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Sample records for deployed deep underground

  1. DEEP UNDERGROUND NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Robert J. [Fermilab

    2016-03-03

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) collaboration will perform an experiment centered on accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino studies along with nucleon decay and topics in neutrino astrophysics. It will consist of a modular 40-kt (fiducial) mass liquid argon TPC detector located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota and a high-resolution near detector at Fermilab in Illinois. This conguration provides a 1300-km baseline in a megawatt-scale neutrino beam provided by the Fermilab- hosted international Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility.

  2. LUNA: Nuclear Astrophysics Deep Underground

    CERN Document Server

    Broggini, Carlo; Guglielmetti, Alessandra; Menegazzo, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics strives for a comprehensive picture of the nuclear reactions responsible for synthesizing the chemical elements and for powering the stellar evolution engine. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory the cross sections of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The salient features of underground nuclear astrophysics are summarized here. The main results obtained by LUNA in the last twenty years are reviewed, and their influence on the comprehension of the properties of the neutrino, of the Sun and of the Universe itself are discussed. Future directions of underground nuclear astrophysics towards the study of helium and carbon burning and of stellar neutron sources in stars are pointed out.

  3. The ANDES Deep Underground Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Bertou, X

    2013-01-01

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is a unique opportunity to build a deep underground laboratory in the southern hemisphere. It will be built in the Agua Negra tunnel planned between Argentina and Chile, and operated by the CLES, a Latin American consortium. With 1750m of rock overburden, and no close- by nuclear power plant, it will provide an extremely radiation quiet environment for neutrino and dark matter experiments. In particular, its location in the southern hemisphere should play a major role in understanding dark matter modulation signals.

  4. Status and prospects of a deep underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Chen, Y. H.; Li, Y. J.; Shen, M. B.; Wu, S. Y.; Yue, Q.

    2010-01-01

    An excellent candidate location for a deep underground laboratory with more than 2500 m of rock overburden has been identified at Sichuan Province in China. It can be accessed through a road tunnel of length 17.5 km, and is supported by services and amenities near the entrance provided by the local Ertan Hydropower Plant. The particle physics community in China is actively pursuing the construction of an underground laboratory at this location, under the leadership of Tsinghua University. Memorandum has been signed with Ertan Hydropower Plant which permits access to and construction of the underground laboratory — China JinPing Deep Underground Laboratory (CJPL). The basic features of this underground site, as well as the status and schedules of the construction of the first laboratory cavern are presented. The immediate goal is to have the first experiment operational in 2010, deploying an Ultra-Low-Energy Germanium detector for WIMP dark matter searches, with emphasis on the mass range of 1-10 GeV. The conceptual design of the experiment, as well as the future plans and prospects of the laboratory, will be surveyed.

  5. Sidereal variations deep underground in Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, J. E.; Fenton, A. G.; Fenton, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the deep underground vertically directed muon telescopes at Poatina, Tasmania, have been used since 1972 for a number of investigations, including the daily intensity variations, atmospheric influences, and checking for possible effects due to the interplanetary magnetic field. These telescopes have a total sensitive area of only 3 square meters, with the result that the counting rate is low (about 1680 events per hour) and the statistical errors on the results are rather large. Consequently, it was decided several years ago to construct larger detectors for this station. The first of these telescopes has been in operation for two complete years, and the results from it are presented. Results from the new, more stable equipment at Poatina appear to confirm the existence of a first harmonic in the daily variations in sidereal time reported earlier, and are consistent with small or non-existent first harmonics in solar and anti-sidereal time. All the second harmonics appear to be small, if not zero at these energies.

  6. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Andreas; Junker, Matthias; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Laubenstein, Matthias; Long, Alexander; Nisi, Stefano; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of He-3 counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  7. Sensor deployment strategy for chain-type wireless underground mine sensor network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-zhu; ZHU Zhen-cai; ZHOU Gong-bo; SHEN Chun-feng; SUN Yan-jing

    2008-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are very important for monitoring underground mine safety. Sensor node deployment affects the performances of WSNs. In our study, a chain-type wireless underground mine sensor network (CWUMSN) is first presented. A CWUMSN can monitor the environment and locate miners in underground mines. The lowest density deployment strategies of cluster head nodes are discussed theoretically. We prove that the lifetime of CWUMSN with a non-uniform deployment strategy is longer than with a uniform deployment strategy. Secondly, we present the algorithm of non-uniform lowest density deployment of cluster head nodes. Next, we propose a dynamic choice algorithm of cluster head nodes for CWUMSN which can improve the adaptability of networks. Our experiments of CWUMSN with both non-uniform lowest density and uniform lowest density deployments are simulated. The results show that the lifetime of CWUMSN with non-uniform lowest density deployment is almost 2.5 times as long as that of the uniform lowest density deployment. This work provides a new deployment strategy for wireless underground mine sensor networks and then effectively promotes the application of wireless sensor networks to underground mines.

  8. A simple statistical signal loss model for deep underground garage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Kovacs, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the channel modeling aspects for a deep-indoor scenario with extreme coverage conditions in terms of signal losses, namely underground garage areas. We provide an in-depth analysis in terms of path loss (gain) and large scale signal shadowing, and a propose simple...

  9. A simple statistical signal loss model for deep underground garage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Kovacs, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the channel modeling aspects for a deep-indoor scenario with extreme coverage conditions in terms of signal losses, namely underground garage areas. We provide an in-depth analysis in terms of path loss (gain) and large scale signal shadowing, and a propose simple...... propagation model which can be used to predict cellular signal levels in similar deep-indoor scenarios. The proposed frequency-independent floor attenuation factor (FAF) is shown to be in range of 5.2 dB per meter deep....

  10. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T; Alonso, Jose; Bauer, Paul; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Chinowsky, William; Dangermond, Steve; Detwiler, Jason A; De Vries, Syd; DiGennaro, Richard; Exter, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Felix B; Freer, Elizabeth L; Gilchriese, Murdock G D; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Grammann, Ben; Griffing, William; Harlan, Bill; Haxton, Wick C; Headley, Michael; Heise, Jaret; Hladysz, Zbigniew; Jacobs, Dianna; Johnson, Michael; Kadel, Richard; Kaufman, Robert; King, Greg; Lanou, Robert; Lemut, Alberto; Ligeti, Zoltan; Marks, Steve; Martin, Ryan D; Matthesen, John; Matthew, Brendan; Matthews, Warren; McConnell, Randall; McElroy, William; Meyer, Deborah; Norris, Margaret; Plate, David; Robinson, Kem E; Roggenthen, William; Salve, Rohit; Sayler, Ben; Scheetz, John; Tarpinian, Jim; Taylor, David; Vardiman, David; Wheeler, Ron; Willhite, Joshua; Yeck, James

    2011-01-01

    The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multi...

