catalytic vapor−liquid−solid (VLS) process and MWNTs were grown by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor (PECVD) process on the AFM probes. The AFM probes were tested for imaging micrometers-deep trenches, where...... they demonstrated a significantly better performance than commercial high aspect ratio tips. Our method demonstrates a reliable and cost-efficient route toward wafer scale manufacturing of SiNW and MWNT AFM probes....

  6. Probing the application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for assessment of deposited flux of Radon and Thoron progeny in high exposure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R., E-mail: rosaline@barc.gov.in; Sapra, B.K.; Rout, R.P.; Prajith, R.

    2016-12-01

    Direct measurement of Radon and Thoron progeny in the atmosphere and occupational environments such as Uranium mines, Uranium and Thorium handling facilities has gained importance because of its radiological significance in inhalation dose assessment. In this regard, Radon and Thoron Progeny sensors (DTPS and DRPS) are the only passive solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD, LR115) based devices which are being extensively used for time integrated direct progeny measurements. An essential component of the analysis is the chemical etching of the detectors, followed by spark counting of tracks and then estimation of the inhalation dose using appropriate calibration factors. Alternatively, the tracks may be counted using image analysis techniques. However, under high exposure conditions, both these methods have inherent limitations and errors arising due to increased frequency of tracks. In the present work, we probe the use of Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy to analyse the deposited fluence of the progeny particulates based on change in transmittance of the nitric group vibrational bands of the LR115. A linear relationship between the transmittance and the deposited fluence was observed, which can be used to estimate the deposited fluence rate and the inhalation dose. This alternative method of analysis will provide a faster and non-destructive technique for inhalation dose assessment, specially for routine large scale measurements. - Highlights: • An alternative method of inhalation dose assessment. • Linearity between the transmittance of nitric goup bands and the deposited fluence. • Faster and non-destructive technique for high exposure scenarios.

  7. IMPY, a potential {beta}-amyloid imaging probe for detection of prion deposits in scrapie-infected mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, P.-J. [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); Bernard, Serge [IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); INRA, UR1282, IASP, 37380 Nouzilly (France)], E-mail: bernard@tours.inra.fr; Sarradin, Pierre [INRA, UR1282, IASP, 37380 Nouzilly (France); Vergote, Jackie [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); Barc, Celine [INRA, UR1282, IASP, 37380 Nouzilly (France); Chalon, Sylvie [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France); Kung, M.-P.; Kung, Hank F. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Guilloteau, Denis [INSERM, U619, F-37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, F-37000 Tours (France); IFR135, F-37000 Tours (France)

    2008-02-15

    Introduction: A potential single-photon emission computed tomography imaging agent for labeling of A{beta} plaques of Alzheimer's disease, IMPY (2-(4'-dimethylaminophenyl)-6-iodo-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine), would be effective in detection of prion amyloid deposits in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Methods: In vitro autoradiographic studies were carried out with [{sup 125}I]IMPY on brain sections from scrapie-infected mice and age-matched controls. Competition study was performed to evaluate the prion deposit binding specificity with nonradioactive IMPY. Results: Binding of [{sup 125}I]IMPY was observed in infected brain sections, while on age-matched control brain sections, there was no or very low labeling. Prion deposit binding was confirmed by histoblots with prion protein-specific monoclonal antibody 2D6. In the presence of nonradioactive IMPY, the binding of [{sup 125}I]IMPY was significantly inhibited in all regions studied. Conclusions: These findings indicate that IMPY can detect the prion deposits in vitro in scrapie-infected mice. Labeled with {sup 123}I, this ligand may be useful to quantitate prion deposit burdens in TSEs by in vivo imaging.

  8. IMPY, a potential β-amyloid imaging probe for detection of prion deposits in scrapie-infected mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, P.-J.; Bernard, Serge; Sarradin, Pierre; Vergote, Jackie; Barc, Celine; Chalon, Sylvie; Kung, M.-P.; Kung, Hank F.; Guilloteau, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: A potential single-photon emission computed tomography imaging agent for labeling of Aβ plaques of Alzheimer's disease, IMPY (2-(4'-dimethylaminophenyl)-6-iodo-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine), would be effective in detection of prion amyloid deposits in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Methods: In vitro autoradiographic studies were carried out with [ 125 I]IMPY on brain sections from scrapie-infected mice and age-matched controls. Competition study was performed to evaluate the prion deposit binding specificity with nonradioactive IMPY. Results: Binding of [ 125 I]IMPY was observed in infected brain sections, while on age-matched control brain sections, there was no or very low labeling. Prion deposit binding was confirmed by histoblots with prion protein-specific monoclonal antibody 2D6. In the presence of nonradioactive IMPY, the binding of [ 125 I]IMPY was significantly inhibited in all regions studied. Conclusions: These findings indicate that IMPY can detect the prion deposits in vitro in scrapie-infected mice. Labeled with 123 I, this ligand may be useful to quantitate prion deposit burdens in TSEs by in vivo imaging

  9. Deposition of lithium on a plasma edge probe in TFTR -- Behavior of lithium-painted walls interacting with edge plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirooka, Y. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Ashida, K. [Toyama Univ. (Japan); Kugel, H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1998-05-01

    Recent observations have indicated that lithium pellet injection wall conditioning plays an important role in achieving the enhanced supershot regime in TFTR. However, little is understood about the behavior of lithium-coated limiter walls, interacting with edge plasmas. In the final campaign of TFTR, a cylindrical carbon fiber composite probe was inserted into the boundary plasma region and exposed to ohmically-heated deuterium discharges with lithium pellet injection. The ion-drift side probe surface exhibits a sign of codeposition of lithium, carbon, oxygen, and deuterium, whereas the electron side essentially indicates high-temperature erosion. It is found that lithium is incorporated in these codeposits in the form of oxide at the concentration of a few percent. In the electron side, lithium has been found to penetrate deeply into the probe material, presumably via rapid diffusion through interplane spaces in the graphite crystalline. Though it is not conclusive, materials mixing in the carbon and lithium system appears to be a key process in successful lithium wall conditioning.

  10. Probing the Gas-Phase Dynamics of Graphene Chemical Vapour Deposition using in-situ UV Absorption Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shivayogimath, Abhay; Mackenzie, David; Luo, Birong

    2017-01-01

    The processes governing multilayer nucleation in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphene are important for obtaining high-quality monolayer sheets, but remain poorly understood. Here we show that higher-order carbon species in the gas-phase play a major role in multilayer nucleation...

  11. Strong Metal Support Interaction of Pt and Ru Nanoparticles Deposited on HOPG Probed by the H-D Exchange Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiordaliso, Elisabetta M.; Dahl, Søren; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between metals and support is investigated in the case of 50 Å Pt and 50 Å Ru films deposited on a HOPG substrate. The films are prepared by electron beam physical vapor deposition and annealed in UHV to temperatures up to 700 °C. The equilibrium hydrogen exchange rate between...... adsorbed and gas phase at 1 bar is measured before and after annealing. The rate is measured in the temperature range of 40–200 °C at 1 bar, by utilization of the H-D exchange reaction. Experiments are performed on fresh cleaved and sputtered HOPG, which give similar results. We find that annealing...... the films from 150 up to 700 °C increases the amount of carbon present in the films up to 95%, as derived by surface analysis, indicating the formation of a carbon layer on top of the metal films. The exchange rate decreases dramatically with increasing carbon content on the films for both metals, pointing...

  12. Diagnostics of capacitively-coupled hydrocarbon plasmas for deposition of diamond-like carbon films using quadrupole mass spectrometry and Langmuir probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Akinori; Fukai, Shun; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Takayuki

    2015-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are the hydrogenated amorphous carbon films, which contains a mixture of sp2- and sp3-bonded carbon. The DLC films have been widely used for various applications, such as automotive, semiconductors, medical devices, since have excellent material properties in lower friction, higher chemical stability, higher hardness, higher wear resistance. Until now, numerous investigations on the DLC films using plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition have been done. For precise control of coating technique of DLC films, it is enormously important to clarify the fundamental properties in hydrocarbon plasmas, as a source of hydrocarbon ions and radicals. In this paper, the fundamental properties in a low pressure radio-frequency hydrocarbon (Ar/CH4 (1 %) gas mixture) plasmas have been diagnosed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (HIDEN ANARYTICAL Ltd., EQP-300) and Langmuir probe system (HIDEN ANARYTICAL Ltd., ESPion). This work was partly supported by KAKENHI (No.26420247), and a ``Grant for Advanced Industrial Technology Development (No.11B06004d)'' in 2011 from the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan.

  13. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  14. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  15. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  16. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  17. Infraordinary Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The exhibition Infraordinary Deposits presents three works in progress by PhD Fellow Espen Lunde Nielsen from the on-going PhD project Architectural Probes of the Infraordinary: Social Coexistence through Everyday Spaces. The infraordinary is understood as the opposite of the extraordinary...... and as that which is ‘worn half-invisible’ by use. Nevertheless, these unregarded spaces play a vital role to the social dimension of the city. The selected projects (‘urban biopsies’) on display explore how people coexist through these spaces and within the city itself, either through events in real......, daily 8.45 – 15.00 Where: Aarhus School of Architecture, The Canteen, Nørreport 18, 8000 Aarhus C...

  18. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anna Neustrup; Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    A project investigating the effectiveness of a collection of online resources for teachers' professional development used mobile probes as a data collection method. Teachers received questions and tasks on their mobile in a dialogic manner while in their everyday context as opposed...... to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...... level. This paper is an initial investigation of how the mobile probes process proved to engage teachers in their efforts to improve teaching. It also highlights some of the barriers emerging when applying mobile probes as a scaffold for learning....

  19. Optical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, J.; Decaudin, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The probe includes optical means of refractive index n, refracting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n1>n and reflecting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n2 [fr

  20. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with 32 P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism's genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens

  2. DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelino, J

    1993-12-31

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with {sup 32}P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism`s genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens 10 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  5. Modular design of AFM probe with sputtered silicon tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Thaysen, Jacob; Bouwstra, Siebe

    2001-01-01

    of the thin films constituting the cantilever. The AFM probe has an integrated tip made of a thick sputtered silicon layer, which is deposited after the probe has been defined and just before the cantilevers are released. The tips are so-called rocket tips made by reactive ion etching. We present probes...

  6. Scanning microscopic four-point conductivity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Hansen, Torben Mikael; Bøggild, Peter

    2002-01-01

    A method for fabricating microscopic four-point probes is presented. The method uses silicon-based microfabrication technology involving only two patterning steps. The last step in the fabrication process is an unmasked deposition of the conducting probe material, and it is thus possible to select...... the conducting material either for a silicon wafer or a single probe unit. Using shadow masking photolithography an electrode spacing (pitch) down to 1.1 mum was obtained, with cantilever separation down to 200 run. Characterisation measurements have shown the microscopic probes to be mechanically very flexible...

  7. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  8. Probe Techniques. Introductory Remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emeleus, K. G. [School of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    1968-04-15

    In this brief introduction to the session on probes, the history of theii development is first touched on briefly. Reference is then made to the significance of the work to be described by Medicus, for conductivity and recombination calculations, and by Lam and Su, for a wide range of medium and higher pressure plasmas. Finally, a number of other probe topics are mentioned, including multiple probes; probes in electronegative plasmas; resonance probes; probes in noisy discharges; probes as oscillation detectors; use of probes where space-charge is not negligible. (author)

  9. Characterization of coating probe with Ti-DLC for electrical scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shia Xiaolei; Guo Liqiu; Bai Yang; Qiao Lijie

    2011-01-01

    In electrical scanning probe microscope (ESPM) applications, the wear and conductivity of the probe are undoubtedly serious concerns since they affect the integrity of the measurements. This study investigates the characterization of Ti doped diamond-like-carbon (DLC) as coating material on a silicon cantilever for ESPM. We deposited a layer of Ti-DLC thin film on the surface of Si cantilever by magnetron sputtering. The morphology and composition of the Ti-DLC films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. We also compared the wear resistance, electric conductivity and scanning image quality of the Ti-DLC-coated probes with those of commercially available conductive probes. The results showed that the electric conductivity and the scanning image quality of the Ti-DLC-coated probes were the same as the commercial conductive probes, while the wear resistance and service life was significantly better.

  10. Tsunami deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  11. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  12. Helium ion beam induced growth of hammerhead AFM probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanda, G.; Veldhoven, E. van; Maas, D.J.; Sadeghian Marnani, H.; Alkemade, P.F.A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the direct-write growth of hammerhead atomic force microscope (AFM) probes by He+ beam induced deposition of platinum-carbon. In order to grow a thin nanoneedle on top of a conventional AFM probe, the authors move a focused He+ beam during exposure to a PtC precursor gas. In the

  13. A Crowdsourcing Evaluation of the NIH Chemical Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I.; Bologa, Cristian G.; Boyer, Scott; Curpan, Ramona F.; Glen, Robert C.; Hopkins, Andrew L.; Lipinski, Christopher A.; Marshall, Garland R.; Martin, Yvonne C.; Ostopovici-Halip, Liliana; Rishton, Gilbert; Ursu, Oleg; Vaz, Roy J.; Waller, Chris; Waldmann, Herbert; Sklar, Larry A.

    2013-01-01

    Between 2004 and 2008, the NIH molecular libraries and imaging initiative (MLI) pilot phase funded ten high-throughput Screening Centers, resulting in the deposition of 691 assays into PubChem and the nomination of 64 chemical probes. We crowdsourced the MLI output to 11 experts, who expressed medium or high levels of confidence in 48 of these 64 probes. PMID:19536101

  14. A Crowdsourcing Evaluation of the NIH Chemical Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; Bologa, Cristian G.; Boyer, Scott; Curpan, Ramona F.; Glen, Robert C.; Hopkins, Andrew L.; Lipinski, Christopher A.; Marshall, Garland R.; Martin, Yvonne C.; Ostopovici-Halip, Liliana; Rishton, Gilbert; Ursu, Oleg; Vaz, Roy J.; Waller, Chris; Waldmann, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Between 2004 and 2008, the NIH molecular libraries and imaging initiative (MLI) pilot phase funded ten high-throughput Screening Centers, resulting in the deposition of 691 assays into PubChem and the nomination of 64 chemical probes. We crowdsourced the MLI output to 11 experts, who expressed medium or high levels of confidence in 48 of these 64 probes.

  15. Exogenous deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous deposits forming as a result of complex exogenous processes, passed under the influence of outside forces on the Earth surface. To them relate physical and chemical weathering, decomposition and decay of mineral masses, redistribution and transportation of material, forming and deposit of new minerals and ores steady on the earth surface conditions

  16. Mobile Game Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2006-01-01

    This paper will examine how probes can be useful for game designers in the preliminary phases of a design process. The work is based upon a case study concerning pervasive mobile phone games where Mobile Game Probes have emerged from the project. The new probes are aimed towards a specific target...... group and the goal is to specify the probes so they will cover the most relevant areas for our project. The Mobile Game Probes generated many interesting results and new issues occurred, since the probes came to be dynamic and favorable for the process in new ways....

  17. Diamond-coated probe head for measurements in the deep SOL and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrittwieser, R.; Xu, G. S.; Yan, Ning

    We have tested two cylindrical graphite probe heads coated by a layer of electrically isolating UNCD (Ultra Nano-Crystalline Diamond) using a CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition) method. The probe heads were mounted on the reciprocating probe manipulator of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting T...

  18. Probe-diverse ptychography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, I., E-mail: isaac.russellpeterson@rmit.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, the University of Melbourne, School of Physics, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Harder, R. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Robinson, I.K. [Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    We propose an extension of ptychography where the target sample is scanned separately through several probes with distinct amplitude and phase profiles and a diffraction image is recorded for each probe and each sample translation. The resulting probe-diverse dataset is used to iteratively retrieve high-resolution images of the sample and all probes simultaneously. The method is shown to yield significant improvement in the reconstructed sample image compared to the image obtained using the standard single-probe ptychographic phase-retrieval scheme.

  19. Traversing probe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashburn, D.N.; Stevens, R.H.; Woodall, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride. 10 claims, 6 figures

  20. Traversing probe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Stevens, Richard H.; Woodall, Harold C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride.

  1. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  2. Integrated microfluidic probe station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, C M; Qasaimeh, M A; Brastaviceanu, T; Anderson, K; Kabakibo, Y; Juncker, D

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution--thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet--and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  3. Deposition and high temperature corrosion in a 10 MW straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Hanne Philbert; Frandsen, Flemming; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Deposition and corrosion measurements were conducted at a 10 MW wheat straw fired stoker boiler used for combined power and heat production. The plant experiences major problems with deposits on the heat transfer surfaces, and test probes have shown enhanced corrosion due to selective corrosion...... for metal temperatures above 520 C. Deposition measurements carried out at a position equal to the secondary superheater showed deposits rich in potassium and chlorine and to a lesser extent in silicon, calcium, and sulfur. Potassium and chlorine make up 40-80 wt% of the deposits. Mechanisms of deposit...

  4. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  5. Fouling tendency of ash resulting from burning mixtures of biofuels. Part 3. Influence of probe surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mischa Theis; Bengt-Johan Skrifvars; Maria Zevenhoven; Mikko Hupa; Honghi Tran [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo (Finland). Combustion and Materials Chemistry

    2006-10-15

    Mixtures of peat with bark and peat with straw were burned in a large lab-scale entrained flow reactor under controlled conditions, and deposits were collected on an air-cooled probe controlled at four to six different probe surface temperatures between 475 and 625{sup o}C. The results show that the probe surface temperature has no effect on the deposition rate when peat is burned. When burning bark, either alone or in mixtures with peat, the deposition rate decreases with increasing probe surface temperature. When burning straw, either alone or in mixtures with peat, the deposition rate increases with increasing probe surface temperature up to 550{sup o}C and remains constant at higher temperatures. The Cl content in the deposits decreases with increasing probe surface temperature, regardless of the mixture composition. In deposits obtained from burning peat-bark mixtures, K appears as K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} when the deposition rate is low and as KCl when the deposition rate is high. In deposits obtained from burning peat-straw mixtures, no clear relationship is found between the deposition rate and the contents of Cl, S and K in the deposits. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Synthesis and electroplating of high resolution insulated carbon nanotube scanning probes for imaging in liquid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N A; Noh, J H; Lassiter, M G; Guo, S; Kalinin, S V; Rack, P D

    2012-04-13

    High resolution and isolated scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is in demand for continued development of energy storage and conversion systems involving chemical reactions at the nanoscale as well as an improved understanding of biological systems. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have large aspect ratios and, if leveraged properly, can be used to develop high resolution SPM probes. Isolation of SPM probes can be achieved by depositing a dielectric film and selectively etching at the apex of the probe. In this paper the fabrication of a high resolution and isolated SPM tip is demonstrated using electron beam induced etching of a dielectric film deposited onto an SPM tip with an attached CNT at the apex.

  7. Method and means for detecting magnetic deposits in tubular plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, W

    1981-03-04

    Deposits of magnetite on tubes in a heat exchanger, e.g., a steam generator, are detected by measuring the magnetic reluctance within the tubes. A probe for measuring the reluctance includes a permanent magnet (or a magnetic core and an excitation coil wound on the core) and a magnetic flux detector such as a Hall generator mounted for example on one of the non-magnetic rings. Changes in flux density as the probe is pushed through the tubes are detected by the Hall generator, thus indicating the presence of magnetite deposits. The probe includes a non-magnetic tube for pushing it through the heat exchanger tubes.

  8. Innovative SPM Probes for Energy-Storage Science: MWCNT-Nanopipettes to Nanobattery Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jonathan; Talin, Alec; Pearse, Alexander; Kozen, Alexander; Reutt-Robey, Janice

    As energy-storage materials and designs continue to advance, new tools are needed to direct and explore ion insertion/de-insertion at well-defined battery materials interfaces. Scanned probe tips, assembled from actual energy-storage materials, permit SPM measures of local cathode-anode (tip-sample) interactions, including ion transfer. We present examples of ``cathode'' MWCNT-terminated STM probe tips interacting with Li(s)/Si(111) anode substrates. The MWCNT tip functions as both SPM probe and Li-nanopipette,[1] for controlled transport and manipulation of Li. Local field conditions for lithium ionization and transfer are determined and compared to electrostatic models. Additional lithium metallic and oxide tips have been prepared by thin film deposition on conventional W tips, the latter of which effectively functions as a nanobattery. We demonstrate use of these novel probe materials in the local lithiation of low-index Si anode interfaces, probing local barriers for lithium insertion. Prospects and limitations of these novel SPM probes will be discussed. U.S. Department of Energy Award Number DESC0001160.

  9. Effect of fuel type and deposition surface temperature on the growth and structure of ash deposit collected during co-firing of coal with sewage-sludge, saw-dust and refuse derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof; Weber, Roman [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology

    2008-07-01

    Blends of a South African bituminous ''Middleburg'' coal and three alternative fuels (a municipal sewage-sludge, a saw-dust and a refuse derived fuel) have been fired in the slagging reactor to examine the effect of the added fuel on slagging propensity of the mixtures. Two kinds of deposition probes have been used, un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled steal probes. Distinct differences in physical and chemical structures of the deposits collected using the un-cooled ceramic probes and air-cooled metal probes have been observed. Glassy, easily molten deposits collected on un-cooled ceramic deposition probes were characteristic for co-firing of municipal sewage-sludge with coal. Porous, sintered (not molten) but easily removable deposits of the same fuel blend have been collected on the air-cooled metal deposition probes. Loose, easy removable deposits have been sampled on air-cooled metal deposition probe during co-firing of coal/saw-dust blends. The mass of the deposit sampled at lower surface temperatures (550-700 C) was always larger than the mass sampled at higher temperatures (1100-1300 C) since the higher temperature ash agglomerated and sintered much faster than the low temperature deposit. (orig.)

  10. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  11. Neutrons as a probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizumi, Masashi

    1993-01-01

    As an introduction to the symposium a brief overview will be given about the features of neutrons as a probe. First it will be pointed out that the utilization of neutrons as a probe for investigating the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matters is a benign gift eventuated from the release of atomic energy initiated by Enrico Fermi exactly half century ago. Features of neutrons as a probe are discussed in accordance with the four basic physical properties of neutrons as an elementary particle; (1) no electric charge (the interaction with matter is nuclear), (2) the mass of neutron is 1 amu, (3) spin is 1/2 and (4) neutrons have magnetic dipole moment. Overview will be given on the uniqueness of neutrons as a probe and on the variety in the way they are used in the wide research area from the pure science to the industrial applications. (author)

  12. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  13. Functional scanning probes for sensing, actuation and deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, J.

    2016-01-01

    The imaging of objects by standard bright field microscopy is limited by the wavelength of light. A technique that allows for a higher resolution is atomic force microscopy (AFM). In this technique the topography of a surface is mapped by measuring the force acting on an extremely sharp tip when it

  14. Application of focused ion beam for the fabrication of AFM probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomiytsev, A. S.; Lisitsyn, S. A.; Smirnov, V. A.; Fedotov, A. A.; Varzarev, Yu N.

    2017-10-01

    The results of an experimental study of the probe tips fabrication for critical-dimension atomic force microscopy (CD-AFM) using the focused ion beam (FIB) induced deposition are presented. Methods of the FIB-induced deposition of tungsten and carbon onto the tip of an AFM probe are studied. Based on the results obtained in the study, probes for the CD-AFM technique with a tip height about 1 μm and radius of 20 nm were created. The formation of CD-AFM probes by FIB-induced deposition allows creating a high efficiency tool for nanotechnology and nanodiagnostics. The use of modified cantilevers allows minimizing the artefacts of AFM images and increasing the accuracy of the relief measurement. The obtained results can be used for fabrication of AFM probes for express monitoring of the technological process in the manufacturing of the elements for micro- and nanoelectronics.

  15. CMOS Compatibility of a Micromachining Process Developed for Semiconductor Neural Probe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    An, S

    2001-01-01

    .... Test transistor patterns generated using standard CMOS fabrication line were exposed to a post-CMOS probe making process including dielectric deposition, gold metalization and the dry etching step...

  16. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  17. Fouling deposition characteristic by variation of coal particle size and deposition temperature in DTF (Drop Tube Furnace)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkung, Hueon; Jeon, Youngshin; Kim, Hyungtaek [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Energy Systems Research; Xu, Li-hua [IAE, Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Plant Engineering Center

    2013-07-01

    One of the major operation obstacles in gasification process is ash deposition phenomenon. In this investigation, experiment was carried out to examine coal fouling characteristics using a laminar DTF (Drop Tube Furnace) with variation of operating condition such as different coal size, and probe surface temperature. Four different samples of pulverized coal were injected into DTF under various conditions. The ash particles are deposited on probe by impacting and agglomerating action. Fouling grains are made of eutectic compound, which is made by reacting with acid minerals and alkali minerals, in EPMA (Electron Probe Micro-Analysis). And agglomeration area of fouling at top layer is wide more than it of middle and bottom layer. The major mineral factors of fouling phenomenon are Fe, Ca, and Mg. The deposition quantity of fouling increases with increasing particle size, high alkali mineral (Fe, Ca, and Mg) contents, and ash deposition temperature.

  18. Convective heat flow probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  19. Recombinant phage probes for Listeria monocytogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnazza, S; Gioffre, G; Felici, F; Guglielmino, S [Department of Microbiological, Genetic and Molecular Sciences, University of Messina, Messina (Italy)

    2007-10-03

    Monitoring of food and environmental samples for biological threats, such as Listeria monocytogenes, requires probes that specifically bind biological agents and ensure their immediate and efficient detection. There is a need for robust and inexpensive affinity probes as an alternative to antibodies. These probes may be recruited from random peptide libraries displayed on filamentous phage. In this study, we selected from two phage peptide libraries phage clones displaying peptides capable of specific and strong binding to the L. monocytogenes cell surface. The ability of isolated phage clones to interact specifically with L. monocytogenes was demonstrated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by co-precipitation assay. We also assessed the sensitivity of phage-bacteria binding by PCR on phage-captured Listeria cells, which could be detected at a concentration of 10{sup 4} cells ml{sup -1}. In addition, as proof-of-concept, we tested the possibility of immobilizing the affinity-selected phages to a putative biosensor surface. The quality of phage deposition was monitored by ELISA and fluorescent microscopy. Phage-bacterial binding was confirmed by high power optical phase contrast microscopy. Overall, the results of this work validate the concept of affinity-selected recombinant filamentous phages as probes for detecting and monitoring bacterial agents under any conditions that warrant their recognition, including in food products.

  20. Recombinant phage probes for Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnazza, S.; Gioffrè, G.; Felici, F.; Guglielmino, S.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of food and environmental samples for biological threats, such as Listeria monocytogenes, requires probes that specifically bind biological agents and ensure their immediate and efficient detection. There is a need for robust and inexpensive affinity probes as an alternative to antibodies. These probes may be recruited from random peptide libraries displayed on filamentous phage. In this study, we selected from two phage peptide libraries phage clones displaying peptides capable of specific and strong binding to the L. monocytogenes cell surface. The ability of isolated phage clones to interact specifically with L. monocytogenes was demonstrated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by co-precipitation assay. We also assessed the sensitivity of phage-bacteria binding by PCR on phage-captured Listeria cells, which could be detected at a concentration of 104 cells ml-1. In addition, as proof-of-concept, we tested the possibility of immobilizing the affinity-selected phages to a putative biosensor surface. The quality of phage deposition was monitored by ELISA and fluorescent microscopy. Phage-bacterial binding was confirmed by high power optical phase contrast microscopy. Overall, the results of this work validate the concept of affinity-selected recombinant filamentous phages as probes for detecting and monitoring bacterial agents under any conditions that warrant their recognition, including in food products.

  1. First applications of the EXTASE thermal probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, K.; Seiferlin, K.; Marczewski, W.; Gadomski, S.; Spohn, T.

    2003-04-01

    EXTASE is a spin-off project from the MUPUS (Rosetta Lander) thermal probe, both funded by DLR. The thermal probe will be tested in various environments and fields, e.g. in snow research, agriculture, permafrost, monitoring waste deposits and the heat released by decomposition, ground truth for remote sensing etc. The probe is a glass-fibre tube of 1cm diameter, about 32 cm long and carries of 16 sensors for measuring temperature profiles. Each of the sensors can also be heated for in situ measurements of the thermal diffusivity of the penetrated layers, from which we can derive the thermal conductivity. All necessary connections and the sensors itself are printed on a foil which is rolled and glued to the inner wall of the tube. This design results in the significant advantage that the measurements can be done in-situ. No excavation of material is required to measure the thermal conductivity, for instance. Presently we are concentrating on soil science and snow research.We made several measurements in different conditions with prototypes of the probe so far. Among other things, we measured soil temperatures together with meteorological boundary conditions in cooperation with the local Institute of Agrophysics in Lublin (Poland). The first measurements in snow under natural conditions were made on Svalbard (Spitzbergen) together with the Alfred-Wegener-Institute in Bremerhaven (Germany). First results of the measuring campaigns are shown.

  2. Theory of NMR probe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnall, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The NMR probe is the intrinsic part of the NMR system which allows transmission of a stimulus to a sample and the reception of a resulting signal from a sample. NMR probes are used in both imaging and spectroscopy. Optimal probe design is important to the production of adequate signal/moise. It is important for anyone using NMR techniques to understand how NMR probes work and how to optimize probe design

  3. Impedance measurements on Au microelectrodes using controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yuehua; Hansen, Karin Vels; Jacobsen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    High temperature impedance measurements on Au microelectrodes deposited on polished yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) pellets were demonstrated using a newly designed controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope (CAHT-SPM). Probes based on Pt0.8Ir0.2 were fabricated and employed...

  4. One-Probe Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östlin, Anna; Pagh, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    We consider dictionaries that perform lookups by probing a single word of memory, knowing only the size of the data structure. We describe a randomized dictionary where a lookup returns the correct answer with probability 1 - e, and otherwise returns don't know. The lookup procedure uses an expan...

  5. Probing the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  6. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General ... Author Affiliations. Ashok Ambastha1. Joint In-Charge Udaipur Solar Observatory Physical Research laboratory P.O. Box No. 198 Udaipur 313 001, India ...

  7. Flexible position probe assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of a plurality of tubular transducer sections and a flexible supporting member extending through the tubular transducer sections forms a flexible elongated probe of a design suitable for monitoring the level of an element, such as a nuclear magnetically permeable control rod or liquid. 3 claims, 23 figures

  8. Hideout in steam generator tube deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Franklin, K.J.; Turner, C.W.

    1998-05-01

    Hideout in deposits on steam generator tubes was studied using tubes coated with magnetite. Hideout from sodium chloride solutions at 279 degrees C was followed using an on-line high-temperature conductivity probe, as well as by chemical analysis of solution samples from the autoclave in which the studies were done. Significant hideout was observed only at a heat flux greater than 200 kW/m 2 , corresponding to a temperature drop greater than 2 degrees C across the deposits. The concentration factor resulting from the hideout increased highly non-linearly with the heat flux (varying as high as the fourth power of the heat flux). The decrease in the apparent concentration factor with increasing deposit thickness suggested that the pores in the deposit were occupied by a mixture of steam and water, which is consistent with the conclusion from the thermal conductivity measurements on deposits in a separate study. Analyses of the deposits after the hideout tests showed no evidence of any hidden-out solute species, probably due to the concentrations being very near the detection limits and to their escape from the deposit as the tests were being ended. This study showed that hideout in deposits may concentrate solutes in the steam generator bulk water by a factor as high as 2 x 10 3 . Corrosion was evident under the deposit in some tests, with some chromium enrichment on the surface of the tube. Chromium enrichment usually indicates an acidic environment, but the mobility required of chromium to become incorporated into the thick magnetite deposit may indicate corrosion under an alkaline environment. An alkaline environment could result from preferential accumulation of sodium in the solution in the deposit during the hideout process. (author)

  9. Small molecule probes for plant cell wall polysaccharide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eWallace

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed of interlinked polymer networks consisting of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, proteins, and lignin. The ordered deposition of these components is a dynamic process that critically affects the development and differentiation of plant cells. However, our understanding of cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as the diverse cell wall architectures that result from these processes, has been limited by a lack of suitable chemical probes that are compatible with live-cell imaging. In this review, we summarize the currently available molecular toolbox of probes for cell wall polysaccharide imaging in plants, with particular emphasis on recent advances in small molecule-based fluorescent probes. We also discuss the potential for further development of small molecule probes for the analysis of cell wall architecture and dynamics.

  10. EDITORIAL: Probing the nanoworld Probing the nanoworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Mervyn

    2009-10-01

    In nanotechnology, it is the unique properties arising from nanometre-scale structures that lead not only to their technological importance but also to a better understanding of the underlying science. Over the last twenty years, material properties at the nanoscale have been dominated by the properties of carbon in the form of the C60 molecule, single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, and recently graphene. During this period, research published in the journal Nanotechnology has revealed the amazing mechanical properties of such materials as well as their remarkable electronic properties with the promise of new devices. Furthermore, nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanorods, and nanowires from metals and dielectrics have been characterized for their electronic, mechanical, optical, chemical and catalytic properties. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has become the main characterization technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM) the most frequently used SPM. Over the past twenty years, SPM techniques that were previously experimental in nature have become routine. At the same time, investigations using AFM continue to yield impressive results that demonstrate the great potential of this powerful imaging tool, particularly in close to physiological conditions. In this special issue a collaboration of researchers in Europe report the use of AFM to provide high-resolution topographical images of individual carbon nanotubes immobilized on various biological membranes, including a nuclear membrane for the first time (Lamprecht C et al 2009 Nanotechnology 20 434001). Other SPM developments such as high-speed AFM appear to be making a transition from specialist laboratories to the mainstream, and perhaps the same may be said for non-contact AFM. Looking to the future, characterisation techniques involving SPM and spectroscopy, such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, could emerge as everyday methods. In all these advanced techniques, routinely available probes will

  11. S-shaped magnetic macroparticle filter for cathodic arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    A new magnetic macroparticle filter design consisting of two 90 o filters forming an S-shape is described. Transport properties of this S-filter are investigated using Langmuir and deposition probes. It is shown that filter efficiency is product of the efficiencies of two 90 o filters and the deposition rate is still acceptably high to perform thin film deposition. Films of amorphous hard carbon have been deposited using a 90 o filter and the S-filter, and macroparticle content of the films are compared

  12. Modular Rake of Pitot Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Timothy A.; Henry, Michael W.; Homyk, Raymond P.

    2004-01-01

    The figure presents selected views of a modular rake of 17 pitot probes for measuring both transient and steady-state pressures in a supersonic wind tunnel. In addition to pitot tubes visible in the figure, the probe modules contain (1) high-frequency dynamic-pressure transducers connected through wires to remote monitoring circuitry and (2) flow passages that lead to tubes that, in turn, lead to remote steady-state pressure transducers. Prior pitot-probe rakes were fabricated as unitary structures, into which the individual pitot probes were brazed. Repair or replacement of individual probes was difficult, costly, and time-consuming because (1) it was necessary to remove entire rakes in order to unbraze individual malfunctioning probes and (2) the heat of unbrazing a failed probe and of brazing a new probe in place could damage adjacent probes. In contrast, the modules in the present probe are designed to be relatively quickly and easily replaceable with no heating and, in many cases, without need for removal of the entire rake from the wind tunnel. To remove a malfunctioning probe, one first removes a screw-mounted V-cross-section cover that holds the probe and adjacent probes in place. Then one removes a screw-mounted cover plate to gain access to the steady-state pressure tubes and dynamicpressure wires. Next, one disconnects the tube and wires of the affected probe. Finally, one installs a new probe in the reverse of the aforementioned sequence. The wire connections can be made by soldering, but to facilitate removal and installation, they can be made via miniature plugs and sockets. The connections between the probe flow passages and the tubes leading to the remote pressure sensors can be made by use of any of a variety of readily available flexible tubes that can be easily pulled off and slid back on for removal and installation, respectively.

  13. Heavy ion beam probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included

  14. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  15. Probing lipid membrane electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi

    The electrostatic properties of lipid bilayer membranes play a significant role in many biological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is highly sensitive to membrane surface potential in electrolyte solutions. With fully characterized probe tips, AFM can perform quantitative electrostatic analysis of lipid membranes. Electrostatic interactions between Silicon nitride probes and supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were measured by AFM. Classical Gouy-Chapman theory was used to model the membrane electrostatics. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation was numerically solved with finite element method to provide the potential distribution around the AFM tips. Theoretical tip-sample electrostatic interactions were calculated with the surface integral of both Maxwell and osmotic stress tensors on tip surface. The measured forces were interpreted with theoretical forces and the resulting surface charge densities of the membrane surfaces were in quantitative agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation. It was demonstrated that the AFM can quantitatively detect membrane surface potential at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the AFM probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by external field created by the internai membrane dipole moment. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported DOPC membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole density in a noninvasive manner will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. Finally, heterogeneous model membranes were studied with fluid electric force microscopy (FEFM). Electrostatic mapping was demonstrated with 50 nm resolution. The capabilities of quantitative electrostatic measurement and lateral charge density mapping make AFM a unique and powerful

  16. Induced current heating probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Ferguson, B.G.; Winstanley, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    An induced current heating probe is of thimble form and has an outer conducting sheath and a water flooded flux-generating unit formed from a stack of ferrite rings coaxially disposed in the sheath. The energising coil is made of solid wire which connects at one end with a coaxial water current tube and at the other end with the sheath. The stack of ferrite rings may include non-magnetic insulating rings which help to shape the flux. (author)

  17. Characterization and Quantification of Deposits Buildup and Removal in Biomass Suspension-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of biomass as wood or straw in large suspension­fired boilers is an efficient method to reduce the use of fossil fuels consumption and to reduce the net CO2 formation. However, the presence of chlorine and alkali metals in biomass (straw) generate ash with a low melting point and induce...... large problems of ash deposit formation on the superheater tubes. Full scale studies on biomass ash deposition and removal had been done on biomass grate boilers, while only limited data is available from biomass suspension­firing. The aim of this study was to investigate deposit mass uptake, heat...... uptake reduction, fly ash and deposit characteristics, and deposit removal by using an advanced online deposit probe in a suspension­fired boiler using wood and straw pellets as fuel. The influence of fuel type and probe exposure time on the ash deposition rate, the heat uptake, the fly ash and deposit...

  18. Far Western: probing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe far-Western technique described in this protocol is fundamentally similar to Western blotting. In Western blots, an antibody is used to detect a query protein on a membrane. In contrast, in a far-Western blot (also known as an overlay assay) the antibody is replaced by a recombinant GST fusion protein (produced and purified from bacteria), and the assay detects the interaction of this protein with target proteins on a membrane. The membranes are washed and blocked, incubated with probe protein, washed again, and subjected to autoradiography. The GST fusion (probe) proteins are often labeled with (32)P; alternatively, the membrane can be probed with unlabeled GST fusion protein, followed by detection using commercially available GST antibodies. The nonradioactive approach is substantially more expensive (due to the purchase of antibody and detection reagents) than using radioactively labeled proteins. In addition, care must be taken to control for nonspecific interactions with GST alone and a signal resulting from antibody cross-reactivity. In some instances, proteins on the membrane are not able to interact after transfer. This may be due to improper folding, particularly in the case of proteins expressed from a phage expression library. This protocol describes a way to overcome this by washing the membrane in denaturation buffer, which is then serially diluted to permit slow renaturation of the proteins.

  19. NASA's interstellar probe mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewer, P.C.; Ayon, J.A.; Wallace, R.A.; Mewaldt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Interstellar Probe will be the first spacecraft designed to explore the nearby interstellar medium and its interaction with our solar system. As envisioned by NASA's Interstellar Probe Science and Technology Definition Team, the spacecraft will be propelled by a solar sail to reach >200 AU in 15 years. Interstellar Probe will investigate how the Sun interacts with its environment and will directly measure the properties and composition of the dust, neutrals and plasma of the local interstellar material which surrounds the solar system. In the mission concept developed in the spring of 1999, a 400-m diameter solar sail accelerates the spacecraft to ∼15 AU/year, roughly 5 times the speed of Voyager 1 and 2. The sail is used to first bring the spacecraft to ∼0.25 AU to increase the radiation pressure before heading out in the interstellar upwind direction. After jettisoning the sail at ∼5 AU, the spacecraft coasts to 200-400 AU, exploring the Kuiper Belt, the boundaries of the heliosphere, and the nearby interstellar medium

  20. Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2004-01-01

    I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.

  1. Nine New Fluorescent Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Jovanovic, Misa V.; Dowben, Robert M.

    1989-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies are reported here for nine new fluorescent probes recently synthesized in our laboratories: four pyrene derivatives with substituents of (i) 1,3-diacetoxy-6,8-dichlorosulfonyl, (ii) 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-disodiumsulfonate, (iii) 1,3-disodiumsulfonate, and (iv) l-ethoxy-3,6,8-trisodiumsulfonate groups, and five [7-julolidino] coumarin derivatives with substituents of (v) 3-carboxylate-4-methyl, (vi) 3- methylcarboxylate, (vii) 3-acetate-4-methyl, (viii) 3-propionate-4-methyl, and (ix) 3-sulfonate-4-methyl groups. Pyrene compounds i and ii and coumarin compounds v and vi exhibit interesting absorbance and fluorescence properties: their absorption maxima are red shifted compared to the parent compound to the blue-green region, and the band width broadens considerably. All four blue-absorbing dyes fluoresce intensely in the green region, and the two pyrene compounds emit at such long wavelengths without formation of excimers. The fluorescence properties of these compounds are quite environment-sensitive: considerable spectral shifts and fluorescence intensity changes have been observed in the pH range from 3 to 10 and in a wide variety of polar and hydrophobic solvents with vastly different dielectric constants. The high extinction and fluorescence quantum yield of these probes make them ideal fluorescent labeling reagents for proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cellular organelles. The pH and hydrophobicity-dependent fluorescence changes can be utilized as optical pH and/or hydrophobicity indicators for mapping environmental difference in various cellular components in a single cell. Since all nine probes absorb in the UV, but emit at different wavelengths in the visible, these two groups of compounds offer an advantage of utilizing a single monochromatic light source (e.g., a nitrogen laser) to achieve multi-wavelength detection for flow cytometry application. As a first step to explore potential application in

  2. Economical Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Richard; Davis, Robert; Linford, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition is a self limiting deposition process that can produce films at a user specified height. At BYU we have designed a low cost and automated atomic layer deposition system. We have used the system to deposit silicon dioxide at room temperature using silicon tetrachloride and tetramethyl orthosilicate. Basics of atomic layer deposition, the system set up, automation techniques and our system's characterization are discussed.

