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Sample records for deployment area selection

  1. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter V. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    shrubland used for rangeland. The rural population is reasonably low, but the area is accessible from Tucson, Arizona, and El Paso , Texas, via major...1949-1955, Business Management, University of California, Los Angeles Juris Doctor, 1977, University of San Fernando Valley, College of Law, Los Angeles...Geologist B.A., 1937, Mining Geology, University of Texas, El Paso M.S., 1946, Geology, California Institute of Technology Doctor of Science, 1951

  2. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter III. Part I. Affected Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    first time in 50 years. Nevada ranked first in the nation in the production of barite, magnesite, and mercury , and second in gold. Although mining... mercury Lander Copper, gold, barite, silver, lead, zinc Lincoln Stone, sand and gravel, perlite, zinc Magnesite, petroleum, fluorspar, sand and gravel White...Sacred Areas Sites with religious importance are burial grounds, cremation areas, rock art, special caves, springs, and selected physiographic features

  3. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter I. Program Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    propellant types carrying single and multiple warheads. Basing concepts included those operated on or underground , on or underwater, and in the atmosphere...Spring Clovis. NM Texas, New Valley, NV \\ Mex i’o No Act ion NA NA NA NA k ternat ive r 3623-3 The numbers represent missiles deployed (approximate for...detection and tracking of vehicles and aircraft in and over the cluster complexes. RSS data will be transmitted via underground fiber optic cables to an

  4. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume 3. Part 1. Affected Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Appropriations. .All or part of five declared underground water basins are present in the project area. Four of these, the Canadian River, Fort Sumner, Penasco ...Little Salt Lake De Baca Pecos (80 mi) Red Lake Alamogordo Res. Rio Penasco (40 mi) Bitter Lakes (7) Rio Hondo (47 mi) Chaves Two Rivers Res. Arroyo del

  5. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    area is bounded by Roswell , New Mexico on the southwest and Dalhart, Texas on the northeast. Other major cities in the area include Amarillo and...0 .. . . . . . . TEXAS HCNON ROBERTS HEMHIL CASO ULM T "A CONSERR UC ON G R S O R C O R S IE C E 08O pla for A~tRMSTOG 7,ONL C TR i 0 Fifteen

  6. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Native Americans Nevada/Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    collected for their medicinal value. Willow trees are valued for their pliable wood , used in making cradle boards. Siting Information (3.1.7.3) * The Moapa...That is, Africans adapted to an oppressive contract labor system by encapsulating or insulating themselves from foreign ideologies while in the urban...universally hunted. Deer congregated in small bands and generally inhabited partially wooded foothill areas. They were taken by individual stalking, or

  7. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter IV. Part III. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    are cow-calf and ewe- lamb. Marketed animals usually go to other states for additional fattening on rangelands, pasture, and/or feedlots. The limited...frequent valleys, except for Gambel’s quail and Chukar’s partridge in winter. Impacts to these species are expected to be minimal. Waterfowl in the...agriculture could negatively impact bobwhite quail , but would probably have a reciprocal effect on scaled quail and lesser prairie chickens if the areas were

  8. Selected areas in cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Oorschot, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Selected Areas in Cryptography brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast moving area. Selected Areas in Cryptography serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging research issues in the field.

  9. Cost-effective optical transponders for deployed metropolitan area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanou, Maki; Politi, Christina (Tanya); Stavdas, Alexandros; Glentis, George-Othon; Georgoulakis, Kristina; Emeretlis, Andreas; Theodoridis, George

    2016-12-01

    Improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic components has enabled the investigation of transmitting optical channels with data rates greater than 40 Gb/s, over infrastructures that were initially supporting 10 Gb/s transport. However, for transporting high capacity channels, over long distances, considerable signal processing is necessary, with current emphasis being on digital techniques. Meanwhile in the context of optical networking where spectrally adjacent channels may cross different routes to interconnect the same source destination nodes, adaptive transmission systems become vital. This paper will suggest, compare and develop the necessary transponder technologies that enable transportation of 40 Gb/s channels over deployed Metropolitan Area optical Networks (MAN) infrastructure with emphasis on the interplay between realistic performance, feasibility and complexity/cost. Specifically it will investigate utilizing deployed optical infrastructure for transporting 40 Gb/s DQPSK channels in conjunction with various high performance, low complexity electronic equalizers that can compensate the corresponding linear impairment enhancement that accompanies this upgrade, namely Chromatic Dispersion and Polarization Mode Dispersion while they can be implemented in a single FPGA. It is shown that resource constraint performance evaluation is vital and the exact technology choice is related to the deployed infrastructure.

  10. LTE Micro-cell Deployment for High-Density Railway Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Kassab, Mohamed; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a serious candidate for the future releases of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). LTE offers more capacity and supports new communication-based applications and services for railways. Nevertheless, even with this technology, the classical macro......-cell radio deployments reach overload, especially in high-density areas, such as major train stations. In this paper, an LTE micro-cell deployment is investigated in high-density railway areas. Copenhagen Main Station is considered as a realistic deployment study case, with a set of relevant railway...

  11. Scalable Spectrum Sharing Mechanism for Local Area Networks Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Costa, Gustavo Wagner Oliveira; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt

    2010-01-01

    /dimensioning approach. Cognitive Radio (CR) based networking methodologies are considered as the most promising solutions for such radio resource sharing problems, enabling also unlicensed/open spectrum operations. In this paper we propose and evaluate a novel protocol stack for Link Layer (LL) and radio resource......The availability on the market of powerful and lightweight mobile devices has led to a fast diffusion of mobile services for end users and the trend is shifting from voice based services to multimedia contents distribution. The current access networks are, however, able to support relatively low...... in high mobility conditions. These goals can be only achieved through the use highly Optimized Local Area (OLA) access networks, operating at low range and low power transmissions. The efficient sharing of radio resources among OLAs will be very difficult to achieve with a traditional network planning...

  12. Spectrum Load Balancing for Flexible Spectrum Usage in Local Area Deployment Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Wang, Yuanye; Marchetti, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a non-contention based mechanism for allocation of the spectral resources by several interfering Home e-NodeBs (HeNBs) deployed by the same or different operators, potentially in random manner in a given geographical area. The proposed mechanism facilitates allocation...

  13. Deployment of the National Transparent Optical Network around the San Francisco Bay Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCammon, K.; Haigh, R.; Armstrong, G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    We report on the deployment and initial operation of the National Transparent Optical Network, an experimental WDM network testbed around the San Francisco Bay Area, during the Optical Fiber Conference (OFC`96) held in San Jose, CA. The deployment aspects of the physical plant, optical and SONET layers are examined along with a discussion of broadband applications which utilized the network during the OFC`96 demonstration. The network features dense WDM technology, transparent optical routing technology using acousto- optic tunable filter based switches, and network modules with add/drop, multicast, and wavelength translation capabilities. The physical layer consisted of over 300 km of Sprint and Pacific Bell conventional single mode fiber which was amplified with I I optical amplifiers deployed in pre-amp, post-amp, and line amp configurations. An out-of-band control network provided datacom channels from remote equipment sites to the SONET network manager deployed at the San Jose Convention Center for the conference. Data transport over five wavelengths was achieved in the 1550 nm window using a variety of signal formats including analog and digital signal transmission on different wavelengths on the same fiber. The network operated throughout the week of OFC`96 and is still in operation today.

  14. The Benefits of Deploying Health Physics Specialists to Joint Operation Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Scott; Bast, Joshua D; Myers, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Preventive Medicine Specialists (military occupational specialty [MOS] 68S) with the health physics specialist (N4) qualification identifier possess a unique force health protection skill set. In garrison, they ensure radiation exposures to patients, occupational workers and the public from hospital activities such as radioisotope therapy and x-ray machines do not to exceed Federal law limits and kept as low as reasonably achievable. Maintaining sufficient numbers of health physics specialists (HPSs) to fill authorizations has been a consistent struggle for the Army Medical Department due to the rigorous academic requirements of the additional skill identifier-producing program. This shortage has limited MOS 68SN4 deployment opportunities in the past and prevented medical planners from recognizing the capabilities these Soldiers can bring to the fight. In 2014, for the first time, HPSs were sourced to deploy as an augmentation capability to the 172nd Preventive Medicine Detachment (PM Det), the sole PM Det supporting the Combined Joint Operations Area-Afghanistan. Considerable successes in bettering radiation safety practices and improvements in incident and accident response were achieved as a result of their deployment. The purposes of this article are to describe the mission services performed by HPSs in Afghanistan, discuss the benefits of deploying HPSs with PM Dets, and demonstrate to senior medical leadership the importance of maintaining a health physics capability in a theater environment.

  15. Spectrum Load Balancing for Flexible Spectrum Usage in Local Area Deployment Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Wang, Yuanye; Marchetti, Nicola;

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a non-contention based mechanism for allocation of the spectral resources by several interfering Home e-NodeBs (HeNBs) deployed by the same or different operators, potentially in random manner in a given geographical area. The proposed mechanism facilitates allocation...... of spectral resources from a common pool based on the individual traffic requirements of the HeNBs, thereby enabling Flexible Spectrum Usage (FSU). It ensures coexistence of several HeNBs in the given geographical area by partially or completely preventing mutual interference on the shared spectrum...

  16. Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

    2006-11-01

    A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

  17. An intelligent surveillance platform for large metropolitan areas with dense sensor deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Jorge; Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Alonso-López, Jesus A; Smilansky, Zeev

    2013-06-07

    This paper presents an intelligent surveillance platform based on the usage of large numbers of inexpensive sensors designed and developed inside the European Eureka Celtic project HuSIMS. With the aim of maximizing the number of deployable units while keeping monetary and resource/bandwidth costs at a minimum, the surveillance platform is based on the usage of inexpensive visual sensors which apply efficient motion detection and tracking algorithms to transform the video signal in a set of motion parameters. In order to automate the analysis of the myriad of data streams generated by the visual sensors, the platform's control center includes an alarm detection engine which comprises three components applying three different Artificial Intelligence strategies in parallel. These strategies are generic, domain-independent approaches which are able to operate in several domains (traffic surveillance, vandalism prevention, perimeter security, etc.). The architecture is completed with a versatile communication network which facilitates data collection from the visual sensors and alarm and video stream distribution towards the emergency teams. The resulting surveillance system is extremely suitable for its deployment in metropolitan areas, smart cities, and large facilities, mainly because cheap visual sensors and autonomous alarm detection facilitate dense sensor network deployments for wide and detailed coverage.

  18. Surveillance of a 2D Plane Area with 3D Deployed Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ge Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the use of camera networks has expanded, camera placement to satisfy some quality assurance parameters (such as a good coverage ratio, an acceptable resolution constraints, an acceptable cost as low as possible, etc. has become an important problem. The discrete camera deployment problem is NP-hard and many heuristic methods have been proposed to solve it, most of which make very simple assumptions. In this paper, we propose a probability inspired binary Particle Swarm Optimization (PI-BPSO algorithm to solve a homogeneous camera network placement problem. We model the problem under some more realistic assumptions: (1 deploy the cameras in the 3D space while the surveillance area is restricted to a 2D ground plane; (2 deploy the minimal number of cameras to get a maximum visual coverage under more constraints, such as field of view (FOV of the cameras and the minimum resolution constraints. We can simultaneously optimize the number and the configuration of the cameras through the introduction of a regulation item in the cost function. The simulation results showed the effectiveness of the proposed PI-BPSO algorithm.

  19. Surveillance of a 2D plane area with 3D deployed cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yi-Ge; Zhou, Jie; Deng, Lei

    2014-01-24

    As the use of camera networks has expanded, camera placement to satisfy some quality assurance parameters (such as a good coverage ratio, an acceptable resolution constraints, an acceptable cost as low as possible, etc.) has become an important problem. The discrete camera deployment problem is NP-hard and many heuristic methods have been proposed to solve it, most of which make very simple assumptions. In this paper, we propose a probability inspired binary Particle Swarm Optimization (PI-BPSO) algorithm to solve a homogeneous camera network placement problem. We model the problem under some more realistic assumptions: (1) deploy the cameras in the 3D space while the surveillance area is restricted to a 2D ground plane; (2) deploy the minimal number of cameras to get a maximum visual coverage under more constraints, such as field of view (FOV) of the cameras and the minimum resolution constraints. We can simultaneously optimize the number and the configuration of the cameras through the introduction of a regulation item in the cost function. The simulation results showed the effectiveness of the proposed PI-BPSO algorithm.

  20. An Intelligent Surveillance Platform for Large Metropolitan Areas with Dense Sensor Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus A. Alonso-López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent surveillance platform based on the usage of large numbers of inexpensive sensors designed and developed inside the European Eureka Celtic project HuSIMS. With the aim of maximizing the number of deployable units while keeping monetary and resource/bandwidth costs at a minimum, the surveillance platform is based on the usage of inexpensive visual sensors which apply efficient motion detection and tracking algorithms to transform the video signal in a set of motion parameters. In order to automate the analysis of the myriad of data streams generated by the visual sensors, the platform’s control center includes an alarm detection engine which comprises three components applying three different Artificial Intelligence strategies in parallel. These strategies are generic, domain-independent approaches which are able to operate in several domains (traffic surveillance, vandalism prevention, perimeter security, etc.. The architecture is completed with a versatile communication network which facilitates data collection from the visual sensors and alarm and video stream distribution towards the emergency teams. The resulting surveillance system is extremely suitable for its deployment in metropolitan areas, smart cities, and large facilities, mainly because cheap visual sensors and autonomous alarm detection facilitate dense sensor network deployments for wide and detailed coverage.

  1. Rich: Region-based Intelligent Cluster-Head Selection and Node Deployment Strategy in Concentric-based WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN, C.-S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a random deployment, sensor nodes are scattered randomly in the sensing field. Hence, the coverage can not be guaranteed. In contrast, the coverage of uniformly deployment is in general larger than the random deployment. However, uniformly deployment strategy may cause unbalanced traffic pattern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this situation, larger load may be imposed to CHs (cluster heads around the sink. Therefore, CHs close to the sink use up their energy earlier than those farther away from the sink. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel node deployment strategy in the concentric model, namely, Region-based Intelligent Cluster-Head selection and node deployment strategy (called Rich. The coverage, energy consumption and data routing issues are well investigated and taken into consideration in the proposed Rich scheme. The simulation results show that the proposed Rich alleviates the unbalanced traffic pattern significantly, prolongs network lifetime and achieves satisfactory coverage ratio.

  2. Ultrasonic probe deployment device for increased wave transmission and rapid area scan inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMambro, Joseph [Placitas, NM; Roach, Dennis P [Albuquerque, NM; Rackow, Kirk A [Albuquerque, NM; Nelson, Ciji L [Albuquerque, NM; Dasch, Cameron J [Boomfield Hills, MI; Moore, David G [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-01-03

    An ultrasonic probe deployment device in which an ultrasound-transmitting liquid forms the portion of the ultrasonic wave path in contact with the surface being inspected (i.e., the inspection surface). A seal constrains flow of the liquid, for example preventing the liquid from surging out and flooding the inspection surface. The seal is not rigid and conforms to variations in the shape and unevenness of the inspection surface, thus forming a seal (although possibly a leaky seal) around the liquid. The probe preferably is held in place to produce optimum ultrasonic focus on the area of interest. Use of encoders can facilitate the production of C-scan area maps of the material being inspected.

  3. A surrogate modelling framework for the optimal deployment of check dams in erosion-prone areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debasish; Tang, Honglei; Galelli, Stefano; Ran, Qihua

    2017-04-01

    Despite the great progresses made in the last decades, the control of soil erosion still remains a key challenge for land-use planning. The nonlinear interactions between hydrologic and morphologic processes and increase in extreme rainfall events predicted with climatic change create new areas of concern and make the problem unresolved. Spatially distributed models are a useful tool for modelling such processes and assessing the effect of large-scale engineering measures, but their computational requests prevent the resolution of problems requiring several model evaluations—sensitivity analysis or optimization, for instance. In this study, we tackle this problem by developing a surrogate modelling framework for the optimal deployment of check dams. The framework combines a spatially distributed model (WaTEM/SEDEM), a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and artificial neural networks as surrogate model. We test the framework on Shejiagou catchment—a 14 km2 area located in the Loess Plateau, China—where we optimize check dam locations by maximizing the mass of sediments retained in the catchment and minimizing the total number of dams. Preliminary results show that the performance of the existing check dam system could be improved by changing the dam locations.

  4. A Quality Function Deployment-Based Model for Cutting Fluid Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting fluid is applied for numerous reasons while machining a workpiece, like increasing tool life, minimizing workpiece thermal deformation, enhancing surface finish, flushing away chips from cutting surface, and so on. Hence, choosing a proper cutting fluid for a specific machining application becomes important for enhanced efficiency and effectiveness of a manufacturing process. Cutting fluid selection is a complex procedure as the decision depends on many complicated interactions, including work material’s machinability, rigorousness of operation, cutting tool material, metallurgical, chemical, and human compatibility, reliability and stability of fluid, and cost. In this paper, a decision making model is developed based on quality function deployment technique with a view to respond to the complex character of cutting fluid selection problem and facilitate judicious selection of cutting fluid from a comprehensive list of available alternatives. In the first example, HD-CUTSOL is recognized as the most suitable cutting fluid for drilling holes in titanium alloy with tungsten carbide tool and in the second example, for performing honing operation on stainless steel alloy with cubic boron nitride tool, CF5 emerges out as the best honing fluid. Implementation of this model would result in cost reduction through decreased manpower requirement, enhanced workforce efficiency, and efficient information exploitation.

  5. Feasibility study of a lunar landing area navigation network deployed by impacting micro-probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, P.; Yung, K. L.

    2010-05-01

    Exploration activities on the lunar surface will require precise knowledge of the position of a robotic or manned vehicle. This paper discusses the use of radio beacons as method to determine the position of a mobile unit on the surface. Previous concepts consider the installation of such equipment by the robot itself. A novel idea is discussed here, namely to use miniaturized radio beacons which are deployed (released) during the descent of the lander on the surface. This idea has three major advantages compared to previous proposals: (i) it avoids the time costly and energy consuming installation of the equipment by a rover. (ii) The impact velocities of the probes are in reasonable range since the probes are deployed at low altitude from the main lander that approaches its final landing site. (iii) The probes can take reconnaissance pictures during their free-fall to the surface. This method will therefore deliver charts of the proximity of the landing area with higher resolution than those done by orbital means. Such information will enable scientists and mission operators to precisely plan robotic excursions (and later Extra Vehicular Activity) through the identification of hazardous areas and spots of interest. The paper will study the feasibility of this system from different aspects. The first section will outline the application scenario and the potential outcome of such a system for the coming phase of lunar exploration. A technological readiness review was done to evaluate if the payload instrumentation for these high velocity impacting probes is available. The second section presents the simulation of the impact process of a preliminary probe model in nonlinear transient dynamic finite element analysis using the Lagrangian hydrocode LS-DYNA. The purpose of this simulation was to evaluate if the beacon is able to communicate with the mobile unit even when buried into the soil. The integration of this payload into coming lunar missions will contribute to

  6. Alcohol use in a military population deployed in combat areas: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwella Raveen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse is more prevalent among military populations. Association between PTSD and heavy drinking have been reported in many studies. Most of the studies on alcohol use among military personnel are from US and UK. Aim of this study is to describe alcohol consumption patterns among military personnel in Sri Lanka, a country where the alcohol consumption among the general population are very different to that in US and UK. Methods Cross sectional study consisting of representative samples of Sri Lanka Navy Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas continuously during a one year period was carried out. Data was collected using a self report questionnaire. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess alcohol consumption. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. The median AUDIT score was 2.0 (interquartile range 6.0. Prevalence of current drinking was 71.2 %. Of the current users 54.81 % were infrequent users (frequency ≤ once a month while 37.87 % of users consumed 2–4 times a month. Prevalence of hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8 was 16.69 % and binge drinking 14.01 %. Five (0.75 % had AUDIT total ≥20. There was no significant difference between Special Forces and regular forces in hazardous drinking or binge drinking. Total AUDIT score ≥16 were associated with difficulty performing work. Conclusions High rates of hazardous drinking and binge drinking described among military personnel in US and UK were not seen among SLN personnel deployed in combat areas. This finding contrasts with previously reported association between combat exposure and hazardous alcohol use among military personnel. Alcohol use among military personnel may be significantly influenced by alcohol consumption patterns among the general population, access to alcohol and attitudes about alcohol use. Similar to findings from other countries, heavy

  7. EU Armed Forces’ Use of Social Media in Areas of Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hellman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The advent of social media can be seen both as a risk and an opportunity by armed forces. Previous research has primarily examined whether or not the use of social media endangers or strengthens armed forces’ strategic narrative. We examine armed forces’ perceptions of risks and opportunities on a broad basis, with a particular focus on areas of deployment. The article is based on a survey of perceptions of social media amongst the armed forces of EU member states, thus adding to previous research through its comparative perspective. Whereas previous research has mainly focused on larger powers, such as the US and the UK, this article includes the views of the armed forces of 26 EU states, including several smaller nations. In analyzing the results we asked whether or not risk and opportunity perceptions were related to national ICT maturity and the existence of a social media strategy. The analysis shows that perceptions of opportunities outweigh perceptions of risks, with marketing and two-way communication as the two most prominent opportunities offered by the use of social media. Also, armed forces in countries with a moderate to high ICT maturity emphasize social media as a good way for marketing purposes.

  8. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD Approach in Determining the Employer’s Selection Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Muda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial training program is part of the academic curriculum at the tertiary level. It plays an important role in providing students with the exposure to a real working environment in the industry. Through this program, the higher education institutions (HEI could identify the gaps in the curriculum based on the requirements from the industry. In addition, the feedback from the industry will help the HEI to equip students with relevant skills according to the demands from the industry. Indirectly, it can help to address the issue of unemployed graduates of which the number seems to increase from time to time. Therefore, this study aims to obtain the feedback from the employers out there in order to determine the most preferred criteria in selecting students for the industrial training placement by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD approach. The findings, through the development of house of quality based on the QFD approach, show that communication skills and students’ participation in sports and cocurricular activities at their university are the most preferred selection criteria. Therefore, the QFD approach can be used to translate the employers’ feedback in improving the marketability of the students in the industry.

  9. STUDIES TO SUPPORT DEPLOYMENT OF EDIBLE OILS AS THE FINAL CVOC REMEDIATION IN T AREA SUMMARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B; Brian02 Looney, B; Miles Denham, M; Christopher Bagwell, C; Richard Hall, R; Carol Eddy-Dilek, C

    2006-10-31

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the feasibility of using edible oils for remediation of the low but persistent chlorinated solvent (cVOC) groundwater contamination at the SRS T-Area. The following studies were completed: (1) Review of cVOC degradation processes and edible oil delivery for enhanced bioremediation. (2) Column studies to investigate placing neat oil on top of the water table to increase oil saturation and sequestration. (3) Analysis of T-Area groundwater geochemistry to determine the applicability of edible oils for remediation at this site. (4) Microcosm studies to evaluate biotic and abiotic processes for the T-Area groundwater system and evaluation of the existing microbial community with and with out soybean oil amendments. (5) Monitoring of a surrogate vadose zone site undergoing edible oil remediation at the SRS to understand partitioning and biotransformation products of the soybean oil. (6) Design of a delivery system for neat and emulsified edible oil deployment for the T-Area groundwater plume. A corresponding white paper is available for each of the studies listed. This paper provides a summary and overview of the studies completed for the remediation of the T-Area groundwater plume using edible oils. This report begins with a summary of the results and a brief description of the preliminary oil deployment design followed by brief descriptions of T-Area and current groundwater conditions as related to edible oil deployment. This is followed by a review of the remediation processes using edible oils and specific results from modeling, field and laboratory studies. Finally, a description of the preliminary design for full scale oil deployment is presented.

  10. Research on Monitoring Area Division of Quality Grade Changes in County Cultivated Land and Technology of Deploying Monitoring Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; WEI; Lijun; LIAO; Jianxin; YU

    2013-01-01

    It is an important means in management of improving both the quality and quantity of cultivated land to monitor grade changes in cultivated land quality. How to deploy monitoring network system and its point reasonably and roundly are the key to the technology of monitoring grade changes in cultivated land quality by monitoring grade changes in cultivated land quality dynamically in order to obtain the information to the index of cultivated land quality and its changes based on the existing achievements of farmland classification and grading. Spatial analysis method is used to demarcate monitoring area and deploy monitoring point according to ARCGIS,of which the result can meet the demand for monitoring grade changes in cultivated land.

  11. Environmental feasibility study for deployment and construction of mobile gas turbine power plants in urbanized areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhan Fedor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of current electrical shortage in some regions of Russia, mobile gas turbine power plants (MGTPP have become urgent in recent years. Usually they are used as back-up power sources to cover peak loads in power networks and to ensure uninterrupted power supply to consumers. This paper deals with environmental feasibility study for deployment and construction of the MGTPP in an urban setting. Technogehic factors of the MGTPP impact on the environment have been assessed and possibility of the MGTPP deployment at various sites in different regions of Russia has been identified. The necessity of using the technology of water injection into the gas turbine units combustion chamber to suppress nitrogen oxides in some cases is mentioned. Quantitative assessments of the MGTPP technogehic impact on the environment components have been performed using standard techniques. The calculations have revealed that the MGTPP specifications ensure the levels of technogehic impacts within the standard limits. The results have ensured preparation of pre-design and design documentation related to protection of the environment against the MGTPP complex technogehic impact.

  12. Smoking among troops deployed in combat areas and its association with combat exposure among navy personnel in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Silva Varuni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among military personnel alcohol consumption and binge-drinking have increased but cigarette smoking has declined in the recent past. Although there is a strong association between smoking and PTSD the association between combat exposure and smoking is not clear. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas. Both Special Forces and regular forces were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to end of combat operations were included in the study. Females were not included in the sample. The study assessed several mental health outcomes as well as alcohol use, smoking and cannabis use. Sample was classified according to smoking habits as never smokers, past smokers (those who had smoked in the past but not within the past year and current smokers (those smoking at least one cigarette within the past 12 months. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. Prevalence of current smoking was 17.9% (95% CI 14.9-20.8. Of the sample 58.4% had never smoked and 23.7% were past smokers. Prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among Special Forces personnel compared to regular forces. (OR 1.90 (95% CI 1.20-3.02. Personnel aged ≥35 years had the lowest prevalence of smoking (14.0%. Commissioned officers had a lower prevalence (12.1% than non commissioned officers or other ranks. After adjustment for demographic variables and service type there was significant association between smoking and combat experiences of seeing dead or wounded [OR 1.79 (95%CI 1.08-2.9], handling dead bodies [OR 2.47(95%CI 1.6-3.81], coming under small arms fire [OR 2.01(95%CI 1.28-3.15] and coming under mortar, missile and artillery fire [OR 2.02(95%CI 1.29-3.17]. There was significant association between the number of

  13. Nanoscale selective area epitaxy for optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elarde, V. C.; Coleman, J. J.

    Self-assembled quantum dots have been heavily researched in recent years because of the potential applications to quantum electronic and optoelectronic devices they present. The non-uniformity and random ordering resulting from the self-assembly processes, however, are detrimental to potential applications, prohibiting the type of engineering control necessary for complex systems. The work presented in this document has sought to overcome the limitations of self-assembly by combining selective area epitaxy via MOCVD with high-resolution electron beam lithography to achieve lateral control over semiconductor structures at the nanometer scale. Two different structures are presented. The first is patterned quantum dots which improve on the uniformity and order of similar self-assembled quantum dots. The second is an entirely novel structure, the nanopore active layer, which demonstrates the potential for this process to extend beyond the constraints of self-assembly. Experimental and theoretical results for both structures are presented.

  14. Measurement campaigns for selection of optimum on-ground performance verification approach for large deployable reflector antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Kim, Oleksiy S.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the measurement campaigns carried out at P-band (435 MHz) for selection of optimum on-ground verification approach for a large deployable reflector antenna (LDA). The feed array of the LDA was measured in several configurations with spherical, cylindrical, and planar near-field...... techniques at near-field facilities in Denmark and in the Netherlands. The measured results for the feed array were then used in calculation of the radiation pattern and gain of the entire LDA. The primary goals for the campaigns were to obtain realistic measurement uncertainty estimates and to investigate...

  15. TREATABILITY STUDY FOR EDIBLE OIL DEPLOYMENT FOR ENHANCED CVOC ATTENUATION FOR T-AREA, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B.; Looney, B.; Noonkester, J.; Hyde, W.; Walker, R.

    2012-05-15

    Groundwater beneath T-Area, a former laboratory and semiworks operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), is contaminated by chlorinated solvents (cVOCs). Since the contamination was detected in the 1980s, the cVOCs at T-Area have been treated by a combination of soil vapor extraction and groundwater pump and treat. The site received approval to temporarily discontinue the active groundwater treatment and implement a treatability study of enhanced attenuation - an engineering and regulatory strategy that has recently been developed by DOE and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC 2007). Enhanced attenuation uses active engineering solutions to alter the target site in such a way that the contaminant plume will passively stabilize and shrink and to document that the action will be effective, timely, and sustainable. The paradigm recognizes that attenuation remedies are fundamentally based on a mass balance. Thus, long-term plume dynamics can be altered either by reducing the contaminant loading from the source or by increasing the rate of natural attenuation processes within all, or part of, the plume volume. The combination of technologies that emerged for T-Area included: (1) neat (pure) vegetable oil deployment in the deep vadose zone in the former source area, (2) emulsified vegetable oil deployment within the footprint of the groundwater plume, and (3) identification of attenuation mechanisms and rates for the distal portion of the plume. In the first part, neat oil spreads laterally forming a thin layer on the water table to intercept and reduce future cVOC loading (via partitioning) and reduce oxygen inputs (via biostimulation). In the second and third parts, emulsified oil forms active bioremediation reactor zones within the plume footprint to degrade existing groundwater contamination (via reductive dechlorination and/or cometabolism) and stimulates long-term attenuation capacity in the distal plume (via

  16. Synchronously Deployable Truss Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Structure lightweight, readily deployed, and has reliable joints. New truss concept, designated as "pac truss," developed. Features easy deployment without need for complex mechanisms. Structures of this type deployed in free flight by controlled release of stored energy in torsional springs at selected hinges located throughout structure. Double-folding technique used in beam model applicable to flat planar trusses, allowing structures of large expanse to fold into compact packages and be deployed for space-platform applications.

  17. 75 FR 49843 - Regulated Navigation Area; Boom Deployment Strategy Testing, Great Bay, NH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... must reach the Coast Guard on or before September 15, 2010. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments... designed to protect sensitive environmental areas in the event of an oil or chemical spill in navigable... could be ordered to wait until the current has subsided and the boom removed to allow for safe...

  18. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Atmospheric Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-15

    road dust. 4-3 Table 4.1.1-3. Cluster road construction equipment list. NUMBER OF VEHICLES EQUIPMENT S E TYPE SEGEMENT 1 S SEGMENT 3 SEGMENT 4...vehicle type to be allocated to the four primary construction segement areas (see Figure 4.1.1-1) for shelter construction. Preliminary estimates used...greater in the Nevada/Utah region. Aggregate storage pile emissions are the only emission factors in this section that provide compensation for geographic

  19. Familiarity breeds contempt: kangaroos persistently avoid areas with experimentally deployed dingo scents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Parsons

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo, along with a control (water. If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous, western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones. Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75+/-3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0+/-107.0 g (P0.5. Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R(2 = 83.8; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids persistently avoided an area of highly palatable food. Area avoidance is consistent with that observed from other species following repeated anti-predator conditioning, However, this is the first time this response has been

  20. Rapidly Deployable Internet-of-Things Body Area Network Platform for Medical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, In Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical devices in the past provided limited capability for the data acquisition and presented the data in the form of user interface for a care provider to observe. Now, what is required for biomedical devices has fundamentally changed. Many devices must now support secure networking and include a network of sensors to enable machine learning-based sensor fusion for accurate inference of the subject’s state.This thesis introduces an Internet-of-Things (IoT) body area network (BAN) platfor...

  1. Geothermal assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada. Final report, April 1, 1981-April 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Bruce, J.L.; Cates, D.; Dolan, H.H.; Covington, C.H.

    1982-06-01

    A preliminary geothermal resource assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada focused on Coyote Spring Valley in southeastern Nevada. Initially, an extensive literature search was conducted and a bibliography consisting of 750 entries was compiled covering all aspects of geology pertaining to the study area. A structural study indicates that Coyote Spring Valley lies in a tectonically active area which is favorable for the discovery of geothermal resources. Hot water may be funneled to the near-surface along an extensive fracture and fault system which appears to underlie the valley, according to information gathered during the literature search and aerial photo survey. A total of 101 shallow temperature probes were emplanted in Coyote Spring Valley. Three anomalous temperature points all lying within the same vicinity were identified in the north-central portion of the valley near a fault. A soil-mercury study also identified one zone of anomalous mercury concentrations around the north end of the Arrow Canyon Range. A literature search covering regional fluid geochemistry indicated that the three fluid samples taken from Coyote Spring Valley have a higher concentration of Na + K. During field work, seven fluid samples were collected in Coyote Spring Valley which also appear to be derived from volcanic units due to the presence of Ca-Mg or Na-K carbonate-bicarbonate. A temperature gradient study of six test water wells indicates that only one geothermal well with a temperature of 35.5/sup 0/C (96/sup 0/F) exists in the central portion of the valley at the north end of Arrow Canyon Range near the zone of anomalous soil-mercury points. A cultural assessment of Coyote Spring Valley was performed prior to field work.

  2. Brazil research in selected scientific areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    for Brazil and Mexico are identical, with a vast increase since 1991. In contrast, RSA follows the global growth rate. From 1996 to 2005 both Latin American countries almost doubles their research publications in English, probably influencing the growth in relative citation impact, as measured by FCI......  The paper analyses the general development of research in Brazil, 1981-2005 and compares to Mexico, Republic of South Africa (RSA) and the world. Publications from 15 research areas and their citations are analyzed for the three countries covering two five-year periods 1996-2005. The paper...... applies publication growth as well as Citedness and Field Crown Indicators (FCI). Results show that across all research fields, including the Social Sciences, from 1996 the absolute citation impact of Brazil and Mexico are alike, steadily increasing, and just below that of RSA. Publication growth patterns...

  3. Deployment of infrastructure configurations for large-scale CO2 capture in industrial zones a case study for the Rotterdam Botlek area (part B)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, Niels; van den Broek, Machteld; Faaij, André

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a method to assess deployment pathways for CO2 capture infrastructure configurations in industrial zones. This method was demonstrated for the Botlek area consisting of 16 emitters (7.1 MtCO2/y). Pathways were developed for two optimal infrastructures: Post-Recsor based on

  4. Deployment of Low-Cost, Carbon Dioxide Sensors throughout the Washington Metropolitan Area - The Capital Climate Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Kristen M.; Bailey, D. Michelle; Houston Miller, J.

    2016-04-01

    According to the IPCC from 1995 to 2005, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations increased by 19 ppm, the highest average growth rate recorded for any decade since measurements began in the 1950s. Due to its ability to influence global climate change, it is imperative to continually monitor carbon dioxide emission levels, particularly in urban areas where some estimate in excess of 75% of total greenhouse gas emissions occur. Although high-precision sensors are commercially available, these are not cost effective for mapping a large spatial area. A goal of this research is to build out a network of sensors that are accurate and precise enough to provide a valuable data tool for accessing carbon emissions from a large, urban area. This publically available greenhouse gas dataset can be used in numerous environmental assessments and as validation for remote sensing products. It will also be a valuable teaching tool for classes at our university and will promote further engagement of K-12 students and their teachers through education and outreach activities. Each of our sensors (referred to as "PiOxides") utilizes a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor for the detection of carbon dioxide along with a combination pressure/temperature/humidity sensor. The collection of pressure and temperature increases the accuracy and precision of the CO2 measurement. The sensors communicate using a serial interfaces with a Raspberry Pi microcontroller. Each PiOxide is connected to a website that leverages recent developments in open source GIS tools. In this way, data from individual sensors can be followed individually or aggregated to provide real-time, spatially-resolved data of CO2 trends across a broad area. Our goal for the network is to expand across the entire DC/Maryland/Virginia Region through partnerships with private and public schools. We are also designing GHG Bluetooth beacons that may be accessed by mobile phone users in their vicinity. In two additional

  5. Application of Participatory Method to Selection of Project Demonstration Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Sino-Japan cooperation project of "Vegetation Rehabilitation Demonstration and Planning in Sandstorm Jeopardized Area around Beijing" introduced participatory method to select the project area. Through investigating the socioeconomic indicators of 9 villages in Beijing and Hebei Province as well as the farmers’ willingness to participate in forestry operation activities, the vegetation restoration demonstration areas were selected, including Hantai Village, Baicaowa Village and Xiabachi Village, respect...

  6. Knowledge of intensive care nurses in selected care areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of intensive care nurses in selected care areas commonly ... To assess the knowledge of nurses working in intensive care units (ICUs) in respect of pain management, ... An analytical, cross-sectional survey design was used.

  7. Selecting cost-effective areas for restoration of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, M F; Hermoso, V; Perhans, K; Lovelock, C E; Herrera-Silveira, J A

    2015-04-01

    Selection of areas for restoration should be based on cost-effectiveness analysis to attain the maximum benefit with a limited budget and overcome the traditional ad hoc allocation of funds for restoration projects. Restoration projects need to be planned on the basis of ecological knowledge and economic and social constraints. We devised a novel approach for selecting cost-effective areas for restoration on the basis of biodiversity and potential provision of 3 ecosystem services: carbon storage, water depuration, and coastal protection. We used Marxan, a spatial prioritization tool, to balance the provision of ecosystem services against the cost of restoration. We tested this approach in a mangrove ecosystem in the Caribbean. Our approach efficiently selected restoration areas that at low cost were compatible with biodiversity targets and that maximized the provision of one or more ecosystem services. Choosing areas for restoration of mangroves on the basis carbon storage potential, largely guaranteed the restoration of biodiversity and other ecosystem services.

  8. A Pilot Intervention to Increase Women’s Coping Skills in Family Reintegration After Deployment in Combat Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    the military, ample documentation is avail - able of the effect of low-level harassment and gendered stress on women’s physical and mental health. In...if a family has multiple challenges, such as economic limitations, physical or mental health problems, the additional burden of deployment can be...experiences are widely associated with poorer physical health and mental health diagnoses, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety disorders

  9. A Pilot Intervention to Increase Women’s Coping Skills in Family Reintegration after Deployment in Combat Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    our usual behaviors or habits without even thinking about it. Sometimes we might relieve our stress in healthy (or positive) ways and other times we... teenage son who had lived with someone else during deployment: It was hard. He was, we had both changed, you know, he was becoming a teenager . We’re very...expressed helplessness for not being available for their families at home. For instance, one partici- pant reported that her teenager was failing his

  10. Cell Selection Game for Densely-Deployed Sensor and Mobile Devices In 5G Networks Integrating Heterogeneous Cells and the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusheng Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of wireless networking technologies, the Internet of Things and heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs tend to be integrated to form a promising wireless network paradigm for 5G. Hyper-dense sensor and mobile devices will be deployed under the coverage of heterogeneous cells, so that each of them could freely select any available cell covering it and compete for resource with others selecting the same cell, forming a cell selection (CS game between these devices. Since different types of cells usually share the same portion of the spectrum, devices selecting overlapped cells can experience severe inter-cell interference (ICI. In this article, we study the CS game among a large amount of densely-deployed sensor and mobile devices for their uplink transmissions in a two-tier HCN. ICI is embedded with the traditional congestion game (TCG, forming a congestion game with ICI (CGI and a congestion game with capacity (CGC. For the three games above, we theoretically find the circular boundaries between the devices selecting the macrocell and those selecting the picocells, indicated by the pure strategy Nash equilibria (PSNE. Meanwhile, through a number of simulations with different picocell radii and different path loss exponents, the collapse of the PSNE impacted by severe ICI (i.e., a large number of picocell devices change their CS preferences to the macrocell is profoundly revealed, and the collapse points are identified.

  11. Cell Selection Game for Densely-Deployed Sensor and Mobile Devices In 5G Networks Integrating Heterogeneous Cells and the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lusheng; Wang, Yamei; Ding, Zhizhong; Wang, Xiumin

    2015-09-18

    With the rapid development of wireless networking technologies, the Internet of Things and heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) tend to be integrated to form a promising wireless network paradigm for 5G. Hyper-dense sensor and mobile devices will be deployed under the coverage of heterogeneous cells, so that each of them could freely select any available cell covering it and compete for resource with others selecting the same cell, forming a cell selection (CS) game between these devices. Since different types of cells usually share the same portion of the spectrum, devices selecting overlapped cells can experience severe inter-cell interference (ICI). In this article, we study the CS game among a large amount of densely-deployed sensor and mobile devices for their uplink transmissions in a two-tier HCN. ICI is embedded with the traditional congestion game (TCG), forming a congestion game with ICI (CGI) and a congestion game with capacity (CGC). For the three games above, we theoretically find the circular boundaries between the devices selecting the macrocell and those selecting the picocells, indicated by the pure strategy Nash equilibria (PSNE). Meanwhile, through a number of simulations with different picocell radii and different path loss exponents, the collapse of the PSNE impacted by severe ICI (i.e., a large number of picocell devices change their CS preferences to the macrocell) is profoundly revealed, and the collapse points are identified.

  12. Selecting a Local Area Network for an Academic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Mohammed M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes the process used to select a local area network (LAN) for the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Library and Information Science. The use of computers at the library school by staff, faculty, and students is described, technical aspects of a LAN are explained, and the future of LANs is discussed. (LRW)

  13. Integrated optoelectronic devices by selective-area epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. M.; Coleman, James J.

    1997-01-01

    The development of a simulation model for selective-area epitaxy and the fabrication of semiconductor lasers monolithically integrated with electroabsorption modulators by this technique are presented. Diffusion equations and boundary conditions from selective-area MOCVD theory are applied in a computational model to predict column III reactant concentrations, and self-consistent solutions for reaction parameters are found using the finite element method. Data are presented to demonstrate accurate predictions of the thickness and composition of selectively grown ternary InGaAs quantum wells. This model was utilized to design the selective growth mask for Fabry-Perot lasers integrated with intracavity electroabsorption modulators. These devices, with modulator lengths of 290, 620, and 1020 micrometer, exhibit cw threshold currents of 9, 7.5, and 7.5 mA, respectively. Also, extinction ratios of 16.5, 19.5, and 20.5 dB, respectively, are measured at a modulator reverse bias of 2 V. Distributed Bragg reflector lasers with monolithically integrated external cavity modulators are also fabricated, and the selective-area MOCVD simulation was employed to design the growth mask dimensions and the location of the gratings. Cw threshold currents of 10.5 mA, slope efficiencies of 0.21 W/A, and extinction ratios of 18 dB at a modulator reverse bias of 1.0 V are achieved for these devices.

  14. Predicting artificailly drained areas by means of selective model ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Bjørn; Beucher, Amélie; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    . The approaches employed include decision trees, discriminant analysis, regression models, neural networks and support vector machines amongst others. Several models are trained with each method, using variously the original soil covariates and principal components of the covariates. With a large ensemble...... out since the mid-19th century, and it has been estimated that half of the cultivated area is artificially drained (Olesen, 2009). A number of machine learning approaches can be used to predict artificially drained areas in geographic space. However, instead of choosing the most accurate model....... The study aims firstly to train a large number of models to predict the extent of artificially drained areas using various machine learning approaches. Secondly, the study will develop a method for selecting the models, which give a good prediction of artificially drained areas, when used in conjunction...

  15. Workshop Report on Additive Manufacturing for Large-Scale Metal Components - Development and Deployment of Metal Big-Area-Additive-Manufacturing (Large-Scale Metals AM) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Dehoff, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is considered an emerging technology that is expected to transform the way industry can make low-volume, high value complex structures. This disruptive technology promises to replace legacy manufacturing methods for the fabrication of existing components in addition to bringing new innovation for new components with increased functional and mechanical properties. This report outlines the outcome of a workshop on large-scale metal additive manufacturing held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on March 11, 2016. The charter for the workshop was outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office program manager. The status and impact of the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for polymer matrix composites was presented as the background motivation for the workshop. Following, the extension of underlying technology to low-cost metals was proposed with the following goals: (i) High deposition rates (approaching 100 lbs/h); (ii) Low cost (<$10/lbs) for steel, iron, aluminum, nickel, as well as, higher cost titanium, (iii) large components (major axis greater than 6 ft) and (iv) compliance of property requirements. The above concept was discussed in depth by representatives from different industrial sectors including welding, metal fabrication machinery, energy, construction, aerospace and heavy manufacturing. In addition, DOE’s newly launched High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4MFG) program was reviewed. This program will apply thermo-mechanical models to elucidate deeper understanding of the interactions between design, process, and materials during additive manufacturing. Following these presentations, all the attendees took part in a brainstorming session where everyone identified the top 10 challenges in large-scale metal AM from their own perspective. The feedback was analyzed and grouped in different categories including, (i) CAD to PART software, (ii) selection of energy source, (iii

  16. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J. [JAYCOR, Environmental Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees.

  17. Large-area, wide-angle, spectrally selective plasmonic absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chihhui; John, Jeremy; Milder, Andrew; Zollars, Byron; Savoy, Steve; Shvets, Gennady

    2011-01-01

    A simple metamaterial-based wide-angle plasmonic absorber is introduced, fabricated, and experimentally characterized using angle-resolved infrared spectroscopy. The metamaterials are prepared by nano-imprint lithography, an attractive low-cost technology for making large-area samples. The matching of the metamaterial's impedance to that of vacuum is responsible for the observed spectrally selective "perfect" absorption of infrared light. The impedance is theoretically calculated in the single-resonance approximation, and the responsible resonance is identified as a short-range surface plasmon. The spectral position of the absorption peak (which is as high as 95%) is experimentally shown to be controlled by the metamaterial's dimensions. The persistence of "perfect" absorption with variable metamaterial parameters is theoretically explained. The wide-angle nature of the absorber can be utilized for sub-diffraction-scale infrared pixels exhibiting spectrally selective absorption/emissivity.

  18. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    potential future space-based mission through large-scale, ground-based testing. Full-scale deployment testing of two petal segments combined with...capture data for incorporation into larger analysis models. Stability testing of two full-scale composite strongback segments , including in a relevant...errors. The NuSTAR project opted for a metrology and adjustment system, which had many advantages for the project and few disadvantages . Because a

  19. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  20. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  1. Deployment Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    family/unit briefings (to include POA/wills/ consumer law /insurance war clauses) - Provide fill-in-blank sheets to send coordinators of pre- deployment...services. 2. SGLI designations and "By Law" implications. 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. 1-7 B. Typically...Relief Act JA 261 Real Property Guide JA 262 Wills Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal Assistance Office Directory

  2. Large, Easily Deployable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agan, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Study of concepts for large space structures will interest those designing scaffolding, radio towers, rescue equipment, and prefabricated shelters. Double-fold, double-cell module was selected for further design and for zero gravity testing. Concept is viable for deployment by humans outside space vehicle as well as by remotely operated manipulator.

  3. Area selection using magnetotellurics examples from Southern Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jones, AG

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstract No. 9IKC-A-00387, 2008 Area selection using magnetotellurics: Examples from southern Africa Alan G. Jones1, Mark R. Muller1, Mark P. Hamilton1,10,13, Marion P. Miensopust1, Xavier Garcia1, Rob L.... Fourie, X. Garcia, A. Mountford, J.E. Spratt, and the SAMTEX Team, 2006. Electrical anisotropy struc- ture of South African lithosphere compared with seismic anisotropy from shear-wave splitting analy- ses. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors...

  4. Tunable DBR Lasers Fabricated by Selective Area Growth Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guoli; ZHANG Jingyuan; WANG Xiaojie; ZHANG Baijun; WANG Wei

    2000-01-01

    The tunable ridge waveguide distributed Brag g reflector (DBR) lasers grown by selective area growth and designed for WDM communication systems at 1.55 μm is reported. The threshold of DBR lasers is 62 mA and the output power is more than 8 mW; the isolation resistance between the active region and Bragg region is 30 kΩ; the tuning range is 6.5 nm which can provide 6 WDM channels with a 100 GHz spacing; in thetuning range, the single mode suppression ratio (SMSR) is more than 32 dB and the output power variation of different wavelengths is less than 3 dB.

  5. SELECTIVE WASTE COLLECTION IN THE DETACHED HOUSING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Pasiecznik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to waste management, the main objective of the European Union is to prevent waste production. Produced waste should be primarily recycled or other recovery should be applied. Introduction of an effective waste collection system is a basic activity that guarantees achieving European Union agenda including the minimal level of recycling and preparation for reuse. The aim of the research was the analysis of the selective waste collection in the detached housing area (before 1st July 2013. The evaluation was prepared on the basis of an opinion research conducted among the residents. One hundred respondents, living in one of the housing estates in Wrocław, took part in the survey.

  6. Selective-area nanoheteroepitaxy for light emitting diode (LED) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeson, Isaac H.