  11. Fracture development around deep underground excavations: Insights from FDEM modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lisjak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, there has been a growing interest in the development of numerical models that can realistically capture the progressive failure of rock masses. In particular, the investigation of damage development around underground excavations represents a key issue in several rock engineering applications, including tunnelling, mining, drilling, hydroelectric power generation, and the deep geological disposal of nuclear waste. The goal of this paper is to show the effectiveness of a hybrid finite-discrete element method (FDEM code to simulate the fracturing mechanisms associated with the excavation of underground openings in brittle rock formations. A brief review of the current state-of-the-art modelling approaches is initially provided, including the description of selecting continuum- and discontinuum-based techniques. Then, the influence of a number of factors, including mechanical and in situ stress anisotropy, as well as excavation geometry, on the simulated damage is analysed for three different geomechanical scenarios. Firstly, the fracture nucleation and growth process under isotropic rock mass conditions is simulated for a circular shaft. Secondly, the influence of mechanical anisotropy on the development of an excavation damaged zone (EDZ around a tunnel excavated in a layered rock formation is considered. Finally, the interaction mechanisms between two large caverns of an underground hydroelectric power station are investigated, with particular emphasis on the rock mass response sensitivity to the pillar width and excavation sequence. Overall, the numerical results indicate that FDEM simulations can provide unique geomechanical insights in cases where an explicit consideration of fracture and fragmentation processes is of paramount importance.

  12. Henderson Deep Underground Science and Engineering Lab: Unearthing the secrets of the Universe, underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C. K.; Husep Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Henderson Mine near Empire, Colorado is proposed to be the site to host a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), which will have a rich program for forefront research in physics, biology, geosciences, and mining engineering. The mine is owned by the Climax Molybdenum Company (CMC). It is located about 50 miles west of Denver and is easily accessible via major highways. The mine is modern and has extensive infrastructure with reserve capacity well-suited to the demands of DUSEL. CMC owns all land required for DUSEL, including the tailings site. It also has all environmental and mining permits required for DUSEL excavation, core drilling, and rock disposal. The mine owners are enthusiastic supporters of this initiative. In support of the Henderson DUSEL project, the State of Colorado has pledged substantial funding for surface construction.

  13. Photon Detection System Designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Whittington, Denver

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  14. Photon Detection System Designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, Denver [Indiana U.

    2015-11-19

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  15. Photon detection system designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, D.

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  16. Deployment of the first CDMS II ZIP Detectors at the Stanford Underground Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Saab, T; Akerib, D; Bauer, D A; Brink, P L; Cabrera, B; Castle, J P; Chang, C; Crisler, M B; Driscoll, D; Emes, J; Huber, M; Gaitskell, R J; Hellmig, J; Mandic, V; Martinis, J; Meunier, P; Perillo-Isaac, M; Perera, T A; Sadoulet, B; Schnee, R; Seitz, D; Young, B A

    2002-01-01

    The CDMS II experiment deployed the first set of ZIP (Z-dependent Ionization and Phonon) detectors at the Stanford Underground Facility (SUF) shallow depth site in the spring of 2000. With a payload consisting of 3 Ge (250 g ea.) and 3 Si (100 g ea.) ZIPs, the run was the first demonstration of multiple ZIPs operating simultaneously. Good discrimination between electron and nuclear recoil events of 99.8% was established, down to recoil energies of 10 keV. A measurement of the gamma, beta, and neutron backgrounds was made.

  17. Big Bang 6Li nucleosynthesis studied deep underground (LUNA collaboration)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezzi, D.; Anders, M.; Aliotta, M.; Bellini, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Boeltzig, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C. G.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; Elekes, Z.; Erhard, M.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülop, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, Gy.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Marta, M.; Mazzocchi, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Mossa, V.; Pantaleo, F.; Prati, P.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Scott, D. A.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.; Takacs, M.

    2017-03-01

    The correct prediction of the abundances of the light nuclides produced during the epoch of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the main topics of modern cosmology. For many of the nuclear reactions that are relevant for this epoch, direct experimental cross section data are available, ushering the so-called "age of precision". The present work addresses an exception to this current status: the 2H(α,γ)6Li reaction that controls 6Li production in the Big Bang. Recent controversial observations of 6Li in metal-poor stars have heightened the interest in understanding primordial 6Li production. If confirmed, these observations would lead to a second cosmological lithium problem, in addition to the well-known 7Li problem. In the present work, the direct experimental cross section data on 2H(α,γ)6Li in the BBN energy range are reported. The measurement has been performed deep underground at the LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) 400 kV accelerator in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The cross section has been directly measured at the energies of interest for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis for the first time, at Ecm = 80, 93, 120, and 133 keV. Based on the new data, the 2H(α,γ)6Li thermonuclear reaction rate has been derived. Our rate is even lower than previously reported, thus increasing the discrepancy between predicted Big Bang 6Li abundance and the amount of primordial 6Li inferred from observations.

  18. NESTOR Deep Sea Neutrino Telescope. Deployment and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Ball, A. E.; Bourlis, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Leisos, A.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Staveris-Polikalas, A.; Tsagli, V.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Zhukov, V. A.; Nestor Collaboration

    2006-01-01

    One module of NESTOR, the Mediterranean deep-sea neutrino telescope, was deployed at a depth of 4000m, 14km off the Sapienza Island, off the South West coast of Greece. The deployment site provides excellent environmental characteristics. The deployed NESTOR module is constructed as a hexagonal star like latticed titanium star with 12 Optical Modules and an one-meter diameter titanium sphere which houses the electronics. Power and data were transferred through a 30km electro-optical cable to the shore laboratory. In this report we describe briefly the detector and the detector electronics and discuss the first physics data acquired and give the zenith angular distribution of the reconstructed muons.