  3. Wearable probes for service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullane, Aaron; Laaksolahti, Jarmo Matti; Svanæs, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Probes are used as a design method in user-centred design to allow end-users to inform design by collecting data from their lives. Probes are potentially useful in service innovation, but current probing methods require users to interrupt their activity and are consequently not ideal for use...... by service employees in reflecting on the delivery of a service. In this paper, we present the ‘wearable probe’, a probe concept that captures sensor data without distracting service employees. Data captured by the probe can be used by the service employees to reflect and co-reflect on the service journey......, helping to identify opportunities for service evolution and innovation....

  4. Aligned ion implementation using scanning probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persaud, A

    2006-12-12

    A new technique for precision ion implantation has been developed. A scanning probe has been equipped with a small aperture and incorporated into an ion beamline, so that ions can be implanted through the aperture into a sample. By using a scanning probe the target can be imaged in a non-destructive way prior to implantation and the probe together with the aperture can be placed at the desired location with nanometer precision. In this work first results of a scanning probe integrated into an ion beamline are presented. A placement resolution of about 120 nm is reported. The final placement accuracy is determined by the size of the aperture hole and by the straggle of the implanted ion inside the target material. The limits of this technology are expected to be set by the latter, which is of the order of 10 nm for low energy ions. This research has been carried out in the context of a larger program concerned with the development of quantum computer test structures. For that the placement accuracy needs to be increased and a detector for single ion detection has to be integrated into the setup. Both issues are discussed in this thesis. To achieve single ion detection highly charged ions are used for the implantation, as in addition to their kinetic energy they also deposit their potential energy in the target material, therefore making detection easier. A special ion source for producing these highly charged ions was used and their creation and interactions with solids of are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  5. Aligned ion implantation using scanning probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persaud, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new technique for precision ion implantation has been developed. A scanning probe has been equipped with a small aperture and incorporated into an ion beamline, so that ions can be implanted through the aperture into a sample. By using a scanning probe the target can be imaged in a non-destructive way prior to implantation and the probe together with the aperture can be placed at the desired location with nanometer precision. In this work first results of a scanning probe integrated into an ion beamline are presented. A placement resolution of about 120 nm is reported. The final placement accuracy is determined by the size of the aperture hole and by the straggle of the implanted ion inside the target material. The limits of this technology are expected to be set by the latter, which is of the order of 10 nm for low energy ions. This research has been carried out in the context of a larger program concerned with the development of quantum computer test structures. For that the placement accuracy needs to be increased and a detector for single ion detection has to be integrated into the setup. Both issues are discussed in this thesis. To achieve single ion detection highly charged ions are used for the implantation, as in addition to their kinetic energy they also deposit their potential energy in the target material, therefore making detection easier. A special ion source for producing these highly charged ions was used and their creation and interactions with solids of are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  6. The solar probe mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.; Anderson, J.; Bohlin, J.D.; Burlaga, L.F.; Farquhar, R.; Gloeckler, G.; Goldstein, B.E.; Harvey, J.W.; Holzer, T.E.; Jones, W.V.; Kellogg, P.J.; Krimigis, S.M.; Kundu, M.R.; Lazarus, A.J.; Mellott, M.M.; Parker, E.N.; Rosner, R.; Rottman, G.J.; Slavin, J.A.; Suess, S.T.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Woo, R.T.; Zwickl, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Solar Probe will deliver a 133.5 kg science payload into a 4 R s perihelion solar polar orbit (with the first perihelion passage in 2004) to explore in situ one of the last frontiers in the solar system---the solar corona. This mission is both affordable and technologically feasible. Using a payload of 12 (predominantly particles and fields) scientific experiments, it will be possible to answer many long-standing, fundamental problems concerning the structure and dynamics of the outer solar atmosphere, including the acceleration, storage, and transport of energetic particles near the Sun and in the inner ( s ) heliosphere

  7. Mobile Probing Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Probing Kit is a low tech and low cost methodology for obtaining inspiration and insights into user needs, requirements and ideas in the early phases of a system's development process. The methodology is developed to identify user needs, requirements and ideas among knowledge workers...... characterized as being highly nomadic and thus potential users of mobile and ubiquitous technologies. The methodology has been applied in the 1ST MAGNET Beyond project in order to obtain user needs and requirements in the process of developing pilot services. We report on the initial findings from applying...

  8. High spatial resolution Kelvin probe force microscopy with coaxial probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M; Satzinger, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a widely used technique to measure the local contact potential difference (CPD) between an AFM probe and the sample surface via the electrostatic force. The spatial resolution of KPFM is intrinsically limited by the long range of the electrostatic interaction, which includes contributions from the macroscopic cantilever and the conical tip. Here, we present coaxial AFM probes in which the cantilever and cone are shielded by a conducting shell, confining the tip–sample electrostatic interaction to a small region near the end of the tip. We have developed a technique to measure the true CPD despite the presence of the shell electrode. We find that the behavior of these probes agrees with an electrostatic model of the force, and we observe a factor of five improvement in spatial resolution relative to unshielded probes. Our discussion centers on KPFM, but the field confinement offered by these probes may improve any variant of electrostatic force microscopy. (paper)

  9. Nuclear imaging of amyloid deposits based upon thioflavins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanming; Wu Chunying; Wei Jinjun

    2005-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the presence of amyloid deposits and neurofibrillar tangles in the brain. Direct assessment of local changes of amyloid deposits in vivo would greatly facilitate the diagnosis and therapeutic treatments of AD. The goal of this study is to develop small-molecule probes that can be used to follow amyloid deposition in vivo in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past years, we set out to develop a series of small molecules based on thioflavins as radiotracers for use in nuclear imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography. The potential of these amyloid-imaging agents for in vivo studies of amyloid deposition has been evaluated based on the following methods: 1) spectrophotometric binding. assays with synthetic amyloid-β (Aβ) fibrils and AD brain homogenates; 2) fluorescent staining of brain tissue sections to evaluate specificity of binding to amyloid deposits; 3) fluorescent microscopy in mouse models to determine the brain permeability and characterize the binding specificity in vivo, and 4) PET studies in human subjects diagnosed with AD and age-matched control subjects. To date, we have identified some lead compounds as molecular probes with specificity towards amyloid deposits. The in vitro and in vivo binding properties of these compounds have been demonstrated in the following ways: 1) they selectively binds to Aβ fibrils; 2) they selectively stains amyloid deposits in AD brain tissue sections; 3) they readily penetrates the blood-brain barrier, selectively detects amyloid deposits in vivo iri living mice; and 4) One of these compounds, termed PIB, has been successfully used in PET studies in human subjects. In conclusion, amyloid-imaging probes have been developed that could be used to monitor amyloid load in vivo. Applications of the probes are under investigation for potential pathophysiology studies

  10. Neutral helium beam probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Rezwanul

    1999-10-01

    This article discusses the development of a code where diagnostic neutral helium beam can be used as a probe. The code solves numerically the evolution of the population densities of helium atoms at their several different energy levels as the beam propagates through the plasma. The collisional radiative model has been utilized in this numerical calculation. The spatial dependence of the metastable states of neutral helium atom, as obtained in this numerical analysis, offers a possible diagnostic tool for tokamak plasma. The spatial evolution for several hypothetical plasma conditions was tested. Simulation routines were also run with the plasma parameters (density and temperature profiles) similar to a shot in the Princeton beta experiment modified (PBX-M) tokamak and a shot in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor tokamak. A comparison between the simulation result and the experimentally obtained data (for each of these two shots) is presented. A good correlation in such comparisons for a number of such shots can establish the accurateness and usefulness of this probe. The result can possibly be extended for other plasma machines and for various plasma conditions in those machines.

  11. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  12. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  13. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  14. Quantification of Ash Deposit Build-up and Removal in a Straw and Wood Suspension-Fired Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate ash deposit formation rate, heat uptake reduction and deposit removal by using advanced online ash deposition and sootblowing probes in a 350 MWth suspension­fired boiler, utilizing wood and straw pellets as fuel. The influence of fuel type (straw share...

  15. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Accardo, Angelo

    2014-06-10

    Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data. 2014 International Union of Crystallography.

  16. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Accardo, Angelo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Limongi, Tania; Marinaro, Giovanni; Riekel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data. 2014 International Union of Crystallography.

  17. A fast spatial scanning combination emissive and mach probe for edge plasma diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmer, R.D.; LaBombard, B.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-04-01

    A fast spatially scanning emissive and mach probe has been developed for the measurement of plasma profiles in the PISCES facility at UCLA. A pneumatic cylinder is used to drive a multiple tip probe along a 15cm stroke in less than 400msec, giving single shot profiles while limiting power deposition to the probe. A differentially pumped sliding O-ring seal allows the probe to be moved between shots to infer two and three dimensional profiles. The probe system has been used to investigate the plasma potential, density, and parallel mach number profiles of the presheath induced by a wall surface and scrape-off-layer profile modifications in biased limiter simulation experiments. Details of the hardware, data acquisition electronics, and tests of probe reliability are discussed. 30 refs., 24 figs

  18. The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

  19. The Galaxy Evolution Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jason; Galaxy Evolution Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Probe (GEP) is a concept for a far-infrared observatory to survey large regions of sky for star-forming galaxies from z = 0 to beyond z = 3. Our knowledge of galaxy formation is incomplete and requires uniform surveys over a large range of redshifts and environments to accurately describe mass assembly, star formation, supermassive black hole growth, interactions between these processes, and what led to their decline from z ~ 2 to the present day. Infrared observations are sensitive to dusty, star-forming galaxies, which have bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features and warm dust continuum in the rest-frame mid infrared and cooler thermal dust emission in the far infrared. Unlike previous far-infrared continuum surveys, the GEP will measure photometric redshifts commensurate with galaxy detections from PAH emission and Si absorption features, without the need for obtaining spectroscopic redshifts of faint counterparts at other wavelengths.The GEP design includes a 2 m diameter telescope actively cooled to 4 K and two instruments: (1) An imager covering 10 to 300 um with 25 spectral resolution R ~ 8 bands (with lower R at the longest wavelengths) to detect star-forming galaxies and measure their redshifts photometrically. (2) A 23 – 190 um, R ~ 250 dispersive spectrometer for redshift confirmation and identification of obscured AGN using atomic fine-structure lines. Lines including [Ne V], [O IV], [O III], [O I], and [C II] will probe gas physical conditions, radiation field hardness, and metallicity. Notionally, the GEP will have a two-year mission: galaxy surveys with photometric redshifts in the first year and a second year devoted to follow-up spectroscopy. A comprehensive picture of star formation in galaxies over the last 10 billion years will be assembled from cosmologically relevant volumes, spanning environments from field galaxies and groups, to protoclusters, to dense galaxy clusters.Commissioned by NASA, the

  20. Particle and power deposition on divertor targets in EAST H-mode plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Xu, G.S.; Guo, H.Y.

    2012-01-01

    ELMs were chosen for analysis in order to reduce the uncertainty resulting from the influence of fast electrons on Langmuir triple-probe evaluation during ELMs. The power deposition obtained from Langmuir triple probes was consistent with that from the divertor infra-red camera during an ELM...

  1. Probing the Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2016-01-01

    Whether manifest in built structures or invisible infrastructures, architectures of control in the occupied Palestinian West Bank is structurally defined by endemic uncertainty. Shifting lines and frontiers are recorded on the terrain, creating elastic zones of uncertainty necessitating navigatio...... to the territory through its lines and laws, and how the very structure of the occupation has changed over the years, I seek to make visible the ways in which architectures of uncertainty compensate for the fleeting terrain that HH is probing.......Whether manifest in built structures or invisible infrastructures, architectures of control in the occupied Palestinian West Bank is structurally defined by endemic uncertainty. Shifting lines and frontiers are recorded on the terrain, creating elastic zones of uncertainty necessitating...

  2. Heat transfer probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff

    2006-10-10

    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  3. Solar Probe Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Solar Probe Plus mission is planned to be launched in 2018 to study the upper solar corona with both.in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation. The mission will utilize 6 Venus gravity assist maneuver to gradually lower its perihelion to 9.5 Rs below the expected Alfven pOint to study the sub-alfvenic solar wind that is still at least partially co-rotates with the Sun. The detailed science objectives of this mission will be discussed. SPP will have a strong synergy with The ESA/NASA Solar orbiter mission to be launched a year ahead. Both missions will focus on the inner heliosphere and will have complimentary instrumentations. Strategies to exploit this synergy will be also presented.

  4. Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.

  5. Trapping and Probing Antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan [UC Berkeley and LBNL

    2013-03-27

    Precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen is a promising path to sensitive tests of CPT symmetry. The most direct route to achieve this goal is to create and probe antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap. Antihydrogen has been synthesized and trapped for 1000s at CERN by the ALPHA Collaboration. Some of the challenges associated with achieving these milestones will be discussed, including mixing cryogenic positron and antiproton plasmas to synthesize antihydrogen with kinetic energy less than the trap potential of .5K. Recent experiments in which hyperfine transitions were resonantly induced with microwaves will be presented. The opportunity for gravitational measurements in traps based on detailed studies of antihydrogen dynamics will be described. The talk will conclude with a discussion future antihydrogen research that will use a new experimental apparatus, ALPHA-I.

  6. Traversing incore probe device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Michiko.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the neutron flux distribution in the reactor core always at a high accuracy. Constitution: A nuclear fission ionizing chamber type detector is disposed at the end of a cable for sending a detection signal of a traversing incore probe device and, further, a gamma-ray ionizing chamber type detector is connected in adjacent therewith and a selection circuit for selecting both of the detection signals and inputting them to a display device is disposed. Then, compensation for the neutron monitors is conducted by the gamma-ray ionizing chamber type detector during normal operation in which control rods are not driven and the positioning is carried out by the nuclear fission ionizing chamber type detector. Furthermore, both of the compensation for the neutron detector and the positioning are carried out by the nuclear fission ionizing chamber type detector upon starting where the control rods are driven. (Sekiya, K.)

  7. Process Diagnostics and Monitoring Using the Multipole Resonance Probe (MRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhausen, J.; Awakowicz, P.; Brinkmann, R. P.; Foest, R.; Lapke, M.; Musch, T.; Mussenbrock, T.; Oberrath, J.; Ohl, A.; Rolfes, I.; Schulz, Ch.; Storch, R.; Styrnoll, T.

    2011-10-01

    In this contribution we present the application of the MRP in an industrial plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) chamber (Leybold optics SYRUS-pro). The MRP is a novel plasma diagnostic which is suitable for an industrial environment - which means that the proposed method is robust, calibration free, and economical, and can be used for ideal and reactive plasmas alike. In order to employ the MRP as process diagnostics we mounted the probe on a manipulator to obtain spatially resolved information on the electron density and temperature. As monitoring tool the MRP is installed at a fixed position. Even during the deposition process it provides stable measurement results while other diagnostic methods, e.g. the Langmuir probe, may suffer from dielectric coatings. In this contribution we present the application of the MRP in an industrial plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) chamber (Leybold optics SYRUS-pro). The MRP is a novel plasma diagnostic which is suitable for an industrial environment - which means that the proposed method is robust, calibration free, and economical, and can be used for ideal and reactive plasmas alike. In order to employ the MRP as process diagnostics we mounted the probe on a manipulator to obtain spatially resolved information on the electron density and temperature. As monitoring tool the MRP is installed at a fixed position. Even during the deposition process it provides stable measurement results while other diagnostic methods, e.g. the Langmuir probe, may suffer from dielectric coatings. Funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF, Fkz. 13N10462).

  8. Electroless deposition, post annealing and characterization of nickel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electroless deposition of nickel (EN) films on -type silicon has been investigated under different process conditions. The interface between the film and substrate has been characterized for electrical properties by probing the contact resistances. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy have been performed to obtain ...

  9. Ash Deposition Trials at Three Power Stations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming; Larsen, Ole Hede

    1998-01-01

    Six full-scale trials were conducted at three power stations in Denmark: Ensted, Funen, and Vendsyssel power stations. During these trials, pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash, and deposits from cooled probes were sampled and analyzed with various techniques. On the basis of SEM analyses...

  10. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  11. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Shaik, Hassan Uddin; Sardan Sukas, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 mu m long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si3N4 or SiO2, fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard s...

  12. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  13. Non-inductive current probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1977-01-01

    The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is......The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is...

  14. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled, provided...... a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the knowledge base...

  15. Water cooled static pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  16. Gravity Probe B Encapsulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  17. Steerable Doppler transducer probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidel, H.F.; Greenwood, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic diagnostic probe is described which is capable of performing ultrasonic imaging and Doppler measurement consisting of: a hollow case having an acoustic window which passes ultrasonic energy and including chamber means for containing fluid located within the hollow case and adjacent to a portion of the acoustic window; imaging transducer means, located in the hollow case and outside the fluid chamber means, and oriented to direct ultrasonic energy through the acoustic window toward an area which is to be imaged; Doppler transducer means, located in the hollow case within the fluid chamber means, and movably oriented to direct Doppler signals through the acoustic window toward the imaged area; means located within the fluid chamber means and externally controlled for controllably moving the Doppler transducer means to select one of a plurality of axes in the imaged area along which the Doppler signals are to be directed; and means, located external to the fluid chamber means and responsive to the means for moving, for providing an indication signal for identifying the selected axis

  18. Device Fabrication and Probing of Discrete Carbon Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Batra, Nitin M

    2015-05-06

    Device fabrication on multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using electrical beam lithography (EBL), electron beam induced deposition (EBID), ion beam induced deposition (IBID) methods was carried out, followed by device electrical characterization using a conventional probe station. A four-probe configuration was utilized to measure accurately the electrical resistivity of MWCNTs with similar results obtained from devices fabricated by different methods. In order to reduce the contact resistance of the beam deposited platinum electrodes, single step vacuum thermal annealing was performed. Microscopy and spectroscopy were carried out on the beam deposited electrodes to follow the structural and chemical changes occurring during the vacuum thermal annealing. For the first time, a core-shell type structure was identified on EBID Pt and IBID Pt annealed electrodes and analogous free standing nanorods previously exposed to high temperature. We believe this observation has important implications for transport properties studies of carbon materials. Apart from that, contamination of carbon nanostructure, originating from the device fabrication methods, was also studied. Finally, based on the observations of faster processing time together with higher yield and flexibility for device preparation, we investigated EBID to fabricate devices for other discrete carbon nanostructures.

  19. Application of plasma deposition technology for nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, I. H.; Moon, J. S.; Park, H. S.; Song, K. C.; Lee, C. Y.; Kang, K. H.; Ryu, H. J.; Kim, H. S.; Yang, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized-zirconia (m.p. 2670.deg. C), was deposited by induction plasma spraying system with a view to develop a new nuclear fuel fabrication technology. To fabricate the dense pellets, the spraying condition was optimized through the process parameters such as, chamber pressure, plasma plate power, powder spraying distance, sheath gas composition, probe position particle size and its morphology. The results with a 5mm thick deposit on rectangular planar graphite substrates showed 97.11% theoretical density, when the sheath gas flow rate was Ar/H 2 120/20 L/min, probe position 8cm, particle size-75 μm and spraying distance 22cm. The microstructure of YSZ deposit by ICP was lamellae and columnar perpendicular to the spraying direction. In the bottom part near the substrate, small equiaxed grains bounded in a layer. In the middle part, relatively regular size of columnar grains with excellent bonding each other were distinctive

  20. Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H. W.; Hogan, J. T.; Wampler, W. R.

    2004-11-01

    Two quartz microbalances have been used to record deposition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The experimental configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. An RS232 link was used to acquire the quartz crystal frequency and the deposited thickness was recorded continuously with 0.01 nm resolution. Nuclear Reaction Analysis of the deposit was consistent with the measurement of the total deposited mass from the change in crystal frequency. We will present measurements of the variation of deposition with plasma conditions. The transport of carbon impurities in NSTX has been modelled with the BBQ code. Preliminary calculations indicated a negligible fraction of carbon generated at the divertor plates in quiescent discharges directly reaches the outer wall, and that transient events are responsible for the deposition.

  1. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  2. STM-SQUID probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Tadayuki; Tachiki, Minoru; Itozaki, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a STM-SQUID probe microscope. A high T C SQUID probe microscope was combined with a scanning tunneling microscope for investigation of samples at room temperature in air. A high permeability probe needle was used as a magnetic flux guide to improve the spatial resolution. The probe with tip radius of less than 100 nm was prepared by microelectropolishing. The probe was also used as a scanning tunneling microscope tip. Topography of the sample surface could be measured by the scanning tunneling microscope with high spatial resolution prior to observation by SQUID microscopy. The SQUID probe microscope image could be observed while keeping the distance from the sample surface to the probe tip constant. We observed a topographic image and a magnetic image of Ni fine pattern and also a magnetically recorded hard disk. Furthermore we have investigated a sample vibration method of the static magnetic field emanating from a sample with the aim of achieving a higher signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio

  3. The AMEMIYA probe. Theoretical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belitz, Hans Joahim; Althausen, Bernhard; Uehara, Kazuya; Amemiya, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The present probe was developed in order to measure the temperature T i of positive ions in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of tokamak where T i is usually larger than the electron temperature Ti so that the presheath in front of the probe need not be considered and the ions reach the probe with the thermal velocity. The axis of the cylindrical probe is placed parallel to the magnetic field. The important parameter are L/a, the ratio of the length to the radius of the cylindrical probe and κ, the ratio of the probe radius to (π/4) 1/2 , where is the mean ion Larmor radius. The ion current densities to the side and the end surfaces are expressed by the double integral, which can give an analytical formula with respect to the value of κ. If two electrodes with different lengths are placed parallel to the magnetic field, the difference of current densities can be reduced to κ and hence to Ti. Some examples of the application of the probe to tokamaks, JFT-2M and Textor, are demonstrated. (author)

  4. Probe for detection of denting in PWR steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardin, J.P.; Germain, J.L.; Nio, J.C.

    1994-07-01

    In certain types of PWR steam generator, oxide deposits can lead to embedding, and subsequently to deformation of a tube (the phenomenon of ''denting''). Such embedding changes the vibratory behavior of the tubes and can result in fatigue cracking. This type of cracking can also be worsened in the event of improper assembly of the anti-vibration spacer bars supporting the U-bends. To prevent such incidents and provide for effective preventive condition-directed maintenance of its PWR steam generators, EDF has undertaken the study and development of a probe to detect this type of phenomenon. The studies began in 1990 and led to the building of an initial prototype probe. The principle behind the probe consists in inducing vibration in the U-bend and determining the main resonance modes of the tube. Measurements of frequency and amplitude and calculation of damping enable characterization of the mechanical behavior of the U-bend. The most important parameter is damping, for which the value must be sufficiently high to ensure that the tube is not subjected to major vibratory amplitudes during operation. Numerous tests have been performed with the first prototype version of the probe, on a mock-up in the test area and on one of the demounted steam generators on the Dampierre site. These different tests have enabled validation of the operating principle, fine-tuning the process, pinpointing certain mechanical problems in the probe design, and obtaining the first indications as to the real vibratory behavior of U-bends on a steam generator. On the basis of these preliminary tests, the specifications were drawn up for an industrial version of the probe. Following a call for bids and the choice of a manufacturer, work began on fabrication of a new probe model in 1993. This version was delivered at the end of 1993 and testing began in 1994. (authors). 5 figs., 2 tabs

  5. The influences of target properties and deposition times on pulsed laser deposited hydroxyapatite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Quanhe; Chen Chuanzhong; Wang Diangang; Liu Junming

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite films were produced by pulsed laser deposition from three kinds of hydroxyapatite targets and with different deposition times. A JXA-8800R electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) with a Link ISIS300 energy spectrum analyzer was used to give the secondary electron image (SE) and determine the element composition of the films. The phases of thin film were analyzed by a D/max-γc X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to characterize the hydroxyl, phosphate and other functional groups. The results show that deposited films were amorphous which mainly composed of droplet-like particles and vibration of PO 4 3- groups. With the target sintering temperature deposition times increasing, the density of droplets is decreased. While with deposition times increasing, the density of droplets is increased. With the target sintering temperature and deposition time increasing, the ratio of Ca/P is increasing and higher than that of theoretical value of HA

  6. Uraniferous surficial deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1980-10-01

    As a result of the discovery of uranium in surficial deposits of Tertiary to Recent age, in Australia and Southern Africa, increasing attention is being paid to the location and understanding of the genesis of these deposits. The paper discusses the definitions and terminology currently in use and a classification of these deposits is presented. It is concluded that in order to obtain a measure of clarity, the terms calcrete, gypcrete and dolocrete should not be used to describe the uraniferous valley-fill deposits of Southern Africa and Australia [af

  7. Gravity Probe B Assembled

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  8. Short recovery time NMR probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramia, M.E.; Martin, C.A.; Jeandrevin, S.

    2011-01-01

    A NMR probe for low frequency and short recovery time is presented in this work. The probe contains the tuning circuit, diode expanders and quarter wavelength networks to protect the receiver from both the amplifier noise and the coil ringing following the transmitter power pulse. It also possesses a coil damper which is activated by of non active components. The probe performance shows a recovery time of about of 15μs a sensitive Q factor reduction and an increase of the signal to noise ratio of about 68% during the reception at a work frequency of 2 MHz. (author)

  9. Evaluation and field validation of Eddy-Current array probes for steam generator tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, C.V.; Pate, J.R.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Improved Eddy-Current ISI for Steam Generator Tubing program is to upgrade and validate eddy-current inspections, including probes, instrumentation, and data processing techniques for inservice inspection of new, used, and repaired steam generator tubes; to improve defect detection, classification, and characterization as affected by diameter and thickness variations, denting, probe wobble, tube sheet, tube supports, copper and sludge deposits, even when defect types and other variables occur in combination; to transfer this advanced technology to NRC's mobile NDE laboratory and staff. This report describes the design of specialized high-speed 16-coil eddy-current array probes. Both pancake and reflection coils are considered. Test results from inspections using the probes in working steam generators are given. Computer programs developed for probe calculations are also supplied

  10. Lepton probes in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvieux, J. [Laboratoire National Saturne, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1994-12-31

    Facilities are overviewed which use the lepton probe to learn about nuclear physics. The lepton accelerating methods out some existing facilities are considered. The ELFE project is discussed in detail. (K.A.). 43 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Probing of flowing electron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himura, H.; Nakashima, C.; Saito, H.; Yoshida, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Probing of streaming electron plasmas with finite temperature is studied. For the first time, a current-voltage characteristic of an electric probe is measured in electron plasmas. Due to the fast flow of the electron plasmas, the characteristic curve spreads out significantly and exhibits a long tail. This feature can be explained calculating the currents collected to the probe. In flowing electron plasmas, the distribution function observed in the laboratory frame is non-Maxwellian even if the plasmas come to a state of thermal equilibrium. Another significant feature of the characteristic is that it determines a floating potential where the current equals zero, despite there being very few ions in the electron plasma. A high impedance probe, which is popularly used to determine the space potential of electron plasmas, outputs the potential. The method is available only for plasmas with density much smaller than the Brillouin limit

  12. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, B.B.; Ballard, S.

    1994-08-23

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration is disclosed. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow. 4 figs.

  13. Pneumatic probe with laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkens, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements to upgrade the accuracy of Rotacon probes by a complete redesign of probe to include a Michelson interferometer to replace the existing long-range capacity transducer are described. This has resulted in a compact and interchangeable probe cartridge with a 3 μin. resolution and accuracy; the cartridge can be installed and replaced in the Rotacon gauge with the minimum of realignment, which should reduce our dependence on operator skill. In addition, the stylus contact force can be reduced to 750 mg for the contacting types, but an alternative feature, which we are still developing, will use a gas jet cushion in place of the stylus to provide a noncontacting version of the same basic probe cartridge. This device is very sensitive to external vibration effects because it is virtually frictionless

  14. Lepton probes in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvieux, J.

    1994-01-01

    Facilities are overviewed which use the lepton probe to learn about nuclear physics. The lepton accelerating methods out some existing facilities are considered. The ELFE project is discussed in detail. (K.A.). 43 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Fabrication of tungsten probe for hard tapping operation in atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Guebum, E-mail: hanguebum@live.co.kr [Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Avenue, Terre Haute, Indiana 47803 (United States); Department of Mechanical Design and Robot Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, 232 Gongneung-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyo-Sok, E-mail: hsahn@seoultech.ac.kr [Manufacturing Systems and Design Engineering Programme, Seoul National University of Science & Technology, 232 Gongneung-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We propose a method of producing a tungsten probe with high stiffness for atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to acquire enhanced phase contrast images and efficiently perform lithography. A tungsten probe with a tip radius between 20 nm and 50 nm was fabricated using electrochemical etching optimized by applying pulse waves at different voltages. The spring constant of the tungsten probe was determined by finite element analysis (FEA), and its applicability as an AFM probe was evaluated by obtaining topography and phase contrast images of a Si wafer sample partly coated with Au. Enhanced hard tapping performance of the tungsten probe compared with a commercial Si probe was confirmed by conducting hard tapping tests at five different oscillation amplitudes on single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). To analyze the damaged graphene sample, the test areas were investigated using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). The test results demonstrate that the tungsten probe with high stiffness was capable of inducing sufficient elastic and plastic deformation to enable obtaining enhanced phase contrast images and performing lithography, respectively. - Highlights: • We propose a method of producing highly stiff tungsten probes for hard tapping AFM. • Spring constant of tungsten probe is determined by finite element method. • Enhanced hard tapping performance is confirmed. • Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is used to identify damage to graphene.

  16. Fabrication of tungsten probe for hard tapping operation in atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Guebum; Ahn, Hyo-Sok

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method of producing a tungsten probe with high stiffness for atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to acquire enhanced phase contrast images and efficiently perform lithography. A tungsten probe with a tip radius between 20 nm and 50 nm was fabricated using electrochemical etching optimized by applying pulse waves at different voltages. The spring constant of the tungsten probe was determined by finite element analysis (FEA), and its applicability as an AFM probe was evaluated by obtaining topography and phase contrast images of a Si wafer sample partly coated with Au. Enhanced hard tapping performance of the tungsten probe compared with a commercial Si probe was confirmed by conducting hard tapping tests at five different oscillation amplitudes on single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). To analyze the damaged graphene sample, the test areas were investigated using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). The test results demonstrate that the tungsten probe with high stiffness was capable of inducing sufficient elastic and plastic deformation to enable obtaining enhanced phase contrast images and performing lithography, respectively. - Highlights: • We propose a method of producing highly stiff tungsten probes for hard tapping AFM. • Spring constant of tungsten probe is determined by finite element method. • Enhanced hard tapping performance is confirmed. • Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is used to identify damage to graphene.

  17. DNA probe for lactobacillus delbrueckii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delley, M.; Mollet, B.; Hottinger, H. (Nestle Research Centre, Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1990-06-01

    From a genomic DNA library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a clone was isolated which complements a leucine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli strain (GE891). Subsequent analysis of the clone indicated that it could serve as a specific DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridizations with over 40 different Lactobacillus strains showed that this clone specifically recognized L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, bulgaricus, and lactis. The sensitivity of the method was tested by using an {alpha}-{sup 32}P-labeled probe.

  18. DNA probe for lactobacillus delbrueckii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delley, M.; Mollet, B.; Hottinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    From a genomic DNA library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a clone was isolated which complements a leucine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli strain (GE891). Subsequent analysis of the clone indicated that it could serve as a specific DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridizations with over 40 different Lactobacillus strains showed that this clone specifically recognized L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, bulgaricus, and lactis. The sensitivity of the method was tested by using an α- 32 P-labeled probe

  19. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Arima, V.; Catalano, M.; Cesaria, M.; Cozzoli, P.D.; Martino, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.; Scarfiello, R.; Tunno, T.; Zacheo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  20. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P., E-mail: annapaola.caricato@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Arima, V.; Catalano, M. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesaria, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cozzoli, P.D. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Scarfiello, R. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tunno, T. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Zacheo, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  1. Fabrication of micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin on aluminum by AFM probe processing and electrophoretic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Sakairi, M.; Takahashi, H.

    2008-01-01

    Micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin were fabricated on aluminum by anodizing, atomic force microscope (AFM) probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition. Barrier type anodic oxide films of 15 nm thickness were formed on aluminum and then the specimen was scratched with an AFM probe in a solution containing acrylic acid/melamine resin nano-particles to remove the anodic oxide film locally. After scratching, the specimen was anodically polarized to deposit acrylic acid/melamine resin electrophoretically at the film-removed area. The resin deposited on the specimen was finally cured by heating. It was found that scratching with the AFM probe on open circuit leads to the contamination of the probe with resin, due to positive shifts in the potential during scratching. Scratching of the specimen under potentiostatic conditions at -1.0 V, however, resulted in successful resin deposition at the film-removed area without probe contamination. The rate of resin deposition increased as the specimen potential becomes more positive during electrophoretic deposition. Arrays of resin dots with a few to several tens μm diameter and 100-1000 nm height, and resin walls with 100-1000 nm height and 1 μm width were obtained on specimens by successive anodizing, probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition

  2. Fabrication of micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin on aluminum by AFM probe processing and electrophoretic coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Sakairi, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)], E-mail: takahasi@elechem1-mc.eng.hokudai.ac.jp

    2008-11-30

    Micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin were fabricated on aluminum by anodizing, atomic force microscope (AFM) probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition. Barrier type anodic oxide films of 15 nm thickness were formed on aluminum and then the specimen was scratched with an AFM probe in a solution containing acrylic acid/melamine resin nano-particles to remove the anodic oxide film locally. After scratching, the specimen was anodically polarized to deposit acrylic acid/melamine resin electrophoretically at the film-removed area. The resin deposited on the specimen was finally cured by heating. It was found that scratching with the AFM probe on open circuit leads to the contamination of the probe with resin, due to positive shifts in the potential during scratching. Scratching of the specimen under potentiostatic conditions at -1.0 V, however, resulted in successful resin deposition at the film-removed area without probe contamination. The rate of resin deposition increased as the specimen potential becomes more positive during electrophoretic deposition. Arrays of resin dots with a few to several tens {mu}m diameter and 100-1000 nm height, and resin walls with 100-1000 nm height and 1 {mu}m width were obtained on specimens by successive anodizing, probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition.

  3. Development of an ash particle deposition model considering build-up and removal mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandstroem, Kjell; Mueller, Christian; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

    2007-12-15

    Slagging and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces in power boilers fired with fossil fuels and fuel mixtures has a significant influence on boiler efficiency and availability. Mathematical modelling is since long considered a suitable method to assist boiler operators to determine optimized operating conditions for an existing furnace. The ultimate goal in ash deposition prediction is hereby the determination of the total amount of material deposited and hence the determination of the total reduction in efficiency. Depending on the fuels fired the total deposited mass is a combination of ash particle deposition and ash particle erosion due to non-sticky particles. The novel ash particle deposition model presented in this work considers deposition of sticky ash particles, cleansing of deposit by non-sticky sand particles and sticking of sand due to contact with sticky ash. The steady-state modelling results for the total amount of ash deposited on the deposition probe of an entrained flow reactor presented in this work agree well with the experimental data. Only at very high fractions of sand added as non-sticky material, a significant influence of the sand on the overall mass deposited was found. Since the model considers sticking of non-sticking sand due to contact with sticky ash, the fraction of sand deposited on the probe was especially studied. Using a correction factor to consider the influence of operating time on the steady-state simulations led to good agreement between simulations and experimental data. (author)

  4. Development of an ash particle deposition model considering build-up and removal mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjell Strandstroem; Christian Muellera; Mikko Hupa [Abo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Abo (Finland)

    2007-12-15

    Slagging and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces in power boilers fired with fossil fuels and fuel mixtures has a significant influence on boiler efficiency and availability. Mathematical modelling has long been considered a suitable method to assist boiler operators to determine optimized operating conditions for an existing furnace. The ultimate goal in ash deposition prediction is hereby the determination of the total amount of material deposited and hence the determination of the total reduction in efficiency. Depending on the fuels fired the total deposited mass is a combination of ash particle deposition and ash particle erosion due to non-sticky particles. The novel ash particle deposition model presented in this work considers deposition of sticky ash particles, cleansing of deposit by non-sticky sand particles and sticking of sand due to contact with sticky ash. The steady-state modelling results for the total amount of ash deposited on the deposition probe of an entrained flow reactor presented in this work agree well with the experimental data. Only at very high fractions of sand added as non-sticky material, a significant influence of the sand on the overall mass deposited was found. Since the model considers sticking of non-sticking sand due to contact with sticky ash, the fraction of sand deposited on the probe was especially studied. Using a correction factor to consider the influence of operating time on the steady-state simulations led to good agreement between simulations and experimental data. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  5. IVVS probe mechanical concept design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.rossi@enea.it; Neri, Carlo; De Collibus, Mario Ferri; Mugnaini, Giampiero; Pollastrone, Fabio; Crescenzi, Fabio

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA designed, developed and tested a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS). • IVVS mechanical design has been revised from 2011 to 2013 to meet ITER requirements. • Main improvements are piezoceramic actuators and a step focus system. • Successful qualification activities validated the concept design for ITER environment. - Abstract: ENEA has been deeply involved in the design, development and testing of a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) required for the inspection of ITER plasma-facing components. The IVVS probe shall be deployed into the vacuum vessel, providing high resolution images and metrology measurements to detect damages and possible erosion. ENEA already designed and manufactured an IVVS probe prototype based on a rad-hard concept and driven by commercial micro-step motors, which demonstrated satisfying viewing and metrology performances at room conditions. The probe sends a laser beam through a reflective rotating prism. By rotating the axes of the prism, the probe can scan all the environment points except those present in a shadow cone and the backscattered light signal is then processed to measure the intensity level (viewing) and the distance from the probe (metrology). During the last years, in order to meet all the ITER environmental conditions, such as high vacuum, gamma radiation lifetime dose up to 5 MGy, cumulative neutron fluence of about 2.3 × 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}, temperature of 120 °C and magnetic field of 8 T, the probe mechanical design was significantly revised introducing a new actuating system based on piezo-ceramic actuators and improved with a new step focus system. The optical and mechanical schemes have been then modified and refined to meet also the geometrical constraints. The paper describes the mechanical concept design solutions adopted in order to fulfill IVVS probe functional performance requirements considering ITER working environment and geometrical constraints.

  6. Urban acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, D.E.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E.

    1991-07-01

    In this document results from the Greater Manchester Acid Deposition Survey (GMADS), an urban precipitation chemistry network, for 1990 are presented. Full analytical methods are described along with the precision and accuracy of the methods used. The spatial variability of precipitation chemistry and deposition over this urban region was investigated using a network of twenty collectors. Concentrations of non marine sulphate, ammonium, calcium and hydrogen, and nitrogen dioxide gas concentrations all show significant spatial variability. The spatial variability of the deposition rates of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, hydrogen and calcium were significant. (Author).

  7. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.

    2017-10-31

    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  8. Atomic layer deposition of copper thin film and feasibility of deposition on inner walls of waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuqing, XIONG; Hengjiao, GAO; Ni, REN; Zhongwei, LIU

    2018-03-01

    Copper thin films were deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition at low temperature, using copper(I)-N,N‧-di-sec-butylacetamidinate as a precursor and hydrogen as a reductive gas. The influence of temperature, plasma power, mode of plasma, and pulse time, on the deposition rate of copper thin film, the purity of the film and the step coverage were studied. The feasibility of copper film deposition on the inner wall of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic waveguide with high aspect ratio was also studied. The morphology and composition of the thin film were studied by atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The square resistance of the thin film was also tested by a four-probe technique. On the basis of on-line diagnosis, a growth mechanism of copper thin film was put forward, and it was considered that surface functional group played an important role in the process of nucleation and in determining the properties of thin films. A high density of plasma and high free-radical content were helpful for the deposition of copper thin films.

  9. Design study of an entry probe spectro-reflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sill, G. T.; Fink, U.

    1986-01-01

    A wind tunnel was built to simulate the rapid movement of an entry probe through the Jupiter atmosphere. Wind speeds range from 1 to 50 meters per second in a closed system. Wind velocity and temperature probes as well as a cryogenically cooled cold finger can be placed in the 6 inch diameter viewing section. The initial testing of the wind tunnel involved running sectional profiles through the observation port of air currents of 0.1 to 3.0 atmosphere. The velocity profile was very uniform throughout the cross section of the experimental port, with the exception of the wall effects. The deposition of cooled volatiles using the wind tunnel was not performed. However, measurements of the deposition of H2O ice on a cryogenically cooled thickness modulator were made under ambient conditions, namely room temperature and pressure. In the Frost Depositon Test Facility, ice deposition was measured at thicknesses of about a half millimeter and frost was produced whose thickness reflectivity could easily be measured by reflectance spectroscopy.