    Over 20% of the electricity in the United States is consumed for lighting, and the majority of this energy is wasted as heat during the lighting process. A solid-state (or light emitting diode (LED)-based) light source has the potential of saving the United States billions of dollars in electricity and reducing megatons of global CO2 emissions annually. While white light LEDs are currently on the market with efficiencies that are superior to incandescent and fluorescent light sources, their high up-front cost is inhibiting mass adoption. One reason for the high cost is the inefficiency of green and amber LEDs that can used to make white light. The inefficiency of green and amber LEDs results in more of these chips being required, and thus a higher cost. Improvements in the performance of green and amber LEDs is also required in order to realize the full potential of solid-state lighting. Nanoheteroepitaxy is an interesting route towards achieving efficient green and amber LEDs as it resolves major challenges that are currently plaguing III-nitride LEDs such as high dislocation densities and limited active region critical thicknesses. A method for fabricating III-nitride nanopyramid LEDs is presented that employs conventional processing used in industry. The present document begins with an overview of the current challenges in III-nitride LEDs and the benefits of nanoheteroepitaxy. A process for controlled selective-area growth of nanopyramid LEDs by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy has been developed throughout the course of this work. Dielectric templates used for the selective-area growth are patterned by two methods, namely porous anodic alumina and electron-beam lithography. The dielectric templates serve as efficient dislocation filters; however, planar defects are initiated during lower temperature growth on the nanopyramids. The quantum wells outline six semipolar planes that form each hexagonal pyramid. Quantum wells grown on these semipolar planes

  7. LCA of selective waste collection systems in dense urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents research concerning the environmental analysis of the selective collection management of municipal solid waste. The main goal of this study is to quantify and to compare, by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the potential environmental impacts of three selective collection systems modelled on densely populated urban areas. These systems are: the mobile pneumatic, the multi-container and the door-to-door. Impact assessment method based on CML 2 baseline 2000 is applied to the different systems. The study separates and analyzes the collection systems in substages: two urban substages and one inter-city substage. At the urban level, the multi-container system has the least environmental impact of all systems. The mobile pneumatic system has greater environmental impacts in terms of global warming, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication. In this system, the pipes and the pneumatic transport have the greatest impacts. The door-to-door system has a greatest environmental impact in terms of abiotic depletion, ozone layer depletion and human toxicity. An overall evaluation of the three substages, with a sensitivity analysis, indicates that the mobile pneumatic system at an inter-city distance of 20 km shows the greatest environmental impacts and the greatest energy demand. Inter-city transport is key; the results show that from an inter-city distance of 11 km onwards, this becomes the substage which most contributes to global warming impact and energy demand, in all the systems.

  8. Dedicated Deployable Aerobraking Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersch, Louis R.; Knarr, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A dedicated deployable aerobraking structure concept was developed that significantly increases the effective area of a spacecraft during aerobraking by up to a factor of 5 or more (depending on spacecraft size) without substantially increasing total spacecraft mass. Increasing the effective aerobraking area of a spacecraft (without significantly increasing spacecraft mass) results in a corresponding reduction in the time required for aerobraking. For example, if the effective area of a spacecraft is doubled, the time required for aerobraking is roughly reduced to half the previous value. The dedicated deployable aerobraking structure thus enables significantly shorter aerobraking phases, which results in reduced mission cost, risk, and allows science operations to begin earlier in the mission.

  9. Rectilinear edge selectivity is insufficient to explain the category selectivity of the parahippocampal place area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B Bryan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The parahippocampal place area (PPA is one of several brain regions that respond more strongly to scenes than to non-scene items such as objects and faces. The mechanism underlying this scene-preferential response remains unclear. One possibility is that the PPA is tuned to low-level stimulus features that are found more often in scenes than in less preferred stimuli. Supporting this view, Nasr and colleagues (2014 recently observed that some of the stimuli that are known to strongly activate the PPA contain a large number of rectilinear edges. They further demonstrated that PPA response is modulated by rectilinearity for a range of non-scene images. Motivated by these results, we tested whether rectilinearity suffices to explain PPA selectivity to scenes. In the first experiment, we replicated the previous finding of modulation by rectilinearity in the PPA for arrays of 2-d shapes. However, two further experiments failed to find a rectilinearity effect for faces or scenes: high-rectilinearity faces and scenes did not activate the PPA any more strongly than low-rectilinearity faces and scenes. Moreover, the categorical advantage for scenes vs. faces was maintained in the PPA and two other scene-selective regions—the retrosplenial complex (RSC and occipital place area (OPA –when rectilinearity was matched between stimulus sets. We conclude that selectivity for scenes in the PPA cannot be explained by a preference for low-level rectilinear edges.

  10. Bovine mastitis in selected areas of southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dego, O Kerro; Tareke, F

    2003-06-01

    A study on bovine mastitis, designed to determine the causal agents, prevalence of infection and impact of risk factors in three cattle breeds, was conducted in selected areas of southern Ethiopia. A total of 307 lactating and non-lactating cows, of which 162 were indigenous Zebu, 85 Jersey and 60 Holstein-Friesian. were examined by clinical examination and the California mastitis (CMT) test. Of these, 40.4% were positive by CMT and bacteriology for clinical or subclinical mastitis, with prevalence rates of 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. Out of 1133 quarters examined, 212 (18.7%) were found to be infected, 83 (39.21%) clinically and 129 (60.8%) subclinically. The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher in Holstein-Friesian than in indigenous Zebu, in non-lactating cows than in lactating cows, in the early lactation stage than in the mid-lactation stage, in cows with lesions and/or tick infestation on skin of udder and/or teats than in cows without this factor, and in the wet season than in the dry season. Mastitis increased with parity number (R = 0.9). Of 248 CMT and clinically positive udder quarter samples analysed microbiologically, 212 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and 36 were negative. Of the 199 positive samples. Staphylococcus accounted for 39.2%. Streptococcus for 23.6%, coliforms for 14.1%, Micrococcus and Bacillus species for 8.0% each and Actinomyces or Arcanobacterium (Corynebacterium) for 7.0%. It was concluded that there was a high prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis, mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli, in this study area.

  11. Lifestyle pattern in selected slums in Mymensingh Municipal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basher, M S; Haque, M M; Ullah, M S; Nasreen, S A; Begum, A A; Islam, M N; Akhter, S; Haque, M S

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle is composed of cultural and behavioural patterns and lifelong personal habits that developed through processes of socialization. Lifestyle may be health promotive or detrimental to health. Health requires the promotion of healthy lifestyle. Many current day health problems are associated with lifestyle changes. Because of rising urban population, the number of slum dwellers is rising. The mobility of people from rural to urban areas is the main reason of the growing slum population in cities. This Descriptive, cross-sectional study was directed to assess lifestyle pattern in four purposively selected slums in Mymensingh Municipal area. Non-Probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study unit. Sample size was one hundred and twenty-three (123) families. Data were collected by interview with one of the adult family members, preferably with the head of the family, with mixed type of interviewer administered questionnaire. There were 494 family members with an average family size of 4.02, while mean age was 24.58 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 17.79 years. Male-female ratio was 103:100. Of 409 members over 5 years, 174(42.54%) did not have schooling and were illiterate. At least 105(33.02%) members were house-wives, and 99(81.15%) members were smokers. An overwhelming majority (79, 64.23%) families had monthly income between 2000 to 4999 taka. As many as 55(44.72%) families lived in kaccha house, while 40(32.52%) had to live in "Jhupree". In cent per cent families, tube well was the source of water for drinking and other household purposes. A highest majority 121(98.37%) of the families had latrine, while the remaining 2(1.63%) did not have any latrine, and defecate in open air. Of 121 families, 78(64.46%) families had sanitary latrine, while 43(37.54%) did not have sanitary latrine. It was revealed that 86(69.92%) families had cell-phone, while 65(52.85%) families had television, 10(8.13%) families had radio, and 5

  12. Genetic and structural basis for selection of a ubiquitous T cell receptor deployed in Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Miles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ∼10(18 αβ T cell receptor (TCR structures that can be randomly manufactured by the human thymus, some surface more frequently than others. The pinnacles of this distortion are public TCRs, which exhibit amino acid-identical structures across different individuals. Public TCRs are thought to result from both recombinatorial bias and antigen-driven selection, but the mechanisms that underlie inter-individual TCR sharing are still largely theoretical. To examine this phenomenon at the atomic level, we solved the co-complex structure of one of the most widespread and numerically frequent public TCRs in the human population. The archetypal AS01 public TCR recognizes an immunodominant BMLF1 peptide, derived from the ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus, bound to HLA-A*0201. The AS01 TCR was observed to dock in a diagonal fashion, grasping the solvent exposed peptide crest with two sets of complementarity-determining region (CDR loops, and was fastened to the peptide and HLA-A*0201 platform with residue sets found only within TCR genes biased in the public response. Computer simulations of a random V(DJ recombination process demonstrated that both TCRα and TCRβ amino acid sequences could be manufactured easily, thereby explaining the prevalence of this receptor across different individuals. Interestingly, the AS01 TCR was encoded largely by germline DNA, indicating that the TCR loci already comprise gene segments that specifically recognize this ancient pathogen. Such pattern recognition receptor-like traits within the αβ TCR system further blur the boundaries between the adaptive and innate immune systems.

  13. Ambient monitoring of asbestos in selected Italian living areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Mangano, Dario; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Ricchi, Anna; Foresti, Elisabetta; Lesci, Giorgio; Roveri, Norberto; Mariotti, Mauro; Pecchini, Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an intensive monitoring activity of the particulate, fall-out and soil of selected living areas in Italy with the aim to detect the asbestos concentration in air and subsequent risk of exposure for the population in ambient living environments, and to assess the nature of the other mineral phases composing the particulate matrix. Some areas were sorted out because of the presence of asbestos containing materials on site whereas others were used as blank spots in the attempt to detect the background environmental concentration of asbestos in air. Because the concentration of asbestos in ambient environments is presumably very low, and it is well known that conventional low-medium flow sampling systems with filters of small diameter (25mm) may collect only a very small fraction of particulate over a short period, for the first time here, an intense monitoring activity was conducted with a high flow sampling system. The high flow system requires the use of large cellulose filters with the advantage that, increasing the amount of collected dust, the probability to collect asbestos fibers increases. Both the protocol of monitoring and analysis are novel and prompted by the need to increase the sensitivity towards the small number of expected fibers. With this goal, the collection of fall-out samples (the particulate falling into a collector filled with distilled water during the monitoring shift) and soil samples was also accomplished. The analytical protocol of the matrix particulate included preliminary X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), optical microscopy and quantitative electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Correlations with climatic trends and PM10 concentration data were also attempted. The surprising outcome of this work is that, despite the nature of the investigated site, the amount of dispersed asbestos fibers is very low and invariably lower than the theoretical method detection limits of the SEM and TEM techniques for

  14. Draft Environmental Impact Statement - MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume V. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    certain pollutants caused by new sources (industrial or powerplant). Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) A vehicle (including four wheel drive, trail bikes ...Engineering Academy, Copenhagen , Denmark Years of Experience: 29 Bradford J. Stewart, Scientific Programmer B.S., 1979, Geography and Environmental Studies

  15. Contaminant Residues in Demersal Fish, Invertebrates, and Deployed Mussels in Selected Areas of the Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-29

    additional ENVVEST congeners mainly consisted of very low concentrations of coplanar dioxin - like congeners that did not contribute very much to the...mussel study help to address this issue because the impact of all environmental stressors on growth and survival, biomarkers of sublethal stress such as

  16. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume II. Comparative Analysis of Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    2-160 2.4.15 Earnings 2-161 2.4.16 Population 2-161 2.4.17 Housing 2-161 2.4.18 Public Finance 2-162 2.4.19 Educational Services 2-162 2.4.20 Health...Population 2-167 2.5.17 Housing 2-167 2.5.A8 Public Finance 2-168 2.5.19 Educational Services 2-168 2.5.20 Health Services Personnel 2-168 2.5.21 Public...Earnings 2-173 2.6.16 Population 2-174 2.6.17 Housing 2-174 2.6.18 Public Finance 2-174 2.6.19 Educational Services 2-174 2.6.20 Health Services Personnel

  17. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter II. Comparative Analysis of Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    2.3.17 Housing 2-139 2.3.18 Public Finance 2-142 2.3.19 Educational Services 2-143 2.3.20 Health Services Personnel 2-143 2.3.21 Public Safety 2...2-161 2.4.16 Population 2-161 2.4.17 Housing 2-161 2.4.18 Public Finance 2-162 2.4.19 Educational Services 2-162 2.4.20 Health Services Personnel 2...2.5.17 Housing 2-167 2.5.18 Public Finance 2-168 2.5.19 Educational Services 2-168 2.5.20 Health Services Personnel 2-168 2.5.21 Public Safety 2-168

  18. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume 3, Part II. Affected Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Astraglus geyeri var. triquetrus) and Nye milkvetch (A. yensis) occur within 2 mi of Moapa. The pigmy agave ( Agave utahensis var. eborispin ) occurs 5 mi...and green molly (Kochia americana ). Alkali sink scrub and shadscale are the predominant vegetation types in the Sevier Desert watershed. These two

  19. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter III. Part II. Affected Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    The pigmy agave ( Agave utahensis var. e-orispina) occurs 5 mi west of the OB, within the boundary of the Desert Game Range. Wilderness and...type are greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus), and green molly (Kochia americana ). Alkali sink scrub and shadscale are the predominant vegetation types

  20. Selecting Texts and Tasks for Content Area Reading and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    For students to learn science, social studies, and technical subjects, their teachers have to engage them in meaningful lessons. As part of those lessons, students read informational texts. The selection of those texts is critical. Teachers can select texts worthy of attention and then align instruction and the post-reading tasks such that…

  1. Pre-deployment Year Mental Health Diagnoses and Treatment in Deployed Army Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Nikki R; Adams, Rachel Sayko; Mohr, Beth A; Jeffery, Diana D; Funk, Wendy; Williams, Thomas V; Larson, Mary Jo

    2016-07-01

    We estimated the prevalence of select mental health diagnoses (MHDX) and mental health treatment (MHT), and identified characteristics associated with MHT during the pre-deployment year (365 days before deployment) in active duty Army women (N = 14,633) who returned from Iraq or Afghanistan deployments in FY2010. Pre-deployment year prevalence estimates were: 26.2 % for any select MHDX and 18.1 % for any MHT. Army women who had physical injuries since FY2002 or any behavioral health treatment between FY2002 and the pre-deployment year had increased odds of pre-deployment year MHT. During the pre-deployment year, a substantial percentage of Army women had MHDX and at least one MHT encounter or stay. Future research should determine if pre-deployment MHDX among Army women reflect vulnerability to future MHDX, or if pre-deployment MHT results in protection from chronic symptoms.

  2. Selecting Map Projections in Minimizing Area Distortions in GIS Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Faruk; Kaya, Ahmet

    2008-12-03

    Varioussoftware for Geographical Information Systems (GISs) have been developed and used in many different engineering projects. In GIS applications, map coverage is important in terms of performing reliable and meaningful queries. Map projections can be conformal, equal-area and equidistant. The goal of an application plays an important role in choosing one of those projections. Choosing the equal-area projection for an application in which area information is used (forestry, agriculture, ecosystem etc) reduces the amount of distortion on the area, but many users using GIS ignore this fact and continue to use applications with present map sheets no matter in what map projection it is. For example, extracting area information from data whose country system's map sheet is in conformal projection is relatively more distorted, compared to an equal-area projection one. The goal of this study is to make the best decision in choosing the most proper equal-area projection among the choices provided by ArcGIS 9.0, which is a popular GIS software package, and making a comparison on area errors when conformal projection is used. In this study, the area of parcels chosen in three different regions and geographic coordinates and whose sizes vary between 0.01 to 1,000,000 ha are calculated according to Transversal Mercator (TM, 3°), Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM, 6°) and 14 different equal-area projections existing in the ArcGIS 9.0 GIS software package. The parcel areas calculated with geographical coordinates are accepted as definite. The difference between the sizes calculated according to projection coordinates and real sizes of the parcels are determined. Consequently, the appropriate projections are decided for the areas smaller and equal than 1,000 ha and greater than 1,000 ha in the GIS software package.

  3. Data requirements and data sources for biodiversity priority area selection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P H Williams; C R Margules; D W Hilbert

    2002-07-01

    The data needed to prioritize areas for biodiversity protection are records of biodiversity features – species, species assemblages, environmental classes – for each candidate area. Prioritizing areas means comparing candidate areas, so the data used to make such comparisons should be comparable in quality and quantity. Potential sources of suitable data include museums, herbariums and natural resource management agencies. Issues of data precision, accuracy and sampling bias in data sets from such sources are discussed and methods for treating data to minimize bias are reviewed.

  4. Ground water in selected areas in the Klamath Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.; Harris, A.B.

    1973-01-01

    GROUNDWATER FEATURES OF SIX LOWLAND AREAS IN THE KLAMATH BASIN OF OREGON--KLAMATH MARSH AREA, AND SPRAGUE RIVER, SWAN LAKE, YONNA, POE, AND LANGELL VALLEYS--ARE DESCRIBED. RUGGED MOUNTAINS AND RIDGES SURROUND AND SEPARATE THESE LOWLANDS WHERE FLOORS RANGE IN ALTITUDE FROM 4,100 FEET IN POE VALLEY TO 4,600 FEET NORTH OF KLAMATH MARSH. THE SIX AREAS EXTEND OVER A NORTH-SOUTH DISTANCE OF 70 MILES, AN EAST-WEST DISTANCE OF 40 MILES, AND INCLUDE AN AREA OF APPROXIMATELY 600 SQUARE MILES. THE AREA IS SEMIARID AND RECEIVED ABOUT 14 TO 18 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION A YEAR. EXTINCT VOLCANOES AND THEIR EXTRUSIONS CHARACTERIZE THE AREA. MOST WELLS TAP PERMEABLE BASALT OR CINDERY RUBBLE BENEATH THE LACUSTRINE BEDS. THE DEPTHS OF WELLS RANGE FROM LESS THAN 50 TO NEARLY 2,000 FEET--MOST ARE BETWEEN 100 AND 1,000 FEET DEEP. FLOWING WELLS OCCUR IN ALL AREAS EXCEPT SWAN LAKE VALLEY. THE MOST EXTENSIVE AREA OF FLOWING WELLS IS IN THE SPRAGUE RIVER VALLEY, WHERE ABOUT 25 WELLS, SOME FLOWING MORE THAN 2,000 GPM, SUPPLY WATER FOR IRRIGATION. WATER LEVELS IN WELLS FLUCTUATE SEASONALLY FROM 1 TO 4 FEET. GROUNDWATER IN THE BASIN IS OF EXCELLENT QUALITY FOR DRINKING, IRRIGATION, AND MOST INDUSTRIAL USES.

  5. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Jones, A.T.; Smith, C.R.; Kalmijn, A.J.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (COE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regist. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed. Regst. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County, including the southeastern coast, a potential development corridor along the Saddle Road between Hilo and the North Kohala District on the northwestern coast, and on the southeastern coast of Maui. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for future research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  6. Selected area chemical vapor deposition of thin films for conductometric microelectronic chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majoo, Sanjeev

    Recent advances in microelectronics and silicon processing have been exploited to fabricate miniaturized chemical sensors. Although the capability of chemical sensing technology has grown steadily, it has been outpaced by the increasing demands for more reliable, inexpensive, and selective sensors. The diversity of applications requires the deployment of different sensing materials that have rich interfacial chemistry. However, several promising sensor materials are often incompatible with silicon micromachining and their deposition requires complicated masking steps. The new approach described here is to first micromachine a generic, instrumented, conductometric, microelectronic sensor platform that is fully functional except for the front-end sensing element. This generic platform contains a thin dielectric membrane, an integrated boron-doped silicon heater, and conductance electrodes. The membrane has low thermal mass and excellent thermal isolation. A proprietary selected-area chemical vapor deposition (SACVD) process in a cold-wall reactor at low pressures was then used to achieve maskless, self-lithographic deposition of thin films. The temperature-programmable integrated microheater initiates localized thermal decomposition/reaction of suitable CVD precursors confined to a small heated area (500 mum in diameter), and this creates the active sensing element. Platinum and titania (TiOsb2) films were deposited from pyrolysis of organometallic precursors, tetrakistrifluorophosphine platinum Pt(PFsb3)sb4 and titanium tetraisopropoxide Ti(OCH(CHsb3)sb2rbrack sb4, respectively. Deposition of gold metal films from chlorotriethylphosphine gold (Csb2Hsb5)sb3PAuCl precursor was also attempted but without success. The conductance electrodes permit in situ monitoring of film growth. The as-deposited films were characterized in situ by conductance measurements and optical microscopy and ex situ by electron microscopy and spectroscopy methods. Devices equipped with

  7. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Jones, A.T. [Jones (Anthony T.), Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Smith, C.R. [Smith (Craig R.), Kailna, HI (United States); Kalmijn, A.J. [Kalmijn (Adrianus J.), Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information that were obtained from review of the (1) scientific literature, (2) government and private sector reports, (3) studies done under DOE interagency agreements with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and (4) observations made during site visits are being made available for future research in these areas.

  8. New insights into selected-area deposition of diamond films by means of selective seeding

    CERN Document Server

    LiuHongWu; Gao Chun Xi; Han Yong; Luo Ji Feng; Zou Guang Tian; Wen Chao

    2002-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films have been patterned on a polished Si substrate by means of selective seeding via hot-filament chemical vapour deposition. In addition to the process of selective seeding, the CH sub 4 /H sub 2 concentration and the sizes of the patterns have effects on the selectivity. The mechanism of selective growth of diamond is also discussed in this paper.

  9. Apparatus and method for selective area deposition of thin films on electrically biased substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhr, Raymond A.; Haynes, Tony E.; Golanski, Andrzej

    1994-01-01

    An ion beam deposition process for selective area deposition on a polarized substrate uses a potential applied to the substrate which allows the ionized particles to reach into selected areas for film deposition. Areas of the substrate to be left uncoated are held at a potential that repells the ionized particles.

  10. Comparison of sea-level measurements between microwave radar and subsurface pressure gauge deployed at select locations along the coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; VijayKumar, K.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Luis, R.; Nadaf, L.

    Sea-level data are obtained from several remote and coastal locations using absolute pressure gauges deployed at known level, known as chart datum. However, to yield correct sea-level measurements from absolute pressure measurements, it is necessary...

  11. Debris Control at Hydraulic Structures in Selected Areas of the United States and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Selected Areas of the United States and Europe by N. Wallerstein , C. R. Thome, University of Nottingham S. R. Abt, Colorado State University Approved...December 1997 Debris Control at Hydraulic Structures in Selected Areas of the United States and Europe by N. Wallerstein , C. R. Thome Department... Wallerstein , N. Debris control at hydraulic structures in selected areas of the United States and Europe / by N. Wallerstein , C.R. Thome, S.R. Abt

  12. Drainage Areas of Streams at Selected Locations in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    near Somerset --Lat 37 ° 08 107", Long 84 ° 35 118", at bridge on State Highway 39 199 BOBTOWN 23 .8 38 .3 26 .3 68 .1 03412500 Pitman Creek near... Somerset --Lat 37 ° 07 1 01", Long 84 ° 35 1 31", 0 .1 mile downstream from Dry Branch 199 SOMERSET 22 .3 35 .9 31 .3 81 .1 Pitman Creek at mouth--Lat...34, Long 85 0 32󈧉" 171 VERNON 397.9 640 .2 6,215 16,097 (Area in Kentucky) 4,904 12,701 (Area outside Kentucky) 1,311 3,395 Meshack Creek at mouth--Lot

  13. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexnayder, S.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3--4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The USDOE published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District. Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. this report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are population, housing, land use, economic structure, infrastructure and public services, local government revenues and expenditures, and tourism and recreation.

  14. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 57:5433), of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGPEIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District (Fig. 1). Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. This report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are (1) population, (2) housing, (3) land use, (4) economic structure (primarily employment and income), (5) infrastructure and public services (education, ground transportation, police and fire protection, water, wastewater, solid waste disposal, electricity, and emergency planning), (6) local government revenues and expenditures, and (7) tourism and recreation.

  15. Technology selection for MSW treatment in Altiplano areas using FMDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianguo; Lou, Zhiying; Hg, Siio; Duo, Ji; Li, Zhong

    2009-10-01

    There are special requirements for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment caused by lower oxygen content and atmospheric pressure on the Altiplano. The intention of this paper was to analyse the applicability of various technologies to MSW treatment in the Altiplano and select the best one based on the current MSW collection modes and technical levels, using the Fuzzy Mathematical Decision Method (FMDM). Technologies including landfill, incineration, composting, and anaerobic digestion (AD) were compared. The results of the studies showed that AD technology is a new technology which is attractive in economic terms and helpful for environmental harmony. AD can solve the difficulties caused by a high content of organic matter in the MSW, lower atmospheric pressure and oxygen content on the Altiplano. Moreover, it can achieve reduction and recycling of the waste, thereby saving space for treatment and disposal. Using this technology, renewable energy can be recovered to save conventional fuel consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases can be reduced to improve the conservation of the local ecosystem. Putting AD into practice in the Altiplano may be the preferred method of MSW treatment.

  16. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Geological hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent US Geological Survey (USGS) publications and USGS open-file reports related to this project. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis).

  17. Forward Deployed Robotic Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendle, Bruce E., Jr.; Bornstein, Jonathan A.

    2000-07-01

    Forward Deployed Robotic Unit (FDRU) is a core science and technology objective of the US Army, which will demonstrate the impact of autonomous systems on all phases of future land warfare. It will develop, integrate and demonstrate technology required to achieve robotic and fire control capabilities for future land combat vehicles, e.g., Future Combat Systems, using a system of systems approach that culminates in a field demonstration in 2005. It will also provide the required unmanned assets and conduct the demonstration. Battle Lab Warfighting Experiments and data analysis required to understand the effects of unmanned assets on combat operations. The US Army Tank- Automotive & Armaments Command and the US Army Research Laboratory are teaming in an effort to leverage prior technology achievements in the areas of autonomous mobility, architecture, sensor and robotics system integration; advance the state-of-the-art in these areas; and to provide field demonstration/application of the technologies.

  18. Monitoring of returnees from Ebola-affected areas: lessons learned based on the experience of French armed forces deployed in Guinea, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manet, Ghislain; Bédubourg, Gabriel; Velut, Guillaume; de Laval, Franck; Mayet, Aurélie; Dia, Aissata; Berger, Franck; Quentin, Benoît; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Michel, Rémy; Duron, Sandrine

    2017-08-31

    During the 2014-15 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, French armed forces were involved in the treatment and management of Ebola patients in Guinea. The constant flow of military personnel returning from their deployment posed a risk of secondary dissemination of the Ebola virus. Our objective was to describe the follow-up of returning service members that was implemented to prevent this risk of dissemination in France. For the French military, a specific complementary follow-up was added to the national monitoring to take into account the need for a detailed record for follow-up of returning military personnel and to keep the military chain of command informed. All the 410 service members deployed in Guinea underwent monitoring among whom 22 were suspected of EVD. Three of them were considered as possible EVD cases but none of them was tested positive for EVD. The monitoring organized for French service members deployed in Guinea made it possible to follow all exposed military personnel after their return, know their health status on a near real-time basis and be aware of all alerts. To reach this goal the collaboration with French national health agencies was necessary and should be improved in the future.

  19. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Geological Hazards (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications and open-file reports. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift, and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis). First, overviews of volcanic and earthquake activity, and details of offshore geologic hazards is provided for the Hawaiian Islands. Then, a more detailed discussion of onshore geologic hazards is presented with special emphasis on the southern third of Hawaii and the east rift

  20. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT) Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig-Robert, Roger; VanRullen, Rufin; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging), a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI.

  1. Cerebral lateralization of face-selective and body-selective visual areas depends on handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Roel M; Peelen, Marius V; Hagoort, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The left-hemisphere dominance for language is a core example of the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres. The degree of left-hemisphere dominance for language depends on hand preference: Whereas the majority of right-handers show left-hemispheric language lateralization, this number is reduced in left-handers. Here, we assessed whether handedness analogously has an influence upon lateralization in the visual system. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we localized 4 more or less specialized extrastriate areas in left- and right-handers, namely fusiform face area (FFA), extrastriate body area (EBA), fusiform body area (FBA), and human motion area (human middle temporal [hMT]). We found that lateralization of FFA and EBA depends on handedness: These areas were right lateralized in right-handers but not in left-handers. A similar tendency was observed in FBA but not in hMT. We conclude that the relationship between handedness and hemispheric lateralization extends to functionally lateralized parts of visual cortex, indicating a general coupling between cerebral lateralization and handedness. Our findings indicate that hemispheric specialization is not fixed but can vary considerably across individuals even in areas engaged relatively early in the visual system.

  2. Phoenix Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative Evaluation Report

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, C; Marks, J.; Jenq, J.; Cluett, Chris; DeBlasio, Allan; Lappin, Jane; Rakha, Hesham A.; Wunderlich, K

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the evaluation results of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative (MMDI). The MMDI was a three-year program of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Joint Program Office of the U.S. Department of Transportation. It focused on aggressive deployment of ITS at four sites across the United States, including the metropolitan areas of San Antonio, Seattle, NY/NJ/Connecticut as well as Phoenix. The focus of the deployments was on integration of exist...

  3. Solar array deployment mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calassa, Mark C.; Kackley, Russell

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a Solar Array Deployment Mechanism (SADM) used to deploy a rigid solar array panel on a commercial spacecraft. The application required a deployment mechanism design that was not only lightweight, but also could be produced and installed at the lowest possible cost. This paper covers design, test, and analysis of a mechanism that meets these requirements.

  4. Editorial: Reviewer selection process and new areas of expertise in GEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, Michael W.; Balikhin, Michael; Kepko, Larry; Rodger, Alan; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    One method of selecting potential reviewers for papers submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research Space Physics is to filter the user database within the Geophysical Electronic Manuscript System (GEMS) by areas of expertise. The list of these areas in GEMS can be self selected by users in their profile settings. The Editors have added 18 new entries to this list, an increase of 33% more than the previous 55 entries. All space physicists are strongly encouraged to update their profile settings in GEMS, especially their areas of expertise selections, and details of how to do this are provided.

  5. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  6. Complex Deployed Responsive Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Glenn; McLening, Marc; Caldwell, Nigel; Thompson, Rob

    A pizza restaurant must provide product, in the form of the food and drink, and service in the way this is delivered to the customer. Providing this has distinct operational challenges, but what if the restaurant also provides a home delivery service? The service becomes deployed as the customer is no-longer co-located with the production area. The business challenge is complicated as service needs to be delivered within a geographic region, to time or the pizza will be cold, and within a cost that is not ­prohibitive. It must also be responsive to short term demand; needing to balance the number of staff it has available to undertake deliveries against a forecast of demand.

  7. Analysis of selection procedures to determine priority areas for payment for water ecosystem services programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Feital Gjorup

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The approach of ecosystem services has shown promise for the evaluation of interactions between ecosystems and society, integrating environmental and socioeconomic concepts which require interdisciplinary knowledge. However, its usefulness in decision making is limited due to information gaps. This study was therefore developed in order to contribute to the application of principles of ecosystem services in the decision-making for water resources management. It aims to identify procedures and methodologies used for decision-making in order to select priority areas to be included in projects or compensation programs for environmental services. To do so, we searched technical and scientific literature describing methods and experiences used to select priority areas. Key steps in the process of selecting priority areas were identified; then a survey was conducted of the procedures adopted for each key step considering the literature selected; and, finally, the information collected was analyzed and classified. Considering the study’s sample, we noted that the selection of priority areas was based on the direct use of predetermined criteria. The use of indicators and spatial analyses are practices still scarcely employed. We must highlight, however, that most of the analyzed documents did not aim to describe the process of selecting priority areas in detail, which may have resulted in some omissions. Although these conditions may limit the analysis in this study, the results presented here allow us to identify the main objectives, actions and criteria used to select priority areas for programs or compensation projects for environmental services.

  8. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  9. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  10. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2011 to 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to 2012. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  11. Selection of test and reference areas for the Indian Deepsea Environment Experiment (INDEX)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Nath, B.N.

    of the suction device used for resuspension of sediment. On the basis of morphological analysis and nodule distribution, two areas. Tl and Al, were selected as the best suited pair for the disturbance and monitoring experiment...

  12. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  13. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  14. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor...

  15. Functionalization and Area-Selective Deposition of Magnetic Carbon-Coated Iron Nanoparticles from Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Widenkvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A route to area-selective deposition of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles, involving chemical modification of the surface of the particles, is described. Partial oxidative etching of the coating introduces carboxylic groups, which then are esterified. The functionalized particles can be selectively deposited on the Si areas of Si/SiO2 substrates by a simple dipping procedure. Nanoparticles and nanoassemblies have been analyzed using SEM, TEM, and XPS.

  16. Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI). Methodology of Selecting Landsat Imagery for the Global Land Survey 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Shannon; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Headley, Rachel M.; Gasch, John; Arvidson, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The Global Land Survey (GLS) 2005 is a cloud-free, orthorectified collection of Landsat imagery acquired during the 2004-2007 epoch intended to support global land-cover and ecological monitoring. Due to the numerous complexities in selecting imagery for the GLS2005, NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sponsored the development of an automated scene selection tool, the Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI), to aid in the selection of imagery for this data set. This innovative approach to scene selection applied a user-defined weighting system to various scene parameters: image cloud cover, image vegetation greenness, choice of sensor, and the ability of the Landsat 7 Scan Line Corrector (SLC)-off pair to completely fill image gaps, among others. The parameters considered in scene selection were weighted according to their relative importance to the data set, along with the algorithm's sensitivity to that weight. This paper describes the methodology and analysis that established the parameter weighting strategy, as well as the post-screening processes used in selecting the optimal data set for GLS2005.

  17. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    This analysis identifies candidate locations, in a broad sense, where there are high concentrations of federal government agency use of electricity, which are also suitable areas for near-term SMRs. Near-term SMRs are based on light-water reactor (LWR) technology with compact design features that are expected to offer a host of safety, siting, construction, and economic benefits. These smaller plants are ideally suited for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, thus providing utilities or governement entities with the flexibility to scale power production as demand changes by adding additional power by deploying more modules or reactors in phases. This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights to assist the federal government in meeting federal clean energy goals.

  18. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  19. Deployable geodesic truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, Marvin D. (Inventor); Simonton, J. Wayne (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A deployable geodesic truss structure which can be deployed from a stowed state to an erected state is described. The truss structure includes a series of bays, each bay having sets of battens connected by longitudinal cross members which give the bay its axial and torsional stiffness. The cross members are hinged at their mid point by a joint so that the cross members are foldable for deployment or collapsing. The bays are deployed and stabilized by actuator means connected between the mid point joints of the cross members. Hinged longerons may be provided to also connect the sets of battens and to collapse for stowing with the rest of the truss structure.

  20. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkins, Jonathan B; Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Kirol, Christopher P; Pratt, Aaron C; Conover, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%). Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m). Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available between areas within and outside of Core Areas.

  1. A Printable Silicon Nano-Field Effect Transistor with High Operating Frequency for Large-Area Deployable Active Phased-Array Antennas Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flexible electronic circuits can be easily integrated with large area (>10m aperture), inflatable antennas to provide distributed control and processing...

  2. Printable Nano-Field Effect Transistors Combined with Carbon Nanotube Based Printable Interconnect Wires for Large-Area Deployable Active Phased-Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flexible electronic circuits can be easily integrated with large area (>10m aperture), inflatable antennas to provide distributed control and processing...

  3. Selected coal-related ground-water data, Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    The Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area in east-central Utah consists of about 8,000 square miles within the upper Colorado River drainage system. Coal production in the area is expected to increase from 8 million tons to as much as 30 million tons annually within the next 10 years. Most sources of water supply will be subjected to possible contamination and increased demands by coal-related municipal and industrial growth in the area. The report presents a compilation of coal-related ground-water data from many unpublished sources for the use of local and regional water planners and users. The report includes generalized stratigraphic sections and hydrologic characteristics of rocks in the Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area , records of selected test holes and water wells, logs of selected test holes and water wells, water levels in selected wells, records of selected springs, records of ground-water discharge from selected mines, and chemical analyses of water from selected test holes, water wells, springs, and mines. (Kosco-USGS)

  4. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This report compiles information and conclusions gathered as part of the “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs” project. The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge in which future research is needed.

  5. Selection of strategic replacement areas for CBM exploration and development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyi Shao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the increase in proved reserves and production of coalbed methane (CBM in China depends mainly on several CBM bases in the southern Qinshui Basin and in the eastern margin of the Ordos Basin. Therefore, it is urgent to find new batches of exploration and development strategic replacement areas. For this purpose, we investigated the resources, reservoir properties, preservation conditions, and development conditions of CBM in China, and put forward eight general factors and four critical factors that can be used in establishing selection criteria of strategic replacement areas for affecting the CBM exploration and development in China. The eight general factors are resource abundance, coalbed thickness, gas content, original permeability, burial depth, hydrogeological conditions, coalbed depositional environment, and landforms, and the four critical factors include genetic type, stability type, later reservoir reformation, and damage degree of coal structure. Comparison shows that the low-rank coal area in the northwestern area, the northeastern medium-low rank coal area, and the southwestern medium-high rank and structurally-complex coal area are the major replacement areas for CBM following the northern area of China. Key factors affecting CBM enrichment in each of the three key areas, respectively, are: a genetic type and stability of coal seams, b genetic type and reconstruction of the reservoir by volcanic intrusion, and c stability of coal seams and damage degree of coal structure. Based on these factors, a system for selection and evaluation of strategic replacement areas for CBM development was established. Fifteen blocks in the above three areas were evaluated by using multi-layered fuzzy mathematics, selecting eight favorable areas and seven relatively favorable areas that contain 1.8 trillion m3 of predicted CBM geological resources. The eight favorable areas include the Wucaiwan-Dajing coal exploration area in the Zhundong

  6. Two-dimensional map of direction selectivity in cortical visual area MT of Cebus monkey

    OpenAIRE

    ANTONIA CINIRA M. DIOGO; Soares, Juliana G. M.; Albright, Thomas D.; RICARDO GATTASS

    2002-01-01

    We studied the spatial organization of direction of motion in visual area MT of the Cebus apella monkey. We used arrays of 6 (700 µm apart) parallel electrodes in penetrations tangential to the cortical layers to record multi-unit responses to moving bars, at 200 µm steps. We determined the direction selectivity at each recording site. The data from single penetrations showed cyclic and gradual changes in the direction selectivity of clusters of cells, intermixed with abrupt 180º discontinuit...

  7. Designing of Modified Area Efficient Square Root Carry Select Adder(SQRT CSLA)

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Meshram; Prof.Mamta Sarode

    2015-01-01

    In the design of Integrated Circuits, The necessity of portable systems is increasing an area occupancy plays a vital role. Square Root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA) is one of the fastest adders which is used in this data-processing processor to perform fast arithmetic functions. In this paper, an area-efficient square root carry select adder(SQRT CSLA design) by sharing Common Boolean logic term (CBL) is proposed The modified architecture has been developed using Binary to Excess-1 converte...

  8. Design of Modified Area Efficient Square Root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA)

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Meshram; Prof.Mamta Sarode

    2015-01-01

    In the design of Integrated Circuits, The necessity of portable systems is increasing an area occupancy plays a vital role. Square Root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA) is one of the fastest adders which is used in this data-processing processor to perform fast arithmetic functions. In this paper, an area-efficient square root carry select adder(SQRT CSLA design) by sharing Common Boolean logic term (CBL) is proposed The modified architecture has been developed using Binary to Excess-1 converte...

  9. Mineral resource assessment of selected areas in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada [Chapters A-L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve

    2006-01-01

    During 2004-2006, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a mineral resource assessment of selected areas administered by the Bureau of Land Management in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada. The purpose of this study is to provide the BLM with information for land planning and management and, specifically, to determine mineral resource potential in accordance with regulations in 43 CFR 2310, which governs the withdrawal of public lands. The Clark County Conservation of Public Land and Natural Resources Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-282) temporarily withdraws a group of areas designated as Areas of Critical Environmental Concern (ACECs) from mineral entry, pending final approval of an application for permanent withdrawal by the BLM. This study provides information about mineral resource potential of the ACECs. Existing information was compiled about the ACECs, including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and mineral-deposit information. Field examinations of selected areas and mineral occurrences were conducted to determine their geologic setting and mineral potential.

  10. Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

  11. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Dinkins

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and <1.0 m, while selecting for less bare ground and rock. With the exception of more small gaps between shrubs, we did not find any differences in availability of these microhabitat characteristics between locations within and outside of Core Areas. In addition, we found little supporting evidence that sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%. Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m. Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available

  12. Body-selective areas in the visual cortex are less active in children than in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Paddy D Ross; de Gelder, Beatrice; Crabbe, Frances; Grosbras, Marie-Helene

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to read other people’s non-verbal signals gets refined throughout childhood and adolescence. How this is paralleled by brain development has been investigated mainly with regards to face perception, showing a protracted functional development of the face-selective visual cortical areas. In view of the importance of whole-body expressions in interpersonal communication it is important to understand the development of brain areas sensitive to these social signals. Here we used funct...

  13. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  14. Deployable Soft Composite Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-19

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  15. An Area-Efficient Carry Select Adder Design by using 180 nm Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Garish Kumar Wadhwa; Amit Grover; Neeti Grover; GurpreetSingh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed an area-efficient carry select adder by sharing the common Boolean logic term. After logic simplification and sharing partial circuit, we only need one XOR gate and one inverter gate in each summation operation as well as one AND gate and one inverter gate in each carry-out operation. Through the multiplexer, we can select the correct output result according to the logic state of carry-in signal. In this way, the transistor count in a 32-bit carry select adder can b...

  16. An Area-Efficient Carry Select Adder Design by using 180 nm Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garish Kumar Wadhwa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed an area-efficient carry select adder by sharing the common Boolean logic term. After logic simplification and sharing partial circuit, we only need one XOR gate and one inverter gate in each summation operation as well as one AND gate and one inverter gate in each carry-out operation. Through the multiplexer, we can select the correct output result according to the logic state of carry-in signal. In this way, the transistor count in a 32-bit carry select adder can be greatly reduced from 1947 to 960.

  17. Seasonal abundance of Aedes albopictus in selected urban and suburban areas in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozilawati, H; Zairi, J; Adanan, C R

    2007-06-01

    Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in a selected urban area and suburban area, ie. Taman Permai Indah(TPI) and Kampung Pasir Gebu (KPG) in Penang for 14 months. It was found that Aedes albopictus was the most abundant Aedes species in both study areas, even though a small percentage of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to breed simultaneously in the same ovitrap. This study indicated that the main dengue vector was Ae. albopictus. A strong correlation was found between rainfall and egg population in both of the study sites (r = 0.982 and r = 0.918).

  18. Determination of Sulphur Dioxide Concentrations in Ambient Air of Some Selected Traffic Areas in Kaduna Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mohammed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study was aimed at determining concentrations of sulphurdioxide in ambient air of some selected areas viz: industrial area (Kakuri, high vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis Roundabout, traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge, Low vehicler traffic area (Tafawa Balewa Roundabout, residential area (Kawo New Extension and a control site (NFA base in Kaduna metropolis Nigeria. Air sample was collected at each sampling site by passing ambient air through an impinger bottle containing hydrogen peroxide (absorbent, at a flow-rate of 10 L/min for 30 min using air vacuum pump. The concentration of SO2 in the resultant solution (absorbent was determined by titrating against 0.005 moL/dm3 NaOH solutions. The average SO2 concentrations in the six sampling stations were within the range 0.16-0.75 ppm, with the highest values of 0.75 and 0.70 ppm at highly industrialized area (Kakuri and a high traffic area (Leventis roundabout respectively. The ambient air concentrations of SO2 depict the pattern; Industrial area (Kakuri >High vehicler traffic/commercial area (Leventis roundabout >Traveling route (Kawo overhead bridge >Low traffic area (Tafawa Balewa roundabout >Residential area (Kawo New Extension >Remote area (NAF Base Mando. Except for highly industrial area (Kakuri and the high traffic area (Leventis, The ambient air SO2 concentration are within the acceptable limits of United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Nigeria’s Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA standard limit which is 0.5 ppm for 30 min exposure time.

  19. Recruiting Young Volunteers in an Area of Selective Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings from a small qualitative case study of a youth volunteering brokerage organisation in England, operating in an area of selective state education. Data show how brokerage workers felt grammar schools managed their students in a concerted way to improve students' chances of attending university. Conversely, workers…

  20. Deep far infrared ISOPHOT survey in "Selected Area 57" - I. Observations and source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linden-Vornle, M.J.D.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    We present here the results of a deep survey in a 0.4 deg(2) blank field in Selected Area 57 conducted with the ISOPHOT instrument aboard ESAs Infrared Space Observatory (ISO1) at both 60 mu m and 90 mu m. The resulting sky maps have a spatial resolution of 15 x 23 arcsrc(2) per pixel which is much...

  1. Recruiting Young Volunteers in an Area of Selective Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings from a small qualitative case study of a youth volunteering brokerage organisation in England, operating in an area of selective state education. Data show how brokerage workers felt grammar schools managed their students in a concerted way to improve students' chances of attending university. Conversely, workers…

  2. Solid surface wetting and the deployment of drops in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.; Depew, J.

    1994-02-01

    The complete or partial deployment of liquid samples in low gravity is primarily influenced by the interfacial properties of the specific liquid and solid materials used because the overwhelming bias of the Earth gravitational acceleration is removed. This study addresses the engineering aspects of injecting and deploying drops of prescribed volume into an acoustic positioning chamber in microgravity. The specific problems of interest are the design, testing, and implementation of injector tips to be used in a simultaneously retracting dual-injector system in the Drop Physics Module microgravity experiment facility. Prior to release, the liquid to be deployed must be retained within a restricted area at the very end of the injectors under dynamic stimuli from the continuous injection flow as well as from the stepped motion of the injectors. The final released drop must have a well determined volume and negligible residual linear or angular momentum. The outcome of Earth-based short-duration low gravity experiments had been the selection of two types of injector tips which were flown as back-up parts. They were successfully utilized during the USML-1 Spacelab mission as the primary tips. The combination of a larger contact surface, liquid pinning with a sharp edge, and selective coating of strategic tip surfaces with a non-wetting compound has allowed a significant increase in the success rate of deployment of simple and compound drops of aqueous solutions of glycerol and silicone oil. The diameter of the samples studied in the Drop Physics Module range between 0.3 and 2.7 cm. The tests conducted on-orbit with a manually operated small device have allowed the calibration of the volume deployed for a few drop sizes. The design for improved tips to be used during the next USML flight is based on these results.

  3. Malaria Transmission Pattern in an Area Selected for Clinical Trials in the Sudanian Area of Senegal (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hadji Amadou Niang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria transmission pattern was studied in 3 villages (Toubanding, Daga Ndoup, and Keur Samba Guèye situated within an area selected for clinical trials. The study was conducted in the rainy season from July to December 2011. The main objective of this work was to gather baseline data on malaria transmission intensity and other entomological parameters before the advent of clinical trials. Mosquitoes were collected by Human-Landing Collections (HLCs and by pyrethrum spray catches (PSCs. Five anopheline species were collected, namely, An. arabiensis, An. gambiae, An. funestus, An. pharoensis, and An. rufipes, giving a heterogeneous distribution within the study area. The populations dynamics of the vectors varied temporarily in each village depending on the pattern of the rainy season. Transmission intensity estimated by the entomological inoculation rate (EIR was measured in each of the three villages with the variations linked to the microecological differences between the villages. Measurements were calculated for August, September, and October and were found to vary between 4 and 30 infected bites per person over the study period with a peak intensity observed in September. These results indicate that epidemiological field trials on malaria could be conducted in this area on the basis of the differences observed with transmission intensity, micro-ecological variations, and the objectives of the trials.

  4. Modeling EERE deployment programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.

  5. Stratospheric Deployment Parafoil Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Stratospheric Deployment Parafoil is a proposed technology that will be designed and tested to provide a greatly superior parachute precision delivery system...

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemical selective area atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Chalker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the photochemical atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 thin films and the use of this process to achieve area-selective film deposition. A shuttered vacuum ultraviolet (VUV light source is used to excite molecular oxygen and trimethyl aluminum to deposit films at 60°C. In-situ QCM and post-deposition ellipsometric measurements both show that the deposition rate is saturative as a function of irradiation time. Selective area deposition was achieved by projecting the VUV light through a metalized magnesium fluoride photolithographic mask and the selectivity of deposition on the illuminated and masked regions of the substrate is a logarithmic function of the UV exposure time. The Al2O3 films exhibit dielectric constants of 8 – 10 at 1 MHz after forming gas annealing, similar to films deposited by conventional thermal ALD.

  7. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Hugo Rodrigue; Sung-Hoon Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and sim...