  19. DeepInfer: open-source deep learning deployment toolkit for image-guided therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Pesteie, Mehran; Hetherington, Jorden; Behringer, Peter A.; Kapur, Tina; Wells, William M.; Rohling, Robert; Fedorov, Andriy; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2017-03-01

    Deep learning models have outperformed some of the previous state-of-the-art approaches in medical image analysis. Instead of using hand-engineered features, deep models attempt to automatically extract hierarchical representations at multiple levels of abstraction from the data. Therefore, deep models are usually considered to be more flexible and robust solutions for image analysis problems compared to conventional computer vision models. They have demonstrated significant improvements in computer-aided diagnosis and automatic medical image analysis applied to such tasks as image segmentation, classification and registration. However, deploying deep learning models often has a steep learning curve and requires detailed knowledge of various software packages. Thus, many deep models have not been integrated into the clinical research work ows causing a gap between the state-of-the-art machine learning in medical applications and evaluation in clinical research procedures. In this paper, we propose "DeepInfer" - an open-source toolkit for developing and deploying deep learning models within the 3D Slicer medical image analysis platform. Utilizing a repository of task-specific models, DeepInfer allows clinical researchers and biomedical engineers to deploy a trained model selected from the public registry, and apply it to new data without the need for software development or configuration. As two practical use cases, we demonstrate the application of DeepInfer in prostate segmentation for targeted MRI-guided biopsy and identification of the target plane in 3D ultrasound for spinal injections.

  20. DeepInfer: Open-Source Deep Learning Deployment Toolkit for Image-Guided Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Pesteie, Mehran; Hetherington, Jorden; Behringer, Peter A; Kapur, Tina; Wells, William M; Rohling, Robert; Fedorov, Andriy; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2017-02-11

    Deep learning models have outperformed some of the previous state-of-the-art approaches in medical image analysis. Instead of using hand-engineered features, deep models attempt to automatically extract hierarchical representations at multiple levels of abstraction from the data. Therefore, deep models are usually considered to be more flexible and robust solutions for image analysis problems compared to conventional computer vision models. They have demonstrated significant improvements in computer-aided diagnosis and automatic medical image analysis applied to such tasks as image segmentation, classification and registration. However, deploying deep learning models often has a steep learning curve and requires detailed knowledge of various software packages. Thus, many deep models have not been integrated into the clinical research workflows causing a gap between the state-of-the-art machine learning in medical applications and evaluation in clinical research procedures. In this paper, we propose "DeepInfer" - an open-source toolkit for developing and deploying deep learning models within the 3D Slicer medical image analysis platform. Utilizing a repository of task-specific models, DeepInfer allows clinical researchers and biomedical engineers to deploy a trained model selected from the public registry, and apply it to new data without the need for software development or configuration. As two practical use cases, we demonstrate the application of DeepInfer in prostate segmentation for targeted MRI-guided biopsy and identification of the target plane in 3D ultrasound for spinal injections.

  1. Deep repository. Underground design premises. Edition D1/1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    This report proposes design premises and methodology for application in the preliminary design of underground excavations within the framework of SKB's site investigations. The design premises and supporting instructions for rock mechanical and hydrogeological analyses are a result of planning work carried out between the autumn of 2002 and the spring of 2003. Other overall planning has also been done at the same time for the Deep Repository Project. The first draft underwent revision following a seminar on 30 June 2003 primarily with respect to structure and coordination aspects within the project, as well as certain factual questions. That version served as a basis for an application exercise based on site descriptive model version 1.1 Forsmark. The purpose of the application exercise was to: Test relevant portions of the proposed methodology for rock engineering for the initial site investigations (ISI); Evaluate the application of preliminary design requirements; Identify and develop proposals for collaboration between design and site and site modelling units for the best possible feedback in future work, especially iterations for meeting the needs of design; Identify and develop proposals for collaboration between safety assessment and design for realistic proposals for site adaptation. The design application exercise was evaluated at the end of 2003 and its results serve as an important basis for revisions. The update was commenced with a workshop in February 2004, where the goals were established.

  2. Boosted Dark Matter at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alhazmi, Haider; Mohlabeng, Gopolang; Park, Jong-Chul

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the detection prospects of a non-standard dark sector in the context of boosted dark matter. We consider a scenario where two stable particles have a large mass difference and the heavier particle accounts for most of dark matter in our current universe. The heavier candidate is assumed to have no interaction with the standard model particles at tree-level, hence evading existing constraints. Although subdominant, the lighter dark matter particles are efficiently produced via pair-annihilation of the heavier ones in the center of the Galaxy or the Sun. The large Lorentz boost enables detection of the non-minimal dark sector in large volume terrestrial experiments via exchange of a light dark photon with electrons or nuclei. Various experiments designed for neutrino physics and proton decay are examined in detail, including Super-K and Hyper-K. In this study, we focus on the sensitivity of the far detector at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment for boosted dark matter produced in the center...

  3. Large, Extra Dimensions at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Berryman, Jeffrey M; Kelly, Kevin J; Peres, O L G; Tabrizi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the potential of the long-baseline Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to study large-extra-dimension (LED) models originally proposed to explain the smallness of neutrino masses by postulating that right-handed neutrinos, unlike all standard model fermion fields, can propagate in the bulk. The massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of the right-handed neutrino fields modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities and can hence affect their propagation. We show that, as far as DUNE is concerned, the LED model is indistinguishable from a $(3 + 3N)$-neutrino framework for modest values of $N$; $N$ = 1 is usually a very good approximation. Nonetheless, there are no new sources of $CP$-invariance violation other than one $CP$-odd phase that can be easily mapped onto the $CP$-odd phase in the standard three-neutrino paradigm. We analyze the sensitivity of DUNE to the LED framework, and explore the capability of DUNE to differentiate the LED model from the three-neutrino scenario and from a generic $...

  4. Large extra dimensions at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M.; de Gouvêa, André; Kelly, Kevin J.; Peres, O. L. G.; Tabrizi, Zahra

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the potential of the long-baseline Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to study large-extra-dimension (LED) models originally proposed to explain the smallness of neutrino masses by postulating that right-handed neutrinos, unlike all standard model fermion fields, can propagate in the bulk. The massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of the right-handed neutrino fields modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities and can hence affect their propagation. We show that, as far as DUNE is concerned, the LED model is indistinguishable from a (3 +3 N )-neutrino framework for modest values of N ; N =1 is usually a very good approximation. Nonetheless, there are no new sources of C P -invariance violation other than one C P -odd phase that can be easily mapped onto the C P -odd phase in the standard three-neutrino paradigm. We analyze the sensitivity of DUNE to the LED framework and explore the capability of DUNE to differentiate the LED model from the three-neutrino scenario and from a generic (3 +1 )-neutrino model.