  10. Eddy-current probe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, T.G.; McCary, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes theoretical and experimental work directed toward finding the optimum probe dimensions and operating frequency for eddy current detection of half-penny surface cracks in nonmagnetic conducting materials. The study applies to probes which excite an approximately uniform spatial field over the length of the crack at the surface of the material. In practical terms, this means that the probe is not smaller than the crack length in any of its critical dimensions. The optimization of a simple coil probe is first analyzed in detail. It is shown that signal-to-noise ratio and lift-off discrimination are maximized by a pancake coil with mean radius not greater than the crack length, operated at a frequency which gives a skin depth equal to the crack depth. The results obtained for the simple coil are then used as a basis for discussion of the design of coils with ferrite cores and shields, and for the design of recording head type probes

  11. Nanomaterials and MRI molecular probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inubushi, Toshiro

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the current state and future prospect of enhancing probes in MRI which enable to image specific cells and molecules mainly from the aspect of cell trafficking. Although MRI requires such probes for specific imaging, it has an advantage that anatomical images are simultaneously available even during surgical operation without radiation exposure, differing from X-CT, -transillumination and positron emission tomography (PET). In the development of novel MRI molecular probes, the recent topic concerns the cell trafficking biology where cells related with transplantation and immunological therapy can be traced. Although superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) has been used as a commercially available enhancer, this nanoparticle has problems like a difficulty to penetrate cell, cytotoxicity and others. For these, authors have developed the nanoparticle SPIO covered with silica shell, which can be chemically modified, e.g., by binding fluorescent pigments to possibly allow MR bimodal molecular imaging. For penetration of particles in cells, envelop of Sendai virus is used. PET-CT has been more popular these days; however, MRI is superior to CT for imaging soft tissues, and development of PET-MRI is actively under progress aiming the multi-modal imaging. At present, molecular probes for MRI are certainly not so many as those for PET and cooperative efforts to develop the probes are required in medical, technological and pharmaceutical fields. (R.T.)

  12. Influence of Deposit Formation on Corrosion at a Straw Fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug; Michelsen, Hanne Philbert; Frandsen, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    Straw-fired boilers generally experience severe problems with deposit formation and are expected to suffer from severe superheater corrosion at high steam temperatures due to the large alkali and chlorine content in straw. In this study, deposits collected (1) on air-cooled probes and (2) directly...... at the existing heat transfer surfaces of a straw-fired boiler have been examined. Deposits collected on air-cooled probes were found to consist of an inner layer of KCl and an outer layer of sintered fly ash. Ash deposits formed on the heat transfer surfaces all had a characteristic layered structure......, with a dense layer of K2SO4 present adjacent to the metal surface. It is argued that the K2SO4 layer present adjacent to the metal surface may lead to reduced corrosion rates at this boiler. A discussion of the deposit structure, the K2SO4 layer formation mechanism, and the influence of the inner layer...

  13. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  14. 75 FR 20041 - Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... transmission to (202) 906- 6518; or send an e-mail to [email protected] . OTS will post... DD implements the Truth in Savings Act, part of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement...

  15. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  16. Uranium deposit research, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.; LeCheminant, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Research on uranium deposits in Canada, conducted as a prerequisite for assessment of the Estimated Additional Resources of uranium, revealed that (a) the uranium-gold association in rudites of the Huronian Supergroup preferably occurs in the carbon layers; (b) chloritized ore at the Panel mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario, occurs locally in tectonically disturbed areas in the vicinity of diabase dykes; (c) mineralization in the Black Sturgeon Lake area, Ontario, formed from solutions in structural and lithological traps; (d) the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, has two phases of mineralization: monomineralic and polymetallic; (e) mineralization of the JEB (Canoxy Ltd.) deposit is similar to that at McClean Lake; (f) the uranium-carbon assemblage was identified in the Claude deposit, Carswell Structure; and (g) the Otish Mountains area, Quebec, should be considered as a significant uranium-polymetallic metallogenic province

  17. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  18. Deposition of acidifying compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.; Cape, J.N.; Sutton, M.A.; Mourne, R.; Hargreaves, K.J.; Duyzer, J.H.; Gallagher, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Inputs of acidifying compounds to terrestrial ecosystems include deposition of the gases NO 2 , NO, HNO 2 , HNO 3 , NH 3 and SO 2 and the ions NO 3- , NH 4+ , SO 4 2- and H + in precipitation, cloud droplets and particles. Recent research has identified particular ecosystems and regions in which terrestrial effects are closely linked with specific deposition processes. This review paper identifies areas in which important developments have occurred during the last five years and attempts to show which aspects of the subject are most important for policy makers. Amongst the conclusions drawn, the authors advise that current uncertainties in estimates of S and N inputs by dry deposition should be incorporated in critical load calculations, and that, in regions dominated by wet deposition, spatial resolution of total inputs should be improved to match the current scales of information on landscape sensitivity to acidic inputs. 44 refs., 9 figs

  19. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  20. Langmuir probe measurement of the bismuth plasma plume formed by an extreme-ultraviolet pulsed laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pira, P.; Burian, T.; Kolpaková, A.; Tichý, M.; Kudrna, P.; Daniš, S.; Juha, Libor; Lančok, Ján; Vyšín, Luděk; Civiš, Svatopluk; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Kubát, Pavel; Wild, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 40 (2014), 1-6 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : XUV laser * pulsed laser deposition * Langmuir probe * plasma plume Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2014

  1. The electrical double layer on gold probed by electrokinetic and surface force measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, M.; Kleijn, J.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Gold surfaces, obtained by vacuum deposition of 15-nm gold films on glass and silica wafers, were studied in aqueous solutions by streaming potential measurements and colloidal-probe AFM force measurements. In the force measurements both a bare and a gold-coated silica particle (6 m in diameter)

  2. Gamma-ray imaging probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    External nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging of early primary and metastatic lung cancer tumors is difficult due to the poor sensitivity and resolution of existing gamma cameras. Nonimaging counting detectors used for internal tumor detection give ambiguous results because distant background variations are difficult to discriminate from neighboring tumor sites. This suggests that an internal imaging nuclear medicine probe, particularly an esophageal probe, may be advantageously used to detect small tumors because of the ability to discriminate against background variations and the capability to get close to sites neighboring the esophagus. The design, theory of operation, preliminary bench tests, characterization of noise behavior and optimization of such an imaging probe is the central theme of this work

  3. Scanning vector Hall probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, V.; Gregusova, D.; Fedor, J.; Kudela, R.; Bending, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a scanning vector Hall probe microscope for mapping magnetic field vector over magnetic samples. The microscope is based on a micromachined Hall sensor and the cryostat with scanning system. The vector Hall sensor active area is ∼5x5 μm 2 . It is realized by patterning three Hall probes on the tilted faces of GaAs pyramids. Data from these 'tilted' Hall probes are used to reconstruct the full magnetic field vector. The scanning area of the microscope is 5x5 mm 2 , space resolution 2.5 μm, field resolution ∼1 μT Hz -1/2 at temperatures 10-300 K

  4. Spaser as a biological probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Weingold, Robert; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nolan, Jacqueline; Harrington, Walter; Kuchyanov, Alexander S.; Parkhomenko, Roman G.; Watanabe, Fumiya; Nima, Zeid; Biris, Alexandru S.; Plekhanov, Alexander I.; Stockman, Mark I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding cell biology greatly benefits from the development of advanced diagnostic probes. Here we introduce a 22-nm spaser (plasmonic nanolaser) with the ability to serve as a super-bright, water-soluble, biocompatible probe capable of generating stimulated emission directly inside living cells and animal tissues. We have demonstrated a lasing regime associated with the formation of a dynamic vapour nanobubble around the spaser that leads to giant spasing with emission intensity and spectral width >100 times brighter and 30-fold narrower, respectively, than for quantum dots. The absorption losses in the spaser enhance its multifunctionality, allowing for nanobubble-amplified photothermal and photoacoustic imaging and therapy. Furthermore, the silica spaser surface has been covalently functionalized with folic acid for molecular targeting of cancer cells. All these properties make a nanobubble spaser a promising multimodal, super-contrast, ultrafast cellular probe with a single-pulse nanosecond excitation for a variety of in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications.

  5. Sequential electrochemical oxidation and site-selective growth of nanoparticles onto AFM probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Yong; Pan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yong; Xiao, Zhongdang

    2008-08-19

    In this work, we reported an approach for the site-selective growth of nanoparticle onto the tip apex of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. The silicon AFM probe was first coated with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Subsequently, COOH groups were selectively generated at the tip apex of silicon AFM probes by applying an appropriate bias voltage between the tip and a flat gold electrode. The transformation of methyl to carboxylic groups at the tip apex of the AFM probe was investigated through measuring the capillary force before and after electrochemical oxidation. To prepare the nanoparticle terminated AFM probe, the oxidized AFM probe was then immersed in an aqueous solution containing positive metal ions, for example, Ag+, to bind positive metal ions to the oxidized area (COOH terminated area), followed by chemical reduction with aqueous NaBH 4 and further development (if desired) to give a metal nanoparticle-modified AFM probe. The formation of a metal nanoparticle at the tip apex of the AFM probe was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA).

  6. EXTASE - An Experimental Thermal Probe for Applications in Snow Research and Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Seiferlin, K.; Marczewski, W.; Gadomski, S.; Spohn, T.

    2002-12-01

    EXTASE is a spin-off project from the Rosetta Lander (MUPUS) thermal probe, funded by DLR. The application of this probe is to be tested in different fields, e.g. in snow research, agriculture, permafrost etc. The system consists of the probe itself with a portable field electronic and a computer for control of the system and storage of the data. The probe penetrates the surface ca. 32 cm deep and provides a temperature profile (16 sensors) and thermal conductivity profile of the penetrated layer. The main advantages of the probe in comparison to common temperature profile measurement methods are: - no need to excavate material - minimized influence of the probe on the temperature field - minimized modification of the microstructure of the studied medium. Presently we are concentrating on agriculture (soil humidity) and snow research. Further applications could be e.g.: monitoring waste deposits and the heat released by decomposition, volcanology and ground truth for remote sensing. We present the general concept of the probe and also data obtained during different field measurement campaigns with prototypes of the probe.

  7. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc., jasper (picture, landscape, red etc., common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc., silica masses (undivided, and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.. Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine, garnet (almandine and pyrope, tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  8. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpolt, R.H.; Simov, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  9. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinović, Zoran; Simić, Vladimir; Jelenković, Rade; Ilić, Miloje

    2016-06-01

    Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc.), jasper (picture, landscape, red etc.), common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc.), silica masses (undivided), and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.). Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine), garnet (almandine and pyrope), tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  10. DNA Probe for Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delley, Michèle; Mollet, Beat; Hottinger, Herbert

    1990-01-01

    From a genomic DNA library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a clone was isolated which complements a leucine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli strain (GE891). Subsequent analysis of the clone indicated that it could serve as a specific DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridizations with over 40 different Lactobacillus strains showed that this clone specifically recognizes L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, bulgaricus, and lactis. The sensitivity of the method was tested by using an α-32P-labeled DNA probe. Images PMID:16348233

  11. Radical probing of spliceosome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Charnpal S; Kent, Oliver A; MacMillan, Andrew M

    2017-08-01

    Here we describe the synthesis and use of a directed hydroxyl radical probe, tethered to a pre-mRNA substrate, to map the structure of this substrate during the spliceosome assembly process. These studies indicate an early organization and proximation of conserved pre-mRNA sequences during spliceosome assembly. This methodology may be adapted to the synthesis of a wide variety of modified RNAs for use as probes of RNA structure and RNA-protein interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Architectural Probes of the Infraordinary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2017-01-01

    of the city plays a vital role for the social coexistence of and the correlation between its inhabitants. In an era of explosive growth of our cities, it is crucial to critically examine the everyday social dimension, if our cities are to be liveable in the future. To enquire into the everyday topography...... approaches for probing into and interrogating the infraordinary: frameworks of perception and situated probes. Both are deployed in order to get at distance of the familiar and by-pass the usual hierarchies of perception to gain new knowledge. These critical spatial practices span an interdisciplinary...

  13. Detecting device of atomic probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonenkov, N.V.

    1979-01-01

    Operation of an atomic-probe recording device is discussed in detail and its flowsheet is given. The basic elements of the atomic-probe recording device intented for microanalysis of metals and alloys in an atomic level are the storage oscillograph with a raster-sweep unit, a two-channel timer using frequency meters, a digital printer, and a control unit. The digital printer records information supplied by four digital devices (two frequency meters and two digital voltmeters) in a four-digit binary-decimal code. The described device provides simultaneous recording of two ions produced per one vaporation event

  14. Probing nuclear matter with dileptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-06-01

    Dileptons are shown to be of interest in helping probe extreme conditions of temperature and density in nuclear matter. The current state of experimental knowledge about dileptons is briefly described, and their use in upcoming experiments with light ions at CERN SPS are reviewed, including possible signatures of quark matter formation. Use of dileptons in an upcoming experiment with a new spectrometer at Berkeley is also discussed. This experiment will probe the nuclear matter equation of state at high temperature and density. 16 refs., 8 figs

  15. Radioactive Probes on Ferromagnetic Surfaces

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On the (broad) basis of our studies of nonmagnetic radioactive probe atoms on magnetic surfaces and at interfaces, we propose to investigate the magnetic interaction of magnetic probe atoms with their immediate environment, in particular of rare earth (RE) elements positioned on and in ferromagnetic surfaces. The preparation and analysis of the structural properties of such samples will be performed in the UHV chamber HYDRA at the HMI/Berlin. For the investigations of the magnetic properties of RE atoms on surfaces Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) measurements and Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS) in the UHV chamber ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN) are proposed.

  16. Ti-doped hydrogenated diamond like carbon coating deposited by hybrid physical vapor deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na Rae; Sle Jun, Yee; Moon, Kyoung Il; Sunyong Lee, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    Diamond-like carbon films containing titanium and hydrogen (Ti-doped DLC:H) were synthesized using a hybrid technique based on physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The film was deposited under a mixture of argon (Ar) and acetylene gas (C2H2). The amount of Ti in the Ti-doped DLC:H film was controlled by varying the DC power of the Ti sputtering target ranging from 0 to 240 W. The composition, microstructure, mechanical and chemical properties of Ti-doped DLC:H films with varying Ti concentrations, were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nano indentation, a ball-on-disk tribometer, a four-point probe system and dynamic anodic testing. As a result, the optimum composition of Ti in Ti-doped DLC:H film using our hybrid method was found to be a Ti content of 18 at. %, having superior electrical conductivity and high corrosion resistance, suitable for bipolar plates. Its hardness value was measured to be 25.6 GPa with a low friction factor.

  17. Deposition and High-Temperature Corrosion in Biomass-Fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Hanne Philbert

    with a newly developed condensation probe. SEM analyses revealed that the vapor deposits consisted of individual angular particles of primarily KCl (1-2 µm) and a sponge-like matrix of submicron particles consisting primarily of K2SO4, which may represent vapor condensate agglomerates. Potassium deposits...... deposits at Masnedø CHP. The density and morphology of these layers indicate that they have been molten. This was taken as evidence of a reaction between the deposit and the metal tube.A corrosion mechanism for chlorine corrosion is suggested. The mechanism is based on gaseous chlorine attack where iron...

  18. Characterization of near-field optical probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Brian; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation and collection characteristics of four different near-field optical-fiber probes, namely, three uncoated probes and an aluminium-coated small-aperture probe, are investigated and compared. Their radiation properties are characterized by observation of light-induced topography changes...... in a photo-sensitive film illuminated with the probes, and it is confirmed that the radiated optical field is unambigiously confined only for the coated probe. Near-field optical imaging of a standing evanescent-wave pattern is used to compare the detection characteristics of the probes, and it is concluded...... that, for the imaging of optical-field intensity distributions containing predominantly evanescent-wave components, a sharp uncoated tip is the probe of choice. Complementary results obtained with optical phase-conjugation experiments with he uncoated probes are discussed in relation to the probe...

  19. Nuclear physics with electroweak probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhar, Omar

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the italian theoretical Nuclear Physics community has played a leading role in the development of a unified approach, allowing for a consistent and fully quantitative description of the nuclear response to electromagnetic and weak probes. In this paper I review the main achievements in both fields, point out some of the open problems, and outline the most promising prospects

  20. Resolution analysis by random probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fichtner, Andreas; van Leeuwen, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop and apply methods for resolution analysis in tomography, based on stochastic probing of the Hessian or resolution operators. Key properties of our methods are (i) low algorithmic complexity and easy implementation, (ii) applicability to any tomographic technique, including full‐waveform

  1. A fluorescent probe for ecstasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseroni, D; Biavardi, E; Genovese, D; Rampazzo, E; Prodi, L; Dalcanale, E

    2015-08-18

    A nanostructure formed by the insertion in silica nanoparticles of a pyrene-derivatized cavitand, which is able to specifically recognize ecstasy in water, is presented. The absence of effects from interferents and an efficient electron transfer process occurring after complexation of ecstasy, makes this system an efficient fluorescent probe for this popular drug.

  2. Probing Pharmaceutical Mixtures during Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, Greg; Römann, Philipp; Poller, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    interpret the spectral changes. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of low-frequency Raman spectroscopy, which has several practical advantages over XRPD, for probing (dis-)order during pharmaceutical processing, showcasing its potential for future development, and implementation as an in...

  3. Resolution of Localized Chronic Periodontitis Associated with Longstanding Calculus Deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Pin-Chuang; Walters, John D.

    2014-01-01

    This report, which is based on nonstandardized serial radiographs obtained over a period of 15 years, documents a case of localized chronic periodontitis associated with progressive deposition of calculus on the distal aspect of a mandibular second molar. The site was treated by scaling and root planing, followed by a course of adjunctive systemic azithromycin. Treatment yielded favorable reductions in probing depth and clinical inflammation, leaving only few isolated sites with pockets no de...

  4. High-deposition-rate ceramics synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, M.D.; Osterheld, T.H.; Outka, D.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Parallel experimental and computational investigations are conducted in this project to develop validated numerical models of ceramic synthesis processes. Experiments are conducted in the High-Temperature Materials Synthesis Laboratory in Sandia`s Combustion Research Facility. A high-temperature flow reactor that can accommodate small preforms (1-3 cm diameter) generates conditions under which deposition can be observed, with flexibility to vary both deposition temperature (up to 1500 K) and pressure (as low as 10 torr). Both mass spectrometric and laser diagnostic probes are available to provide measurements of gas-phase compositions. Experiments using surface analytical techniques are also applied to characterize important processes occuring on the deposit surface. Computational tools developed through extensive research in the combustion field are employed to simulate the chemically reacting flows present in typical industrial reactors. These include the CHEMKIN and Surface-CHEMKIN suites of codes, which permit facile development of complex reaction mechanisms and vastly simplify the implementation of multi-component transport and thermodynamics. Quantum chemistry codes are also used to estimate thermodynamic and kinetic data for species and reactions for which this information is unavailable.

  5. Impact Response of Thermally Sprayed Metal Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. L.; Hall, A. C.; Moore, N. W.; Pautz, S. D.; Franke, B. C.; Scherzinger, W. M.; Brown, D. W.

    2017-06-01

    Gas-gun experiments have probed the impact response of tantalum specimens that were additively manufactured using a controlled thermal spray deposition process. Velocity interferometer (VISAR) diagnostics provided time-resolved measurements of sample response under one-dimensional (i . e . , uniaxial strain) shock compression to peak stresses ranging between 1 and 4 GPa. The acquired wave-profile data have been analyzed to determine the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL), Hugoniot equation of state, and high-pressure yield strength of the thermally deposited samples for comparison to published baseline results for conventionally wrought tantalum. The effects of composition, porosity, and microstructure (e . g . , grain/splat size and morphology) are assessed to explain differences in the dynamic mechanical behavior of spray-deposited versus conventional material. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Contamination-free sounding rocket Langmuir probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatucci, W. E.; Schuck, P. W.; Walker, D. N.; Kintner, P. M.; Powell, S.; Holback, B.; Leonhardt, D.

    2001-04-01

    A technique for removing surface contaminants from a sounding rocket spherical Langmuir probe is presented. Contamination layers present on probe surfaces can skew the collected data, resulting in the incorrect determination of plasma parameters. Despite following the usual probe cleaning techniques that are used prior to a launch, the probe surface can become coated with layers of adsorbed neutral gas in less than a second when exposed to atmosphere. The laboratory tests reported here show that by heating the probe from the interior using a small halogen lamp, adsorbed neutral particles can be removed from the probe surface, allowing accurate plasma parameter measurements to be made.

  7. A comparison of different neutron probes calibration method for the soil surface and their radiation effect on the users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, A; Razzouk, A K; Al-Ain, F [Atomic Energy commission , Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept of Radiation Agriculture

    1996-08-01

    In situ calibration curves were installed for the soil surface using different models of depth neutron probes and different adaptors. depth beutron probe readings increased with increasing the number of teflon plastic blocks deposited on the soil surface. The intercept of the straight line regression analysis decreased with increasing of teflon plastics blocks deposited on the soil surface in all sites. The least exposure was with depth probe with surface reflectors. This study proves the possibility of measuring the moisture content of the soil surface by using a depth probe with a block laid on the surface, without a danger of receiving the thresgold of radiation dose. (author). 10 Refs., 2 Figs., 8 Tabs.

  8. Vein type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Veins are tabular- or sheet-like masses of minerals occupying or following a fracture or a set of fractures in the enclosing rock. They have been formed later than the country rock and fractures, either by filling of the open spaces or by partial or complete replacement of the adjoining rock or most commonly by both of these processes combined. This volume begins with the occurrences and deposits known from old shield areas and the sedimentary belts surrounding them. They are followed by papers describing the European deposits mostly of Variscan age, and by similar deposits known from China being of Jurassic age. The volume is completed by two papers which do not fit exactly in the given scheme. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 papers in this report

  9. Quantitatively Probing the Means of Controlling Nanoparticle Assembly on Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patete, J.m.; Wong, S.; Peng, X.; Serafin, J.M.

    2011-05-17

    As a means of developing a simple, cost-effective, and reliable method for probing nanoparticle behavior, we have used atomic force microscopy to gain a quantitative 3D visual representation of the deposition patterns of citrate-capped Au nanoparticles on a substrate as a function of (a) sample preparation, (b) the choice of substrate, (c) the dispersion solvent, and (d) the number of loading steps. Specifically, we have found that all four parameters can be independently controlled and manipulated in order to alter the resulting pattern and quantity of as-deposited nanoparticles. From these data, the sample preparation technique appears to influence deposition patterns most broadly, and the dispersion solvent is the most convenient parameter to use in tuning the quantity of nanoparticles deposited onto the surface under spin-coating conditions. Indeed, we have quantitatively measured the effect of surface coverage for both mica and silicon substrates under preparation techniques associated with (i) evaporation under ambient air, (ii) heat treatment, and (iii) spin-coating preparation conditions. In addition, we have observed a decrease in nanoparticle adhesion to a substrate when the ethylene glycol content of the colloidal dispersion solvent is increased, which had the effect of decreasing interparticle-substrate interactions. Finally, we have shown that substrates prepared by these diverse techniques have potential applicability in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  10. Quantitatively Probing the Means of Controlling Nanoparticle Assembly on Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patete, J.M.; Wong, S.; Peng, X.; Serafin, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    As a means of developing a simple, cost-effective, and reliable method for probing nanoparticle behavior, we have used atomic force microscopy to gain a quantitative 3D visual representation of the deposition patterns of citrate-capped Au nanoparticles on a substrate as a function of (a) sample preparation, (b) the choice of substrate, (c) the dispersion solvent, and (d) the number of loading steps. Specifically, we have found that all four parameters can be independently controlled and manipulated in order to alter the resulting pattern and quantity of as-deposited nanoparticles. From these data, the sample preparation technique appears to influence deposition patterns most broadly, and the dispersion solvent is the most convenient parameter to use in tuning the quantity of nanoparticles deposited onto the surface under spin-coating conditions. Indeed, we have quantitatively measured the effect of surface coverage for both mica and silicon substrates under preparation techniques associated with (i) evaporation under ambient air, (ii) heat treatment, and (iii) spin-coating preparation conditions. In addition, we have observed a decrease in nanoparticle adhesion to a substrate when the ethylene glycol content of the colloidal dispersion solvent is increased, which had the effect of decreasing interparticle-substrate interactions. Finally, we have shown that substrates prepared by these diverse techniques have potential applicability in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  12. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  13. Deposition potential of polonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heal, H. G.

    1948-11-23

    The cathodic deposition potential for polonium in concentrations of 10{sup -13} normal and 8 x 10{sup -13} normal, the former being 100-fold smaller than the smallest concentrations previously studied, has been determined. The value is 0.64 volt on the hydrogen scale. Considering the various ways in which the graphs can reasonably be drawn, we consider the maximum possible error to be of the order of +- 0.03 volt. There is apparently no shift of deposition potential between concentrations of 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -13} normal, indicating that the Nernst equation is not applicable in these circumstances.

  14. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  15. The performance and radiation exposure of some neutron probes in measuring the water content of the topsoil layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, A.; Razzouk, A.K.; Al-Ain, F.

    1997-01-01

    The use of neutron scattering technique for determining the soil surface water content is not popular due to the radiation escaping from the soil surface and the large errors in measurement. To compare the radiation exposure and the performance of different techniques statistically, 3 sites were selected. Five different neutron probe models and different adaptors were used with the depth probes. Exposure to neutrons and γ radiations, at various distances from the probes, were determined. In situ calibration curves were determined using different models of depth probes with a Solo surface reflector block, CPN surface adaptor, and different numbers of plastic Teflon parallelepiped, as well as surface Troxler 3401-B probes. Depth neutron probe readings increased with increasing number of Teflon plastic blocks deposited on the soil surface. The intercept of the straight line regression analysis of CR (count ratio, surface count over standard count) v. percentage water content on a volume basis decreased with increasing number of blocks deposited on the soil surface at all sites. The determination coefficient values of any depth probe with a Solo surface reflector or a block of 4-8 cm thickness were higher than those of a Troxler 3401-B surface probe or CPN 503 depth probe with its surface adaptor. The least exposure to radiation was with a depth probe with surface reflectors. This study proves the possibility of measuring the moisture content of the soil surface by using a depth neutron probe with a block laid on the surface, without danger of receiving the threshold dose of radiation. (authors)

  16. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jesse D; Sulchek, Todd A; Feigin, Stuart C

    2013-04-30

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  17. Computer modelling of eddy current probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    Computer programs have been developed for modelling impedance and transmit-receive eddy current probes in two-dimensional axis-symmetric configurations. These programs, which are based on analytic equations, simulate bobbin probes in infinitely long tubes and surface probes on plates. They calculate probe signal due to uniform variations in conductor thickness, resistivity and permeability. These signals depend on probe design and frequency. A finite element numerical program has been procured to calculate magnetic permeability in non-linear ferromagnetic materials. Permeability values from these calculations can be incorporated into the above analytic programs to predict signals from eddy current probes with permanent magnets in ferromagnetic tubes. These programs were used to test various probe designs for new testing applications. Measurements of magnetic permeability in magnetically biased ferromagnetic materials have been performed by superimposing experimental signals, from special laboratory ET probes, on impedance plane diagrams calculated using these programs. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  18. The time domain triple probe method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, M.A.; Hallock, G.A.; Tsui, H.Y.W.; Bengtson, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    A new Langmuir probe technique based on the triple probe method is being developed to provide simultaneous measurement of plasma temperature, potential, and density with the temporal and spatial resolution required to accurately characterize plasma turbulence. When the conventional triple probe method is used in an inhomogeneous plasma, local differences in the plasma measured at each probe introduce significant error in the estimation of turbulence parameters. The Time Domain Triple Probe method (TDTP) uses high speed switching of Langmuir probe potential, rather than spatially separated probes, to gather the triple probe information thus avoiding these errors. Analysis indicates that plasma response times and recent electronics technology meet the requirements to implement the TDTP method. Data reduction techniques of TDTP data are to include linear and higher order correlation analysis to estimate fluctuation induced particle and thermal transport, as well as energy relationships between temperature, density, and potential fluctuations

  19. Deposit Formation during Coal-Straw Co-Combustion in a Utility PF-Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karin Hedebo

    1998-01-01

    the combustion conditions, including the method of introduction of the straw to the boiler, as well as the amount of Fe introduced as Pyrite with the coal.No significant effect could be found in the deposition probe samples for an increase in probe metal temperature from 540°C to 620°C. The importance of deposit...... area. The evaluation was performed for an opposed-wall fired and tangentially fired boiler, which are compared to the wall-fired MKS1. Two major aspects were evaluated: The effect of flue gas temperatures and the effect of mixing. However, no final recommandation for choise of boilertype can be given...

  20. Ion Deposited Carbon Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    PAGE ("’hen Dita t,,I,, efl TABLE OF CONTENTS Section No. Title Page No. 1.0 OBJECTIVE 1 2.0 SCOPE 2 3.0 BACKGROUND 3 4.0 COATINGS DEPOSITION 4 4.1...scientific, ards of measure. The Committee, and Confer- technical, practical, and teaching purposes.ence voting members, are leading professional On the

  1. Plasma deposition of refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of deposition, testing and application of plasma coating of refractory metals and oxides are considered. The process fundamentals, various manufacturing procedures and equipment for their realization are described in detail. Coating materials are given (Al, Mg, Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , MgAlO 4 ) which are used in reactor engineering and their designated purposes are shown [ru

  2. 75 FR 34533 - Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... collection request (ICR) described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for..., Attention: Desk Officer for OTS, U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 725 17th Street, NW., Room 10235... statement the institution sends to the consumer. Regulation DD contains rules for advertisements of deposit...

  3. Where do pulse oximeter probes break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crede, S; Van der Merwe, G; Hutchinson, J; Woods, D; Karlen, W; Lawn, J

    2014-06-01

    Pulse oximetry, a non-invasive method for accurate assessment of blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), is an important monitoring tool in health care facilities. However, it is often not available in many low-resource settings, due to expense, overly sophisticated design, a lack of organised procurement systems and inadequate medical device management and maintenance structures. Furthermore medical devices are often fragile and not designed to withstand the conditions of low-resource settings. In order to design a probe, better suited to the needs of health care facilities in low-resource settings this study aimed to document the site and nature of pulse oximeter probe breakages in a range of different probe designs in a low to middle income country. A retrospective review of job cards relating to the assessment and repair of damaged or faulty pulse oximeter probes was conducted at a medical device repair company based in Cape Town, South Africa, specializing in pulse oximeter probe repairs. 1,840 job cards relating to the assessment and repair of pulse oximeter probes were reviewed. 60.2 % of probes sent for assessment were finger-clip probes. For all probes, excluding the neonatal wrap probes, the most common point of failure was the probe wiring (>50 %). The neonatal wrap most commonly failed at the strap (51.5 %). The total cost for quoting on the broken pulse oximeter probes and for the subsequent repair of devices, excluding replacement components, amounted to an estimated ZAR 738,810 (USD $98,508). Improving the probe wiring would increase the life span of pulse oximeter probes. Increasing the life span of probes will make pulse oximetry more affordable and accessible. This is of high priority in low-resource settings where frequent repair or replacement of probes is unaffordable or impossible.

  4. Probe-based recording technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naberhuis, Steve

    2002-01-01

    The invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) prompted researchers to contemplate whether such technology could be used as the basis for the storage and retrieval of information. With magnetic data storage technology facing limits in storage density due to the thermal instability of magnetic bits, the super-paramagnetic limit, the heir-apparent for information storage at higher densities appeared to be variants of the STM or similar probe-based storage techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). Among these other techniques that could provide replacement technology for magnetic storage, near-field optical scanning optical microscopy (NSOM or SNOM) has also been investigated. Another alternative probe-based storage technology called atomic resolution storage (ARS) is also currently under development. An overview of these various technologies is herein presented, with an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages inherent in each particularly with respect to reduced device dimensions. The role of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) is emphasized

  5. Solar Probe Cup: Laboratory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, M. L.; Larson, D. E.; Wright, K. H., Jr.; Gallagher, D. L.; Whittlesey, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Solar Probe Cup (SPC) is a Faraday Cup instrument that will fly on the Paker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft, orbiting the Sun at as close as 9.86 solar radii. The SPC instrument is designed to measure the thermal solar wind plasma (protons, alphas, and electrons) that will be encountered throughout its close encounter with the Sun. Due to the solar wind flow being primarily radial, the SPC instrument is pointed directly at the Sun, resulting in an extreme thermal environment that must be tolerated throughout the primary data collection phase. Laboratory testing has been performed over the past 6 months to demonstrate the instrument's performance relative to its requirements, and to characterize the measurements over the expected thermal range. This presentation will demonstrate the performance of the instrument as measured in the lab, describe the operational configurations planned for flight, and discuss the data products that will be created.

  6. Electrostatic probes in luminescent discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Raposo, C. da.

    1980-01-01

    A system to produce luminescent type plasma by continuos discharge and ionization by high frequency was constructed. The ionization was done in the air and in the argon under pressures from 3 to 10 mmHg. The parameters of a non magnetized collisional plasma and the parameters of a magnetized plasma such as, density, eletron temperature and potential, using a Langmuir probe with plane geometry, were determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. DNA Probe for Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    OpenAIRE

    Delley, Michèle; Mollet, Beat; Hottinger, Herbert

    1990-01-01

    From a genomic DNA library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a clone was isolated which complements a leucine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli strain (GE891). Subsequent analysis of the clone indicated that it could serve as a specific DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridizations with over 40 different Lactobacillus strains showed that this clone specifically recognizes L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, bulgaricus, and lactis. The sensitivity of the method was tested by using an α-32P-l...

  8. Atomic beams probe surface vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    In the last two years, surface scientist have begun trying to obtain the vibrational frequencies of surface atoms in both insulating and metallic crystals from beams of helium atoms. It is the inelastic scattering that researchers use to probe surface vibrations. Inelastic atomic beam scattering has only been used to obtain vibrational frequency spectra from clean surfaces. Several experiments using helium beams are cited. (SC)

  9. Distance probes of dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  10. Lasers probe the atomic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.

    1986-01-01

    The article is contained in a booklet on the Revised Nuffield Advanced Physics Course, and concentrates on two techniques to illustrate how lasers probe the atomic nucleus. Both techniques employ resonance fluorescence spectroscopy for obtaining atomic transition energies. The first uses lasers to determine the change in the nuclear charge radius with isotope, the second concerns the use of lasers for ultrasensitive detection of isotopes and elements. The application of lasers in resonance ionization spectroscopy and proton decay is also described. (UK)

  11. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accardo, Angelo [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, Genova 16163 (Italy); Di Fabrizio, Enzo [KAUST (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology), Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); BIONEM Lab at University Magna Graecia, Campus Salvatore Venuta, Viale Europa 88100, Germaneto-Catanzaro (Italy); Limongi, Tania [KAUST (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology), Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Marinaro, Giovanni [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, Genova 16163 (Italy); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Riekel, Christian, E-mail: riekel@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2014-06-10

    A comprehensive review about the use of micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces as a tool for in situ X-ray scattering investigations of soft matter and biological materials. Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data.

  12. Fabrication and buckling dynamics of nanoneedle AFM probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, J D; Gordeev, S N, E-mail: jdb28@bath.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-29

    A new method for the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio probes by electron beam induced deposition is described. This technique allows the fabrication of cylindrical 'nanoneedle' structures on the atomic force microscope (AFM) probe tip which can be used for accurate imaging of surfaces with high steep features. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging showed that needles with diameters in the range of 18-100 nm could be obtained by this technique. The needles were shown to undergo buckling deformation under large tip-sample forces. The deformation was observed to recover elastically under vertical deformations of up to {approx} 60% of the needle length, preventing damage to the needle. A technique of stabilizing the needle against buckling by coating it with additional electron beam deposited carbon was also investigated; it was shown that coated needles of 75 nm or greater total diameter did not buckle even under tip-sample forces of {approx} 1.5 {mu}N.

  13. Encapsulation method for atom probe tomography analysis of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.J.; Giddings, A.D.; Wu, Y.; Verheijen, M.A.; Prosa, T.J.; Roozeboom, F.; Rice, K.P.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Geiser, B.P.; Kelly, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Open-space nanomaterials are a widespread class of technologically important materials that are generally incompatible with analysis by atom probe tomography (APT) due to issues with specimen preparation, field evaporation and data reconstruction. The feasibility of encapsulating such non-compact matter in a matrix to enable APT measurements is investigated using nanoparticles as an example. Simulations of field evaporation of a void, and the resulting artifacts in ion trajectory, underpin the requirement that no voids remain after encapsulation. The approach is demonstrated by encapsulating Pt nanoparticles in an ZnO:Al matrix created by atomic layer deposition, a growth technique which offers very high surface coverage and conformality. APT measurements of the Pt nanoparticles are correlated with transmission electron microscopy images and numerical simulations in order to evaluate the accuracy of the APT reconstruction. - Highlights: • Pt nanoparticles were analyzed using atom probe tomography and TEM. • The particles were prepared by encapsulation using atomic layer deposition. • Simulation of field evaporation near a void results in aberrations in ion trajectories. • Apparent differences between TEM and APT analyses are reconciled through simulation of field evaporation from a low-field matrix containing high-field NPs; ion trajectory aberrations are shown to lead to an apparent mixing of the matrix into the NPs.

  14. Probing a gravitational cat state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastopoulos, C; Hu, B L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nature of a gravitational two-state system (G2S) in the simplest setup in Newtonian gravity. In a quantum description of matter a single motionless massive particle can in principle be in a superposition state of two spatially separated locations. This superposition state in gravity, or gravitational cat state, would lead to fluctuations in the Newtonian force exerted on a nearby test particle. The central quantity of importance for this inquiry is the energy density correlation. This corresponds to the noise kernel in stochastic gravity theory, evaluated in the weak field nonrelativistic limit. In this limit quantum fluctuations of the stress–energy tensor manifest as the fluctuations of the Newtonian force. We describe the properties of such a G2S system and present two ways of measuring the cat state for the Newtonian force, one by way of a classical probe, the other a quantum harmonic oscillator. Our findings include: (i) mass density fluctuations persist even in single particle systems, and they are of the same order of magnitude as the mean; (ii) a classical probe generically records a non-Markovian fluctuating force; (iii) a quantum probe interacting with the G2S system may undergo Rabi oscillations in a strong coupling regime. This simple prototypical gravitational quantum system could provide a robust testing ground to compare predictions from alternative quantum theories, since the results reported here are based on standard quantum mechanics and classical gravity. (paper)

  15. The Van Allen Probes mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, James

    2014-01-01

    This collection of articles provides broad and detailed information about NASA’s Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes) twin-spacecraft Earth-orbiting mission. The mission has the objective of achieving predictive understanding of the dynamic, intense, energetic, dangerous, and presently unpredictable belts of energetic particles that are magnetically trapped in Earth’s space environment above the atmosphere. It documents the science of the radiation belts and the societal benefits of achieving predictive understanding. Detailed information is provided about the Van Allen Probes mission design, the spacecraft, the science investigations, and the onboard instrumentation that must all work together to make unprecedented measurements within a most unforgiving environment, the core of Earth’s most intense radiation regions.
 This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in space science, solar-terrestrial interactions and studies of the up...

  16. Tools to probe the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.; Augueres, J.L.; Amiaux, J.; Cara, Ch.; Fontignie, J.; Rio, Y.; Fermon, C.; Pannetier-Lecoeur, M.; De Vismes, A.; Cordier, B.; Fesquet, M.; Ferrando, Ph.; Authier, M.; Pantin, E.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Boulade, O.; Refregier, A.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Agnese, P.; Rodriguez, L.; Agnese, P.; Pigot, C.; Duband, L.; Limousin, O.; Delagnes, E.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Carton, P.H.; Starck, J.L.; Bournaud, F.; Teyssier, R.; Audit, E.; Brun, A.S.; Leca, P.; Menache, Ch.; Pomarede, D.; Thooris, B.; Meis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This special issue of Clefs CEA journal is entirely devoted to astrophysics and to the exploration and probing of the Universe. The second part of this dossier, described here, makes a status of the tools used to probe the universe: telescopes, imaging spectrometers, data processing and simulation. Content: A - Telescopes of the future: 1. Seeing further out: JWST: looking back on a past 13 billion years old, Space specifics: the learning curve to know-how, Fabricating a corona-graph mask, SVOM, a satellite to detect the explosions of the first stars to be formed in the Universe; 2. Seeing more precisely: SIMBOL-X, pioneering formation flying, ELT/METIS, a 42-meter giant, One hundred telescopes for the CTA arrays; 3. Seeing wider: Euclid, mapping the extragalactic sky, ANTARES: the neutrino, another cosmic messenger; B - The new generation of imaging spectrometers: Observing the Universe in the submillimeter spectral region, The X-ray Universe, Space cryo-coolers, Out in the extreme, tumultuous Universe, Probing the Sun with GOLF-NG, Focus: From light to imagery; C - Data analysis in astrophysics; D - Numerical simulation in astrophysics: Information technology and theoretical predictions in astrophysics, Supercomputers for a better understanding of the Universe, The visualization of astrophysical simulations, Godunov, a numerical platform for education and research

  17. A computerized Langmuir probe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilling, L.S.; Bydder, E.L.; Carnegie, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    For low pressure plasmas it is important to record entire single or double Langmuir probe characteristics accurately. For plasmas with a depleted high energy tail, the accuracy of the recorded ion current plays a critical role in determining the electron temperature. Even for high density Maxwellian distributions, it is necessary to accurately model the ion current to obtain the correct electron density. Since the electron and ion current saturation values are, at best, orders of magnitude apart, a single current sensing resistor cannot provide the required resolution to accurately record these values. We present an automated, personal computer based data acquisition system for the determination of fundamental plasma properties in low pressure plasmas. The system is designed for single and double Langmuir probes, whose characteristics can be recorded over a bias voltage range of ±70 V with 12 bit resolution. The current flowing through the probes can be recorded within the range of 5 nA-100 mA. The use of a transimpedance amplifier for current sensing eliminates the requirement for traditional current sensing resistors and hence the need to correct the raw data. The large current recording range is realized through the use of a real time gain switching system in the negative feedback loop of the transimpedance amplifier

  18. A computerized Langmuir probe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, L. S.; Bydder, E. L.; Carnegie, D. A.