  8. Landfill site selection for municipal solid wastes in mountainous areas with landslide susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Falamaki, Amin

    2016-06-01

    Several cities across the world are located in mountainous and landslide prone areas. Any landfill siting without considering landslide susceptibility in such regions may impose additional environmental adversity. This study was aimed to propose a practical method for selecting waste disposal site that accounts for landslide exposure. The proposed method was applied to a city which is highly proneness to landslide due to its geology, morphology, and climatic conditions. First, information on the previously occurred landslides of the region was collected. Based on this information, proper landslide causative factors were selected and their thematic maps were prepared. Factors' classes were then standardized in 0-1 domain, and thematic layers were weighted by using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The landslide susceptibility map was prepared afterwards. Unsuitable areas for landfill location were masked in GIS environment by Boolean method, retaining sufficient areas for further evaluation. Nine remaining alternatives were selected through comprehensive field visits and were ranked by using AHP. Consequently, 17 factors in three environmental, economical, and social perspectives were employed. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the stability of the alternatives ranking with respect to variations in criterion weights. Based on the obtained landslide susceptible map, nearly 36 % of the entire region is proneness to landslide. The prepared Boolean map indicates that potential areas for landfill construction cover 11 % of the whole region. The results further indicated that if landslide susceptible areas are not considered in landfill site selection, the potential landfill sites would become more than twice. It can be concluded that if any of these landslide prone sites are selected for landfilling, further environmental disaster would be terminated in the future. It can be further concluded that the proposed method could reasonably well be adjusted to

  9. Structural Dynamics of GaN Microcrystals in Evolutionary Selection Selective Area Growth probed by X-ray Microdiffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachkanov, V.; Leung, B.; Song, J.; Zhang, Y.; Tsai, M.-C.; Yuan, G.; Han, J.; O'Donnell, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    A method to grow high quality, single crystalline semiconductor material irrespective of the substrate would allow a cost-effective improvement to functionality and performance of optoelectronic devices. Recently, a novel type of substrate-insensitive growth process called Evolutionary Selection Selective Area Growth (ES-SAG) has been proposed. Here we report the use of X-ray microdiffraction to study the structural properties of GaN microcrystals grown by ES-SAG. Utilizing high resolution in both direct and reciprocal spaces, we have unraveled structural dynamics of GaN microcrystals in growth structures of different dimensions. It has been found that the geometric proportions of the growth constrictions play an important role: 2.6 μm and 4.5 μm wide growth tunnels favor the evolutionary selection mechanism, contrary to the case of 8.6 μm growth tunnels. It was also found that GaN microcrystal ensembles are dominated by slight tensile strain irrespective of growth tunnel shape. PMID:24722064

  10. Selective Mobile Communication within a Coverage Area Bounded by Radiating Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Behairy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is often desirable to control mobile phone services in areas where complete silence is either expected or mandatory, including schools, places of worship, hospitals, and prisons. In contrast to conventional techniques, such as jammers or Faraday cages, we present a novel technique to selectively control mobile phone services within a desired area. Our solution enables the area’s keeper to allow mobile phones on a whitelist to freely use mobile services without disruption while denying services to all other mobile phones that are within the boundaries of the desired area to be controlled. Our solution uses a base station controller to identify all mobile devices located within the area to be controlled, while an antenna is placed inside the area to attract all mobile devices in the area to connect to the base station controller. In previous work, we proposed a system that uses directional antennas for the attraction technique. In this work, we show that replacement of the directional antennas with a leaky feeder antenna enables more accurate control of mobile phone services in and around the area to be controlled. Simulations and experiments of the leaky feeder technique confirm its precise control of mobile phone services within the desired areas.

  11. Modified 16-b Square-root Low Power Area Efficient Carry Select Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Meenaakshi Sundhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to acceptance of the portable system with fast growth of power density in the integrated circuits, the power dissipation and the performance is considered while the system is designed. The main goal of the VLSI design is to design the adders in more efficient way. By that way the Carry Select Adder (CSLA is an adder designed, which computes n+1 bit sum of two n bit numbers. In this study Modified 16-b SQRT with Modified Area efficient CSLA is proposed. From the design of Modified Area Efficient CSLA it is experiential that there is an option of reducing the area more and consumes low power when compared with Regular CSLA. Modified Area Efficient CSLA (MA-CSLA utilizes BEC which reduces the area more and the total gate count is also gets condensed. The proposed study makes use of a simple and well-organized gate-level alteration to considerably reduce the area and power of the CSLA. By the support of alteration 8-, 16-, 32- and 64-b, respectively Square-Root CSLA (SQRT CSLA model have been evolved and evaluated with the regular SQRT CSLA model. This study estimates the performance of the proposed designs in terms of delay, area and power. The results analysis shows that the proposed Modified Area Efficient CSLA structure is better than the regular SQRT CSLA.

  12. Effect of feature-selective attention on neuronal responses in macaque area MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Hoffmann, K-P; Albright, T D; Thiele, A

    2012-03-01

    Attention influences visual processing in striate and extrastriate cortex, which has been extensively studied for spatial-, object-, and feature-based attention. Most studies exploring neural signatures of feature-based attention have trained animals to attend to an object identified by a certain feature and ignore objects/displays identified by a different feature. Little is known about the effects of feature-selective attention, where subjects attend to one stimulus feature domain (e.g., color) of an object while features from different domains (e.g., direction of motion) of the same object are ignored. To study this type of feature-selective attention in area MT in the middle temporal sulcus, we trained macaque monkeys to either attend to and report the direction of motion of a moving sine wave grating (a feature for which MT neurons display strong selectivity) or attend to and report its color (a feature for which MT neurons have very limited selectivity). We hypothesized that neurons would upregulate their firing rate during attend-direction conditions compared with attend-color conditions. We found that feature-selective attention significantly affected 22% of MT neurons. Contrary to our hypothesis, these neurons did not necessarily increase firing rate when animals attended to direction of motion but fell into one of two classes. In one class, attention to color increased the gain of stimulus-induced responses compared with attend-direction conditions. The other class displayed the opposite effects. Feature-selective activity modulations occurred earlier in neurons modulated by attention to color compared with neurons modulated by attention to motion direction. Thus feature-selective attention influences neuronal processing in macaque area MT but often exhibited a mismatch between the preferred stimulus dimension (direction of motion) and the preferred attention dimension (attention to color).

  13. Beyond marine reserves: exploring the approach of selecting areas where fishing is permitted, rather than prohibited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C Ban

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marine populations have been declining at a worrying rate, due in large part to fishing pressures. The challenge is to secure a future for marine life while minimizing impacts on fishers and fishing communities. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rather than selecting areas where fishing is banned -- as is usually the case with spatial management -- we assess the concept of designating areas where fishing is permitted. We use spatial catch statistics for thirteen commercial fisheries on Canada's west coast to determine the minimum area that would be needed to maintain a pre-ascribed target percentage of current catches. We found that small reductions in fisheries yields, if strategically allocated, could result in large unfished areas that are representative of biophysical regions and habitat types, and have the potential to achieve remarkable conservation gains. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach of selecting fishing areas instead of reserves could help redirect debate about the relative values that society places on conservation and extraction, in a framework that could gain much by losing little. Our ideas are intended to promote discussions about the current status quo in fisheries management, rather than providing a definitive solution.

  14. Granulometric selectivity in Liza ramado and potential contamination resulting from heavy metal load in feeding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Sílvia; Canastreiro, Vera; Caçador, Isabel; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro

    2008-11-01

    The stomach contents of thin-lipped grey mullets Liza ramado were analysed in terms of granulometric composition and compared to the sediment of potential feeding areas in the Tagus estuary. Total organic matter (TOM) content and heavy metal content were determined in the surface sediment of three areas and eight trace elements were quantified: Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. The three sampled areas did not differ in TOM; and the heavy metal content was below Effects Range-Low level for most elements. The mean observed concentrations were present in the following sequence: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu ≈ Ni > Co > Cd > Hg. Stomach contents granulometric composition provided information about the feeding selectivity of the mullets. Sediment fractions with particle size between 20 and 50 μm are preferred, independently of the fishes' length. Smaller standard length (SL) fishes have a higher positive selection of fine grained sediments than those with a larger SL. Finer fractions usually have higher concentration of heavy metals, which makes younger specimens of the thin-lipped grey mullet potentially more exposed to heavy metal load in the estuary. Metal concentration was not independent from the sampling point, presenting higher values near the margins and the estuary tidal drainage system. This means that during the first period of each tidal cycle, the mullets will feed first on the most contaminated areas, as a consequence of their movement following the rising tide to feed on previously exposed areas.

  15. In situ definition of semiconductor structures by selective area growth and etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, E.; Caneau, C.; Frei, M.; Clausen, E. M., Jr.; Quinn, W. E.; Kim, M. S.

    1991-10-01

    Selective area growth (etching) by low-pressure organometallic chemical vapor deposition (LP-OMCVD) is utilized to intentionally modulate the local growth (etch) rate by choosing the pattern of dielectric-masked areas, thereby defining III-V semiconductor structures in situ. This technique is applied to tune the emission wavelength of a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structure, and to obtain InP/InGaAs superlattice structures tapered in thickness with growth rate increases as high as 800%, suitable for integrated optics applications. In contrast, selective deposition by organometallic molecular beam epitaxy (OMMBE) does not produce growth rate enhancements, thereby preventing similar in situ definition schemes but allowing to integrate structures with optimized nominal thicknesses.

  16. Deployable structures for a human lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Petra; Häuplik, Sandra; Imhof, Barbara; Özdemir, Kürsad; Waclavicek, Rene; Perino, Maria Antoinetta

    2007-06-01

    The study Lunar exploration architecture—deployable structures for a lunar base was performed within the Alcatel Alenia Space “Lunar Exploration Architecture” study for the European Space Agency. The purpose of the study was to investigate bionic concepts applicable to deployable structures and to interpret the findings for possible implementation concepts. The study aimed at finding innovative solutions for deployment possibilities. Translating folding/unfolding principles from nature, candidate geometries were developed and researched using models, drawings and visualisations. The use of materials, joints between structural elements and construction details were investigated for these conceptual approaches. Reference scenarios were used to identify the technical and environmental conditions, which served as design drivers. Mechanical issues and the investigation of deployment processes narrowed the selection down to six chosen concepts. Their applicability was evaluated at a conceptual stage in relation to the timescale of the mission.

  17. Columbia River : Select Area Fishery Evaluation project : 1995-96 Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim

    1998-06-01

    Water quality monitoring was conducted from November 1994 through October 1996 at five Oregon and three Washington select area study sites in the lower Columbia River. Physicochemical monitoring and aquatic biomonitoring programs were established to profile baseline parameters at each study site and document differences between study sites. Data collected at study sites where fish rearing operations were initiated indicate a potential negative impact on the surrounding benthic invertebrate communities.

  18. Design & Analysis of Low Power, Area-Efficient Carry Select Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchi Verma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design & analysis of Carry Select Adder (CSLA & Carry lookahead adder (CLA. Adders are designed using 0.18µm CMOS process technology & simulated with Modelsim6.3f. The adder designs, Regular CSLA, modified CSLA using BEC, modified CSLA without using multiplexer, modified CSLA using D-Latch & Carry lookahead adders in 4-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, are compared with the simulated results on the basis area.

  19. Visual and non-visual contributions to 3D heading selectivity in area MSTd

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Yong; Watkins, Paul V.; Angelaki, Dora E.; DeAngelis, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    Robust perception of self-motion requires integration of visual motion signals with non-visual cues. Neurons in area MSTd may be involved in this sensory integration, as they respond selectively to global patterns of optic flow, as well as translational motion in darkness. Using a virtual reality system, we have characterized the three-dimensional (3D) tuning of MSTd neurons to heading directions defined by optic flow alone, inertial motion alone, and congruent combinations of the two cues. A...

  20. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman; Md. Nazmul Hoque; Anup Kumar Talukder; Ziban Chandra Das

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured...

  1. Synchronously deployable truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, H. G. (Inventor); Mikulas, M., Jr. (Inventor); Wallsom, E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A collapsible-expandable truss structure, including first and second spaced surface truss layers having an attached core layer is described. The surface truss layers are composed of a plurality of linear struts arranged in multiple triangular configurations. Each linear strut is hinged at the center and hinge connected at each end to a nodular joint. A passive spring serves as the expansion force to move the folded struts from a stowed collapsed position to a deployed operative final truss configuration. A damper controls the rate of spring expansion for the synchronized deployment of the truss as the folded configuration is released for deployment by the restrain belts. The truss is synchronously extended under the control of motor driven spools.

  2. Mining Deployment Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čech, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    The deployment problem, researched primarily in the military sector, is emerging in some other industries, mining included. The principal decision is how to deploy some activities in space and time to achieve desired outcome while complying with certain requirements or limits. Requirements and limits are on the side constraints, while minimizing costs or maximizing some benefits are on the side of objectives. A model with application to mining of polymetallic deposit is presented. To obtain quick and immediate decision solutions for a mining engineer with experimental possibilities is the main intention of a computer-based tool. The task is to determine strategic deployment of mining activities on a deposit, meeting planned output from the mine and at the same time complying with limited reserves and haulage capacities. Priorities and benefits can be formulated by the planner.

  3. Area-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition: Conformal Coating, Subnanometer Thickness Control, and Smart Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming; Ho, Johnny C

    2015-09-22

    Transistors have already been made three-dimensional (3D), with device channels (i.e., fins in trigate field-effect transistor (FinFET) technology) that are taller, thinner, and closer together in order to enhance device performance and lower active power consumption. As device scaling continues, these transistors will require more advanced, fabrication-enabling technologies for the conformal deposition of high-κ dielectric layers on their 3D channels with accurate position alignment and thickness control down to the subnanometer scale. Among many competing techniques, area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD) is a promising method that is well suited to the requirements without the use of complicated, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-incompatible processes. However, further progress is limited by poor area selectivity for thicker films formed via a higher number of ALD cycles as well as the prolonged processing time. In this issue of ACS Nano, Professor Stacy Bent and her research group demonstrate a straightforward self-correcting ALD approach, combining selective deposition with a postprocess mild chemical etching, which enables selective deposition of dielectric films with thicknesses and processing times at least 10 times larger and 48 times shorter, respectively, than those obtained by conventional AS-ALD processes. These advances present an important technological breakthrough that may drive the AS-ALD technique a step closer toward industrial applications in electronics, catalysis, and photonics, etc. where more efficient device fabrication processes are needed.

  4. Deploying OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Pepple, Ken

    2011-01-01

    OpenStack was created with the audacious goal of being the ubiquitous software choice for building public and private cloud infrastructures. In just over a year, it's become the most talked-about project in open source. This concise book introduces OpenStack's general design and primary software components in detail, and shows you how to start using it to build cloud infrastructures. If you're a developer, technologist, or system administrator familiar with cloud offerings such as Rackspace Cloud or Amazon Web Services, Deploying OpenStack shows you how to obtain and deploy OpenStack softwar

  5. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.

    2007-11-08

    The purpose of this report is to compile information and conclusions gathered as part of three separate tasks undertaken as part of the overall project, “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs,” sponsored by the Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation office within the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address improvements to modeling in the near term, and note gaps in knowledge where future research is needed.

  6. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  7. Body-Selective Areas in the Visual Cortex are less active in Children than in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy D Ross

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to read other people’s non-verbal signals gets refined throughout childhood and adolescence. How this is paralleled by brain development has been investigated mainly with regards to face perception, showing a protracted functional development of the face-selective visual cortical areas. In view of the importance of whole-body expressions in interpersonal communication it is important to understand the development of brain areas sensitive to these social signals.Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare brain activity in a group of 24 children (age 6-11 and 26 adults while they passively watched short videos of body or object movements. We observed activity in similar regions in both groups; namely the extra-striate body area (EBA, fusiform body area (FBA, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, amygdala and premotor regions. Adults showed additional activity in the inferior frontal gyrus. Within the main body-selective regions (EBA, FBA and pSTS, the strength and spatial extent of fMRI signal change was larger in adults than in children. Multivariate Bayesian analysis showed that the spatial pattern of neural representation within those regions did not change over age.Our results indicate, for the first time, that body perception, like face perception, is still maturing through the second decade of life.

  8. Step-Free GaN Hexagons Grown by Selective-Area Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Kasu, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    Selective-area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaN has been investigated using the optimized growth conditions for the layer (Frank-van der Merwe) growth and GaN-template substrates with low dislocation density. The surface of a GaN hexagon with 16-µm diameter has a single wide terrace over almost the whole area (step-free surface), when there are no screw-type dislocations in the finite area. Step-free GaN hexagons grew in the two-dimensional nucleus growth mode and had approximately an eight times lower growth rate than that of a GaN film grown in the step-flow mode under the growth conditions used in this study.

  9. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  10. Deploying Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an intermediate or advanced developer deploying your Node.js applications, then this book is for you. If you have already built a Node application or module and want to take your knowledge to the next level, this book will help you find your way.

  11. Municipal Solid Waste Composition Study of Selected Area in Gambang, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Nadiah; Ishak, Wan Faizal Wan; Suraya Romali, Noor; Fatimah Che Osmi, Siti; Armi Abu Samah, Mohd

    2013-06-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated continue to increase in response to rapid growth in population, change in life style and accelerated urbanization and industrialization process. The study on MSW is important in order to determine the composition further seeks an immediate remedy to minimize the waste generated at the early stage. As most of the MSW goes to the landfill or dumping sites, particularly in Malaysia, closure of filled-up landfill may become an alarm clock for an immediate action of proper solid waste management. This research aims to determine the waste composition generated from selected residential area at Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang which represent Old residential area (ORA), Intermediate residential area (IRA) and New residential area (NRA). The study was conducted by segregating and weighing solid waste in the residential area into 6 main components ie., food waste, paper, plastic, glass, metal and others. In a period of four weeks, samples from the residential unit were taken and analyzed. The MSW generation rates were recorded vary from 0.217 to 0.388 kg person-1day-1. Food waste has become the major solid waste component generated daily which mounted up to 50%. From this research, the result revealed that the recyclable composition of waste generated by residents have a potential to be reuse, recycle and reduce at the point sources.

  12. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.J.

    1999-12-17

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species.

  13. The effect of military deployment on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; W. Jepsen, Peter

    In this paper we estimate the causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health. To handle the selection bias problem, we use longitudinal data for deployed and non-deployed eligible men in a difference-in-differences setting. Using pair-wise matching, we impute deployment dates...... for important variables like intelligence tests and family background. We find significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use. Highlights: - Causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ use of mental health service - Using a difference-in-differences approach...... - First evidence relying on administrative records of measures of mental health service use - Significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use....

  14. The effect of military deployment on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; W. Jepsen, Peter

    In this paper we estimate the causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health. To handle the selection bias problem, we use longitudinal data for deployed and non-deployed eligible men in a difference-in-differences setting. Using pair-wise matching, we impute deployment dates...... for important variables like intelligence tests and family background. We find significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use. Highlights: - Causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ use of mental health service - Using a difference-in-differences approach...... - First evidence relying on administrative records of measures of mental health service use - Significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use....

  15. AHP-VIKOR Bridge Structural System Selection in Urban Areas Tehran: Interchanges Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ramezanianpour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The selection of “Structural system” is one of the most important factors in any bridge and infrastructure design. Designers perform the structural calculations for the project determines the priorities as well as design and performance criteria. Further analysis of the structural selection problem and the identification of the bridge desirable capabilities, triggered the consideration of analytic hierarchy process (AHP as a possible basis for the decision making. The methodology uses the VIKOR to evaluate the alternatives according to the decision criteria and determine the solution. The methodology was developed by a group of bridge designers involved in design and management of urban infrastructure projects and demonstrated using a Steel Girder bridge in an urban area as an optimum alternative.

  16. A Multi-Step Assessment Scheme for Seismic Network Site Selection in Densely Populated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenkers, Katrin; Husen, Stephan; Kraft, Toni

    2015-10-01

    We developed a multi-step assessment scheme for improved site selection during seismic network installation in densely populated areas. Site selection is a complex process where different aspects (seismic background noise, geology, and financing) have to be taken into account. In order to improve this process, we developed a step-wise approach that allows quantifying the quality of a site by using, in addition to expert judgement and test measurements, two weighting functions as well as reference stations. Our approach ensures that the recording quality aimed for is reached and makes different sites quantitatively comparable to each other. Last but not least, it is an easy way to document the decision process, because all relevant parameters are listed, quantified, and weighted.

  17. An algorithm for radar scene matching based on multi-area selection using fuzzy sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Zuo, Zhengrong; Zhang, Tianxu; Mao, Haicen

    2005-10-01

    Radar scene matching technique has been widely found in many application fields such as remote sensing, navigation, terrain-map match, scenery variance analysis and so on. Radar image geometry is quite different from that of optical satellite imagery, whose imaging is a slanting imaging of electromagnetic microwave reflection. The different characters between radar image and optical satellite images are very distinct, such as the layover distortion of ground-truth and speckle noise, which degrades the image to such an extent that the features are very unclear and difficult to be extracted. So the factors such as the hypsography, ground truth, sensor altitude and imaging time should be taken into account for radar image and optical image matching. In this paper, we develop an image match algorithm based on reference map multi-area selection using fuzzy sets. Image matching is generally a procedure that calculates the similarity measurement between sensed image and the corresponding intercepted image in reference map and it searches the maximum position in the correlation map. Our method adopts a converse matching strategy which selects multi-areas in optical reference map using fuzzy sets as model images, then match them on the sensed image respectively by normalized cross correlation matching algorithm and fuse the match results to get the optimum registered position. Multi-areas selection mainly considers two influence factors such as ground-truth texture features and the hypsography (DEM) of imaging region, which will suppress the influence of great variance imaging region. Experiment results show the method is effective in registering performance and reducing the calculation.

  18. Distributed Deployment Scheme for Homogeneous Distribution of Randomly Deployed Mobile Sensor Nodes in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Sharma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most active research areas in wireless sensor networks is the coverage. The efficiency of the sensor network is measured in terms of the coverage area and connectivity. Therefore these factors must be considered during the deployment. In this paper, we have presented a scheme for homogeneous distribution of randomly distributed mobile sensor nodes (MSNs in the deployment area. The deployment area is square in shape, which is divided into number of concentric regions centered at Base Station, these regions are separated by half of the communication range and further deployment area is divided in to numbers of regular hexagons. To achieve the maximum coverage and better connectivity MSNs will set themselves at the center of the hexagon on the instruction provided by the BS which is located at one of the corner in the deployment area. The simulation results shows that the presented scheme is better than CPVF and FLOOR schemes in terms of number of MSNs required for same coverage area and average movement required by MSNs to fix themselves at the desired location and energy efficiency.

  19. The importance of a proper selection area to be biopsied in nodular leukoplakia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagin, Otávio; Santos, Paulo Sérgio da Silva; Del Neri, Nathalia Bigelli; Gustavo de Lima, Heliton; Lara, Vanessa Soares

    2014-03-01

    Nodular leukoplakia is a non-homogeneous type of oral leukoplakia presenting a white surface with verrucous, nodular, ulcerated or erythematous features with a greater risk of malignant transformation when compared to the homogeneous type. Common sites of involvement include lip commissures, buccal mucosa and soft palate. It is often associated with epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma and requires detailed microscopic assessment and regular follow-up. The importance of a proper selection of the area to be biopsied and the close teamwork between a dentist and oral pathologist is the basis of providing an accurate final diagnosis.

  20. Large-area graphene films by simple solution casting of edge-selectively functionalized graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seo-Yoon; Jeon, In-Yup; Yang, Jieun; Park, Noejung; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Park, Sungjin; Ruoff, Rodney S; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2011-06-28

    We report edge-selective functionalization of graphite (EFG) for the production of large-area uniform graphene films by simply solution-casting EFG dispersions in dichloromethane on silicon oxide substrates, followed by annealing. The resultant graphene films show ambipolar transport properties with sheet resistances of 0.52-3.11 kΩ/sq at 63-90% optical transmittance. EFG allows solution processing methods for the scalable production of electrically conductive, optically transparent, and mechanically robust flexible graphene films for use in practice.

  1. Selective-Area Growth of Transferable InN Nanocolumns by Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Nanotemplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Guozhen; Xu, Yang; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-02-01

    InN nanocolumn arrays were grown on c-plane sapphire with and without anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanotemplates. The crystalline quality of InN nanocolumns was significantly improved by selective-area growth (SAG) using AAO templates, as verified by X-ray diffraction measurements. Then, InN nanocolumns were transferred onto p-type silicon substrates after etching off the AAO templates. Current-voltage characteristic of the transferred n-InN/p-Si heterojunctions shows on/off ratio as high as 4.65 × 103 at 2 V. This work offers a potential way to grow transferable devices with improving performances.

  2. On year Study of Atmospheric Polychlorinated Biphenyls in a Selected Area of Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.

    2002-07-01

    Monthly ambient air and surface soil samples were taken for analysis in the outskirts of Madrid in an open urban area from November 1998 to October 1999. Thirty-one congeners were selected according to their abundance in environmental samples. A comparison of the data so produced with concentration levels obtained in urban centre samples and compiled data was performed. Temperatures higher than 10 degree centigree resulted in increasing ambient air levis and a peak concentration was also observed when wind velocity ranged between 2.5 and 3.5 m.s''-1. (Author) 27 refs.

  3. Selective area growth of heterostructure bipolar transistors by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, R. A.; Feygenson, A.; Ritter, D.; Wang, Y. L.; Temkin, H.; Yadvish, R. D.; Panish, M. B.

    1992-08-01

    Heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBT) have been grown by selective area epitaxy (SAE) using metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE). dc characteristics, comparable to those for devices grown on unprocessed substrates, were obtained after removal of the edge growth. Data is also presented for devices in which the emitter mesas were regrown by SAE into openings which had been previously defined by photolithography on a structure containing only the collector and base layers. In both cases we use an in situ cleaning process consisting of an Ar ion beam sputtering and Cl2 etching. This step results in significantly improved junction quality.

  4. a Geographic Analysis of Optimal Signage Location Selection in Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ling; Long, Ying; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Xiao Ling

    2016-06-01

    As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  5. A GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL SIGNAGE LOCATION SELECTION IN SCENIC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  6. Present and future assessment of growing degree days over selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, D. R.; Mohapatra, M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Kumar, Arun

    2016-08-01

    The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). The current study focuses on three selected study areas in Greece that are characterised by different climatic conditions due to their location and aims to assess the future variation and spatial distribution of Growing Degree Days (GDD) and how these can affect the main cultivations in the study areas. Future temperature data were obtained and analysed by the ENSEMBLES project. The analysis was performed for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 with the A1B and B1 scenarios. Spatial distribution was performed using a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling technique through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that for all the future periods and scenarios, the GDD are expected to increase. Furthermore, the increase in the Sperchios River basin will be the highest, followed by the Ardas and the Geropotamos River basins. Moreover, the cultivation period will be shifted from April-October to April-September which will have social, economical and environmental benefits. Additionally, the spatial distribution indicated that in the upcoming years the existing cultivations can find favourable conditions and can be expanded in mountainous areas as well. On the other hand, due to the rough topography that exists in the study areas, the wide expansion of the existing cultivations into higher altitudes is unaffordable. Nevertheless, new more profitable cultivations can be introduced which can find propitious conditions in terms of GDD.

  7. The views of intensive care nurses regarding short-term deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokgadi C. Matlakala

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Short-term deployment of nurses is usually used within the hospital units in order to ‘balance the numbers’ or to cover the shortage of staff in the different units. Often nurses in the intensive care unit (ICU are sent to go and assist in other units, where there is not enough nursing staff or when their own unit is not busy.Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the views of the ICU nurses regarding short-term deployment to other units.Method: A qualitative design was used, following interpretivism. The study was conducted in the ICUs of two hospitals in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Data were collected through focus group interviews with a purposive sample of registered nurses working in the selected ICUs, transcribed verbatim and analysed using open coding.Results: The participants shared a similar view that deployment to other units should be based on a formal agreement, with policies and procedures. Consultation and negotiation are recommended prior to deployment of staff. Management should recognise and acknowledge expertise of ICU nurses in their own speciality area.Conclusion: The findings call for redesign of a deployment policy that will suit nurses from the speciality areas such as ICU.

  8. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Economic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    Baseline unemployment rate projections, Texas/New Mexico. 124 4.3-1 In- migrant labor force and demographic assumptions. 128 5.1-1 Employment impacts...in- migrant labor force are employed would then prompt additional labor force in-migration. Some of the workers in the secondary labor force are... migrant labor force, in-migration of construction workers would exceed the excess demand for constr-action labor. For example, an excess demand for

  9. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Aquatic Habitats and Biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    county have increased 70 percent in the last five years ( Greenley , 1980). The Department of Wildlife in Nevada and the Department of Wildlife Resources...written Report for National Park Service. Greenley , I.C., 6 August 1980. Director, Nevada Dept. of Wildlife. Letter MX80-MISC-INC- 189. Hardy, T

  10. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Mining and Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    182.9 24.6 Total 600.3 100.0 753.4 100.0 744.3 iD.0 T091110-2-81/F I ncludes asphalt, beryllium, carbon dioxide, cement, clays ( kaolin and fuller’s...Cir. No. 3. 1932. "Gold in Texas," Texas Bureau of Econ. Geology, Min. Res. Cir. No. 5. 1935. " Sulphur in Texas," Texas Bureau of Econ. Geology, Min...Found in Sulphur Mining District, T. 30 S., R. 15 W. 50 2. Alunite. At White Mountain, T. 29 S., R. 12 & 13 W. Zone 5 mi (9 km) long. ,- *’ 50 3. Barite

  11. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Regional Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    local government. There was also a modest reduction of 21 jobs in the finance, insurance, and real estate industry . Counterbalancing these secular...retail trade; the finance, insurance, and real estate industry ; and services employment. All of these sectors had average growth rates above 7 percent

  12. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    SITE IS IN DUGWAY PROVING GROUNDS IUTAHI DENOTES PROPERTY NOT ILLUSTRATED. OUTSIDE OF UTAH STUDY ARTA 4749-B 17 I*’ 5441 130 se AA BA74- 3230URE 0--HI...Richardson. A Spence, Mary Lee, and Donald Jackson, eds., 1973. The Expedition of 3onn Charles Fremont, The Bear Flag Revolt and the Court- Martial

  13. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Lincoln County, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    1 Z u - I)~--L a m 0commc- CN 0O u) r- M~ r- r-r- 0 N~iLO Ln.711- C.) -~ C’ 0.ir- 000o i-or 0w w 0 00 00 oon 4OO0 (~D - in0 0) - cine ~~~ -’ ni-o Mnc...C7, L-W O 3 -0) C,:3- 0) r D - 0) z -D 0) E D Z :Z C0) c D C: 70a,0 C a’I 0 C) 00 C -; C) C C) 0 c ) C) IL w E L-~ L 0 C’ z u L LZ L- LZU LUZ L I *i D

  14. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Native Americans Texas/New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    Apaches, licarillas, Conejeros, Ochos, and Rio Colorados on the Cimarron River and desc-ibed Apaches (and Pueblos) as harvesting maize , pumpkins...sent south in 1878. The 32 left in January of 1879 and returned to Tierra Amarillo --in response to Anglo depredations on the Mescalero reservation

  15. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Power and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    MediumFlat Plat 50 C to 1500 C Space Heating Parabolic Trough or Dish Medium to High Process heatand’ 200°0 C to 00°0 C electricity Heliostats and...Alternative 43 2.3 Estimating Methodology for Fuel and Energy Requirements 43 2.3.1 Introduction 43 2.3.2 Estimating Methods for Determining Heating ...Requirements 53 2.5.2 OB Operations: Energy Requirements 53 2.5.3 Central Cooling and Heating Facility 55 2.5.4 Support Communities: Energy Requirements

  16. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume IV. Part I. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    UBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE ACRONYMS REFERENCES LIST OF PREPARERS INDEX DISTRIBUTION LIST CONTENTS 4.1 Introduction 4-1 4.2 Description of Proposed Action and... zeolites , a suspected carcinogen, occur in the soil. Distribution of zeolites in the Great Basin soils is discussed under Mining and Geology (Section...SPRINGPISH 3 WHITE RIVER SPRINOPISH 38 HIKO WFITE RIVER SPRINGFISH 3b MOAPA WHITE RIVER SPRINGFISH 4 ASH MEADOWS SPECKLED DACE 5 INDEPENDENCE VALLEY

  17. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. Chapter 3. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter). Volume 2. Affected Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    horticulture program in 1978 cultivating tomatoes . Their "Paiute Brand" tomatoes were being sold to hotels and retailers in Las Vegas and Phoenix and they were...dairy. Minerals extraction and primary processing are important, including alunite, and gravel, perlite , molybdenum, and geothermal steam. Quality of

  18. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume 4, Part III. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    The two most common types of livestock operations are cow-calf and ewe- lamb. Marketed animals usually go to other states for additional fattening on...frequent valleys, except for Gambel’s quail and Chukar’s partridge in winter. Impacts to these species are expected to be minimal. Waterfowl in the...agriculture could negatively impact bobwhite quail , but would probably have a reciprocal effect on scaled quail and lesser prairie chickens if the

  19. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter) Environmental Technical Report. Volume 2. Protected Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    Kuetzing * ** Rhizoclonium sp. Kuetzing (probably) Dichotornosi phonal es Dichotomosiohon tuberosus (Braun) Ernst * ** ** OedogonialI es Oedogonium ...trinonum v. paoilliferum (Schroed.) Lemmer. ex. Brun. eonils Oedogn*ale Oedogonium spp. Link *** Tetrasporal es Gloeocystis sp. laegeli GU. amola

  20. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition. Chapter 3. M-X/MPS (M-X/Multiple Protective Shelter). Volume 1. Affected Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    latipinna Sailf in molly P. reticulata Guppy ’Rip-h-oporus helleri Green swordtail X. maculatus Southern platyfish Family PERCIDAE Perch 1,2 * Perca...grindelioides var. depressa MAGRD 3c *Machaeranthera leuccL ithemifolia (Greene) Green~e MALE 3c Mentzelia leucophylla Bdg. I MELE 1 * \\ertensia toivabensis...be those between 24 and 64) and the ratio of males to females. The latter generally reflects the ability of females to find employment on or near the

  1. Wetland Survey of Selected Areas in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Area of Responsibilty, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel

    1997-01-01

    This document was prepared to summarize wetland surveys performed in the Y- 1 2 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994. Wetland surveys were conducted in three areas within the Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994: the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Operable Unit (OU), part of the Bear Creek Valley OU (the upper watershed of Bear Creek from the culvert under Bear Creek Road upstream through the Y-12 West End Environmental Management Area, and the catchment of Bear Creek North Tributary 1), and part of Chestnut Ridge OU 2 (the McCoy Branch area south of Bethel Valley Road). Using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual, 18 wetland areas were identified in the 3 areas surveyed; these areas were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin. Fourteen wetlands and one wetland/pond area that are associated with disturbed or remnant stream channels and seeps were identified in the UEFPC OU. Three wetlands were identified in the Bear Creek Valley OU portion of the survey area. One wetland was identified in the riparian zone of McCoy Branch in the southern portion of Chestnut Ridge OU 2.

  2. Los Alamos National Laboratory Tritium Technology Deployments Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFee, J.; Blauvelt, D.; Stallings, E.; Willms, S.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the organization, planning and initial implementation of a DOE OST program to deploy proven, cost effective technologies into D&D programs throughout the complex. The primary intent is to accelerate closure of the projects thereby saving considerable funds and at the same time being protective of worker health and the environment. Most of the technologies in the ''toolkit'' for this program have been demonstrated at a DOE site as part of a Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP). The Mound Tritium D&D LSDDP served as the base program for the technologies being deployed in this project but other LSDDP demonstrated technologies or ready-for-use commercial technologies will also be considered. The project team will evaluate needs provided by site D&D project managers, match technologies against those needs and rank deployments using a criteria listing. After selecting deployments the project will purchase the equipment and provide a deployment engineer to facilitate the technology implementation. Other cost associated with the use of the technology will be borne by the site including operating staff, safety and health reviews etc. A cost and performance report will be prepared following the deployment to document the results.

  3. Flood inundation extent and depth in selected areas of Louisiana in August 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, Elizabeth; Watson, Kara M.

    2017-01-01

    A slow-moving area of low pressure and a high amount of atmospheric moisture produced heavy rainfall across Louisiana and southwest Mississippi in August 2016. Over 31 inches of rain was reported in Watson, 30 miles northeast of Baton Rouge, over the duration of the event. The result was major flooding that occurred in the southern portions of Louisiana and included areas surrounding Baton Rouge and Lafayette along rivers such as the Amite, Comite, Tangipahoa, Tickfaw, Vermilion, and Mermentau. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Lower Mississippi-Gulf Water Science Center operates many continuous, streamflow-gaging stations in the impacted area.  Peak streamflows of record were measured at 10 locations, and seven other locations experienced peak streamflows ranking in the top 5 for the duration of the period of record. In August 2016, USGS personnel  made fifty streamflow measurements at 21 locations on streams in Louisiana. Many of those streamflow measurements were made for the purpose of verifying the accuracy of the stage-streamflow relation at the associated gaging station. USGS personnel also recovered and documented 590 high-water marks after the storm event by noting the location and height of the water above land surface. Many of these high water marks were used to create twelve flood-inundation maps for selected communities of Louisiana that experienced flooding in August 2016. This data release provides the actual flood-depth measurements made in selected river basins of Louisiana that were used to produce the flood-inundation maps published in the companion product (Watson and others, 2017). 

  4. Spatially explicit decision support for selecting translocation areas for Mojave desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Jill S.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Inman, Richard D.; Davenport, Frank; Leuteritz, Thomas E.; Medica, Philip A.; Strout, Nathan W.; Burgess, Paul A.; Benvenuti, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Spatially explicit decision support systems are assuming an increasing role in natural resource and conservation management. In order for these systems to be successful, however, they must address real-world management problems with input from both the scientific and management communities. The National Training Center at Fort Irwin, California, has expanded its training area, encroaching U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service critical habitat set aside for the Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), a federally threatened species. Of all the mitigation measures proposed to offset expansion, the most challenging to implement was the selection of areas most feasible for tortoise translocation. We developed an objective, open, scientifically defensible spatially explicit decision support system to evaluate translocation potential within the Western Mojave Recovery Unit for tortoise populations under imminent threat from military expansion. Using up to a total of 10 biological, anthropogenic, and/or logistical criteria, seven alternative translocation scenarios were developed. The final translocation model was a consensus model between the seven scenarios. Within the final model, six potential translocation areas were identified.

  5. Planar avalanche photodiodes with edge breakdown suppression using a novel selective area growth based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, O. J.; Hisko, M.; Benyon, W.; Bonneville, G.; Storey, C.; SpringThorpe, A. J.

    2017-07-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel process to fabricate planar avalanche photodiodes using selective area growth (SAG) followed by a single Zn diffusion through the SAG material using the same dielectric mask. The tapered surface profile of the SAG epitaxy due to the enhancement of the growth rate in the vicinity of the mask edge modifies the diffusion profile, resulting in a gradual reduction of the diffusion depth towards the outer edge of the active area. The associated reduction of the electric field counteracts the edge curvature effect sufficiently to suppress edge breakdown. For undoped InP SAG epitaxy, small areas of higher electric field occur where the mask edge is along the [1 0 0] or [0 1 0] directions, associated with the formation of enhanced ridges in the SAG material in these locations. Similar ridges are observed for Si-doped InP and InP/InGaAs/InP SAG structures, but the enhancement of the electric field in these locations is significantly lower.

  6. Development of deployable structures for large space platforms. Volume 2: Design development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1983-01-01

    Design evolution, test article design, test article mass properties, and structural analysis of deployable platform systems are discussed. Orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) hangar development, OTV hangar concept selection, and manned module development are discussed. Deployable platform systems requirements, material data base, technology development needs, concept selection and deployable volume enclosures are also discussed.

  7. Self-Deployable Membrane Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Witold M.; Willis, Paul B.; Tan, Seng C.

    2010-01-01

    Currently existing approaches for deployment of large, ultra-lightweight gossamer structures in space rely typically upon electromechanical mechanisms and mechanically expandable or inflatable booms for deployment and to maintain them in a fully deployed, operational configuration. These support structures, with the associated deployment mechanisms, launch restraints, inflation systems, and controls, can comprise more than 90 percent of the total mass budget. In addition, they significantly increase the stowage volume, cost, and complexity. A CHEM (cold hibernated elastic memory) membrane structure without any deployable mechanism and support booms/structure is deployed by using shape memory and elastic recovery. The use of CHEM micro-foams reinforced with carbon nanotubes is considered for thin-membrane structure applications. In this advanced structural concept, the CHEM membrane structure is warmed up to allow packaging and stowing prior to launch, and then cooled to induce hibernation of the internal restoring forces. In space, the membrane remembers its original shape and size when warmed up. After the internal restoring forces deploy the structure, it is then cooled to achieve rigidization. For this type of structure, the solar radiation could be utilized as the heat energy used for deployment and space ambient temperature for rigidization. The overall simplicity of the CHEM self-deployable membrane is one of its greatest assets. In present approaches to space-deployable structures, the stow age and deployment are difficult and challenging, and introduce a significant risk, heavy mass, and high cost. Simple procedures provided by CHEM membrane greatly simplify the overall end-to-end process for designing, fabricating, deploying, and rigidizing large structures. The CHEM membrane avoids the complexities associated with other methods for deploying and rigidizing structures by eliminating deployable booms, deployment mechanisms, and inflation and control systems

  8. Joint for deployable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, N. D., II; Preliasco, R. J.; Hult, T. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A joint is described for connecting a pair of beams to pivot them between positions in alignment or beside one another, which is of light weight and which operates in a controlled manner. The joint includes a pair of fittings and at least one center link having opposite ends pivotally connected to opposite fittings and having axes that pass through centerplates of the fittings. A control link having opposite ends pivotally connected to the different fittings controls their relative orientations, and a toggle assemly holds the fittings in the deployed configuration wherein they are aligned. The fittings have stops that lie on one side of the centerplane opposite the toggle assembly.

  9. GaAs Solar Cells on V-Grooved Silicon via Selective Area Growth: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Emily L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tamboli, Adele C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vaisman, Michelle [Yale University; Li, Qiang [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Lau, Kei May [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

    2017-08-31

    Interest in integrating III-Vs onto Si has recently resurged as a promising pathway towards high-efficiency, low-cost tandem photovoltaics. Here, we present a single junction GaAs solar cell grown monolithically on polished Si (001) substrates using V-grooves, selective area growth, and aspect ratio trapping to mitigate defect formation without the use of expensive, thick graded buffers. The GaAs is free of antiphase domains and maintains a relatively low TDD of 4x107 cm-2, despite the lack of a graded buffer. This 6.25 percent-efficient demonstration solar cell shows promise for further improvements to III-V/Si tandems to enable cost-competitive photovoltaics.

  10. Selective Area Sublimation: A Simple Top-down Route for GaN-Based Nanowire Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damilano, B; Vézian, S; Brault, J; Alloing, B; Massies, J

    2016-03-09

    Post-growth in situ partial SiNx masking of GaN-based epitaxial layers grown in a molecular beam epitaxy reactor is used to get GaN selective area sublimation (SAS) by high temperature annealing. Using this top-down approach, nanowires (NWs) with nanometer scale diameter are obtained from GaN and InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum well epitaxial structures. After GaN regrowth on InxGa1-xN/GaN NWs resulting from SAS, InxGa1-xN quantum disks (QDisks) with nanometer sizes in the three dimensions are formed. Low temperature microphotoluminescence experiments demonstrate QDisk multilines photon emission around 3 eV with individual line widths of 1-2 meV.

  11. Keystone Species, Forest and Landscape: A Model to Select Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Daniela Barbosa da Silva; Gardon, Fernando Ravanini; Meyer, João Frederico da Costa Azevedo; Santos, Rozely Ferreira dos

    2017-06-01

    The selection of forest fragments for conservation is usually based on spatial parameters as forest size and canopy integrity. This strategy assumes that chosen fragments present high conservation status, ensuring biodiversity and ecological functions. We argue that a well-preserved forest fragment that remains connected by the landscape structure, does not necessarily hold attributes that ensure the presence of keystone species. We also discuss that the presence of keystone species does not always mean that it has the best conditions for its occurrence and maintenance. We developed a model to select areas in forest landscapes to be prioritized for protection based on suitability curves that unify and compare spatial indicators of three categories: forest fragment quality, landscape quality, and environmental conditions for the occurrence of a keystone species. We use a case study to compare different suitability degrees for Euterpe edulis presence, considered an important functional element in Atlantic Forest (São Paulo, Brazil) landscapes and a forest resource for local people. The results show that the identification of medium or advanced stage fragments as singular indicator of forest quality does not guarantee the existence or maintenance of this keystone species. Even in some well-preserved forest fragments, connected to others and with palm presence, the reverse J-shaped distribution of the population size structure is not sustained and these forests continue to be threatened due to human disturbances.

  12. Species identification and selection to develop agroforestry at Lake Toba Catchment Area (LTCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURHENI WIJAYANTO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wijayanto N (2011 Species identification and selection to develop agroforestry at Lake Toba Catchment Area (LTCA. Biodiversitas 12: 52-58. In order to improve land productivity surrounding the LTCA, the existing ITTO project tries to establish agroforestry system. The system will be designed to meet consideration of both sides. on one side is to generate the people awareness of the forest and land rehabilitation, and on the other side is to support the poverty reduction. The aims of this research are: species identification and selection to develop agroforestry at LTCA. Data collecting was carried out with: interview, group discussion, field observation, divining manual study, and PRA. The diversity of the available crop kind shows the number of choices to be developed by the farmer. The farmers generally have the economic objective to develop agroforestry, including increase in net income, risk reduction, increase in environmental service, and the wealth and savings accumulation. Various types of agricultural crops, plantations and forest trees were found in LTCA. They can be the basis for building a wide variety of agroforestry systems.

  13. Monolithic mode locked DBR laser with multiple-bandgap MQW structure realized by selective area growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, M.; Bouayad-Amine, J.; Feeser, T.; Haisch, H.; Kuehn, E.; Lach, E.; Satzke, K.; Weber, J.; Zielinski, E. [Alcatel Telecom, Stuttgart (Germany). Research Div.

    1996-12-31

    The realization of novel monolithically integrated multiple-segment pulse laser sources in InGaAsP MQW technology is reported. The MQW layers for all functional sections of these devices, the modulator, the active (gain) and the passive waveguide, as well as the Bragg section were grown in a single selective area growth (SAG) step by LP-MOVPE on SiO{sub 2} patterned 2 inch InP substrates. Due to a properly selected pattern geometry 3 different bandgap regions with smooth interfaces are thereby formed along the laser cavity. The more than 4 mm long DBR lasers which exhibit a threshold current as low as 30 mA were mode locked by an intra-cavity electroabsorption modulator applying a sinusoidal voltage at around 10 GHz. In this way an optical pulse train with pulse widths < 13 ps (measured with a streak camera) and high extinction ratio was generated. A time-bandwidth product of 0.5 close to the Fourier limit is obtained. This device is very attractive for signal generation in 40 Gb/s OTDM transmission systems at 1.55 {micro}m wavelength.

  14. Selection of priority areas for payment of environmental services: an analysis at the watershed level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Salles Rosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we selected priority areas for conservation of water resources to support programs for environmental services (PSA payment. The proposal will be used for the implementation of the PSA pilot project in the watershed of the Murundu, Ibiúna-SP, to support PSA public policy to foster sustainability. To do so, land use information layers, vegetative cover and slope were organized in a GIS environment in order to allow through cross tabulation the selection of priorities to generate a thematic map. From this map, we performed qualitative and a quantitative analysis, as well as priority setting ranges. The tools used have shown to be useful in supporting decision-making and research and public policy in PSA, focusing on increasing the governance of water resources. It is clear that remuneration for “standing forest" definitely represents the major prospect in the watershed of the river’s Murundu, as well as the possibility of converting monetary values of the payment into other forms of support to providers of the service according to their priorities.

  15. Integrated GIS-Based Site Selection of Hillside Development for Future Growth of Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ahmed Chandio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a challenging issue for developing countries, like Malaysia. Penang Island is one of the states of Malaysia selected as a study area where limited flat land exists. As a result, this would create urban environmental problems, such as unstable slopes and landslides due to uneven topography. The purpose of this study was to develop land suitability model for hillside development. Hence, this research aims land suitability analysis modelling for hillside development by using integrated GIS (Geographic Information System based MCDM (Multi-Criteria Decision Making approach. The hill land portion of Penang Island was selected for hillside site development using GIS and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process as a MCDM method for sustainable hillside development. This study found that 15% of land was highly suitable, 27% moderately suitable, 41% less suitable, and 17% not suitable. Therefore, this research can be consistently used by the concerned authorities for sustainable hillside urban planning and development. This approach can be used as a policy tool in decision making of urban planning and development.

  16. Kinematics in Kapteyn's Selected Area 76: Orbital Motions Within the Highly Substructured Anticenter Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Jeffrey L; Grillmair, Carl J; Majewski, Steven R; Girard, Terrence M

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the mean three-dimensional kinematics of stars in Kapteyn's Selected Area (SA) 76 (l=209.3, b=26.4 degrees) that were selected to be Anticenter Stream (ACS) members on the basis of their radial velocities, proper motions, and location in the color-magnitude diagram. From a total of 31 stars ascertained to be ACS members primarily from its main sequence turnoff, a mean ACS radial velocity (derived from spectra obtained with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5m telescope) of V_helio = 97.0 +/- 2.8 km/s was determined, with an intrinsic velocity dispersion sigma_0 = 12.8 \\pm 2.1 km/s. The mean absolute proper motions of these 31 ACS members are mu_alpha cos (delta) = -1.20 +/- 0.34 mas/yr and mu_delta = -0.78 \\pm 0.36 mas/yr. At a distance to the ACS of 10 \\pm 3 kpc, these measured kinematical quantities produce an orbit that deviates by ~30 degrees from the well-defined swath of stellar overdensity constituting the Anticenter Stream in the western portion of the Sloan Digital Sk...