  5. A Subsurface Explorer for Deep Underground Exploration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, B. H.; Morgan, A. R.

    2000-08-01

    A subsurface explorer (SSX) is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which is suitable for exploration of the deep underground environments on Mars. The device is a self-contained piledriver which uses a novel 'spinning hammer' technology to convert a small continuous power feed from the surface over a two-wire tether into a large rotational energy of a spinning mass. The rotational energy is converted to translational energy by a novel mechanism described here. The hammer blows propagate as shock waves through a nosepiece, pulverizing the medium ahead of the SSX. A small portion of the pulverized medium is returned to the surface through a hole liner extending behind the SSX. This tube is 'cast in place' from two chemical feedstocks which come down from the surface through passages in the hole liner and which are reacted together to produce new material with which to produce the hole liner. The lined hole does not need to be the full diameter of the SSX: approximately 100 kilograms of liner material can create a tunnel liner with a three millimeter inside diameter and a six millimeter outside diameter with at total length of four kilometers. Thus it is expected that core samples representing an overlapping set of three-millimeter diameter cores extending the entire length of the SSX traverse could be returned to the surface. A pneumatic prototype has been built which penetrated easily to the bottom of an eight meter vertical test facility. An electric prototype is now under construction. It is expected that the SSX will be able to penetrate through sand or mixed regolith, ice, permafrost, or solid rock, such as basalt. For pure or nearly pure ice applications, the device may be augmented with hot water jets to melt the ice and stir any sediment which may build up ahead of the vehicle. It is expected that an SSX approximately one meter long, three to four centimeters in diameter, and with a power budget of approximately 200 Watts will be able to explore

  6. Sudden stratospheric warmings seen in MINOS deep underground muon data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osprey, S.; /Oxford U.; Barnett, J.; /Oxford U.; Smith, J.; /Oxford U.; Adamson, P.; /Fermilab; Andreopoulos, C.; /Rutherford; Arms, K.E.; /Minnesota U.; Armstrong, R.; /Indiana U.; Auty, D.J.; /Sussex U.; Ayres, D.S.; /Argonne; Baller, B.; /Fermilab; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; /LLNL, Livermore /Oxford U.

    2009-01-01

    The rate of high energy cosmic ray muons as measured underground is shown to be strongly correlated with upper-air temperatures during short-term atmospheric (10-day) events. The effects are seen by correlating data from the MINOS underground detector and temperatures from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts during the winter periods from 2003-2007. This effect provides an independent technique for the measurement of meteorological conditions and presents a unique opportunity to measure both short and long-term changes in this important part of the atmosphere.

  7. Sealing of underground workings and deep boreholes by polymer solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stryczek, S.; Postawa, J.; Capik, M.; Beres, J.

    1988-05-01

    Describes application and properties of Solakryl ASM 10 and Marwit S 50 polymers for rock sealing purposes in Polish underground black coal mines. Polymer powders are mixed with water and injected into boreholes to prevent spontaneous fire propagation, stop gas release from coal seams, improve mine ventilation and prevent water influx. Diagrams for gelation performance, polymerization time and solution viscosity are provided. Solutions are also mixed with filler (fly ash, gypsum) if voids and crevices are of larger volume. Density and viscosity values of polymer solution and filler mixtures relevant for pumping procedures are given. A time function for optimum Marwit concentration and volume swelling during water absorption is also derived. AzNII-cone analysis was applied for assessing solution pumpability. Examples of successful solution injection during shaft sinking by rock freezing and during fire fighting in an underground coal mine are given. 5 refs.

  8. Observation of the Moon Shadow in Deep Underground Muon Flux

    CERN Document Server

    Cobb, J H; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Ayres, D S; Barrett, W L; Bode, C; Border, P M; Brooks, C B; Cotton, R J; Courant, H; Demuth, D M; Fields, T H; Gallagher, H R; García-García, C; Goodman, M C; Gran, R; Joffe-Minor, T M; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M; Leeson, W; Lichtfield, P J; Longley, N P; Mann, W A; Milburn, R H; Miller, W H; Moon, C; Mualem, L M; Napier, A; Oliver, W P; Pearce, G F; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Price, L E; Ruddick, K; Sánchez, M; Sankey, P; Schneps, J; Schub, M H; Seidlein, R; Stassinakis, A; Thron, J L; Vasilev, V; Villaume, G; Wakely, S P; West, N; Wall, D

    1999-01-01

    A shadow of the moon, with a statistical significance of $5\\sigma$, has been observed in the underground muon flux at a depth of 2090 mwe using the Soudan 2 detector. The angular resolution of the detector is well described by a Gaussian with $\\sigma \\le 0.3^{\\circ}$. The position of the shadow confirms the alignment of the detector to better than $0.15^{\\circ}$. This alignment has remained stable during 10 years of data taking from 1989 through 1998.

  9. Time variations in the deep underground muon flux

    CERN Document Server

    Cecchini, S; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Giacomelli, G; Giorgini, M; Maaroufi, F; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Moussa, A; Patrizii, L; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Spurio, M; Togo, V

    2009-01-01

    More than 35 million high-energy muons collected with the MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory have been used to search for flux variations of different nature. Two kinds of studies were carried out: a search for the occurrence of clusters of events and a search for periodic variations. Different analysis methods, including the Scan Statistics test and the Lomb-Scargle spectral analysis have been applied to the data.

  10. Observation of the moon shadow in deep underground muon flux.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Cobb, J. H.; Fields, T. H.; Goodman, M. C.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Marshak, M. L.; Price, L. E.; Seidlein, R.; Soudan 2 Collaboration; Thron, J. L.

    1999-06-22

    A shadow of the moon, with a statistical significance of 5{sigma}, has been observed in the underground muon flux at a depth of 2090 mwe using the Soudan 2 detector. The angular resolution of the detector is well described by a Gaussian with {sigma} {le}0.3{degree}. The position of the shadow confirms the alignment of the detector to better than 0.15{degree}. This alignment has remained stable during 10 years of data taking from 1989 through 1998.