    2003-07-01

    For low pressure plasmas it is important to record entire single or double Langmuir probe characteristics accurately. For plasmas with a depleted high energy tail, the accuracy of the recorded ion current plays a critical role in determining the electron temperature. Even for high density Maxwellian distributions, it is necessary to accurately model the ion current to obtain the correct electron density. Since the electron and ion current saturation values are, at best, orders of magnitude apart, a single current sensing resistor cannot provide the required resolution to accurately record these values. We present an automated, personal computer based data acquisition system for the determination of fundamental plasma properties in low pressure plasmas. The system is designed for single and double Langmuir probes, whose characteristics can be recorded over a bias voltage range of ±70 V with 12 bit resolution. The current flowing through the probes can be recorded within the range of 5 nA-100 mA. The use of a transimpedance amplifier for current sensing eliminates the requirement for traditional current sensing resistors and hence the need to correct the raw data. The large current recording range is realized through the use of a real time gain switching system in the negative feedback loop of the transimpedance amplifier.

  19. Probe measurements for impurity transport in the scrape-off layer of JIPP T-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, M.; Satake, T.; Hashiba, H.; Yamashina, T.; Amemiya, S.

    1982-05-01

    Impurity transport processes in the scrape-off layer of the JIPP T-II device have been studied by a probe method. A cubical silicon probe was inserted and exposed to 20 identical tokamak discharges in the scrape-off region. Deposited impurities were analyzed with use of AES, RBS and PIXE equipments. The main metallic impurities were molybdenum and iron whose deposition behavior was almost the same on any side of the probe, and their fluxes were observed to be 1.2 x 10 13 /cm 2 .discharge on the electron drift side and 5.2 x 10 13 /cm 2 .discharge on the ion drift side, respectively at the distance of 18.3 cm from the center line of the plasma. The mean transport energy of the impurities striking the probe surface was estimated from the depth concentration profile applying the LSS theory for iron as 90 eV on the electron drift side and 250 eV on the ion drift side, respectively. The e-folding length of the scrape-off plasma density was measured by the radial distribution of a deposited tantalum amount to be 0.64 cm on the electron drift side and 1.73 cm on the ion drift side, respectively. (author)

  20. Shielded piezoresistive cantilever probes for nanoscale topography and electrical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yongliang; Ma, Eric Yue; Cui, Yong-Tao; Lai, Keji; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Haemmerli, Alexandre; Harjee, Nahid; Pruitt, Beth L

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of piezoresistive cantilever probes for microwave impedance microscopy (MIM) to enable simultaneous topographic and electrical imaging. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited Si 3 N 4  cantilevers with a shielded center conductor line and nanoscale conductive tip apex are batch fabricated on silicon-on-insulator wafers. Doped silicon piezoresistors are integrated at the root of the cantilevers to sense their deformation. The piezoresistive sensitivity is 2 nm for a bandwidth of 10 kHz, enabling topographical imaging with reasonable speed. The aluminum center conductor has a low resistance (less than 5 Ω) and small capacitance (∼1.7 pF) to ground; these parameters are critical for high sensitivity MIM imaging. High quality piezoresistive topography and MIM images are simultaneously obtained with the fabricated probes at ambient and cryogenic temperatures. These new piezoresistive probes remarkably broaden the horizon of MIM for scientific applications by operating with an integrated feedback mechanism at low temperature and for photosensitive samples. (paper)

  1. Scanning probe lithography for fabrication of Ti metal nanodot arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, B.; Jo, W.; Gwon, M.J.; Lee, E.; Kim, D.-W.

    2010-01-01

    We report fabrication of Ti metal nanodot arrays by scanning probe microscopic indentation. A thin poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) layer was spin-coated on Si substrates with thickness of 70 nm. Nanometer-size pore arrays were formed by indenting the PMMA layer using a cantilever of a scanning probe microscope. Protuberances with irregular boundaries appeared during the indentation process. Control of approach and pulling-out speed during indentation was able to dispose of the protrusions. Ti metal films were deposited on the patterned PMMA layers by a radio-frequency sputtering method and subsequently lifted off to obtain metal nanodot arrays. The fabricated metal nanodot arrays have 200 nm of diameter and 500 nm of interdistance, which corresponds to a density of 4x10 8 /cm 2 . Scanning probe-based measurement of current-voltage (I-V) behaviors for a single Ti metal nanodot showed asymmetric characteristics. Applying external bias is likely to induce oxidation of Ti metal, since the conductance decreased and volume change of the dots was observed. I-V behaviors of Ti metal nanodots by conventional e-beam lithography were also characterized for comparison.

  2. New approaches to nanoparticle sample fabrication for atom probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felfer, P.; Li, T.; Eder, K.; Galinski, H.; Magyar, A.P.; Bell, D.C.; Smith, G.D.W.; Kruse, N.; Ringer, S.P.; Cairney, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their unique properties, nano-sized materials such as nanoparticles and nanowires are receiving considerable attention. However, little data is available about their chemical makeup at the atomic scale, especially in three dimensions (3D). Atom probe tomography is able to answer many important questions about these materials if the challenge of producing a suitable sample can be overcome. In order to achieve this, the nanomaterial needs to be positioned within the end of a tip and fixed there so the sample possesses sufficient structural integrity for analysis. Here we provide a detailed description of various techniques that have been used to position nanoparticles on substrates for atom probe analysis. In some of the approaches, this is combined with deposition techniques to incorporate the particles into a solid matrix, and focused ion beam processing is then used to fabricate atom probe samples from this composite. Using these approaches, data has been achieved from 10–20 nm core–shell nanoparticles that were extracted directly from suspension (i.e. with no chemical modification) with a resolution of better than ±1 nm. - Highlights: • Samples for APT of nanoparticles were fabricated from particle powders and dispersions. • Electrophoresis was suitable for producing samples from dispersions. • Powder lift-out was successfully producing samples from particle agglomerates. • Dispersion application/coating delivered the highest quality results.

  3. New approaches to nanoparticle sample fabrication for atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfer, P., E-mail: peter.felfer@sydney.edu.au [School for Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering/Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, T. [School for Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering/Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Materials Department, The University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Eder, K. [School for Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering/Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Galinski, H. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Magyar, A.P.; Bell, D.C. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Systems, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Smith, G.D.W. [Materials Department, The University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Kruse, N. [Chemical Physics of Materials (Catalysis-Tribology), Université Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, CP 243, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Ringer, S.P.; Cairney, J.M. [School for Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering/Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Due to their unique properties, nano-sized materials such as nanoparticles and nanowires are receiving considerable attention. However, little data is available about their chemical makeup at the atomic scale, especially in three dimensions (3D). Atom probe tomography is able to answer many important questions about these materials if the challenge of producing a suitable sample can be overcome. In order to achieve this, the nanomaterial needs to be positioned within the end of a tip and fixed there so the sample possesses sufficient structural integrity for analysis. Here we provide a detailed description of various techniques that have been used to position nanoparticles on substrates for atom probe analysis. In some of the approaches, this is combined with deposition techniques to incorporate the particles into a solid matrix, and focused ion beam processing is then used to fabricate atom probe samples from this composite. Using these approaches, data has been achieved from 10–20 nm core–shell nanoparticles that were extracted directly from suspension (i.e. with no chemical modification) with a resolution of better than ±1 nm. - Highlights: • Samples for APT of nanoparticles were fabricated from particle powders and dispersions. • Electrophoresis was suitable for producing samples from dispersions. • Powder lift-out was successfully producing samples from particle agglomerates. • Dispersion application/coating delivered the highest quality results.

  4. Influence of probe geometry on the response of an electrostatic probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Torben; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1999-01-01

    The response of an electrostatic probe is examined with reference to the probe geometry. The study involves the evaluation of the probe lambda function, from which response-related characteristic parameters can be derived. These parameters enable the probe detection sensitivity Se and spatial...

  5. Low resistivity Pt interconnects developed by electron beam assisted deposition using novel gas injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, R J; Romano-Rodriguez, A; O'Regan, C; Holmes, J D; Petkov, N; Thrompenaars, P; Mulder, J J L

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a direct write process where an electron beam locally decomposes a precursor gas leaving behind non-volatile deposits. It is a fast and relatively in-expensive method designed to develop conductive (metal) or isolating (oxide) nanostructures. Unfortunately the EBID process results in deposition of metal nanostructures with relatively high resistivity because the gas precursors employed are hydrocarbon based. We have developed deposition protocols using novel gas-injector system (GIS) with a carbon free Pt precursor. Interconnect type structures were deposited on preformed metal architectures. The obtained structures were analysed by cross-sectional TEM and their electrical properties were analysed ex-situ using four point probe electrical tests. The results suggest that both the structural and electrical characteristics differ significantly from those of Pt interconnects deposited by conventional hydrocarbon based precursors, and show great promise for the development of low resistivity electrical contacts.

  6. Zero voltage mass spectrometry probes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Wleklinski, Michael Stanley; Bag, Soumabha; Li, Yafeng

    2017-10-10

    The invention generally relates to zero volt mass spectrometry probes and systems. In certain embodiments, the invention provides a system including a mass spectrometry probe including a porous material, and a mass spectrometer (bench-top or miniature mass spectrometer). The system operates without an application of voltage to the probe. In certain embodiments, the probe is oriented such that a distal end faces an inlet of the mass spectrometer. In other embodiments, the distal end of the probe is 5 mm or less from an inlet of the mass spectrometer.

  7. TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating radio frequency probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.; Kwon, M.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Saoutic, B.; Becoulet, A.; Fraboulet, D.; Beaumont, B.; Kuus, H.; Ladurelle, L.; Pascal, J.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A fast reciprocating ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal rf magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal rf magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/s) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/s) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition, and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data show parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge

  8. 78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... as a potential global deposit insurer, preserve confidence in the FDIC deposit insurance system, and... the United States.\\2\\ The FDIC generally pays out deposit insurance on the next business day after a... since 2001 and total approximately $1 trillion today. In many cases, these branches do not engage in...

  9. Primitive chain network simulations of probe rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masubuchi, Yuichi; Amamoto, Yoshifumi; Pandey, Ankita; Liu, Cheng-Yang

    2017-09-27

    Probe rheology experiments, in which the dynamics of a small amount of probe chains dissolved in immobile matrix chains is discussed, have been performed for the development of molecular theories for entangled polymer dynamics. Although probe chain dynamics in probe rheology is considered hypothetically as single chain dynamics in fixed tube-shaped confinement, it has not been fully elucidated. For instance, the end-to-end relaxation of probe chains is slower than that for monodisperse melts, unlike the conventional molecular theories. In this study, the viscoelastic and dielectric relaxations of probe chains were calculated by primitive chain network simulations. The simulations semi-quantitatively reproduced the dielectric relaxation, which reflects the effect of constraint release on the end-to-end relaxation. Fair agreement was also obtained for the viscoelastic relaxation time. However, the viscoelastic relaxation intensity was underestimated, possibly due to some flaws in the model for the inter-chain cross-correlations between probe and matrix chains.

  10. Aspheric surface measurement using capacitive probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xin; Yuan, Daocheng; Li, Shaobo

    2017-02-01

    With the application of aspheres in optical fields, high precision and high efficiency aspheric surface metrology becomes a hot research topic. We describe a novel method of non-contact measurement of aspheric surface with capacitive probe. Taking an eccentric spherical surface as the object of study, the averaging effect of capacitive probe measurement and the influence of tilting the capacitive probe on the measurement results are investigated. By comparing measurement results from simultaneous measurement of the capacitive probe and contact probe of roundness instrument, this paper indicates the feasibility of using capacitive probes to test aspheric surface and proposes the compensation method of measurement error caused by averaging effect and the tilting of the capacitive probe.

  11. Uranium deposits of Zaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitmut, D.; Malu wa Kalenga

    1979-01-01

    Since April 1960, following the closing of the Shinkolobwe mine, the Republic of Zaire has ceased to be a producer of uranium. Nevertheless, Gecamines (Generale des carrieres et mines du Zaire), a wholly state-owned company, is continuing its research on uranium occurrences which have been discovered in its concession in the course of aerial radiometric prospecting. The most recent campaign was the one carried out in 1969 and 1972 by Hunting Company. On-the-ground verification of these shows has not yet resulted in the discovery of a workable deposit. There are other sectors cutting across Zaire which might well contain uranium deposits: this is true of the sedimentary phosphates of the region of Lower Zaire as well as of the frontier region between Zaire and the Central African Empire. However, no detailed exploration work has yet been carried out. (author)

  12. 20 CFR 703.306 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Act in the amount fixed by the Office under the regulations in this part shall deposit any... deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. 703.306 Section 703.306 Employees' Benefits... negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. A self-insurer or...

  13. Probing the phase composition of silicon films in situ by etch product detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingemans, G.; Donker, M. N. van den; Gordijn, A.; Kessels, W. M. M.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de

    2007-01-01

    Exploiting the higher etch probability for amorphous silicon relative to crystalline silicon, the transiently evolving phase composition of silicon films in the microcrystalline growth regime was probed in situ by monitoring the etch product (SiH 4 ) gas density during a short H 2 plasma treatment step. Etch product detection took place by the easy-to-implement techniques of optical emission spectroscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The phase composition of the films was probed as a function of the SiH 4 concentration during deposition and as a function of the film thickness. The in situ results were corroborated by Raman spectroscopy and solar cell analysis

  14. Robust operation and performance of integrated carbon nanotubes atomic force microscopy probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rius, G; Clark, I T; Yoshimura, M

    2013-01-01

    We present a complete characterization of carbon nanotubes-atomic force microscopy (CNT-AFM) probes to evaluate the cantilever operation and advanced properties originating from the CNTs. The fabrication consists of silicon probes tip-functionalized with multiwalled CNTs by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A dedicated methodology has been defined to evaluate the effect of CNT integration into the Si cantilevers. The presence of the CNTs provides enhanced capability for sensing and durability, as demonstrated using dynamic and static modes, e.g. imaging, indentation and force/current characterization.

  15. Heating of polymer substrate by discharge plasma in radiofrequency magnetron sputtering deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirghi, Lucel; Popa, Gheorghe; Hatanaka, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    The substrate used for the thin film deposition in a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering deposition system is heated by the deposition plasma. This may change drastically the surface properties of the polymer substrates. Deposition of titanium dioxide thin films on polymethyl methacrylate and polycarbonate substrates resulted in buckling of the substrate surfaces. This effect was evaluated by analysis of atomic force microscopy topography images of the deposited films. The amount of energy received by the substrate surface during the film deposition was determined by a thermal probe. Then, the results of the thermal probe measurements were used to compute the surface temperature of the polymer substrate. The computation revealed that the substrate surface temperature depends on the substrate thickness, discharge power and substrate holder temperature. For the case of the TiO 2 film depositions in the radiofrequency magnetron plasma, the computation indicated substrate surface temperature values under the polymer melting temperature. Therefore, the buckling of polymer substrate surface in the deposition plasma may not be regarded as a temperature driven surface instability, but more as an effect of argon ion bombardment

  16. Evaluation of methods for characterizations of deposits; Utvaerdering av metoder foer avlagringsmaetningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegberg, J.; Bjoerkman, P. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2001-11-01

    In boilers there are problems with deposits on parts exposed to the flue gas, in particular on heat exchanging parts and to an increasing extent with the changeover to the use of biofuels and wood waste fuels. In order to solve the problems deposits are examined by using a deposit probe and taking deposit samples from the interior of the boiler. In this report an evaluation of methods of analysis is performed based on experiences in both literature and laboratory work. The evaluation forms the basis of an instruction for deposit measurements in 'Vaermeforsks Maethandbok'. The procedure for use of deposit probes is treated as well as the importance of careful and well planned sample preparation before analysis. In the literature a large number of methods used for analysis of deposits from flue ashes and similar applications are found. The methods include chemical analyses of solids and liquids, analysis of crystal structures, thermal properties and the solid mechanics of the materials. Several methods, for example SEM-EDX, XRF, ICP, IC and methods for determining the mechanical and thermal properties are suited for a survey examination of a deposit, while more specialised methods with higher resolution can add information but require a clear framing of a question and in practice are suited for only separate samples. Examples from the latter category are AES, ESCA and TOF-SIMS.

  17. Thorium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Victorio.

    1984-01-01

    The main occurences of the thorium minerals of the Argentine Republic which have not been exploited, due to their reduced volume, are described. The thoriferous deposits have three genetic types: pegmatitic, hydrothermal and detritic, being the most common minerals: monazite, thorite and thorogummite. The most important thorium accumulations are located in Salta, being of less importance those of Cordoba, Jujuy and San Juan. (M.E.L.) [es

  18. Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

  19. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  20. Gamma-Ray Imaging Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Walter James

    1988-12-01

    External nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging of early primary and metastatic lung cancer tumors is difficult due to the poor sensitivity and resolution of existing gamma cameras. Nonimaging counting detectors used for internal tumor detection give ambiguous results because distant background variations are difficult to discriminate from neighboring tumor sites. This suggests that an internal imaging nuclear medicine probe, particularly an esophageal probe, may be advantageously used to detect small tumors because of the ability to discriminate against background variations and the capability to get close to sites neighboring the esophagus. The design, theory of operation, preliminary bench tests, characterization of noise behavior and optimization of such an imaging probe is the central theme of this work. The central concept lies in the representation of the aperture shell by a sequence of binary digits. This, coupled with the mode of operation which is data encoding within an axial slice of space, leads to the fundamental imaging equation in which the coding operation is conveniently described by a circulant matrix operator. The coding/decoding process is a classic coded-aperture problem, and various estimators to achieve decoding are discussed. Some estimators require a priori information about the object (or object class) being imaged; the only unbiased estimator that does not impose this requirement is the simple inverse-matrix operator. The effects of noise on the estimate (or reconstruction) is discussed for general noise models and various codes/decoding operators. The choice of an optimal aperture for detector count times of clinical relevance is examined using a statistical class-separability formalism.

  1. Active Probing of Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    ft. shuttle wake mlay also a kect the optration (if mi’:nc di.tg. Ibk Prwwattr of ,frttirw 844 I. %rvaom ’itbi h" $od iy radlet 6�va of IkeA dtm t...probe had a specially designed inner shaft caused by the existence of some ballistic electrons after made with .pring sleel tubing. By externally...potential to the electron thermal energy i(s distances downstream of the body (see Fig. 1). This (e OIT,) was on the order of 10 in steady state. design

  2. Astrophysical probes of fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, C.J.A.P.

    2009-01-01

    I review the motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inaccessible to experiment. I highlight the current controversial evidence for varying couplings and present some new results. Finally I focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements might be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with some advantages over standard methods. In particular I discuss what can be achieved with future spectrographs such as ESPRESSO and CODEX.

  3. Astrophysical probes of fundamental physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, C.J.A.P. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    I review the motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inaccessible to experiment. I highlight the current controversial evidence for varying couplings and present some new results. Finally I focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements might be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with some advantages over standard methods. In particular I discuss what can be achieved with future spectrographs such as ESPRESSO and CODEX.

  4. Probing nuclear structure with nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauge, E.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this lecture is to show how nucleon scattering can be used to probe the structure of target nuclei, and how nucleon scattering observables can be interpreted in terms of nuclear structure using microscopic optical potentials. After a brief overview of the specificities of nucleon-nucleus scattering, and a quick reminder on scattering theory, the main part of this lecture is devoted to the construction of optical potentials in which the target nuclei structure information is folded with an effective interaction. Several examples of such microscopic optical model potentials are given. (author)

  5. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.

    A new experimental set-up to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airBorne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust related problems in rooms......, there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension....

  6. A Micrometeorological Perspective on Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the dry deposition velocity is given in terms of constant flux layer scaling. Numerical values of upper bounds on the deposition velocity is given for a typical situation. Some remarks are then offered on the relative merits of various ways in which the combined diffusion-deposition...

  7. Market Discipline and Deposit Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Peresetsky, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines Russian banks’ household deposit interest rates for the transition period of setting up the deposit insurance system. Monthly observations of Russian banks’ interest rates and balance sheets are used in a fixed effects panel data model. It is shown market discipline has been significantly diminished after switching to the deposit insurance.

  8. Electrophoretic Deposition of Gallium with High Deposition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanfei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, electrophoretic deposition (EPD is reported to form gallium thin film with high deposition rate and low cost while avoiding the highly toxic chemicals typically used in electroplating. A maximum deposition rate of ~0.6 μm/min, almost one order of magnitude higher than the typical value reported for electroplating, is obtained when employing a set of proper deposition parameters. The thickness of the film is shown to increase with deposition time when sequential deposition is employed. The concentration of Mg(NO32, the charging salt, is also found to be a critical factor to control the deposition rate. Various gallium micropatterns are obtained by masking the substrate during the process, demonstrating process compatibility with microfabrication. The reported novel approach can potentially be employed in a broad range of applications with Ga as a raw material, including microelectronics, photovoltaic cells, and flexible liquid metal microelectrodes.

  9. Laser-heated emissive plasma probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrittwieser, Roman; Ionita, Codrina; Balan, Petru; Gstrein, Ramona; Grulke, Olaf; Windisch, Thomas; Brandt, Christian; Klinger, Thomas; Madani, Ramin; Amarandei, George; Sarma, Arun K

    2008-08-01

    Emissive probes are standard tools in laboratory plasmas for the direct determination of the plasma potential. Usually they consist of a loop of refractory wire heated by an electric current until sufficient electron emission. Recently emissive probes were used also for measuring the radial fluctuation-induced particle flux and other essential parameters of edge turbulence in magnetized toroidal hot plasmas [R. Schrittwieser et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 055004 (2008)]. We have developed and investigated various types of emissive probes, which were heated by a focused infrared laser beam. Such a probe has several advantages: higher probe temperature without evaporation or melting and thus higher emissivity and longer lifetime, no deformation of the probe in a magnetic field, no potential drop along the probe wire, and faster time response. The probes are heated by an infrared diode laser with 808 nm wavelength and an output power up to 50 W. One probe was mounted together with the lens system on a radially movable probe shaft, and radial profiles of the plasma potential and of its oscillations were measured in a linear helicon discharge.

  10. Laser-heated emissive plasma probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrittwieser, Roman; Ionita, Codrina; Balan, Petru; Gstrein, Ramona; Grulke, Olaf; Windisch, Thomas; Brandt, Christian; Klinger, Thomas; Madani, Ramin; Amarandei, George; Sarma, Arun K.

    2008-01-01

    Emissive probes are standard tools in laboratory plasmas for the direct determination of the plasma potential. Usually they consist of a loop of refractory wire heated by an electric current until sufficient electron emission. Recently emissive probes were used also for measuring the radial fluctuation-induced particle flux and other essential parameters of edge turbulence in magnetized toroidal hot plasmas [R. Schrittwieser et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 055004 (2008)]. We have developed and investigated various types of emissive probes, which were heated by a focused infrared laser beam. Such a probe has several advantages: higher probe temperature without evaporation or melting and thus higher emissivity and longer lifetime, no deformation of the probe in a magnetic field, no potential drop along the probe wire, and faster time response. The probes are heated by an infrared diode laser with 808 nm wavelength and an output power up to 50 W. One probe was mounted together with the lens system on a radially movable probe shaft, and radial profiles of the plasma potential and of its oscillations were measured in a linear helicon discharge

  11. Laser-heated emissive plasma probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrittwieser, Roman; Ionita, Codrina; Balan, Petru; Gstrein, Ramona; Grulke, Olaf; Windisch, Thomas; Brandt, Christian; Klinger, Thomas; Madani, Ramin; Amarandei, George; Sarma, Arun K.

    2008-08-01

    Emissive probes are standard tools in laboratory plasmas for the direct determination of the plasma potential. Usually they consist of a loop of refractory wire heated by an electric current until sufficient electron emission. Recently emissive probes were used also for measuring the radial fluctuation-induced particle flux and other essential parameters of edge turbulence in magnetized toroidal hot plasmas [R. Schrittwieser et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 055004 (2008)]. We have developed and investigated various types of emissive probes, which were heated by a focused infrared laser beam. Such a probe has several advantages: higher probe temperature without evaporation or melting and thus higher emissivity and longer lifetime, no deformation of the probe in a magnetic field, no potential drop along the probe wire, and faster time response. The probes are heated by an infrared diode laser with 808nm wavelength and an output power up to 50W. One probe was mounted together with the lens system on a radially movable probe shaft, and radial profiles of the plasma potential and of its oscillations were measured in a linear helicon discharge.

  12. Portal monitor incorporating smart probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, D.; Constantin, F.; Guta, T.

    2003-01-01

    Portal monitors are intended for detection of radioactive and special nuclear materials in vehicles, pedestrians, luggage, as well as for prevention of illegal traffic of radioactive sources. Monitors provide audio and visual alarms when radioactive and/or special nuclear materials are detected. They can be recommended to officers of customs, border guard and emergency services, civil defense, fire brigades, police and military departments or nuclear research or energetic facilities. The portal monitor developed by us consists in a portal frame, which sustains five intelligent probes having long plastic scintillator (0.5 liters each). The probes communicate, by serial transmission, with a Central Unit constructed on the basis of the 80552 microcontroller. This one manages the handshake, calculates the background, establishes the measuring time, starts and stops each measurement and makes all the other decisions. Sound signals and an infrared sensor monitor the passing through the portal and the measuring procedure. For each measurement the result is displayed on a LCD device contaminated/uncontaminated; for the contaminated case a loud and long sound signal is also issued. An RS 232 serial interface is provided in order to further developments or custom made devices. As a result, the portal monitor detects 1 μ Ci 137 Cs, spread all over a human body, in a 20 μR/h gamma background for a measuring time of 1.5 or 10 seconds giving a 99% confidence factor. (authors)

  13. Twin probes for space geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertotti, B.

    1978-01-01

    The twin probe method, proposed by Bertotti and Colombo (1972) to get rid of nongravitational forces in interplanetary space, can be applied to a near-Earth orbit to eliminate the atmospheric drag. Two equal pairs of probes, each pair consisting of two passive, small and dense spheres of equal surface and different masses, are flown on a circular orbit at an altitude of about 300 km. Each pair determines the motion of an ideal point which feels only the gravitational forces. They are separated by a distance d of (100/200) km and are tracked from a spacecraft or the Space Shuttle, flying at the same altitude. The relative motion of the two ideal points is reconstructed and yields a measurement of the fine structure of the Earth gravitational field, corresponding to a harmonic order l approximately a/d (a is the radius of the Earth). The tracking can be done by laser ranging to the four spheres, covered by corner reflectors; Doppler ranging is more convenient for higher values of l and can also be used. The accuracy in the compensation of the non-gravitational forces and in the measurements one needs for a given l are discussed in detail. (author)

  14. The Gravity Probe B Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This presentation briefly describes the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) Experiment which is designed to measure parts of Einstein's general theory of relativity by monitoring gyroscope orientation relative to a distant guide star. To measure the miniscule angles predicted by Einstein's theory, it was necessary to build near-perfect gyroscopes that were approximately 50 million times more precise than the best navigational gyroscopes. A telescope mounted along the central axis of the dewar and spacecraft provided the experiment's pointing reference to a guide star. The telescope's image divide precisely split the star's beam into x-axis and y-axis components whose brightness could be compared. GP-B's 650-gallon dewar, kept the science instrument inside the probe at a cryogenic temperature for 17.3 months and also provided the thruster propellant for precision attitude and translation control. Built around the dewar, the GP-B spacecraft was a total-integrated system, comprising both the space vehicle and payload, dedicated as a single entity to experimentally testing predictions of Einstein's theory.

  15. Influence of probe motion on laser probe temperature in circulating blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehrlein, C; Splinter, R; Littmann, L; Tuntelder, J R; Tatsis, G P; Svenson, R H

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of probe motion on laser probe temperature in various blood flow conditions. Laser probe temperatures were measured in an in vitro blood circulation model consisting of 3.2 nm-diameter plastic tubes. A 2.0 mm-diameter metal probe attached to a 300 microns optical quartz fiber was coupled to an argon laser. Continuous wave 4 watts and 8 watts of laser power were delivered to the fiber tip corresponding to a 6.7 +/- 0.5 and 13.2 +/- 0.7 watts power setting at the laser generator. The laser probe was either moved with constant velocity or kept stationary. A thermocouple inserted in the lateral portion of the probe was used to record probe temperatures. Probe temperature changes were found with the variation of laser power, probe velocity, blood flow, and duration of laser exposure. Probe motion significantly reduced probe temperatures. After 10 seconds of 4 watts laser power the probe temperature in stagnant blood decreased from 303 +/- 18 degrees C to 113 +/- 17 degrees C (63%) by moving the probe with a velocity of 5 cm/sec. Blood flow rates of 170 ml/min further decreased the probe temperature from 113 +/- 17 degrees C to 50 +/- 8 degrees C (56%). At 8 watts of laser power a probe temperature reduction from 591 +/- 25 degrees C to 534 +/- 36 degrees C (10%) due to 5 cm/sec probe velocity was noted. Probe temperatures were reduced to 130 +/- 30 degrees C (78%) under the combined influence of 5 cm/sec probe velocity and 170 ml/min blood flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Dry deposition on urban surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to facilitate developing a model for deposition in urban areas, beryllium-7, created by cosmic radiation and fall-out cesium-137, have been used as tracers in measurements designed to find the dry deposition velocity on building surfaces. A literature review has revealed that very little work has been done on deposition in urban areas; therefore, a major effort on meausring the deposition parameter is needed to construct reliable models in this field. Deposition velocities in the range from 0.001-0.04 cm/s have been found. (author)

  17. Thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal plasmas, with temperatures up to and even exceeding 10 4 K, are capable of producing high density vapor phase precursors for the deposition of relatively thick films. Although this technology is still in its infancy, it will fill the void between the relatively slow deposition processes such as physical vapor deposition and the high rate thermal spray deposition processes. In this chapter, the present state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed with emphasis on the various types of reactors proposed for this emerging technology. Only applications which attracted particular attention, namely diamond and high T c superconducting film deposition, are discussed in greater detail. (orig.)

  18. Use of Kelvin probe force microscopy for identification of CVD grown graphene flakes on copper foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Mehta, B. R.; Kanjilal, D.

    2017-05-01

    Graphene flakes have been grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method on Cu foils. The obtained graphene flakes have been characterized by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The graphene flakes grown on Cu foil comprise mainly single layer graphene and confirm that the nucleation for graphene growth starts very quickly. Moreover, KPFM has been found to be a valuable technique to differentiate between covered and uncovered portion of Cu foil by graphene flakes deposited for shorter duration. The results show that KPFM can be a very useful technique in understanding the mechanism of graphene growth.

  19. Electrochemical preparation of uranium and plutonium measuring probes for alpha spectroscopy from organic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruner, W.; Beutmann, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method for preparation of uranium and plutonium measuring probes for α-spectrometry is described. The method is based on electrodeposition from isopropanol and especially from ethanol and methanol solution. It was shown that a definite additions of a little amount of water lead to an increase of the deposition rate. It is possible to reach a 100% deposition in ethanol after an electrolysis time of 3 minutes for uranium and 30 minutes for plutonium with voltages of 150-200 V. (author)

  20. Evaluation of ash deposits during experimental investigation of co-firing of Bosnian coal with wooden biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smajevic, Izet; Kazagic, Anes [JP Elektroprivreda BiH d.d., Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Sarajevo Univ. (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The paper is addressed to the development and use different criteria for evaluation of ash deposits collected during experimental co-firing of Bosnian coals with wooden biomass. Spruce saw dust was used for the co-firing tests with the Kakanj brown coal and with a lignite blend consisted of the Dubrave lignite and the Sikulje lignite. The coal/biomass mixtures at 93:7 %w and at 80:20 %w were tested. Experimental lab-scale facility PF entrained flow reactor is used for the co-firing tests. The reactor allows examination of fouling/slagging behaviors and emissions at various and infinitely variable process temperature which can be set at will in the range from ambient to 1560 C. Ash deposits are collected on two non-cooled ceramic probes and one water-cooled metal surface. Six different criteria are developed and used to evaluate behavior of the ash deposits on the probes: ash deposit shape, state and structure, which are analyzed visually - photographically and optically by a microscope, rate of adhesion and ash deposit strength, analyzed by physic acting to the ash deposits, and finally deposition rate, determined as a mass of the deposit divided by the collecting area and the time of collecting. Furthermore, chemical composition analysis and AFT of the ash deposits were also done to provide additional information on the deposits. (orig.)

  1. Uranium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Victorio.

    1984-01-01

    The main uranium deposits and occurrences in the Argentine Republic are described, considering, in principle, their geologic setting, the kind of 'model' of the mineralization and its possible origin, and describing the ore species present in each case. The main uraniferous accumulations of the country include the models of 'sandstong type', veintype and impregnation type. There are also other kinds of accumulations, as in calcrete, etc. The main uranium production has been registered in the provinces of Mendoza, Salta, La Rioja, Chubut, Cordoba and San Luis. In each case, the minerals present are mentioned, having been recognized 37 different species all over the country (M.E.L.) [es

  2. Deposition of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In Norway, there is currently a debate about whether or not to build gas power stations. To meet the possibility of reduced emission quotas for carbon dioxide in the future, current interest focuses on the incorporation of large-scale separation and deposition of carbon dioxide when such plants are planned. A group of experts concludes that this technology will become self-financing by means of environmental taxes. From the environmental point of view, taxes upon production are to be preferred over taxes on consumption

  3. Development of conductivity probe and temperature probe for in-situ measurements in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.; Galindo, B.J.; Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1981-05-01

    A conductivity probe and a temperature probe have been developed for in-situ measurements in various hydrological field studies. The conductivity probe has platinum electrodes and is powered with two 12 volt batteries. The sensing element of the temperature probe consists of a resistor of high coefficient of temperature. Response of the conductivity probe is measured in a milliampere mater while the resistance of the thermistor is read by a digital meter. The values of conductivity and temperature are derived from respective calibration. The probes are prototype and their range of measurement can be improved depending upon the requirement of the field problem. (Author) [pt

  4. Chemical solution deposition of CaCu3Ti4O12 thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    CaCu3Ti4O12; thin film; chemical solution deposition; dielectric properties. 1. Introduction. The CaCu3Ti4O12. (CCTO) compound has recently attracted considerable ... and Kelvin probe force microscopy (Chung et al 2004). Intrinsic .... SEM images of CCTO thin films as a function of sintering temperature. silicon based ...

  5. Time-resolved investigation of an asymmetric bipolar pulsed magnetron deposition discharge: Influence of pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunger, Th.; Welzel, Th.; Welzel, S.; Richter, F.

    2005-01-01

    A bipolar pulsed magnetron deposition discharge has been studied with pulse frequencies of 100 and 150 kHz, respectively. The discharge was operated in an argon/oxygen mixture at different total pressures with a circular magnesium target as cathode. Time-resolved Langmuir double probe measurements

  6. Stratigraphic implications of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, F.F.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most consistent characteristics of economic uranium deposits is their restricted stratigraphic distribution. Uraninite deposited with direct igneous affiliation contains thorium, whereas chemical precipitates in sedimentary rocks are characterized by thorium-free primary uranium minerals with vanadium and selenium. In marine sediments, these minerals form low-grade disseminations; but in terrestrial sediments, chiefly fluvial sandstones, the concentration of uranium varies widely, with the high-grade portions constituting ore. Pitchblende vein deposits not only exhibit the same chemical characteristics as the Colorado-type sandstone deposits, but they have a stratigraphically consistent position at unconformities covered by fluvial sandstones. If deposits in such diverse situations have critical features in common, they are likely to have had many features of their origin in common. Thus, vein deposits in Saskatchewan and Australia may have analogues in areas that contain Colorado-type sandstone deposits. In New Mexico, the presence of continental sandstones with peneconformable uranium deposits should also indicate good prospecting ground for unconformity-type vein deposits. All unconformities within the periods of continental deposition ranging from Permian to Cretaceous should have uranium potential. Some situations, such as the onlap of the Abo Formation onto Precambrian basement in the Zuni Mountains, may be directly comparable to Saskatchewan deposition. However, uranium occurrences in the upper part of the Entrada Sandstone suggest that unconformities underlain by sedimentary rocks may also be exploration targets

  7. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, S.R.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Three overall factors are necessary for formation of uranium deposits in sandstone: a source of uranium, host rocks capable of transmitting uranium-bearing solutions, and a precipitant. Possible sources of uranium in sandstone-type deposits include groundwaters emanating from granitic highlands, arkosic sediments, tuffaceous material within or overlying the host rocks, connate fluids, and overlying black shales. The first three sources are considered the most likely. Host rocks are generally immature sandstones deposited in alluvial-fan, intermontane-basin or marginal-marine environments, but uranium deposits do occur in well-winnowed barrier-bar or eolian sands. Host rocks for uranium deposits generally show coefficients of permeability on the order of 1 to 100 gal/day/ft 2 . Precipitants are normally agents capable of reducing uranium from the uranyl to the uranous state. The association of uranium with organic matter is unequivocal; H 2 S, a powerful reductant, may have been present at the time of formation of some deposits but may go unnoticed today. Vanadium can serve to preserve the tabular characteristics of some deposits in the near-surface environment, but is considered an unlikely primary precipitant for uranium. Uranium deposits in sandstone are divided into two overall types: peneconcordant deposits, which occur in locally reducing environments in otherwise oxidized sandstones; and roll-type deposits, which occur at the margin of an area where an oxidized groundwater has permeated an otherwise reduced sandstone. Uranium deposits are further broken down into four subclasses; these are described

  8. Geological factors of deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grushevoj, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Geologic factors of hydrogenic uranium deposit formation are considered. Structural, formation and lithological-facies factors of deposit formation, connected with zones of stratal oxidation, are characterized. Peculiarities of deposit localization, connected with orogenic structures of Mesozoic and lenozoic age, are described. It is noted that deposits of anagenous group are widely spread in Paleozoic formations, infiltration uranium deposits are localized mainly in Cenozoic sediments, while uranium mineralization both anagenous and infiltration groups are widely developed in Mesozoic sediments. Anagenous deposits were formed in non-oxygen situation, their age varies from 200 to 55 mln years. Infiltration deposit formation is determined by asymmetric oxidation zonation, their age varies from 10 - 40 mln years to dozens of thousand years [ru

  9. Defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Mikado, Tomohisa.

    1994-01-01

    Vacancy-type defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films were probed by monoenergetic positron beams. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured for the epitaxial films grown on the Si substrates by plasma chemical vapor deposition. For the as-deposited film, divacancy-phosphorus complexes were found with high concentration. After 600degC annealing, vacancy clusters were formed near the Si/Si interface, while no drastic change in the depth distribution of the divacancy-phosphorus complexes was observed. By 900degC annealing, the vacancy clusters were annealed out; however, the average number of phosphorus atoms coupled with divacancies increased. The relationship between the vacancy-type defects probed by the positron annihilation technique and the carrier concentration was confirmed. (author)

  10. Defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Mikado, Tomohisa

    1994-11-01

    Vacancy-type defects in heavily phosphorus-doped Si epitaxial films were probed by monoenergetic positron beams. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured for the epitaxial films grown on the Si substrates by plasma chemical vapor deposition. For the as-deposited film, divacancy-phosphorus complexes were found with high concentration. After 600degC annealing, vacancy clusters were formed near the Si/Si interface, while no drastic change in the depth distribution of the divacancy-phosphorus complexes was observed. By 900degC annealing, the vacancy clusters were annealed out; however, the average number of phosphorus atoms coupled with divacancies increased. The relationship between the vacancy-type defects probed by the positron annihilation technique and the carrier concentration was confirmed. (author).

  11. Internal magnetic probe data from ZT-40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, L.C.; Phillips, J.A.

    1981-05-01

    Measurements of magnetic field distribution as a function of time and radius were made in ZT-40 with its ceramic vacuum vessel. Data were obtained with a 10-station, 20-coil magnetic probe, measuring the B/sub p/ and B/sub epsilon/ orthogonal field components in deuterium plasma discharges. Sheath formation and diffusion, magnetic axis location and motion, the effect of the probe on the plasma, and the consistency of flux measurements with external probes are examined

  12. Optimizing the fabrication of aluminum-coated fiber probes and their application to optical near-field lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, S; Holme, NCR; Ramanujam, PS

    1998-01-01

    in terms of roughness and the presence of leaking holes in the coating. We report on how the quality of the coating depends on parameters such as deposition rate and background pressure during evaporation. We have used aluminum-coated fiber probes in lithographical studies of different materials, like side...

  13. Electrical properties of aluminum contacts deposited by DC sputtering method for photovoltaic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczak Ewelina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of aluminum contacts is common in the process of silicon solar cells production because of low contact resistivity. It has also a great importance in thin film technology for photovoltaics, especially in copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS devices. The final stage of CIGS cell production is the top contact deposition of high conductivity layer for lateral current collection. Such material has to be highly optically transparent as well. In order to make a contact, metal is deposited onto TCO layer with minimum shadowing to allow as much light as possible into device. The metal grid contact is being made by deposition of few microns of aluminum. The resistivity of the deposited material as well as resistance between the metal grid and TCO layer plays a great role in high quality solar cell production. This paper presents the results of four point probe conductivity analysis of Al thin films deposited by direct current (DC magnetron sputtering method. Influence of technological parameters of the Al deposition process on sheet resistance of deposited layers has been showed. In order to obtain the lowest resistivity of the thin contact layer, optimal set of sputtering parameters, i.e. power applied, deposition time and deposition pressure was found. The resistivity of the contact between two adjacent Al metal fingers deposited onto transparent conductive Al-doped zinc oxide film has been also examined.

  14. Electrical properties of aluminum contacts deposited by DC sputtering method for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, Ewelina; Gułkowski, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    The use of aluminum contacts is common in the process of silicon solar cells production because of low contact resistivity. It has also a great importance in thin film technology for photovoltaics, especially in copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) devices. The final stage of CIGS cell production is the top contact deposition of high conductivity layer for lateral current collection. Such material has to be highly optically transparent as well. In order to make a contact, metal is deposited onto TCO layer with minimum shadowing to allow as much light as possible into device. The metal grid contact is being made by deposition of few microns of aluminum. The resistivity of the deposited material as well as resistance between the metal grid and TCO layer plays a great role in high quality solar cell production. This paper presents the results of four point probe conductivity analysis of Al thin films deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering method. Influence of technological parameters of the Al deposition process on sheet resistance of deposited layers has been showed. In order to obtain the lowest resistivity of the thin contact layer, optimal set of sputtering parameters, i.e. power applied, deposition time and deposition pressure was found. The resistivity of the contact between two adjacent Al metal fingers deposited onto transparent conductive Al-doped zinc oxide film has been also examined.