  17. Kinematics of Stars in Kapteyn Selected Area 71: Sampling the Monoceros and Sagittarius Tidal Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I; Girard, Terrence M; Majewski, Steven R; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Patterson, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    We present a 3D kinematical analysis of stars located in Kapteyn Selected Area 71 (l = 167.1, b = -34.7), where previously a stellar excess was found (Dinescu et al. 2002, Newberg et al. 2002). Previous findings indicated that the stellar excess has a cold kinematical signature as inferred from proper motions, and was initially associated with debris from the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr) -- namely the southern trailing tail. We have obtained radial velocities using the Hydra multiobject spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. Results for 183 proper-motion selected stars indicate that the dominant population in this stellar excess is not debris from Sgr, but rather a population that kinematically belongs to the ring-like stream that is now known as the Monoceros stream. The orbit determined for this population agrees very well with the predictions for the Monoceros stream from Penarrubia et al. (2005). The radial-velocity dispersion of this population is between 20 and 30 km/s, lower than that of the Galac...

  18. Selective-area growth and controlled substrate coupling of transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersch, Brian M.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Zhang, Kehao; Bhimanapati, Ganesh R.; Piasecki, Aleksander F.; Labella, Michael, III; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2017-06-01

    Developing a means for true bottom-up, selective-area growth of two-dimensional (2D) materials on device-ready substrates will enable synthesis in regions only where they are needed. Here, we demonstrate seed-free, site-specific nucleation of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with precise control over lateral growth by utilizing an ultra-thin polymeric surface functionalization capable of precluding nucleation and growth. This polymer functional layer (PFL) is derived from conventional photoresists and lithographic processing, and is compatible with multiple growth techniques, precursors (metal organics, solid-source) and TMDs. Additionally, we demonstrate that the substrate can play a major role in TMD transport properties. With proper TMD/substrate decoupling, top-gated field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated with selectively-grown monolayer MoS2 channels are competitive with current reported MoS2 FETs. The work presented here demonstrates that substrate surface engineering is key to realizing precisely located and geometrically-defined 2D layers via unseeded chemical vapor deposition techniques.

  19. Pasture species selection for revegetation of open-cut coal mine areas in central Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, B.P.; Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Thumma, B.R.; Mott, J.J. [CSIRO, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures

    1997-07-01

    This paper outlines a successful approach that was followed to evaluate grass and legume accessions for revegetation of low fertility and saline coal mine spoils. At the first stage, using seed collection records (passport data) of the Australian Tropical Forages Genetic Resource Centre, a range of grasses and legumes adapted to low rainfall, clay soils and saline areas were selected. At the second stage, legume seed was germinated in NaCl solutions of 0 to 0.2 M and salinity tolerance was assessed based on germination percentage and seedling vigour. At the third stage, germination of legumes was assessed in pots filled with mine top-soil and spoils to be revegetated. Grasses were not included in stages 2 and 3 as adequate passport data was available to select a range of accession for the 4th stage. The fourth stage of evaluation comprised field trails of 10 grass and 10 legume accessions, on two top-soils and two spoils. A stoloniferous from of Urochloa mosamblicensis was the most promising grass providing up to 20% of ground cover 12 months after establishment. Legumes surviving at the end of the first season were Desmanthus subulatus, D. virgatus and Neptunia dimorphantha on top-soil and Clitoria ternatea, Leucaena leucocephala, and Rhynchosia sublobata on the spoil. Depending on long term survival, grass and legume accessions will be released as cultivars for minesite revegetation purposes. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Area-selective atomic layer deposition of platinum using photosensitive polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervuurt, René H. J.; Sharma, Akhil; Jiao, Yuqing; Kessels, Wilhelmus (Erwin M. M.; Bol, Ageeth A.

    2016-10-01

    Area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD) of platinum (Pt) was studied using photosensitive polyimide as a masking layer. The polyimide films were prepared by spin-coating and patterned using photolithography. AS-ALD of Pt using poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) masking layers was used as a reference. The results show that polyimide has excellent selectivity towards the Pt deposition, after 1000 ALD cycles less than a monolayer of Pt is deposited on the polyimide surface. The polyimide film could easily be removed after ALD using a hydrogen plasma, due to a combination of weakening of the polyimide resist during Pt ALD and the catalytic activity of Pt traces on the polyimide surface. Compared to PMMA for AS-ALD of Pt, polyimide has better temperature stability. This resulted in an improved uniformity of the Pt deposits and superior definition of the Pt patterns. In addition, due to the absence of reflow contamination using polyimide the nucleation phase during Pt ALD is drastically shortened. Pt patterns down to 3.5 μm were created with polyimide, a factor of ten smaller than what is possible using PMMA, at the typical Pt ALD processing temperature of 300 °C. Initial experiments indicate that after further optimization of the polyimide process Pt features down to 100 nm should be possible, which makes AS-ALD of Pt using photosensitive polyimide a promising candidate for patterning at the nanoscale.

  1. Field Deployable DNA analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, E; Christian, A; Marion, J; Sorensen, K; Arroyo, E; Vrankovich, G; Hara, C; Nguyen, C

    2005-02-09

    This report details the feasibility of a field deployable DNA analyzer. Steps for swabbing cells from surfaces and extracting DNA in an automatable way are presented. Since enzymatic amplification reactions are highly sensitive to environmental contamination, sample preparation is a crucial step to make an autonomous deployable instrument. We perform sample clean up and concentration in a flow through packed bed. For small initial samples, whole genome amplification is performed in the packed bed resulting in enough product for subsequent PCR amplification. In addition to DNA, which can be used to identify a subject, protein is also left behind, the analysis of which can be used to determine exposure to certain substances, such as radionuclides. Our preparative step for DNA analysis left behind the protein complement as a waste stream; we determined to learn if the proteins themselves could be analyzed in a fieldable device. We successfully developed a two-step lateral flow assay for protein analysis and demonstrate a proof of principle assay.

  2. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the...

  3. Area- and Depth-Weighted Averages of Selected SSURGO Variables for the Conterminous United States and District of Columbia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data release consists of seven national data files of area- and depth-weighted averages of select soil attributes for every available county in the...

  4. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses...

  5. Assessment and selection of geomorphosites and trails in the Miage Glacier area (Western Italian alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollati, Irene; Smiraglia, Claudio; Pelfini, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Glacial environments are considered geomorphosites because they exhibit all of the features that characterise sites of geomorphological interest. The Miage Glacier, in particular, is the most important debris-covered glacier of the Italian Alps, and it has been extensively studied since the 18th century because of its scientific features. In this area, the geomorphological and geological attributes are evaluated at 11 sites that have been individuated along the three main touristic trails, which allow an exploration of the surroundings of the glacial tongue and its two main lobes. Using a methodology previously tested in a fluvial environment, single sites and trails are quantitatively assessed to determine the most suitable trail for educational purposes. Hazards that could potentially affect the trails are considered in terms of both risk education and final selection of the most suitable trails for the various possible user groups. The richness of scientific data in this area should increase its importance as a geomorphosite by increasing the educational value of the Miage Glacier and the Veny Valley.

  6. EFFICIENCY OF GINGER PRODUCTION IN SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job NdaNmadu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the profitability and efficiency of small scale ginger production in selected Local Government Areas of Kaduna State using data collected through personal interview schedules with structured questionnaire. Results from the study showed that majority (96.0% of ginger farmers are male with an average age and farming experience of 42 and 27 years respectively. Majority of the respondents (82.5% are married and possess an average farm size of 3.09hectares. The average household size is 7 and up to 46% of them acquired secondary education. The results also revealed that labor, seed, fertilizer and capital inputs were significant in explaining the output. The mean technical efficiency of 0.799 indicate that an average ginger farmer in the study area will enjoy an output increase of 18.55% if management techniques are improved and he attains the level of the most efficient ginger farmer. Among the various factors affecting inefficiency, farm size and extension contact accentuated inefficiency while access to credit suppressed inefficiency. This might be an indication that the two parameters that encouraged inefficiency were overemployed. Hence, in order to attain the production frontier of the most efficient farmer, farm size should be scaled down or additional quantity of other inputs should be employed. Price fluctuation, unavailability of farm input, poor remunerative price and poor access to credit are the major constraints faced by ginger farmers in the study area. There is need for policies aimed at encouraging extension education, commercial farming, access to credit, and transport facilities.

  7. Terminal field and firing selectivity of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons in the hippocampal CA3 area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasztóczi, Bálint; Tukker, John J; Somogyi, Peter; Klausberger, Thomas

    2011-12-07

    Hippocampal oscillations reflect coordinated neuronal activity on many timescales. Distinct types of GABAergic interneuron participate in the coordination of pyramidal cells over different oscillatory cycle phases. In the CA3 area, which generates sharp waves and gamma oscillations, the contribution of identified GABAergic neurons remains to be defined. We have examined the firing of a family of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons during network oscillations in urethane-anesthetized rats and compared them with firing of CA3 pyramidal cells. The position of the terminals of individual visualized interneurons was highly diverse, selective, and often spatially coaligned with either the entorhinal or the associational inputs to area CA3. The spike timing in relation to theta and gamma oscillations and sharp waves was correlated with the innervated pyramidal cell domain. Basket and dendritic-layer-innervating interneurons receive entorhinal and associational inputs and preferentially fire on the ascending theta phase, when pyramidal cell assemblies emerge. Perforant-path-associated cells, driven by recurrent collaterals of pyramidal cells fire on theta troughs, when established pyramidal cell assemblies are most active. In the CA3 area, slow and fast gamma oscillations occurred on opposite theta oscillation phases. Perforant-path-associated and some COUP-TFII-positive interneurons are strongly coupled to both fast and slow gamma oscillations, but basket and dendritic-layer-innervating cells are weakly coupled to fast gamma oscillations only. During sharp waves, different interneuron types are activated, inhibited, or remain unaffected. We suggest that specialization in pyramidal cell domain and glutamatergic input-specific operations, reflected in the position of GABAergic terminals, is the evolutionary drive underlying the diversity of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons.

  8. Two-dimensional map of direction selectivity in cortical visual area MT of Cebus monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIA CINIRA M. DIOGO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the spatial organization of direction of motion in visual area MT of the Cebus apella monkey. We used arrays of 6 (700 µm apart parallel electrodes in penetrations tangential to the cortical layers to record multi-unit responses to moving bars, at 200 µm steps. We determined the direction selectivity at each recording site. The data from single penetrations showed cyclic and gradual changes in the direction selectivity of clusters of cells, intermixed with abrupt 180º discontinuities along the electrode track. In order to obtain maps of direction of motion selectivity, we examined the spatial distribution of direction of motion in MT and we applied a method to determine the location of the centers of radial arrangements of direction selectivity. This tangential organization is characterized by slow continuous changes in direction of motion, interrupted by discontinuities. The changes in direction selectivity are organized radially in a pinwheel fashion and in slabs of linear variation. The pinwheel arrangements have 800-1400 µm in diameter. The size of the radial arrangement is comparable to the point image size in area MT at each eccentricity.Estudamos a organização espacial da seletividade ao sentido do movimento na área visual MT do macaco Cebus apella. Utilizamos um arranjo de 6 eletródios paralelos (separados por 700µm em penetrações tangenciais às camadas corticais para registrar, a cada 200µm, a atividade multi-unitária em resposta a barras em movimento. Determinamos a seletividade ao sentido de movimento em cada sítio de registro. Os dados captados por um único eletródio mostraram uma mudança cíclica e gradual na seletividade ao sentido de movimento dos grupos de neurônios registrados ao longo da trajetória do eletródio, interrompida por mudanças abruptas de 180º ocasionando descontinuidades na seletividade ao sentido do movimento. Para obter mapas de seletividade ao sentido do movimento, examinamos a

  9. Heterogeneous Deployment Analysis for Cost-Effective Mobile Network Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coletti, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The plethora of connected devices, such as attractive smartphones, data dongles and 3G/4G built-in tablet computers, has brought mobile operators to face increasing demand in mobile broadband traffic and services. In addition to the roll-out of Long Term Evolution (LTE), the deployment of small low...... available at the macro layer for wireless backhaul. The main goal is to investigate the LTE downlink performance of different deployment configurations, focusing on spectrum allocation schemes and deployment strategies that are needed to maximize network coverage. Differently from most studies using...... statistical models of deployment areas, the performance analysis is carried out in the form of operator case studies for large-scale deployment scenarios, including realistic macro network layouts and inhomogeneous spatial traffic distributions. Deployment of small cells is performed by means of proposed...

  10. Deployment dynamics of tethered-net for space debris removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Minghe; Guo, Jian; Gill, Eberhard

    2017-03-01

    A tethered-net is a promising method for space debris capturing. However, its deployment dynamics is complex because of the flexibility, and its dependency of the deployment parameters is insufficiently understood. To investigate the deployment dynamics of tethered-net, four critical deployment parameters, namely maximum net area, deployment time, traveling distance and effective period are identified in this paper, and the influence of initial deployment conditions on these four parameters is investigated. Besides, a comprehensive study on a model for the tethered-net based on absolute nodal coordinates formulation (ANCF) is provided. Simulations show that the results based on the ANCF modeling method present a good agreement with that based on the conventional mass-spring modeling method. Moreover, ANCF model is capable of describing the flexibility between two nodes on the net. However, it is more computationally expensive.

  11. Reducing the power consumption in LTE-Advanced wireless access networks by a capacity based deployment tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruyck, Margot; Joseph, Wout; Tanghe, Emmeric; Martens, Luc

    2014-09-01

    As both the bit rate required by applications on mobile devices and the number of those mobile devices are steadily growing, wireless access networks need to be expanded. As wireless networks also consume a lot of energy, it is important to develop energy-efficient wireless access networks in the near future. In this study, a capacity-based deployment tool for the design of energy-efficient wireless access networks is proposed. Capacity-based means that the network responds to the instantaneous bit rate requirements of the users active in the selected area. To the best of our knowledge, such a deployment tool for energy-efficient wireless access networks has never been presented before. This deployment tool is applied to a realistic case in Ghent, Belgium, to investigate three main functionalities incorporated in LTE-Advanced: carrier aggregation, heterogeneous deployments, and Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO). The results show that it is recommended to introduce femtocell base stations, supporting both MIMO and carrier aggregation, into the network (heterogeneous deployment) to reduce the network's power consumption. For the selected area and the assumptions made, this results in a power consumption reduction up to 70%. Introducing femtocell base stations without MIMO and carrier aggregation can already result in a significant power consumption reduction of 38%.

  12. Thermally stable deployable structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegg, Colleen M.

    1988-01-01

    A deployable structure which meets stringent thermal and strength requirements in a space environment was developed. A mast with a very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was required to limit the movement from thermal distortion over the temperature range of -200 C to 80 C to .064 cm (.025 in). In addition, a high bending strength over the temperature range and weight less than 18.1 kg (40 lbs) was needed. To meet all of the requirements, a composite, near-zero CTE structure was developed. The measured average CTE over the temperature range for the mast was .70 x .000001/C (.38 x .000001/F). The design also has the advantage of being adjustable to attain other specific CTE if desired.

  13. Deployable Pipe-Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a concept of deployable Pipe-Z (dPZ): a modular structural system which takes advantage of the robustness of rigid-panel mechanism and allows to create free-form links which are also reconfigurable and deployable. The concept presented can be applied for building habitats and infrastructures for human exploration of oceans and outer space. dPZ structures can adapt to changing requirements e.g. mission objectives, crew condition and technological developments. Furthermore, such lightweight and adaptable structural concept can assist in sustainable exploration development. After brief introduction, the concept of Pipe-Z (PZ) is presented. Next, the reconfigurability of PZ is explained and illustrated with continuous and collision-free transition from a PZ forming a Trefoil knot to a Figure-eight knot. The following sections introduce, explain and illustrate the folding mechanism of a single foldable Pipe-Z module (fPZM) and entire dPZ structure. The latter is illustrated with asynchronous (delayed) unfolding of a relatively complex Unknot. Several applications of PZ are suggested, namely for underwater and deep-space and surface habitats, for permanent, but in particular, temporary or emergency passages. As an example, a scenario of a failure of one of the modules of the International Space Station is presented where a rigid structure of 40 fPZMs bypasses the "dead link". A low-fidelity prototype of a 6-module octagonal dPZ is presented; several folding schemes including concentric toric rings are demonstrated. Practical issues of pressurization and packing are briefly discussed.

  14. The cost and benefit analysis of a contaminated area remediation: case study of dose level selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioproteccion e Dosimetria- IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Barra de Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro- RJ (Brazil)]. e-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Without radiological rules, these industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of installations and sites. Depending on the potential hazardous to the environment and public health, the radioactive contaminated sites may require remediation. The extent of the site cleanup is a function of the size, localization, complexity, potential risks and on possible future uses envisioned for the site. Since worker and public health, public anxiety and economics factors are involved; the selection of an appropriate dose level can be quite complicated. This paper discusses the selection of a dose level criterion to remedy a site, which was contaminated by wastes from monazite processing. The site is located in the Sao Paulo city; the most densely populated Brazilian City. In its 60,000 square meters of area, a preliminary survey showed contaminated zones covering an area of 6,500 square meters. In some places, contamination was found below the superficial layer of the soil, being the radionuclide vertical distribution not uniform. The {sup 228} Ra soil activity concentration reached values up to 33,000 Bq/kg while those for {sup 226} Ra reached values up to 6,700 Bq/kg. Based on pathway analysis model and considering both the current land use and a hypothetical residential scenario, the residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil have been derived for dose values of 10 mSv/y (dose level for intervention), 5 mSv/y, 3 mSv/y, 1 mSv/y (dose limit for practices) and 0.3 mSv/y (dose constraint for practices). An optimized value o f annual dose of about 5 mSv/y would be a good option for intervention level, but taking into account the public concern and anxiety, the site location and size, and the remediation costs, it is suggested

  15. CMS software deployment on OSG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B; Avery, P [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Thomas, M [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wuerthwein, F [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail: bockjoo@phys.ufl.edu, E-mail: thomas@hep.caltech.edu, E-mail: avery@phys.ufl.edu, E-mail: fkw@fnal.gov

    2008-07-15

    A set of software deployment tools has been developed for the installation, verification, and removal of a CMS software release. The tools that are mainly targeted for the deployment on the OSG have the features of instant release deployment, corrective resubmission of the initial installation job, and an independent web-based deployment portal with Grid security infrastructure login mechanism. We have been deploying over 500 installations and found the tools are reliable and adaptable to cope with problems with changes in the Grid computing environment and the software releases. We present the design of the tools, statistics that we gathered during the operation of the tools, and our experience with the CMS software deployment on the OSG Grid computing environment.

  16. Family Reintegration Following Guard Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    expectations is a key process that has to occur for successful reintegration of the veteran back into the family. Both parties have to work out their...describe veterans and families perceptions of: Aim 1. Their experience with family reintegration and the challenges reintegration presents; Aim 2...deployment, and post deployment shape the degree of challenges with reintegration that a veteran and their family will encounter. Pre-deployment, the

  17. Design optimization of deployable wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Pradeep

    Morphing technology is an important aspect of UAV design, particularly in regards to deployable systems. The design of such system has an important impact on the vehicle's performance. The primary focus of the present research work was to determine the most optimum deployable wing design from 3 competing designs and develop one of the deployable wing designs to test in the research facility. A Matlab code was developed to optimize 3 deployable wing concepts inflatable, inflatable telescopic and rigid-folding wings based on a sequential optimization strategy. The constraints that were part of the code include the packaging constraints during its stowed state, fixed length of the deployed section and the minimum L/D constraint. This code resulted in determining the optimum weight of all the 3 designs, the most optimum weight design is the inflatable wing design. This is a result of the flexible skin material and also due to no rigid parts in the deployed wing section. Another goal of the research involved developing an inflatable telescopic wing. The prototype was tested in a wind tunnel, while the actual wing was tested in the altitude chamber to determine the deployment speed, input pressure, analyze and predict the deployment sequence and behavior of the wing at such high wind speeds and altitudes ranging from 60,000 ft to 90,000 ft. Results from these tests allowed us to conclude the deployment sequence of the telescopic wing followed from the root to the tip section. The results were used to analyze the deployment time of the wing. As expected the deployment time decreased with an increase in input pressure. The results also show us that as the altitude increases, the deployment speed of the wing also increased. This was demonstrated when the wing was tested at a maximum altitude pressure of 90,000ft, well above the design altitude of 60,000ft.

  18. Mastering Hyper-V Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    The only book to take an in-depth look at deploying Hyper-V. Now in its second generation, the popular Hyper-V boasts technical advances that create even more dynamic systems than ever before. This unique resource serves an authoritative guide to deploying Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V comprehensively. Step-by-step instructions demonstrate how to design a Hyper-V deployment, build a Hyper-V host environment, and design a management system with System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2.: Features real-world examples that show you how to design a Hyper-V deployment, build a Hyper-V host env

  19. Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division advances transportation innovation by being leaders in infrastructure technology, including vehicles and...

  20. MORBIDITY PROFILE OF CONSTRUCTION WORKERS AGED ABOVE 14 YEARS IN SELECTED AREAS OF BANGALORE URBAN DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Construction sector is a booming industry and involves many hazardous activities. Migrant labour in the industry is susceptible to various health and occupational hazards. AIM: To estimate the prevalence of v arious morbidities among workers aged above 14 years in building construction industry. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A population based cross - sectional descriptive study was conducted in the field practice areas of Raja Rajeswari Medical College and Hospital, Bengaluru from April 2013 to March 2014. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Three building construction sites were randomly selected to meet the required sample size of 591 construction workers. Information was collected by interview method using a pre - designed, pre - te sted questionnaire followed by clinical examination. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Various morbidities among the construction workers were being presented as frequency and percentages. RESULTS: Most prevalent morbidities among the construction workers were Psychological Distress, Respiratory Diseases, Musculoskeletal Diseases, Hypertension and Dermatitis in the order of their frequency. 30.8% of the construction workers were under weight (Body Mass Index < 18.5k g/m 2 . CONCLUSION: First aid services and safety measures, Periodic general health check - up facilities, Health education activities, Health insurance schemes, etc. will ensure health promotion, health protection and highest degree of well - being among the construction workers.

  1. Silent reading of direct versus indirect speech activates voice-selective areas in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Belin, Pascal; Scheepers, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    In human communication, direct speech (e.g., Mary said: "I'm hungry") is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., Mary said [that] she was hungry). However, for silent reading, the representational consequences of this distinction are still unclear. Although many of us share the intuition of an "inner voice," particularly during silent reading of direct speech statements in text, there has been little direct empirical confirmation of this experience so far. Combining fMRI with eye tracking in human volunteers, we show that silent reading of direct versus indirect speech engenders differential brain activation in voice-selective areas of the auditory cortex. This suggests that readers are indeed more likely to engage in perceptual simulations (or spontaneous imagery) of the reported speaker's voice when reading direct speech as opposed to meaning-equivalent indirect speech statements as part of a more vivid representation of the former. Our results may be interpreted in line with embodied cognition and form a starting point for more sophisticated interdisciplinary research on the nature of auditory mental simulation during reading.

  2. A 10-GHz Bandwidth Electroabsorption Modulated Laser by Ultra-Low-Pressure Selective Area Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qian; PAN Jiao-Qing; ZHOU Fan; WANG Bao-Jun; WANG Lu-Feng; WANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    @@ A novel integration technique has been developed using band-gap energy control of InGaAsP/InGaAsP multi quantum-well (MQW) structures during simultaneous ultra-low-pressure (22 mbar) selective-area-growth (SAG)process in metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. A fundamental study of the controllability of band gap energy by the SAG method is performed. A large band-gap photoluminescence wavelength shift of 83nm is obtained with a small mask width variation (0-30μm). The method is then applied to fabricate an MQW distributed-feedback laser monolithically integrated with an electroabsorption modulator. The experimental results exhibit superior device characteristics with low threshold of 19 mA, over 24 dB extinction ratio when coupled into a single mode fibre. More than 10 GHz modulation bandwidth is also achieved, which demonstrates that the ultra-low-pressure SAG technique is a promising approach for high-speed transmission photonic integrated circuits.

  3. Various factors of attempted suicide in a selected area of Naogaon district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, K S; Khondker, L; Wahab, M A; Nargis, F; Khan, S I

    2010-04-01

    This descriptive type of study was carried out to determine the various factors of attempted suicide in a selected area at Patnitala and Dhamuirhat upazilla health complex of Naogaon district. All reported alive cases of attempted suicide (self poisoning, hanging, self burning or immolation, drowning etc) during the period from March to June 2003 were interviewed purposely. Data were collected by face to face interview and also from hospital records. Of the interviewed cases, the mean age was 21.4 years. Household workers, day labours, students and agricultural workers (42.6%, 23.9%, 15.5% and 11.3% respectively) were the major victims and nearly 60% had nuclear family. The highest number (77.5%) used organophosphorus compound. Highest number (25.4%) mentioned that husband mainly provoked for suicidal attempt, followed by mother and father. It was evident that 71.8% of suicidal attempt was due to their emotional stress, followed by family violence, disturbed family, social deprivation, stressful events and health problems (50.7%, 49.3%, 36.6%, 25.4%, and 8.5% respectively). It was evident that attempted suicide is proportionately higher among adolescents of unmarried, with early age at marriage, with higher income and with nuclear family compared with adult. Emotional stress, disturbed family, social deprivation, health related problems are appeared to be important reasons for attempted suicide among adolescents whereas family violence in adults.

  4. A 10-GHz Bandwidth Electroabsorption Modulated Laser by Ultra-Low-Pressure Selective Area Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Pan, Jiao-Qing; Zhou, Fan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Wang, Lu-Feng; Wang, Wei

    2005-08-01

    A novel integration technique has been developed using band-gap energy control of InGaAsP/InGaAsP multi-quantum-well (MQW) structures during simultaneous ultra-low-pressure (22 mbar) selective-area-growth (SAG) process in metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. A fundamental study of the controllability of band gap energy by the SAG method is performed. A large band-gap photoluminescence wavelength shift of 83 nm is obtained with a small mask width variation (0-30 μm). The method is then applied to fabricate an MQW distributed-feedback laser monolithically integrated with an electroabsorption modulator. The experimental results exhibit superior device characteristics with low threshold of 19 mA, over 24 dB extinction ratio when coupled into a single mode fibre. More than 10 GHz modulation bandwidth is also achieved, which demonstrates that the ultra-low-pressure SAG technique is a promising approach for high-speed transmission photonic integrated circuits.

  5. Selective Area Growth of GaAs on Si Patterned Using Nanoimprint Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Emily L.; Makoutz, Emily A.; Horowitz, Kelsey A. W.; Dameron, Arrelaine; Norman, Andrew G.; Stradins, Paul; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.; Tamboli, Adele C.

    2016-11-21

    Heteroepitaxial selective area growth (SAG) of GaAs on patterned Si substrates is a potential low-cost approach to integrate III-V and Si materials for tandem or multijunction solar cells. The use of nanoscale openings in a dielectric material can minimize nucleation-related defects and allow thinner buffer layers to be used to accommodate lattice mismatch between Si and an epitaxial III-V layer. For photovoltaic applications, the cost of patterning and growth, as well as the impact on the performance of the Si bottom cell must be considered. We present preliminary results on the use of soft nanoimprint lithography (SNIL) to create patterned nucleation templates for the heteroepitaxial SAG of GaAs on Si. We demonstrate that SNIL patterning of passivating layers on the Si substrate improves measured minority carrier properties relative to unprotected Si. Cost modeling of the SNIL process shows that adding a patterning step only adds a minor contribution to the overall cost of a tandem III-V/Si solar cell, and can enable significant savings if it enables thinner buffer layers.

  6. Performance Improvements of Selective Emitters by Laser Openings on Large-Area Multicrystalline Si Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Shih Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the laser opening technique used to form a selective emitter (SE structure on multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si. This technique can be used in the large-area (156 × 156 mm2 solar cells. SE process of this investigation was performed using 3 samples SE1–SE3. Laser fluences can vary in range of 2–5 J/cm2. The optimal conversion efficiency of 15.95% is obtained with the SE3 (2 J/cm2 fluence after laser opening with optimization of heavy and light dopant, which yields a gain of 0.48%abs compared with that of a reference cell (without fluence. In addition, this optimal SE3 cell displays improved characteristics compared with other cells with a higher average value of external quantum efficiency (EQEavg = 68.6% and a lower average value of power loss (Ploss = 2.33 mW/cm2. For the fabrication of solar cells, the laser opening process comprises fewer steps than traditional photolithography does. Furthermore, the laser opening process decreases consumption of chemical materials; therefore, the laser opening process decreases both time and cost. Therefore, SE process is simple, cheap, and suitable for commercialization. Moreover, the prominent features of the process render it effective means to promote overall performance in the photovoltaic industry.

  7. Proper Motions in Kapteyn Selected Area 103: A Preliminary Orbit for the Virgo Stellar Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I; Majewski, Steven R; Vivas, A Katherina; Wilhelm, Ronald; Carlin, Jeffrey L; Beers, Timothy C; van Altena, William F

    2009-01-01

    We present absolute proper motions in Kapteyn Selected Area (SA) 103. This field is located 7 degrees west of the center of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS, Duffau et al. 2006), and has a well-defined main sequence representing the stream. In SA 103 we identify one RR Lyrae star as a member of the VSS according to its metallicity, radial velocity and distance. VSS candidate turnoff stars and subgiant stars have proper motions consistent with that of the RR Lyrae star. The 3D velocity data imply an orbit with a pericenter of 11 kpc and an apocenter of ~90 kpc. Thus, the VSS comprises tidal debris found near the pericenter of a highly destructive orbit. Examining the six globular clusters at distances larger than 50 kpc from the Galactic center, and the proposed orbit of the VSS, we find one tentative association, NGC 2419. We speculate that NGC 2419 is possibly the nucleus of a disrupted system of which the VSS is a part.

  8. Toward optimized light utilization in nanowire arrays using scalable nanosphere lithography and selected area growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaria, Anuj R; Yao, Maoqing; Chi, Chunyung; Huang, Ningfeng; Lin, Chenxi; Li, Ruijuan; Povinelli, Michelle L; Dapkus, P Daniel; Zhou, Chongwu

    2012-06-13

    Vertically aligned, catalyst-free semiconducting nanowires hold great potential for photovoltaic applications, in which achieving scalable synthesis and optimized optical absorption simultaneously is critical. Here, we report combining nanosphere lithography (NSL) and selected area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (SA-MOCVD) for the first time for scalable synthesis of vertically aligned gallium arsenide nanowire arrays, and surprisingly, we show that such nanowire arrays with patterning defects due to NSL can be as good as highly ordered nanowire arrays in terms of optical absorption and reflection. Wafer-scale patterning for nanowire synthesis was done using a polystyrene nanosphere template as a mask. Nanowires grown from substrates patterned by NSL show similar structural features to those patterned using electron beam lithography (EBL). Reflection of photons from the NSL-patterned nanowire array was used as a measure of the effect of defects present in the structure. Experimentally, we show that GaAs nanowires as short as 130 nm show reflection of <10% over the visible range of the solar spectrum. Our results indicate that a highly ordered nanowire structure is not necessary: despite the "defects" present in NSL-patterned nanowire arrays, their optical performance is similar to "defect-free" structures patterned by more costly, time-consuming EBL methods. Our scalable approach for synthesis of vertical semiconducting nanowires can have application in high-throughput and low-cost optoelectronic devices, including solar cells.

  9. Deployable Fresnel Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.; Lin, Gregory Y.

    2014-01-01

    Deployable Fresnel rings (DFRs) significantly enhance the realizable gain of an antenna. This innovation is intended to be used in combination with another antenna element, as the DFR itself acts as a focusing or microwave lens element for a primary antenna. This method is completely passive, and is also completely wireless in that it requires neither a cable, nor a connector from the antenna port of the primary antenna to the DFR. The technology improves upon the previous NASA technology called a Tri-Sector Deployable Array Antenna in at least three critical aspects. In contrast to the previous technology, this innovation requires no connector, cable, or other physical interface to the primary communication radio or sensor device. The achievable improvement in terms of antenna gain is significantly higher than has been achieved with the previous technology. Also, where previous embodiments of the Tri-Sector antenna have been constructed with combinations of conventional (e.g., printed circuit board) and conductive fabric materials, this innovation is realized using only conductive and non-conductive fabric (i.e., "e-textile") materials, with the possible exception of a spring-like deployment ring. Conceptually, a DFR operates by canceling the out-of-phase radiation at a plane by insertion of a conducting ring or rings of a specific size and distance from the source antenna, defined by Fresnel zones. Design of DFRs follow similar procedures to those outlined for conventional Fresnel zone rings. Gain enhancement using a single ring is verified experimentally and through computational simulation. The experimental test setup involves a microstrip patch antenna that is directly behind a single-ring DFR and is radiating towards a second microstrip patch antenna. The first patch antenna and DFR are shown. At 2.42 GHz, the DFR improves the transmit antenna gain by 8.6 dB, as shown in Figure 2, relative to the wireless link without the DFR. A figure illustrates the

  10. Technology Deployment Annual Report 2014 December

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arterburn, George K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report is a summary of key Technology Deployment activities and achievements for 2014, including intellectual property, granted copyrights, royalties, license agreements, CRADAs, WFOs and Technology-Based Economic Development. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a Department of Energy (DOE) multi-program national laboratory that conducts research and development in all DOE mission areas. Like all other federal laboratories, INL has a statutory, technology transfer mission to make its capabilities and technologies available to all federal agencies, to state and local governments, and to universities and industry. To fulfill this mission, INL encourages its scientific, engineering, and technical staff to disclose new inventions and creations to ensure the resulting intellectual property is captured, protected, and made available to others who might benefit from it. As part of the mission, intellectual property is licensed to industrial partners for commercialization, creating jobs and delivering the benefits of federally funded technology to consumers. In other cases, unique capabilities are made available to other federal agencies or to regional small businesses to solve specific technical challenges. INL employees also work cooperatively with researchers and technical staff from the university and industrial sectors to further develop emerging technologies. In our multinational global economy, INL is contributing to the development of the next generation of engineers and scientists by licensing software to educational instiutitons throughout the world. This report is a catalog of selected INL technology transfer and commercialization transactions during this past year. The size and diversity of INL technical resources, coupled with the large number of relationships with other organizations, virtually ensures that a report of this nature will fail to capture all interactions. Recognizing this limitation, this report focuses on transactions that are specifically

  11. Martian environmental simulation for a deployable lattice mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission (formerly Mars Environmental Survey or MESUR) is scheduled for launch in December 1996 and is designed to place a small lander on the surface of Mars. After impact, the lander unfolds to expose its solar panels and release a miniature rover. Also on board is the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) binocular camera which is elevated by a deployable mast to obtain a panoramic view of the landing area. The design of this deployable mast is based on similar designs which have a long and successful flight history. In the past when this type of self-deployable mast has been used, a rate limiter has been incorporated to control the speed of deployment. In this application, to reduce weight and complexity, it was proposed to eliminate the rate limiter so that the mast would deploy without restraint. Preliminary tests showed that this type of deployment was possible especially if the deployed length was relatively short, as in this application. Compounding the problem, however, was the requirement to deploy the mast at an angle of up to 30 degrees from vertical. The deployment process was difficult to completely analyze due to the effects of gravitational and inertial loads on the mast and camera during rapid extension. Testing in a realistic manner was imperative to verify the system performance. A deployment test was therefore performed to determine the maximum tilt angle at which the mast could reliably extend and support the camera on Mars. The testing of the deployable mast requires partial gravity compensation to simulate the smaller force of Martian gravity. During the test, mass properties were maintained while weight properties were reduced. This paper describes the testing of a deployable mast in a simulated Martian environment as well as the results of the tests.

  12. Hydrology of the Price River basin, Utah, with emphasis on selected coal-field areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Dodge, J.E.; Darby, D.W.; Theobald, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Data obtained during a hydrologic study of the Price River basin, Utah, are used to describe seasonal variations of flow of springs, relation between ground water and surface water, hydraulic properties of the ground-water reservoir, ground-water recharge and discharge, flood characteristics of streams, mineralogic composition and depositional rates of sediments, nutrient and inorganic loading in streams and Scofield Reservoir, and water budgets for selected basins. Additional study and monitoring are needed to detect possible hydrologic changes caused by coal mining. Much of the ground-water discharge from the Star Point Sandstone in the Mesaverde Group in the Wasatch Plateau occurs along faults. In the Book Cliffs, where faulting is less extensive, most of the ground-water discharge is from the Flagstaff Limestone. The Flagstaff Limestone is greatly diffusive, has a small storage coefficient, and contains water which is perched. Springs issuing from the Star Point Sandstone in the Mud Creek drainage (Wasatch Plateau) had recession indexes greater than 365 days per log cycle. Springs issuing at higher altitudes from the Colton Formation and the Flagstaff Limestone in the Soldier Creek area (Book Cliffs) have great seasonal variability, with recession indexes ranging from 24 to 115 days per log cycle. Estimated transmissivities in the Soldier Creek area ranged from 0.003 foot squared per day in the lower part of the Castlegate Sandstone to 0.07 foot squared per day in the Price River Formation. Seepage from the Star Point Sandstone is the major contributor to base flow of the stream in Eccles Canyon (Wasatch Plateau). Gains of as much as 230 gallons per minute occurred near a fault zone which crosses Eccles Canyon at the junction with South Fork Canyon. The potentiometric surface of water in the Blackhawk Formation in the Wasatch Plateau (Mud Creek drainage) and the Book Cliffs (Soldier Creek area) generally is above the coal zones, and dewatering will be necessary

  13. Area-Efficient Selective Multi-Threshold CMOS Design Methodology for Standby Leakage Power Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kitahara, Takeshi; Minami, Fimihiro; Seta, Katsuhiro; Furusawa, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a design flow for an improved selective multi-threshold(Selective-MT) circuit. The Selective-MT circuit is improved so that plural MT-cells can share one switch transistor. We propose the design methodology from RTL(Register Transfer Level) to final layout with optimizing switch transistor structure.

  14. Device Measures Angle Of Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermakian, Joel B.

    1991-01-01

    Simple electromechanical device indicates angular position of unfolding panel during and after deployment. Resistance of potentiometer gradually increases as unfolding of solar panel about hinge moves wiper of potentiometer. At full deployment, panel pushes and opens normally closed switch. Designed for use on panel of solar photovoltaic cells in spacecraft, modified for use in other, similar position-indicating applications.

  15. Strategic Sealift Supporting Army Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    STRATEGIC SEALIFT SUPPORTING ARMY DEPLOYMENTS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...THOMPSON, MAJ, US ARMY BFA, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana, 1994 Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2016 Approved for...Strategic Sealift Supporting Army Deployments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew

  16. Selective insulin resistance in homeostatic and cognitive control brain areas in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Heni, Martin; Veit, Ralf; Scheffler, Klaus; Machann, Jürgen; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2015-06-01

    Impaired brain insulin action has been linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. To date, the central nervous effects of insulin in obese humans still remain ill defined, and no study thus far has evaluated the specific brain areas affected by insulin resistance. In 25 healthy lean and 23 overweight/obese participants, we performed magnetic resonance imaging to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and 15 and 30 min after application of intranasal insulin or placebo. Additionally, participants explicitly rated pictures of high-caloric savory and sweet food 60 min after the spray for wanting and liking. In response to insulin compared with placebo, we found a significant CBF decrease in the hypothalamus in both lean and overweight/obese participants. The magnitude of this response correlated with visceral adipose tissue independent of other fat compartments. Furthermore, we observed a differential response in the lean compared with the overweight/obese group in the prefrontal cortex, resulting in an insulin-induced CBF reduction in lean participants only. This prefrontal cortex response significantly correlated with peripheral insulin sensitivity and eating behavior measures such as disinhibition and food craving. Behaviorally, we were able to observe a significant reduction for the wanting of sweet foods after insulin application in lean men only. Brain insulin action was selectively impaired in the prefrontal cortex in overweight and obese adults and in the hypothalamus in participants with high visceral adipose tissue, potentially promoting an altered homeostatic set point and reduced inhibitory control contributing to overeating behavior. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Development of deployable structures for large space platform systems, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Generic deployable spacecraft configurations and deployable platform systems concepts were identified. Sizing, building block concepts, orbiter packaging, thermal analysis, cost analysis, and mass properties analysis as related to platform systems integration are considered. Technology needs are examined and the major criteria used in concept selection are delineated. Requirements for deployable habitat modules, tunnels, and OTV hangars are considered.

  18. High Speed, Low Power, Area Efficient Mux-Add and Bec Based Implementation of Carry Select Adder.

    OpenAIRE

    Assistant Professor New Horizon College of Engineering

    2013-01-01

    Adder being the basic hardware block of any arithmetic operation, the major constraint in the field of signal processors, data processors to perform any operations are highly dependent on the adder performance of the circuit. The gate level implementation of the carry select adder (CSLA) and modified carry select adder has significantly reduced the area and power consumption which replaced the ripple carry adder (RCA) used in modified CSLA with MUX-ADD block has further reduced the power ...

  19. Deployment simulation of a deployable reflector for earth science application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaokai; Fang, Houfei; Cai, Bei; Ma, Xiaofei

    2015-10-01

    A novel mission concept namely NEXRAD-In-Space (NIS) has been developed for monitoring hurricanes, cyclones and other severe storms from a geostationary orbit. It requires a space deployable 35-meter diameter Ka-band (35 GHz) reflector. NIS can measure hurricane precipitation intensity, dynamics and its life cycle. These information is necessary for predicting the track, intensity, rain rate and hurricane-induced floods. To meet the requirements of the radar system, a Membrane Shell Reflector Segment (MSRS) reflector technology has been developed and several technologies have been evaluated. However, the deployment analysis of this large size and high-precision reflector has not been investigated. For a pre-studies, a scaled tetrahedral truss reflector with spring driving deployment system has been made and tested, deployment dynamics analysis of this scaled reflector has been performed using ADAMS to understand its deployment dynamic behaviors. Eliminating the redundant constraints in the reflector system with a large number of moving parts is a challenging issue. A primitive joint and flexible struts were introduced to the analytical model and they can effectively eliminate over constraints of the model. By using a high-speed camera and a force transducer, a deployment experiment of a single-bay tetrahedral module has been conducted. With the tested results, an optimization process has been performed by using the parameter optimization module of ADAMS to obtain the parameters of the analytical model. These parameters were incorporated to the analytical model of the whole reflector. It is observed from the analysis results that the deployment process of the reflector with a fixed boundary experiences three stages. These stages are rapid deployment stage, slow deployment stage and impact stage. The insight of the force peak distributions of the reflector can help the optimization design of the structure.

  20. Concurrent engineering: effective deployment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unny Menon

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive insight into current trends and developments in Concurrent Engineering for integrated development of products and processes with the goal of completing the entire cycle in a shorter time, at lower overall cost and with fewer engineering design changes after product release. The evolution and definition of Concurrent Engineering are addressed first, followed by a concise review of the following elements of the concurrent engineering approach to product development: Concept Development: The Front-End Process, identifying Customer Needs and Quality Function Deployment, Establishing Product Specifications, Concept Selection, Product Architecture, Design for Manufacturing, Effective Rapid Prototyping, and The Economics of Product Development. An outline of a computer-based tutorial developed by the authors and other graduate students funded by NASA ( accessible via the world-wide-web . is provided in this paper. A brief discussion of teamwork for successful concurrent engineering is included, t'ase histories of concurrent engineering implementation at North American and European companies are outlined with references to textbooks authored by Professor Menon and other writers. A comprehensive bibliography on concurrent engineering is included in the paper.

  1. High Speed, Low Power, Area Efficient Mux-Add and Bec Based Implementation of Carry Select Adder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assistant Professor New Horizon College of Engineering

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adder being the basic hardware block of any arithmetic operation, the major constraint in the field of signal processors, data processors to perform any operations are highly dependent on the adder performance of the circuit. The gate level implementation of the carry select adder (CSLA and modified carry select adder has significantly reduced the area and power consumption which replaced the ripple carry adder (RCA used in modified CSLA with MUX-ADD block has further reduced the power consumption by efficiently utilizing the area with faster performance.

  2. Quasi-static Deployment Simulation for Deployable Space Truss Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈务军; 付功义; 何艳丽; 董石麟

    2004-01-01

    A new method was proposed for quasi-static deployment analysis of deployable space truss structures. The structure is assumed a rigid assembly, whose constraints are classified as three categories:rigid member constraint, joint-attached kinematic constraint and boundary constraint. And their geometric constraint equations and derivative matrices are formulated. The basis of the null space and M-P inverse of the geometric constraint matrix are employed to determine the solution for quasi-static deployment analysis. The influence introduced by higher terms of constraints is evaluated subsequently. The numerical tests show that the new method is efficient.

  3. Critical analysis of the integration of residual municipal solid waste incineration and selective collection in two Italian tourist areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Masi, Salvatore; Montanaro, Comasia

    2014-06-01

    Municipal solid waste management is not only a contemporary problem, but also an issue at world level. In detail, the tourist areas are more difficult to be managed. The dynamics of municipal solid waste production in tourist areas is affected by the addition of a significant amount of population equivalent during a few months. Consequences are seen in terms of the amount of municipal solid waste to be managed, but also on the quality of selective collection. In this article two case studies are analyzed in order to point out some strategies useful for a correct management of this problem, also taking into account the interactions with the sector of waste-to-energy. The case studies concern a tourist area in the north of Italy and another area in the south. Peak production is clearly visible during the year. Selective collection variations demonstrate that the tourists' behavior is not adequate to get the same results as with the resident population.

  4. Expertise Effects in Face-Selective Areas are Robust to Clutter and Diverted Attention, but not to Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Van Gulick, Ana E; Tamber-Rosenau, Benjamin J; Ross, David A; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    Expertise effects for nonface objects in face-selective brain areas may reflect stable aspects of neuronal selectivity that determine how observers perceive objects. However, bottom-up (e.g., clutter from irrelevant objects) and top-down manipulations (e.g., attentional selection) can influence activity, affecting the link between category selectivity and individual performance. We test the prediction that individual differences expressed as neural expertise effects for cars in face-selective areas are sufficiently stable to survive clutter and manipulations of attention. Additionally, behavioral work and work using event related potentials suggest that expertise effects may not survive competition; we investigate this using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects varying in expertise with cars made 1-back decisions about cars, faces, and objects in displays containing one or 2 objects, with only one category attended. Univariate analyses suggest car expertise effects are robust to clutter, dampened by reducing attention to cars, but nonetheless more robust to manipulations of attention than competition. While univariate expertise effects are severely abolished by competition between cars and faces, multivariate analyses reveal new information related to car expertise. These results demonstrate that signals in face-selective areas predict expertise effects for nonface objects in a variety of conditions, although individual differences may be expressed in different dependent measures depending on task and instructions.

  5. Polarimetric SAR decomposition parameter subset selection and their optimal dynamic range evaluation for urban area classification using Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Siddharth; Tirodkar, Siddhesh; Bhattacharya, Avik

    2016-02-01

    Urban area classification is important for monitoring the ever increasing urbanization and studying its environmental impact. Two NASA JPL's UAVSAR datasets of L-band (wavelength: 23 cm) were used in this study for urban area classification. The two datasets used in this study are different in terms of urban area structures, building patterns, their geometric shapes and sizes. In these datasets, some urban areas appear oriented about the radar line of sight (LOS) while some areas appear non-oriented. In this study, roll invariant polarimetric SAR decomposition parameters were used to classify these urban areas. Random Forest (RF), which is an ensemble decision tree learning technique, was used in this study. RF performs parameter subset selection as a part of its classification procedure. In this study, parameter subsets were obtained and analyzed to infer scattering mechanisms useful for urban area classification. The Cloude-Pottier α, the Touzi dominant scattering amplitude αs1 and the anisotropy A were among the top six important parameters selected for both the datasets. However, it was observed that these parameters were ranked differently for the two datasets. The urban area classification using RF was compared with the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and the Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) for both the datasets. RF outperforms SVM by 4% and MLC by 12% in Dataset 1. It also outperforms SVM and MLC by 3.5% and 11% respectively in Dataset 2.

  6. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.

    2014-03-01

    -river live passage tests for a wide variety of fish species. Latest test results indicate fish passage survivability close to 100%. Further fish studies are planned in Canada later this year. Successful deployment must meet societal requirements to gain community acceptance and public approval. Aesthetics considerations include low noise, disguised control buildings and vigilant turbine integration into the low profile existing structures. The resulting design was selected for deployment at existing historic National Park waterway structures. The integration of all of these design elements permits the successful deployment of the VLH turbine in Canada.

  7. Deployable Structural Booms for Large Deployable Solar Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of a new generation of large, high power deployable solar arrays has been identified as the most significant challenge facing the development of...

  8. Cost Reduction Ability by Electricity Tariff Selection for Construction Facilities Located in Non-price Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makasheva Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available State of the art in the tariff type selection in the retail and the wholesale electricity market for construction or reconstruction facilities located at Far East are considered. As a management solution the electricity tariff’s selection for enterprises at stage of construction or reconstruction is accented.