  11. First Results of GINGERino, a deep underground ringlaser

    CERN Document Server

    Belfi, J; Bosi, F; Carelli, G; Cuccato, D; De Luca, G; Di Virgilio, A; Gebauer, A; Maccioni, E; Ortolan, A; Porzio, A; Santagata, R; Simonelli, A; Terreni, G

    2016-01-01

    Large ring-laser gyroscopes are capable of measuring angular rotations with a precision well below fractions of $prad/s$, not far from $10^{-14}$ $rad/s$, the accuracy required for General Relativity tests, this is what the GINGER (Gyroscope-IN-GEneral-Relativity) experiment is aiming for. These features do not guarantee the possibility of measuring the General Relativity Lense--Thirring effect, that manifests itself as a tiny ($\\approx 10^{-9} \\times \\Omega_E$) perturbation of the Earth rotation rate. An underground location being in principle less affected by external local disturbances represents a good candidate for housing such a challenging experiment. GINGERino is a test apparatus to investigate the residual local disturbances in the most inner part of the underground international laboratory of the GranSasso (LNGS). It consists of a square ring laser with a $3.6$ m side. The instrument has been tailored to be the larger allowed by the particular location inside the laboratory. Its main objective is to...

  12. Underground Potential for Urban Sustainability: Mapping Resources and Their Interactions with the Deep City Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Doyle

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the process of urban growth, the underground is often only addressed once all surface alternatives have been exhausted. Experience shows that this can lead to unforeseen conflicts (e.g., subsidence, groundwater pollution and to lost opportunities (e.g., combined geothermal systems and building foundations or recycling of excavation materials. One challenge is how the underground potentials are assessed by urban actors; data collection, analysis and visualization for the different resources are often conducted in separate disciplinary corners and administrative divisions. This paper presents a mapping method developed within the Deep City project at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL and its application to San Antonio, Texas. San Antonio is interesting in its lack of major underground infrastructure and its few means and political support for short-term underground development. We will specifically look at the production of a series of interaction maps, an original mapping strategy that is complementary to the resource potential maps we have produced in prior work. After situating this research within larger theoretical and philosophical questions, we will show how mapping the combined potentiality of underground resources can serve as a compass for future interdisciplinary discussions that address the urban underground as a source of opportunity, rather than as an afterthought.

  13. Deep and Ultra-deep Underground Observatory for In Situ Stress, Fluids, and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutt, D. F.; Wang, H.; Kieft, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    The question 'How deeply does life extend into the Earth?' forms a single, compelling vision for multidisciplinary science opportunities associated with physical and biological processes occurring naturally or in response to construction in the deep and ultra-deep subsurface environment of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the former Homestake mine. The scientific opportunity is to understand the interaction between the physical environment and microbial life, specifically, the coupling among (1) stress state and deformation; (2) flow and transport and origin of fluids; and (3) energy and nutrient sources for microbial life; and (4) microbial identity, diversity and activities. DUSEL-Homestake offers the environment in which these questions can be addressed unencumbered by competing human activities. Associated with the interaction among these variables are a number of questions that will be addressed at variety of depths and scales in the facility: What factors control the distribution of life as a function of depth and temperature? What patterns in microbial diversity, microbial activity and nutrients are found along this gradient? How do state variables (stress, strain, temperature, and pore pressure) and constitutive properties (permeability, porosity, modulus, etc.) vary with scale (space, depth, time) in a large 4D heterogeneous system: core - borehole - drift - whole mine - regional? How are fluid flow and stress coupled in a low-permeability, crystalline environment dominated by preferential flow paths? How does this interaction influence the distribution of fluids, solutes, gases, colloids, and biological resources (e.g. energy and nutritive substrates) in the deep continental subsurface? What is the interaction between geomechanics/geohydrology and microbiology (microbial abundance, diversity, distribution, and activities)? Can relationships elucidated within the mechanically and hydrologically altered subsurface habitat

  14. A Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at Kimballton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2004-11-01

    The National Academy of Science, as well as several long-range plans from the physics communities, have endorsed the need to create a large, multi-disciplinary underground laboratory in the US. Several potential sites have been identified, and the National Science Foundation has begun a solicitation process to help formulate the science program as well as to identify and develop candidate sites. The only site on the East Coast is at Kimballton, near Blacksburg, in western Virginia. Of all the sites, it is the only one located in sedimentary rocks. This makes it an IDEAL and unique location for both physics, geoscience, and engineering studies. Kimballton is also only half an hour from Virginia Tech, the largest university in the state of Virginia. A multi-institution group has been developing this possibility, and will be competing on the national scale to have DUSEL located at Kimballton. One of the assets of this location is a large limestone mine, already at a depth of 2300 ft (1850 mwe), with true drive-in access and extremely large caverns. The DUSEL facility at this location will try to take advantage of the existing infrastructure, while at the same time develop complementary and adjacent facilities down to 7000 ft (6000 mwe) to allow independent operation of the future facility. Since 2003, Virginia Tech and the Naval Research Laboratory have been working to also develop a general low-level facility at this location. The initial program is to help develop extremely low-background germanium and gas proportional counters, and a single super-module of the Low-Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (LENS) detector -- designed to measure the real-time low-energy neutrino spectrum from the Sun, including the pp-flux. Progress in this program (including seismic imaging), and the proposed overall extensive science program (Phys, Geo, Eng, Bio) which can be addressed at Kimballton will be presented. For further information, see our webpage http://www.phys.vt.edu/ kimballton

  15. Groundwater Management During Intermediate-to-Deep Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, Shaun; Stanley, Edward; Mostade, Marc; Turner, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a safe, economic way to extract energy from coal with significant environmental benefits compared with other coal-based energy production methods. However, in the wrong hands, UCG can adversely impact groundwater systems in two ways: 1) by contamination with inorganic and organic compounds; and 2) groundwater depletion. The hydrogeological conditions of UCG are highly site-specific and so the risks to groundwater have to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Site selection plays a fundamental role in managing these risks and it is possible to identify the general characteristics that will minimise risks of environmental impacts. However, large volumes of water, much of which will come from groundwater, are consumed during UCG projects, leading to possible significant groundwater depletion at such settings. Insufficient water supplies will impact the quality of the syngas produced by UCG because coal conversion efficiencies will decrease. Furthermore, depletion of groundwater levels may extend beyond the UCG site boundary, with consequent implications for regulatory regimes and any off-site groundwater users. Additional artificial water supplies may therefore be required, although the manner in which the water is delivered to the UCG system will also likely have an impact on syngas quality. Large volumes of water delivered via the injection well will likely impact gasification efficiency because 1) large amounts of heat will be used to vaporise the water leading to suppression of the reactor temperature and inhibition of (endothermic) gasification reactions; and 2) the "steam jacket" originally present around the UCG reactor will be absent, which will lead to further heat loss from the system. Additional water may therefore have to be supplied via the surrounding strata and/or coal seam, thus mimicking the natural conditions prior to groundwater depletion. Much of the hydrogeological modelling to date has focussed on a single