  15. NeuroMEMS: Neural Probe Microtechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Musallam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural probe technologies have already had a significant positive effect on our understanding of the brain by revealing the functioning of networks of biological neurons. Probes are implanted in different areas of the brain to record and/or stimulate specific sites in the brain. Neural probes are currently used in many clinical settings for diagnosis of brain diseases such as seizers, epilepsy, migraine, Alzheimer’s, and dementia. We find these devices assisting paralyzed patients by allowing them to operate computers or robots using their neural activity. In recent years, probe technologies were assisted by rapid advancements in microfabrication and microelectronic technologies and thus are enabling highly functional and robust neural probes which are opening new and exciting avenues in neural sciences and brain machine interfaces. With a wide variety of probes that have been designed, fabricated, and tested to date, this review aims to provide an overview of the advances and recent progress in the microfabrication techniques of neural probes. In addition, we aim to highlight the challenges faced in developing and implementing ultralong multi-site recording probes that are needed to monitor neural activity from deeper regions in the brain. Finally, we review techniques that can improve the biocompatibility of the neural probes to minimize the immune response and encourage neural growth around the electrodes for long term implantation studies.

  16. Outer planet probe cost estimates: First impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, J.

    1974-01-01

    An examination was made of early estimates of outer planetary atmospheric probe cost by comparing the estimates with past planetary projects. Of particular interest is identification of project elements which are likely cost drivers for future probe missions. Data are divided into two parts: first, the description of a cost model developed by SAI for the Planetary Programs Office of NASA, and second, use of this model and its data base to evaluate estimates of probe costs. Several observations are offered in conclusion regarding the credibility of current estimates and specific areas of the outer planet probe concept most vulnerable to cost escalation.

  17. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara S.

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm.

  18. Test design requirements: Thermal conductivity probe testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This document establishes the test design requirements for development of a thermal conductivity probe test. The thermal conductivity probe determines in situ thermal conductivity using a line source transient heat conduction analysis. This document presents the rationale for thermal conductivity measurement using a thermal conductivity probe. A general test description is included. Support requirements along with design constraints are detailed to allow simple design of the thermal conductivity probe and test. The schedule and delivery requirements of the responsible test designer are also included. 7 refs., 1 fig

  19. Probing convex polygons with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelsbrunner, H.; Skiena, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    An X-ray probe through a polygon measures the length of intersection between a line and the polygon. This paper considers the properties of various classes of X-ray probes, and shows how they interact to give finite strategies for completely describing convex n-gons. It is shown that (3n/2)+6 probes are sufficient to verify a specified n-gon, while for determining convex polygons (3n-1)/2 X-ray probes are necessary and 5n+O(1) sufficient, with 3n+O(1) sufficient given that a lower bound on the size of the smallest edge of P is known

  20. Detection of tobacco smoke deposition by hyperpolarized krypton-83 MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Zackary I; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Stupic, Karl F; Wooten, Jan B; Repine, John E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Despite the importance of the tobacco smoke particulate matter in the lungs to the etiology of pulmonary disease in cigarette smokers, little is currently known about the spatial distribution of particle deposition or the persistence of the resulting deposits in humans, and no satisfactory technique currently exists to directly observe tobacco smoke condensate in airways. In this proof-of-principle work, hyperpolarized (hp) 83Kr MRI and NMR spectroscopy are introduced as probes for tobacco smoke deposition in porous media. A reduction in the hp-83Kr longitudinal (T1) relaxation of up to 95% under near-ambient humidity, pressure and temperature conditions was observed when the krypton gas was brought into contact with surfaces that had been exposed to cigarette smoke. This smoke-induced acceleration of the 83Kr self-relaxation was observed for model glass surfaces that, in some experiments, were coated with bovine lung surfactant extract. However, a similar effect was not observed with hp-(129)Xe indicating that the 83Kr sensitivity to smoke deposition was not caused by paramagnetic species but rather by quadrupolar relaxation due to high adsorption affinity for the smoke deposits. The 83Kr T1 differences between smoke-treated and untreated surfaces were sufficient to produce a strong contrast in variable flip angle FLASH hp-83Kr MRI, suggesting that hp-83Kr may be a promising contrast agent for in vivo pulmonary MRI.

  1. Millimeter-wave active probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi-Ahy, Gholamreza; Bloom, David M.

    1991-01-01

    A millimeter-wave active probe for use in injecting signals with frequencies above 50GHz to millimeter-wave and ultrafast devices and integrated circuits including a substrate upon which a frequency multiplier consisting of filter sections and impedance matching sections are fabricated in uniplanar transmission line format. A coaxial input and uniplanar 50 ohm transmission line couple an approximately 20 GHz input signal to a low pass filter which rolls off at approximately 25 GHz. An input impedance matching section couples the energy from the low pass filter to a pair of matched, antiparallel beam lead diodes. These diodes generate odd-numberd harmonics which are coupled out of the diodes by an output impedance matching network and bandpass filter which suppresses the fundamental and third harmonics and selects the fifth harmonic for presentation at an output.

  2. Nuclear reactions as structure probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Bernard; Cugnon, Joseph; Roussel-Chomaz, Patricia; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc; Oliveira Santos, Francois de; Bauge, Eric; Poves, Alfredo; Keeley, Nicholas; Simenel, Cedric; Avez, Benoit; Lacroix, Denis; Baye, Daniel; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Pons, Alexandre

    2007-09-01

    This publication gathers courses which aim at giving a view on new experiments which are performed by using radioactive beams, notably low intensity beams, in different accelerators, and allow the structure of very exotic nuclei to be characterized. Experimental as well as theoretical aspects are thus addressed. The contributions propose: a brief history of nuclear reactions and of instruments used to study them from the discovery of nucleus to the DWBA (Distorted Wave Born Approximation); an overview of nuclear reactions; experimental techniques; the theory of collisions at low energy; resonant elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and astrophysical reactions; to probe nuclear structure with nucleons; shell model and spectroscopic factors; analysis of transfer reactions and determination of spectroscopic factors; microscopic approaches of nuclear dynamics; theoretical aspects of dissociation reactions; experimental aspects of knockout reactions; research in oenology with the chemical characterisation of defective ageing of dry white wines

  3. Gravity Probe B orbit determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestople, P; Ndili, A; Parkinson, B W; Small, H; Hanuschak, G

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite was equipped with a pair of redundant Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers used to provide navigation solutions for real-time and post-processed orbit determination (OD), as well as to establish the relation between vehicle time and coordinated universal time. The receivers performed better than the real-time position requirement of 100 m rms per axis. Post-processed solutions indicated an rms position error of 2.5 m and an rms velocity error of 2.2 mm s −1 . Satellite laser ranging measurements provided independent verification of the GPS-derived GP-B orbit. We discuss the modifications and performance of the Trimble Advance Navigation System Vector III GPS receivers. We describe the GP-B precision orbit and detail the OD methodology, including ephemeris errors and the laser ranging measurements. (paper)

  4. Nuclear probes of fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear experiments which probe the parity (P) and time-reversal (T) symmetries and lepton-number conservation are reviewed. The P-violating NN interaction, studied in the NN system and in light nuclei, provides an unique window on ΔS=0 hadronic weak processes. Results are in accord with expectations. Sensitive searches for T-violation via detailed balance, T-odd correlations in γ and β-decay, and a possible neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) are discussed. No T-violation is observed. The EDM limit is almost good enough to eliminate one of the leading theoretical explanations for CP violation. Experimental studies of double β-decay are reviewed. Although ββ nu nu decay has been convincingly detected in geochemical experiments there is no evidence for the lepton number violating ββ decay mode

  5. New Fluorescence Probes for Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jurek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Steady state fluorescence measurements have been used for the investigation of interaction between the bovine serum albumin (BSA and fluorescence probes: 3-hydroxy-2,4- bis[(3-methyl-1,3-benzoxazol-2(3H-ylidenemethyl]cyclobut-2-en-1-one (SQ6, 3-hydroxy- 2,4-bis[(3-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-2(3H-ylidenemethyl]cyclobut-2-en-1-one (SQ7 and 3-hydroxy-2,4-bis[(1,3,3-trimethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ylidenemethyl]cyclobut-2-en-1-one (SQ8. The binding constant between bovine serum albumin and squarine dyes has been determined by using both the Benesi-Hildebrand and Stern-Volmer equations. The negative value of free energy change indicates the existence of a spontaneous complexation process of BSA with squarine dyes.

  6. Supersymmetric probes on the conifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arean, Daniel; Crooks, David E.; Ramallo, Alfonso V.

    2004-01-01

    We study the supersymmetric embeddings of different D-brane probes in the AdS 5 xT 1,1 geometry. The main tool employed is kappa symmetry and the cases studied include D3-, D5- and D7-branes. We find a family of three-cycles of the T 1,1 space over which a D3-brane can be wrapped supersymmetrically and we determine the field content of the corresponding gauge theory duals. Supersymmetric configurations of D5-branes wrapping a two-cycle and of spacetime filling D7-branes are also found. The configurations in which the entire T 1,1 space is wrapped by a D5-brane (baryon vertex) and a D7-brane are also studied. Some other embeddings which break supersymmetry but are nevertheless stable are also determined. (author)

  7. Plutonium helps probe protein, superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Scientists are finding that plutonium can be a useful research tool that may help them answer important questions in fields as diverse as biochemistry and solid-state physics. This paper reports that U.S. research involving plutonium is confined to the Department of Energy's national laboratories and centers around nuclear weapons technology, waste cleanup and disposal, and health effects. But at Los Alamos National Laboratory, scientists also are using plutonium to probe the biochemical behavior of calmodulin, a key calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium-regulated processes in biological systems. At Argonne National Laboratory, another team is trying to learn how a superconductor's properties are affected by the 5f electrons of an actinide like plutonium

  8. Gravity Probe B spacecraft description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Norman R; Burns, Kevin; Katz, Russell; Kirschenbaum, Jon; Mason, Gary; Shehata, Shawky

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B spacecraft, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, consisted of structures, mechanisms, command and data handling, attitude and translation control, electrical power, thermal control, flight software, and communications. When integrated with the payload elements, the integrated system became the space vehicle. Key requirements shaping the design of the spacecraft were: (1) the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), (2) precise attitude and translational control, (3) thermal protection of science hardware, (4) minimizing aerodynamic, magnetic, and eddy current effects, and (5) the need to provide a robust, low risk spacecraft. The spacecraft met all mission requirements, as demonstrated by dewar lifetime meeting specification, positive power and thermal margins, precision attitude control and drag-free performance, reliable communications, and the collection of more than 97% of the available science data. (paper)

  9. Scanning probe microscopy competency development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, M.E.; Reagor, D.W.; Jia, Quan Xi [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project collaborators developed an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (UHV-STM) capability, integrated it with existing scanning probe microscopes, and developed new, advanced air-based scanning force techniques (SPMs). Programmatic, basic, and industrially related laboratory research requires the existence of SPMs, as well as expertise capable of providing local nano-scale information. The UHV-STM capability, equipped with load-lock system and several surface science techniques, will allow introduction, examination, and reaction of surfaces prepared under well-controlled vacuum conditions, including the examination of morphology and local bonding associated with the initial stages of film growth under controlled growth conditions. The resulting capabilities will enable the authors to respond to a variety of problems requiring local characterization of conducting and nonconducting surfaces in liquids, air, and UHV.

  10. Angular distributions as lifetime probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Grossman, Yuval [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University,Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-06-27

    If new TeV scale particles are discovered, it will be important to determine their width. There is, however, a problematic region, where the width is too small to be determined directly, and too large to generate a secondary vertex. For a collection of colored, spin polarized particles, hadronization depolarizes the particles prior to their decay. The amount of depolarization can be used to probe the lifetime in the problematic region. In this paper we apply this method to a realistic scenario of a top-like particle that can be produced at the LHC. We study how depolarization affects the angular distributions of the decay products and derive an equation for the distributions that is sensitive to the lifetime.

  11. Bifunctional fluorescent probes for detection of amyloid aggregates and reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Lisa-Maria; Weber, Judith; Fyfe, James W B; Kabia, Omaru M; Do, Dung T; Klimont, Ewa; Zhang, Yu; Rodrigues, Margarida; Dobson, Christopher M; Ghandi, Sonia; Bohndiek, Sarah E; Snaddon, Thomas N; Lee, Steven F

    2018-02-01

    Protein aggregation into amyloid deposits and oxidative stress are key features of many neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. We report here the creation of four highly sensitive bifunctional fluorescent probes, capable of H 2 O 2 and/or amyloid aggregate detection. These bifunctional sensors use a benzothiazole core for amyloid localization and boronic ester oxidation to specifically detect H 2 O 2 . We characterized the optical properties of these probes using both bulk fluorescence measurements and single-aggregate fluorescence imaging, and quantify changes in their fluorescence properties upon addition of amyloid aggregates of α-synuclein and pathophysiological H 2 O 2 concentrations. Our results indicate these new probes will be useful to detect and monitor neurodegenerative disease.

  12. Bifunctional fluorescent probes for detection of amyloid aggregates and reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Lisa-Maria; Weber, Judith; Fyfe, James W. B.; Kabia, Omaru M.; Do, Dung T.; Klimont, Ewa; Zhang, Yu; Rodrigues, Margarida; Dobson, Christopher M.; Ghandi, Sonia; Bohndiek, Sarah E.; Snaddon, Thomas N.; Lee, Steven F.

    2018-02-01

    Protein aggregation into amyloid deposits and oxidative stress are key features of many neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. We report here the creation of four highly sensitive bifunctional fluorescent probes, capable of H2O2 and/or amyloid aggregate detection. These bifunctional sensors use a benzothiazole core for amyloid localization and boronic ester oxidation to specifically detect H2O2. We characterized the optical properties of these probes using both bulk fluorescence measurements and single-aggregate fluorescence imaging, and quantify changes in their fluorescence properties upon addition of amyloid aggregates of α-synuclein and pathophysiological H2O2 concentrations. Our results indicate these new probes will be useful to detect and monitor neurodegenerative disease.

  13. Computer programs for the acquisition and analysis of eddy-current array probe data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, J.R.; Dodd, C.V.

    1996-07-01

    Objective of the Improved Eddy-Curent ISI (in-service inspection) for Steam Generators Tubing program is to upgrade and validate eddy-current inspections, including probes, instrumentation, and data processing techniques for ISI of new, used, and repaired steam generator tubes; to improve defect detection, classification and characterization as affected by diameter and thickness variations, denting, probe wobble, tube sheet, tube supports, copper and sludge deposits, even when defect types and other variables occur in combination; to transfer this advanced technology to NRC's mobile NDE laboratory and staff. This report documents computer programs that were developed for acquisition of eddy-current data from specially designed 16-coil array probes. Complete code as well as instructions for use are provided

  14. Fabrication of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Fiber Probes Using Ionic Self-Assembled Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Wan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An nm-thickness composite gold thin film consisting of gold nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes is fabricated through ionic self-assembled multilayers (ISAM technique and is deposited on end-faces of optical fibers to construct localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR fiber probes. We demonstrate that the LSPR spectrum induced by ISAM gold films can be fine-tuned through the ISAM procedure. We investigate variations of reflection spectra of the probe with respect to the layer-by-layer adsorption of ISAMs onto end-faces of fibers, and study the spectral variation mechanism. Finally, we demonstrated using this fiber probe to detect the biotin-streptavidin bioconjugate pair. ISAM adsorbed on optical fibers potentially provides a simple, fast, robust, and low-cost, platform for LSPR biosensing applications.

  15. FDIC Summary of Deposits (SOD) Download File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation — The FDIC's Summary of Deposits (SOD) download file contains deposit data for branches and offices of all FDIC-insured institutions. The Federal Deposit Insurance...

  16. OEDGE Modeling of Collector Probe measurements in L-mode from the DIII-D tungsten ring campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J. D.; Stangeby, P. C.; Unterberg, Z.; Donovan, D.; Wampler, W. R.; Watkins, J.; Abrams, T.; McLean, A. G.

    2017-10-01

    During the tungsten ring campaign on DIII-D, a collector probe system with multiple diameter, dual-facing collector rods was inserted into the far scrape off layer (SOL) near the outer midplane to measure the plasma tungsten content. For most probes more tungsten was observed on the side connected along field lines to the inner divertor, with the larger probes showing largest divertor-facing asymmetries The OEDGE code is used to model the tungsten erosion, transport and deposition. It has been enhanced with (i) a peripheral particle transport and deposition model to record the impurity content in the peripheral region outside the regular mesh, and (ii) a collector probe model. The OEDGE results approximately reproduce both the divertor-facing asymmetries and the radial decay of each collector probe profile. The effect of changing impurity transport assumptions and wall location are examined. The measured divertor-facing asymmetries imply a higher tungsten density in the plasma upstream of the probe; this was expected theoretically from the effect of the parallel ion temperature gradient force driving upstream transport of tungsten from the outer divertor and was also found in the code analysis. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-NA0003525, DE-AC05-00OR22725, and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. The Oxford Probe: an open access five-hole probe for aerodynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, B. F.; Povey, T.

    2017-03-01

    The Oxford Probe is an open access five-hole probe designed for experimental aerodynamic measurements. The open access probe can be manufactured by the end user via additive manufacturing (metal or plastic). The probe geometry, drawings, calibration maps, and software are available under a creative commons license. The purpose is to widen access to aerodynamic measurement techniques in education and research environments. There are many situations in which the open access probe will allow results of comparable accuracy to a well-calibrated commercial probe. We discuss the applications and limitations of the probe, and compare the calibration maps for 16 probes manufactured in different materials and at different scales, but with the same geometrical design.

  18. The Oxford Probe: an open access five-hole probe for aerodynamic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B F; Povey, T

    2017-01-01

    The Oxford Probe is an open access five-hole probe designed for experimental aerodynamic measurements. The open access probe can be manufactured by the end user via additive manufacturing (metal or plastic). The probe geometry, drawings, calibration maps, and software are available under a creative commons license. The purpose is to widen access to aerodynamic measurement techniques in education and research environments. There are many situations in which the open access probe will allow results of comparable accuracy to a well-calibrated commercial probe. We discuss the applications and limitations of the probe, and compare the calibration maps for 16 probes manufactured in different materials and at different scales, but with the same geometrical design. (paper)

  19. Effectiveness of selected dispersants on magnetite deposition at simulated PWR heat-transfer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgmayer, P.; Crovetto, R.; Turner, C.; Klimas, S.J.

    1999-07-01

    The effectiveness of 3 different dispersants-a polyphosphonic acid (PIPPA), a polymethacrylic acid (PMA), and a hydroxyethylidene methacrylic acid (HEME)-at controlling magnetite deposition was examined under steam generator operating conditions. Tests in a cycling research model boiler showed that the dispersants resulted in corrosion products of a smaller average size and a bimodal size distribution. At a concentration in the boiler of 10 mg/kg, density weight deposit on heated probes was reduced 4-, 3-, and 2-fold for PMA, PIPPA, and HEME, respectively. PIPPA was the most effective at increasing iron transport out of the boiler. In deposition loop tests using an 59 Fe radiotracer, only PIPPA and HEME were effective at reducing the particle deposition rate under flow-boiling conditions. None of the dispersants had any effect on deposition under single-phase forced-convective flow. (author)

  20. Effectiveness of selected dispersants on magnetite deposition at simulated PWR heat transfer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgmayer, P.; Crovetto, R.; Turner, C.; Klimas, S.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of three different dispersants - a polyphosphonic acid (PIPPA); a polymethacrylic acid (PMA); and a hydroxyethylidene methacrylic acid (HEME) - at controlling magnetite deposition has been examined under steam generator operating conditions. Tests in a cycling research model boiler showed that the dispersants resulted in corrosion products with a smaller average size and a bimodal size distribution. At a concentration in the boiler of 10 mg/kg, density weight deposit on heated probes was reduced 4-, 3-, and 2-fold for PMA, PIPPA, and HEME, respectively. PIPPA was the most effective at increasing iron transport out of the boiler. In deposition loop tests using a 59-Fe radiotracer, only PIPPA and HEME were effective at reducing the particle deposition rate under flow-boiling conditions. None of the dispersants had any impact on deposition under single-phase forced-convective flow. (author)

  1. Effectiveness of selected dispersants on magnetite deposition at simulated PWR heat transfer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgmayer, P.; Crovetto, R. [Betz Dearborn Labs., Revose, PA (United States); Turner, C.; Klimas, S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    The effectiveness of three different dispersants - a polyphosphonic acid (PIPPA); a polymethacrylic acid (PMA); and a hydroxyethylidene methacrylic acid (HEME) - at controlling magnetite deposition has been examined under steam generator operating conditions. Tests in a cycling research model boiler showed that the dispersants resulted in corrosion products with a smaller average size and a bimodal size distribution. At a concentration in the boiler of 10 mg/kg, density weight deposit on heated probes was reduced 4-, 3-, and 2-fold for PMA, PIPPA, and HEME, respectively. PIPPA was the most effective at increasing iron transport out of the boiler. In deposition loop tests using a 59-Fe radiotracer, only PIPPA and HEME were effective at reducing the particle deposition rate under flow-boiling conditions. None of the dispersants had any impact on deposition under single-phase forced-convective flow. (author)

  2. Effectiveness of selected dispersants on magnetite deposition at simulated PWR heat-transfer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgmayer, P.; Crovetto, R. [Betz Dearborn Labs., Revose, PA (United States); Turner, C.; Klimas, S.J

    1999-07-01

    The effectiveness of 3 different dispersants-a polyphosphonic acid (PIPPA), a polymethacrylic acid (PMA), and a hydroxyethylidene methacrylic acid (HEME)-at controlling magnetite deposition was examined under steam generator operating conditions. Tests in a cycling research model boiler showed that the dispersants resulted in corrosion products of a smaller average size and a bimodal size distribution. At a concentration in the boiler of 10 mg/kg, density weight deposit on heated probes was reduced 4-, 3-, and 2-fold for PMA, PIPPA, and HEME, respectively. PIPPA was the most effective at increasing iron transport out of the boiler. In deposition loop tests using an {sup 59}Fe radiotracer, only PIPPA and HEME were effective at reducing the particle deposition rate under flow-boiling conditions. None of the dispersants had any effect on deposition under single-phase forced-convective flow. (author)

  3. Mapping of sand deposition from 1993 midwest floods with electromagnetic induction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, N.R.; Sudduth, K.A.; Drummond, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    Sand deposition on river-bottom farmland was extensive from the 1993 Midwest floods. A technique coupling electromagnetic induction (EM) ground conductivity sensing and Global Positioning System (GPS) location data was used to map sand deposition depth at four sites in Missouri along the Missouri River. A strong relationship between EM reading and probe measured depth of sand deposition (r 2 values between 0.73-0.94) was found. This relationship differed significantly between sites, so calibration by ground-truthing was required for each sand deposition survey. An example of the sand deposition mapping using the EM/GPS system is shown for two 50-60 ha (125-150 ac) sites. Such maps can provide valuable detailed information for developing restoration plans for land affected by 1993 Midwest floods. (author)

  4. The TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating RF probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    A fast reciprocating ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at ORNL. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal RF magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal RF magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/sec) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 cm to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data shows parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge

  5. Narrow power deposition profiles on the JET divertor target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingertat, J.; Laux, M.; Monk, R.

    2001-01-01

    One of the key unresolved issues in the design of a future fusion reactor is the power handling capability of the divertor target plates. Earlier we reported on the existence of narrow power deposition profiles in JET, obtained mainly from Langmuir probe measurements. We repeated these measurements in the MkI, MkII and MkIIGB divertor configurations with an upgraded probe system, which allowed us to study the profile shape in more detail. The main results of this study are: In NB heated discharges the electron temperature and power flux at the outer target show a distinct peak of ∼5 mm half-width near the separatrix strike point. The corresponding profiles on the inner target do not show a similar feature. The height of the narrow peak increases with NB heating power and decreases with deuterium and impurity gas puffing. Ion orbit losses are suggested as a possible explanation of the observed profile shape

  6. Plutonium in uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Aguilar, R.; Attrep, M. Jr.; Roensch, F.

    1992-01-01

    Plutonium-239 (t 1/2 , 24,100 yr) is one of the most persistent radioactive constituents of high-level wastes from nuclear fission power reactors. Effective containment of such a long-lived constituent will rely heavily upon its containment by the geologic environment of a repository. Uranium ore deposits offer a means to evaluate the geochemical properties of plutonium under natural conditions. In this paper, analyses of natural plutonium in several ores are compared to calculated plutonium production rates in order to evaluate the degree of retention of plutonium by the ore. The authors find that current methods for estimating production rates are neither sufficiently accurate nor precise to provide unambiguous measures of plutonium retention. However, alternative methods for evaluating plutonium mobility are being investigated, including its measurement in natural ground waters. Preliminary results are reported and establish the foundation for a comprehensive characterization of plutonium geochemistry in other natural environments

  7. Classification of Uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlkamp, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    A listing of the recognized types of uranium mineralization shows nineteen determinable types out of which only six can be classified as of economic significance at present: Oligomiitic quartz pebble conglomerates, sandstone types, calcretes, intra-intrusive types, hydrothermal veins, veinlike types. The different types can be genetically related to prevalent geological environments, i.e. 1. the primary uranium occurrences formed by endogenic processes, 2. the secondary derived from the primary by subsequent exogenic processes, 3. the tertiary occurrences are assumed to be formed by endogenic metamorphic processes, although little is known about the behaviour of the uranium during the metamorphosis and therefore the metallogenesis of this tertiary uranium generation is still vague. A metallotectonic-geochronologic correlation of the uranium deposits shows a distinct affinity of the uranium to certain geological epochs: The Upper Archean, Lower Proterozoic, the Hercynian and, in a less established stage, the Upper Proterozoic. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  8. Locating underground uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Underground uranium deposits are located by placing wires of dosimeters each about 5 to 18 mg/cm 2 thick underground in a grid pattern. Each dosimeter contains a phosphor which is capable of storing the energy of alpha particles. In each pair one dosimeter is shielded from alpha particles with more than 18 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material but not gamma and beta rays and the other dosimeter is shielded with less than 1 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material to exclude dust. After a period underground the dosimeters are heated which releases the stored energy as light. The amount of light produced from the heavily shielded dosimeter is subtracted from the amount of light produced from the thinly shielded dosimeter to give an indication of the location and quantity of uranium underground

  9. Global deposition of airborne dioxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Shawn; Hui, Joe; Alojado, Zoraida; Lam, Vicky; Cheung, William; Zeller, Dirk; Steyn, Douw; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot spots' of deposition are likely to be in northern Europe, eastern North America, and in parts of Asia with the highest marine dioxin depositions being the northeast and northwest Atlantic, western Pacific, northern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. It also reveals that approximately 40% of airborne dioxin emissions are deposited to marine environments and that many countries in Africa receive more dioxin than they produce, which results in these countries being disproportionately impacted. Since human exposure to dioxin is largely through diet, this work highlights food producing areas that receive higher atmospheric deposits of dioxin than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A probe for Eddy current inspection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a surface probe for Eddy current inspection devices. According to the invention, said probe comprises two magnetic core windings, with their axes in parallel relationship and at right angles to the surface of the part to be inspected. This can be applied to the nondestructive inspection of reactor components [fr

  11. Quality of the neutron probe calibration curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libardi, Paulo Leonel; Moraes, Sergio Oliveira

    1997-01-01

    An experiment of neutron probe calibration has been performed, involving various volume size samples and collected at various distances from the access tubes. The experiment aimed to give some answers to questions such as suitable sample physical volume, always use of the same volume and sample distance from the neutron probe access tube

  12. Automatic kelvin probe compatible with ultrahigh vacuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baikie, I.D.; van der Werf, Kees; Oerbekke, H.; Broeze, J.; van Silfhout, Arend

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a new type of in situ ultrahigh‐vacuum compatible kelvin probe based on a voice‐coil driving mechanism. This design exhibits several advantages over conventional mechanical feed‐through and (in situ) piezoelectric devices in regard to the possibility of multiple probe

  13. Surface charge measurement using an electrostatic probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1998-01-01

    During the 1960s, the first measurements of charge on dielectric surfaces using simple electrostatic probes were reported. However it is only within the last 10 years that a proper understanding of the probe response has been developed. This situation arose as a consequence of the earlier studies...

  14. NASA SMART Probe: Breast Cancer Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Robert W.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    There is evidence in breast cancer and other malignancies that the physiologic environment within a tumor correlates with clinical outcome. We are developing a unique percutaneous Smart Probe to be used at the time of needle biopsy of the breast. The Smart Probe will simultaneously measure multiple physiologic parameters within a breast tumor. Direct and indirect measurements of tissue oxygen levels, blood flow, pH, and tissue fluid pressure will be analyzed in real-time. These parameters will be interpreted individually and collectively by innovative neural network techniques using advanced intelligent software. The goals are 1) develop a pecutaneous Smart Probe with multiple sensor modalities and applying advanced Information Technologies to provide real time diagnostic information of the tissue at tip of the probe, 2) test the percutaneous Smart Probe in women with benign and malignant breast masses who will be undergoing surgical biopsy, 3) correlate probe sensor data with benign and malignant status of breast masses, 4) determine whether the probe can detect physiologic differences within a breast tumor, and its margins, and in adjacent normal breast tissue, 5) correlate probe sensor data with known prognostic factors for breast caner, including tumor size, tumor grade, axillary lymph node metastases, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status.

  15. Inspecting Friction Stir Welding using Electromagnetic Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchen, David G.

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the use of advanced electromagnetic probes to measure the dimensions, the spatial distribution of electrical conductivity, and related other properties of friction stir welds (FSWs) between parts made of the same or different aluminum alloy(s). The probes are of the type described in in another Tech Brief. To recapitulate: A probe of this type is essentially an eddy-current probe that includes a primary (driver) winding that meanders and multiple secondary (sensing) windings that meander along the primary winding. Electrical conductivity is commonly used as a measure of heat treatment and tempering of aluminum alloys, but prior to the development of these probes, the inadequate sensitivity and limited accuracy of electrical-conductivity probes precluded such use on FSWs between different aluminum alloys, and the resolution of those probes was inadequate for measurement of FSW dimensions with positions and metallurgical properties. In contrast, the present probes afford adequate accuracy and spatial resolution for the purposes of measuring the dimensions of FSW welds and correlating spatially varying electrical conductivities with metallurgical properties, including surface defects.

  16. A remote coal deposit revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen-Kofoed, Jørgen A.; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Petersen, Henrik I.

    2012-01-01

    discovery. The outcrops found in 2009 amount to approximately 8 m of sediment including a coal seam of 2 m thickness. More outcrops and additional coal deposits most certainly are to be found, pending further fieldwork. The deposits are Middle Jurassic, Callovian, in age and were deposited in a floodplain...... environment related to meandering river channels. Spores and pollen in the lower fluvial deposits reflect abundant vegetation of ferns along the river banks. In contrast, a sparse spore and pollen flora in the coals show a mixed vegetation of ferns and gymnosperms. Based on proximate and petrographic analyses...

  17. Hall probe magnetometer for SSC magnet cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.W.; Goldfarb, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors of this paper constructed a Hall probe magnetometer to measure the magnetization hysteresis loops of Superconducting Super Collider magnet cables. The instrument uses two Hall-effect field sensors to measure the applied field H and the magnetic induction B. Magnetization M is calculated from the difference of the two quantities. The Hall probes are centered coaxially in the bore of a superconducting solenoid with the B probe against the sample's broad surface. An alternative probe arrangement, in which M is measured directly, aligns the sample probe parallel to the field. The authors measured M as a function of H and field cycle rate both with and without a dc transport current. Flux creep as a function of current was measured from the dependence of ac loss on the cycling rate and from the decay of magnetization with time. Transport currents up to 20% of the critical current have minimal effect on magnetization and flux creep

  18. Neutron-based portable drug probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womble, P. C.; Vourvopoulos, G.; Ball Howard, J.; Paschal, J.

    1999-01-01

    Based on previous measurements, a probe prototype for contraband detection utilizing the neutron technique of Pulsed Fast-Thermal Neutron Analysis (PFTNA) is being constructed. The prototype weighs less than 45 kg and is composed of a probe (5 cm diameter), a power pack and a data acquisition and display system. The probe is designed to be inserted in confined spaces such as the boiler of a ship or a tanker truck filled with liquid. The probe provides information on a) the elemental content, and b) the density variations of the interrogated object. By measuring elemental content, the probe can differentiate between innocuous materials and drugs. Density variations can be found through fast neutron transmission. In all cases, hidden drugs are identified through the measurement of the elemental content of the object, and the comparison of expected and measured elemental ratios

  19. Molecular Imaging Probe Development using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kan; Wang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Wei-Yu; Phung, Duy Linh; Girgis, Mark D.; Wu, Anna M.; Tomlinson, James S.; Shen, Clifton K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we review the latest advancement of microfluidics in molecular imaging probe development. Due to increasing needs for medical imaging, high demand for many types of molecular imaging probes will have to be met by exploiting novel chemistry/radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of suitable probes. The microfluidic-based probe synthesis is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional systems. Numerous chemical reactions have been successfully performed in micro-reactors and the results convincingly demonstrate with great benefits to aid synthetic procedures, such as purer products, higher yields, shorter reaction times compared to the corresponding batch/macroscale reactions, and more benign reaction conditions. Several ‘proof-of-principle’ examples of molecular imaging probe syntheses using microfluidics, along with basics of device architecture and operation, and their potential limitations are discussed here. PMID:22977436

  20. 76 FR 41392 - Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... banks' funding costs and also allow them to plan business growth more dependably and rigorously... of business deposits by offering continually higher rates of interest. Three of the four contended... deposits. They reasoned that large banks will offer high rates of interest and lure away business...

  1. Preparation and quality test of superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled antisense oligodeoxynucleotide probe: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Li, Bibo; Ouyang, Yu; Luo, Yi; Li, Shaolin

    2009-06-01

    Molecular imaging of tumor antisense gene techniques have been applied to the study of magnetic resonance (MR) gene imaging associated with malignant tumors. In this study, we designed, synthesized, and tested a novel molecular probe, in which the antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) was labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), and its efficiency was examined by in vitro MR imaging after SK-Br-3 mammary carcinoma cell lines (oncocytes) transfection. The SPIO-labeled ASODN probe was prepared through SPIO conjugated to ASODN using a chemical cross linking method. Its morphology and size were detected by atomic force microscope, size distribution were detected by laser granulometer, the conjugating rate and biological activity were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, and the stability was determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After that, the probes were transfected into the SK-Br-3 oncocytes, cellular iron uptake was analyzed qualitatively at light and electron microscopy and was quantified at atomic absorption spectrometry, and the signal change of the transfected cells was observed and measured using MR imaging. The morphology of the SPIO-labeled ASODN probe was mostly spherical with well-distributed scattering, and the diameters were between 25 and 40 nm (95%) by atomic force microscope and laser granulometer, the conjugating rate of the probe was 99%. Moreover, this probe kept its activity under physiological conditions and could conjugate with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide. In addition, light microscopy revealed an intracellular uptake of iron oxides in the cytosol and electron microscopic studies revealed a lysosomal deposition of iron oxides in the transfected SK-Br-3 oncocytes by antisense probes, some of them gathered stacks, and the iron content of the group of transfected SK-Br-3 oncocytes by antisense probe is significantly higher (18.37 +/- 0.42 pg) than other contrast groups, the MR imaging showed that

  2. Probing Interfacial Processes on Graphene Surface by Mass Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakenov, Nurbek; Kocabas, Coskun

    2013-03-01

    In this work we studied the mass density of graphene, probed interfacial processes on graphene surface and examined the formation of graphene oxide by mass detection. The graphene layers were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method on copper foils and transfer-printed on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The mass density of single layer graphene was measured by investigating the mechanical resonance of the QCM. Moreover, we extended the developed technique to probe the binding dynamics of proteins on the surface of graphene, were able to obtain nonspecific binding constant of BSA protein of graphene surface in aqueous solution. The time trace of resonance signal showed that the BSA molecules rapidly saturated by filling the available binding sites on graphene surface. Furthermore, we monitored oxidation of graphene surface under oxygen plasma by tracing the changes of interfacial mass of the graphene controlled by the shifts in Raman spectra. Three regimes were observed the formation of graphene oxide which increases the interfacial mass, the release of carbon dioxide and the removal of small graphene/graphene oxide flakes. Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) grant no. 110T304, 109T209, Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant (IRG) grant no 256458, Turkish Academy of Science (TUBA-Gebip).

  3. The microfluidic probe: operation and use for localized surface processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Cecile M; Qasaimeh, Mohammad A; Juncker, David

    2009-06-04

    Microfluidic devices allow assays to be performed using minute amounts of sample and have recently been used to control the microenvironment of cells. Microfluidics is commonly associated with closed microchannels which limit their use to samples that can be introduced, and cultured in the case of cells, within a confined volume. On the other hand, micropipetting system have been used to locally perfuse cells and surfaces, notably using push-pull setups where one pipette acts as source and the other one as sink, but the confinement of the flow is difficult in three dimensions. Furthermore, pipettes are fragile and difficult to position and hence are used in static configuration only. The microfluidic probe (MFP) circumvents the constraints imposed by the construction of closed microfluidic channels and instead of enclosing the sample into the microfluidic system, the microfluidic flow can be directly delivered onto the sample, and scanned across the sample, using the MFP. . The injection and aspiration openings are located within a few tens of micrometers of one another so that a microjet injected into the gap is confined by the hydrodynamic forces of the surrounding liquid and entirely aspirated back into the other opening. The microjet can be flushed across the substrate surface and provides a precise tool for localized deposition/delivery of reagents which can be used over large areas by scanning the probe across the surface. In this video we present the microfluidic probe (MFP). We explain in detail how to assemble the MFP, mount it atop an inverted microscope, and align it relative to the substrate surface, and finally show how to use it to process a substrate surface immersed in a buffer.

  4. Resolution of Localized Chronic Periodontitis Associated with Longstanding Calculus Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Chuang Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report, which is based on nonstandardized serial radiographs obtained over a period of 15 years, documents a case of localized chronic periodontitis associated with progressive deposition of calculus on the distal aspect of a mandibular second molar. The site was treated by scaling and root planing, followed by a course of adjunctive systemic azithromycin. Treatment yielded favorable reductions in probing depth and clinical inflammation, leaving only few isolated sites with pockets no deeper than 4 mm. Two years after completion of active treatment, there was radiographic evidence of increased bone density distal to the second molar.

  5. Resolution of localized chronic periodontitis associated with longstanding calculus deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Pin-Chuang; Walters, John D

    2014-01-01

    This report, which is based on nonstandardized serial radiographs obtained over a period of 15 years, documents a case of localized chronic periodontitis associated with progressive deposition of calculus on the distal aspect of a mandibular second molar. The site was treated by scaling and root planing, followed by a course of adjunctive systemic azithromycin. Treatment yielded favorable reductions in probing depth and clinical inflammation, leaving only few isolated sites with pockets no deeper than 4 mm. Two years after completion of active treatment, there was radiographic evidence of increased bone density distal to the second molar.

  6. Theory of Langmuir probes in anisotropic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudit, I.D.; Woods, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    A theory has been developed for electron retardation by Langmuir probes of several geometries in a general anisotropic plasma with arbitrary probe orientation and valid for any sheath thickness. Electron densities and electron velocity distribution functions (EVDFs) are obtained from the second derivative of probe I-V curves, as in Druyvesteyn's original method, which was developed for isotropic plasmas. Fedorov had extended the latter method in the context of a thin sheath approximation, to axisymmetric plasmas, in which the EVDF is expanded in a series of Legendary polynomials. In the present work an expansion in a series of spherical harmonics is employed, and the coordinate transformations are handled using the irreducible representation of the three dimensional rotation group. It is shown that the Volterra integral equations that must be solved to obtain the expansion coefficients of the EVDF from the second derivative data are no more complicated in the general case that hose for the axisymmetric plasma. Furthermore in the latter case the results can be shown to be equivalent to Fedrov's thin sheath expression. For the case of planar probes a formulation based on first derivatives of the I-V curves has been obtained. If data is obtained at enough different probe orientation of a one sided planar disc probe, any number of spherical harmonic coefficient functions may be obtained by inverting a set of linear equations and the complete EVDF deduced. For a cylindrical probe or a two-sided planar disc probe the integration of the second derivative of the probe current gives the exact electron density with any arbitrary probe orientation and any degree of plasma anisotropy

  7. High Concentration of Zinc in Sub-retinal Pigment Epithelial Deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengyel,I.; Flinn, J.; Peto, T.; Linkous, D.; Cano, K.; Bird, A.; Lanzirotti, A.; Frederickson, C.; van Kuijk, F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in Western societies, is the accumulation of sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits (sub-RPE deposits), including drusen and basal laminar deposits, in Bruch's membrane (BM). The nature and the underlying mechanisms of this deposit formation are not fully understood. Because we know that zinc contributes to deposit formation in neurodegenerative diseases, we tested the hypothesis that zinc might be involved in deposit formation in AMD. Using zinc specific fluorescent probes and microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence we showed that sub-RPE deposits in post-mortem human tissues contain unexpectedly high concentrations of zinc, including abundant bio-available (ionic and/or loosely protein bound) ions. Zinc accumulation was especially high in the maculae of eyes with AMD. Internal deposit structures are especially enriched in bio-available zinc. Based on the evidence provided here we suggest that zinc plays a role in sub-RPE deposit formation in the aging human eye and possibly also in the development and/or progression of AMD.