  9. Technology Deployment Annual Report 2013 December

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2014-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a Department of Energy (DOE) multi-program national laboratory that conducts research and development in all DOE mission areas. Like all other federal laboratories, INL has a statutory technology transfer mission to make its capabilities and technologies available to all federal agencies, to state and local governments, and to universities and industry. To fulfill this mission, INL encourages its scientific, engineering, and technical staff to disclose new inventions and creations to ensure the resulting intellectual property is captured, protected, and made available to others who might benefit from it. As part of the mission, intellectual property is licensed to industrial partners for commercialization, creating jobs and delivering the benefits of federally funded technology to consumers. In other cases, unique capabilities are made available to other federal agencies or to regional small businesses to solve specific technical challenges. INL employees also work cooperatively with researchers and technical staff from the university and industrial sectors to further develop emerging technologies. In a multinational global economy, INL is contributing to the development of the next generation of engineers and scientists by licensing software to educational institutions throughout the world. This report is a catalog of selected INL technology transfer and commercialization transactions during this past year. The size and diversity of INL technical resources, coupled with the large number of relationships with other organizations, virtually ensures that a report of this nature will fail to capture all interactions. Recognizing this limitation, this report focuses on transactions that are specifically authorized by technology transfer legislation (and corresponding contractual provisions) or involve the transfer of legal rights to technology to other parties. This report was compiled from primary records, which were readily

  10. Self deployable deorbiting space structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    -active or heavy device has to be brought on board the spacecraft for deploying the space structure. Allows the deployed flexible sheet surface higher than the case when SDSS is rigidly linked at the short distance from carrier structure. Ensures a reliable unfolding of deorbiting structures in zero gravity....... Provides the strain energy provoking the deployment without the need of addition of energy to the system. Eliminates the issues around successful unfolding known from other technical solutions as the frame unfolds automatically without using external energy for unfolding by using the accumulated strain...... energy in stressed configuration. Ensures that deorbiting space structure can be efficiently folded without intervention of active unfolding device....

  11. Long Cable Deployments During Martian Touchdown: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Michael W.; Sell, Steven W.

    2009-01-01

    The launch of NASA/JPL's next generation Mars rover is planned for the fall of 2011. The landing scheme chosen for this rover represents a step forward in unmanned payload delivery. The rover will be lowered from a rocket powered descent stage and then placed onto the surface while hanging from three bridles. During this touchdown event, the communication between the rover and descent stage is maintained by an electrical umbilical cable which is deployed in parallel with the structural bridles. During the development of the deployment device for the electrical umbilical, many obstacles were identified and overcome. Many of these challenges were due in large part to the helical nature of the packing geometry of the umbilical cable. And although none of these issues resulted in the failure of the design, they increased both development and assembly time. Many of the issues and some of the benefits of a helical deployment were not immediately apparent during the trade studies carried out during the deployment selection process. Tests were conducted upon completion of the device in order to characterize both the deployment and separation characteristics of the cable. Extraction loads were needed for inputs to touchdown models and separation dynamics were required to assess cable-rover recontact risk. Understanding the pros and cons surrounding the deployment of a helically packed cable would most certainly influence the outcome of future trade studies surrounding the selection of cable deployment options.

  12. Selective-Area Growth of Thick Diamond Films Using Chemically Stable Masks of Ru/Au and Mo/Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Masanori; Watanabe, Katsumi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi

    2012-07-01

    Selective-area growth of diamond films in microwave-plasma chemical vapor deposition was performed using newly developed masks. By forming chemically stable masks made of Ru/Au or Mo/Au, which have high melting points, good adhesion to diamond, and difficulty in forming carbide compounds, patterned diamond films with a large thickness of 50 µm, a large area of 5 mm2, and a high orientation in the [001] direction were successfully grown on (001) diamond substrates without degradation of the crystal quality of masked areas.

  13. New concepts in deployable beam structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The design of deployable structures involves a complicated tradeoff of packaging efficiency, the overall mechanism associated with deploying and latching beam joints, and the requirements and complexity of the beam deployer/repacker. Three longeron deployable beams, controllable geometry beams, and hybrid deployable/erectable beam concepts are evaluated.

  14. Analysis of an Interactive Technology Supported Problem-Based Learning STEM Project Using Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…

  15. Geology and water quality at selected locations in the San Antonio area, Texas, Progress Report, 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, R.D.; Blakey, J.F.

    1970-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer is the principal source of water supply for the San Antonio area. Increasing urban development on or adjacent to the recharge area of the aquifer is causing great concern because of possible pollution of the ground water. A detailed map of the surface geology has been prepared for areas where the greatest threat of pollution exists. Water-quality data are being collected throughout the San Antonio area to provide background reference information and to detect any current pollution of the ground water in the Edwards and associated limestones.

  16. Intelligent transportation infrastructure deployment analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathi, A.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Harding, J.A. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Much of the work on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to date has emphasized technologies, standards/protocols, architecture, user services, core infrastructure requirements, and various other technical and institutional issues. ITS implementations in the United States and elsewhere in the world have demonstrated benefits in the areas of safety, productivity, efficiency, and environmental impact. However, quantitative benefits and satisfactory cost estimates are not available or cannot be derived for many components of the ITS, whether deployed individually or in some integrated fashion. The limitations of existing analysis and evaluation capabilities coupled with the lack of strong empirical evidence presents a major knowledge and data gap for infrastructure investment decisions involving ITS alternatives. This paper describes the over-arching issues and requirements associated with the analysis capabilities required for a systematic, faithful, and rigorous evaluation of the impacts of deploying ITS in a metropolitan area. It then describes the conceptual framework of a modeling system that will provide a preliminary analysis capability to support ITS deployment analysis and evaluation.

  17. SELECTED ASPECTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVE MARKETING CAMPAIGN TO RAISE AWARENESS AND PROMOTE PUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna NOSAL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents selected aspects of the implementation of the EU’s SmartMove project, which aims to promote feeder public transport systems in rural areas through the implementation of an active marketing campaign (AMC. Campaigns of this type are connected with providing general and personalized information concerning the functioning of public transport services. In the article, characteristics of one of the implementation areas of the project are presented, namely, the Liszki district near Cracow. Transport services were also evaluated. In addition, selected results are presented from a survey that was conducted among residents of the area from the point of view of the implementation of the AMC. The results concerned data about the means of transport that were currently used for travelling, the knowledge of bus services, the reasons for their use and the factors that might encourage residents to use public transport

  18. Dynamic behaviors of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected external feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a BAL with lateral-mode selected external feedback experimentally by measuring the far-field profile, intensity noise spectrum and time series of the output beam. The mode-selection is achieved by adjusting a stripe mirror at the pseudo far-field plan...... with a frequency of the single roundtrip external-cavity loop modulated by periodic low-frequency fluctuation. This is the first observation of pulse-package oscillation in a diode laser with long-cavity feedback, to our knowledge........ Different dynamic behaviors are observed when different lateral modes are selected. When the mirror is aligned correctly and high-order modes are selected, in most of the cases periodic dynamics of the output power corresponding to a single roundtrip external-cavity loop is observed, but the dynamic...

  19. Deployable Entry-system Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deployable Entry-system ProjecT (ADEPT) will develop requirements for the ADEPT flight test.  Prior entry systems used high mass thermal protection...

  20. Selection of Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from Kutjevo Wine Growing Area at the Laboratoy Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Sandi Orlić; Nenad Očić; Ana Jeromel; Katarina Huić; Sulejman Redžepović

    2005-01-01

    The use of selected yeasts for winemaking has clear advantages over traditional spontaneous fermentation. Selection of wine yeasts is usually carried out within the Saccharomyces cerevisiae species. Yeast strains produce different amount of secondary compounds that impart specific characteristics to the wines. This suggests that it is necessary to isolate naturally occuring autochthone strains, which exhibit a metabolic profile that corresponds to each wine. Twenty two strains of S.cerevisiae...

  1. AHP-VIKOR Bridge Structural System Selection in Urban Areas Tehran: Interchanges Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Akbar Ramezanianpour; Seyyed Alireza Tabatabaei; Mahyar Pourlak; Majid Abareshi

    2016-01-01

    The selection of “Structural system” is one of the most important factors in any bridge and infrastructure design. Designers perform the structural calculations for the project determines the priorities as well as design and performance criteria. Further analysis of the structural selection problem and the identification of the bridge desirable capabilities, triggered the consideration of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as a possible basis for the decision making. The methodology uses the VI...

  2. Post-release habitats’ selection of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa, 1925 in a protected area in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Argenti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the post-release behavior of individuals of Capreolus capreolus italicus (Festa 1925 and to evaluate the influence of environmental and vegetation characteristics on habitat selection by monitored animals. With these aims, 14 individuals of roe deer (a sample of 75 animals released in total, differentiated by age and sex, were caught in areas of southern Tuscany (central Italy and released in suitable areas of the Aspromonte National Park (Calabria, southern Italy. Each animal was monitored by GPS-GSM tracking radio collar (Vectronics ® with frequency of location ranging from 30 minutes (in the first month to 6 hours (later, and covering a period ranging from 90 to 563 days. Each fix, reported in a GIS environment, was analyzed to get information on habitat selection performed by tracked animals. Data collection implemented forest area, herbaceous resources characterization and the evaluation of possible visual refuge offered to the animals by the environment, to assess the effect of these attributes on the selection of grounds. Results showed that the choice of a particular habitat is highly correlated with forests’ characteristics, the areas covered by conifers and with height of crown insertion between 1 and 2 m, generally with absence of regeneration, being clearly preferred. Most attended herbaceous areas are those with a high presence of grasses and with a high pastoral value. Visual refuge affects also remarkably the selection of habitats by animals. The study showed that the observed parameters can provide a good basis for the validation of the model used for the feasibility study and to identify the optimal characteristics of the areas for future releases.

  3. Deployment Effects of Marin Renewable Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Polagye; Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, marine and hydrokinetic technologies could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood, due to a lack of technical certainty. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based approach to the emerging wave and tidal technology sectors in order to evaluate the impact of these technologies on the marine environment and potentially conflicting uses. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios will capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental impacts and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders onto the critical issues that need to be addressed. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two other project teams funded by DoE which are focused on regulatory and navigational issues. The results of this study are structured into three reports: 1. Wave power scenario description 2. Tidal power scenario description 3. Framework for

  4. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4% were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 14.5±0.12, 11.0±0.07, 12.0±0.22, and 12.8±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price

  5. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Abu; Rahman, Aminoor; Hoque, Nazmul; Kumar Talukder, Anup; Das, Ziban Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4%) were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 145.0±0.12, 110.0±0.07, 120.0±0.22, and 128.0±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price, outbreak of endemic

  6. Deployment-related Respiratory Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Rawlins, Frederic A; Forbes, Damon A; Skabelund, Andrew J; Lucero, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Military deployment to Southwest Asia since 2003 in support of Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn has presented unique challenges from a pulmonary perspective. Various airborne hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents. These exposures may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and in some instances development of chronic lung disease. While increased respiratory symptoms during deployment are well documented, there is limited data on whether inhalation of airborne particulate matter is causally related to an increase in either common or unique pulmonary diseases. While disease processes such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia and exacerbation of preexisting asthma have been adequately documented, there is significant controversy surrounding the potential effects of deployment exposures and development of rare pulmonary disorders such as constrictive bronchiolitis. The role of smoking and related disorders has yet to be defined. This article presents the current evidence for deployment-related respiratory symptoms and ongoing Department of Defense studies. Further, it also provides general recommendations for evaluating pulmonary health in the deployed military population.

  7. An innovative deployable solar panel system for Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Donati, Serena; Perelli, Massimo; Negri, Andrea; Marino, Michele

    2014-02-01

    One of the main Cubesat bus limitations is the available on-board power. The maximum power obtained using body mounted solar panels and advanced triple junction solar cells on a triple unit Cubesat is typically less than 10 W. The Cubesat performance and the mission scenario opened to these small satellite systems could be greatly enhanced by an increase of the available power. This paper describes the design and realization of a modular deployable solar panel system for Cubesats, consisting of a modular hinge and spring system that can be potentially used on-board single (1U), double(2U), triple (3U) and six units (6U) Cubesats. The size of each solar panels is the size of a lateral Cubesat surface. The system developed is the basis for a SADA (Solar Array Drive Assembly), in which a maneuvering capability is added to the deployed solar array in order to follow the apparent motion of the sun. The system design trade-off is discussed, comparing different deployment concepts and architectures, leading to the final selection for the modular design. A prototype of the system has been realized for a 3U Cubesat, consisting of two deployable solar panel systems, made of three solar panels each, for a total of six deployed solar panels. The deployment system is based on a plastic fiber wire and thermal cutters, guaranteeing a suitable level of reliability. A test-bed for the solar panel deployment testing has been developed, supporting the solar array during deployment reproducing the dynamical situation in orbit. The results of the deployment system testing are discussed, including the design and realization of the test-bed, the mechanical stress given to the solar cells by the deployment accelerations and the overall system performance. The maximum power delivered by the system is about 50.4 W BOL, greatly enhancing the present Cubesat solar array performance.

  8. Deployment of mobile routers ensuring coverage and connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Mathews, Emi

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining connectivity among a group of autonomous agents exploring an area is very important, as it promotes cooperation between the agents and also helps message exchanges which are very critical for their mission. Creating an underlying Ad-hoc Mobile Router Network (AMRoNet) using simple robotic routers is an approach that facilitates communication between the agents without restricting their movements. We address the following question in our paper: How to create an AMRoNet with local information and with minimum number of routers? We propose two new localized and distributed algorithms 1) agent-assisted router deployment and 2) a self-spreading for creating AMRoNet. The algorithms use a greedy deployment strategy for deploying routers effectively into the area maximizing coverage and a triangular deployment strategy to connect different connected component of routers from different base stations. Empirical analysis shows that the proposed algorithms are the two best localized approaches to create AMRoN...

  9. DEPLOYMENT OF MOBILE ROUTERS ENSURING COVERAGE AND CONNECTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Mathews

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining connectivity among a group of autonomous agents exploring an area is very important, as itpromotes cooperation between the agents and also helps message exchanges which are very critical fortheir mission. Creating an underlying Ad-hoc Mobile Router Network (AMRoNet using simple roboticrouters is an approach that facilitates communication between the agents without restricting theirmovements. We address the following question in our paper: How to create an AMRoNet with localinformation and with minimum number of routers? We propose two new localized and distributedalgorithms 1agent-assisted router deployment and 2 a self-spreading for creating AMRoNet. Thealgorithms use a greedy deployment strategy for deploying routers effectively into the area maximizingcoverage and a triangular deployment strategy to connect different connected component of routers fromdifferent base stations. Empirical analysis shows that theproposed algorithms are the two bestlocalizedapproaches to create AMRoNets.

  10. Selected Lake Elevation Survey within 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project, located in the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, was a global positioning survey to obtain latitude, longitude, and ellipsoid height of...

  11. Factoring attitudes towards armed conflict risk into selection of protected areas for conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammill, E.; Tulloch, A.I.T.; Possingham, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of arme...

  12. Herbicide Concentrations in Select Waterfowl Production Area Wetlands in West Central Minnesota, 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Twenty-eight emergent, seasonally to semipermanently flooded wetlands in an intensively farmed area of west central Minnesota were sampled before and during the 1993...

  13. 基于辅助决策支持系统的凿井设备选型与布置系统的设计与应用%DESIGNING SELECTION AND DEPLOYMENT SYSTEM OF DRILLING EQUIPMENT AND ITS APPLICATION BASED ON ASSISTED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帮俊; 郝宪杰; 张宏捷; 魏连江

    2011-01-01

    It is a complex task for selecting and deploying the drilling equipment in construction of deep shaft drilling. Many factors should be taken into account when designing, and the calculation workload is huge as well. Therefore, it has a great theoretical and practical value to devise a design system for the selection and deployment of drilling project equipments. This paper, based on the idea of decision support system (DSS), especially aims at the theoretical design and practical application research of the selection and deployment system of drilling equipments of deep wells over 1 kilometre. The system consists of three parts, the dialogue subsystem, the data subsystem and the model subsystem. Each part of the system is controlled through the design of multi-menu, the human-computer dialogue is also realised, meanwhile the plug-in style management is used, and the dynamic design is employed as far as possible in order to improve the system flexibility. The system provides a new service carrier for the selection and deployment of drilling equipment by the implementation of drilling equipment selection, deployment and optimisation and achieving the functions such as automatic generation of the computation mission statement, planar and sectional drawings of equipment deployment, etc. At the end of the paper, the application notes of this system is given in conjunction with the selection and deployment issue of drilling equipments of a deep shaft over 1 kilometre.%深立井施工中凿井设备的选型与布置是一项复杂的工作,设计时需要考虑的因素多,且计算量大.因此设计一套凿井工程设备选型与布置设计系统,具有较大的理论与实用价值.基于决策支持系统思想,对千米以上的深并凿井设备的选型与布置系统的理论设计与实际的应用研究.系统由对话子系统、数据子系统和模型子系统三部分组成,通过设计多层菜单方法控制各个部分,实现人机对话,同时采用

  14. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at selected protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation is an important component of ecotourism, and as such, must be sustainable. However, protected area visitation may degrade natural resources, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like trails and recreation sites. This is an important concern in ecotourism destinations such as Belize and Costa Rica, because they actively promote ecotourism and emphasize the pristine qualities of their natural resources. Research on visitor impacts to protected areas has many potential applications in protected area management, though it has not been widely applied in Central and South America. This study targeted this deficiency through manager interviews and evaluations of alternative impact assessment procedures at eight protected areas in Belize and Costa Rica. Impact assessment procedures included qualitative condition class systems, ratings systems, and measurement-based systems applied to trails and recreation sites. The resulting data characterize manager perceptions of impact problems, document trail and recreation site impacts, and provide examples of inexpensive, efficient and effective rapid impact assessment procedures. Interview subjects reported a variety of impacts affecting trails, recreation sites, wildlife, water, attraction features and other resources. Standardized assessment procedures were developed and applied to record trail and recreation site impacts. Impacts affecting the study areas included trail proliferation, erosion and widening, muddiness on trails, vegetation cover loss, soil and root exposure, and tree damage on recreation sites. The findings also illustrate the types of assessment data yielded by several alternative methods and demonstrate their utility to protected area managers. The need for additional rapid assessment procedures for wildlife, water, attraction feature and other resource impacts was also identified.

  15. Studies on Selection of Fire Resistant Tree Species for Subtropical Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fire disaster is the primary one of the facts of deforestation. Although in recent years the level of forest management and technique for fire suppression have been improving and fire fighting force has been strengthened, the area of fire has not been decreased obviously. Using biological fire resistant technique can effectively prevent the campaign fire. In this paper, fire resistant ability and component about 12 tree species, in mountain area of Daguishan, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, have been ...

  16. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V.; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    This study, covering the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Yukon Planning Area (CYPA), Alaska, was prepared to aid BLM mineral resource management planning. Estimated mineral resource potential and certainty are mapped for six selected mineral deposit groups: (1) rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic intrusive igneous rocks, (2) placer and paleoplacer gold, (3) platinum group element (PGE) deposits associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks, (4) carbonate-hosted copper deposits, (5) sandstone uranium deposits, and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum-fluorspar deposits associated with specialized granites. These six deposit groups include most of the strategic and critical elements of greatest interest in current exploration.

  17. The ‘Deployment of Extra Processing’ Account of Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter; Nanay, Bence

    2015-01-01

    The paper formulates an alternative view about the core function of attention claiming that attention is not selection but the deployment of extra processing capacity. This way of thinking about attention has greater explanatory power, since it proposes a common implementation both for selection...

  18. High-resolution imaging of expertise reveals reliable object selectivity in the fusiform face area related to perceptual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Gatenby, J Christopher; Gore, John C; Gauthier, Isabel

    2012-10-16

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is a region of human cortex that responds selectively to faces, but whether it supports a more general function relevant for perceptual expertise is debated. Although both faces and objects of expertise engage many brain areas, the FFA remains the focus of the strongest modular claims and the clearest predictions about expertise. Functional MRI studies at standard-resolution (SR-fMRI) have found responses in the FFA for nonface objects of expertise, but high-resolution fMRI (HR-fMRI) in the FFA [Grill-Spector K, et al. (2006) Nat Neurosci 9:1177-1185] and neurophysiology in face patches in the monkey brain [Tsao DY, et al. (2006) Science 311:670-674] reveal no reliable selectivity for objects. It is thus possible that FFA responses to objects with SR-fMRI are a result of spatial blurring of responses from nonface-selective areas, potentially driven by attention to objects of expertise. Using HR-fMRI in two experiments, we provide evidence of reliable responses to cars in the FFA that correlate with behavioral car expertise. Effects of expertise in the FFA for nonface objects cannot be attributed to spatial blurring beyond the scale at which modular claims have been made, and within the lateral fusiform gyrus, they are restricted to a small area (200 mm(2) on the right and 50 mm(2) on the left) centered on the peak of face selectivity. Experience with a category may be sufficient to explain the spatially clustered face selectivity observed in this region.

  19. ALIS deployment in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2012-06-01

    Dual sensor is one of the most promising sensors for humanitarian demining operations. Conventional landmine detection depends on highly trained and focused human operators manually sweeping 1m2 plots with a metal detector and listening for characteristic audio signals indicating the presence of AP (Anti-personnel) landmines. In order to reduce the time of plodding detected objects, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. i.e., GPR(Ground Penetrating Radar). The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a real-time sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce ALIS systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. The performance of ALIS has been tested in Cambodia since 2009. More than 80 anti-personnel mines have been detected and removed from local agricultural area. ALIS has cleared more than 70,000 m2 area and returned it to local farmers.

  20. Analytical Study of Interdisciplinary Relations in Selected High Priority Areas of Science and Technology Based on Data of ISI Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Sedighi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the interdisciplinary relations in selected high priority areas of science and technology based on ISI data. This is an applied study using scientometric, citation analysis and network analysis methods. After identifying and extracting data from WOS, in order to determine the interdisciplinary relations and the evolution of these relationships, all citations of these records have been analysed. In order to judge the interdisciplinarity of data, the results of the two approaches have been considered: 1-To determine the subject areas of the journals 2- To determine the institutional affiliation of the authors.There is a positive correlation between co-authorship and interdisciplinary approach in all studied areas. There is no significant relation between the number of citations and interdisciplinary approach. Mapping of interdisciplinary relationships in nanotechnology showed this is a unique method to discover the structural patterns of a research area.

  1. CHANGES IN SCATTERED GREENERY IN SELECTED AREA IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC FROM 1953 TO 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ždímal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Land Cover of the Czech landscape could change several times. Reconstructing Land Cover and especially greenery in the past is important for today’s use of the landscape. Two periods were chosen to track changes in scattered greenery, the years 1953 and 2014. The source of information was an historical orthophotomap supplemented with a Military Topographic Map and an orthophotomap supplemented by terrain mapping. The software ArcMap and GuidosToolbox were used. The greenery was highlighted and manually converted to a vector format. The total area of the monitored territory is 2,190 hectares. In 1953, greenery took up 102 ha and 90 individual green areas were identified here. In 2014, greenery took up 222 ha and it was divided into 113 individual areas. In 1953 the perimeter of all green areas was 41,537 meters; in 2014 the perimeter of all green areas was 89,974 meters. There are two apparent trends here. The first is the simplification of shapes as a result of large-scale management; the second is the formation of a large length of linear greenery and small width with a large perimeter. The shape of the surface is linked to the area and perimeter. In 1953 this parameter was on average 1.87, and in 2014 the average value was 2.58. Comparing the results of the distance analysis of Label Objects using the GuidosToolbox software found that virtually all green areas were classified differently in 1953 and 2014. The results are completely different and further analysis makes no sense.

  2. Middle-Class Mothers on Urban School Selection in Gentrifying Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amy; Lakes, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined middle-class mothers' engagement in urban school selection as residents of two gentrifying neighborhoods in Atlanta, Georgia. Gentrifiers levy social capital when activating or exercising agency and create social networks that valorize child-rearing concerns through exchange of information. Thirty mothers with children under…

  3. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dinkins, Jonathan B; Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Kirol, Christopher P; Pratt, Aaron C; Conover, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    .... Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and <1.0 m...

  4. Self-organized spectrum chunk selection algorithm for Local Area LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Wang, Yuanye; Marchetti, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a self organized spectrum chunk selection algorithm in order to minimize the mutual intercell interference among Home Node Bs (HeNBs), aiming to improve the system throughput performance compared to the existing frequency reuse one scheme. The proposed algorithm is useful...

  5. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Cultural environment and aesthetic resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, L.D. [Univ. of Tennessee (United States); Petrich, C.H.; Saulsbury, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on the cultural environment and aesthetic resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The cultural environment in the Geothermal Resource Zone (GRZ) and associated study area consists of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious practices and both Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian cultural resources. This report consists of three sections: (1) a description of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious rights, practices, and values; (2) a description of historic, prehistoric, and traditional Native Hawaiian sites; and (3) a description of other (non-native) sites that could be affected by development in the study area. Within each section, the level of descriptive detail varies according to the information currently available. The description of the cultural environment is most specific in its coverage of the Geothermal Resource Subzones in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii and the study area of South Maui. Ethnographic and archaeological reports by Cultural Advocacy Network Developing Options and International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc., respectively, supplement the descriptions of these two areas with new information collected specifically for this study. Less detailed descriptions of additional study areas on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and the island of Hawaii are based on existing archaeological surveys.

  6. Occurrence and abundance of fruit bats in selected conservation areas of North Cotabato, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion John Michael M. Achondo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence and abundance of fruit bats (Pteropodidae was done in two conservation areas in North Cotabato, Philippines: Portion of the Mt. Apo National Park ; Balabag, Kidapawan City and Cotabato Provincial Forest and Ecotourism Park (CPFEP, Amas, Kidapawan City. Seven species were recorded in CPFEP and six were noted in Balabag area identified from 449 individuals captured. Two species (Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus were unique to CPFEP while one (Ptenochirus minor was found only in Balabag area. A total of eight species were recorded when accounting the species found in two areas in which, three are endemic to the country namely Haplonycteris fischeri, Ptenochirus jagori, and P. minor. Of these endemics, the first two were noted in CPFEP while all were found in Balabag area. More than half of the bats captured were Cynopterus brachyotis hence, considered as the most common species. Remarkable finding was the presence of Megaerops wetmorei, a threatened species, to have found in a new altitudinal record. Considering the importance of fruit bats in regenerating forest, urgent conservation measures are highly recommended.

  7. Selected cost considerations for geothermal district heating in existing single-family residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K.

    1996-06-01

    In the past, district heating (geothermal or conventionally fueled) has not been widely applied to the single-family residential sector. Low-heat load density is the commonly cited reason for this. Although it`s true that load density in these areas is much lower than for downtown business districts, other frequently overlooked factors may compensate for load density. In particular, costs for distribution system installation can be substantially lower in some residential areas due to a variety of factors. This reduced development cost may partially compensate for the reduced revenue resulting from low-load density. This report examines cost associated with the overall design of the system (direct or indirect system design), distribution piping installation, and customer branch lines. It concludes with a comparison of the costs for system development and the revenue from an example residential area.

  8. Newberry Seismic Deployment Fieldwork Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J; Templeton, D C

    2012-03-21

    This report summarizes the seismic deployment of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Geotech GS-13 short-period seismometers at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration site located in Central Oregon. This Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration project is managed by AltaRock Energy Inc. AltaRock Energy had previously deployed Geospace GS-11D geophones at the Newberry EGS Demonstration site, however the quality of the seismic data was somewhat low. The purpose of the LLNL deployment was to install more sensitive sensors which would record higher quality seismic data for use in future seismic studies, such as ambient noise correlation, matched field processing earthquake detection studies, and general EGS microearthquake studies. For the LLNL deployment, seven three-component seismic stations were installed around the proposed AltaRock Energy stimulation well. The LLNL seismic sensors were connected to AltaRock Energy Gueralp CMG-DM24 digitizers, which are powered by AltaRock Energy solar panels and batteries. The deployment took four days in two phases. In phase I, the sites were identified, a cavity approximately 3 feet deep was dug and a flat concrete pad oriented to true North was made for each site. In phase II, we installed three single component GS-13 seismometers at each site, quality controlled the data to ensure that each station was recording data properly, and filled in each cavity with native soil.

  9. Sero-epidemiological study on Maedi-Visna in selected areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Veterinary Journal ... the sheep examined had characteristic gross pathological lung lesions of Maedi/OPP and 33% (12/36) ... Therefore, survey in other areas is also required to have broad picture of the disease in the country which ...

  10. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  11. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  12. Satellite Earth observation data to identify anthropogenic pressures in selected protected areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagendra, H.; Mairota, P.; Marangi, C.; Lucas, R.; Dimopoulos, P.; Honrado, J.P.; Niphadkara, M.; Mücher, C.A.; Tomaselli, V.; Panitsa, M.; Tarantino, C.; Manakos, I.; Blonda, P.

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are experiencing increased levels of human pressure. To enable appropriate conservation action, it is critical to map and monitor changes in the type and extent of land cover/use and habitat classes, which can be related to human pressures over time. Satellite Earth observation (EO)

  13. Research on Selecting Measurement for Landscaping Project in Salination Areas of Changzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-min; CHEN Ya-jun

    2004-01-01

    We had investigated about the situation about garden-making of Changzhou City twice where soil was serious saline and alkaline. We had also investigated the natural environment of the city. Based on these cases, we discussed the possible measurements about landscaping project under these conditions, so that we can give out the possible project measurements for the same area.

  14. An Evaluation of Selected Economic Areas according to Similarity of Supply and Demand Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappel Stanislav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Euro Area remains a well-known monetary union in the World. But the possibilities of creation of new monetary unions are discussed. It is spoken about NAFTA (Canada, Mexico and the United States or MERCOSUR (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela. The aim of this paper is to assess the similarity of demand and supply shocks in the countries of NAFTA and MERCOSUR, and to compare it with the countries of the Euro Area. For these aims, correlation and structural vector autoregression methods are used. Methods are based on Blanchard and Quah (1989 and Bayoumi and Eichengreen (1993. We confirm the existence of core states and periphery states in the Euro Area with some exceptions. If we compare supply and demand shocks, we find more similarity in the case of supply shocks in the countries of the Euro Area. According to the results, the countries of NAFTA are more appropriate for the creation of monetary union than the countries of MERCOSUR. The countries of NAFTA achieve high correlation coefficients of supply and demand shocks (except Mexico for supply shocks.

  15. Integrated DFB-DBR laser modulator grown by selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy growth technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanbun-Ek, T.; Chen, Y. K.; Grenko, J. A.; Byrne, E. K.; Johnson, J. E.; Logan, R. A.; Tate, A.; Sergent, A. M.; Wecht, K. W.; Sciortine, P. F.; Chu, S. N. G.

    1994-12-01

    A device quality of selective epitaxy growth of InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum well (MQW) structure using low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) technique is described. The technique is applied to a monolithically integrated electroabsorption modulator with distributed feedback (DFB) and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers. Superior device characteristics such as efficient modulation, low threshold current and high efficiency operation of the integrated devices are obtained.

  16. The varicella vaccination pattern among children under 5 years old in selected areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chenyan; Li, Yan; Wang, Yamin; Liu, Yan; Cao, Linsheng; Zhu, Xu; Martin, Kathryn; Wang, Huaqing; An, Zhijie

    2017-07-11

    Vaccine is the most effective way to protect susceptible children from varicella. Few published literature or reports on varicella vaccination of Chinese children exist. Thus, in order to obtain specific information on varicella vaccination of this population, we conducted this survey. We first used purposive sampling methods to select 6 provinces 10 counties from eastern, middle and western parts of China with high quality of Immunization Information Management System (IIMS), and then randomly select children from population in the IIMS, then we checked vaccination certificate on-site. Based on the varicella vaccination information collected from 481 children's vaccination certificates from all ten selected counties in China, overall coverage of the first dose of varicella vaccine was 73.6%. There is a positive linear correlation between per capita GDP and vaccine coverage at county level (r=0.929, P social-economic status. The cumulative coverage had no significant statistical difference among different age group. Most children received varicella vaccine before 3 years old. We suggest introducing the varicella vaccine into routine immunization program, to ensure universal high coverage among children in China. We also suggest that varicella vaccination information should be checked before entering school, in order to control and prevent varicella outbreaks in schools.

  17. Archeological Survey of Selected Fish and Wildlife Management Areas at Pomme de Terre and Stockton Lakes, Dade, Hickory, and Polk Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Selected Fish and Wildlife Management Areas at Pomme de Terre and Stockton Lakes, Dade, Hickory, and Polk Counties, Missouri Contract No. DACW41-81-C...Jackson _________________________56 1989 907 0J) O . ARCHEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF SELECTED FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREAS AT POMME DE TERRE AND...NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Securrty Classification) Archeological Survey of Selected Fish and Wildlife Management Areas at Pomme de Terre

  18. Deployment Effects of Marin Renewable Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Polagye; Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, marine and hydrokinetic technologies could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood, due to a lack of technical certainty. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based approach to the emerging wave and tidal technology sectors in order to evaluate the impact of these technologies on the marine environment and potentially conflicting uses. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios will capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental impacts and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders onto the critical issues that need to be addressed. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two other project teams funded by DoE which are focused on regulatory and navigational issues. The results of this study are structured into three reports: 1. Wave power scenario description 2. Tidal power scenario description 3. Framework for

  19. Interval-Valued Hesitant Fuzzy Hamacher Synergetic Weighted Aggregation Operators and Their Application to Shale Gas Areas Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Guo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the multiple criteria decision making (MCDM problem concerns on the selection of shale gas areas with interval-valued hesitant fuzzy information. First, some Hamacher operations of interval-valued hesitant fuzzy information are introduced, which generalize and extend the existing ones. Then some interval-valued hesitant fuzzy Hamacher weighted aggregation operators, especially, the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy Hamacher synergetic weighted averaging (IVHFHSWA operators and their geometric version (IVHFHSWG operators that weight simultaneously the argument variables themselves and their position orders and thus generalize the ideas of the weighted averaging and the ordered weighted averaging, are proposed. The distinct advantages of these operators are that they can provide more choices for the decision makers and considerably enhance or deteriorate the performance of aggregation. The essential properties of these operators are studied and their specific cases are discussed. Based on the IVHFHSWA operator, we propose a practical approach to shale gas areas selection with interval-valued hesitant fuzzy information. Finally, an illustrative example for selecting the shale gas areas is used to demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed approach and a comparative analysis is performed with other approaches to highlight the distinctive advantages of the proposed operators.

  20. Selective area growth of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 topological insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeier, Jörn; Weyrich, Christian; Lanius, Martin; Schall, Melissa; Neumann, Elmar; Mussler, Gregor; Schäpers, Thomas; Grützmacher, Detlev

    2016-06-01

    The intrinsic bulk behavior of topological insulators (TI) is a key issue for their employment in future device applications. State of the art TIs predominantly suffer from large bulk charge carrier concentrations that mask their extraordinary surface states. In this paper we present the selective area growth of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 TI thin films on prestructured Si(111) Si on insulator (SOI) substrates, paving the way to high quality TI nanostructures in which access to surface states is enhanced. Therefore high quality Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films were deposited by means of solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and subsequently investigated by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). To investigate the transport properties of the selectively grown thin films, magnetotransport measurements were performed at low temperatures. Nucleation in the SiO2 valleys next to the prepatterned Si(111) mesa structures was not observed. The structural and morphological qualities of crystals deposited on untreated Si(111) SOI wafers are completely preserved by employing the selective area growth on prepatterned substrates. The transport characteristics of the selectively-grown TI systems are comparable to those of the analogous postpatterned films.

  1. Deployable truss structure advanced technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, J. E.; Dudeck, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    The 5-meter technology antenna program demonstrated the overall feasibility of integrating a mesh reflector surface with a deployable truss structure to achieve a precision surface contour compatible with future, high-performance antenna requirements. Specifically, the program demonstrated: the feasibility of fabricating a precision, edge-mounted, deployable, tetrahedral truss structure; the feasibility of adjusting a truss-supported mesh reflector contour to a surface error less than 10 mils rms; and good RF test performance, which correlated well with analytical predictions. Further analysis and testing (including flight testing) programs are needed to fully verify all the technology issues, including structural dynamics, thermodynamics, control, and on-orbit RF performance, which are associated with large, deployable, truss antenna structures.

  2. [Mosquito control on selected area in Poland after the flood in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Mikulak, Ewa; Sawicka, Bozena

    2011-01-01

    After the flood in 2010 in many regions of Poland mosquitoes occurred in huge number and chemical control of them was performed. In Legionowo district the aerial application of deltamethrin-containing product was done. In the study the efficacy of the treatments was described. Mosquitoes were caught in CDC traps in five places located in the treated area before treatments, after the 1st and after the 2nd treatments chemical. The chemical control resulted in mean reduction of 53.8% in mosquito numbers after the 2nd treatment (48.1%-57.2%). Efficiency results were much lower than those obtained in control programs realized with the use of microbial control agent. Results obtained indicate, that the integrated mosquito control program should be elaborated for this area, enabling the use of biological and chemical control methods to obtain better efficiency and protection of the environment.

  3. Selecting a spatial resolution for estimation of per-field green leaf area index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Paul J.; Williamson, H. Dawn

    1988-01-01

    For any application of multispectral scanner (MSS) data, a user is faced with a number of choices concerning the characteristics of the data; one of these is their spatial resolution. A pilot study was undertaken to determine the spatial resolution that would be optimal for the per-field estimation of green leaf area index (GLAI) in grassland. By reference to empirically-derived data from three areas of grassland, the suitable spatial resolution was hypothesized to lie in the lower portion of a 2-18 m range. To estimate per-field GLAI, airborne MSS data were collected at spatial resolutions of 2 m, 5 m and 10 m. The highest accuracies of per-field GLAI estimation were achieved using MSS data with spatial resolutions of 2 m and 5 m.

  4. Selected Problems Of Noninvasive Ooze Dredging In The Protected Areas Of Port Docks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramowicz-Gerigk Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the ooze dredging concepts in the protected areas of harbour docks. The proposed method and system for ooze dredging are dedicated to all types of seabed protection, but the main concern are the geotextile mattresses, not resistant to mechanical damages. Due to the large seabed areas covered with this type of protection the effective method of noninvasive ooze dredging should be based on the use of a technical vessel for underwater works. The result of the analysis is the concept of the method and system for ooze dredging including in particular the mechanism for the automatic holding of the suction-dredge head in the proper distance from the seabed protection surface - the leading wheel truck and buoyancy-ballast system.

  5. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Anisa, E-mail: coppering@ymail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Reasearch Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  6. Development of a Protocol and a Screening Tool for Selection of DNAPL Source Area Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    and Sale T. ZVI-clay soil mixing treats DNAPL source 13 2.2 Newsletter area at 35-foot depth Technology News and Trends, February 2006. http://www...Type Hood D and Tmvnsend G. ERH pilot project removes 48 tons of PCA 27 2.2 Newsletter DNAPL within six months. Technology News and Trends...Dupin, H. J., and McCarty, P. L. 2000, Impact of Colony Morphologies and Disinfection on Biological Clogging in Porous Media, Environmental Science

  7. Terminal Field and Firing Selectivity of Cholecystokinin-Expressing Interneurons in the Hippocampal CA3 Area

    OpenAIRE

    Lasztóczi, Bálint; Tukker, John J.; Somogyi, Peter; Klausberger, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Hippocampal oscillations reflect coordinated neuronal activity on many timescales. Distinct types of GABAergic interneuron participate in the coordination of pyramidal cells over different oscillatory cycle phases. In the CA3 area, which generates sharp waves and gamma oscillations, the contribution of identified GABAergic neurons remains to be defined. We have examined the firing of a family of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons during network oscillations in urethane-anesthetized rats ...

  8. New nutritional composition data on selected traditional foods consumed in Black Sea Area countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Helena S; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; D'Antuono, L Filippo; Alexieva, Iordanka; Boyko, Nadiya; Costea, Carmen; Fedosova, Katerina; Hayran, Osman; Karpenko, Dmitry; Kilasonia, Zaza; Finglas, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Traditional foods are an important part of the culture, history, identity and heritage of a region or country and are key elements in dietary patterns. In most countries there is limited information on the nutritional composition of such foods and therefore there is a need to investigate, register and promote traditional foods. One of the aims within the 'Sustainable exploitation of bioactive components from the Black Sea Area traditional foods' (BaSeFood) project is to generate for the first time new data on the nutritional composition of traditional foods from six Black Sea Area countries to promote their sustainable development and exploitation. Thirty-three traditional foods were analysed in an accredited laboratory to determine their nutritional composition, and the data were fully documented. The nutrient content varied widely because of the nature and variety of the analysed foods. The energy content ranged between 4 kcal per 100 g for kvass southern and 900 kcal per 100 g for mustard oil, with the exception of the analysed teas, which did not contribute to energy intake. The use of a common methodology for the study of traditional foods will enable countries to further investigate these foods. Moreover, a new nutritional knowledge base of traditional foods from Black Sea Area countries will contribute to promote local biodiversity and sustainable diets by maintaining healthy dietary patterns within local cultures. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Comparative Assessment Of Coastal Tourism Potentials Of Selected Areas In Rivers State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

  10. THE SELECTION OF GAS PIPELINE ROUTE ON THE PLAN OF GAS SUPPLIED AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Medvedevа

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Selection of gas pipeline route exercises significant influence on the func-tioning of gas distribution system. The optimal solution of this problem would substantially reduce costs for construction and operation of gas supply system.Results and conclusions. In this paper, we give some recommendations on design of branch gas pipelines to increase the effectiveness of their operation. The results of technical and economic studies of gas distribution systems are presented. To determine the optimal variant of the gas pipe-line, we designed software package which allows to optimize simultaneously the pressure distribu-tion over the gas network and geometrical parameters.

  11. Records of selected wells and lithologic logs of test holes, Hendry County and adjacent areas, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, John E.; Causaras, Carmen R.; O'Donnell, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    To provide water-resource information for Hendry County, Florida , geologic test holes were drilled in the surficial aquifer, and an extensive inventory was compiled of wells in the surficial aquifer and deep artesian aquifers. This report provides: (1) records for 788 selected wells and test holes including location , construction, water use, water level, chloride concentration, specific conductance, temperature, yield, hydrogen sulfide, and iron-staining problems; and (2) lithologic logs for 26 test holes ranging in depth from 90 to 650 feet. A few inventoried wells and two test holes are in adjacent parts of Collier or Glades Counties. (USGS)

  12. Dynamic behaviors of a broad-area diode laser with lateral-mode-selected external feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    behavior disappears in some case; when the zero-order mode is selected, periodic dynamics corresponding to a double roundtrip external-cavity loop is observed. When the stripe mirror is not aligned perfectly, a dynamic behavior like pulse-package oscillations is observed: a periodic oscillated output...... with a frequency of the single roundtrip external-cavity loop modulated by periodic low-frequency fluctuation. This is the first observation of pulse-package oscillation in a diode laser with long-cavity feedback, to our knowledge....

  13. Shallow Landslide Susceptibility Mapping for Selected Areas in the Philippines Severely affected by Super Typhoon Haiyan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Raquel; Rabonza, Maricar; Ortiz, Iris Jill; Alejandrino, Ian Kaye; Aquino, Dakila; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan, considered as one of the most powerful storms recorded in 2013, devastated the central Philippines region on 8 November 2013. In its wake, Haiyan left 6,190 fatalities, 28,626 injured and 1,785 missing, as well as damage amounting to more than USD 823 million. To mitigate damage from similar events in the future, it is imperative to characterize hazards associated with tropical cyclones such as those brought by Haiyan, with detailed studies of storm surges, landslides and floods. Although strong winds and powerful storm surges up 15-17 feet were the primary causes of damage, landslides studies are also vital in the rehabilitation of typhoon damaged areas. Cities and municipalities of Leyte (7,246.7 sq. km) and Samar (13,121 sq. km) provinces, the heaviest cities area during the onslaught of Haiyan, require detailed and up-to-date hazard maps for their rebuilding and disaster mitigation programs. In order to delineate areas susceptible to rainfall induced shallow landslides, Stability INdex MAPping (SINMAP) software was used over a 6-meter Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-derived DEM grid. Soil calibration parameters from previous studies were used as parameter input to generate a worst-case scenario hazard map of the two provinces. Topographic, hydrologic and soil parameters (cohesion, angle of friction, bulk density and hydraulic conductivity) were used for each pixel of a given digital elevation model (DEM) grid to compute for the corresponding factor of safety. The landslide maps generated using SINMAP are found to be consistent with the landslide inventory derived from high-resolution satellite imagery 2003-2013. The landslide susceptibility classification found in the landslide hazard maps are useful to identify no-build zones, areas that can be built upon but with slope intervention and monitoring as well as places that are safe from shallow landslides. These maps complement the debris flow and structurally-controlled landslide hazard maps

  14. OMV multiple deployments of lightsats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William L.; Walker, James D.

    1988-06-01

    The design and capabilities of the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) are reviewed, and the potential value of the Shuttle-borne OMV for deploying lightweight satellites (lightsats) into different orbits is discussed and illustrated with extensive drawings and diagrams. Assuming 100-lb lightsats in extended GAS canisters, the OMV could separate from the Orbiter at 16 nmi and deploy six lightsats each at altitudes 430, 700, and 970 nmi before rejoining the Orbiter at 160 nmi. Also considered are configurations with 8 or 12 200-lb lightsats and the fittings for Titan-4 launch of OMV/lightsat packages.

  15. IPv6 deployment and management

    CERN Document Server

    Dooley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A guide for understanding, deploying, and managing Internet Protocol version 6 The growth of the Internet has created a need for more addresses than are available with Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)-the protocol currently used to direct almost all Internet traffic. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)-the new IP version intended to ultimately succeed IPv4-will expand the addressing capacity of the Internet to support the explosive growth of users and devices on the Internet as well as add flexibility to allocating addresses and efficiency for routing traffic. IPv6 Deploy

  16. Department of Defense, Deployment Health Clinical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related to deployment health assessments, combat and operational stress programs, deployment-limiting health conditions and deployment-related exposures. Learn More In the News Experts Explore How Combat Roles May Affect Women’s Psychological Health Deployments can be 'significant stressor' ...

  17. Brief communication "Fast-track earthquake risk assessment for selected urban areas in Turkey"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kepekci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is presented as a contribution to earthquake disaster mitigation studies for selected cities in Turkey. The risk evaluations must be based on earthquake hazard analysis and city information. To estimate the ground motion level, data for earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 4.5 and an epicenter location within a 100-km radius of each city were used for the period from 1900 to 2006, as recorded at the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for each city was carried out using Poisson probabilistic approaches. Ground motion level was estimated as the probability of a given degree of acceleration with a 10% exceedence rate during a 50-year time period for each city. The risk level of each city was evaluated using the number of houses, the per-capita income of city residents, population, and ground motion levels. The maximum risk level obtained for the cities was taken as a reference value for relative risk assessment, and other risk values were estimated relative to the maximum risk level. When the selected cities were classified according to their relative risk levels, the five most risky cities were found to be, in descending order of risk, Istanbul, Izmir, Ankara, Bursa, and Kocaeli.

  18. Clean graphene interfaces by selective dry transfer for large area silicon integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, S R; Rahimi, S; Tao, L; Chou, H; Ameri, S K; Akinwande, D; Liechti, K M

    2016-04-14

    Here we present a very fast, selective mechanical approach for transferring graphene with low levels of copper contamination from seed wafers on which it was grown to target wafers for very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics. We found that graphene/copper or copper/silicon oxide delamination paths could be selected by slow and faster separation rates, respectively. Thus graphene can be transferred to a target wafer, either exposed or protected by the seed copper layer, which can later be removed by etching. Delamination paths were identified by SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The sheet resistance of the graphene produced by the two approaches was slightly higher than graphene transferred by a PMMA wet-transfer process, indicating reduced impurity doping, and the variation in the sheet resistance values was much lower. Copper contamination levels, quantitatively established by TOF-SIMS, were several orders of magnitude lower than the values for PMMA assisted transfer. In addition, we demonstrated that top-gated transistor devices from our mechanical, delamination transferred graphene exhibited superior transistor behavior to PMMA-assisted wet transfer graphene. The adhesion energy, strength and range of the interactions were quantitatively determined by nonlinear fracture analyses, and suggest that the roughness of the interface between graphene and copper plays an important role with implications for improvements in manufacturing processes.

  19. Fourier power, subjective distance and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Daniel Lescroart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA, Retrosplenial Complex (RSC, and the Occipital Place Area (OPA. It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1 2D features related to Fourier power; (2 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3 abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1,386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue.

  20. A pilot study on prevalence and cure rate of tuberculosis in selected areas of Malabar 2006-07

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilip C; Saraswathi R; Christapher PV; Prasanth NV; Sanal Dev

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study the prevalence and cure rate of tuberculosis(TB)and the people affected by TB in select-ed areas,considering different factors like age,sex,percentage of people affected,dosage forms,role of hos-pitals,and patient category.Methods:A detailed survey was carried out in and around Perinthalmanna and Wayanad (Urban and Rural)to understand the burden and overall trend of TB in our locality and how effective our TB control programme.More than 250 treatment cards were collected from the Government hospitals and TB Sanatorium.Results:In the study,at Perinthalmanna and Wayanad,out of 250 TB patients it was found that males is more susceptible than females,rural area accounting for the greater proportion of TB patients. Greater proportion were affected with pulmonary than extra pulmonary Tuberculosis.The incidence of tubercu-losis in different age groups varied according to the area.Half proportion in both rural and urban areas were be-longing to category II followed by category III.Conclusion:The nature and magnitude of TB is more in rural area than urban area mainly because of the lack of awareness of the severity of disease and improper follow up of preventive measures.Our study suggests that the combined and committed efforts of government,non gov-ernment organizations,medical and paramedical professional and society is required at large,to reach all pa-tients and ensure that they receive high quality care.