  16. Measurement techniques for in situ stresses around underground constructions in a deep clay formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X.L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Disposal in deep underground geological formations is internationally recognized as the most viable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is extensively studied in this context, in particular at the 225 m deep HADES Underground Research Facility in Mol. A cost-effective design of deep underground structures requires an accurate assessment of the in situ stresses; a good estimation of these stresses is also essential when interpreting in situ experiments regarding the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the host formation. Different measurement techniques are available to provide data on the stress evolution and other mechanical properties of the geological formation. The measurement can be direct (measurement of total pressure, or it can be an indirect technique, deriving the stress from related quantities such as strain (changes in structural members. Most total stress measurements are performed through permanently installed sensors; also once-only measurements are performed through specific methods (e.g. pressuremeter. Direct measurement of the stress state is challenging due to the complex mechanical behaviour of the clay, and the fact that the sensor installation inevitably disturbs the original stress field. This paper describes ways to deal with these problems and presents the results obtained using different techniques at HADES.

  17. A deployment of broadband seismic stations in two deep gold mines, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur F.; Boettcher, Margaret S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Johnston, Malcolm J.; Durrheim, R.; Spottiswoode, S.; Milev, A.

    2009-01-01

    In-mine seismic networks throughout the TauTona and Mponeng gold mines provide precise locations and seismic source parameters of earthquakes. They also support small-scale experimental projects, including NELSAM (Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mines), which is intended to record, at close hand, seismic rupture of a geologic fault that traverses the project region near the deepest part of TauTona. To resolve some questions regarding the in-mine and NELSAM networks, we deployed four portable broadband seismic stations at deep sites within TauTona and Mponeng for one week during September 2007 and recorded ground acceleration. Moderately large earthquakes within our temporary network were recorded with sufficiently high signal-to-noise that we were able to integrate the acceleration to ground velocity and displacement, from which moment tensors could be determined. We resolved the questions concerning the NELSAM and in-mine networks by using these moment tensors to calculate synthetic seismograms at various network recording sites for comparison with the ground motion recorded at the same locations. We also used the peak velocity of the S wave pulse, corrected for attenuation with distance, to estimate the maximum slip within the rupture zone of an earthquake. We then combined the maximum slip and seismic moment with results from laboratory friction experiments to estimate maximum slip rates within the same high-slip patches of the rupture zone. For the four largest earthquakes recorded within our network, all with magnitudes near 2, these inferred maximum slips range from 4 to 27 mm and the corresponding maximum slip rates range from 1 to 6 m/s. These results, in conjunction with information from previous ground motion studies, indicate that underground support should be capable of withstanding peak ground velocities of at least 5 m/s.

  18. Performance of an autonomously deployable telemetered deep ocean seismic observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jonathan; Laske, Gabe; Orcutt, John; Babcock, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    We describe a transformative technology that can provide near real-time telemetry of sensor data from the ocean bottom without a moored buoy or a cable to shore. The breakthrough technology that makes this system possible is an autonomous surface vehicle called a Wave Glider developed by Liquid Robotics, which harvests wave and solar energy for motive and electrical power. For navigation, the wave glider is equipped with a small computer, a GPS receiver, a rudder, solar panels and batteries, AIS ship detection receiver, weather station, and an Iridium satellite modem. Wave gliders have demonstrated trans-oceanic range and long-term station keeping capabilities. We present results from several deployments of a prototype system that demonstrate the feasibility of this concept. The system comprises ocean bottom package (OBP) and an ocean surface gateway (OSG). Acoustic communications connect the OBP instruments with OSG while communications between the gateway and land are provided by the Iridium satellite constellation. The most recent deployment of the OBP was off the edge of the Patton Escarpment some 300 km west of San Diego in 4000 m of water. The OSG was launched about 30 km west of San Diego harbor and programmed to navigate to the site of the ocean bottom package. Arriving after 161 hours, the OSG then commenced holding station at the site for the next 68 days. Speeds over-the-ground varied with wind, wave, and surface current conditions but averaged 0.5 m/s while winds varied between 0 m/s and 17 m/s and wave heights between 0.2 m and 5.9 m. Over this period the median total data latency was 260 s and the data loss less that 0.2% when the wave glider was within 1.5 km of the central point. We have also tested a full-scale model of a towable ocean bottom package, which demonstrated that a wave glider could tow and navigate an autonomously deployable ocean bottom package. Taken together, these tests have demonstrated that the concept is viable for long

  19. The Cascades Proposal for the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Haxton, W C

    2011-01-01

    One of the options for creating a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) is a site in the Mt. Stuart batholith, a granodiorite and tonalite rock mass in the Cascade mountain range in Washington State. The batholith's 100-year history in hard-rock tunneling includes the construction of the longest and deepest tunnels in the U.S., the parallel Cascade and Pioneer tunnels. The laboratory plan would utilize these two tunnels to produce a laboratory that has many desirable features, including dedi., clean, horizontal access, container-module transport, and low operations costs. Various aspects of the site help to reduce geotechnical, environmental, and safety risks.

  20. A STUDY ON APPLICABILITY OF GROUND RESPONSE ACCELERATION METHOD TO DEEP VERTICAL UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mai; Shiba, Yukio; Watanabe, Kazuaki

    This paper discusses the applicability of ground response acceleration method to seismic analysis for deep vertical underground structures. To examine the applicability, an analysis of relationships between response of ground and the shaft was conducted. It was found from the analysis that vertical axial stress of the shaft was not correspond with shear stress of ground. Accordingly, it was concluded that the axial stress was not evaluated correctly by the existing method. Therefore, to extend the applicability of the method, ground responses correlated with the axial stress were analyzed and a new method using these ground responses was proposed.

  1. The study of the thermal neutron flux in the deep underground laboratory DULB-4900

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilyuk, Yu M; Gezhaev, A M; Kazalov, V V; Kuzminov, V V; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S; Tekueva, D A; Yakimenko, S P

    2015-01-01

    We report on the study of thermal neutron flux using monitors based on mixture of ZnS(Ag) and LiF enriched with a lithium-6 isotope at the deep underground laboratory DULB-4900 at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory. An annual modulation of thermal neutron flux in DULB-4900 is observed. Experimental evidences were obtained of correlation between the long-term thermal neutron flux variations and the absolute humidity of the air in laboratory. The amplitude of the modulation exceed 5\\% of total neutron flux flux.