  8. High Concentration of Zinc in Sub-retinal Pigment Epithelial Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, I.; Flinn, J.; Peto, T.; Linkous, D.; Cano, K.; Bird, A.; Lanzirotti, A.; Frederickson, C.; van Kuijk, F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in Western societies, is the accumulation of sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits (sub-RPE deposits), including drusen and basal laminar deposits, in Bruch's membrane (BM). The nature and the underlying mechanisms of this deposit formation are not fully understood. Because we know that zinc contributes to deposit formation in neurodegenerative diseases, we tested the hypothesis that zinc might be involved in deposit formation in AMD. Using zinc specific fluorescent probes and microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence we showed that sub-RPE deposits in post-mortem human tissues contain unexpectedly high concentrations of zinc, including abundant bio-available (ionic and/or loosely protein bound) ions. Zinc accumulation was especially high in the maculae of eyes with AMD. Internal deposit structures are especially enriched in bio-available zinc. Based on the evidence provided here we suggest that zinc plays a role in sub-RPE deposit formation in the aging human eye and possibly also in the development and/or progression of AMD

  9. Fouling tendency of ash resulting from burning mixtures of biofuels. Part 2: Deposit chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mischa Theis; Bengt-Johan Skrifvars; Maria Zevenhoven; Mikko Hupa; Honghi Tranb [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo (Finland). Combustion and Materials Chemistry

    2006-10-15

    Mixtures of peat with bark and peat with straw were burned in a lab-scale entrained flow reactor under controlled conditions, and deposits were collected on an air-cooled probe at a temperature of 550 {sup o}C. The fuel and deposit compositions were compared using chemical fractionation analysis and SEM/EDX. Chemical fractionation analysis was capable of explaining the relative fouling tendency of peat, bark, and straw. The composition of deposits obtained from firing peat, bark, and straw individually resembled the composition of their ashes. When firing peat-bark and peat-straw mixtures, it was found that the deposition rate only started to increase when the Cl/S molar ratio in the feed ash exceeded 0.15. The composition of the ensuing deposits resembled the deposits obtained from burning either bark or straw individually. For peat-bark mixtures it was concluded that the presence of S in the feed suppresses deposition by sulfating chloride compounds, leading to deposits that contain less Cl and have less molten phase. For peat-straw mixtures it was concluded that the deposition behaviour is governed by other mechanisms than the interaction of Cl and S. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Uranium deposits in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimori, R.K.; Ragland, P.C.; Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a review of published data bearing on the geology and origin of uranium deposits in granitic, pegmatitic and migmatitic rocks with the aim of assisting in the development of predictive criteria for the search for similar deposits in the U.S. Efforts were concentrated on the so-called ''porphyry'' uranium deposits. Two types of uranium deposits are primarily considered: deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in gneiss terrains, and disseminations of uranium in high-level granites. In Chapter 1 of this report, the general data on the distribution of uranium in igneous and metamorphic rocks are reviewed. Chapter 2 contains some comments on the classification of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks and a summary of the main features of the geology of uranium deposits in granites. General concepts of the behavior of uranium in granites during crustal evolution are reviewed in Chapter 3. Also included is a discussion of the relationship of uranium mineralization in granites to the general evolution of mobile belts, plus the influence of magmatic and post-magmatic processes on the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks and related ore deposits. Chapter 4 relates the results of experimental studies on the crystallization of granites to some of the geologic features of uranium deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in high-grade metamorphic terrains. Potential or favorable areas for igneous uranium deposits in the U.S.A. are delineated in Chapter 5. Data on the geology of specific uranium deposits in granitic rocks are contained in Appendix 1. A compilation of igneous rock formations containing greater than 10 ppM uranium is included in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 is a report on the results of a visit to the Roessing area. Appendix 4 is a report on a field excursion to eastern Canada

  11. Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Ying; Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Aohan; Shen, Jianlin; Cui, Zhenling; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Vitousek, Peter [Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Erisman, Jan Willem [VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goulding, Keith [The Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Fangmeier, Andreas [Institute of Landscape and Plant Ecology, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-02-28

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude and environmental impact of N deposition in China is limited. Here we use nationwide data sets on bulk N deposition, plant foliar N and crop N uptake (from long-term unfertilized soils) to evaluate N deposition dynamics and their effect on ecosystems across China between 1980 and 2010. We find that the average annual bulk deposition of N increased by approximately 8 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare (P < 0.001) between the 1980s (13.2 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare) and the 2000s (21.1 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare). Nitrogen deposition rates in the industrialized and agriculturally intensified regions of China are as high as the peak levels of deposition in northwestern Europe in the 1980s, before the introduction of mitigation measures. Nitrogen from ammonium (NH4+) is the dominant form of N in bulk deposition, but the rate of increase is largest for deposition of N from nitrate (NO3-), in agreement with decreased ratios of NH3 to NOx emissions since 1980. We also find that the impact of N deposition on Chinese ecosystems includes significantly increased plant foliar N concentrations in natural and semi-natural (that is, non-agricultural) ecosystems and increased crop N uptake from long-term-unfertilized croplands. China and other economies are facing a continuing challenge to reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen, N deposition and their negative effects on human health and the environment.

  12. Gravity Probe B Gyroscope Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. This photograph is a close up of a niobium-coated gyroscope motor and its housing halves. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Don Harley.)

  13. Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The space vehicle for Gravity Probe B (GP-B) arrives at the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  14. Probing the string winding sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, Gerardo; Mayo, Martín [G. Física CAB-CNEA and CONICET, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Nuñez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA),C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-03-17

    We probe a slice of the massive winding sector of bosonic string theory from toroidal compactifications of Double Field Theory (DFT). This string subsector corresponds to states containing one left and one right moving oscillators. We perform a generalized Kaluza Klein compactification of DFT on generic 2n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds and show that, up to third order in fluctuations, the theory coincides with the corresponding effective theory of the bosonic string compactified on n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds, obtained from three-point amplitudes. The comparison between both theories is facilitated by noticing that generalized diffeomorphisms in DFT allow to fix generalized harmonic gauge conditions that help in identifying the physical degrees of freedom. These conditions manifest as conformal anomaly cancellation requirements on the string theory side. The explicit expression for the gauge invariant effective action containing the physical massless sector (gravity+antisymmetric+gauge+ scalar fields) coupled to towers of generalized Kaluza Klein massive states (corresponding to compact momentum and winding modes) is found. The action acquires a very compact form when written in terms of fields carrying O(n,n) indices, and is explicitly T-duality invariant. The global algebra associated to the generalized Kaluza Klein compactification is discussed.

  15. Probing Light Stops with Stoponium

    CERN Document Server

    Batell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We derive new limits on light stops from diboson resonance searches in the $\\gamma\\gamma$, $Z \\gamma$, $ZZ$, $WW$ and $hh$ channels from the first run of the LHC. If the two-body decays of the light stop are mildly suppressed or kinematically forbidden, stoponium bound states will form in $pp$ collisions and subsequently decay via the pair annihilation of the constituent stops to diboson final states, yielding striking resonance signatures. Remarkably, we find that stoponium searches are highly complementary to direct collider searches and indirect probes of light stops such as Higgs coupling measurements. Using an empirical quarkonia potential model and including the first two $S$-wave stoponium states, we find that in the decoupling limit $m_{\\widetilde t_1} \\lesssim 130$ GeV is excluded for any value of the stop mixing angle and heavy stop mass by the combination of the latest resonance searches and the indirect constraints. The $\\gamma \\gamma$ searches are the most complementary to the indirect constraint...

  16. The Gravity Probe B gyroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchman, S; Lipa, J A; Keiser, G M; Muhlfelder, B; Turneaure, J P

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) gyroscope, a unique cryogenically operated mechanical sensor, was used on-orbit to independently test two predictions of general relativity (GR). Here, we describe the development and performance of the GP-B gyroscope, its geometry and fabrication, spin-up and vacuum approach, magnetic considerations, and static charge management. The history of electrically suspended gyroscopes puts the current work in context. Fabrication and ground testing of the GP-B gyroscope are detailed, followed by a review of on-orbit initialization, calibration, operation, and performance. We find that the performance was degraded relative to the mission goals, but was still sufficient to provide excellent new tests of GR. The degradation is partially due to the existence of gyroscope torques due to an unanticipated interaction between patch potentials on the rotor and the housing. We discuss these patch potentials and describe the effect of related torques on gyro drift. It was essential to include models for the effects due to the patch potentials in the complete data analysis model to yield determinations of the two GR effects. (paper)

  17. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  18. Integrated cosmological probes: concordance quantified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicola, Andrina; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre, E-mail: andrina.nicola@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-01

    Assessing the consistency of parameter constraints derived from different cosmological probes is an important way to test the validity of the underlying cosmological model. In an earlier work [1], we computed constraints on cosmological parameters for ΛCDM from an integrated analysis of CMB temperature anisotropies and CMB lensing from Planck, galaxy clustering and weak lensing from SDSS, weak lensing from DES SV as well as Type Ia supernovae and Hubble parameter measurements. In this work, we extend this analysis and quantify the concordance between the derived constraints and those derived by the Planck Collaboration as well as WMAP9, SPT and ACT. As a measure for consistency, we use the Surprise statistic [2], which is based on the relative entropy. In the framework of a flat ΛCDM cosmological model, we find all data sets to be consistent with one another at a level of less than 1σ. We highlight that the relative entropy is sensitive to inconsistencies in the models that are used in different parts of the analysis. In particular, inconsistent assumptions for the neutrino mass break its invariance on the parameter choice. When consistent model assumptions are used, the data sets considered in this work all agree with each other and ΛCDM, without evidence for tensions.

  19. Accuracy of probing attachment levels using a new computerized cemento-enamel junction probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, R; Prakash, Shobha

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of clinical attachment level (CAL) represents the gold standard for diagnosing and monitoring periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the newly introduced cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) probe in detecting CAL, using CEJ as a fixed reference point, and to compare the CEJ probe with the Florida stent probe (FSP) as well as with a standard manual probe, University of North Carolina-15 (UNC-15). Three examiners recorded the probing attachment level in 384 sites in case group (chronic periodontitis), and in 176 sites, in control group (healthy periodontal status), using the three probes. Subjects included both the sexes and ranged from 35 to 45 years. The experimental design was structured to balance the intra- and inter-examiner consistency at the same site during the two visits. CEJ probe showed higher intra-and inter-examiner consistency over both FSP and UNC-15 in both the case and control groups. Frequency distribution of differences of various magnitudes of repeated measurements ≤1 mm was in the higher range of 86.8% to 87.5% for CEJ probe. The FSP was more reproducible than UNC-15 in detecting relative attachment level (RAL). CEJ automated probe was found to have greatest potential for accuracy and consistency in detecting CAL than FSP and UNC-15. The automated probes appeared to be more reproducible than manual probes.

  20. Ammonium Laurate Surfactant for Cleaner Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Hanna M. [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Meany, Brendan [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Ticey, Jeremy [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Sun, Chuan-Fu [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Wang, YuHuang [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States; Cumings, John [Department of Material Science and Engineering and ‡Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States

    2015-06-15

    Experiments probing the properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and those measuring bulk composites show vastly different results. One major issue limiting the results is that the procedures required to separate and test CNTs introduce contamination that changes the properties of the CNT. These contamination residues often come from the resist used in lithographic processing and the surfactant used to suspend and deposit the CNTs, commonly sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Here we present ammonium laurate (AL), a surfactant that has previously not been used for this application, which differs from SDS only by substitution of ionic constituents but shows vastly cleaner depositions. In addition, we show that compared to SDS, AL-suspended CNTs have greater shelf stability and more selective dispersion. These results are verified using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, and Raman and absorption optical spectroscopy. This surfactant is simple to prepare, and the nanotube solutions require minimal sonication and centrifugation in order to outperform SDS.

  1. Four-probe measurements with a three-probe scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomons, Mark; Martins, Bruno V. C.; Zikovsky, Janik; Wolkow, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    We present an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) three-probe scanning tunneling microscope in which each probe is capable of atomic resolution. A UHV JEOL scanning electron microscope aids in the placement of the probes on the sample. The machine also has a field ion microscope to clean, atomically image, and shape the probe tips. The machine uses bare conductive samples and tips with a homebuilt set of pliers for heating and loading. Automated feedback controlled tip-surface contacts allow for electrical stability and reproducibility while also greatly reducing tip and surface damage due to contact formation. The ability to register inter-tip position by imaging of a single surface feature by multiple tips is demonstrated. Four-probe material characterization is achieved by deploying two tips as fixed current probes and the third tip as a movable voltage probe

  2. Four-probe measurements with a three-probe scanning tunneling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomons, Mark [National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council of Canada, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Martins, Bruno V. C.; Zikovsky, Janik; Wolkow, Robert A., E-mail: rwolkow@ualberta.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council of Canada, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    We present an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) three-probe scanning tunneling microscope in which each probe is capable of atomic resolution. A UHV JEOL scanning electron microscope aids in the placement of the probes on the sample. The machine also has a field ion microscope to clean, atomically image, and shape the probe tips. The machine uses bare conductive samples and tips with a homebuilt set of pliers for heating and loading. Automated feedback controlled tip-surface contacts allow for electrical stability and reproducibility while also greatly reducing tip and surface damage due to contact formation. The ability to register inter-tip position by imaging of a single surface feature by multiple tips is demonstrated. Four-probe material characterization is achieved by deploying two tips as fixed current probes and the third tip as a movable voltage probe.

  3. Four-probe measurements with a three-probe scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, Mark; Martins, Bruno V C; Zikovsky, Janik; Wolkow, Robert A

    2014-04-01

    We present an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) three-probe scanning tunneling microscope in which each probe is capable of atomic resolution. A UHV JEOL scanning electron microscope aids in the placement of the probes on the sample. The machine also has a field ion microscope to clean, atomically image, and shape the probe tips. The machine uses bare conductive samples and tips with a homebuilt set of pliers for heating and loading. Automated feedback controlled tip-surface contacts allow for electrical stability and reproducibility while also greatly reducing tip and surface damage due to contact formation. The ability to register inter-tip position by imaging of a single surface feature by multiple tips is demonstrated. Four-probe material characterization is achieved by deploying two tips as fixed current probes and the third tip as a movable voltage probe.

  4. PZT Thin-Film Micro Probe Device with Dual Top Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chuan

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-film actuators have been studied intensively for years because of their potential applications in many fields. In this dissertation, a PZT thin-film micro probe device is designed, fabricated, studied, and proven to be acceptable as an intracochlear acoustic actuator. The micro probe device takes the form of a cantilever with a PZT thin-film diaphragm at the tip of the probe. The tip portion of the probe will be implanted in cochlea later in animal tests to prove its feasibility in hearing rehabilitation. The contribution of the dissertation is three-fold. First, a dual top electrodes design, consisting of a center electrode and an outer electrode, is developed to improve actuation displacement of the PZT thin-film diaphragm. The improvement by the dual top electrodes design is studied via a finite element model. When the dimensions of the dual electrodes are optimized, the displacement of the PZT thin-film diaphragm increases about 30%. A PZT thin-film diaphragm with dual top electrodes is fabricated to prove the concept, and experimental results confirm the predictions from the finite element analyses. Moreover, the dual electrode design can accommodate presence of significant residual stresses in the PZT thin-film diaphragm by changing the phase difference between the two electrodes. Second, a PZT thin-film micro probe device is fabricated and tested. The fabrication process consists of PZT thin-film deposition and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The uniqueness of the fabrication process is an automatic dicing mechanism that allows a large number of probes to be released easily from the wafer. Moreover, the fabrication is very efficient, because the DRIE process will form the PZT thin-film diaphragm and the special dicing mechanism simultaneously. After the probes are fabricated, they are tested with various possible implantation depths (i.e., boundary conditions). Experimental results show that future implantation depths

  5. Phthalic Acid Chemical Probes Synthesized for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Jen Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasticizers are additives that are used to increase the flexibility of plastic during manufacturing. However, in injection molding processes, plasticizers cannot be generated with monomers because they can peel off from the plastics into the surrounding environment, water, or food, or become attached to skin. Among the various plasticizers that are used, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid is a typical precursor to generate phthalates. In addition, phthalic acid is a metabolite of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP. According to Gene_Ontology gene/protein database, phthalates can cause genital diseases, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, etc. In this study, a silanized linker (3-aminopropyl triethoxyslane, APTES was deposited on silicon dioxides (SiO2 particles and phthalate chemical probes were manufactured from phthalic acid and APTES–SiO2. These probes could be used for detecting proteins that targeted phthalic acid and for protein-protein interactions. The phthalic acid chemical probes we produced were incubated with epithelioid cell lysates of normal rat kidney (NRK-52E cells to detect the interactions between phthalic acid and NRK-52E extracted proteins. These chemical probes interacted with a number of chaperones such as protein disulfide-isomerase A6, heat shock proteins, and Serpin H1. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA software showed that these chemical probes were a practical technique for protein-protein interaction analysis.

  6. Flexible probe for measuring local conductivity variations in Li-ion electrode films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Emilee; Clement, Derek; Vogel, John; Wheeler, Dean; Mazzeo, Brian

    2018-04-01

    Li-ion battery performance is governed by electronic and ionic properties of the battery. A key metric that characterizes Li-ion battery cell performance is the electronic conductivity of the electrodes, which are metal foils with thin coatings of electrochemically active materials. To accurately measure the spatial variation of electronic conductivity of these electrodes, a micro-four-line probe (μ4LP) was designed and used to non-destructively measure the properties of commercial-quality Li-ion battery films. This previous research established that the electronic conductivity of film electrodes is not homogeneous throughout the entirety of the deposited film area. In this work, a micro-N-line probe (μNLP) and a flexible micro-flex-line probe (μFLP) were developed to improve the non-destructive micro-scale conductivity measurements that we can take. These devices were validated by comparing test results to that of the predecessor, the micro-four-line probe (μ4LP), on various commercial-quality Li-ion battery electrodes. Results show that there is significant variation in conductivity on a millimeter and even micrometer length scale through the electrode film. Compared to the μ4LP, the μNLP and μFLP also introduce additional measurement configuration possibilities, while providing a more robust design. Researchers and manufacturers can use these probes to identify heterogeneity in their electrodes during the fabrication process, which will lead to the development of better batteries.

  7. Liquefier Dynamics in Fused Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Guceri, Selcuk; Bertoldi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Layered manufacturing (LM) is an evolution of rapid prototyping (RP) technology whereby a part is built in layers. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a particular LM technique in which each section is fabricated through vector style deposition of building blocks, called roads, which...

  8. NURE uranium deposit model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program has sponsored uranium deposit model studies by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and numerous subcontractors. This paper deals only with models from the following six reports prepared by Samuel S. Adams and Associates: GJBX-1(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Roll-Type Uranium Deposits in Continental Sandstones; GJBX-2(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uraniferous Humate Deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico; GJBX-3(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uranium Deposits of the Quartz-Pebble Conglomerate Type; GJBX-4(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits in Mixed Fluvial-Shallow Marine Sedimentary Sequences, South Texas; GJBX-5(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Veinlike Uranium Deposits of the Lower to Middle Proterozoic Unconformity and Strata-Related Types; GJBX-6(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits of the Salt Wash Type, Colorado Plateau Province. A unique feature of these models is the development of recognition criteria in a systematic fashion, with a method for quantifying the various items. The recognition-criteria networks are used in this paper to illustrate the various types of deposits

  9. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Davis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    World-class sandstone-type uranium deposits are defined as epigenetic concentrations of uranium minerals occurring as uneven impregnations and minor massive replacements primarily in fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic sandstone formations. The main purpose of this introductory paper is to define, classify, and introduce to the general geologic setting for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  10. Ash Deposit Formation and Removal in a Straw and Wood Suspension-Fired Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    ). The shedding investigation was also made when the nearby plant sootblower (4m below) was working. It was identified that the mass uptake signal remained stable and the deposits in small pieces were continuously removed during 35% and 65% straw-firing. Previous findings of Vattenfall indicated that a mixture...... was limited to two weeks when 100% straw was fired due to ash deposition in the superheater region that has tube spacing specified for coal-firing (113mm). A series of 3-5 days deposit probe experiments were conducted utilizing 35 to 100% straw with wood on mass basis. The applied deposit probe was water...... two hours deposit mass uptake rate was 52.8 (g/m2/h), while it was 353.8 (g/m2/h) during 100% straw-firing. All tests in the superheater region for all applied straw shares indicated that with increase in straw share, final deposit mass uptake increased. The comparison of current and previous full...

  11. Hyperpolarized NMR Probes for Biological Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Meier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the development of nuclear spin polarization enhanced (hyperpolarized molecular probes has opened up new opportunities for studying the inner workings of living cells in real time. The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ, introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. Hyperpolarized molecular probes for biological NMR spectroscopy enable the unbiased detection of complex processes by virtue of the high spectral resolution, structural specificity and quantifiability of NMR signals. Here, we provide a survey of strategies used for the selection, design and use of hyperpolarized NMR probes in biological assays, and describe current limitations and developments.

  12. Laser deposition of HTSC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol', Eh.N.; Bagratashvili, V.N.; Zherikhin, A.N.; Sviridov, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) films fabrication by the laser deposition are reviewed. Physical and chemical processes taking place during laser deposition are considered, such as the target evaporation, the material transport from the target to the substrate, the film growth on the substrate, thermochemical reactions and mass transfer within the HTSC films and their stability. The experimental results on the laser deposition of different HTSC ceramics and their properties investigations are given. The major technological issues are discussed including the deposition schemes, the oxygen supply, the target compositions and structure, the substrates and interface layers selection, the deposition regimes and their impact on the HTSC films properties. 169 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Sites and diffusion of probe atoms on surfaces. Measured after soft-landing ion deposition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurens, Christiaan Rudolf

    1997-01-01

    Dit proefschrift beschrijft onderzoek naar het gedrag van geisoleerde atomen op metaaloppervlakken. Er zijn twee systemen bestudeerd: indiumatomen op een koperoppervlak en zilveratomen op een zilveroppervlak. De metingen zijn verricht met behulp van een vrij exotische meettechniek, namelijk

  14. In-Situ Single DNA Manipulation with phi 20nm Electron-Beam-Deposited Probe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fujioka, Sota

    2001-01-01

    .... In this method full-time observation of the manipulation is provided for the purpose of keeping the information about where the isolated DNA fragment used to he located in the original DNA fiber...

  15. A scanning fluid dynamic gauging technique for probing surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Patrick W; Chew, Y M John; Wilson, D Ian; Brooker, Anju D M; York, David W

    2010-01-01

    Fluid dynamic gauging (FDG) is a technique for measuring the thickness of soft solid deposit layers immersed in a liquid environment, in situ and in real time. This paper details the performance of a novel automated, scanning FDG probe (sFDG) which allows the thickness of a sample layer to be monitored at several points during an experiment, with a resolution of ±5 µm. Its application is demonstrated using layers of gelatine, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and baked tomato purée deposits. Swelling kinetics, as well as deformation behaviour—based on knowledge of the stresses imposed on the surface by the gauging flow—can be determined at several points, affording improved experimental data. The use of FDG as a surface scanning technique, operating as a fluid mechanical analogue of atomic force microscopy on a millimetre length scale, is also demonstrated. The measurement relies only on the flow behaviour, and is thus suitable for use in opaque fluids, does not contact the surface itself and does not rely on any specific physical properties of the surface, provided it is locally stiff

  16. Attachment of carbon nanotubes to atomic force microscope probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Christopher T.; Carnally, Stewart; Roberts, Clive J.

    2007-01-01

    In atomic force microscopy (AFM) the accuracy of data is often limited by the tip geometry and the effect on this geometry of wear. One way to improve the tip geometry is to attach carbon nanotubes (CNT) to AFM tips. CNTs are ideal because they have a small diameter (typically between 1 and 20 nm), high aspect ratio, high strength, good conductivity, and almost no wear. A number of methods for CNT attachment have been proposed and explored including chemical vapour deposition (CVD), dielectrophoresis, arc discharge and mechanical attachment. In this work we will use CVD to deposit nanotubes onto a silicon surface and then investigate improved methods to pick-up and attach CNTs to tapping mode probes. Conventional pick-up methods involve using standard tapping mode or non-contact mode so as to attach only those CNTs that are aligned vertically on the surface. We have developed improved methods to attach CNTs using contact mode and reduced set-point tapping mode imaging. Using these techniques the AFM tip is in contact with a greater number of CNTs and the rate and stability of CNT pick-up is improved. The presence of CNTs on the modified AFM tips was confirmed by high-resolution AFM imaging, analysis of the tips dynamic force curves and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  17. Polymer deposition morphology by electrospray deposition - Modifications through distance variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, K.; Schulze, R.-D.; Friedrich, J.

    2014-01-01

    Electrospray deposition (ESD) of highly diluted polymers was examined with regard to the deposited surface structure. Only the flight distance (flight time) onto the resulting deposited surface was varied from 20 to 200 mm. An apparatus without any additional heating or gas flows was used. Polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyallylamine (PAAm) in methanol were deposited on Si wafers. The polymer layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, derivatization reactions and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a grazing incidence unit. SEM images illustrated the changing structures of PAA and PAAm. For PAA the deposited structure changed from a smooth film (20 mm) to a film with individual droplets on the coated surface (100 mm and 200 mm), while for PAAm individual droplets can be seen at all distances. The ESD process with cascades of splitting droplets slows down for PAA after distances greater than 40 mm. In contrast, the ESD process for PAAm is nearly stopped within the first flight distance of 20 mm. Residual solvent analysis showed that most of the solvent evaporated within the first 20 mm capillary-sample distance. - Highlights: • We deposited polyacrylic acid and polyallylamine by electrospray ionization (ESI). • The morphology in dependence of flight distance (20 mm to 200 mm) was analyzed. • The amount of residual solvent after deposition was determined. • ESI-process slows down for polyacrylic acid after 40 mm flight distance. • ESI-Process is complete for polyallylamine within the first 20 mm

  18. Transmit-receive eddy current probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Sullivan, S.P.; Cecco, V.S.

    1997-01-01

    In the last two decades, due to increased inspection demands, eddy current instrumentation has advanced from single-frequency, single-output instruments to multifrequency, computer-aided systems. This has significantly increased the scope of eddy current testing, but, unfortunately, it has also increased the cost and complexity of inspections. In addition, this approach has not always improved defect detectability or signal-to-noise. Most eddy current testing applications are still performed with impedance probes, which have well known limitations. However, recent research at AECL has led to improved eddy current inspections through the design and development of transmit-receive (T/R) probes. T/R eddy current probes, with laterally displaced transmit and receive coils, present a number of advantages over impedance probes. They have improved signal-to-noise ratio in the presence of variable lift-off compared to impedance probes. They have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization for circumferential or axial crack detection, and possess good phase discrimination to surface defects. They can significantly increase the scope of eddy current testing permitting reliable detection and sizing of cracks in heat exchanger tubing as well as in welded areas of both ferritic and non-ferromagnetic components. This presentation will describe the operating principles of T/R probes with the help of computer-derived normalized voltage diagrams. We will discuss their directional properties and analyze the advantages of using single and multiple T/R probes over impedance probes for specific inspection cases. Current applications to surface and tube testing and some typical inspection results will be described. (author)

  19. Nuclear borehole probes - theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, J.L.; Korsbech, U.; Gynther Nielsen, K.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    1985-06-01

    The report gives a summary of the theoretical and expeimental work on borehole probes that has been performed since 1971 at The Department of Electrophysics, The Technical University of Denmark. The first part of the report concerns the use of a spectral natural gamma-ray probe (SNG-probe), which is used for measurements of the spectral distribution of the gamma-rays of the geological strata around a borehole. In general the spectrum is divided into three parts - the gamma-rays from potassium-40, from thorium-232 and daughters, and from uranium-238 and daughters. A set of curves showing the intensities of the gamm-radiation from K, Th, and U versus depth is called a SNG-log. If proper calibrated, the SNG-log gives the concentration of Th, U, and K in the formation surrounding the borehole. Initially the basis for an interpretation of SNG-logs is discussed. Then follows a description og some SNG-problems designed and built by The Department of Electrophysics, and a discussion of the calibration of SNG-probes. Some examples of SNG-logs are presented, and some general comments on the use of SNG-logs are given. The second part of the report concerns mainly the development of theoretical models for neutron-neutron probes, gamma-gamma probes, and pulsed-neutron probes. The purpose of this work has been to examine how well the models correlate with measured results and - where reasonable agreement is found - to use the models in studies of the factors that affect the probe responses in interpretation of experimental results and in probe design. (author)

  20. 20 CFR 703.207 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount fixed by the Office under the regulations in this part shall deposit any negotiable securities... deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. 703.207 Section 703.207 Employees' Benefits... AND RELATED STATUTES INSURANCE REGULATIONS Insurance Carrier Security Deposit Requirements § 703.207...

  1. Interception and retention of 238Pu deposition by orange trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, J.E. III; Adriano, D.C.; Ciravolo, T.G.; Doswell, A.C.; Yehling, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) transform the heat produced during the alpha decay of 238 Pu into electrical energy for use by deep-space probes, such as the Voyager spacecraft, which have returned images and other data from Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. Future missions involving RTGs may be launched aboard the space shuttle, and there is a remote possibility that an explosion of liquid-hydrogen and liquid-oxygen fuel could rupture the RTGs and disperse 238 Pu into the atmosphere over central Florida. Research was performed to determine the potential transport to man of atmospherically dispersed Pu via contaminated orange fruits. The results indicate that the major contamination of oranges would result from the interception and retention of 238 Pu deposition by fruits. The resulting surface contamination could enter human food chains through transfer to internal tissues during peeling or in the reconstituted juices and flavorings made from orange skins. The interception of 238 Pu deposition by fruits is especially important because the results indicate no measurable loss of Pu from fruit surfaces through time or with washing. Approximately 1% of the 238 Pu deposited onto an orange grove would be harvested in the year following deposition

  2. Deposition and characterization of sputtered hexaboride coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldhauser, W.

    1996-06-01

    Hexaborides of the rare-earth elements ReB 6 are potential materials for cathode applications since they combine properties such as low work function, good electrical conductivity, high melting point as well as low volatility at high temperatures. Due to their high hardness and colorations ranging from blue to purple these compounds are also considered for applications to coatings for decoration of consumer products. At present, either rods of sintered LaB 6 or single LaB 6 crystals are indirectly heated to induce emission. In this workboride coatings were deposited onto various substrates employing non-reactive magnetron sputtering from LaB 6 , CeB 6 , SmB 6 and YB 6 targets. Coatings deposited were examined using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis. Vickers microhardness, colorimeter and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Electron emission characteristics of the coatings were studied by the thermionic emission and the contact potential method. After optimization of the sputtering parameters fine-columnar or partially amorphous films with atomic ratios of boron to metal in the order of 5 to 7.5 were obtained. The tendency to form the corresponding hexaboride phase decreases from LaB 6 , CeB 6 and SmB 6 to YB 6 . The work function was measured to be in the range of 2.6 to 3.3 eV. Vickers microhardness values lie between 1500 and 2000 HVO.01. LaB 6 coatings showed the most pronounced visual color impression corresponding to dark violet. The results obtained indicate that sputtered hexaboride films are well suited for decorative and thermionic applications. (author)

  3. Observational probes of cosmic acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, David H.; Mortonson, Michael J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Hirata, Christopher; Riess, Adam G.; Rozo, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The accelerating expansion of the universe is the most surprising cosmological discovery in many decades, implying that the universe is dominated by some form of “dark energy” with exotic physical properties, or that Einstein’s theory of gravity breaks down on cosmological scales. The profound implications of cosmic acceleration have inspired ambitious efforts to understand its origin, with experiments that aim to measure the history of expansion and growth of structure with percent-level precision or higher. We review in detail the four most well established methods for making such measurements: Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), weak gravitational lensing, and the abundance of galaxy clusters. We pay particular attention to the systematic uncertainties in these techniques and to strategies for controlling them at the level needed to exploit “Stage IV” dark energy facilities such as BigBOSS, LSST, Euclid, and WFIRST. We briefly review a number of other approaches including redshift-space distortions, the Alcock–Paczynski effect, and direct measurements of the Hubble constant H 0 . We present extensive forecasts for constraints on the dark energy equation of state and parameterized deviations from General Relativity, achievable with Stage III and Stage IV experimental programs that incorporate supernovae, BAO, weak lensing, and cosmic microwave background data. We also show the level of precision required for clusters or other methods to provide constraints competitive with those of these fiducial programs. We emphasize the value of a balanced program that employs several of the most powerful methods in combination, both to cross-check systematic uncertainties and to take advantage of complementary information. Surveys to probe cosmic acceleration produce data sets that support a wide range of scientific investigations, and they continue the longstanding astronomical tradition of mapping the universe in ever greater detail over ever

  4. Observational probes of cosmic acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, David H., E-mail: dhw@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Mortonson, Michael J. [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, MA (United States); Hirata, Christopher [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Riess, Adam G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rozo, Eduardo [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-10

    The accelerating expansion of the universe is the most surprising cosmological discovery in many decades, implying that the universe is dominated by some form of “dark energy” with exotic physical properties, or that Einstein’s theory of gravity breaks down on cosmological scales. The profound implications of cosmic acceleration have inspired ambitious efforts to understand its origin, with experiments that aim to measure the history of expansion and growth of structure with percent-level precision or higher. We review in detail the four most well established methods for making such measurements: Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), weak gravitational lensing, and the abundance of galaxy clusters. We pay particular attention to the systematic uncertainties in these techniques and to strategies for controlling them at the level needed to exploit “Stage IV” dark energy facilities such as BigBOSS, LSST, Euclid, and WFIRST. We briefly review a number of other approaches including redshift-space distortions, the Alcock–Paczynski effect, and direct measurements of the Hubble constant H{sub 0}. We present extensive forecasts for constraints on the dark energy equation of state and parameterized deviations from General Relativity, achievable with Stage III and Stage IV experimental programs that incorporate supernovae, BAO, weak lensing, and cosmic microwave background data. We also show the level of precision required for clusters or other methods to provide constraints competitive with those of these fiducial programs. We emphasize the value of a balanced program that employs several of the most powerful methods in combination, both to cross-check systematic uncertainties and to take advantage of complementary information. Surveys to probe cosmic acceleration produce data sets that support a wide range of scientific investigations, and they continue the longstanding astronomical tradition of mapping the universe in ever greater detail over

  5. Probes for dark matter physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu.

    The existence of cosmological dark matter is in the bedrock of the modern cosmology. The dark matter is assumed to be nonbaryonic and consists of new stable particles. Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) miracle appeals to search for neutral stable weakly interacting particles in underground experiments by their nuclear recoil and at colliders by missing energy and momentum, which they carry out. However, the lack of WIMP effects in their direct underground searches and at colliders can appeal to other forms of dark matter candidates. These candidates may be weakly interacting slim particles, superweakly interacting particles, or composite dark matter, in which new particles are bound. Their existence should lead to cosmological effects that can find probes in the astrophysical data. However, if composite dark matter contains stable electrically charged leptons and quarks bound by ordinary Coulomb interaction in elusive dark atoms, these charged constituents of dark atoms can be the subject of direct experimental test at the colliders. The models, predicting stable particles with charge ‑ 2 without stable particles with charges + 1 and ‑ 1 can avoid severe constraints on anomalous isotopes of light elements and provide solution for the puzzles of dark matter searches. In such models, the excessive ‑ 2 charged particles are bound with primordial helium in O-helium atoms, maintaining specific nuclear-interacting form of the dark matter. The successful development of composite dark matter scenarios appeals for experimental search for doubly charged constituents of dark atoms, making experimental search for exotic stable double charged particles experimentum crucis for dark atoms of composite dark matter.

  6. Capacitance level probe, Type FSK 88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, W.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the capacitive level probe, Type FSK 88, is to supervise the level within vessels continuously and to signalize alterations immediately. Since 1987 the level probe is installed in the pool for burn up fuel elements and in the reactor containment sump of BWRs, PWRs and WWERs. The capacitive level probe of type FSK 88 was qualified for Loss of Coolant Accidents and seismic events according to international rules. The measuring principle takes credit from the fact that the dielectric with different dielectric constants in a condensator changes the capacity of the condensator. (Authors)

  7. Cone penetrometer moisture probe acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 (Prototype Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure) and WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 (Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure). The master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 can be found in Appendix A and the master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 can be found in Appendix B. Also included with this report is a matrix showing design criteria of the cone penetrometer moisture probe and the verification method used (Appendix C)

  8. Characterization of Fiber Optic CMM Probe System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.W.Swallow

    2007-05-15

    This report documents a study completed on the fiber optic probe system that is a part of the Werth optical CMM. This study was necessary due to a lack of documentation from the vendor for the proper use and calibration of the fiber probe, and was performed in support of the Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung (LIGA) development program at the FM&T. As a result of this study, a better understanding of the fiber optic probe has been developed, including guidelines for its proper use and calibration.

  9. Measuring probe for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overhoff, T.

    1976-01-01

    A coaxial cable is helically wound into two concentric coils, forming the one end of the probe. At the other end of the probe, the inner conductor's ends are wired to the outer conducter's two extremities by a conductor made of a material with low neutron and gamma interaction cross-section. The direct current produced by this self-powered detector is frequency filtered in order to separate the contributions of the neutron induced secondary-electrons from the photo-electrons, and from the thermally excited conduction electrons. Neutron and gamma fluxes, as well as temperature are therefore determined by using a single probe. (RW) [de

  10. The effects of H sub 2 addition on the enhanced deposition rate and high quality Cu films by MOCVD

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J H; Park, S J; Choi, S Y

    1998-01-01

    High-quality Cu thin films were deposited on the TiN/Si substrate from the hexafluoroacetylacetonate Copper thrmethylvinylsilane [Cu (hfac) (tmvs)] source using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The optimum deposition condition is with a substrate temperature of 200 .deg. C and the hydrogen flow rate of 80 sccm. The deposition rate, electrical resistivity, surface morphology, grain size, and optical properties of the deposited Cu films were investigated by the AES, four-point probe, SEM, XRD, and the visible spectrophotometer as a function of hydrogen gas flow rate, The results indicated that additional hydrogen gas affects the CVD hydrogen reduction reaction improving the purity, deposition rate, and electrical resistivity of Cu thin films. A prospective idea will be discussed for the preparation of Cu thin films showing a more enhanced electromigration resistance applicable to the next-generation interconnection.

  11. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S H; Suter, G F [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1997-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, S.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs

  14. Full information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesse, Stephen; Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Somnath, Suhas

    2017-04-04

    Apparatus and methods are described for scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy based on acquisition of full probe response. The full probe response contains valuable information about the probe-sample interaction that is lost in traditional scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy methods. The full probe response is analyzed post data acquisition using fast Fourier transform and adaptive filtering, as well as multivariate analysis. The full response data is further compressed to retain only statistically significant components before being permanently stored.

  15. Self-leveling 2D DPN probe arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaheim, Jason R.; Val, Vadim; Solheim, Ed; Bussan, John; Fragala, J.; Nelson, Mike

    2010-02-01

    Dip Pen Nanolithography® (DPN®) is a direct write scanning probe-based technique which operates under ambient conditions, making it suitable to deposit a wide range of biological and inorganic materials. Precision nanoscale deposition is a fundamental requirement to advance nanoscale technology in commercial applications, and tailoring chemical composition and surface structure on the sub-100 nm scale benefits researchers in areas ranging from cell adhesion to cell-signaling and biomimetic membranes. These capabilities naturally suggest a "Desktop Nanofab" concept - a turnkey system that allows a non-expert user to rapidly create high resolution, scalable nanostructures drawing upon well-characterized ink and substrate pairings. In turn, this system is fundamentally supported by a portfolio of MEMS devices tailored for microfluidic ink delivery, directed placement of nanoscale materials, and cm2 tip arrays for high-throughput nanofabrication. Massively parallel two-dimensional nanopatterning is now commercially available via NanoInk's 2D nano PrintArray™, making DPN a high-throughput (>3×107 μm2 per hour), flexible and versatile method for precision nanoscale pattern formation. However, cm2 arrays of nanoscopic tips introduce the nontrivial problem of getting them all evenly touching the surface to ensure homogeneous deposition; this requires extremely precise leveling of the array. Herein, we describe how we have made the process simple by way of a selfleveling gimbal attachment, coupled with semi-automated software leveling routines which bring the cm^2 chip to within 0.002 degrees of co-planarity. This excellent co-planarity yields highly homogeneous features across a square centimeter, with <6% feature size standard deviation. We have engineered the devices to be easy to use, wire-free, and fully integrated with both of our patterning tools: the DPN 5000, and the NLP 2000.

  16. Surface deposition from radioactive plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Accidents involving nuclear plants may release radioactive particles and gases to the atmosphere. Dry deposition of particles has been investigated mainly in the laboratory and a general understanding of the transfer mechanisms has been established. However there is apparently a substantial discrepancy between the few field observations of dry deposition of particles and laboratory measurements, particularly for 0.1 - 1 μm particles for which laboratory work shows very small deposition rates. In addition there are few estimates of deposition rates for forest and some other kinds of terrain. The most important gas in the context of a nuclear accident is I-131 and the behaviour of this gas at grass surfaces has received much attention. However smaller quantities of other gases and vapours may be released and the surface absorption of these species may require further investigation. In addition there is little knowledge of the behaviour of gases over many types of surface. The rate of deposition of particles and gases is influenced by many parameters including wind speed and the temperature stratification of the lower atmosphere. Conditions which give poor atmospheric dispersion usually give lower deposition velocities. Transfer to man depends on the availability of deposited materials on crops and grass. A wide range of isotopes including iodine and several metallic fission products are lost with a half life for residence on grass ranging from a few days to a few tens days, depending on climatic conditions

  17. ITO thin films deposited by advanced pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viespe, Cristian; Nicolae, Ionut; Sima, Cornelia; Grigoriu, Constantin; Medianu, Rares

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide thin films were deposited by computer assisted advanced PLD method in order to obtain transparent, conductive and homogeneous films on a large area. The films were deposited on glass substrates. We studied the influence of the temperature (room temperature (RT)-180 deg. C), pressure (1-6 x 10 -2 Torr), laser fluence (1-4 J/cm 2 ) and wavelength (266-355 nm) on the film properties. The deposition rate, roughness, film structure, optical transmission, electrical conductivity measurements were done. We deposited uniform ITO thin films (thickness 100-600 nm, roughness 5-10 nm) between RT and 180 deg. C on a large area (5 x 5 cm 2 ). The films have electrical resistivity of 8 x 10 -4 Ω cm at RT, 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 180 deg. C and an optical transmission in the visible range, around 89%

  18. Flow cytometry, fluorescent probes, and flashing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunthof, C.J.

    2002-01-01


    Key words: fluorescent probes, flow cytometry, CSLM, viability, survival, microbial physiology, lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis , Lactobacillus plantarum , cheese, milk,

  19. Tools for Ultraspecific Probe/Primer Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fofanov, Yurly

    2006-01-01

    .... Our approach will deliver DNA probes and PCR primers that have an unprecedentedly low probability of false positives or confusion by environmental background, and which resist evasion by threat agent engineering...