  1. Design of an inflatable and deployable space reflecting concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Benxin; Yang, Zhao; Mao, Bingjing; Zhang, Tianxiang; Feng, Yukun

    2008-03-01

    An inflatable and deployable reflecting concentrator has been designed based on the Advanced Technology of Inflatable and Deployable Space Structure to concentrate solar energy. Around the focal area, a conversion plate made of thermoelectric semiconductor is set to convert the solar energy gathered into electricity to drive various spacecrafts. The whole system will be made mainly of polyester membrane. In pursuit of steady performance, solidify-technology is applied to solidify the structure after it is deployed. The membrane structure boasts the following advantages: lightweight, high efficiency, easy deployment and low cost. Those are of great importance in resolving the contradiction of launch vehicle's limit capability and the growing size of space equipments. Its efficiency and manufacturability have been analyzed and proved. The result shows that it has great business value. Several plans of its application in the aerospace engineering are also presented in this paper.

  2. ANALYSIS OF SELECTED FLUORIDE WATER SAMPLES OF DIFFERENT AREAS OF JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhingra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the fluoride concentration in groundwater in some rural areas of Jaipur city (Rajasthan, India, where groundwater is the main source of drinking water. Due to increased population, urbanization, industrialization, use of fertilizers water is highly polluted with different harmful contaminants. In present analysis a review of fluoride toxicity in drinking water along with the various deflouridation processes has been analyzed. Drinking water quality of 11 different places of Jaipur District was analyzed to identify the fluoride content in water. The drinking water samples were collected in clean polythene one liter cans and subjected for analysis in laboratory.

  3. Descriptive epidemiology of selected birth defects, areas of Lombardy, Italy, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frassoldi Emanuela

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth defects are a leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality in Italy, however little is known of the etiology of most defects. Improvements in diagnosis have revealed increasing numbers of clinically insignificant defects, while improvements in treatment have increased the survival of those with more serious and complex defects. For etiological studies, prevention, and management, it is important to have population-based monitoring which provides reliable data on the prevalence at birth of such defects. Methods We recently initiated population-based birth defect monitoring in the Provinces of Mantova, Sondrio and Varese of the Region of Lombardy, northern Italy, and report data for the first year of operation (1999. The registry uses all-electronic source files (hospital discharge files, death certificates, regional health files, and pathology reports and a proven case-generation methodology, which is described. The data were checked manually by consulting clinical records in hospitals. Completeness was checked against birth certificates by capture-recapture. Data on cases were coded according to the four-digit malformation codes of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9. We present data only on selected defects. Results We found 246 selected birth defects in 12,008 live births in 1999, 148 among boys and 98 among girls. Congenital heart defects (particularly septal defects were the most common (90.8/10,000, followed by defects of the genitourinary tract (34.1/10, 000 (particularly hypospadias in boys, digestive system (23.3/10,000 and central nervous system (14.9/10,000, orofacial clefts (10.8/10,000 and Down syndrome (8.3/10,000. Completeness was satisfactory: analysis of birth certificates resulted in the addition of two birth defect cases to the registry. Conclusion This is the first population-based analysis on selected major birth defects in the Region. The high birth prevalences for

  4. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hamilton, C.B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  5. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  6. Tick and tick borne protozoan diseases of livestock in the selected hilly areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.K. Mohanta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the tick and tick borne protozoan diseases of livestock in the hilly areas of Bangladesh, an attempt was made to collect tick and blood samples from cattle, goat and gayal (Bos frontalis from different areas of the three hill districts. In this study, two species of ticks namely, Boophilus microplus (92% and Amblyomma testudinarium (21.6% and two species of blood protozoa like Babesia bigemina (16.63% and Anaplasma marginale (14.94% were recorded. Seasonal prevalence of ticks was highest in summer (97% in comparison to rainy (95% and winter (86% season. On the other hand, the seasonal prevalence of blood protozoa was highest in rainy season (45.45% in comparison to summer (27.87% and winter (16.55%. Again, animals aged more than 2 (two years of age (52% found to be more susceptible to blood protozoan diseases than animals aged between 1-2 years of age (33.97%. But none of the animals under one year of age were found to be infected with blood protozoan diseases.

  7. Selection of organic Rankine cycle working fluid based on unit-heat-exchange-area net power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭美茹; 朱启的; 孙志强; 周天; 周孑民

    2015-01-01

    To improve energy conversion efficiency, optimization of the working fluids in organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) was explored in the range of low-temperature heat sources. The concept of unit-heat-exchange-area (UHEA) net power, embodying the cost/performance ratio of an ORC system, was proposed as a new indicator to judge the suitability of ORC working fluids on a given condition. The heat exchange area was computed by an improved evaporator model without fixing the minimum temperature difference between working fluid and hot fluid, and the flow pattern transition during heat exchange was also taken into account. The maximum UHEA net powers obtained show that dry organic fluids are more suitable for ORCs than wet organic fluids to recover low-temperature heat. The organic fluid 1-butene is recommended if the inlet temperature of hot fluid is 353.15−363.15 K or 443.15−453.15 K, heptane is more suitable at 373.15−423.15 K, and R245ca is a good option at 483.15−503.15 K.

  8. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SELECTED GROUND WATER SAMPLES OF RURAL AREAS OF JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Dhingra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to assess the status of the groundwater in rural areas of Jaipur city. People on globe are under tremendous threat due to undesired changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of air, water and soil. Due to increased population, urbanization, industrialization, use of fertilizers water is highly polluted with different harmful contaminants Natural water resources are being contaminated due to weathering of rocks and leaching of soil, mining processing etc. It is necessary that quality of drinking water should be checked at regular time interval to prevent various water born diseases. In present analysis physico-chemical parameter of drinking water viz. pH, hardness, TDS, residual chlorine, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, Free CO2 have been analyzed. Drinking water quality of 8 villages of Amber District Jaipur, Rajasthan was analyzed to identify the nature and quality of water. The drinking water samples were collected in clean polythene one liter cans and subjected for analysis in laboratory. The main objective of the present paper is to aware people of concerned area about the water quality and concerned health hazards.

  9. Consumer Preferences for Selection of Solar Home Systems in Urban Areas of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Gohar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumer preferences can lay foundation for determining key product attributes essential for the success of a product in the market, enabling the manufacturers optimally allocate resources towards imparting these critical attributes. However identification of consumer preferences especially for new products is a challenging task. This research investigated the consumer preference factors for solar home systems in Rawalpindi/Islamabad (Pakistan; applying MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making approach, AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process survey and analysis method is used for prioritization of the factors and comparison of decision alternatives. Fourteen factors grouped into five categories are selected. It has been found that the manufacturers have to emphasize on performance and functional attributes of these systems at this stage, the cost factors are comparatively lower in importance. Make and warranty, Environmental and Physical features are also lesser important to the early adopters.

  10. Status of selected ion flow tube MS: accomplishments and challenges in breath analysis and other areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Španěl, Patrik

    2016-06-01

    This article reflects our observations of recent accomplishments made using selected ion flow tube MS (SIFT-MS). Only brief descriptions are given of SIFT-MS as an analytical method and of the recent extensions to the underpinning analytical ion chemistry required to realize more robust analyses. The challenge of breath analysis is given special attention because, when achieved, it renders analysis of other air media relatively straightforward. Brief overviews are given of recent SIFT-MS breath analyses by leading research groups, noting the desirability of detection and quantification of single volatile biomarkers rather than reliance on statistical analyses, if breath analysis is to be accepted into clinical practice. A 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' analysis of SIFT-MS is made, which should help to increase its utility for trace gas analysis.

  11. Study of a flowerlike deployable structure:

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Ani; Liu, Heping; Li, Cheng; Wang, Yongfan

    2013-01-01

    A deployable structure is a kind of mechanism that can be folded and deployed automatically. It is able to form required shape or curved surface after deployment. In this paper, a flowerlike deployable structure, which forms a circle plane after deployment, was studied. First, the required circle plane was decomposed to determine the shapes of the members. Then the relation expressions were set up, which include the structural dimensions of the members and how to calculate the volume of the m...

  12. A method for selecting potential geosites. The case of glacial geosites in the Chablais area (French and Swiss Prealps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Amandine; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, an Interreg IVA project (123 Chablais), dealing with the promotion of natural and cultural heritage in the Chablais area, has been developed. It is linked to the creation of the Chablais Geopark. In a context of development of smart forms of tourism, the objective was to develop a strategy promoting the glacial heritage to a wide public in an area where the glaciers have almost disappeared. The recognition of specific places as geoheritage is the result of a double process: a scientific one, based on more or less sophisticated methods, and a social one, that is the acknowledgment by the society. One of the first scientific tasks is to produce a list of "potential geosites" that will be assessed in more details. However, this selection is often a weak point of inventories. It often seems like a "black box" without any transparency. In this project (123 Chablais) we carried out an inventory of glacial geosites, using the method developed by Reynard et al. (2007, 2012). However, a method has been created to enlighten the selection process, and to enhance choices in geoheritage management. As it was not possible to consider all sites in the Chablais area, a mixed selection approach was developed, halfway between completeness and specificity (Martin, 2012). The first step was the creation of a list of "points of interest", established using different sources: literature review, fieldwork and use of GIS to cross information. A selection was then performed according to two criteria: correspondence with a glacial stage (time axis) and belonging to a type of forms (spatial axis). Finally, selected sites aimed at providing a representative overview of the regional glacial witnesses. Therefore, representative sites of the regional geology were selected as well as sites presenting regional peculiarities Temporal and spatial attributes were given to the 101 points of interest identified. From a temporal point of view, this inventory aimed at presenting the main

  13. Space deployable truss structure design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyner, J. V., Jr.; Tobey, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The development status of the deployable box truss structure is summarized. Potential applications for this structural system are described. Structural and component design requirements derived from these applications are discussed. Components of prototype 4.6 m cubes which incorporate graphite/epoxy structural members, fittings, and mechanisms are described. The benefits of the component designs and their respective manufacturing processes are presented.

  14. A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System Gareth R. Thomas1 and Bernard J. Sia2 1ATA Engineering, 11995 El Camino Real, San Diego, CA 92130; PH (858) 480...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) ATA Engineering,11995 El Camino Real,San Diego,CA,92130 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  15. OMV Deployed From Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    In this 1986 artist's concept, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), at right, prepares to reboost the Hubble Space Telescope after being deployed from an early Space Station configuration (left). As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  16. Mediation in Different Areas of Chinese Legal Reality – Parametrisation of Selected Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzybek Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with terminological issues in legal translation. The author has researched the process of establishing equivalents for partially equivalent terminology, using the parametrical approach to legal translation. The research consists of the terminological analysis of the texts of mediation regulations formulated in Chinese and Polish. The objective was to establish translational equivalents in the case of significant differences between the legal systems of the above mentioned linguistic area. The research was financed from the research grant no. 2012/07/E/HS2/00678, titled: Parameterisation of legilinguistic translatology in the scope of civil law and civil procedure awarded by the National Science Centre of the Republic of Poland (Sonata Bis program.

  17. Species diversity of adult Odonata in selected areas from Misamis Occidental Province, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmarie F. Mapi-ot

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Odonata is considered an environmental indicator group of freshwater habitats. Thus there is aneed to have a good baseline data to use it for monitoring fluvial habitats. However, species composition ofOdonata in Misamis Occidental is poorly known. This study was conducted to determine the species diversityof Odonata in the municipality of Sinacaban and in the cities of Oroquieta and Ozamiz, Misamis Occidental,Philippines. Opportunistic sampling method using sweep nets was employed. There were 266 Odonataindividuals collected comprising 22 species. Seven species (31.82% are Philippine endemic. Low speciesdiversity was recorded in all the sampling sites with more or less even distribution of species. Resultsindicate that the sampled areas are already disturbed.

  18. Project ADIOS: Aircraft Deployable Ice Observation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    Regions of the Antarctic that are of scientific interest are often too heavily crevassed to enable a plane to land, or permit safe access from a field camp. We have developed an alternative strategy for instrumenting these regions: a sensor that can be dropped from an overflying aircraft. Existing aircraft deployable sensors are not suitable for long term operations in areas where snow accumulates, as they are quickly buried. We have overcome this problem by shaping the sensor like an aerodynamic mast with fins and a small parachute. After being released from the aircraft, the sensor accelerates to 42m/s and stabilizes during a 10s descent. On impact with the snow surface the sensor package buries itself to a depth of 1m then uses the large surface area of the fins to stop it burying further. This leaves a 1.5m mast protruding high above the snow surface to ensure a long operating life. The high impact kinetic energy and robust fin braking mechanism ensure that the design works in both soft and hard snow. Over the past two years we have developed and tested our design with a series of aircraft and wind tunnel tests. Last season we used this deployment strategy to successfully install a network of 31 single band GPS sensors in regions where crevassing has previously prevented science operations: Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, and Scar Inlet, Antarctic Peninsula. This season we intend to expand on this network by deploying a further 25 single and dual band GPS sensors on Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica.

  19. Shallow Landslide Susceptibilty Mapping using SINMAP for Selected Areas in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabonza, M. L.; Alejandrino, I. A.; Suarez, J.; Aquino, D. T.; Eco, R. C.; Lagmay, A.

    2013-12-01

    Among the deadliest calamities that plagued the Philippines were the landslide and flooding caused by consecutive tropical storms Mufia, Merbok, Winnie, and Nanmadol in Infanta, Quezon (2004), Typhoon Reming in Guinsaugon, Leyte (2006) and Typhoon Pepeng in Pangasinan (2009). In Quezon alone, the number of death and missing exceeded 1600, and the cost of damage was estimated at US$78.2M. Situated in the humid tropics, the Philippines will inevitably be a locus of climate-related disasters similar to those experienced recently. To aid the local government units in delineating areas located on hazardous zones in the country, the spatial distribution of rainfall-induced shallow landslide susceptibilities was modeled for the provinces of Quezon (906,960 ha), Leyte (651,505 ha), and Pangasinan (545,101 ha). The Stability INdex Mapping (SINMAP) model was applied based on the infinite slope stability model and a steady-state hydrology module. Using the hydrologic, soil and topographic parameters for each pixel on a 6-meter synthetic aperture radar-derived DEM (digital elevation model grid) or on a 1-meter LiDAR-derived DEM, Stability Index Maps were generated for the study areas. Soil properties were based on data available from Bureau of Soils and Water Management as of July 2013. These data were augmented by field data and constrained by values from direct shear strength testing, soil gradation, and hydraulic conductivity tests of soil. The model validation performed using the previously identified landslide inventory was found out to be about 90% accurate. The SINMAP model accuracy can be further improved by additional locations for field tests to better map out the spatial variation of soil properties.

  20. Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eParnaudeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While the GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine’s behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurones is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice.

  1. Understanding the effects of different social data on selecting priority conservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Azadeh; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Brown, Greg; Hockings, Marc

    2017-04-20

    Conservation success is contingent on assessing social and environmental factors so that cost-effective implementation of strategies and actions can be placed in a broad social-ecological context. Until now, the focus has been on how to include spatially explicit social data in conservation planning, whereas the value of different kinds of social data has received limited attention. In a regional systematic conservation planning case study in Australia, we examined the spatial concurrence of a range of spatially explicit social values and land-use preferences collected using a public participation geographic information system and biological data. We used Zonation to integrate the social data with the biological data in a series of spatial-prioritization scenarios to determine the effect of the different types of social data on spatial prioritization compared with biological data alone. The type of social data (i.e., conservation opportunities or constraints) significantly affected spatial prioritization outcomes. The integration of social values and land-use preferences under different scenarios was highly variable and generated spatial prioritizations 1.2-51% different from those based on biological data alone. The inclusion of conservation-compatible values and preferences added relatively few new areas to conservation priorities, whereas including noncompatible economic values and development preferences as costs significantly changed conservation priority areas (48.2% and 47.4%, respectively). Based on our results, a multifaceted conservation prioritization approach that combines spatially explicit social data with biological data can help conservation planners identify the type of social data to collect for more effective and feasible conservation actions. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Isolation, Identification, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria Associated with Waterpipe Contaminants in Selected Area of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaidarous, Mohammed; Alanazi, Meshal; Abdel-Hadi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This study highlights the level of microbial contamination of waterpipe components in selected area of Saudi Arabia and the resistance of selected bacteria to different antibiotics was determined. A series of biochemical tests, microscopic examination, and screening on Vitek 2 compact (bioMérieux Inc., USA) system were done to characterize the bacterial isolates. Out of 132 samples investigated, 7 mouthpiece samples and 48 water bowl samples showed positivity on culture. The percentage of contamination rate was higher in water bowl (69.69%) than in mouthpieces (10.6%) for all selected areas. A total of 55 bacterial isolates were identified which included Gram-negative (28) and Gram-positive (27) bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility data showed more resistance to bacteria isolated from water bowl than bacteria isolated from mouthpiece. In addition, one isolate which was confirmed as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae was resistant to antibiotics which are commonly used to treat pneumonia. Water bowl of waterpipe instrument is significantly contaminated with different bacterial pathogens including multidrug-resistant and pneumonia causing bacteria, which are a real health concern among waterpipe smokers. The presented data could assist public health professionals to raise the concerns regarding cleaning practices of waterpipe components and highlights the risk posed among the waterpipe smokers.

  3. Numerical climate modeling and verification of selected areas for heat waves of Pakistan using ensemble prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amna, S.; Samreen, N.; Khalid, B.; Shamim, A.

    2013-06-01

    Depending upon the topography, there is an extreme variation in the temperature of Pakistan. Heat waves are the Weather-related events, having significant impact on the humans, including all socioeconomic activities and health issues as well which changes according to the climatic conditions of the area. The forecasting climate is of prime importance for being aware of future climatic changes, in order to mitigate them. The study used the Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) for the purpose of modeling seasonal weather hind-cast of three selected areas i.e., Islamabad, Jhelum and Muzaffarabad. This research was purposely carried out in order to suggest the most suitable climate model for Pakistan. Real time and simulated data of five General Circulation Models i.e., ECMWF, ERA-40, MPI, Meteo France and UKMO for selected areas was acquired from Pakistan Meteorological Department. Data incorporated constituted the statistical temperature records of 32 years for the months of June, July and August. This study was based on EPS to calculate probabilistic forecasts produced by single ensembles. Verification was done out to assess the quality of the forecast t by using standard probabilistic measures of Brier Score, Brier Skill Score, Cross Validation and Relative Operating Characteristic curve. The results showed ECMWF the most suitable model for Islamabad and Jhelum; and Meteo France for Muzaffarabad. Other models have significant results by omitting particular initial conditions.

  4. Regional climate models' performance in representing precipitation and temperature over selected Mediterranean areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deidda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relative performance of several climate models in providing reliable forcing for hydrological modeling in six representative catchments in the Mediterranean region. We consider 14 Regional Climate Models (RCMs, from the EU-FP6 ENSEMBLES project, run for the A1B emission scenario on a common 0.22° (about 24 km rotated grid over Europe and the Mediterranean region. In the validation period (1951 to 2010 we consider daily precipitation and surface temperatures from the observed data fields (E-OBS data set, available from the ENSEMBLES project and the data providers in the ECA&D project. Our primary objective is to rank the 14 RCMs for each catchment and select the four best-performing ones to use as common forcing for hydrological models in the six Mediterranean basins considered in the EU-FP7 CLIMB project. Using a common suite of four RCMs for all studied catchments reduces the (epistemic uncertainty when evaluating trends and climate change impacts in the 21st century. We present and discuss the validation setting, as well as the obtained results and, in some detail, the difficulties we experienced when processing the data. In doing so we also provide useful information and advice for researchers not directly involved in climate modeling, but interested in the use of climate model outputs for hydrological modeling and, more generally, climate change impact studies in the Mediterranean region.

  5. Antibacterial potential of selected red seaweeds from Manapad coastal areas, Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adaikalaraj G; Patric Raja D; Johnson M; Janakiraman N; Babu A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Gracilaria verrucosa (G. verrucosa) (Hudson),Hypnea musciformis falk, Gracilaria ferugosoni (G. ferugosoni), Gelidium species and G. verrucosa var. against the selected bacterial pathogens. Methods: The antibacterial activities of methanol and aqueous hot extracts were tested against various organisms by using disc diffusion method. Results:The highest antibacterial activity (13 mm) was shown by the aqueous extract of G. verrucosa var. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and the lowest activity (6 mm) was observed in the methanol extract of E. prolifera against Escherichia coli (E. coli). However in most of the seaweeds, methanol extract was found to be more effective. The microbial strains Salmonella typhi (S. typhi), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Candida albicans(C. albicans) were resistant to the aqueous extracts of all seaweeds. Conclusion: Further (H. musciformis) (Wulf) Lamour, Enatiocladia prolifera (E. prolifera) (Grev.) work is needed to identify the principle compound which is responsible for antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria especially those causing the human diseases.

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in raw milk in the selected areas of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysok, B; Wiszniewska-Łaszczych, A; Uradziński, J; Szteyn, J

    2011-01-01

    During the recent years, an immense increase in the number of food poisoning cases in people caused by Campylobacter (C.) species has occurred. Raw milk, next to poultry meat, is considered the most frequent cause of food poisoning in people caused by the subject bacteria, although it is not always possible to isolate Campylobacter cells from the incriminated milk. Most probably this difficulty is caused by low concentration of the pathogen in milk at the level of 2/3 cells/ml although even such low concentration represents risk to human health. The present study was aimed at determining the occurence of Campylobacter bacteria in milk originating from selected regions of Poland. The isolation method applied in this work was effective in recovering as few as 0.1 cell of Campylobacter per g of food. Among 150 bulk milk samples tested, Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 7 (4.6%) ones. The biochemical identification of the isolated strains conducted by means of conventional biochemical tests as well as by applying the API - Campy tests revealed that all the isolates belonged to the C. jejuni species. Determination of resistance to antibiotics was performed by means of the diffusion disks method for the following antibiotics: gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, doxycyclin and tetracycline. Among 7 isolates tested, all were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin, 28.5% to doxycyclin and 14.2% to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin.

  7. Spontaneous vascular flora of selected cemeteries in Lublin and the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Trzaskowska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in 2011–2012. It included an analysis of the spontaneous flora of 7 cemeteries: 3 cemeteries located in the centre of Lublin (Lipowa Street, Unicka Street, and Kalina Street, 1 on the outskirts of the city (Majdanek, 1 located in a small town (Łęczna, 2 sites are rural cemeteries (Łuszczów, Ostrówek. An inventory was made of spontaneous vascular flora present at the investigated sites. The plants were described in respect of their affiliation to geographical-historical groups, life forms as well as the presence of honey species (polleniferous and nectariferous and protected species. Within the area of these 7 necropolises, the presence of 382 taxa was found. The number of taxa observed at the individual sites varied between 124 and 274 in the metropolitan zone, 146 in the urban zone, and between 110 and 146 in the rural areas. The area richest in terms of flora was Majdanek where 274 species of plants were found, while the cemetery in Łuszczów was the least rich – 110 species. The highest precentage of hemicryptophytes was observed in Ostrówek (50.7%, the lowest in Lublin – Kalina (40.3%. In the case of therophytes, the greatest variation was observed in the urban cemetery in Unicka Street (32.6%, while the least varied site was the cemetery in Ostrówek (23.3%. The average precentage of geophytes was 12.1%, with the greatest number in Łuszczów (16.4%, and the smallest one in Majdanek (8.4%. Chamaephytes were characterised by a small percentage (between 5.1% and 4.4 %, similarly to nanophanerophytes (6.2% to 2.7%, and megaphanerophytes (9.6%–1.8%. The investigated sites were dominated by apophytes, the percentage of which varied between 52.3% in the Lublin cemeteries on Lipowa and Unicka Streets, and 44.5% in Ostrówek. Among anthropophytes, there were mostly archeophytes (between 26.3% in Łuszczów and 13.1% on Lipowa St. in Lublin. The percentage of diaphytes varied between 16.5% in Ostrówek and

  8. Shallow ground-water quality in selected agricultural areas of south-central Georgia, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain National Water-Quality Assessment Program began an agricultural land-use study in March 1994. The study area is located in the upper Suwannee River basin in Tift, Turner, Worth, Irwin, Wilcox, and Crisp Counties, Ga. Twenty-three shallow monitoring wells were installed in a 1,335-square- mile area characterized by intensive row-crop agriculture (peanuts, corn, cotton, and soybeans). The study focused on recently recharged shallow ground water in surficial aquifers to assess the relation between land-use activities and ground- water quality. All wells were sampled in March and April (spring) 1994, and 14 of these wells were resampled in August (summer) 1994. Shallow ground water in the study area is characterized by oxic and acidic conditions, low bicarbonate, and low dissolved-solids concentrations. The median pH of shallow ground water was 4.7 and the median bicarbonate concentration was 1.7 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 8.0 mg/L. The median dissolved-solids concentration in samples collected in the spring was 86 mg/L. Major inorganic ion composition was generally mixed with no dominant cation; nitrate was the dominant anion (greater than 60 percent of the anion composition) in 14 of 23 samples. Only concentrations of bicarbonate, dissolved organic carbon, and nitrate had significant differences in concentrations between samples collected in the spring and the background samples. However, median concentrations of some of the major ingredients in fertilizer (including magnesium, chloride, nitrate, iron, and manganese) were higher in water samples from agricultural wells than in background samples. The median concentration of dissolved solids in ground-water samples collected in the spring (86 mg/L) was more than double the median concentration (41 mg/L) of the background samples. The median nitrate as nitrogen concentration of 6.7 mg/L in the spring samples reflects the effects of

  9. Determination of selected toxic elements in leaves of White Hawthorn grown in a remote area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeiner M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One important plant of the Rosaceae family which is commonly used as phytopharmaceutical in Europe and North America is Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna. The fruits, the leaves together with their extracts are applied in patients suffering mild cardiac disorders or nervosity. Since the leaves as well as the berries act as diuretics a sufficient micronutrient supply has to be guaranteed. On the other the quantities of toxic elements present in the plant parts should be at levels without harmful effects on human health. For this purpose Hawthorn leaves and flowers were collected in a remote area in 2011 and 2012 and analysed for their elemental composition. The metals uptaken from the soil were supposed to be in a similar range, thus the impact of airborne contamination by heavy metal translocation could be studied. The elements investigated were Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn. After harvesting the samples were dried, homogenized, digested and then analysed by ICP-AES. The contents of all elements are in the μg/g range. In the samples of 2012 higher concentrations were found for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn, lower concentrations were registered for Ba, Pb, and Sr. The amounts of Cd and Cr were statistically insignificantly lower in 2012 than 2011.

  10. Socio-Ecological and Livelihood Assessment of Selected Coastal Areas in Sorsogon, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Arthur B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the productive capacity of five villages namely Gimagaan, Sevilla, Sogoy, Milagrosa and Saclayan in Sorsogon, Philippines. Specifically, it aimed to assess the productive resource base, resource use and livelihood patterns and provide management prescriptions in the transition of farms into organic agriculture. Sustainable livelihoods analysis and participatory rapid appraisal were the analytical frameworks used in the study. Result of the study revealed that Gimagaan village had the greatest access to asset capitals compared to the other four villages in Sorsogon, Philippines. Gimagaan village highly benefited from the presence of socio-civic and government organizations, residents are more socially inclined and actively involved in the various social activities, have generally good access to their natural resource stocks and infrastructure facilities. On sustainability assessment, results revealed that Milagrosa village was more capable of sustaining management systems of its natural resources, highly resilient against perturbations and had greater chances of improving capacities for social development enterprises. Saclayan village on the other hand, had the lowest access to asset capitals and lowest score in terms of sustainability indicators. Management prescriptions include introduction of farming and fishing technologies which do not require intensive capital; conduct of an in-depth study of fishery-based livelihood project; strengthening the establishment of community-based sanctuaries and mangrove areas; introduction of crop-diversification farming system; and strengthening of the production-market linkage for fishery-based livelihood projects.  

  11. Low-temperature laser-induced selective area growth of compound semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppili, Sudarsan

    Laser induced epitaxial growth of gallium phosphide was investigated as a low temperature, spatially selective process using both pyrolytic and photolytic reaction. A focussed beam from an argon ion laser operating at 514.5 nm was used to direct-write epitaxial microstructures of homoepitaxial GaP using a pyrolytic process. The precursors were trimethyl gallium (TMG) and tertiary butylphosphine (TBP). Dependence of the epitaxial growth on several deposition parameters was examined. An ArF excimer laser was also used to achieve homoepitaxy and heteroepitaxy of gallium phosphide on gallium arsenide at 500 C using TMG and TBP as the precusor gases. Dependence of homoepitaxial growth of GaP on several parameters is examined. The crystalline properties of the film were determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrical properties of p-n diodes fabricated via Zn doping were also examined. Defect structures in excimer laser-assisted epitaxial GaP on (100) GaP and (100) GaAs were examined using TEM. Periodic structures were obtained using nominally unpolarized excimer laser radiation, during heteroepitaxial growth of GaP on GaAs. Both crystalline properties and chemical composition of these structures were examined. Microanalysis showed modulation in composition in the ripple structure resulting from the thermal variation caused by the optical interference during growth. Electrical conductivity measurements of GaP during pulsed lasers irradiation indicated that in the absence of gases, there was appreciable heating of the semiconductor. However, a very small quantity of hydrogen or helium cooled the substrate appreciably. This suggested that the average temperature rise of the substrate was not an important factor in the temperature calculations used in the present investigation.

  12. Large-Flow-Area Flow-Selective Liquid/Gas Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo; Bradley, Karla F.

    2010-01-01

    This liquid/gas separator provides the basis for a first stage of a fuel cell product water/oxygen gas phase separator. It can separate liquid and gas in bulk in multiple gravity environments. The system separates fuel cell product water entrained with circulating oxygen gas from the outlet of a fuel cell stack before allowing the gas to return to the fuel cell stack inlet. Additional makeup oxygen gas is added either before or after the separator to account for the gas consumed in the fuel cell power plant. A large volume is provided upstream of porous material in the separator to allow for the collection of water that does not exit the separator with the outgoing oxygen gas. The water then can be removed as it continues to collect, so that the accumulation of water does not impede the separating action of the device. The system is designed with a series of tubes of the porous material configured into a shell-and-tube heat exchanger configuration. The two-phase fluid stream to be separated enters the shell-side portion of the device. Gas flows to the center passages of the tubes through the porous material and is then routed to a common volume at the end of the tubes by simple pressure difference from a pumping device. Gas flows through the porous material of the tubes with greater ease as a function of the ratio of the dynamic viscosity of the water and gas. By careful selection of the dimensions of the tubes (wall thickness, porosity, diameter, length of the tubes, number of the tubes, and tube-to-tube spacing in the shell volume) a suitable design can be made to match the magnitude of water and gas flow, developed pressures from the oxygen reactant pumping device, and required residual water inventory for the shellside volume.

  13. Selective Deposition of SiO2 on Ion Conductive Area of Soda-lime Glass Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Daisuke; Harada, Kenji; Hara, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Ikutame, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Keiga; Kaiju, Hideo; Nishii, Junji

    2016-06-01

    Selective deposition of SiO2 nanoparticles was demonstrated on a soda-lime glass surface with a periodic sodium deficient pattern formed using the electrical nanoimprint. Positively charged SiO2 particles generated using corona discharge in a cyclic siloxane vapor, were selectively deposited depending on the sodium pattern. For such phenomena to occur, the sodium ion migration to the cathode side was indispensable to the electrical charge compensation on the glass surface. Therefore, the deposition proceeded preferentially outside the alkali-deficient area. Periodic SiO2 structures with 424 nm and 180 nm heights were obtained using one-dimensional (6 μm period) and two-dimensional (500 nm period) imprinted patterns.

  14. Semi-Automatic Selection of Ground Control Points for High Resolution Remote Sensing Data in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulbe Linda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geometrical accuracy of remote sensing data often is ensured by geometrical transforms based on Ground Control Points (GCPs. Manual selection of GCP is a time-consuming process, which requires some sort of automation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to present and evaluate methodology for easier, semi-automatic selection of ground control points for urban areas. Custom line scanning algorithm was implemented and applied to data in order to extract potential GCPs for an image analyst. The proposed method was tested for classical orthorectification and special object polygon transform. Results are convincing and show that in the test case semi-automatic methodology is able to correct locations of 70 % (thermal data – 80 % (orthophoto images of buildings. Geometrical transform for subimages of approximately 3 hectares with approximately 12 automatically found GCPs resulted in RSME approximately 1 meter with standard deviation of 1.2 meters.

  15. A Bayesian Framework for Reliability Analysis of Spacecraft Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John W.; Gallo, Luis; Kaminsky, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Deployable subsystems are essential to mission success of most spacecraft. These subsystems enable critical functions including power, communications and thermal control. The loss of any of these functions will generally result in loss of the mission. These subsystems and their components often consist of unique designs and applications for which various standardized data sources are not applicable for estimating reliability and for assessing risks. In this study, a two stage sequential Bayesian framework for reliability estimation of spacecraft deployment was developed for this purpose. This process was then applied to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Sunshield subsystem, a unique design intended for thermal control of the Optical Telescope Element. Initially, detailed studies of NASA deployment history, "heritage information", were conducted, extending over 45 years of spacecraft launches. This information was then coupled to a non-informative prior and a binomial likelihood function to create a posterior distribution for deployments of various subsystems uSing Monte Carlo Markov Chain sampling. Select distributions were then coupled to a subsequent analysis, using test data and anomaly occurrences on successive ground test deployments of scale model test articles of JWST hardware, to update the NASA heritage data. This allowed for a realistic prediction for the reliability of the complex Sunshield deployment, with credibility limits, within this two stage Bayesian framework.

  16. EDITORIAL Wireless sensor networks: design for real-life deployment and deployment experiences Wireless sensor networks: design for real-life deployment and deployment experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaura, Elena; Roedig, Utz; Brusey, James

    2010-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are among the most promising technologies of the new millennium. The opportunities afforded by being able to program networks of small, lightweight, low-power, computation- and bandwidth-limited nodes have attracted a large community of researchers and developers. However, the unique set of capabilities offered by the technology produces an exciting but complex design space, which is often difficult to negotiate in an application context. Deploying sensing physical environments produces its own set of challenges, and can push systems into failure modes, thus revealing problems that can be difficult to discover or reproduce in simulation or the laboratory. Sustained efforts in the area of wireless networked sensing over the last 15 years have resulted in a large number of theoretical developments, substantial practical achievements, and a wealth of lessons for the future. It is clear that in order to bridge the gap between (on the one hand) visions of very large scale, autonomous, randomly deployed networks and (on the other) the actual performance of fielded systems, we need to view deployment as an essential component in the process of developing sensor networks: a process that includes hardware and software solutions that serve specific applications and end-user needs. Incorporating deployment into the design process reveals a new and different set of requirements and considerations, whose solutions require innovative thinking, multidisciplinary teams and strong involvement from end-user communities. This special feature uncovers and documents some of the hurdles encountered and solutions offered by experimental scientists when deploying and evaluating wireless sensor networks in situ, in a variety of well specified application scenarios. The papers specifically address issues of generic importance for WSN system designers: (i) data quality, (ii) communications availability and quality, (iii) alternative, low-energy sensing

  17. Occurrence and transport of selected constituents in streams near the Stibnite mining area, Central Idaho, 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2015-12-07

    Mining of stibnite (antimony sulfide), tungsten, gold, silver, and mercury near the town of Stibnite in central Idaho has left a legacy of trace element contamination in local streams. Water-quality and streamflow monitoring data from a network of five streamflow-gaging stations were used to estimate trace-element and suspended-sediment loads and flow-weighted concentrations in the Stibnite mining area between 2012 and 2014. Measured concentrations of arsenic exceeded human health-based water-quality criteria at each streamflow-gaging station, except for Meadow Creek (site 2), which was selected to represent background conditions in the study area. Measured concentrations of antimony exceeded human health-based water-quality criteria at sites 3, 4, and 5.

  18. Operation and uphold of area of liquid ammonia in Selective Catalytic Reduction%SCR氨区的运行维护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建明

    2014-01-01

    液氨是选择性催化还原脱硝法( SCR)工艺首选的脱硝反应剂,它属于危险化学品。氨区的安全运行是SCR系统安全运行的基础保障。从氨区的运行、维护、人员防护和事故处理等方面阐述了SCR系统运行维护中需要注意的一些关键点。%Liquid ammonia is the first choice of reductant in selective catalytic reduction,it is a sort of dangerous chemical. The safe operation in the area of liquid ammonia is foundation of SCR. lt describes take notice of SCR from the operation,uphold,physical protection and accident handling in the area of liquid ammonia.

  19. Applying the Ecosystem Approach to Select Priority Areas for Forest Landscape Restoration in the Yungas, Northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide

    2010-11-01

    This paper proposes a method to select forest restoration priority areas consistently with the key principles of the Ecosystem Approach (EA) and the Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) framework. The methodology is based on the principles shared by the two approaches: acting at ecosystem scale, involving stakeholders, and evaluating alternatives. It proposes the involvement of social actors which have a stake in forest management through multicriteria analysis sessions aimed at identifying the most suitable forest restoration intervention. The method was applied to a study area in the native forests of Northern Argentina (the Yungas). Stakeholders were asked to identify alternative restoration actions, i.e. potential areas implementing FLR. Ten alternative fincas—estates derived from the Spanish land tenure system—differing in relation to ownership, management, land use, land tenure, and size were evaluated. Twenty criteria were selected and classified into four groups: biophysical, social, economic and political. Finca Ledesma was the closest to the economic, social, environmental and political goals, according to the values and views of the actors involved in the decision. This study represented the first attempt to apply EA principles to forest restoration at landscape scale in the Yungas region. The benefits obtained by the application of the method were twofold: on one hand, researchers and local actors were forced to conceive the Yungas as a complex net of rights rather than as a sum of personal interests. On the other hand, the participatory multicriteria approach provided a structured process for collective decision-making in an area where it has never been implemented.

  20. Evidence for Individual Face Discrimination in Non-Face Selective Areas of the Visual Cortex in Acquired Prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Dricot

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two areas in the human occipito-temporal cortex respond preferentially to faces: ‘the fusiform face area’ (‘FFA’ and the ‘occipital face area’ (‘OFA’. However, it is unclear whether these areas have an exclusive role in processing faces, or if sub-maximal responses in other visual areas such as the lateral occipital complex (LOC are also involved. To clarify this issue, we tested a brain-damaged patient (PS presenting a face-selective impairment with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The right hemisphere lesion of the prosoagnosic patient encompasses the ‘OFA’ but preserves the ‘FFA’ and LOC [14,16]. Using fMRI-adaptation, we found a larger response to different faces than repeated faces in the ventral part of the LOC both for normals and the patient, next to her right hemisphere lesion. This observation indicates that following prosopagnosia, areas that do not respond preferentially to faces such as the ventral part of the LOC (vLOC may still be recruited to subtend residual perception of individual faces.

  1. Debris Flow Hazard Map Simulation using FLO-2D For Selected Areas in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallil Ferrer, Peter; Llanes, Francesca; dela Resma, Marvee; Realino, Victoriano, II; Obrique, Julius; Ortiz, Iris Jill; Aquino, Dakila; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    On December 4, 2012, Super Typhoon Bopha wreaked havoc in the southern region of Mindanao, leaving 1,067 people dead and causing USD 800 million worth of damage. Classified as a Category 5 typhoon by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), Bopha brought intense rainfall and strong winds that triggered landslides and debris flows, particularly in Barangay (village) Andap, New Bataan municipality, in the southern Philippine province of Compostela Valley. The debris flow destroyed school buildings and covered courts and an evacuation center. Compostela Valley also suffered the most casualties of any province: 612 out of a total of 1,067. In light of the disaster in Compostela, measures were immediately devised to improve available geohazard maps to raise public awareness about landslides and debris flows. A debris flow is a very rapid to extremely rapid flow of saturated non-plastic debris in a steep channel. They are generated when heavy rainfall saturates sediments, causing them to flow down river channels within an alluvial fan situated at the base of the slope of a mountain drainage network. Many rural communities in the Philippines, such as Barangay Andap, are situated at the apex of alluvial fans and in the path of potential debris flows. In this study, we conducted simulations of debris flows to assess the risks in inhabited areas throughout the Philippines and validated the results in the field, focusing on the provinces of Pangasinan and Aurora as primary examples. Watersheds that drain in an alluvial fan using a 10-m resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was first delineated, and then a 1 in 100-year rain return rainfall scenario for the watershed was used to simulate debris flows using FLO-2D, a flood-routing software. The resulting simulations were used to generate debris flow hazard maps which are consistent with danger zones in alluvial fans delineated previously from satellite imagery and available DEMs. The

  2. CHARACTERIZING THE SOIL FOR IMPROVED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT IN SELECTED MAIZE GROWING AREAS OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad I. Fauzi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for maize, the second most important food crop in Indonesia, is steadily increasing. Knowledge of soil properties is a key element in developing nutrient management system. The aims of this study were to characterize and classify the soils at the family level of Soil Taxonomy and linking the taxa with nutrient management systems. The study was conducted at the Site Specific Nutrient Management (SSNM for maize in Indonesia from June to October 2005. Eight soil profiles were taken from Karo (North Sumatra, Sidomulyo (Lampung, Wonogiri and Grobogan (Central Java, Wonokerto, Mojoayu, and Tuban (East Java, and Jeneponto (South Sulawesi. The soil samples were analyzed for their physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics. Soil profile description followed the Standard Guidelines of the Food and Agriculture Organiza-tion. Results showed that the sites for the SSNM represented a wide range of soils and climate characteristics from Entisols with 1,050 mm annual rainfall in Jeneponto to Oxisols with 2,200 mm annual rainfall in Lampung. Most soils had a fine texture class (clay and clay loam, but in places like Lampung and Wonogiri, the clay had a low activity leading to a low cation exchange capacity (CEC and low exchangeable cations, especially K. The relatively high-K status soils were found in Karo, Grobogan, and Tuban sites. Organic matter and, in consequence, total N were relatively low for all SSNM sites. Available P status ranged from low to high. The low available P in Grobogan, Wonokerto, and Mojoayu soils seemed to be related to high pH, while in Lampung it was due to low pH. Exchangeable Ca and Mg were high in Grobogan, Mojoayu, Karo, and Tuban due to the presence of weatherable minerals such as hypersthene, augite, and hornblende. In general, this study suggests that organic matter, N, and P will be needed across the sites. K addition will be necessary for Karo, Lampung and Wonogiri, while in other SSNM areas, maintenance

  3. Spectral characteristics and feature selection of satellite remote sensing data for climate and anthropogenic changes assessment in Bucharest area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan; Tautan, Marina; Miclos, Sorin; Cristescu, Luminita; Carstea, Elfrida; Baschir, Laurentiu

    2010-05-01

    Urban systems play a vital role in social and economic development in all countries. Their environmental changes can be investigated on different spatial and temporal scales. Urban and peri-urban environment dynamics is of great interest for future planning and decision making as well as in frame of local and regional changes. Changes in urban land cover include changes in biotic diversity, actual and potential primary productivity, soil quality, runoff, and sedimentation rates, and cannot be well understood without the knowledge of land use change that drives them. The study focuses on the assessment of environmental features changes for Bucharest metropolitan area, Romania by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data. Rational feature selection from the varieties of spectral channels in the optical wavelengths of electromagnetic spectrum (VIS and NIR) is very important for effective analysis and information extraction of remote sensing data. Based on comprehensively analyses of the spectral characteristics of remote sensing data is possibly to derive environmental changes in urban areas. The information quantity contained in a band is an important parameter in evaluating the band. The deviation and entropy are often used to show information amount. Feature selection is one of the most important steps in recognition and classification of remote sensing images. Therefore, it is necessary to select features before classification. The optimal features are those that can be used to distinguish objects easily and correctly. Three factors—the information quantity of bands, the correlation between bands and the spectral characteristic (e.g. absorption specialty) of classified objects in test area Bucharest have been considered in our study. As, the spectral characteristic of an object is influenced by many factors, being difficult to define optimal feature parameters to distinguish all the objects in a whole area, a method of multi-level feature selection

  4. Lifecycle Readiness and Ship Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The physical fatigue associated with ship motions has significant consequences for today’s minimally manned ships. “Because of minimally sized...a deployment. The inefficiencies in performance may develop from lack of training, different personal aptitude, and individual’s mental or physical ...exacerbation of symptoms known as the avalanche phenomenon follows which includes: increased salivation, bodily warmth , and light- headedness” (Stevens

  5. Concentric Tube Robots as Steerable Needles: Achieving Follow-the-Leader Deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Hunter B; Neimat, Joseph; Webster, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    Concentric tube robots can enable new clinical interventions if they are able to pass through soft tissue, deploy along desired paths through open cavities, or travel along winding lumens. These behaviors require the robot to deploy in such a way that the curved shape of its shaft remains unchanged as the tip progresses forward (i.e., "follow-the-leader" deployment). Follow-the-leader deployment is challenging for concentric tube robots due to elastic (and particularly torsional) coupling between the tubes that form the robot. However, as we show in this paper, follow-the-leader deployment is possible, provided that tube precurvatures and deployment sequences are appropriately selected. We begin by defining follow-the-leader deployment and providing conditions that must be satisfied for a concentric tube robot to achieve it. We then examine several useful special cases of follow-the-leader deployment, showing that both circular and helical precurvatures can be employed, and provide an experimental illustration of the helical case. We also explore approximate follow-the-leader behavior and provide a metric for the similarity of a general deployment to a follow-the-leader deployment. Finally, we consider access to the hippocampus in the brain to treat epilepsy, as a motivating clinical example for follow-the-leader deployment.

  6. Concentric Tube Robots as Steerable Needles: Achieving Follow-the-Leader Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Hunter B.; Neimat, Joseph; Webster, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Concentric tube robots can enable new clinical interventions if they are able to pass through soft tissue, deploy along desired paths through open cavities, or travel along winding lumens. These behaviors require the robot to deploy in such a way that the curved shape of its shaft remains unchanged as the tip progresses forward (i.e., “follow-the-leader” deployment). Follow-the-leader deployment is challenging for concentric tube robots due to elastic (and particularly torsional) coupling between the tubes that form the robot. However, as we show in this paper, follow-the-leader deployment is possible, provided that tube precurvatures and deployment sequences are appropriately selected. We begin by defining follow-the-leader deployment and providing conditions that must be satisfied for a concentric tube robot to achieve it. We then examine several useful special cases of follow-the-leader deployment, showing that both circular and helical precurvatures can be employed, and provide an experimental illustration of the helical case. We also explore approximate follow-the-leader behavior and provide a metric for the similarity of a general deployment to a follow-the-leader deployment. Finally, we consider access to the hippocampus in the brain to treat epilepsy, as a motivating clinical example for follow-the-leader deployment. PMID:26622208

  7. Size-frequency analysis of petroleum accumulations in selected United States plays: potential analogues for frontier areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the petroleum accumulation size-frequency relationships of selected mature plays assessed in the U.S. Geological Survey?s 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. The plays provide assessors with potential analogue models from which to estimate the numbers of undiscovered accumulations in medium and smaller size categories. Each play selected was required to have at least 50 discovered accumulations. Discovered accumulations plus the mean number of undiscovered accumulations equals the total accumulations assessed at the play level. There were 36 plays that met the criteria for oil accumulations and 25 plays that met the criteria for gas accumulations. Other properties of the plays such as primary trap type, lithology, depth, and hydrocarbon characteristics are also provided to assist the geologist in choosing an appropriate analogue. The text explains how the analogue size-frequency relationships can be used to estimate the number of small and medium size accumulations for frontier-area plays or partially explored plays in high cost areas. Although this document has been written in support of the Alaska North Slope Assessment, the basic size?frequency relationships provided are applicable elsewhere.

  8. Large area, screen printed silicon solar cells with selective emitter made by laser overdoping and RTA spin-on glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besi-Vetrella, U.; Pirozzi, L.; Salza, E. [ENEA Casaccia, Roma (Italy); Ginocchietti, G.; Ferrazza, F. [Eurosolare, Roma (Italy); Ventura, L.; Slaoui, A.; Muller, J.C. [CNRS, Strasbourg (France)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the authors describe their work on a new solar cells fabrication process, based on the use of Rapid Thermal Diffusion (RTD) from spin-on techniques, laser assisted treatments to get selective emitter structures, and screen-printing. The homogeneous lightly doped emitter is first made by rapid thermal diffusion from a P-doped Spin-On Glass (SOG) film. Laser overdoping of contact regions follows, to form the selective emitter structure, by writing the grid pattern using a laser beam. Finally, screen-printing is used to get the contacts; proper solutions have been developed for optical realignment to laser pattern, with a resolution of about 10 microns. The authors have first prepared several batches of small area solar cells, made by using these processes separately, with the aim to study the influence of the main laser and dopant parameters on cell performances. A further step has been to use all the processes together. Large area devices preparation is in progress.

  9. Biological water-quality assessment of selected streams in the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District Planning Area of Wisconsin, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Bell, Amanda H.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Alvarez, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the water quality of stream ecosystems in an urban area may manifest in conspicuous ways, such as in murky or smelly streamwater, or in less conspicuous ways, such as fewer native or pollution-sensitive organisms. In 2004, and again in 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled stream organisms—algae, invertebrates, and fish—in 14 Milwaukee area streams to assess water quality as part of the ongoing Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) Corridor Study. In addition, passive-sampling devices (SPMDs, “semipermeable membrane devices”) were deployed at a subset of sites in order to evaluate the potential exposure of stream organisms to certain toxic chemicals. Results of the 2007 sampling effort are the focus of this report. Results of sampling from 2007 are compared with results from 2004. The water quality of sampled streams was assessed by evaluating biological-assemblage data, metrics computed from assemblage data, and an aggregate bioassessment ranking method that combined data for algae, invertebrates, and fish. These data contain information about the abundance (number) of different species in each group of stream organisms and the balance between species that can or cannot tolerate polluted or disturbed conditions. In 2007, the highest numbers of algal, invertebrate, and fish species were found at the Milwaukee River at Milwaukee, the largest sampled site. Algal results indicated water quality concerns at 10 of the 14 sampled sites due to the occurrence of nuisance algae or low percentages of pollution-sensitive algae. When compared to 2004, total algal biovolume was higher in 2007 at 12 of 14 sites, due mostly to more nuisance green algae from unknown causes. Results of several metrics, including the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI-10), suggest that invertebrate assemblages in the Little Menomonee River, Underwood Creek, and Honey Creek were poorer quality in 2007 compared to 2004. Six sites received “very poor” quality ratings for

  10. Comparison of benthos and plankton for selected areas of concern and non-areas of concern in western Lake Michigan Rivers and Harbors in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, Barbara C. Scudder; Bell, Amanda H.; Templar, Hayley A.; Burns, Daniel J.