  2. Physiological responses of people in working faces of deep underground mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Bo; Wu Chao; Li Ji; Liao Huimin

    2014-01-01

    The research studied the influences of high temperature, high pressure, high humidity, noise and other harmful factors in mining conditions on the people health and safety, and investigated the impacts of confined environmental on human physiology factors, including temperature, humidity, noise, pressure, toxic and harmful gases in terms of environmental characteristics in underground mines and an artificial intelligence system for simulation of the environment in a confined space of deep mines. Our results show that the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, typing test speed and memory level percentage are negatively correlated with temperature value, and positively correlated with humidity value; the human temperature and weight are positively correlated with temperature value, and negatively correlated with humidity value. This research lays the foundation for the study of interaction between the deep confined space environment and safety behavior.

  3. Dynamic responses of deep underground explosions based on improved Grigorian model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈万祥; 范新; 郭志昆; 王明洋

    2015-01-01

    It is important to investigate the dynamic behaviors of deep rocks near explosion cavity to reveal the mechanisms of deformations and fractures. Some improvements are carried out for Grigorian model with focuses on the dilation effects and the relaxation effects of deep rocks, and the high pressure equations of states with Mie-Grüneisen form are also established. Numerical calculations of free field parameters for deep underground explosions are carried out based on the user subroutines which are compiled by means of the secondary development functions of LS-DYNA9703D software. The histories of radial stress, radial velocity and radial displacement of rock particles are obtained, and the calculation results are compared with those of U.S. Hardhat nuclear test. It is indicated that the dynamic responses of free field for deep underground explosions are well simulated based on improved Grigorian model, and the calculation results are in good agreement with the data of U.S. Hardhat nuclear test. The peak values of particle velocities are consistent with those of test, but the waveform widths and the rising times are obviously greater than those without dilation effects. The attenuation rates of particle velocities are greater than the calculation results with classic plastic model, and they are consistent with the results of Hardhat nuclear test. The attenuation behaviors and the rising times of stress waves are well shown by introducing dilation effects and relaxation effects into the calculation model. Therefore, the defects of Grigorian model are avoided. It is also indicated that the initial stress has obvious influences on the waveforms of radial stress and the radial displacements of rock particles.

  4. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  5. Integrated Earth Science Research in Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Hazen, T. C.; Conrad, M. E.; Johnson, L. R.; Salve, R.

    2004-12-01

    There are three types of sites being considered for deep-underground earth science and physics experiments: (1) abandoned mines (e.g., the Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota; the Soudan Iron Mine, Minnesota), (2) active mines/facilities (e.g., the Henderson Molybdenum Mine, Colorado; the Kimballton Limestone Mine, Virginia; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [in salt], New Mexico), and (3) new tunnels (e.g., Icicle Creek in the Cascades, Washington; Mt. San Jacinto, California). Additional sites have been considered in the geologically unique region of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada, which has both very high mountain peaks and the lowest point in the United States (Death Valley). Telescope Peak (along the western border of Death Valley), Boundary Peak (along the California-Nevada border), Mt. Charleston (outside Las Vegas), and Mt. Tom (along the Pine Creek Valley) all have favorable characteristics for consideration. Telescope Peak can site the deepest laboratory in the United States. The Mt. Charleston tunnel can be a highway extension connecting Las Vegas to Pahrump. The Pine Creek Mine next to Mt. Tom is an abandoned tungsten mine. The lowest levels of the mine are accessible by nearly horizontal tunnels from portals in the mining base camp. Drainage (most noticeable in the springs resulting from snow melt) flows (from the mountain top through upper tunnel complex) out of the access tunnel without the need for pumping. While the underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have not yet been considered (since they are relatively shallow for physics experiments), they have undergone extensive earth science research for nearly 10 years, as the site for future storage of nation's spent nuclear fuels. All these underground sites could accommodate different earth science and physics experiments. Most underground physics experiments require depth to reduce the cosmic-ray-induced muon flux from atmospheric sources. Earth science experiments can be

  6. Transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns; Comportement transitoire des cavites salines profondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi-Jafari, M

    2007-11-15

    This work deals with the transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns. It has been shown that a cavern is a complex system, in which there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and hydraulic evolutions. The importance of the transient evolutions, particularly the role of the 'reverse' creep in the interpretation of the tightness test in a salt cavern is revealed. Creep is characterized by a formulation of the behaviour law which presents the advantage, in a practical point of view, to only have a reduced number of parameters while accounting of the essential of what it is observed. The initiation of the rupture in the effective traction in a salt cavern rapidly pressurized is discussed. A model fitted to a very long term behaviour (after abandonment) is developed too. In this case too, a lot of phenomena, more or less coupled, occur, when the existing literature took only into account some phenomena. (O.M.)

  7. Non-Standard Interactions in propagation at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Coloma, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of the current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments to the effects of dimension six operators affecting neutrino propagation through Earth, commonly referred to as Non-Standard Interactions (NSI). All relevant parameters entering the oscillation probabilities (standard and non-standard) are considered at once, in order to take into account possible cancellations and correlations between them. We find that the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment will significantly improve over current constraints, and will be sensitive to most NSI parameters at the level of $\\varepsilon \\sim \\mathcal{O}(0.05 - 0.1)$. We compare its reach to that of the current generation of long-baseline experiments, namely, T2K and NOvA. We also identify two degeneracies among standard and non-standard parameters, which could be partially resolved by combining T2HK and DUNE data.