  20. Theory of dual probes on graphene structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel

    This thesis concerns the development of theoretical and computational methods for multiprobe systems and their application to nanostructured graphene. Recent experimental advances emphasize the usefulness of multi-probe techniques when analyzing the electrical properties of nanoscale samples...

  1. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  2. Probing plasmonic nanostructures by photons and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Harald; Kneipp, Janina

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent developments for studying plasmonic metal nanostructures. Exploiting photons and electrons opens up new capabilities to probe the complete plasmon spectrum including bright and dark modes and related local optical fields at subnanometer spatial resolution. This comprehensive cha...

  3. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both 32 P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis

  4. Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Keji; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2012-09-11

    A microwave microscope including a probe tip electrode vertically positionable over a sample and projecting downwardly from the end of a cantilever. A transmission line connecting the tip electrode to the electronic control system extends along the cantilever and is separated from a ground plane at the bottom of the cantilever by a dielectric layer. The probe tip may be vertically tapped near or at the sample surface at a low frequency and the microwave signal reflected from the tip/sample interaction is demodulated at the low frequency. Alternatively, a low-frequency electrical signal is also a non-linear electrical element associated with the probe tip to non-linearly interact with the applied microwave signal and the reflected non-linear microwave signal is detected at the low frequency. The non-linear element may be semiconductor junction formed near the apex of the probe tip or be an FET formed at the base of a semiconducting tip.

  5. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  6. Multipartite entanglement detection with nonsymmetric probing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellantonio, Luca; Das, Sumanta; Appel, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    We show that spin-squeezing criteria commonly used for entanglement detection can be erroneous if the probe is not symmetric. We then derive a lower bound on squeezing for separable states in spin systems probed asymmetrically. Using this we further develop a procedure that allows us to verify th...... the degree of entanglement of a quantum state in the spin system. Finally, we apply our method for entanglement verification to existing experimental data, and use it to prove the existence of tripartite entanglement in a spin-squeezed atomic ensemble.......We show that spin-squeezing criteria commonly used for entanglement detection can be erroneous if the probe is not symmetric. We then derive a lower bound on squeezing for separable states in spin systems probed asymmetrically. Using this we further develop a procedure that allows us to verify...

  7. Angular response of hot wire probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Mare, L; Jelly, T O; Day, I J

    2017-01-01

    A new equation for the convective heat loss from the sensor of a hot-wire probe is derived which accounts for both the potential and the viscous parts of the flow past the prongs. The convective heat loss from the sensor is related to the far-field velocity by an expression containing a term representing the potential flow around the prongs, and a term representing their viscous effect. This latter term is absent in the response equations available in the literature but is essential in representing some features of the observed response of miniature hot-wire probes. The response equation contains only four parameters but it can reproduce, with great accuracy, the behaviour of commonly used single-wire probes. The response equation simplifies the calibration the angular response of rotated slanted hot-wire probes: only standard King’s law parameters and a Reynolds-dependent drag coefficient need to be determined. (paper)

  8. Surface sampling concentration and reaction probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Elnaggar, Mariam S

    2013-07-16

    A method of analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen is described. The method can include providing a probe comprising an outer capillary tube and an inner capillary tube disposed co-axially within the outer capillary tube, where the inner and outer capillary tubes define a solvent capillary and a sampling capillary in fluid communication with one another at a distal end of the probe; contacting a target site on a surface of a specimen with a solvent in fluid communication with the probe; maintaining a plug volume proximate a solvent-specimen interface, wherein the plug volume is in fluid communication with the probe; draining plug sampling fluid from the plug volume through the sampling capillary; and analyzing a chemical composition of the plug sampling fluid with an analytical instrument. A system for performing the method is also described.

  9. Calibration models for high enthalpy calorimetric probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannel, A

    1978-07-01

    The accuracy of gas-aspirated liquid-cooled calorimetric probes used for measuring the enthalpy of high-temperature gas streams is studied. The error in the differential temperature measurements caused by internal and external heat transfer interactions is considered and quantified by mathematical models. The analysis suggests calibration methods for the evaluation of dimensionless heat transfer parameters in the models, which then can give a more accurate value for the enthalpy of the sample. Calibration models for four types of calorimeters are applied to results from the literature and from our own experiments: a circular slit calorimeter developed by the author, single-cooling jacket probe, double-cooling jacket probe, and split-flow cooling jacket probe. The results show that the models are useful for describing and correcting the temperature measurements.

  10. Titanium pigmentation. An electron probe microanalysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, A.; Touron, P.; Daste, J.; Lassere, J.; Bonafe, J.L.; Viraben, R.

    1985-01-01

    A patient had an unusual pigmentary disease induced by titanium dioxide. The use of a topical cream containing titanium dioxide caused a xanthomalike appearance on the patient's penis. Electron probe microanalysis was valuable in establishing the cause of this balanitis

  11. Automated design of genomic Southern blot probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komiyama Noboru H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sothern blotting is a DNA analysis technique that has found widespread application in molecular biology. It has been used for gene discovery and mapping and has diagnostic and forensic applications, including mutation detection in patient samples and DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Southern blotting has been employed as the definitive method for detecting transgene integration, and successful homologous recombination in gene targeting experiments. The technique employs a labeled DNA probe to detect a specific DNA sequence in a complex DNA sample that has been separated by restriction-digest and gel electrophoresis. Critically for the technique to succeed the probe must be unique to the target locus so as not to cross-hybridize to other endogenous DNA within the sample. Investigators routinely employ a manual approach to probe design. A genome browser is used to extract DNA sequence from the locus of interest, which is searched against the target genome using a BLAST-like tool. Ideally a single perfect match is obtained to the target, with little cross-reactivity caused by homologous DNA sequence present in the genome and/or repetitive and low-complexity elements in the candidate probe. This is a labor intensive process often requiring several attempts to find a suitable probe for laboratory testing. Results We have written an informatic pipeline to automatically design genomic Sothern blot probes that specifically attempts to optimize the resultant probe, employing a brute-force strategy of generating many candidate probes of acceptable length in the user-specified design window, searching all against the target genome, then scoring and ranking the candidates by uniqueness and repetitive DNA element content. Using these in silico measures we can automatically design probes that we predict to perform as well, or better, than our previous manual designs, while considerably reducing design time. We went on to

  12. Magnetic nanostructures: radioactive probes and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prandolini, M J

    2006-01-01

    The miniaturization of magnetic sensors and storage devices down to the nano-scale leads to drastic changes in magnetic phenomena compared with the same devices with a larger size. Excited-nuclear-probe (radioactive probe) techniques are ideal for investigating these new magnetic nanostructures. By observing the magnetic hyperfine fields (and in some cases the electric-field-gradients (EFGs)) at the nuclei of radioactive probes, microscopic information about the magnetic environment of the probes is acquired. The magnetic hyperfine field is particularly sensitive to the s-spin polarization of the conduction electrons and to the orbital magnetic moment of the probe atom. Three methods of inserting radioactive probes into magnetic nanostructures are presented; neutron activation, recoil implantation and 'soft-landing', followed by descriptions of their application to selected examples. In some cases, these methods offer the simultaneous creation and observation of new magnetic materials at the atomic scale. This review focuses firstly on the induced magnetism in noble-metal spacer layers between either ferromagnetic (FM) or FM/antiferromagnetic (AFM) layers in a trilayer structure. Using the method of low-temperature nuclear orientation, the s-spin polarization of noble-metal probes was measured and was found to be very sensitive to the magnetic properties at both the FM and AFM interfaces. Secondly, the recoil implantation of radioactive Fe probes into rare-earth hosts and d-band alloys and subsequent measurement using time-differential perturbed angular distribution offer the possibility of controlling the chemical composition and number of nearest-neighbours. This method was used to prepare local 3d-magnetic clusters in a non-magnetic matrix and to observe their magnetic behaviour. Finally, non-magnetic radioactive probes were 'soft-landed' onto Ni surfaces and extremely lattice-expanded ultrathin Ni films. By measuring the magnetic hyperfine fields and EFGs at

  13. Atmospheric deposition 2000. NOVA 2003; Atmosfaerisk deposition 2000. NOVA 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Hertel, O.; Hovmand, M.F.; Kemp, K.; Skjoeth, C.A.

    2001-11-01

    This report presents measurements and calculations from the atmospheric part of NOVA 2003 and covers results for 2000. It summarises the main results concerning concentrations and depositions of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur compounds related to eutrophication and acidification. Depositions of atmospheric compounds to Danish marine waters as well as land surface are presented. Measurements: In 2000 the monitoring program consisted of eight stations where wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, phosphate (semi quantitatively) and sulphate were measured using bulk precipitation samplers. Six of the stations had in addition measurements of atmospheric content of A, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur compounds in gas and particulate phase carried out by use of filter pack samplers. Filters were analysed at the National Environmental Research Institute. Furthermore nitrogen dioxide were measured using nitrogen dioxide filter samplers and monitors. Model calculations: The measurements in the monitoring program were supplemented with model calculations of concentrations and depositions of nitrogen and sulphur compounds to Danish land surface, marine waters, fjords and bays using the ACDEP model (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition). The model is a so-called trajectory model and simulates the physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere using meteorological and emission data as input. The advantage of combining measurements with model calculations is that the strengths of both methods is obtained. Conclusions concerning: 1) actual concentration levels at the monitoring stations, 2) deposition at the monitoring stations, 3) seasonal variations and 4) long term trends in concentrations and depositions are mainly based on the direct measurements. These are furthermore used to validate the results of the model calculations. Calculations and conclusions concerning: 1) depositions to land surface and to the individual marine water, 2) contributions from different emission

  14. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the

  15. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km 2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  16. Urethral alarm probe for permanent prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutajar, D.; Lerch, M.; Takacs, G.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a urethral dosimetry system for real time dose verification along the urethra during permanent implant prostate brachytherapy. The urethral alarm uses 'spectroscopic dosimetry' to calculate the dose rate along the urethra in real time. The application of spectroscopic dosimetry for the urethral alarm probe was verified using Monte Carlo calculations. In phantom depth dose measurements as well as isotropy measurements were performed to verify the usefulness of the urethra alarm probe as an in vivo real time dosimeter. (author)

  17. Plasma diagnostics by means of electric probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colunga S, S.

    1991-04-01

    In this work a summary of the classical theoretical models to interpret the characteristic curve of a Langmuir electric probe placed in a plasma without magnetic field and with the one is made. The methodology for the electron temperature calculation and the density of the plasma in both cases is given, starting from the characteristic curve of the probe, as well as the approaches for the correct application of this diagnostic method of the plasma. (Author)

  18. Muons as hyperfine interaction probes in chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghandi, Khashayar, E-mail: kghandi@triumf.ca; MacLean, Amy [Mount Allison University, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Spin polarized positive muons injected in matter serve as magnetic probes for the investigation of physical and chemical properties of free radicals, mechanisms of free radical reactions and their formations, and radiation effects. All muon techniques rely on the evolution of spin polarization (of the muon) and in that respect are similar to conventional magnetic resonance techniques. The applications of the muon as a hyperfine probe in several fields in chemistry are described.

  19. Muons as hyperfine interaction probes in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandi, Khashayar; MacLean, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Spin polarized positive muons injected in matter serve as magnetic probes for the investigation of physical and chemical properties of free radicals, mechanisms of free radical reactions and their formations, and radiation effects. All muon techniques rely on the evolution of spin polarization (of the muon) and in that respect are similar to conventional magnetic resonance techniques. The applications of the muon as a hyperfine probe in several fields in chemistry are described

  20. CHARACTERIZING AND MODELING FERRITE-CORE PROBES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Aldrin, John C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we accurately and carefully characterize a ferrite-core probe that is widely used for aircraft inspections. The characterization starts with the development of a model that can be executed using the proprietary volume-integral code, VIC-3D(c), and then the model is fitted to measured multifrequency impedance data taken with the probe in freespace and over samples of a titanium alloy and aluminum. Excellent results are achieved, and will be discussed.

  1. Probing reaction dynamics with GDR decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beene, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The giant dipole resonance (GDR) has been a prolific source of information on the physics of the nucleus. Mostly it has taught us about nuclear structure, but recently experiments have utilized the GDR as a probe of nuclear reaction dynamics. In this report two examples of such investigations are discussed involving very different reactions and probing time scales that differ by a factor of ∼10 3

  2. Accuracy of micro four-point probe measurements on inhomogeneous samples: A probe spacing dependence study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a probe spacing dependence study in order to estimate the accuracy of micro four-point probe measurements on inhomogeneous samples. Based on sensitivity calculations, both sheet resistance and Hall effect measurements are studied for samples (e.g. laser annealed samples...... the probe spacing is smaller than 1/40 of the variation wavelength, micro four-point probes can provide an accurate record of local properties with less than 1% measurement error. All the calculations agree well with previous experimental results.......) with periodic variations of sheet resistance, sheet carrier density, and carrier mobility. With a variation wavelength of ¿, probe spacings from 0.0012 to 1002 have been applied to characterize the local variations. The calculations show that the measurement error is highly dependent on the probe spacing. When...

  3. Deposition and characterization of ZnO thin films by modified pulsed-spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thilakan, Periyasamy; Radheep, D Mohan; Saravanakumar, K; Sasikala, G

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited using modified pulsed-spray pyrolysis on glass substrates. Depositions were carried out using N 2 as the carrier gas and analysed with respect to the rate of deposition. X-ray analysis revealed the presence of mixed crystallization with a nanocrystalline structure of about 6.9 nm dispersed in the amorphous matrix. A negative trend between the bandgap and resistivity was observed with the decrease in the deposition rate. A lowest bandgap of 3.1 eV with a resistivity value of 1.6 × 10 −2 Ω cm was achieved at a lowest deposition rate of 1.3 nm min −1 . Hot-probe measurement revealed the p-type conductivity for the film deposited at a lowest deposition rate of 1.3 nm min −1 . Details about the influence of pulsed-spray deposition for the achievement of this negative trend between bandgap and resistivity will be discussed in this paper

  4. Induction plasma deposition technology for nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, I. H.; Bae, K. K.; Lee, J. W.; Kim, T. K.; Yang, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A study on induction plasma deposition with ceramic materials, yttria-stabilized-zirconia ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 (m.p. 2640 degree C), was conducted with a view of developing a new method for nuclear fuel fabrication. Before making dense pellets of more than 96%T.D., the spraying condition was optimized through the process parameters, such as chamber pressure, plasma plate power, powder spraying distance, sheath gas composition, probe position, particle size and powders of different morphology. The results with a 5mm thick deposit on rectangular planar graphite substrates showed a 97.11% theoretical density when the sheath gas flow rate was Ar/H 2 120/20 l/min, probe position 8cm, particle size -75 μm and spraying distance 22cm by AMDRY146 powder. The degree of influence of the main effects on density were powder morphology, particle size, sheath gas composition, plate power and spraying distance, in that order. Among the two parameter interactions, the sheath gas composition and chamber pressure affects density greatly. By using the multi-pellets mold of wheel type, the pellet density did not exceed 94%T.D., owing to the spraying angle

  5. Building versatile bipartite probes for quantum metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Alessandro; De Pasquale, Antonella; Adesso, Gerardo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    We consider bipartite systems as versatile probes for the estimation of transformations acting locally on one of the subsystems. We investigate what resources are required for the probes to offer a guaranteed level of metrological performance, when the latter is averaged over specific sets of local transformations. We quantify such a performance via the average skew information (AvSk), a convex quantity which we compute in closed form for bipartite states of arbitrary dimensions, and which is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of local purity of the probes. Our analysis contrasts and complements the recent series of studies focused on the minimum, rather than the average, performance of bipartite probes in local estimation tasks, which was instead determined by quantum correlations other than entanglement. We provide explicit prescriptions to characterize the most reliable states maximizing the AvSk, and elucidate the role of state purity, separability and correlations in the classification of optimal probes. Our results can help in the identification of useful resources for sensing, estimation and discrimination applications when complete knowledge of the interaction mechanism realizing the local transformation is unavailable, and access to pure entangled probes is technologically limited.

  6. Building versatile bipartite probes for quantum metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farace, Alessandro; Pasquale, Antonella De; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We consider bipartite systems as versatile probes for the estimation of transformations acting locally on one of the subsystems. We investigate what resources are required for the probes to offer a guaranteed level of metrological performance, when the latter is averaged over specific sets of local transformations. We quantify such a performance via the average skew information (AvSk), a convex quantity which we compute in closed form for bipartite states of arbitrary dimensions, and which is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of local purity of the probes. Our analysis contrasts and complements the recent series of studies focused on the minimum, rather than the average, performance of bipartite probes in local estimation tasks, which was instead determined by quantum correlations other than entanglement. We provide explicit prescriptions to characterize the most reliable states maximizing the AvSk, and elucidate the role of state purity, separability and correlations in the classification of optimal probes. Our results can help in the identification of useful resources for sensing, estimation and discrimination applications when complete knowledge of the interaction mechanism realizing the local transformation is unavailable, and access to pure entangled probes is technologically limited. (paper)

  7. Plasma density measurement with ring-type cutoff probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.W.; You, S.J.; Na, B.K.; Kim, J.H.; Shin, Y.H.; Chang, H.Y.; Oh, W.Y.

    2013-01-01

    We proposed a cutoff probe with a ring-type detection tip enclosing a bar-type radiation tip. A comparative study between a proposed ring-type cutoff (RTC) probe and a conventional bar-type cutoff (BTC) probe showed that the RTC probe solved the problem of the BTC probe, the large measurement uncertainty of the electron density in a capacitively coupled plasma source. This improved characteristics of the RTC probe might have originated from the geometrical structure of the RTC probe concerning the monopole antennae radiation. This proposed cutoff probe can be expected to expand the applicable diagnostic range and to enhance the sensitivity of the cutoff probe. - Highlights: ► A cutoff probe with a ring type detection tip is proposed. ► Comparative experiment and simulation were conducted. ► The proposed probe showed a small uncertainty of measured plasma density. ► Improved characteristics might be originated from the geometrical structure

  8. Study, design and manufacture eddy current probes for industry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Phuc; Nguyen Van Thuy; Vuong Binh Duong; Do Minh Duc; Trinh Dinh Truong; Tran Trong Duc; Do Tung Khanh; Dang Quang Trung

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on the studying, designing and manufacturing of eddy current probes for industry applications. The main tasks of this study include: i) Describes the overview and classification of eddy current probes (which can be classified into three categories based on the mode of operation: absolute eddy current probe, differential eddy current probe and reflect eddy current probe); ii) Describes the three methods of probe designing and manufacturing (including experimental, analytical and numerical designs); iii) Describes the designing and manufacturing of eddy current probes for industry applications, which based on experimental and analytical methods. Based on this study, we have successfully manufactured some current probes (including absolute eddy current probe, differential eddy current probe and reflect eddy current probe) for surface and tube inspections. (author)

  9. Textured indium tin oxide thin films by chemical solution deposition and rapid thermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottern, Matthew L.; Tyholdt, Frode; Ulyashin, Alexander; Helvoort, Antonius T.J. van; Verweij, Henk; Bredesen, Rune

    2007-01-01

    The microstructure of state-of-the-art chemical solution deposited indium tin oxide thin films typically consists of small randomly oriented grains, high porosity and poor homogeneity. The present study demonstrates how the thin film microstructure can be improved significantly by tailoring the precursor solutions and deposition conditions to be kinetically and thermodynamically favorable for generation of homogeneous textured thin films. This is explained by the occurrence of a single heterogeneous nucleation mechanism. The as-deposited thin films, crystallized at 800 deg. C, have a high apparent density, based on a refractive index of ∼ 1.98 determined by single wavelength ellipsometry at 633 nm. The microstructure of the films consists of columnar grains with preferred orientation as determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The resistivity, measured by the four point probe method, is ∼ 2 x 10 -3 Ω cm prior to post-deposition treatments

  10. The anthracite of Nazar-Aylok Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachadzhanov, D.N.; Valiev, Yu.Ya.

    2013-01-01

    Present article is devoted to anthracite of Nazar-Aylok Deposit. The ash content, composition of coals of Nazar-Aylok Deposit and thickness of deposit were considered. The coal samples were studied by means of neutron activation analysis.

  11. Deposition of Boron in Possible Evaporite Deposits in Gale Crate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasda, P. J.; Peets, E.; Lamm, S. N.; Rapin, W.; Lanza, N.; Frydenvang, J.; Clark, B. C.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Bridges, J.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Haldeman, E. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Clegg, S. M.; Delapp, D.; Sanford, V.; Bodine, M. R.; McInroy, R.

    2017-12-01

    Boron has been previously detected in Gale crater using the ChemCam instrument on board the NASA Curiosity rover within calcium sulfate fracture fill hosted by lacustrine mudstone and eolian sandstone units. Recent results show that up to 300 ppm B is present in the upper sections of the lacustrine unit. Boron has been detected in both the groundwater-emplaced calcium sulfate fracture fill materials and bedding-parallel calcium sulfate layers. The widespread bedding-parallel calcium sulfate layers within the upper strata of the lacustrine bedrock that Curiosity has encountered recently could be interpreted as primary evaporite deposits. We have two hypotheses for the history of boron in Gale crater. In both hypotheses, borates were first deposited as lake water evaporated, depositing primary evaporates that were later re-dissolved by groundwater, which redistributed the boron into secondary evaporitic calcium sulfate fracture fill deposits. In the first scenario, Gale crater may have undergone a period of perennial lake formation during a drier period of martian history, depositing layers of evaporitic minerals (including borates) among lacustrine mudstone layers. In the second scenario, lake margins could have become periodically exposed during cyclic drops in lake level and subsequently desiccated. Evaporites were deposited and desiccation features were formed in lowstand deposits. Either hypothetical scenario of evaporite deposition would promote prebiotic chemical reactions via wet-dry cycles. Boron may be an important prebiotic element, and as such, its presence in ancient martian surface and groundwater provides evidence that important prebiotic chemical reactions could occur on Mars if organics were present. The presence of boron in ancient Gale crater groundwater also provides additional evidence that a habitable environment existed in the martian subsurface well after the expected disappearance of liquid water on the surface of Mars. We will report on the

  12. Atomic layer deposition for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume discusses atomic layer deposition (ALD) for all modern semiconductor devices, moving from the basic chemistry of ALD and modeling of ALD processes to sections on ALD for memories, logic devices, and machines.

  13. Gasoline from Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, A.N.; Zhizhin, N.I.; Musaeva, Z.G.

    1997-01-01

    Samples of gasoline from petroleum of Kumkol deposit are investigated by chromatographic analysis. It is found, that gasoline is characterizing by increased content of iso-paraffin hydrocarbons. (author)

  14. Langmuir probe measurement of the bismuth plasma plume formed by an extreme-ultraviolet pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pira, P; Burian, T; Kolpaková, A; Tichý, M; Kudrna, P; Daniš, S; Wild, J; Juha, L; Lančok, J; Vyšín, L; Civiš, S; Zelinger, Z; Kubát, P

    2014-01-01

    Properties of the plasma plume produced on a bismuth (Bi) target irradiated by a focused extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) capillary-discharge laser beam were investigated. Langmuir probes were used in both single- and double-probe arrangements to determine the electron temperature and the electron density, providing values of 1–3 eV and ∼10 13 –10 14  m −3 , respectively. Although the temperatures seem to be comparable with values obtained in ablation plasmas produced by conventional, long-wavelength lasers, the density is significantly lower. This finding indicates that the desorption-like phenomena are responsible for the plume formation rather than the ablation processes. A very thin Bi film was prepared on an MgO substrate by pulsed XUV laser deposition. The non-uniform, sub-monolayer character of the deposited bismuth film confirms the Langmuir probe's observation of the desorption-like erosion induced by the XUV laser on the primary Bi target. (paper)

  15. Electrospark deposition for die repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tušek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrospark deposition is a process for surfacing of hard metal alloys, e.g. carbides and stellites, on the surfaces of new or old machine elements. In this process, a high current is conducted through an oscillating electrode and a substrate for a very short period of time. In the paper, the process is described and the thickness of deposited layer, chemical composition, dilution rate and the layer roughness are determined.

  16. ECR plasma diagnostics with Langmuir probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenez, L.; Biri, S.; Valek, A.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source is a tool to generate highly charged ions. The ion beam is extracted from the plasma chamber of the ECRIS. Higher charge states and beam intensities are the main objectives of ECR research. The heart of an ion source is the confined plasma which should be well known to reach those objectives. Information about the plasma can be obtained by plasma diagnostics methods. Langmuir probes were successfully used in case of other plasmas, e.g. TOKAMAK. Until last year plasma diagnostics at the ATOMKI ECRIS was performed by X-ray and visible light measurements. While X-ray measurements give global information, the Langmuir probe method can give information on the local plasma parameters. This is an advantage because the local parameters are not known in detail. By Langmuir probe measurements it is possible to get information on plasma density, plasma potential and partly on the electron temperature. From the experimental point of view a Langmuir probe is very simple. However, the precise positioning of the probe in the plasma chamber (HV platform, strong magnetic field, RF waves) is a difficult task. Also the theory of probes is complicated: the ECR plasma is a special one because the confining magnetic field is inhomogeneous, beside hot electrons it contains cold ions with different charge states and it is heated with high frequency EM waves. What can be measured with a probe is a voltage-current (U-I) characteristics. Figure 1 shows a typical U-I curve measured in our lab. As it can be seen in the figure the diagram has three main parts. An ion saturation current region (I.), an electron saturation current region (III.) and a transition region (II.) between them. These measurements were performed using two different power supplies to bias the probe to positive and negative voltage. To perform more precise U-I measurements we need a special power supply which is presently being built in

  17. A radon progeny deposition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rielage, Keith; Elliott, Steven R.; Hime, Andrew; Guiseppe, Vincent E.; Westerdale, S.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222 Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210 Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  18. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K.; Westerdale, S.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222 Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210 Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  19. Legal Deposit of Electronic Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Umut Zan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.

  20. The Sheath-less Planar Langmuir Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Langmuir probe is one of the oldest plasma diagnostics, provided the plasma density and species temperature from analysis of a current-voltage curve as the voltage is swept over a practically chosen range. The analysis depends on a knowledge or theory of the many factors that influence the current-voltage curve including, probe shape, size, nearby perturbations, and the voltage reference. For applications in Low Earth Orbit, the Planar Langmuir Probe, PLP, is an attractive geometry because the ram ion current is very constant over many Volts of a sweep, allowing the ion density and electron temperature to be determined independently with the same instrument, at different points on the sweep. However, when the physical voltage reference is itself small and electrically floating as with a small spacecraft, the spacecraft and probe system become a double probe where the current collection theory depends on the interaction of the spacecraft with the plasma which is generally not as simple as the probe itself. The Sheath-less PLP, SPLP, interlaces on a single ram facing surface, two variably biased probe elements, broken into many small and intertwined segments on a scale smaller than the plasma Debye length. The SPLP is electrically isolated from the rest of the spacecraft. For relative bias potentials of a few volts, the ion current to all segments of each element will be constant, while the electron currents will vary as a function of the element potential and the electron temperature. Because the segments are small, intertwined, and floating, the assembly will always present the same floating potential to the plasma, with minimal growth as a function of voltage, thus sheath-less and still planar. This concept has been modelled with Nascap, and tested with a physical model inserted into a Low Earth Orbit-like chamber plasma. Results will be presented.

  1. Field evaluation of a direct push deployed sensor probe for vertical soil water content profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienken, Thomas; Reboulet, Ed; Leven, Carsten; Kreck, Manuel; Zschornack, Ludwig; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Reliable high-resolution information about vertical variations in soil water content, i.e. total porosity in the saturated zone, is essential for flow and transport predictions within the subsurface. However, porosity measurements are often associated with high efforts and high uncertainties, e.g. caused by soil disturbance during sampling or sensor installation procedures. In hydrogeological practice, commonly applied tools for the investigation of vertical soil water content distribution include gravimetric laboratory analyses of soil samples and neutron probe measurements. A yet less well established technique is the use of direct push-deployed sensor probes. Each of these methods is associated with inherent advantages and limitations due to their underlying measurement principles and operation modes. The presented study describes results of a joint field evaluation of the individual methods under different depositional and hydrogeological conditions with special focus on the performance on the direct push-deployed water content profiler. Therefore, direct push-profiling results from three different test sites are compared with results obtained from gravimetric analysis of soil cores and neutron probe measurements. In direct comparison, the applied direct push-based sensor probe proved to be a suitable alternative for vertical soil water content profiling to neutron probe technology, and, in addition, proved to be advantageous over gravimetric analysis in terms vertical resolution and time efficiency. Results of this study identify application-specific limitations of the methods and thereby highlight the need for careful data evaluation, even though neutron probe measurements and gravimetric analyses of soil samples are well established techniques (see Vienken et al. 2013). Reference: Vienken, T., Reboulet, E., Leven, C., Kreck, M., Zschornack, L., Dietrich, P., 2013. Field comparison of selected methods for vertical soil water content profiling. Journal of

  2. Magnetic hydroxyapatite coatings as a new tool in medicine: A scanning probe investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambardella, A., E-mail: a.gambardella@biomec.ior.it [Laboratorio di NanoBiotecnologie (NaBi), Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Bianchi, M. [Laboratorio di NanoBiotecnologie (NaBi), Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Kaciulis, S.; Mezzi, A.; Brucale, M. [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Salaria km 29.300, P.O. Box 10, 00015 Monterotondo Staz, Roma (Italy); Cavallini, M. [Magnetic Nanostructures for Spintronics and Nanomedicine, CNR-ISMN, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Chanda, G.; Uhlarz, M. [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD-EMFL), Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Cellini, A.; Pedna, M.F. [Unità Operativa Microbiologia Laboratorio Unico del Centro Servizi AUSL della Romagna, Pievesestina, Cesena (Italy); Sambri, V. [Unità Operativa Microbiologia Laboratorio Unico del Centro Servizi AUSL della Romagna, Pievesestina, Cesena (Italy); Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale (DIMES), Università degli Studi di Bologna, Via Zamboni 33, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Marcacci, M.; Russo, A. [Laboratorio di NanoBiotecnologie (NaBi), Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Laboratorio di Biomeccanica ed Innovazione Tecnologica, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano1/10, I-40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite films enriched with magnetite have been fabricated via a Pulsed Plasma Deposition (PPD) system with the final aim of representing a new platform able to disincentivate bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. The chemical composition and magnetic properties of films were respectively examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) measurements. The morphology and conductive properties of the magnetic films were investigated via a combination of scanning probe technologies including atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Interestingly, the range of adopted techniques allowed determining the preservation of the chemical composition and magnetic properties of the deposition target material while STM analysis provided new insights on the presence of surface inhomogeneities, revealing the presence of magnetite-rich islands over length scales compatible with the applications. Finally, preliminary results of bacterial adhesion tests, indicated a higher ability of magnetic hydroxyapatite films to reduce Escherichia coli adhesion at 4 h from seeding compared to control hydroxyapatite films. - Highlights: • Pulsed Plasma Deposition technique is used to deposit magnetite-rich films of hydroxyapatite for antibacterial purposes. • The preservation of the chemical composition and magnetic properties of the deposition target material is demonstrated. • Scanning tunnelling microscopy is employed for the first time to reveal the presence of magnetite-rich states at the surface. • Preliminary tests suggest that Mag HA films hamper the adhesion of Escherichia coli compared to not magnetic films.

  3. Femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed laser deposition of silicon and germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reenaas, Turid Worren [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Lee, Yen Sian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chowdhury, Fatema Rezwana; Gupta, Manisha; Tsui, Ying Yin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Tou, Teck Yong [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Seong Ling [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kok, Soon Yie [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Seong Shan, E-mail: seongshan@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Ge and Si were deposited by fs and ns laser at room temperature and at vacuum. • Ion of 10{sup 4} ms{sup −1} and 30–200 eV was obtained for ns ablation for Ge and Si. • Highly energetic ions of 10{sup 5} ms{sup −1} with 2–7 KeV were produced in fs laser ablation. • Nanocrystalline Si and Ge were deposited by using fs laser. • Nanoparticles < 10 nm haven been obtained by fs laser. - Abstract: 150 fs Ti:Sapphire laser pulsed laser deposition of Si and Ge were compared to a nanosecond KrF laser (25 ns). The ablation thresholds for ns lasers were about 2.5 J cm{sup −2} for Si and 2.1 J cm{sup −2} for Ge. The values were about 5–10 times lower when fs laser were used. The power densities were 10{sup 8}–10{sup 9} W cm{sup −2} for ns but 10{sup 12} W cm{sup −2} for fs. By using an ion probe, the ions emission at different fluence were measured where the emitting ions achieving the velocity in the range of 7–40 km s{sup −1} and kinetic energy in the range of 30–200 eV for ns laser. The ion produced by fs laser was measured to be highly energetic, 90–200 km s{sup −1}, 2–10 KeV. Two ion peaks were detected above specific laser fluence for both ns and fs laser ablation. Under fs laser ablation, the films were dominated by nano-sized crystalline particles, drastically different from nanosecond pulsed laser deposition where amorphous films were obtained. The ions characteristics and effects of pulse length on the properties of the deposited films were discussed.

  4. Atomic quantum superposition state generation via optical probing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne E. B.; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Negretti, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    investigate cavity enhanced probing with continuous beams of both coherent and squeezed light. The stochastic master equations used in the analysis are expressed in terms of the Hamiltonian of the probed system and the interaction between the probed system and the probe field and are thus quite generally...

  5. Plasma monitoring of the RLVIP-process with a Langmuir probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, D.; Hallbauer, A.; Pulker, H. K.

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the characteristics of a reactive-low-voltage-high-current-ion-plating plasma and to correlate the observed plasma data with the properties of films deposited under such conditions. A Langmuir probe system (Smart Probe - Scientific Systems) was inserted into a Balzers BAP 800 ion plating plant above the e-gun evaporation source close to the insulated substrate holder. In this position during RLVIP deposition, plasma potential, floating potential, self-bias voltage, electron temperature, ion current density, and particle number density were measured and calculated, respectively. All measurements were performed in dependence of arc current (20-80A) and oxygen partial pressure (1 - 36 x 10-4mbar). With rising arc current the number of charged particles, the self-bias voltage between plasma and substrates as well as the energy of the condensing and bombarding species were increased. These data explain the increase of density, refractive index and mechanical stress of RLVIP-metal-oxide-layers, like Ta2O5 and Nb2O5, deposited with higher arc currents. An increase of gas pressure decreased the energy of the particles and therefore reduced slightly film density and refractive index. However, it improved chemistry and eliminated unwanted residual optical absorption and also decreased compressive mechanical film stress.

  6. Nano Mechanical Machining Using AFM Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofa, Md. Golam

    Complex miniaturized components with high form accuracy will play key roles in the future development of many products, as they provide portability, disposability, lower material consumption in production, low power consumption during operation, lower sample requirements for testing, and higher heat transfer due to their very high surface-to-volume ratio. Given the high market demand for such micro and nano featured components, different manufacturing methods have been developed for their fabrication. Some of the common technologies in micro/nano fabrication are photolithography, electron beam lithography, X-ray lithography and other semiconductor processing techniques. Although these methods are capable of fabricating micro/nano structures with a resolution of less than a few nanometers, some of the shortcomings associated with these methods, such as high production costs for customized products, limited material choices, necessitate the development of other fabricating techniques. Micro/nano mechanical machining, such an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe based nano fabrication, has, therefore, been used to overcome some the major restrictions of the traditional processes. This technique removes material from the workpiece by engaging micro/nano size cutting tool (i.e. AFM probe) and is applicable on a wider range of materials compared to the photolithographic process. In spite of the unique benefits of nano mechanical machining, there are also some challenges with this technique, since the scale is reduced, such as size effects, burr formations, chip adhesions, fragility of tools and tool wear. Moreover, AFM based machining does not have any rotational movement, which makes fabrication of 3D features more difficult. Thus, vibration-assisted machining is introduced into AFM probe based nano mechanical machining to overcome the limitations associated with the conventional AFM probe based scratching method. Vibration-assisted machining reduced the cutting forces

  7. In-vitro accuracy and reproducibility evaluation of probing depth measurements of selected periodontal probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Al Shayeb

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Depth measurements with the Chapple UB-CF-15 probe were more accurate and reproducible compared to measurements with the Vivacare TPS and Williams 14 W probes. This in vitro model may be useful for intra-examiner calibration or clinician training prior to the clinical evaluation of patients or in longitudinal studies involving periodontal evaluation.

  8. Preventing probe induced topography correlated artifacts in Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, L.; Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    2016-01-01

    Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) on samples with rough surface topography can be hindered by topography correlated artifacts. We show that, with the proper experimental configuration and using homogeneously metal coated probes, we are able to obtain amplitude modulation (AM) KPFM results on a

  9. Donated chemical probes for open science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Susanne; Ackloo, Suzanne; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Bauser, Marcus; Baryza, Jeremy L; Blagg, Julian; Böttcher, Jark; Bountra, Chas; Brown, Peter J; Bunnage, Mark E; Carter, Adrian J; Damerell, David; Dötsch, Volker; Drewry, David H; Edwards, Aled M; Edwards, James; Elkins, Jon M; Fischer, Christian; Frye, Stephen V; Gollner, Andreas; Grimshaw, Charles E; IJzerman, Adriaan; Hanke, Thomas; Hartung, Ingo V; Hitchcock, Steve; Howe, Trevor; Hughes, Terry V; Laufer, Stefan; Li, Volkhart Mj; Liras, Spiros; Marsden, Brian D; Matsui, Hisanori; Mathias, John; O'Hagan, Ronan C; Owen, Dafydd R; Pande, Vineet; Rauh, Daniel; Rosenberg, Saul H; Roth, Bryan L; Schneider, Natalie S; Scholten, Cora; Singh Saikatendu, Kumar; Simeonov, Anton; Takizawa, Masayuki; Tse, Chris; Thompson, Paul R; Treiber, Daniel K; Viana, Amélia Yi; Wells, Carrow I; Willson, Timothy M; Zuercher, William J; Knapp, Stefan; Mueller-Fahrnow, Anke

    2018-04-20

    Potent, selective and broadly characterized small molecule modulators of protein function (chemical probes) are powerful research reagents. The pharmaceutical industry has generated many high-quality chemical probes and several of these have been made available to academia. However, probe-associated data and control compounds, such as inactive structurally related molecules and their associated data, are generally not accessible. The lack of data and guidance makes it difficult for researchers to decide which chemical tools to choose. Several pharmaceutical companies (AbbVie, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Janssen, MSD, Pfizer, and Takeda) have therefore entered into a pre-competitive collaboration to make available a large number of innovative high-quality probes, including all probe-associated data, control compounds and recommendations on use (https://openscienceprobes.sgc-frankfurt.de">https://openscienceprobes.sgc-frankfurt.dehttps://openscienceprobes.sgc-frankfurt.de/">/). Here we describe the chemical tools and target-related knowledge that have been made available, and encourage others to join the project. © 2018, Müller et al.

  10. Versatile Gaussian probes for squeezing estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, Luca; Farace, Alessandro; Souza, Leonardo A. M.; De Pasquale, Antonella; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2017-05-01

    We consider an instance of "black-box" quantum metrology in the Gaussian framework, where we aim to estimate the amount of squeezing applied on an input probe, without previous knowledge on the phase of the applied squeezing. By taking the quantum Fisher information (QFI) as the figure of merit, we evaluate its average and variance with respect to this phase in order to identify probe states that yield good precision for many different squeezing directions. We first consider the case of single-mode Gaussian probes with the same energy, and find that pure squeezed states maximize the average quantum Fisher information (AvQFI) at the cost of a performance that oscillates strongly as the squeezing direction is changed. Although the variance can be brought to zero by correlating the probing system with a reference mode, the maximum AvQFI cannot be increased in the same way. A different scenario opens if one takes into account the effects of photon losses: coherent states represent the optimal single-mode choice when losses exceed a certain threshold and, moreover, correlated probes can now yield larger AvQFI values than all single-mode states, on top of having zero variance.

  11. Outsourced Probe Data Effectiveness on Signalized Arterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sharifi, Elham [University of Maryland; Eshragh, Sepideh [University of Maryland; Hamedi, Masoud [University of Maryland; Juster, Reuben M. [University of Maryland; Kaushik, Kartik [University of Maryland

    2017-07-31

    This paper presents results of an I-95 Corridor Coalition sponsored project to assess the ability of outsourced vehicle probe data to provide accurate travel time on signalized roadways for the purposes of real-time operations as well as performance measures. The quality of outsourced probe data on freeways has led many departments of transportation to consider such data for arterial performance monitoring. From April 2013 through June of 2014, the University of Maryland Center for Advanced Transportation Technology gathered travel times from several arterial corridors within the mid-Atlantic region using Bluetooth traffic monitoring (BTM) equipment, and compared these travel times with the data reported to the I95 Vehicle Probe Project (VPP) from an outsourced probe data vendor. The analysis consisted of several methodologies: (1) a traditional analysis that used precision and bias speed metrics; (2) a slowdown analysis that quantified the percentage of significant traffic disruptions accurately captured in the VPP data; (3) a sampled distribution method that uses overlay methods to enhance and analyze recurring congestion patterns. (4) Last, the BTM and VPP data from each 24-hour period of data collection were reviewed by the research team to assess the extent to which VPP captured the nature of the traffic flow. Based on the analysis, probe data is recommended only on arterial roadways with signal densities (measured in signals per mile) up to one, and it should be tested and used with caution for signal densities between one and two, and is not recommended when signal density exceeds two.