    2016-07-25

    Recent data are lacking to assess whether impairments still exist at four of Wisconsin’s largest Lake Michigan harbors that were designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the late 1980s due to sediment contamination and multiple Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), such as those affecting benthos (macroinvertebrates) and plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) communities. During three seasonal sampling events (“seasons”) in May through August 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment benthos and water plankton at the four AOCs as well as six less-degraded non-AOCs along the western Lake Michigan shoreline to assess whether AOC communities were degraded in comparison to non-AOC communities. The four AOCs are the Lower Menominee River, the Lower Green Bay and Fox River, the Sheboygan River, and the Milwaukee Estuary. Due to their size and complexity, multiple locations or “subsites” were sampled within the Lower Green Bay and Fox River AOC (Lower Green Bay, the Fox River near Allouez, and the Fox River near De Pere) and within the Milwaukee Estuary AOC (the Milwaukee River, the Menomonee River, and the Milwaukee Harbor) and single locations were sampled at the other AOCs and non-AOCs. The six non-AOCs are the Escanaba River in Michigan, and the Oconto River, Ahnapee River, Kewaunee River, Manitowoc River, and Root River in Wisconsin. Benthos samples were collected by using Hester-Dendy artificial substrates deployed for 30 days and by using a dredge sampler; zooplankton were collected by net and phytoplankton by whole-water sampler. Except for the Lower Green Bay and Milwaukee Harbor locations, communities at each AOC were compared to all non-AOCs as a group and to paired non-AOCs using taxa relative abundances and metrics, including richness, diversity, and an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI, for Hester-Dendy samples only). Benthos samples collected during one or more seasons were rated as degraded for at least one metric at all AOCs. In the

  11. Tunnel oxide passivated rear contact for large area n-type front junction silicon solar cells providing excellent carrier selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrier-selective contact with low minority carrier recombination and efficient majority carrier transport is mandatory to eliminate metal-induced recombination for higher energy conversion efficiency for silicon (Si solar cells. In the present study, the carrier-selective contact consists of an ultra-thin tunnel oxide and a phosphorus-doped polycrystalline Si (poly-Si thin film formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD and subsequent thermal crystallization. It is shown that the poly-Si film properties (doping level, crystallization and dopant activation anneal temperature are crucial for achieving excellent contact passivation quality. It is also demonstrated quantitatively that the tunnel oxide plays a critical role in this tunnel oxide passivated contact (TOPCON scheme to realize desired carrier selectivity. Presence of tunnel oxide increases the implied Voc (iVoc by ~ 125 mV. The iVoc value as high as 728 mV is achieved on symmetric structure with TOPCON on both sides. Large area (239 cm2 n-type Czochralski (Cz Si solar cells are fabricated with homogeneous implanted boron emitter and screen-printed contact on the front and TOPCON on the back, achieving 21.2% cell efficiency. Detailed analysis shows that the performance of these cells is mainly limited by boron emitter recombination on the front side.

  12. Towards Long-Term Multi-Hop WSN Deployments for Environmental Monitoring: An Experimental Network Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Navarro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the network performance and costs associated with the deployment, labor, and maintenance of a long-term outdoor multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN located at the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP, which has been in operation for more than four years for environmental data collection. The WSN performance is studied over selected time periods during the network deployment time, based on two different TinyOS-based WSN routing protocols: commercial XMesh and the open-source Collection Tree Protocol (CTP. Empirical results show that the network performance is improved with CTP (i.e., 79% packet reception rate, 96% packet success rate and 0.2% duplicate packets, versus using XMesh (i.e., 36% packet reception rate and 46% packet success rate, with 3%–4% duplicate packets. The deployment cost of the 52-node, 253-sensor WSN is $31,500 with an additional $600 per month in labor and maintenance resulting in a cost of $184 m−2·y−1 of sensed area. Network maintenance during the first four years of operation was performed on average every 12 days, costing approximately $187 for each field visit.

  13. Hierarchical Orbital Observatory Deployable Shroud (HOODS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large deployable telescopes such as NASA's 9.2m and 16.8m segmented ATLAST systems require commensurately large deployable sunshades for thermal control and to...

  14. Characterization of peak streamflows and flood inundation of selected areas in Louisiana from the August 2016 flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kara M.; Storm, John B.; Breaker, Brian K.; Rose, Claire E.

    2017-02-06

    Heavy rainfall occurred across Louisiana and southwestern Mississippi in August 2016 as a result of a slow-moving area of low pressure and a high amount of atmospheric moisture. The storm caused major flooding in the southern portions of Louisiana including areas surrounding Baton Rouge and Lafayette. Flooding occurred along the rivers such as the Amite, Comite, Tangipahoa, Tickfaw, Vermilion, and Mermentau Rivers. Over 31 inches of rain was reported in the city of Watson, 20 miles northeast of Baton Rouge, La., over the duration of the event. Streamflow-gaging stations operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recorded peak streamflows of record at 10 locations, and 7 other locations experienced peak streamflows ranking in the top five for the duration of the period of record. In August 2016, USGS hydrographers made 50 discharge measurements at 21 locations on streams in Louisiana. Many of those discharge measurements were made for the purpose of verifying the accuracy of stage-streamflow relations at gaging stations operated by the USGS. Following the storm event, USGS hydrographers recovered and documented 590 high-water marks, noting location and height of the water above land surface. Many of these high-water marks were used to create 12 flood-inundation maps for selected communities of Louisiana that experienced flooding in August 2016. Digital datasets of the inundation area, modeling boundary, water depth rasters, and final map products are available online.

  15. 100G Deployment@(DE-KIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Bruno; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) has been involved fairly early in 100GE network technology. Initiated by DFN1 (the German NREN), a first 100GE wide area network testbed over a distance of approx. 450 km was deployed between the national research organizations KIT and FZ-Jülich in 2010. Three years later in 2013. KIT joined the Caltech SuperComputing 2013 (SC132) 100GE "show floor" initiative using the transatlantic ANA-100GE link to transfer LHC data from a storage at DE-KIT (GridKa) in Europe to hard disks at the show floor of SC13 in Denver (USA). The network infrastructure of KIT as well as of the German Tier-1 installation DE-KIT (GridKa). however. is still based on 10Gbps. As highlighted in the contribution "Status and Trends in Networking at LHC Tier1 Facilities" to CHEP 2012. proactive investment is required at the Tier-1 sites. Bandwidth requirements will grow beyond current capacity and the required upgrades are expected in 2015. In close cooperation with DFN. KIT drives the upgrade from 10GE to 100GE. The process is divided into several phases. due to upgrade costs and differing requirements in different parts of the network infrastructure. The requirements of the different phases as well as the planned topology will be described. Some of the obstacles we discovered during the deployment will be discussed and solutions or workarounds presented.

  16. Sensor Deployment and Relocation: A Unified Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michele Garetto; Marco Gribaudo; Carla-Fabiana Chiasserini; Emilio Leonardi

    2008-01-01

    Sensor networks are envisioned to revolutionize our daily life by ubiquitously monitoring our environment and/or adjusting it to suit our needs. Recent progress in robotics and low-power embedded systems has made it possible to add mobility to small, light, low-cost sensors to be used in teams or swarms. Augmenting static sensor networks with mobile nodes addresses many design challenges that exist in traditional static sensor networks. This paper addresses the problem of topology control in mobile wireless networks. Limitations in communication, computation and energy capabilities push towards the adoption of distributed, energy-efficient solutions to perform self-deployment and relocation of the nodes. We develop a unified, distributed algorithm that has the following features. During deployment, our algorithm yields a regular tessellation of the geographical area with a given node density, called monitoring configuration. Upon the occurrence of a physical phenomenon, network nodes relocate themselves so as to properly sample and control the event, while maintaining the network connectivity. Then, as soon as the event ends, all nodes return to the monitoring configuration. To achieve these goals, we use a virtual force-based strategy which proves to be very effective even when compared to an optimal centralized solution. We assess the performance of our approach in the presence of events with different shapes, and we investigate the transient behavior of our algorithm. This allows us to evaluate the effectiveness and the response time of the proposed solution under various environmental conditions.

  17. Design and stabilisation of a high area iron molybdate surface for the selective oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Stephanie; Brookes, Catherine; Bowker, Michael; Gibson, Emma K; Wells, Peter P

    2016-07-04

    The performance of Mo-enriched, bulk ferric molybdate, employed commercially for the industrially important reaction of the selective oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde, is limited by a low surface area, typically 5-8 m(2) g(-1). Recent advances in the understanding of the iron molybdate catalyst have focused on the study of MoOx@Fe2O3 (MoOx shell, Fe2O3 core) systems, where only a few overlayers of Mo are present on the surface. This method of preparing MoOx@Fe2O3 catalysts was shown to support an iron molybdate surface of higher surface area than the industrially-favoured bulk phase. In this research, a MoOx@Fe2O3 catalyst of even higher surface area was stabilised by modifying a haematite support containing 5 wt% Al dopant. The addition of Al was an important factor for stabilising the haematite surface area and resulted in an iron molybdate surface area of ∼35 m(2) g(-1), around a 5 fold increase on the bulk catalyst. XPS confirmed Mo surface-enrichment, whilst Mo XANES resolved an amorphous MoOx surface monolayer supported on a sublayer of Fe2(MoO4)3 that became increasingly extensive with initial Mo surface loading. The high surface area MoOx@Fe2O3 catalyst proved amenable to bulk characterisation techniques; contributions from Fe2(MoO4)3 were detectable by Raman, XAFS, ATR-IR and XRD spectroscopies. The temperature-programmed pulsed flow reaction of methanol showed that this novel, high surface area catalyst (3ML-HSA) outperformed the undoped analogue (3ML-ISA), and a peak yield of 94% formaldehyde was obtained at ∼40 °C below that for the bulk Fe2(MoO4)3 phase. This work demonstrates how core-shell, multi-component oxides offer new routes for improving catalytic performance and understanding catalytic activity.

  18. Anthelmintic prescribing patterns of a sample of general practitioners from selected areas in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawardena GSA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available General Practitioners (GPs provide first contact care of children and pregnant mothers in the community. This study ascertained the prescribing pattern of anthelmintics to children and pregnant women by a sample of GPs from the district of Colombo. Two hundred medical practitioners engaged in full-time General Practice (100 urban and 100 rural, were selected randomly. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 183 GPs aged between 26 and 72 years (median 38 participated with 94 coming from urban areas. Seventy percent of the GPs were male. Almost 13% of GPs from urban areas had a Postgraduate degree in comparison to 4.5% from the rural areas ( P < 0.05. Over 50% of GPs had 6-20 years of service and over 30% treated 16-30 patients daily. Seventy-three percent of GPs from rural areas accessed health-related reading material either daily or weekly in contrast to only 40% from urban areas ( P < 0.001. All GPs prescribed anthelmintics to children. Pyrantel pamoate was the preferred anthelmintic used for children by both groups. Approximately 55% and 64% of GPs from urban and rural areas, respectively, prescribed anthelmintics during pregnancy. A majority of GPs prescribed drugs after the first trimester. However, 25% from urban areas gave drugs during any trimester ( P < 0.001. Regression analysis revealed that GPs with postgraduate qualifications, those having frequent access to health-related material and those seeing more than 30 patients daily, prescribed anthelmintics to pregnant women more often. Although routine de-worming of pregnant women and children should occur through government antenatal and well-baby clinics, and through the schools de-worming programme, it may not happen due to various reasons. Thus, GPs play a vital role in achieving good coverage of anthelmintics among children and pregnant women. Making available clear national guidelines on prescribing anthelmintics in Sri Lanka would

  19. Security Support in Continuous Deployment Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Faheem; Raft, Adam Johannes; Shahin, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Continuous Deployment (CD) has emerged as a new practice in the software industry to continuously and automatically deploy software changes into production. Continuous Deployment Pipeline (CDP) supports CD practice by transferring the changes from the repository to production. Since most of the C...

  20. Comparison of benthos and plankton for selected areas of concern and non-areas of concern in western Lake Michigan Rivers and Harbors in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, Barbara C. Scudder; Bell, Amanda H.; Templar, Hayley A.; Burns, Daniel J.

    2016-07-25

    Recent data are lacking to assess whether impairments still exist at four of Wisconsin’s largest Lake Michigan harbors that were designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the late 1980s due to sediment contamination and multiple Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), such as those affecting benthos (macroinvertebrates) and plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) communities. During three seasonal sampling events (“seasons”) in May through August 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment benthos and water plankton at the four AOCs as well as six less-degraded non-AOCs along the western Lake Michigan shoreline to assess whether AOC communities were degraded in comparison to non-AOC communities. The four AOCs are the Lower Menominee River, the Lower Green Bay and Fox River, the Sheboygan River, and the Milwaukee Estuary. Due to their size and complexity, multiple locations or “subsites” were sampled within the Lower Green Bay and Fox River AOC (Lower Green Bay, the Fox River near Allouez, and the Fox River near De Pere) and within the Milwaukee Estuary AOC (the Milwaukee River, the Menomonee River, and the Milwaukee Harbor) and single locations were sampled at the other AOCs and non-AOCs. The six non-AOCs are the Escanaba River in Michigan, and the Oconto River, Ahnapee River, Kewaunee River, Manitowoc River, and Root River in Wisconsin. Benthos samples were collected by using Hester-Dendy artificial substrates deployed for 30 days and by using a dredge sampler; zooplankton were collected by net and phytoplankton by whole-water sampler. Except for the Lower Green Bay and Milwaukee Harbor locations, communities at each AOC were compared to all non-AOCs as a group and to paired non-AOCs using taxa relative abundances and metrics, including richness, diversity, and an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI, for Hester-Dendy samples only). Benthos samples collected during one or more seasons were rated as degraded for at least one metric at all AOCs. In the

  1. Female unmarried adolescents' knowledge on selected reproductive health issues in two low performing areas of Bangladesh: an evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Humayun; Saha, Nirod Chandra; Gazi, Rukhsana

    2015-12-21

    In Bangladesh, 24 % of the total populations are adolescents. Twelve months intervention was implemented under Demand-Based Reproductive Health Commodity Project (DBRHCP) in two low performing areas: rural Sub-district Nabiganj (population 323,357) and an urban slum in Dhaka city (population 141,912). We evaluated the changes in knowledge of female unmarried adolescents on selected reproductive health issues over the project period in two low performing areas of Bangladesh. A pre-post study design was adopted. Under DBRHCP, interventions were focused on training of government service providers, disseminating behaviour change materials within the targeted communities, and employing community-based health promoters (Community Support Group and Peer Promoters) to foster linkages between the community and providers. All households were enumerated. A baseline survey was conducted during November 2006 to March 2007 and an end-line survey was conducted during November 2008 to March 2009. Eight hundred female unmarried adolescents (12-19 years) were selected independently for each survey from each study area through systematic random sampling, capturing changes over the 12 months intervention period. Data was analyzed using SPSS. A chi-square test was used to assess the changes in knowledge between baseline and end-line among the female unmarried adolescents. Female unmarried adolescents had significantly increased knowledge at the end-line about measures to be taken during menstruation like: using clean and dry cloths. Overall, two-third of female unmarried adolescents knew about Family Planning (FP) methods in both study areas but had significantly increased knowledge on injectables and condoms at the end-line. Overall knowledge on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDs) was markedly different in the urban and rural areas, but a significantly higher proportion of female unmarried adolescents knew about HIV/AIDs from relatives and

  2. FUNCTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR RUSSIAN PULSATING MONITOR DEPLOYMENT IN THE GUNITE AND ASSOCIATED TANKS AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Albert

    1999-01-01

    This document provides functions and requirements to support deployment of pulsating mixer pump technology in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Gunite and Associated Tanks to mobilize and mix the settled sludge and solids in these tanks. In FY 1998 pulsating mixer pump technology, a jet mixer powered by a reciprocating air supply, was selected for FY 1999 deployment in one of the GAAT tanks to mobilize settled solids. Pulsating mixer pump technology was identified in FY 1996 during technical exchanges between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Retrieval and Closure program, the DOE Environmental Management International Programs, and delegates from Russia as a promising technology that could be implemented in the US. The pulsating mixer pump technology, provided by the Russian Integrated Mining Chemical Company, was tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to observe its ability to mobilize settled solids. Based on the results of this demonstration, ORNL and DOE staff determined that a modified pulsating mixer pump would meet project needs for bulk mobilization of Gunite tank sludge prior to deployment of other retrieval systems. The deployment of this device is expected to significantly reduce the costs of operation and maintenance of more expensive retrieval systems. The functions and requirements presented here were developed by evaluating the results and recommendations that resulted from the pulsating mixer pump demonstration at PNNL, and by coupling this with the remediation needs identified by staff at ORNL involved with the remediation of the Gunite and Associated Tanks.

  3. Enhanced Deployment Strategy for Role-based Hierarchical Application Agents in Wireless Sensor Networks with Established Clusterheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Audrey

    Efficient self-organizing virtual clusterheads that supervise data collection based on their wireless connectivity, risk, and overhead costs, are an important element of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This function is especially critical during deployment when system resources are allocated to a subsequent application. In the presented research, a model used to deploy intrusion detection capability on a Local Area Network (LAN), in the literature, was extended to develop a role-based hierarchical agent deployment algorithm for a WSN. The resulting model took into consideration the monitoring capability, risk, deployment distribution cost, and monitoring cost associated with each node. Changing the original LAN methodology approach to model a cluster-based sensor network depended on the ability to duplicate a specific parameter that represented the monitoring capability. Furthermore, other parameters derived from a LAN can elevate costs and risk of deployment, as well as jeopardize the success of an application on a WSN. A key component of the approach presented in this research was to reduce the costs when established clusterheads in the network were found to be capable of hosting additional detection agents. In addition, another cost savings component of the study addressed the reduction of vulnerabilities associated with deployment of agents to high volume nodes. The effectiveness of the presented method was validated by comparing it against a type of a power-based scheme that used each node's remaining energy as the deployment value. While available energy is directly related to the model used in the presented method, the study deliberately sought out nodes that were identified with having superior monitoring capability, cost less to create and sustain, and are at low-risk of an attack. This work investigated improving the efficiency of an intrusion detection system (IDS) by using the proposed model to deploy monitoring agents after a temperature sensing

  4. RSG Deployment Case Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

    2005-09-01

    The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

  5. Selective-area MOVPE growth for 10 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulator integrated with a tunable DBR laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Bock; Sim, Jae-Sik; Kim, Ki Soo; Sim, Eun-Deok; Ryu, Sang-Wan; Park, Hong Lee

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated electroabsorption modulator integrated monolithically with a distributed Bragg reflector laser using selective area growth (SAG) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Through the bandgap engineering due to the growth rate enhancement and compositional variation from the difference of migration and/or diffusion length of species by various SAG mask pattern, we have achieved the photoluminescence peak wavelengths of active layer in the laser, modulator, and Bragg grating regions to 1.557, 1.503, and 1.442 μm, respectively. The electroabsorption modulator-integrated laser shows a good performance including threshold current of below 6 mA, output power of 5 mW for 45 mA current injected in the active region, and high side-mode suppression ratio over 45 dB with the 3-dB modulation bandwidth over 11 GHz.

  6. Mode-locked laser realized by selective area growth for short pulse generation and optical clock recovery in TDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Eugen; Baums, Dieter; Bouayad-Amine, Jamal; Hache, Claudia; Haisch, Hansjorg; Kuhn, Edgar; Satzke, Klaus; Schilling, Michael; Weber, Juergen; Zielinski, Erich

    1996-04-01

    We report on monolithically integrated active/passive coupled cavity mode locked lasers for 1.55 micrometer realized by selective area growth technology of InGaAs(P) quantum wells. Mode locked FP or DBR lasers are fabricated with an integrated cavity comprising up to three different band gaps. The devices emit short light pulses at around 10 GHz repetition rate with pulse width down to 8.7 ps. A time-bandwidth product of 0.5 is achieved for mode locked DBR lasers. Active/passive integrated mode locked laser is used for generation of optical 10 GHz clock signal from optical 10 Gb/s PRBS RZ data stream injected into the laser cavity.

  7. A Comparative Study on the Selected Area Electron Diffraction Pattern of Fe Oxide/Au Core-shell Structured Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qianghua LU; Kailun YAO; Dong XI; Zuli LIU; Xiaoping LUO; Qin NING

    2007-01-01

    The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern of magnetic iron oxide core/gold shell nanoparticles has been studied. For the composite particles with mean size less than 10 nm, their SAED pattern is found to be different from either the pattern of pure Fe oxide nanoparticles or that of pure Au particles. Based on the fact that the ring diameters of these composite particles fit the characteristic relation for the fcc structure, the Au atoms on surfaces of the concerned particles are supposed to pack in a way more tightly than they usually do in pure Au nanoparticles. The driving force for this is the coherency strain which enables the shell material at the heterostructured interface to adapt the lattice parameters of the core.

  8. Effect of nanohole size on selective area growth of InAs nanowire arrays on Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoye; Yang, Wenyuan; Wang, Baojun; Ji, Xianghai; Xu, Shengyong; Wang, Wei; Chen, Qing; Yang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    We have investigated the influence of nanohole size on selective-area growth (SAG) of InAs nanowire (NW) arrays on Si(111) substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The growth of well-defined and position-controlled InAs NW arrays with united vertical orientation can be achieved on the patterned substrates with a certain range of nanohole size, which paves the way for the fabrication of high-electron-mobility and surrounding-gate transistor arrays using NWs as channels. Moreover, it is found that more than one NW are increasingly likely grown per nanohole as the nanohole size increases, and the NWs become increasingly thin and short. This is considered to be due to the supersaturation of adsorbed species in the nanohole and the intense competition for adatoms among multiple NWs per nanohole.

  9. A GIS-assisted approach to wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection for the state of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, M.C. [Brower & Company, Andover, MA (United States); Hurley, P. [RLA Consulting, Bothell, WA (United States); Simon, R. [Consulting Meteorologist, Mill Valley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the methodology and results of a wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection in Colorado. This was the first phase in a three-part assessment and monitoring program conducted for the State of Colorado Office of Energy Conservation and several collaborating utilities. The objective of this phase was to identify up to 20 candidate sites for evaluation and possible long-term monitoring. This was accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), which takes into account such factors as topography, existing wind resource data, locations of transmission lines, land cover, and land use. The resulting list of sites recommended for evaluation in Phase 2 of the study includes locations throughout Colorado, but most are in the eastern plains. The GIS wind siting model may be modified and updated in the future as additional information becomes available. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Selected area laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon thin films by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with 355 nm wavelength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Chunyan; Liu Chao; Ai Bin; Lai Jianjun; Deng Youjun; Shen Hui

    2011-01-01

    Selected area laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon(p-Si)thin films were prepared by the third harmonics(355 nm wavelength)generated by a solid-state pulsed Nd:YAG laser.Surface morphologies of 400 nm thick films after laser irradiation were analyzed.Raman spectra show that film crystallinity is improved with increase of laser energy.The optimum laser energy density is sensitive to the film thickness.The laser energy density for efficiently crystallizing amorphous silicon films is between 440-634 mJ/cm2 for 300 nm thick films and between 777-993 mJ/cm2 for 400 nm thick films.The optimized laser energy density is 634,975 and 1571 mJ/cm2 for 300,400 and 500 nm thick films,respectively.

  11. Deployment of a Grid-based Medical Imaging Application

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Frate, C; Gálvez, J; Hassan, W; Hauer, T; Manset, D; McClatchey, R; Odeh, M; Rogulin, D; Solomonides, T; Warren, R

    2005-01-01

    The MammoGrid project has deployed its Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)-based Grid application in a real environment comprising actual participating hospitals. The resultant setup is currently being exploited to conduct rigorous in-house tests in the first phase before handing over the setup to the actual clinicians to get their feedback. This paper elaborates the deployment details and the experiences acquired during this phase of the project. Finally the strategy regarding migration to an upcoming middleware from EGEE project will be described. This paper concludes by highlighting some of the potential areas of future work.

  12. Deployment of vendor capabilities and competences throughout the outsourcing process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perunovic, Zoran; Christoffersen, Mads; Mefford, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    utilization of different portfolios of competences (balanced, unit-dominant, and versatile) and capabilities (permanent and temporary) which need to be deployed in the right combination (deployment strategy) adequate for the stage of the industry dynamics in which vendors operate. The research also indicated....... Results also suggest that more research into relationship management capability in the context of the EMS industry will be a fruitful area for future studies. Practical implications - Vendors who seek to advance in the industry's value chain need to expand their portfolio of competences and adapt...

  13. Efficient Wireless Charger Deployment for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehn-Ruey Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A wireless rechargeable sensor network (WRSN consists of sensor nodes that can harvest energy emitted from wireless chargers for refilling their batteries so that the WRSN can operate sustainably. This paper assumes wireless chargers are equipped with directional antennas, and are deployed on grid points of a fixed height to propose two heuristic algorithms solving the following wireless charger deployment optimization (WCDO problem: how to deploy as few as possible chargers to make the WRSN sustainable. Both algorithms model the charging space of chargers as a cone and calculate charging efficiency according power regression expressions complying with the Friis transmission equation. The two algorithms are the greedy cone covering (GCC algorithm and the adaptive cone covering (ACC algorithm. The GCC (respectively, ACC algorithm greedily (respectively, adaptively generates candidate cones to cover as many as possible sensor nodes. Both algorithms then greedily select the fewest number of candidate cones, each of which corresponds to the deployment of a charger, to have approximate solutions to the WCDO problem. We perform experiments, conduct simulations and do analyses for the algorithms to compare them in terms of the time complexity, the number of chargers deployed, and the execution time.

  14. Automatic Labelling and Selection of Training Samples for High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Classification over Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Supervised classification is the commonly used method for extracting ground information from images. However, for supervised classification, the selection and labelling of training samples is an expensive and time-consuming task. Recently, automatic information indexes have achieved satisfactory results for indicating different land-cover classes, which makes it possible to develop an automatic method for labelling the training samples instead of manual interpretation. In this paper, we propose a method for the automatic selection and labelling of training samples for high-resolution image classification. In this way, the initial candidate training samples can be provided by the information indexes and open-source geographical information system (GIS data, referring to the representative land-cover classes: buildings, roads, soil, water, shadow, and vegetation. Several operations are then applied to refine the initial samples, including removing overlaps, removing borders, and semantic constraints. The proposed sampling method is evaluated on a series of high-resolution remote sensing images over urban areas, and is compared to classification with manually labeled training samples. It is found that the proposed method is able to provide and label a large number of reliable samples, and can achieve satisfactory results for different classifiers. In addition, our experiments show that active learning can further enhance the classification performance, as active learning is used to choose the most informative samples from the automatically labeled samples.

  15. An ARM Mobile Facility Designed for Marine Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiscombe, W. J.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements) Program is designing a Mobile Facility exclusively for marine deployments. This marine facility is patterned after ARM's land Mobile Facility, which had its inaugural deployment at Point Reyes, California, in 2005, followed by deployments to Niger in 2006 and Germany in 2007 (ongoing), and a planned deployment to China in 2008. These facilities are primarily intended for the study of clouds, radiation, aerosols, and surface processes with a goal to include these processes accurately in climate models. They are preferably embedded within larger field campaigns which provide context. They carry extensive instrumentation (in several large containers) including: cloud radar, lidar, microwave radiometers, infrared spectrometers, broadband and narrowband radiometers, sonde-launching facilities, extensive surface aerosol measurements, sky imagers, and surface latent and sensible heat flux devices. ARM's Mobile Facilities are designed for 6-10 month deployments in order to capture climatically-relevant datasets. They are available to any scientist, U.S. or international, who wishes to submit a proposal during the annual Spring call. The marine facility will be adapted to, and ruggedized for, the harsh marine environment and will add a scanning two-frequency radar, a boundary-layer wind profiler, a shortwave spectrometer, and aerosol instrumentation adapted to typical marine aerosols like sea salt. Plans also include the use of roving small UAVs, automated small boats, and undersea autonomous vehicles in order to address the point-to-area-average problem which is so crucial for informing climate models. Initial deployments are planned for small islands in climatically- interesting cloud regimes, followed by deployments on oceanic platforms (like decommissioned oil rigs and the quasi-permanent platform of this session's title) and eventually on large ships like car carriers plying routine routes.

  16. Technology Deployment Annual Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Arterburn

    2009-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a Department of Energy (DOE) multi-program national laboratory that conducts research and development in all DOE mission areas. Like all other federal laboratories, INL has a statutory, technology transfer mission to make its capabilities and technologies available to all federal agencies, to state and local governments, and to universities and industry. To fulfill this mission, INL encourages its scientific, engineering, and technical staff to disclose new inventions and creations to ensure the resulting intellectual property is captured, protected, and made available to others who might benefit from it. As part of the mission, intellectual property is licensed to industrial partners for commercialization, creating jobs and delivering the benefits of federally funded technology to consumers. In other cases, unique capabilities are made available to other federal agencies or to regional small businesses to solve specific technical challenges. In other interactions, INL employees work cooperatively with researchers and other technical staff of our partners to further develop emerging technologies. This report is a catalog of selected INL technology transfer and commercialization transactions during this past year. The size and diversity of INL technical resources, coupled with the large number of relationships with other organizations, virtually ensures that a report of this nature will fail to capture all interactions. Recognizing this limitation, this report focuses on transactions that are specifically authorized by technology transfer legislation (and corresponding contractual provisions) or involve the transfer of legal rights to technology to other parties.

  17. Variation in chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in spring wheat and implications for selection in segregating material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hamblin

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in crops may be of advantage in the search for higher yields. Possible reasons include better light distribution in the crop canopy and less photochemical damage to leaves absorbing more light energy than required for maximum photosynthesis. Reduced chlorophyll may also reduce the heat load at the top of canopy, reducing water requirements to cool leaves. Chloroplasts are nutrient rich and reducing their number may increase available nutrients for growth and development. To determine whether this hypothesis has any validity in spring wheat requires an understanding of genotypic differences in leaf chlorophyll content per unit area in diverse germplasm. This was measured with a SPAD 502 as SPAD units. The study was conducted in series of environments involving up to 28 genotypes, mainly spring wheat. In general, substantial and repeatable genotypic variation was observed. Consistent SPAD readings were recorded for different sampling positions on leaves, between different leaves on single plant, between different plants of the same genotype, and between different genotypes grown in the same or different environments. Plant nutrition affected SPAD units in nutrient poor environments. Wheat genotypes DBW 10 and Transfer were identified as having consistent and contrasting high and low average SPAD readings of 52 and 32 units, respectively, and a methodology to allow selection in segregating populations has been developed.

  18. A high surface area Zr(IV)-based metal-organic framework showing stepwise gas adsorption and selective dye uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiu-Liang; Tong, Minman; Huang, Hongliang; Wang, Bin; Gan, Lei; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhong, Chongli; Li, Jian-Rong

    2015-03-01

    Exploitation of new metal-organic framework (MOF) materials with high surface areas has been attracting great attention in related research communities due to their broad potential applications. In this work, a new Zr(IV)-based MOF, [Zr6O4(OH)4(eddb)6] (BUT-30, H2eddb=4,4‧-(ethyne-1,2-diyl)dibenzoic acid) has been solvothermally synthesized, characterized, and explored for gases and dyes adsorptions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates a three-dimensional cubic framework structure of this MOF, in which each Zr6O4(OH)4 building unit is linked by 12 linear eddb ligands. BUT-30 has been found stable up to 400 °C and has a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area as high as 3940.6 m2 g-1 (based on the N2 adsorption at 77 K) and total pore volume of 1.55 cm3 g-1. It is more interesting that this MOF exhibits stepwise adsorption behaviors for Ar, N2, and CO2 at low temperatures, and selective uptakes towards different ionic dyes.

  19. Monolithic integration of MQW wavelength tunable DBR lasers with external cavity electroabsorption modulators by selective-area MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Robert M.; Smith, Gary M.; Hughes, J. S.; Osowski, Mark L.; Jones, A. M.; Coleman, James J.

    1997-01-01

    The design and operation of multiple-quantum well (MQW) wavelength tunable distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers with nonabsorbing gratings and monolithically integrated external cavity electroabsorption modulators fabricated by selective-area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are presented. Uncoated devices exhibit cw threshold currents as low as 10.5 mA with slope efficiencies of 0.21 W/A from the laser facet and 0.06 W/A from the modulator facet. After the application of facet coatings, slope efficiencies from the modulator facet increase to 0.14 W/A. Wavelength tuning of 7 nm is obtained by injection current heating of the DBR section. These devices exhibit extinction ratios of 18 dB from the modulator facet at a low modulator bias of 1 V, when measured with a broad-area detector. When coupled to a singlemode fiber, these devices exhibit high extinction ratios of 40 dB at a modulator bias of 1.25 V. Photo-generated current versus optical power plots indicate that the extinction ratios are not limited by carrier build- up in the modulator quantum wells.

  20. Mesoscale Assessment of CO2 Storage Potential and Geological Suitability for Target Area Selection in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Diao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, south of the Yangtze River, there are a large number of carbon sources, while the Sichuan Basin is the largest sedimentary basin; it makes sense to select the targets for CO2 geological storage (CGUS early demonstration. For CO2 enhanced oil and gas, coal bed methane recovery (CO2-EOR, EGR, and ECBM, or storage in these depleted fields, the existing oil, gas fields, or coal seams could be the target areas in the mesoscale. This paper proposed a methodology of GIS superimposed multisource information assessment of geological suitability for CO2 enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR or only storage in deep saline aquifers. The potential per unit area of deep saline aquifers CO2 storage in Central Sichuan is generally greater than 50 × 104 t/km2 at P50 probability level, with Xujiahe group being the main reservoir. CO2 storage potential of depleted gas fields is 53.73 × 108 t, while it is 33.85 × 108 t by using CO2-EGR technology. This paper recommended that early implementation of CGUS could be carried out in the deep saline aquifers and depleted gas fields in the Sichuan Basin, especially that of the latter because of excellent traps, rich geological data, and well-run infrastructures.

  1. Improving health service delivery organisational performance in health systems: a taxonomy of strategy areas and conceptual framework for strategy selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Sarah W; Curry, Leslie; Bashyal, Chhitij; Berman, Peter; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2012-03-01

    Health systems strengthening (HSS) is a priority for global health funders, policy-makers and practitioners. Although many HSS efforts have focused on policy levers such as financing approaches, payment schemes or regulatory reforms, less attention has been directed to targeting the organisations that deliver health services such as hospitals, health centres and clinics. Evidence suggests that the impact of organisation-level interventions varies by context; however, we lack a general framework for integrating organisational context into performance improvement strategies for health service delivery organisations. Drawing on open systems theories from organisational behaviour and management as well as a review of 181 empirical studies of health service delivery organisations in low- and middle-income countries, we propose a taxonomy of seven strategy areas for improving organisational performance as well as a multistage conceptual framework for selecting among them. We propose that the choice of strategy for improving health service delivery organisational performance should be informed by: (i) the root cause of the organisation's performance gap; (ii) the environmental conditions facing the organisation; and (iii) the implementation capability of the organisation. We also highlight conditions under which different strategy areas may be expected to be optimally effective. The approaches presented in this paper offer a way for health system decision-makers and researchers to systematically assess and incorporate organisational context in the process of developing strategies to improve the performance of health service delivery organisations and, ultimately, of health systems.

  2. A bionic approach to mathematical modeling the fold geometry of deployable reflector antennas on satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, C. M.; Liu, T. S.

    2014-10-01

    Inspired from biology, this study presents a method for designing the fold geometry of deployable reflectors. Since the space available inside rockets for transporting satellites with reflector antennas is typically cylindrical in shape, and its cross-sectional area is considerably smaller than the reflector antenna after deployment, the cross-sectional area of the folded reflector must be smaller than the available rocket interior space. Membrane reflectors in aerospace are a type of lightweight structure that can be packaged compactly. To design membrane reflectors from the perspective of deployment processes, bionic applications from morphological changes of plants are investigated. Creating biologically inspired reflectors, this paper deals with fold geometry of reflectors, which imitate flower buds. This study uses mathematical formulation to describe geometric profiles of flower buds. Based on the formulation, new designs for deployable membrane reflectors derived from bionics are proposed. Adjusting parameters in the formulation of these designs leads to decreases in reflector area before deployment.

  3. Mineralogical correlation of surficial sediment from area drainages with selected sedimentary interbeds at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Ongoing research by the US Geological Survey at the INEL involves investigation of the migration of radioactive elements contained in low-level radioactive waste, hydrologic and geologic factors affecting waste movement, and geochemical factors that influence the chemical composition of the waste. Identification of the mineralogy of the Snake River Plain is needed to aid in the study of the hydrology and geochemistry of subsurface waste disposal. The US Geological Surveys project office at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, used mineralogical data to correlate surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River, Little Lost River, and Birch Greek drainages with selected sedimentary interbed core samples taken from test holes at the RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex), TRA (Test Reactors Area), ICPP (Idaho Chemical Processing Plant), and TAN (Test Area North). Correlating the mineralogy of a particular present-day drainage area with a particular sedimentary interbed provides information on historical source of sediment for interbeds in and near the INEL. Mineralogical data indicate that surficial sediment samples from the Big Lost River drainage contained a larger amount of feldspar and pyroxene and a smaller amount of calcite and dolomite than samples from the Little Lost River and Birch Creek drainages. Mineralogical data from sedimentary interbeds at the RWMC, TRA, and ICPP correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day big Lost River drainage. Mineralogical data from a sedimentary interbed at TAN correlate with surficial sediment of the present-day Birch Creek drainage. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Bovine trypanosomosis and its fly vectors in three selected settlement areas of Hawa-Gelan district, western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumela Lelisa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the species diversity of fly vectors and estimating the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out from October 2009 to May 2010 in selected settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district in the western Wollega zone of Ethiopia. Standard methods of sampling and identification were employed for both entomological and parasitological examination. Three species of the genus Glossina (Glossina pallidipes, Glossina morsitans submorsitans and Glossina fuscipes and two genera of biting flies (Stomoxys and Tabanus were caught and identified. The overall apparent density of Glossina species caught was 10.5 flies per trap per day, with a higher proportion of female flies (57.2%. Out of a total 389 cattle examined, 42 (10.8%; 95% CI: 7.89% – 14.3% were found infected with trypanosomes. Three trypanosome species were detected in the study area, namely Trypanosoma congolense (54.8%, Trypanosoma brucei (23.8% and Trypanosoma vivax (21.4%. The prevalence of trypanosomosis was found to be significantly (p < 0.05 higher in cattle with poor body condition. There was an association between mean packed cell volume (PCV and the occurrence of parasitaemia (χ2 = 49.5, p < 0.05. About 95.2% of cattle that were positive for trypanosomes had a PCV less than the lower limit for cattle. Considering the current result, bovine trypanosomosis seems to be a serious constraint for agricultural activities in the settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district and seems to be associated with the presence of Glossina species. Therefore, application of control methods through community involvement to reduce the Glossina species infestation level is likely to increase animal productivity.

  5. Serosurveillance of foot-and-mouth disease virus in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Mkama

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is caused by a virus of the genus Aphthorvirus of the family Picornaviridae. There is great scientific need for determining the transmission dynamics of FMD virus (FMDV by drawing more attention to the livestock-wildlife interface areas. A variety of literature suggests that buffalo could serve as reservoir of FMDV in wildlife and cattle. However, many FMDV research studies conducted on experimentally infected cattle as carriers and groups of animal highly susceptible to FMDV (i.e. bovine calves have shown lower chances of transmission of the virus between carriers and the susceptible groups. These findings underscore the importance of continued research on the role played by carrier animals on FMDV transmission dynamics under natural conditions. The aim of this research study was to determine FMDV infection status among buffalo and cattle herds in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas. The sampled areas included Mikumi, Mkomazi and Ruaha national parks, where a total of 330 buffalo and bovine sera samples were collected. Laboratory analysis of the samples was done through the NSP ELISA technique using the PrioCHECK® FMDV NS Kit for detection of antibodies directed against 3ABC non-structural proteins and confirming natural infections. Results showed that 76.3% of tested sera samples were positive for FMDV. However, serotyping of NSP ELISA seroreactors with LPBE is yet to be done. This information is important for further epidemiological studies towards developing effective FMD control strategies.

  6. Optimizing Cloud-RAN Deployments in Real-life Scenarios Using Microwave Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-obaidi, Rami; Checko, Aleksandra; Holm, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    derive engineering guidelines for minimizing the CAPital EXpenditure (CAPEX) of C-RAN deployment. We show for which population density and span of BBU Pool coverage usage of Microwave Radio (MWR) links is viable. For larger scale deployment we recommend to divide the area into multiple BBU Pools....

  7. Deployment methods of visible light communication lights for energy efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Muhammad Tabish; Imdad, Fatima; Kim, Soomi; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2016-10-01

    Indoor visible light communication (VLC) uses light emitting diodes (LEDs) to provide both illumination and data communication. The deployment of LED plays an important role in maintaining a steady optical power distribution over the reference receiving plane. Typical ways of luminaire deployment in offices and homes are not optimized for VLC. This paper investigates various configurations of LEDs for deploying them on the ceilings of offices and homes. The existing square array deployment of LEDs does not provide a full coverage on the receiving plane leaving dead spaces, which in turn affects the performance of the whole system. An optimized circular deployment scheme is proposed that considers both the position of the LED transmitters on the ceiling and the first reflections at each wall to yield more accurate results. Rectangular deployment and circular deployment are analyzed through simulation of the received optical power distribution, average outage area rate, and energy consumption. An optimization technique is developed to analyze the LED deployment schemes. It is clear from the results that the circular LED deployment provides a better performance than the square array grid LED deployment.

  8. Challenges of nurses' deployment to other New York City hospitals in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDevanter, Nancy; Kovner, Christine T; Raveis, Victoria H; McCollum, Meriel; Keller, Ronald

    2014-08-01

    On October 29, 2012, a 12-ft storm surge generated by Hurricane Sandy necessitated evacuation and temporary closure of three New York City hospitals including NYU Langone Medical Center (NYULMC). NYULMC nurses participated in the evacuation, and 71 % were subsequently deployed to area hospitals to address patient surge for periods from a few days up to 2 months when NYULMC reopened. This mixed methods study explored nurses' experience in the immediate disaster and the subsequent deployment. More than 50 % of deployed nurse participants reported the experience to be extremely or very stressful. Deployed nurses encountered practice challenges related to working in an unfamiliar environment, limited orientation, legal concerns about clinical assignments. They experienced psychosocial challenges associated with the intense experience of the evacuation, uncertainty about future employment, and the increased demands of managing the deployment. Findings provide data to inform national and regional policies to support nurses in future deployments.

  9. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency in selected populations from two previously high malaria endemic areas of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilananda, G. M. G.; Samarakoon, Dilhani; Maddevithana, Sashika; Wijesundera, Sulochana; Goonaratne, Lallindra V.; Karunaweera, Nadira D.

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme deficiency is known to offer protection against malaria and an increased selection of mutant genes in malaria endemic regions is expected. However, anti-malarial drugs such as primaquine can cause haemolytic anaemia in persons with G6PD deficiency. We studied the extent of G6PD deficiency in selected persons attending Teaching Hospitals of Anuradhapura and Kurunegala, two previously high malaria endemic districts in Sri Lanka. A total of 2059 filter-paper blood spots collected between November 2013 and June 2014 were analysed for phenotypic G6PD deficiency using the modified WST-8/1-methoxy PMS method. Each assay was conducted with a set of controls and the colour development assessed visually as well as with a microplate reader at OD450-630nm. Overall, 142/1018 (13.95%) and 83/1041 (7.97%) were G6PD deficient in Anuradhapura and Kurunegala districts respectively. The G6PD prevalence was significantly greater in Anuradhapura when compared to Kurunegala (P0.05). Severe deficiency (<10% normal) was seen among 28/1018 (2.75%) in Anuradhapura (7 males; 21 females) and 17/1041 (1.63%) in Kurunegala (7 males; 10 females). Enzyme activity between 10–30% was observed among 114/1018 (11.20%; 28 males; 86 females) in Anuradhapura while it was 66/1041 (6.34%; 18 males; 48 females) in Kurunegala. Screening and educational programmes for G6PD deficiency are warranted in these high risk areas irrespective of gender for the prevention of disease states related to this condition. PMID:28152025

  10. Deployment and use of mobile phone technology for real-time reporting of fever cases and malaria treatment failure in areas of declining malaria transmission in Muheza district north-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Filbert; Ishengoma, Deus S; Mmbando, Bruno P; Rutta, Acleus S M; Malecela, Mwelecele N; Mayala, Benjamin; Lemnge, Martha M; Michael, Edwin

    2017-08-01

    episodes and monitoring of treatment failure in remote areas. Further optimization and scaling-up will be required to utilize the tools for improved malaria case management and drug resistance surveillance.

  11. Integral field spectroscopy of selected areas of the Bright bar and Orion-S cloud in the Orion nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Delgado, A.; Núñez-Díaz, M.; Esteban, C.; López-Martín, L.; García-Rojas, J.

    2011-10-01

    We present integral field spectroscopy of two selected zones in the Orion nebula obtained with the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer, covering the optical spectral range from 3500 to 7200 Å and with a spatial resolution of 1 arcsec. The observed zones are located on the prominent Bright bar and on the brightest area at the north-east of the Orion south cloud, both containing remarkable ionization fronts. We obtain maps of emission-line fluxes and ratios, electron density and temperatures, and chemical abundances. We study the ionization structure and morphology of both fields, whose ionization fronts show different inclination angles with respect to the plane of the sky. We find that the maps of electron density, O+/H+ and O/H ratios show a rather similar structure. We interpret this as produced by the strong dependence on density of the [O II] lines used to derive the O+ abundance, and that our nominal values of electron density - derived from the [S II] line ratio - may be slightly higher than the appropriate value for the O+ zone. We measure the faint recombination lines of O II in the field at the north-east of the Orion south cloud, allowing us to explore the so-called abundance discrepancy problem. We find a rather constant abundance discrepancy across the field and a mean value similar to that determined in other areas of the Orion nebula, indicating that the particular physical conditions of this ionization front do not contribute to this discrepancy. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

  12. Linking trade-offs in habitat selection with the occurrence of functional responses for moose living in two nearby study areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabille, Géraldine; Dussault, Christian; Ouellet, Jean-Pierre; Laurian, Catherine

    2012-12-01

    A species may modify its relative habitat use with changing availability, generating functional responses in habitat selection. Functional responses in habitat selection are expected to occur when animals experience trade-offs influencing their habitat selection, but only a few studies to date have explicitly linked functional responses to the underlying trade-offs faced by the animals. We used data from 39 female moose fitted with GPS telemetry collars in two nearby study areas in Canada to investigate if moose (1) were faced with a food/cover trade-off in habitat selection, as typically acknowledged in the literature, and (2) showed a functional response in their use of food/cover-rich habitats. We also examined how habitat selection patterns varied seasonally, and between study areas. The occurrence of functional responses varied strongly between study areas, and could not always be related to a measurable food/cover trade-off. Functional responses were observed more often in the study area where the environmental conditions were more severe (colder temperatures, higher precipitations, and lower food availability). Selection coefficients were also less variable among individuals in that study area, suggesting that severe environmental conditions may constrain individuals to a few selection tactics and promote the development of functional responses. Moose reacted to the availability of different habitat types in different seasons, reflecting the changing trade-offs faced by the animals. We found considerable behavioral differences between individuals from two adjacent study areas, and therefore recommend caution when extrapolating habitat selection results. We advocate for the wider use of functional responses to identify critical habitats for a species from a management or conservation perspective.

  13. Tow-Dimensionally Deployable "SHDF" Truss

    OpenAIRE

    ONODA, Junjiro; WATANABE, Naoyudi; Ichida, Kazuo; HASHIMOTO, Yasuo; NAKADA, Atsushi; Saito, Hisashi; 小野田, 淳次郎

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes a newly invented two-dimensionally deployable truss structure named SHDF, which has no articulated members. The most significant feature of SHDF truss is the very small number of the mechanisms to be actuated and locked at the deployment. A globally flat functional model actuated by tiny electromagnetic motors was designed and fabricated. The model demonstrated its practicality and virtually synchronized smooth motion in deploy/fold tests. Subsequently, the model w...

  14. Queuing Model for Banking System: A Comparative Study of Selected Banks in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimi Oluwole Abiodun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of two selected banks (Wema & Skye Bank in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo state was investigated. The research study employed a queuing model for both banking system to measure the behavioural queuing characteristics of customers in terms of their arrival and service rate respectively. The data for the arrival and service rate of the two banks were collected simultaneously at the space of three days. The data collected was also analysed separately with respect to the queuing theory parameters ( . Findings showed that Wema bank has a high waiting service time value (0.019% which may have a negative significant effect on customers on waiting lines. When compared with Skye bank, we realized that Skye bank has an advantageous effect of service time value (0.000022% which will have a positive significant effect on customers in experiencing little or no queue at all. This clearly indicates that for optimum efficiency in the banks, there is need to increase the number of servers. Also, the result of the respective banks shows that waiting lines reduces when the number of servers increases. The analysis in this study is very effective and practical, and is hereby recommended for the management of the banks to review for better efficiency and performance.