  12. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  13. Impact of coal fly ash addition on ash transformation and deposition in a full-scale wood suspension-firing boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Ash transformation and deposition during pulverized wood combustion in a full-scale power plant boiler of 800 MWth were studied with and without the addition of coal fly ash. The transient ash deposition behavior was characterized by using an advanced deposit probe system at two boiler locations...... constant after a few hours. The formed deposits, especially those at the location with low flue gas temperatures, contained a considerable amount of K2SO4, KCl, and KOH/K2CO3. With the addition of a large amount (about 4 times of the mass flow of wood ash) of coal fly ash to the boiler, these alkali...

  14. Vanadium oxide thin films deposited on silicon dioxide buffer layers by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sihai; Ma Hong; Wang Shuangbao; Shen Nan; Xiao Jing; Zhou Hao; Zhao Xiaomei; Li Yi; Yi Xinjian

    2006-01-01

    Thin films made by vanadium oxide have been obtained by direct current magnetron sputtering method on SiO 2 buffer layers. A detailed electrical and structural characterization has been performed on the deposited films by four-point probe method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At room temperature, the four-point probe measurement result presents the resistance of the film to be 25 kU/sheet. The temperature coefficient of resistance is - 2.0%/K. SEM image indicates that the vanadium oxide exhibits a submicrostructure with lamella size ranging from 60 nm to 300 nm. A 32 x 32-element test microbolometer was fabricated based on the deposited thin film. The infrared response testing showed that the response was 200 mV. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the vanadium oxide thin films on SiO 2 buffer layers is suitable for uncooled focal plane arrays applications

  15. Dual-probe decoherence microscopy: probing pockets of coherence in a decohering environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeske, Jan; Cole, Jared H; Müller, Clemens; Marthaler, Michael; Schön, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    We study the use of a pair of qubits as a decoherence probe of a nontrivial environment. This dual-probe configuration is modelled by three two-level systems (TLSs), which are coupled in a chain in which the middle system represents an environmental TLS. This TLS resides within the environment of the qubits and therefore its coupling to perturbing fluctuations (i.e. its decoherence) is assumed much stronger than the decoherence acting on the probe qubits. We study the evolution of such a tripartite system including the appearance of a decoherence-free state (dark state) and non-Markovian behaviour. We find that all parameters of this TLS can be obtained from measurements of one of the probe qubits. Furthermore, we show the advantages of two qubits in probing environments and the new dynamics imposed by a TLS that couples to two qubits at once. (paper)

  16. Novel Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Approaches In Hearing Aid Applications Using Probe Noise and Probe Noise Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Jensen, Søren Holdt; Jensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    . In many cases, this bias problem causes the cancellation system to fail. The traditional probe noise approach, where a noise signal is added to the loudspeaker signal can, in theory, prevent the bias. However, in practice, the probe noise level must often be so high that the noise is clearly audible...... and annoying; this makes the traditional probe noise approach less useful in practical applications. In this work, we explain theoretically the decreased convergence rate when using low-level probe noise in the traditional approach, before we propose and study analytically two new probe noise approaches...... the proposed approaches much more attractive in practical applications. We demonstrate this through a simulation experiment with audio signals in a hearing aid acoustic feedback cancellation system, where the convergence rate is improved by as much as a factor of 10....

  17. Felsic magmatism and uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The strongly incompatible behaviour of uranium in silicate magmas results in its concentration in the most felsic melts and a prevalence of granites and rhyolites as primary U sources for the formation of U deposits. Despite its incompatible behavior, U deposits resulting directly from magmatic processes are quite rare. In most deposits, U is mobilized by hydrothermal fluids or ground water well after the emplacement of the igneous rocks. Of the broad range of granite types, only a few have U contents and physico-chemical properties that permit the crystallization of accessory minerals from which uranium can be leached for the formation of U deposits. The first granites on Earth, which crystallized uraninite, dated at 3.1 Ga, are the potassic granites from the Kaapval craton (South Africa) which were also the source of the detrital uraninite for the Dominion Reef and Witwatersrand quartz pebble conglomerate deposits. Four types of granites or rhyolites can be sufficiently enriched in U to represent a significant source for the genesis of U deposits: per-alkaline, high-K met-aluminous calc-alkaline, L-type peraluminous and anatectic pegmatoids. L-type peraluminous plutonic rocks in which U is dominantly hosted in uraninite or in the glass of their volcanic equivalents represent the best U source. Per-alkaline granites or syenites are associated with the only magmatic U-deposits formed by extreme fractional crystallization. The refractory character of the U-bearing minerals does not permit their extraction under the present economic conditions and make them unfavorable U sources for other deposit types. By contrast, felsic per-alkaline volcanic rocks, in which U is dominantly hosted in the glassy matrix, represent an excellent source for many deposit types. High-K calc-alkaline plutonic rocks only represent a significant U source when the U-bearing accessory minerals (U-thorite, allanite, Nb oxides) become metamict. The volcanic rocks of the same geochemistry may be

  18. Felsic magmatism and uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium strongly incompatible behaviour in silicate magmas results in its concentration in the most felsic melts and a prevalence of granites and rhyolites as primary U sources for the formation of U deposits. Despite its incompatible behaviour, U deposits resulting directly from magmatic processes are quite rare. In most deposits, U is mobilized by hydrothermal fluids or ground water well after the emplacement of the igneous rocks. Of the broad range of granite types, only a few have have U contents and physico-chemical properties that permit the crystallization of accessory minerals from which uranium can be leached for the formation of U deposits. The first granites on Earth which crystallized uraninite appeared at 3.1 Ga, are the potassic granites from the Kaapval craton (South Africa) which were also the source of the detrital uraninite for the Dominion Reef and Witwatersrand quartz pebble conglomerate deposits. Four types of granites or rhyolites can be sufficiently enriched in U to represent a significant source for the genesis of U deposits: peralkaline, high-K metaluminous calc-alkaline, L-type peraluminous ones and anatectic pegmatoids. L-type peraluminous plutonic rocks in which U is dominantly hosted in uraninite or in the glass in their volcanic equivalents represent the best U source. Peralkaline granites or syenites represent the only magmatic U-deposits formed by extreme fractional crystallization. The refractory character of the U-bearing minerals does not permit their extraction at the present economic conditions and make them unfavourable U sources for other deposit types. By contrast, felsic peralkaline volcanic rocks, in which U is dominantly hosted in the glassy matrix, represent an excellent source for many deposit types. High-K calc-alkaline plutonic rocks only represent a significant U source when the U-bearing accessory minerals [U-thorite, allanite, Nb oxides] become metamict. The volcanic rocks of the same geochemistry may be also a

  19. In situ plasma diagnostics study of a commercial high-power hollow cathode magnetron deposition tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Liang; Raju, Ramasamy; Flauta, Randolph; Shin, Hyungjoo; Ruzic, David N.; Hayden, Douglas B.

    2010-01-01

    Using a newly designed and built plasma diagnostic system, the plasma parameters were investigated on a commercial 200 mm high-power hollow cathode magnetron (HCM) physical vapor deposition tool using Ta target under argon plasma. A three dimensional (3D) scanning radio frequency (rf)-compensated Langmuir probe was constructed to measure the spatial distribution of the electron temperature (T e ) and electron density (n e ) in the substrate region of the HCM tool at various input powers (2-15 kW) and pressures (10-70 mTorr). The T e was in the range of 1-3 eV, scaling with decreasing power and decreasing pressure. Meanwhile, n e was in the range of 4x10 10 -1x10 12 cm -3 scaling with increasing power and decreasing pressure. As metal deposits on the probe during the probe measurements, a self-cleaning plasma cup was designed and installed in the chamber to clean the tungsten probe tip. However, its effectiveness in recovering the measured plasma parameters was hindered by the metal layer deposited on the insulating probe tube which was accounted for the variation in the plasma measurements. Using a quartz crystal microbalance combined with electrostatic filters, the ionization fraction of the metal flux was measured at various input power of 2-16 kW and pressure of 5-40 mTorr. The metal ionization fraction reduced significantly with the increasing input power and decreasing gas pressure which were attributed to the corresponding variation in the ionization cross section and the residence time of the sputtered atoms in the plasma, respectively. Both the metal neutral and ion flux increased at higher power and lower pressure. The 3D measurements further showed that the ionization fraction decreased when moving up from the substrate to the cathode.

  20. Vein-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, R.A.; Holland, H.D.; Petersen, U.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review is presented of published data bearing on the mineralogy, paragenesis, geochemistry, and origin of veiw-type uranium deposits. Its aim is to serve as a starting point for new research and as a basis for the development of new exploration strategies. During the formation of both vein and sandstone types of deposits uranium seems to have been dissolved by and transported in rather oxidized solutions, and deposited where these solutions encountered reducing agents such as carbon, sulfides, ferrous minerals and hydrocarbons. Granitic rocks abnormally enriched in uranium have apparently been the most common source for uranium in vein-type deposits. Oxidizing solutions have been derived either from the surface or from depth. Surface solutions saturated with atmospheric oxygen have frequently passed through red bed or clean sandstone conduits on their way to and from uranium source rocks. Deep solutions of non-surface origin have apparently become sufficiently oxidizing by passage through and equilibration with red beds. The common association of clean sandstones or red beds with uranium-rich granites in the vicinity of vein-type uranium deposits is probably not fortuitous, and areas where these rock types are found together are considered particularly favorable targets for uranium exploration

  1. Evaluation of the Gen-Probe DNA probe for the detection of legionellae in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelstein, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    A commercial DNA probe kit designed to detect rRNA from legionellae was evaluated for its ability to correctly discriminate between legionellae and non-legionellae taken from culture plates. The probe kit, made by the Gen-Probe Corp. (San Diego, Calif.), was radiolabeled with 125 I, and probe bacterial RNA hybridization, detected in a simple one-tube system hybridization assay, was quantitated with a gamma counter. A total of 156 Legionella sp. strains were tested, of which 125 were Legionella pneumophila and the remainder were strains from 21 other Legionella spp. A total of 106 gram-negative non-legionellae, isolated from human respiratory tract (81%) and other body site (19%) specimens, were also tested; 14 genera and 28 species were represented. The probe easily distinguished all of the legionellae from the non-legionellae. The average legionellae/non-legionellae hybridization ratio was 42:1, and the lowest ratio was 2:1; a minor modification in the procedure increased the lowest ratio to 5:1. In addition to correctly identifying all Legionella species, the probe was able to separate some of the various species of Legionella. L. pneumophila strains hybridized more completely to the probe than did the other Legionella spp.; L. wadsworthii and L. oakridgensis hybridized only about 25% of the probe relative to L. pneumophila. Some strains of phenotypically identified L. pneumophila had much lower hybridization to the probe than other members of the species and may represent a new Legionella species. The simplicity of the technique and specificity of the probe make it a good candidate for confirming the identity of legionellae in culture

  2. Soft colloidal probes for AFM force measurements between water droplets in oil

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2014-01-01

    Here we introduce an extension of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probe technique, as a simple and reliable experimental approach to measure the interaction forces between small water droplets (~80-160. μm) dispersed in oil. Small water droplets are formed by capillary breakup of a microscale water jet in air, which is forced out of a fine capillary nozzle, and deposited on a superhydrophobic substrate immersed in tetradecane oil medium. In these conditions the water droplets are very loosely attached to the superhydrophobic substrate and are easily picked up with a hydrophobic AFM cantilever to form a soft colloidal probe. Sample force measurements are conducted to demonstrate the capability of the technique.

  3. Soft colloidal probes for AFM force measurements between water droplets in oil

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2014-11-01

    Here we introduce an extension of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probe technique, as a simple and reliable experimental approach to measure the interaction forces between small water droplets (~80-160. μm) dispersed in oil. Small water droplets are formed by capillary breakup of a microscale water jet in air, which is forced out of a fine capillary nozzle, and deposited on a superhydrophobic substrate immersed in tetradecane oil medium. In these conditions the water droplets are very loosely attached to the superhydrophobic substrate and are easily picked up with a hydrophobic AFM cantilever to form a soft colloidal probe. Sample force measurements are conducted to demonstrate the capability of the technique.

  4. Redox Probing Study of the Potential Dependence of Charge Transport Through Li2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kristian Bastholm; Luntz, Alan C.; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2015-01-01

    -of-the-art Liion technologies and the demand placed on batteries by technologies such as electrical vehicles. Here we present a redox probing study of the charge transfer across the main deposition product lithium peroxide, Li2O2, in the Li−O2 battery using outer-sphere redox shuttles. The change in heterogeneous......In the field of energy storage devices the pursuit for cheap, high energy density, reliable secondary batteries is at the top of the agenda. The Li−O2 battery is one of the possible technologies that, in theory, should be able to close the gap, which exists between the present state...... electron transfer exchange rate as a function of the potential and the Li2O2 layer thickness (∼depth-of-discharge) was determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The attenuation of the electron transfer exchange rate with film thickness is dependent on the probing potential, providing...

  5. Nanobits - exchangable and customisable scanning probe tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, Izzet

    dimensions: tips suitable for imaging high-aspect ratio structures and sidewall profiles were designed. Tip diameters in the order of 30 nm were reproducibly obtained with the FIB milling and the smallest tip diameter achieved was ... process by providing direct picking up of the NanoBits by the AFM probe was investigated. Two different bending mechanisms were studied for out-of-plane bending studies: FIB irradiation- and the residual stress-driven bending in bimorph structures. With FIB irradiation studies, NanoBits were demonstrated...... of the structure which may be starting at 170°C. The fabricated NanoBits were assembled and their performance as AFM probes were tested at OFFIS. The NanoBits were successfully picked up by a microgripper, collected in a cartridge and mounted to an AFM probe. Performances of the assembled high-aspect-ratio Nano...

  6. Asymmetric double Langmuir probe: Small signal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.

    1987-11-01

    We discuss the asymmetric double Langmuir probe (ADLP) and demonstrate the possibility of using it to measure plasma temperature T/sub e/ and density n when it is operated in the region of small signal response. The area of one of the ADLP collectors is considerably larger than the other. This probe can be operated at a relatively low applied voltage, eV/sub a/T/sub e/ < 1, and still provides sufficient information to determine the plasma T/sub e/ and n. There is no need for a direct measurement of the ion saturation current, which can be on the order of a few amperes in large fusion devices. This reduces the requirements on the probe power supply. 6 refs., 6 figs

  7. The Probe of Inflation and Cosmic Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanany, Shaul; Inflation Probe Mission Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Probe of Inflation and Cosmic Origins will map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background over the entire sky with unprecedented sensitivity. It will search for gravity wave signals from the inflationary epoch, thus probing quantum gravity and constraining the energy scale of inflation; it will test the standard model of particle physics by measuring the number of light particles in the Universe and the mass of the neutrino; it will elucidate the nature of dark matter and search for new forms of matter in the early Universe; it will constrain star formation history over cosmic time; and it will determine the mechanisms of structure formation from galaxy cluster to stellar scales. I will review the status of design of this probe-scale mission.

  8. Modeling Atom Probe Tomography: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vurpillot, F., E-mail: francois.vurpillot@univ-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6634, Université de Rouen, Saint Etienne du Rouvray 76801 (France); Oberdorfer, C. [Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Lehrstuhl für Materialphysik, Universität Stuttgart, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Improving both the precision and the accuracy of Atom Probe Tomography reconstruction requires a correct understanding of the imaging process. In this aim, numerical modeling approaches have been developed for 15 years. The injected ingredients of these modeling tools are related to the basic physic of the field evaporation mechanism. The interplay between the sample nature and structure of the analyzed sample and the reconstructed image artefacts have pushed to gradually improve and make the model more and more sophisticated. This paper reviews the evolution of the modeling approach in Atom Probe Tomography and presents some future potential directions in order to improve the method. - Highlights: • The basics of field evaporation. • The main aspects of Atom Probe Tomography modeling. • The intrinsic limitations of the current method and future potential directions to improve the understanding of tip to image ion projection.

  9. Small molecule probes for cellular death machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Qian, Lihui; Yuan, Junying

    2017-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed a significant expansion of our understanding about the regulated cell death mechanisms beyond apoptosis. The application of chemical biological approaches had played a major role in driving these exciting discoveries. The discovery and use of small molecule probes in cell death research has not only revealed significant insights into the regulatory mechanism of cell death but also provided new drug targets and lead drug candidates for developing therapeutics of human diseases with huge unmet need. Here, we provide an overview of small molecule modulators for necroptosis and ferroptosis, two non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms, and discuss the molecular pathways and relevant pathophysiological mechanisms revealed by the judicial applications of such small molecule probes. We suggest that the development and applications of small molecule probes for non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms provide an outstanding example showcasing the power of chemical biology in exploring novel biological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Remote tuning of NMR probe circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodibagkar, V D; Conradi, M S

    2000-05-01

    There are many circumstances in which the probe tuning adjustments cannot be located near the rf NMR coil. These may occur in high-temperature NMR, low-temperature NMR, and in the use of magnets with small diameter access bores. We address here circuitry for connecting a fixed-tuned probe circuit by a transmission line to a remotely located tuning network. In particular, the bandwidth over which the probe may be remotely tuned while keeping the losses in the transmission line acceptably low is considered. The results show that for all resonant circuit geometries (series, parallel, series-parallel), overcoupling of the line to the tuned circuit is key to obtaining a large tuning bandwidth. At equivalent extents of overcoupling, all resonant circuit geometries have nearly equal remote tuning bandwidths. Particularly for the case of low-loss transmission line, the tuning bandwidth can be many times the tuned circuit's bandwidth, f(o)/Q. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. Redesign of a Low Energy Probe Head

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Yi-Nong; Ries, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The present situation of the low energy probe LE2 in TRIUMF cyclotron is that the thickness of the finger 5 is uniform over a radial length of 3.25 inch and its weight which amounts to ~447 g is affecting its re-circulating ball mechanism and causing it to fall below the median plane over its range of movement. We therefore re-design it in order to reduce its weight. First, we made simulations and determined the optimum thickness of the probe head vs its radial length. These simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements made. Finally, we calculated the temperature rise caused by the beam power dumped on the probe, and figured out the maximum current of beam that can be dumped on the finger.

  12. SYTO probes: markers of apoptotic cell demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Skommer, Joanna

    2007-10-01

    As mechanistic studies on tumor cell death advance towards their ultimate translational goal, there is a need for specific, rapid, and high-throughput analytical tools to detect diverse cell demise modes. Patented DNA-binding SYTO probes, for example, are gaining increasing interest as easy-to-use markers of caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. They are proving convenient for tracking apoptosis in diverse hematopoietic cell lines and primary tumor samples, and, due to their spectral characteristics, appear to be useful for the development of multiparameter flow cytometry assays. Herein, several protocols for multiparametric assessment of apoptotic events using SYTO probes are provided. There are protocols describing the use of green fluorescent SYTO 16 and red fluorescent SYTO 17 dyes in combination with plasma membrane permeability markers. Another protocol highlights the multiparametric use of SYTO 16 dye in conjunction with the mitochondrial membrane potential sensitive probe, tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), and the plasma membrane permeability marker, 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD).

  13. The probe rules in single particle tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mathias P.; Lagerholm, B. Christoffer

    2011-01-01

    techniques and probes that have made historically very demanding and specialized bio-imaging techniques more easily accessible and achievable. SPT has in particular found extensive use for analyzing the molecular organization of biological membranes. From these and other studies using complementary...... techniques it has been determined that the organization of native plasma membranes is heterogeneous over a very large range of spatial and temporal scales. The observed heterogeneities in the organization have the practical consequence that the SPT results in investigations of native plasma membranes...... are time dependent. Furthermore, because the accessible time dynamics, and also the spatial resolution, in an SPT experiment is mainly dependent on the luminous brightness and photostability of the particular SPT probe that is used, available SPT results are ultimately dependent on the SPT probes...

  14. Scanning probe lithography for nanoimprinting mould fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Gang; Xie Guoyong; Zhang Yongyi; Zhang Guoming; Zhang Yingying; Carlberg, Patrick; Zhu Tao; Liu Zhongfan

    2006-01-01

    We propose a rational fabrication method for nanoimprinting moulds by scanning probe lithography. By wet chemical etching, different kinds of moulds are realized on Si(110) and Si(100) surfaces according to the Si crystalline orientation. The structures have line widths of about 200 nm with a high aspect ratio. By reactive ion etching, moulds with patterns free from the limitation of Si crystalline orientation are also obtained. With closed-loop scan control of a scanning probe microscope, the length of patterned lines is more than 100 μm by integrating several steps of patterning. The fabrication process is optimized in order to produce a mould pattern with a line width about 10 nm. The structures on the mould are further duplicated into PMMA resists through the nanoimprinting process. The method of combining scanning probe lithography with wet chemical etching or reactive ion etching (RIE) provides a resistless route for the fabrication of nanoimprinting moulds

  15. Influence of Continuous and Discontinuous Depositions on Properties of Ito Films Prepared by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiempanakit, K.; Rakkwamsuk, P.; Dumrongrattana, S.

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on glass substrate without external heating by DC magnetron sputtering with continuous deposition of 800 s (S1) and discontinuous depositions of 400 s × 2 times (S2), 200 s × 4 times (S3) and 100 s × 8 times (S4). The structural, surface morphology, optical transmittance and electrical resistivity of ITO films were measured by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, spectrophotometer and four-point probe, respectively. The deposition process of the S1 condition shows the highest target voltage due to more target poisoning occurrence. The substrate temperature of the S1 condition increases with the saturation curve of the RC charging circuit while other conditions increase and decrease due to deposition steps as DC power turns on and off. Target voltage and substrate temperature of ITO films decrease when changing the deposition conditions from S1 to S2, S3 and S4, respectively. The preferential orientation of ITO films were changed from dominate (222) plane to (400) plane with the increasing number of deposition steps. The ITO film for the S4 condition shows the lowest electrical resistivity of 1.44 × 10-3 Ω·cm with the highest energy gap of 4.09 eV and the highest surface roughness of 3.43 nm. These results were discussed from the point of different oxygen occurring on the surface ITO target between the sputtering processes which affected the properties of ITO films.

  16. Hereditary deafness with hydrops and anomalous calcium phosphate deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, L.G.; Rouse, R.C.; Hawkins, J.E. Jr.; Kingsley, T.C.; Wright, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    The temporal bones from a 58-year-old white woman who had had hereditary congenital deafness were examined with the techniques of microdissection and surface preparations followed by sectioning of the modiolus. There was bilateral, almost total sensorineural degeneration, which also involved the saccule. The degeneration of the distal processes of the cochlear neurons in the osseous spiral lamina was almost complete, whereas numerous ganglion cells and proximal processes remained in the modiolus and the internal auditory canal. Severe cochleo-saccular hydrops was present in the left ear with Reissner's membrane bulging into the horizontal canal. X-ray diffraction and electron probe analysis were used to study the abnormal crystalline deposits in both ears. On the left side the saccular otoconia were composed of calcite, but the utricular macula was covered by a crust of apatite spherulites. More apatite occurred around the maculae and in the scala media. The cupulae were composed of apatite and octacalcium phosphate. On the right side the utricular otoconia were of normal calcite, but there was a deposit of apatite on the macula sacculi. The upper part of the scala media was completely filled by a deposit of apatite and octacalcium phosphate

  17. Hereditary deafness with hydrops and anomalous calcium phosphate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsson, L.G.; Rouse, R.C.; Hawkins, J.E. Jr.; Kingsley, T.C.; Wright, C.G.

    1981-11-01

    The temporal bones from a 58-year-old white woman who had had hereditary congenital deafness were examined with the techniques of microdissection and surface preparations followed by sectioning of the modiolus. There was bilateral, almost total sensorineural degeneration, which also involved the saccule. The degeneration of the distal processes of the cochlear neurons in the osseous spiral lamina was almost complete, whereas numerous ganglion cells and proximal processes remained in the modiolus and the internal auditory canal. Severe cochleo-saccular hydrops was present in the left ear with Reissner's membrane bulging into the horizontal canal. X-ray diffraction and electron probe analysis were used to study the abnormal crystalline deposits in both ears. On the left side the saccular otoconia were composed of calcite, but the utricular macula was covered by a crust of apatite spherulites. More apatite occurred around the maculae and in the scala media. The cupulae were composed of apatite and octacalcium phosphate. On the right side the utricular otoconia were of normal calcite, but there was a deposit of apatite on the macula sacculi. The upper part of the scala media was completely filled by a deposit of apatite and octacalcium phosphate.

  18. Relationship between regional ventilation and aerosol deposition in tidal breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trajan, M.; Logus, J.W.; Enns, E.G.; Man, S.F.

    1984-07-01

    The regional distribution of the deposition of 1.2 micron particles of 99mTc sulfur colloid inhaled by tidal breathing was compared with the distribution of ventilation as measured by a 133Xe washout technique. Twelve subjects were studied, 6 with normal pulmonary function tests, 5 with air-flow limitation, and 1 with unilateral phrenic nerve paralysis. Both xenon and aerosol were inhaled at tidal volume by the subjects while seated upright. A large field gamma camera acquired posterior scans. Thirteen experiments were also done on 7 dogs: 1 with extrathoracic obstruction of the airway to 1 lung, and 12 with bronchoconstriction from the instillation of methacholine chloride into the airways of a lower lobe. Two of these dogs were studied with a gamma camera system, and the others were studied with a Picker multi-probe system. Both in humans and in dogs, an increase in time constant, which indicated a decrease in ventilation, was associated with an increase in peripheral aerosol deposition when normalized for ventilation. It is suggested that the increased residence time is responsible for the increased deposition in regions that received lesser ventilation.

  19. Relationship between regional ventilation and aerosol deposition in tidal breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajan, M.; Logus, J.W.; Enns, E.G.; Man, S.F.

    1984-01-01

    The regional distribution of the deposition of 1.2 micron particles of 99mTc sulfur colloid inhaled by tidal breathing was compared with the distribution of ventilation as measured by a 133Xe washout technique. Twelve subjects were studied, 6 with normal pulmonary function tests, 5 with air-flow limitation, and 1 with unilateral phrenic nerve paralysis. Both xenon and aerosol were inhaled at tidal volume by the subjects while seated upright. A large field gamma camera acquired posterior scans. Thirteen experiments were also done on 7 dogs: 1 with extrathoracic obstruction of the airway to 1 lung, and 12 with bronchoconstriction from the instillation of methacholine chloride into the airways of a lower lobe. Two of these dogs were studied with a gamma camera system, and the others were studied with a Picker multi-probe system. Both in humans and in dogs, an increase in time constant, which indicated a decrease in ventilation, was associated with an increase in peripheral aerosol deposition when normalized for ventilation. It is suggested that the increased residence time is responsible for the increased deposition in regions that received lesser ventilation

  20. Thickness of Lipid Deposition on Oral Surfaces Depending on Oil Content and Its Influence on Mouthfeel Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Pivk Kupirovič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid content in food strongly influences food perception on the level of textural properties. Lipids in contact with the tongue and palate are substantially responsible for the sensory impact of a product. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of oil content on the thickness of lipid deposition on oral surface as well as on the mouthfeel perception. The fluorescent probe method was used to study the thickness of lipid deposition on oral surface. We observed an increase in the thickness of lipid deposition depending on the increase of oil content in oil/water dispersions. Clear correlation was shown between the thickness of lipid deposition on oral surfaces and the perception of mouthfeel. A direct measure of undisrupted deposition of food components on oral surface contributes to the understanding of the behaviour of food components in the mouth and their influence on mouthfeel perception.

  1. Overview of erosion–deposition diagnostic tools for the ITER-Like Wall in the JET tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Widdowson, A.; Matthews, G.F.; Esser, H.G.; Hirai, T.; Likonen, J.; Linke, J.; Lungu, C.P.; Mayer, M.; Pedrick, L.; Ruset, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents scientific and technical issues related to the development of erosion–deposition diagnostic tools for JET operated with the ITER-Like Wall: beryllium and tungsten marker tiles and several types of wall probes installed in the main chamber and in the divertor. Markers tiles are the standard limiter and divertor components additionally coated first with a thin sandwich of Ni–Be and Mo–W for, beryllium and tungsten markers, respectively. Both types of markers are embedded in regular arrays of limiter and divertor tiles. Coated W–Be probes are also inserted in the Be-covered Inconel cladding tiles on the central column. Other types of erosion–deposition diagnostic tools are: rotating collectors, deposition traps, louver clips, quartz microbalance and mirrors for the First Mirror Test at JET for ITER. The specific role of these tools is discussed in detail

  2. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal

  3. Understanding the spectrum of diesel injector deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, Robert; Barbour, Robert [Lubrizol Limited, Derby (United Kingdom); Arters, David; Bush, Jim [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the origin of diesel fuel injector deposits used to be relatively simple; for the most part they were caused by the decomposition of fuel during the combustion process, were generally organic in nature and typically only affected the nozzle orifices. However, modem fuel injector designs appear to be both more severe in terms of generating conditions conducive to creating new and different types of deposits and more likely to have their operation affected by those deposits. Changes to fuel composition and type have in some cases increased the potential pool of reactive species or provided new potential deposit precursors. As a result, the universe of diesel injector deposits now range from the traditional organic to partially or fully inorganic in nature and from nozzle coking deposits to deposits which can seize the internal components of the injector; so called internal diesel injector deposits. Frequently, combinations of inorganic and organic deposits are found. While power loss is one well known issue associated with nozzle deposits, other field problems resulting from these new deposits include severe issues with drivability, emissions, fuel consumption and even engine failure. Conventional deposit control additive chemistries were developed to be effective against organic nozzle coking deposits. These conventional additives in many cases may prove ineffective against this wide range of deposit types. This paper discusses the range of deposits that have been found to adversely impact modem diesel fuel injectors and compares the performance of conventional and new, advanced deposit control additives against these various challenges to proper fuel injector functioning. (orig.)

  4. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

    1982-01-19

    A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal.

  5. More on Probing Branes with Branes

    OpenAIRE

    Brandhuber, A.; Itzhaki, N.; Sonnenschein, J.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1997-01-01

    We generalize the Gibbons-Wiltshire solution of four dimensional Kaluza-Klein black holes in order to describe Type IIA solutions of bound states of D6 and D0-branes. We probe the solutions with a D6-brane and a D0-brane. We also probe a system of D2+D0-branes and of a D2-brane bound to a F1-string with a D2-brane. A precise agreement between the SYM and the SUGRA calculations is found for the static force as well as for the $v^2$ force in all cases.

  6. DESIGN OF THE CONTACT POTENTIALS DIFFERENCE PROBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. U. Pantsialeyeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contact potential difference probes distinguished by great variety and produced mostly in the laboratory for specific experimental applications. As a rule, they consist of commercially available instrumentation, and have a number of disadvantages: large dimensions, complexity and high cost, small sensitivity, operating speed, noiseproof, etc. The purpose of this paper is to describe the basic approaches to design of the small dimension, complete contact potential difference probes, providing high sensitivity, operating speed, and noise immunity. In this paper the contact potential difference probe, which is a electrometer with dynamic capacitor plate at about 0.1–5 mm2 . These probes are could be used in scanning systems, such as a Scanning Kelvin Probe, as well as for controlling system of manufacturing processes, e.g. under friction. The design of such contact potential difference probes conducted using modern electronic components, unique circuitry and design solutions described in detail at paper. The electromechanical modulator applied for mechanical vibrations of the reference sample. To provide a high amplitude and phase stability the upgraded generator with Wien bridge was used instead traditional oscillation sensor. The preamplifier made on the base of modern operational amplifiers with femtoampere current input. The power of the preamplifier designed with «floating ground». It allows keeping the relation constant potential to the probe components when changing over a wide range the compensation voltage. The phase detector-integrator based on the electronic antiphase switches with the modulation frequency of the contact potential difference and the integrator. Fullwave phase detection would greatly increase the sensitivity of the probe. In addition, the application of the phase detection allows suppressing noise and crosstalk at frequencies different from the modulation frequency. The preamplifier and the reference sample

  7. Optical Probes for Neurobiological Sensing and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric H; Chin, Gregory; Rong, Guoxin; Poskanzer, Kira E; Clark, Heather A

    2018-04-13

    Fluorescent nanosensors and molecular probes are next-generation tools for imaging chemical signaling inside and between cells. Electrophysiology has long been considered the gold standard in elucidating neural dynamics with high temporal resolution and precision, particularly on the single-cell level. However, electrode-based techniques face challenges in illuminating the specific chemicals involved in neural cell activation with adequate spatial information. Measuring chemical dynamics is of fundamental importance to better understand synergistic interactions between neurons as well as interactions between neurons and non-neuronal cells. Over the past decade, significant technological advances in optical probes and imaging methods have enabled entirely new possibilities for studying neural cells and circuits at the chemical level. These optical imaging modalities have shown promise for combining chemical, temporal, and spatial information. This potential makes them ideal candidates to unravel the complex neural interactions at multiple scales in the brain, which could be complemented by traditional electrophysiological methods to obtain a full spatiotemporal picture of neurochemical dynamics. Despite the potential, only a handful of probe candidates have been utilized to provide detailed chemical information in the brain. To date, most live imaging and chemical mapping studies rely on fluorescent molecular indicators to report intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) dynamics, which correlates with neuronal activity. Methodological advances for monitoring a full array of chemicals in the brain with improved spatial, temporal, and chemical resolution will thus enable mapping of neurochemical circuits with finer precision. On the basis of numerous studies in this exciting field, we review the current efforts to develop and apply a palette of optical probes and nanosensors for chemical sensing in the brain. There is a strong impetus to further develop technologies capable of

  8. Developments in Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Taras; Chu, Ricky; David, Nigel; Broun, David

    2009-05-01

    Low temperature scanning Hall probe microscopy is a sensitive means of imaging magnetic structures with high spatial resolution and magnetic flux sensitivity approaching that of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device. We have developed a scanning Hall probe microscope with novel features, including highly reliable coarse positioning, in situ optimization of sensor-sample alignment and capacitive transducers for linear, long range positioning measurement. This has been motivated by the need to reposition accurately above fabricated nanostructures such as small superconducting rings. Details of the design and performance will be presented as well as recent progress towards time-resolved measurements with sub nanosecond resolution.

  9. Scintillation probe with photomultiplier tube saturation indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, J.F.; Urban, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A photomultiplier tube saturation indicator is formed by supplying a supplemental light source, typically an light emitting diode (LED), adjacent to the photomultiplier tube. A switch allows the light source to be activated. The light is forwarded to the photomultiplier tube by an optical fiber. If the probe is properly light tight, then a meter attached to the indicator will register the light from the LED. If the probe is no longer light tight, and the saturation indicator is saturated, no signal will be registered when the LED is activated. 2 figs

  10. Isotropic Broadband E-Field Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Szentpáli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An E-field probe has been developed for EMC immunity tests performed in closed space. The leads are flexible resistive transmission lines. Their influence on the field distribution is negligible. The probe has an isotropic reception from 100 MHz to 18 GHz; the sensitivity is in the 3 V/m–10 V/m range. The device is an accessory of the EMC test chamber. The readout of the field magnitude is carried out by personal computer, which fulfils also the required corrections of the raw data.

  11. Chemical Probes of Histone Lysine Methyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that histone methyltransferases (HMTs, also known as protein methyltransferases (PMTs)) play an important role in diverse biological processes and human diseases by regulating gene expression and the chromatin state. Therefore, HMTs have been increasingly recognized by the biomedical community as a class of potential therapeutic targets. High quality chemical probes of HMTs, as tools for deciphering their physiological functions and roles in human diseases and testing therapeutic hypotheses, are critical for advancing this promising field. In this review, we focus on the discovery, characterization, and biological applications of chemical probes for HMTs. PMID:25423077

  12. Linking probe thermodynamics to microarray quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuzhao; Pozhitkov, Alexander; Brouwer, Marius

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the difference in probe properties holds the key to absolute quantification of DNA microarrays. So far, Langmuir-like models have failed to link sequence-specific properties to hybridization signals in the presence of a complex hybridization background. Data from washing experiments indicate that the post-hybridization washing has no major effect on the specifically bound targets, which give the final signals. Thus, the amount of specific targets bound to probes is likely determined before washing, by the competition against nonspecific binding. Our competitive hybridization model is a viable alternative to Langmuir-like models. (comment)

  13. Analysing the Cenozoic depositional record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goledowski, Bartosz; Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that sediment deposition in the North Sea and on the Norwegian Shelf varied significantly during the Cenozoic as a consequence of varying erosion rate mainly in Western Scandinavia, in Scotland and in the Alps. Recent results have demonstrated that a causal relationship exists...... of variations in erosion rates. Here we present the rationale behind the project, the data available and some preliminary results. The dense seismic and well coverage in the area makes it possible to estimate the rate of deposition of matrix mass. Assuming that sediment storage is not important, this provides...... models. The matrix mass deposition history will be compared with the paleoclimate record (e.g. oxygen isotope curves) to see if the previously observed correlation in the eastern North Sea can be extended to other ages and locations.  ...

  14. Surficial uranium deposits in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokaddem, M.; Fuchs, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Along southern border of the Hoggar (Algeria) Precambrian shield, Lower Palaeozoic sediments lie unconformably on weathered metamorphic rocks. Along the eastern border of the Tin Seririne basin some good examples of the weathered rocks underneath the unconformity are exposed. The palaeosurface is a peneplain with only minor topographical reliefs from one to a few metres high. The nature and intensity of the weathering process was controlled by the topography, and the existence of badly drained areas is particularly important. At one such area the Tahaggart uranium ore deposit was discovered. The uranium ore consists mainly of torbernite and autunite. The deposit is present in the weathered gneiss underneath the palaeosurface. Mineralogical and geochemical observations indicated that the ore deposit was formed during the period of weathering which was controlled by climatological and palaeotopographical factors. (author)

  15. Sub-aerial tailings deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.B.; Haile, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The sub-aerial technique involves the systematic deposition of tailings in thin layers and allowing each layer to settle, drain and partially air dry prior to covering with a further layer. Underdrainage produces densities in excess of those achieved by sub-aqueous deposition and any air-drying serves to preconsolidate each layer with a resulting further increase in density. The low permeability of the tailings surface resulting from this deposition technique results in high runoff coefficients and, by decanting the runoff component of direct precipitation, a net evaporation condition can be achieved even in high rainfall areas. An underdrainage system prevents the build-up of excess pore-pressures within the tailings mass and at decommissioning the tailings are fully consolidated and drained thereby eliminating the possibility of any long term seepage. This paper presents a general description of these design concepts, and details of two projects where the concepts have been applied

  16. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cem Sarica; Michael Volk

    2004-06-01

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multi-phase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines, because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines.

  17. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary deposition of iron (primary haemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson's disease) are autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver pathology and subsequent involvement of various other organs. The prevalence of primary haemochromatosis is approximately 0.5%, about......, they may be inadequate in patients diagnosed so late that extensive body deposits of metal have been developed. The main research needs in this field are to further clarify molecular mechanisms of disease progression and to develop new chelators that are more effective and less toxic than those presently...

  18. Investigation on radioactivity of deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaas, L.H.; Smetsers, R.C.G.M.; Mattern, F.C.M.; Drost, R.M.S. van; Ockhuizen, A.; Glastra, P.; Koolwijk, A.C.

    1990-04-01

    This report of the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) summarizes the results of measurements of radionuclides deposited in the Netherlands in 1988. The samples of deposition were taken at Bilthoven, located near the center of the country. In 1988 measurements were carried out to determine the activities of γ-emitters, where 7 Be, 40 K, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were identified, and those of 3 H, 210 Pb and 210 Po. Also the gross α-, gross β- and gross γ-activities were determined. (author). 10 refs.; 7 figs.; 6 tabs

  19. Graphene oxide directed in-situ deposition of electroactive silver nanoparticles and its electrochemical sensing application for DNA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Ningning [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Gao, Feng, E-mail: fgao1981@mnnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane, 690-8504 (Japan); He, Suyu; Zhu, Qionghua; Huang, Jiafu [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China); Tanaka, Hidekazu [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane, 690-8504 (Japan); Wang, Qingxiang, E-mail: axiang236@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou, 363000 (China)

    2017-01-25

    The development of high-performance biosensing platform is heavily dependent on the recognition property of the sensing layer and the output intensity of the signal probe. Herein, we present a simple and highly sensitive biosensing interface for DNA detection on the basis of graphene oxide nanosheets (GONs) directed in-situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The fabrication process and electrochemical properties of the biosensing interface were probed by electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that GONs can specifically adsorb at the single-stranded DNA probe surface, and induces the deposition of highly electroactive AgNPs. Upon hybridization with complementary oligonucleotides to generate the duplex DNA on the electrode surface, the GONs with the deposited AgNPs will be liberated from the sensing interface due to the inferior affinity of GONs and duplex DNA, resulting in the reduction of the electrochemical signal. Such a strategy combines the superior recognition of GONs toward single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA, and the strong electrochemical response of in-situ deposited AgNPs. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor can detect target DNA over a wide range from 10 fM to 10 nM with a detection limit of 7.6 fM. Also, the developed biosensor shows outstanding discriminating ability toward oligonucleotides with different mismatching degrees. - Highlights: • An novel DNA biosensor was constructed based on GONs with deposited AgNPs. • GONs catalyze the in-situ deposition of AgNPs on the sensing interface. • Unique π-stacking of GONs with probe DNA contributes high selectivity of the biosensor. • High electroactivity of AgNPs leads to low detection limit (7.6 fM) for target DNA.

  20. Mathematical geology studies of deposit prospect types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangping

    1998-08-01

    Exact certainty prospect type of uranium deposit, not only can assure the quality of deposit prospects, but also increase economic benefits. Based on the standard of geological prospect of uranium deposit, the author introduces a method of Fuzzy Synthetical Comment for dividing prospect type of uranium deposit. The practical applications demonstrate that the regression accuracy, discriminated by Zadeh operator, of 15 known deposits is 100%