  15. SURVIVAL OF SIX TREE SPECIES IN A SELECTIVELY EXPLORED FOREST AREA AT MOJU COUNTY-PA- BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinilde Ribeiro Serrão

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The survival rate of six forest tree species: Sterculia pruriens, Vouacapouaamericana, Jacaranda copaia, Protium paraense, Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens e Tabebuiaserratifolia, considering the distance between the clearing border and forest interior wasevaluated in the experimental area of EMBRAPA, at Moju – Pará. Nine gaps were selected,in which strips of 10m X 50m were installed, from the clearing border to the forest interior,in the directions North, South, East and West, subdivided into squared plots of 10m,numbered from 1 to 5. In the plots 1, 3 and 5 squared plots of 5m were installed, whereindividuals of tree species from natural regeneration were planted. In the center of each gap,a plot of 5m X 5m was installed as control, where the plantation was repeated. It wasobserved that Sterculia pruriens showed larger survival rate and Vouacapoua americana thelowest, irrespectively of the location. The latter, together with Jacaranda copaia, showed adecrease of survival related to clearing distance. All species showed larger survival in thegap center. The survival average, taking into account all species, was 72,32%.

  16. Southern Cosmology Survey II: Massive Optically-Selected Clusters from 70 square degrees of the SZE Common Survey Area

    CERN Document Server

    Menanteau, Felipe; Barrientos, L Felipe; Deshpande, Amruta J; Hilton, Matt; Infante, Leopoldo; Jimenez, Raul; Kosowsky, Arthur; Moodley, Kavilan; Spergel, David; Verde, Licia

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of 105 rich and massive ($M>3\\times10^{14}M_{\\sun}$) optically-selected clusters of galaxies extracted from 70 square-degrees of public archival griz imaging from the Blanco 4-m telescope acquired over 45 nights between 2005 and 2007. We use the clusters' optically-derived properties to estimate photometric redshifts, optical luminosities, richness, and masses. We complement the optical measurements with archival XMM-Newton and ROSAT X-ray data which provide additional luminosity and mass constraints on a modest fraction of the cluster sample. Two of our clusters show clear evidence for central lensing arcs; one of these has a spectacular large-diameter, nearly-complete Einstein Ring surrounding the brightest cluster galaxy. A strong motivation for this study is to identify the massive clusters that are expected to display prominent signals from the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE) and therefore be detected in the wide-area mm-band surveys being conducted by both the Atacama Cosmology Teles...

  17. AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with selective area grown p-GaN gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliang, Huang; Lian, Zhang; Zhe, Cheng; Yun, Zhang; Yujie, Ai; Yongbing, Zhao; Hongxi, Lu; Junxi, Wang; Jinmin, Li

    2016-11-01

    We report a selective area growth (SAG) method to define the p-GaN gate of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Compared with Schottky gate HEMTs, the SAG p-GaN gate HEMTs show more positive threshold voltage (V th) and better gate control ability. The influence of Cp2Mg flux of SAG p-GaN gate on the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs has also been studied. With the increasing Cp2Mg from 0.16 μmol/min to 0.20 μmol/min, the V th raises from -0.67 V to -0.37 V. The maximum transconductance of the SAG HEMT at a drain voltage of 10 V is 113.9 mS/mm while that value of the Schottky HEMT is 51.6 mS/mm. The SAG method paves a promising way for achieving p-GaN gate normally-off AlGaN/GaN HEMTs without dry etching damage. Project supported by the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (Nos. 61376090, 61306008) and the National High Technology Program of China (No. 2014AA032606).

  18. [Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

    2014-02-01

    In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata.

  19. Parental selection and deployment design in the second-generation seed orchard of Chinese pine in Shanxi Province%山西油松第二代种子园亲本选择与配置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁虎威; 梁胜发; 符学军; 钮世辉; 李伟; 李悦

    2016-01-01

    山西油松种子园正处于从初级向高世代发展的关键时期。本文以山西省吕梁山国有林管理局上庄油松初级种子园优树自由授粉子代测定林为研究对象,系统研究了第二代种子园建设中的优良家系选择、优良家系内单株选择、SSR亲缘分析、SSR遗传多样性分析、配置设计等问题。结果表明,子代测定林内家系间的材积生长存在显著差异,在77个测定家系中选出20个优良家系。按照单株材积优势比的相对大小从油松种子园自由授粉子代测定林的20个优良家系中各选出1个最优单株,优良单株的平均材积优势比和平均材积遗传增益分别为0.25和0.13。优良单株间亲缘分析结果表明,20个单株间存在不同程度的亲缘关系,其中3号单株与其余19个单株间的亲缘关系最远;15和17号单株间的亲缘关系最近。优良单株间遗传多样性分析结果表明,单株间的遗传多样性水平较高,其多态信息含量( PIC)的平均值为0.5324;由单株构成的群体处于相对平衡状态,其杂合度( H)、期望杂合度( He )和固定指数( F)的平均值分别为0.5955、0.5703和-0.0184。根据亲缘分析结果,第二代种子园采用不平衡、不完全固定区组设计的配置方式,考虑无性系间亲缘关系的同时提高了最优无性系出现的比例,实现了材积遗传增益的有效提高。研究结果为指导山西第二代种子园建设提供了重要理论依据,为推进分子标记在油松遗传改良中的应用提供了重要思路。%Seed orchard of Chinese pine in Shanxi Province is in the critical period from first-generation to advanced-generation. In this paper, issues related to the establishment of second-generation seed orchard, including elite family selection, within-family superior individual selection, phylogenetic analysis with SSR ( simple sequence repeat) markers, genetic diversity analysis with SSR markers and field design

  20. Deployable and retractable telescoping tubular structure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new deployable and retractable telescoping boom capable of high deployed stiffness and strength is described. Deployment and retraction functions are controlled by simple, reliable, and fail-safe latches between the tubular segments. The latch and a BI-STEM (Storable Tubular Extendible Member) actuator work together to eliminate the need for the segments to overlap when deployed. This yields an unusually lightweight boom and compact launch configuration. An aluminum space-flight prototype with three joints displays zero structural deadband, low hysteresis, and high damping. The development approach and difficulties are discussed. Test results provide a joint model for sizing flight booms of any diameter and length.

  1. Rigidizing Inflatable Deployable Dwelling (RIDD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — By combining thin thermoplastic films, woven Vectran reinforcements, and heat a reliable, deployable, rigidizing space habitat can be created. Although much research...

  2. Low Mass Aeroshell Deployment Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop new shape memory polymer (SMP) deployment mechanisms for actuating thermal protection system (TPS) panels to...

  3. Low Mass Aeroshell Deployment Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop new shape memory polymer (SMP) deployment mechanisms for actuating thermal protective systems (TPS) panels to...

  4. Self-Deploying Gossamer Support Structure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I results demonstrated the feasibility of using shape memory polymer composites to deploy, tension and support gossamer antennas. Cornerstone Research Group,...

  5. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf coast region. Volume I. Comparison of prospect areas on the basis of potential environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    The results of a preliminary environmental assessment of the following geopressured-geothermal prospect areas in the Louisiana Gulf coast region are presented: South Johnson's Bayou, Sweet Lake, Rockefeller Refuge, Southeast Pecan Island, Atchafalaya Bay, and Lafourche Crossing. These prospect areas have been compared to determine their relative environmental acceptability for the test program. Trade-offs among the prospects in terms of potential impacts are highlighted. This assessment was made on the basis of the nature and extent of the proposed testing activities in view of the environmental characteristics of each prospect area: land use, geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and quality, ecological systems, and natural hazards. The comparison of prospect areas includes consideration of worst case situations. However, we believe that the test program activities, because they are so small in scale, will not result in major adverse impacts.

  6. Issues concerning centralized versus decentralized power deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.; Harty, Richard B.; Robin, James F.

    1991-03-01

    The results of a study of proposed lunar base architectures to identify issues concerning centralized and decentralized power system deployment options are presented. The power system consists of the energy producing system (power plant), the power conditioning components used to convert the generated power into the form desired for transmission, the transmission lines that conduct this power from the power sources to the loads, and the primary power conditioning hardware located at the user end. Three power system architectures, centralized, hybrid, and decentralized, were evaluated during the course of this study. Candidate power sources were characterized with respect to mass and radiator area. Two electrical models were created for each architecture to identify the preferred method of power transmission, dc or ac. Each model allowed the transmission voltage level to be varied at assess the impact on power system mass. The ac power system models also permitted the transmission line configurations and placements to determine the best conductor construction and installation location. Key parameters used to evaluate each configuration were power source and power conditioning component efficiencies, masses, and radiator areas; transmission line masses and operating temperatures; and total system mass.

  7. Chemical and bacteriological quality of water at selected sites in the San Antonio area, Texas, August 1968-January 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, R.D.; Blakey, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Urban development on or adjacent to the recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer is causing concern about the possible pollution of ground water in the aquifer, which is the principal source of water supply for the San Antonio area. Water-quality data for many wells and springs and for selected sites on streams that cross the recharge zone of the aquifer are being collected to provide background information and to detect any current pollution of ground water in the area. Water from the Edwards aquifer is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. The concentrations of dissolved solids in samples from wells and springs ranged from about 200 to 470 mg/1 (milligrams per liter); the chloride and sulfate concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 62 mg/1 and from 0.0 to 65 mg/1, respectively. The nitrate and phosphate contents of the ground water ranged from 0.0 to 15 mg/1 and from 0.00 to 0. 37 mg/1. The concentrations of these and other constituents show that the chemical quality of water in the Edwards aquifer has not been degraded significantly by domestic, industrial, or agricultural effluents. However, variations in the number of coliforms, the concentrations of nitrate and phosphate, and the presence of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci in samples from some wells show that fecal pollution is reaching the aquifer. Most of these wells, which are located in or just downdip from the recharge zone, are poorly sealed or inadequately cased. The areal variation in the locations of these wells indicates that pollution of ground water in the aquifer is very localized. Prllution results principally from runoff from the land surface and from effluent from septic tanks which enters the aquifer through fractures in the recharge zone or which infiltrates through the thin soil into poorly sealed or inadequately cased wells in or adjacent to the recharge zone. Trace amounts of several pesticides have been detected in samples from two wells in the San Antonio area. Field

  8. [Ribosome engineering of streptomyces sp. FJ3 from Three Gorges reservoir area and metabolic product of the selected mutant strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Le; Huang, Yuqi; Liao, Guojian; Hu, Changhua

    2011-07-01

    To explore new resource from inactive actinomycete strains, we screened resistant mutant strains by ribosome engineering, and analyzed the products derived from the selected mutant strains. Three Gorges reservoir area-derived actinomycete strains including BD20, FJ3, WZ20 and FJ5 were used as initial strains, which showed no-antibacterial activities. The streptomycin-resistant (str(R)) mutants and rifampicin-resistant (rif(R)) mutants were screened by single colony isolation on streptomycin-containing plates and rifampicin-containing plates according to the method for obtaining drug-resistant mutants in ribosome engineering. The four initial strains and their str(R)-mutants and rif(R)-mutants were fermented in a liquid medium with the same composition. Mutants with anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity were obtained by paper chromatography. The components of fermentation broth were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Furthermore, FJ3 strain was identified by 16S rDNA and morphology. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of streptomycin and rifampicin for FJ3 was: 0.5 microg/mL and 110 microg/mL, respectively. Twenty-four strR-mutant strains and 20 rif(R)-mutant strains of FJ3 mutant strains were selected for bioassay. The result of the antibacterial activity screening demonstrated that six strains inhibited bacteria. Two strains (FJ3-2 and FJ3-6) were screened from the streptomycin-resistance mutants of inactive strain FJ3. The result of bioassay showed that the fermentation broth of FJ3-2 and FJ3-6 exhibited obvious anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity. The assay of paper chromatography showed that the active substance may be nucleic acid class antibiotic via using solvent system Doskochilova. Moreover, the results of HPLC and LC-MS exhibited that this substance may be thiolutin. Ribosome engineering for changing the secondary metabolic function of the inactive wild

  9. Experiences and recommendations in deploying a real-time, water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, B.; Regan, F.; Lawlor, A.; Wallace, J.; Torres, J.; O'Mathuna, C.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring of water quality at a river basin level to meet the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) using conventional sampling and laboratory-based techniques poses a significant financial burden. Wireless sensing systems offer the potential to reduce these costs considerably, as well as provide more useful, continuous monitoring capabilities by giving an accurate idea of the changing environmental and water quality in real time. It is unlikely that the traditional spot/grab sampling will provide a reasonable estimate of the true maximum and/or mean concentration for a particular physicochemical variable in a water body with marked temporal variability. When persistent fluctuations occur, it is likely only to be detected through continuous measurements, which have the capability of detecting sporadic peaks of concentration. Thus, in situ sensors capable of continuous sampling of parameters required under the WFD would therefore provide more up-to-date information, cut monitoring costs and provide better coverage representing long-term trends in fluctuations of pollutant concentrations. DEPLOY is a technology demonstration project, which began planning and station selection and design in August 2008 aiming to show how state-of-the-art technology could be implemented for cost-effective, continuous and real-time monitoring of a river catchment. The DEPLOY project is seen as an important building block in the realization of a wide area autonomous network of sensors capable of monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of important water quality and environmental target parameters. The demonstration sites chosen are based in the River Lee, which flows through Ireland's second largest city, Cork, and were designed to include monitoring stations in five zones considered typical of significant river systems--these monitor water quality parameters such as pH, temperature, depth, conductivity, turbidity and dissolved oxygen. Over one million data points

  10. Wireless LANs; Protocols, Security and Deployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prasad, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis presents a broad range of work done in the field of Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs). It proposes several novel schemes which performance are analyzed. The thesis first proposes an Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) scheme named as Selective Repeat / Multi-Copy (SR/MC). The purpose of th

  11. ASSESSMENT OF PAHS AND SELECTED PESTICIDES IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER IN THE HIGHEST PROTECTED AREAS IN THE OPOLE REGION, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Głowacki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ground water quality was determined after the analyses of water samples from 18 wells. The wells were in the Groundwater Area with the Highest Protection (Triassic water, Opole region, Poland, rural build up. The water table level was low: 0.5 – 18.0 m below the ground surface level (except for one artesian well. The following parameters were determined: pH, EC, colour, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, dissolved orthophosphate, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD-Mn, COD-Cr, humic substances, chloride, sulphate, total hardness, alkalinity, dry residue PAHs (16 compounds, pesticides (6 compounds, however, only selected data were presented in this paper. In all the analysed water samples chloro-organic pesticides were observed. The analysed water contained heptachlor in the highest concentrations of 15.97 mg/dm3. Good quality water must not include concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/dm3 of heptachlor. However, the concentration was circa 32 times higher than this value. The second pesticide determining poor water quality is dieldrin. This compound in the investigated groundwater was 1.94 mg/dm3 – 4 times higher than the limit for acceptable quality ground water. The concentration of pesticides also changed over the course of the research; the concentration in the analysed groundwater in the same well changed quite dramatically over a period of 1 year. Although PAHs and pesticides are potentially toxic for biological organisms they do exist in the environment as a product of the natural biological transformation of organic matter. The noted concentrations and compositions of PAH compounds were different to natural PAHs. It confirms the fact that agricultural activity influences groundwater quality.

  12. The purely functional software deployment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolstra, E.

    2006-01-01

    Software deployment is the set of activities related to getting software components to work on the machines of end users. It includes activities such as installation, upgrading, uninstallation, and so on. Many tools have been developed to support deployment, but they all have serious limitations wi

  13. Self-deploying photovoltaic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A lightweight flexible photovoltaic (PV) blanket is attached to a support structure of initially stowed telescoping members. The deployment mechanism comprises a series of extendable and rotatable columns. As these columns are extended the PV blanket is deployed to its proper configuration.

  14. Experimental thermal mechanics of deployable boom structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predmore, R.

    1972-01-01

    An apparatus was developed for thermal distortion measurements on deployable boom structures. The calibration procedure and thermal static bending plus twist measurements are considered. The thermal mechanics test facility is described. A table is presented for several examples of spacecraft applications of thermal static distortion measurements on 3-m deployable booms.

  15. Seismic SMHD -- Rotational Sensor Development and Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates; Pierson, Bob [Applied Technology Associates; Brune, Bob [Consultant

    2016-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding development and deployment of a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, high dynamic range, low noise floor, proven ruggedness, and high repeatability. This paper presents current status of sensor development and deployment opportunities.

  16. Users speak out on technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Mark; Prochaska, Marty; Cromer, Paul; Zewatsky, Jennifer

    2001-02-25

    This report summarizes user feedback data collected during a recent Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project: the Fluor Fernald ASTD Technology Deployment Project from May, 1999 through September, 2000. The main goal of the ASTD project was to use the ''Fernald approach'' to expedite the deployment of new or innovative technologies with superior safety, cost, and/or productivity benefits to Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Fernald approach targets technology end-users and their managers and directly involves them with hands-on demonstrations of new or innovative technologies during technology transfer sessions. The two technologies deployed through this project were the Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS) and the oxy-gasoline torch. Participants of technology transfer sessions were requested to complete feedback surveys. Surveys evaluated the effectiveness of the Fernald approach to technology deployment and assessed the responsiveness of employees to new technologies. This report presents the results of those surveys.

  17. A Survey of IPv6 Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal M. Alhassoun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The next-generation Internet protocol (IPv6 was designed to overcome the limitation in IPv4 by using a 128-bit address instead of a 32-bit address. In addition to solving the address the limitations, IPv6 has many improved features. This research focused to survey IPv6 deployment all around the world. The objectives of this survey paper are to highlight the issues related to the IPv6 deployment and to look into the IPv4 to IPv6 transition mechanisms. Furthermore, provide insight on the global effort around the world to contribute in IPv6 deployment. In addition, identify the potential solutions or suggestions that could improve the IPv6 deployment rate. In order to achieve the said objectives we survey number of papers on IPv6 deployment from different countries and continents.

  18. Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

  19. Shadowing and mask opening effects during selective-area vapor-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelrich, A; Calahorra, Y; Greenberg, Y; Gavrilov, A; Cohen, S; Ritter, D

    2013-11-29

    Indium phosphide nanowires were grown by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy using the selective-area vapor-liquid-solid method. We show experimentally and theoretically that the size of the annular opening around the nanowire has a major impact on nanowire growth rate. In addition, we observed a considerable reduction of the growth rate in dense two-dimensional arrays, in agreement with a calculation of the shadowing of the scattered precursors. Due to the impact of these effects on growth, they should be considered during selective-area vapor-liquid-solid nanowire epitaxy.

  20. Beyond the core face-processing network: Intracerebral stimulation of a face-selective area in the right anterior fusiform gyrus elicits transient prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jacques; Rossion, Bruno; Brissart, Hélène; Frismand, Solène; Jacques, Corentin; Hossu, Gabriela; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Vespignani, Hervé; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Maillard, Louis

    2015-11-01

    According to neuropsychological evidence, a distributed network of regions of the ventral visual pathway - from the lateral occipital cortex to the temporal pole - supports face recognition. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have generally confined ventral face-selective areas to the posterior section of the occipito-temporal cortex, i.e., the inferior occipital gyrus occipital face area (OFA) and the posterior and middle fusiform gyrus fusiform face area (FFA). There is recent evidence that intracranial electrical stimulation of these areas in the right hemisphere elicits face matching and recognition impairments (i.e., prosopagnosia) as well as perceptual face distortions. Here we report a case of transient inability to recognize faces following electrical stimulation of the right anterior fusiform gyrus, in a region located anteriorly to the FFA. There was no perceptual face distortion reported during stimulation. Although no fMRI face-selective responses were found in this region due to a severe signal drop-out as in previous studies, intracerebral face-selective event-related potentials and gamma range electrophysiological responses were found at the critical site of stimulation. These results point to a causal role in face recognition of the right anterior fusiform gyrus and more generally of face-selective areas located beyond the "core" face-processing network in the right ventral temporal cortex. It also illustrates the diagnostic value of intracerebral electrophysiological recordings and stimulation in understanding the neural basis of face recognition and visual recognition in general.

  1. Analysis of the Deployment Quality for Intrusion Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Assad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrusion detection application in a homogeneous wireless sensor network is defined as a mechanism to detect unauthorized intrusions or anomalous moving attackers in a field of interest. The quality of deterministic sensor nodes deployment can be determined sufficiently by a rigorous analysis before the deployment. However, when random deployment is required, determining the deployment quality becomes challenging. An area may require that multiple nodes monitor each point from the sensing area; this constraint is known as k-coverage where k is the number of nodes. The deployment quality of sensor nodes depends directly on node density and sensing range; mainly a random sensor nodes deployment is required. The major question is centred around the problem of network coverage, how can we guarantee that each point of the sensing area is covered by the required number of sensor nodes and what a sufficient condition to guarantee the network coverage? To deal with this, probabilistic intrusion detection models are adopted, called single/multi-sensing detection, and the deployment quality issue is surveyed and analysed in terms of coverage. We evaluate the capability of our probabilistic model in homogeneous wireless sensor network, in terms of sensing range, node density, and intrusion distance.

  2. Numerical simulation of deepwater deployment for offshore structures with deploying cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小舟; 刘少军

    2015-01-01

    Deepwater deployment of offshore structures in different sea states was investigated. The whole deployment system was modeled as a lumped mass model, and discretization scheme for cable geometry and methodology for calculating the internal and external force acting on deploying cable were presented. The deployment model suitable for the time-varying length of deploying cable was specified. The free-surface flow fields together with the ship motions were used to calculate dynamic tension in the deploying cable during deployment of the structure. The deployment of deep sea mining system which was a typical subsea working system was employed. Based on lumped mass analysis model and parameters of deep sea mining system, numerical simulations were performed, and dynamic load and dynamic amplification factor (DAF) with different cable parameters, deploying velocities and sea states were obtained. It is shown that cable parameters and amplitudes of ocean waves can significantly influence the dynamic load and DAF, and the time-varying natural period of deploying system is a dominant factor, while the effect of deploying velocity is not obvious.

  3. Design and characterization of integrated photonic devices fabricated using selective-area epitaxy and distributed Bragg reflector surface gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Robert Morand

    Two of the main challenges involved with the fabrication of integrated photonic devices are the control of the in-plane band gap and the formation of integrable high-Q cavities. In-plane bandgap control is required to fabricate emitters, passive waveguides, detectors, and modulators all on a single wafer and all optimized for operation at a particular wavelength. The formation of integrable high-Q cavities is needed to integrate the laser source. Selective-area epitaxy (SAE) is a powerful technique which enables the tailoring of the in-plane band gap energy to fabricate numerous optimized photonic devices on a single wafer. In this dissertation, a three-step SAE process in the InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs material system is investigated. This process produced discrete Fabry-Perot lasers with threshold currents as low as 2.65 mA for an uncoated device and 0.97 mA for a coated device. Several integrated photonic devices that utilize the in-plane bandgap control of this SAE process are also investigated. These devices include lasers with nonabsorbing mirrors, dual-channel wavelength division multiplexing sources with integrated coupler, lasers with integrated photodiodes, lasers with integrated intracavity modulators, and lasers with integrated external cavity modulators. The second challenge involved with the fabricating of integrated photonic devices is the formation of integrable high-Q cavities. The optical feedback in most laser diodes is provided by cleaved facets. Unfortunately, cleaved facets are not an option when designing integrated photonic devices. However, optical feedback can be provided in integrated photonic devices using distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). In this dissertation, ridge-waveguide DBR lasers with first-order surface gratings are investigated. These lasers exhibit low thresholds (6 mA), high slope efficiencies (0.46 W/A), and single-frequency operation with narrow linewidths (DBR grating, a wide wavelength range of 540 A (15.2 THz) is obtained

  4. National, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2014-08-29

    In the United States, among children born during 1994-2013, vaccination will prevent an estimated 322 million illnesses, 21 million hospitalizations, and 732,000 deaths during their lifetimes. Since 1994, the National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months in the United States. This report describes national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born January 2010-May 2012, based on results from the 2013 NIS. In 2013, vaccination coverage achieved the 90% national Healthy People 2020 target for ≥ 1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.9%); ≥ 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (90.8%); ≥ 3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (92.7%); and ≥ 1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.2%). Coverage was below the Healthy People 2020 targets for ≥ 4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine (DTaP) (83.1%; target 90%); ≥ 4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) (82.0%; target 90%); the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib) (82.0%; target 90%); ≥ 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) (54.7%; target 85%); rotavirus vaccine (72.6%; target 80%); and the HepB birth dose (74.2%; target 85%). Coverage remained stable relative to 2012 for all of the vaccinations with Healthy People 2020 objectives except for increases in the HepB birth dose (by 2.6 percentage points) and rotavirus vaccination (by 4.0 percentage points). The percentage of children who received no vaccinations remained below 1.0% (0.7%). Children living below the federal poverty level had lower vaccination coverage compared with children living at or above the poverty level for many vaccines, with the largest disparities for ≥ 4 doses of DTaP (by 8.2 percentage points), full series of Hib (by 9.5 percentage points), ≥ 4 doses of PCV (by 11.6 percentage points), and rotavirus (by 12.6 percentage points). MMR coverage was below 90% for 17 states. Reaching and

  5. National, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2015-08-28

    The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months since 1994. This report presents national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born from January 2011 through May 2013, based on data from the 2014 NIS. For most vaccinations, there was no significant change in coverage between 2013 and 2014. The exception was hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), for which increases were observed in coverage with both ≥1 and ≥2 doses. As in previous years, children received no vaccinations. National coverage estimates indicate that the Healthy People 2020 target* of 90% was met for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93.3%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.5%), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (91.6%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.0%). Coverage was below target for ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, hepatitis B (HepB) birth dose,† ≥4 doses pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), ≥2 doses of HepA, the full series of rotavirus vaccine, and the combined vaccine series.§ Examination of coverage by child's race/ethnicity revealed lower estimated coverage among non-Hispanic black children compared with non-Hispanic white children for several vaccinations, including DTaP, the full series of Hib, PCV, rotavirus vaccine, and the combined series. Children from households classified as below the federal

  6. Overview of Deployed EDS Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, H E; Crawford, C

    2009-09-24

    The term explosive detection system (EDS) is used by the TSA to describe equipment that is certified to detect explosives in checked bags. The EDS, as certified, by the TSL must consist of device for interrogating a bag and an automated detection algorithm (ATD) for evaluating the results of the interrogation. We only consider CT as the interrogation device in this report. A schematic drawing of a CT-based EDS is shown in Figure 2. The output of the ATD is the binary decision of alarm or non-alarm. Alarms may true- or false-positives. Non-alarms may be true- or false-negatives. False positives are also denoted false alarms. The true detection means that the ATD reports an alarm when a threat is present in the scanned bag. The probability of detecting a threat given that a threat is present is denoted the probability of detection (PD). The probability of false alarm (PFA) is the case when an alarm is reported when a threat is not present in a bag. Certification in this context means passing tests for PD and PFA at the TSL. The results of the EDS include CT cross-sectional images of the bag and specifics about the alarmed objects generated by ATD. These results are presented on a display so that a person may override the decision of ATD and declare the alarm to be a non-alarm. This process is denoted clearing. Bags that are not cleared by the person are sent to a secondary inspection process. Here the bags may be opened or assessed with explosive trace detection (ETD) in order to clear the bags. Bags that are not cleared at this point are evaluated by an ordinance disposal team. The CT scanner along with ATD is denoted Level 1 screening. The process of clearing on a display is denoted Level 2 screening. Secondary inspection is denoted Level 3 screening. Vendors of the deployed EDSs supply the TSA with equipment for all three levels. Therefore, the term EDS may include the equipment provided for Levels 1, 2 and 3. A schematic diagram of an EDS and the levels of

  7. UAV Deployed Sensor System for Arctic Ocean Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, S. E.; Lawrence, D.; Weibel, D.; LoDolce, G.; Krist, S.; Crocker, I.; Maslanik, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment (MIZOPEX), is an Arctic field project scheduled for summer 2013. The goals of the project are to understand how warming of the marginal ice zone affects sea ice melt and if this warming has been over or underestimated by satellite measurements. To achieve these goals calibrated physical measurements, both remote and in-situ, of the marginal ice zone over scales of square kilometers with a resolution of square meters is required. This will be accomplished with a suite of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with both remote sensing and in-situ instruments, air deployed microbuoys, and ship deployed buoys. In this talk we will present details about the air-deployed micro-buoy (ADMB) and self-deployed surface-sonde (SDSS) components of the MIZOPEX project, developed at the University of Colorado. These systems were designed to explore the potential of low-cost, on-demand access to high-latitude areas of important scientific interest. Both the ADMB and SDSS share a common measurement suite with the capability to measure water temperature at three distinct depths and provide position information via GPS. The ADMBs are dropped from the InSitu ScanEagle UAV and expected to operate and log ocean temperatures for 14 days. The SDSS are micro UAVs that are designed to fly one-way to a region of interest and land at specified coordinates, thereafter becoming a surface sensor similar to the ADMB. A ScanEagle will periodically return to the deployment zone to gather ADMB/SDSS data via low power radio links. Design decisions based upon operational constraints and the current status of the ADMB and SDSS will be presented.

  8. A Microseismometer for Penetrometer Deployment in the Jupiter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, William; Standley, Ian; Karl, Werner; Delahunty, Aifric; Calcutt, Simon

    2010-05-01

    The internal structure of the moons of Jupiter is an area of great interest. Seismic investigations, either in the long-period band of 0.1 to 1 Hz, or at shorter periods of 1 to 100 Hz, have been studied as a means to determine the depth of subsurface liquid water with a single, triaxial seismometer. A penetrometer would be an ideal deployment for such an instrument as it would ensure excellent coupling, minimise thermal variations, and substantially reduce the radiation environment during operation. A microseismometer is under development which combines the required sensitivity for identification of the ambient seismicity with the robustness to survive the shock of deployment. At the heart of the instrument is a single-crystal silicon suspension machined through the full thickness of a wafer resulting in a very high quality factor. The movement of the proof mass is determined by extremely sensitive capacitive array transducer. This transducer is coupled to readout and feedback electronics which are designed for very low power operation. A unique combination of open and closed loop feedback enables the instrument to operate over a wide range of tilt angles, a vital consideration for a penetrometer deployment. The current measured noise is 3 ng/sqrtHz at 20 s, with the capability of a further order of magnitude improvement. The suspension has been tested on rocket-sled impacts to simulate a penetrometer deployment, surviving shocks up to 14,000 g with suitable encapsulation. Such an instrument would have the capability for deployment on the surface of Europa or Ganymede and should provide vital information on the internal structure of these bodies.

  9. Novel Handover Optimization with a Coordinated Contiguous Carrier Aggregation Deployment Scenario in LTE-Advanced Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Shayea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The carrier aggregation (CA technique and Handover Parameters Optimization (HPO function have been introduced in LTE-Advanced systems to enhance system performance in terms of throughput, coverage area, and connection stability and to reduce management complexity. Although LTE-Advanced has benefited from the CA technique, the low spectral efficiency and high ping-pong effect with high outage probabilities in conventional Carrier Aggregation Deployment Scenarios (CADSs have become major challenges for cell edge User Equipment (UE. Also, the existing HPO algorithms are not optimal for selecting the appropriate handover control parameters (HCPs. This paper proposes two solutions by deploying a Coordinated Contiguous-CADS (CC-CADS and a Novel Handover Parameters Optimization algorithm that is based on the Weight Performance Function (NHPO-WPF. The CC-CADS uses two contiguous component carriers (CCs that have two different beam directions. The NHPO-WPF automatically adjusts the HCPs based on the Weight Performance Function (WPF, which is evaluated as a function of the Signal-to-Interference Noise Ratio (SINR, cell load, and UE’s velocity. Simulation results show that the CC-CADS and the NHPO-WPF algorithm provide significant enhancements in system performance over that of conventional CADSs and HPO algorithms from the literature, respectively. The integration of both solutions achieves even better performance than scenarios in which each solution is considered independently.

  10. Crystallographic dependent in-situ CBr4 selective nano-area etching and local regrowth of InP/InGaAs by MOVPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, Nadezda; Kulkova, Irina; Semenova, Elizaveta;

    2014-01-01

    Selective area etching and growth in the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor on nano-scale structures have been examined. Using different mask orientations, crystallographic dependent etching of InP can be observed when carbon tetrabromide (CBr4) is used as an etchant. Scanning Elect...

  11. Extremely stable platinum nanoparticles encapsulated in a zirconia nanocage by area-selective atomic layer deposition for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Niancai; Banis, Mohammad Norouzi; Liu, Jian; Riese, Adam; Li, Xia; Li, Ruying; Ye, Siyu; Knights, Shanna; Sun, Xueliang

    2015-01-14

    Encapsulation of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) in a zirconia nanocage by area-selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) can significantly enhance both the Pt stability and activity. Such encapsulated Pt NPs show 10 times more stability than commercial Pt/C catalysts and an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity 6.4 times greater than that of Pt/C.

  12. Topographic data of selected areas along the Alabama River near Montgomery, Alabama, collected using mobile terrestrial light detection and ranging (T-LiDAR) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrow, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Topographic data at selected areas within the Alabama River flood plain near Montgomery, Alabama, were collected using a truck-mounted mobile terrestrial light detection and ranging system. These data were collected for inclusion in a flood inundation model developed by the National Weather Service in Birmingham, Alabama. Data are presented as ArcGIS point shapefiles with the extension .shp.

  13. Deployable M-braced truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, M. D. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A deployable M-braced truss structure, efficiently packaged into a compact stowed position and expandable to an operative position at the use site is described. The M-braced configuration effectively separates tension compression and shear in the structure and permits efficient structural design. Both diagonals and longerons telescope from an M-braced base unit and deploy either pneumatically, mechanically by springs or cables, or by powered reciprocating mechanisms. Upon full deployment, the diagonals and longerons lock into place with a simple latch mechanism.

  14. Large-scale demonstration and deployment project at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.; McFee, J. [IT Corp. (United States); Broom, C. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Dugger, H. [ICF Inc. (United States); Stallings, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management program through its Office of Science and Technology, the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area is developing answers to the technological problems that hinder Environmental Management`s extensive cleanup efforts. The optimized application of technologies to ongoing nuclear facility decontamination and dismantlement is critical in meeting the challenge of decommissioning approximately 9,000 buildings and structures within the DOE complex. The significant technical and economic concerns in this area underscore a national imperative for the qualification and timely delivery of cost-reduction technologies and management approaches to meet federal and private needs. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) has been established to facilitate demonstration and deployment of technologies for the characterization, decontamination, and volume reduction of oversized metallic waste, mostly in the form of gloveboxes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides. The LANL LSDDP is being managed by an integrated contractor team (ICT) consisting of IT Corporation, ICF Incorporated, and Florida International University and includes representation from LANL`s Environmental Management Program Office. The ICT published in the Commerce Business Daily a solicitation for interest for innovative technologies capable of improving cost and performance of the baseline process. Each expression of interest response was evaluated and demonstration contract negotiations are under way for those technologies expected to be capable of meeting the project objectives. This paper discusses management organization and approach, the results of the technology search, the technology selection methodology, the results of the selection process, and future plans for the program.

  15. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  16. Unique Concept for a Low Cost, Light Weight Space Deployable Antenna Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Robert E.; Bilyeu, Gayle D.; Veal, Gordon R.

    1993-01-01

    Large space deployable antennas are needed for a variety of applications that include Mobile Communications, Radiometry, Active Microwave Sensing, Very Long Baseline Interferometry and DoD Space Based Radar. These user requirements identify the need for structures up to tens of meters in size for operation from 1 to 90 GHz, based on different aperture configurations. However, the one thing the users have in common is a concept selection criteria for low cost, light weight and highly reliable deployable structures. Fortunately, a unique class of space structures has recently emerged that have tremendous potential for satisfying these criteria. They are referred to as inflatable deployable structures.

  17. Electromagnetic panel deployment and retraction using the geomagnetic field in LEO satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamori, Takaya; Sugawara, Yoshiki; Satou, Yasutaka

    2015-12-01

    Increasingly, spacecraft are installed with large-area structures that are extended and deployed post-launch. These extensible structures have been applied in several missions for power generation, thermal radiation, and solar propulsion. Here, we propose a deployment and retraction method using the electromagnetic force generated when the geomagnetic field interacts with electric current flowing on extensible panels. The panels are installed on a satellite in low Earth orbit. Specifically, electrical wires placed on the extensible panels generate magnetic moments, which interfere with the geomagnetic field. The resulting repulsive and retraction forces enable panel deployment and retraction. In the proposed method, a satellite realizes structural deployment using simple electrical wires. Furthermore, the satellite can achieve not only deployment but also retraction for avoiding damage from space debris and for agile attitude maneuvers. Moreover, because the proposed method realizes quasi-static deployment and the retraction of panels by electromagnetic forces, low impulsive force is exerted on fragile panels. The electrical wires can also be used to detect the panel deployment and retraction and generate a large magnetic moment for attitude control. The proposed method was assessed in numerical simulations based on multibody dynamics. Simulation results shows that a small cubic satellite with a wire current of 25 AT deployed 4 panels (20 cm × 20 cm) in 500 s and retracted 4 panels in 100 s.

  18. SON for LTE-WLAN access network selection : design and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemen, P.; Laselva, D.; Wang, Y.; Kovács, I.; Djapic, R.; Moerman, I.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile network operators (MNOs) are deploying carrier-grade Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) as an important complementary system to cellular networks. Access network selection (ANS) between cellular and WLAN is an essential component to improve network performance and user quality-of-service

  19. Energy optimization based path selection algorithm for IEEE 802.11s wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, MM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available when the network is deployed in rural areas where electricity is a scarce resource. This research therefore presents an energy optimization based path selection algorithm for IEEE 802.11s WMNs which is aimed at addressing the above mentioned constrains...

  20. Pesticides in ground water in selected agricultural land-use areas and hydrogeologic settings in Pennsylvania, 2003-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, Connie A.; Breen, Kevin J.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Clune, John W.

    2009-01-01

    absence of bacteria only for the 10 wells representing the Blue Ridge crystalline and Triassic Lowland siliciclastic setting. Results of Spearman’s rank test showed strong positive correlations in the Devonian-Silurian carbonate setting between 1) the number of pesticides above the MRLs and nitrate concentration, and 2) concentrations of atrazine and nitrate. Atrazine concentration and nitrate concentration also showed a statistically significant positive correlation in the Great Valley siliciclastic setting. An additional component of baseline monitoring was to evaluate changes in pesticide concentration in water from wells representing hydrogeologic settings most vulnerable to contamination from pesticides. In 2003, 16 wells originally sampled in the 1990s were resampled—4 each in the Appalachian Mountain carbonate, Triassic Lowland siliciclastic, Great Valley carbonate, and Piedmont carbonate settings. Nine of these wells, where pesticide concentrations from 1993 and 2003 were analyzed at the NWQL, were chosen for a paired-sample analysis using concentrations of atrazine and metolachlor. A statistically significant decrease in atrazine concentration was identified using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p = 0.004); significant temporal changes in metolachlor concentrations were not observed (p = 0.625). Monitoring in three areas of special ground-water protection, where selected pesticide concentrations in well water were at or above the PPGWS action levels, was done at wells BE 1370 (Berks County, Oley Township), BA 437 (Blair County, North Woodbury Township), and LN 1842 (Lancaster County, Earl Township). Co-occurrence of pesticide-degradation products with parent compounds was documented for the first time in ground-water samples collected from these three wells. Degradation products of atrazine, cyanazine, acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor were commonly at larger concentrations than the parent compound in the same water sample. Pesticide occurrence in water

  1. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  2. Field guide to quick deployment thermocouples

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for quick deployment of thermocouples to measure fire intensity at Kulm Wetland Management District as part of the Fire Intensity Monitoring survey....

  3. Embedding Quality Function Deployment In Software Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... product development: Marketing, Design. Engineering,. Quality ... The basic Quality Function Deployment methodology involves ... structure and planning approach, requires that more time be ..... process, and strategy. This is ...

  4. High Efficiency, Deployable Solar Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ultrathin, lightweight, flexible, and easily deployable solar cell (SC) capable of specific power greater than 1kW/kg are at an early stage of development for...

  5. Self-Deploying, Composite Habitats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to develop self-deploying, composite structures for lunar habitats, based on CRG's VeritexTM materials. These...

  6. Self-Deploying, Composite Habitats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to develop self-deploying, composite structures for lunar habitats, based on CRG's Veritex(TM) materials. These...

  7. Surface Optimization Techniques for Deployable Reflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this and several other programs, CTD has developed TEMBOREG deployable solid-surface reflectors (TEMBOREG Reflectors) to provide future NASA and Air Force...

  8. Office of Civilian Response Deployment Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The purpose of OCR DTS is to establish, manage and track relevant Civilian Response Corps teams for deployment by sector experience, training, education etc.

  9. DBAS: A Deployable Bandwidth Aggregation System

    CERN Document Server

    Habak, Karim; Harras, Khaled A

    2012-01-01

    The explosive increase in data demand coupled with the rapid deployment of various wireless access technologies have led to the increase of number of multi-homed or multi-interface enabled devices. Fully exploiting these interfaces has motivated researchers to propose numerous solutions that aggregate their available bandwidths to increase overall throughput and satisfy the end-user's growing data demand. These solutions, however, have faced a steep deployment barrier that we attempt to overcome in this paper. We propose a Deployable Bandwidth Aggregation System (DBAS) for multi-interface enabled devices. Our system does not introduce any intermediate hardware, modify current operating systems, modify socket implementations, nor require changes to current applications or legacy servers. The DBAS architecture is designed to automatically estimate the characteristics of applications and dynamically schedule various connections or packets to different interfaces. Since our main focus is deployability, we fully i...

  10. Extreme Environment Sampling System Deployment Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Venus or Comet mission architectures may feature robotic sampling systems comprised of a Sampling Tool and Deployment Mechanism. Since 2005, Honeybee has been...

  11. Demonstration and Deployment Strategy Workshop: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-05-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Demonstration and Deployment Strategy Workshop, held on March 12–13, 2014, at Argonne National Laboratory.

  12. Toxicological mass disaster management - a hospital deployment scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniel, J; Ram, Z; Kami, A; Schindel, D

    1986-09-01

    Toxicological mass disasters have occurred frequently in past years and constitute a permanent threat in urban areas. From the standpoint of hospital planning, special consideration is required to treat a large number of poisoned casualties in a relatively short period. Several unique medical aspects characterize toxicological mass disasters: casualties present a single disease entity with many "borderline" cases, most medical personnel are unfamiliar with the problem and casualties present a potential contamination hazard to the hospital. A hospital deployment scheme is presented recommending Decontamination, Triage and simple Treatment Algorithms to meet the medical and organizational challenge of such a mass casualty situation. A further specific deployment scheme for treatment of organophosphorus agents poisoning is described to illustrate the principles presented.

  13. Spacecraft Dynamic Characteristics While Deploying Flexible Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程绪铎; 李俊峰; 樊勇; 王照林

    2002-01-01

    The attitude dynamic equations of a spacecraft while deploying two flexible beams and the beam equations were developed from momentum theory. The dynamic equations were solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta method to calculate the vibration amplitudes of the flexible beams and the attitude angular velocity. The results show that the vibration amplitudes increase as the beam length increases or as the initial attitude angular velocity increases. The results also show that the vibration amplitudes decrease as the deployment velocity increases.

  14. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, T. [State of Illinois Washington Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  15. Deploying Renewables - Best and Future Policy Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-23

    The global energy system faces urgent challenges. Concerns about energy security are growing, as highlighted by the recent political turmoil in Northern Africa and the nuclear incident in Fukushima. At the same time, the need to respond to climate change is more critical than ever. Against this background, many governments have increased efforts to promote deployment of renewable energy -- low-carbon sources that can strengthen energy security. This has stimulated unprecedented rise in deployment, and renewables are now the fastest growing sector of the energy mix. This 'coming of age' of renewable energy also brings challenges. Growth is focused on a few of the available technologies, and rapid deployment is confined to a relatively small number of countries. In more advanced markets, managing support costs and system integration of large shares of renewable energy in a time of economic weakness and budget austerity has sparked vigorous political debate. The IEA's new report, Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice: - Provides a comprehensive review and analysis of renewable energy policy and market trends; - Analyses in detail the dynamics of deployment and provides best-practice policy principles for different stages of market maturity; - Assesses the impact and cost-effectiveness of support policies using new methodological tools and indicators; - Investigates the strategic reasons underpinning the pursuit of RE deployment by different countries and the prospects for globalisation of RE. This new book builds on and extends a 2008 IEA publication, drawing on recent policy and deployment experience world-wide. It provides guidance for policy makers and other stakeholders to avoid past mistakes, overcome new challenges and reap the benefits of deploying renewables -- today and tomorrow.

  16. Deployable radiator with flexible line loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Bryan V. (Inventor); Lehtinen, Arthur Mathias (Inventor); McGee, Billy W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Radiator assembly (10) for use on a spacecraft (12) is provided including at least one radiator panel assembly (26) repeatably movable between a panel stowed position (28) and a panel deployed position (36), at least two flexible lines (40) in fluid communication with the at least one radiator panel assembly (26) and repeatably movable between a stowage loop (42) and a flattened deployed loop (44).

  17. Analysis of postfire hydrology, water quality, and sediment transport for selected streams in areas of the 2002 Hayman and Hinman fires, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a 5-year study in 2003 that focused on postfire stream-water quality and postfire sediment load in streams within the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas. This report compares water quality of selected streams receiving runoff from unburned areas and burned areas using concentrations and loads, and trend analysis, from seasonal data (approximately April–November) collected 2003–2007 at the Hayman fire study area, and data collected from 1999–2000 (prefire) and 2003 (postfire) at the Hinman fire study area. The water-quality data collected during this study include onsite measurements of streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity, laboratory-determined pH, and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Postfire floods and effects on water quality of streams, lakes and reservoirs, drinking-water treatment, and the comparison of measured concentrations to applicable water quality standards also are discussed. Exceedances of Colorado water-quality standards in streams of both the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas only occurred for concentrations of five trace elements (not all trace-element exceedances occurred in every stream). Selected samples analyzed for total recoverable arsenic (fixed), dissolved copper (acute and chronic), total recoverable iron (chronic), dissolved manganese (acute, chronic, and fixed) and total recoverable mercury (chronic) exceeded Colorado aquatic-life standards.

  18. Designing Planar Deployable Objects via Scissor Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Wang, Shiwei; Chen, Xuejin; Ding, Chao; Jiang, Luo; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Ligang

    2016-02-01

    Scissor structure is used to generate deployable objects for space-saving in a variety of applications, from architecture to aerospace science. While deployment from a small, regular shape to a larger one is easy to design, we focus on a more challenging task: designing a planar scissor structure that deploys from a given source shape into a specific target shape. We propose a two-step constructive method to generate a scissor structure from a high-dimensional parameter space. Topology construction of the scissor structure is first performed to approximate the two given shapes, as well as to guarantee the deployment. Then the geometry of the scissor structure is optimized in order to minimize the connection deflections and maximize the shape approximation. With the optimized parameters, the deployment can be simulated by controlling an anchor scissor unit. Physical deployable objects are fabricated according to the designed scissor structures by using 3D printing or manual assembly. We show a number of results for different shapes to demonstrate that even with fabrication errors, our designed structures can deform fluently between the source and target shapes.

  19. Joints in deployable space truss structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M.

    1988-01-01

    Since the response of deployable structural concepts being considered for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) backup structure will be dominated by the response of joints, the joint characteristics are significant. An overview is given of the research activities at LaRC on the static behavior of joints for deployable space truss structures. Since a pin-clevis-type joint will be utilized in deployable structures, an experimental research program to characterize the joint parameters which affect stiffness was conducted. An experimental research program was conducted on a second type of joint, referred to as a near-center latch joint. It was used in the center of members on the deployable truss structure for the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) flight experiment. The test results of the near-center latch joint and the member with the joints indicated that the stiffness of the near-center joint is linear and stiffer than the stiffness of the total member, and that non-linearities in the stiffness characteristics of the total member were due to bending introduced at the ends of the member. The resulting data indicates that stiff linear folding joints can be designed and that bending load paths should be avoided whenever possible. In summary, for deployable structures, special attention to the joint and the structure design is required to minimize the undesirable structural non-linearities.

  20. Offloading techniques for large deployable space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Levino; Golob, Alex

    1992-01-01

    The validation and verification of large deployable space structures are continual challenges which face the integration and test engineer today. Spar Aerospace Limited has worked on various programs in which such structure validation was required and faces similar tasks in the future. This testing is reported and the different offloading and deployment methods which were used, as well as the proposed methods which will be used on future programs, are described. Past programs discussed include the Olympus solar array ambient and thermal vacuum deployments, and the Anik-E array and reflector deployments. The proposed MSAT reflector and boom ambient deployment tests, as well as the proposed RADARSAT Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ambient and thermal vacuum deployment tests will also be presented. A series of tests relating to various component parts of the offloading equipment systems was required. These tests included the characterization and understanding of linear bearings and large (180 in-lbf) constant force spring motors in a thermal vacuum environment, and the results from these tests are presented.