  8. Earth Science Research in DUSEL; a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, C.; Onstott, T. C.; Tiedje, J. M.; McPherson, B.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Wang, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    A summary of efforts to create one or more Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories (DUSEL) in the United States is presented. A workshop in Berkeley, August 11-14, 2004, explored the technical requirements of DUSEL for research in basic and applied geological and microbiological sciences, together with elementary particle physics and integrated education and public outreach. The workshop was organized by Bernard Sadoulet, an astrophysicist and the principal investigator (PI) of a community-wide DUSEL program evolving in coordination with the National Science Foundation. The PI team has three physicists (in nuclear science, high-energy physics, and astrophysics) and three earth scientists (in geoscience, biology and engineering). Presentations, working group reports, links to previous workshop/meeting talks, and information about DUSEL candidate sites, are presented in http://neutrino.lbl.gov/DUSELS-1. The Berkeley workshop is a continuation of decades of efforts, the most recent including the 2001 Underground Science Conference's earth science and geomicrobiology workshops, the 2002 International Workshop on Neutrino and Subterranean Science, and the 2003 EarthLab Report. This perspective (from three earth science co-PIs, the lead author of EarthLab report, the lead scientist of education/outreach, and the local earth science organizer) is to inform the community on the status of this national initiative, and to invite their active support. Having a dedicated facility with decades-long, extensive three-dimensional underground access was recognized as the most important single attribute of DUSEL. Many research initiatives were identified and more are expected as the broader community becomes aware of DUSEL. Working groups were organized to evaluate hydrology and coupled processes; geochemistry; rock mechanics/seismology; applications (e.g., homeland security, environment assessment, petroleum recovery, and carbon sequestration); geomicrobiology and

  9. Chemolithotrophy in the continental deep subsurface: Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rose Osburn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The deep subsurface is an enormous repository of microbial life. However, the metabolic capabilities of these microorganisms and the degree to which they are dependent on surface processes are largely unknown. Due to the logistical difficulty of sampling and inherent heterogeneity, the microbial populations of the terrestrial subsurface are poorly characterized. In an effort to better understand the biogeochemistry of deep terrestrial habitats, we evaluate the energetic yield of chemolithotrophic metabolisms and microbial diversity in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF in the former Homestake Gold Mine, SD, USA. Geochemical data, energetic modeling, and DNA sequencing were combined with principle component analysis to describe this deep (down to 8100 ft below surface, terrestrial environment. SURF provides access into an iron-rich Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary deposit that contains deeply circulating groundwater. Geochemical analyses of subsurface fluids reveal enormous geochemical diversity ranging widely in salinity, oxidation state (ORP 330 to -328 mV, and concentrations of redox sensitive species (e.g., Fe2+ from near 0 to 6.2 mg/L and ΣS2- from 7 to 2778 μg/L. As a direct result of this compositional buffet, Gibbs energy calculations reveal an abundance of energy for microorganisms from the oxidation of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, methane, and manganese. Pyrotag DNA sequencing reveals diverse communities of chemolithoautotrophs, thermophiles, aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs, and numerous uncultivated clades. Extrapolated across the mine footprint, these data suggest a complex spatial mosaic of subsurface primary productivity that is in good agreement with predicted energy yields. Notably, we report Gibbs energy normalized both per mole of reaction and per kg fluid (energy density and find the later to be more consistent with observed physiologies and environmental conditions. Further application of this approach will

  10. Advances in technology for the construction of deep-underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-31

    The workshop was organized in order to address technological issues important to decisions regarding the feasibility of strategic options. The objectives of the workshop were to establish the current technological capabilities for deep-underground construction, to project those capabilities through the compressed schedule proposed for construction, and to identify promising directions for timely allocation of existing research and development resources. The earth has been used as a means of protection and safekeeping for many centuries. Recently, the thickness of the earth cover required for this purpose has been extended to the 2,000- to 3,000-ft range in structures contemplated for nuclear-waste disposal, energy storage, and strategic systems. For defensive missile basing, it is now perceived that the magnitude of the threat has increased through better delivery systems, larger payloads, and variable tactics of attack. Thus, depths of 3,000 to 8,000 ft are being considered seriously for such facilities. Moreover, it appears desirable that the facilities be operational (if not totally complete) for defensive purposes within a five-year construction schedule. Deep excavations such as mines are similar in many respects to nearsurface tunnels and caverns for transit, rail, sewer, water, hydroelectric, and highway projects. But the differences that do exist are significant. Major distinctions between shallow and deep construction derive from the stress fields and behavior of earth materials around the openings. Different methodologies are required to accommodate other variations resulting from increased depth, such as elevated temperatures, reduced capability for site exploration, and limited access during project execution. This report addresses these and other questions devoted to geotechnical characterization, design, construction, and excavation equipment.

  11. Geoengineering Research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in Sedimentary Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldon, M.

    2004-12-01

    A process to identify world-class research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the USA has been initiated by NSF. While allowing physicists to study, inter alia, dark matter and dark energy, this laboratory will create unprecedented opportunities for biologists to study deep life, geoscientists to study crustal processes and geoengineers to study the behavior of rock, fluids and underground cavities at depth, on time scales of decades. A substantial portion of the nation's future infrastructure is likely to be sited underground because of energy costs, urban crowding and vulnerability of critical surface facilities. Economic and safe development of subsurface space will require an improved ability to engineer the geologic environment. Because of the prevalence of sedimentary rock in the upper continental crust, much of this subterranean infrastructure will be hosted in sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks are fundamentally anisotropic due to lithology and bedding, and to discontinuities ranging from microcracks to faults. Fractures, faults and bedding planes create structural defects and hydraulic pathways over a wide range of scales. Through experimentation, observation and monitoring in a sedimentary rock DUSEL, in conjunction with high performance computational models and visualization tools, we will explore the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of layered rock. DUSEL will permit long-term experiments on 100 m blocks of rock in situ, accessed via peripheral tunnels. Rock volumes will be loaded to failure and monitored for post-peak behavior. The response of large rock bodies to stress relief-driven, time-dependent strain will be monitored over decades. Large block experiments will be aimed at measurement of fluid flow and particle/colloid transport, in situ mining (incl. mining with microbes), remediation technologies, fracture enhancement for resource extraction and large scale long-term rock mass response to induced

  12. Support technologies for deep and complex roadways in underground coal mines:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongpu Kang

    2014-01-01

    Based on geological and mining characteristics, coal mine roadways under complex conditions were divided into five types, for each type the deformation and damage characteristics of rocks surrounding roadways were analyzed. The recent developments of roadway support technologies were introduced abroad, based on the experiences of supports for deep and complex roadways from Germany, the United States and Australia. The history and achievements of roadway support technologies in China were detailed, including rock bolting, steel supports, grouting reinforcement and combined supports. Four typical support and reinforcement case studies were analyzed, including a high stressed roadway 1,000 m below the surface, a roadway surrounded by severely weak and broken rocks, a chamber surrounded by weak and broken rocks, and a roadway with very soft and swelling rocks. Based on studies and practices in many years, rock bolting has become the mainstream roadway support form in China coal mines, and steel supports, grouting reinforcement and combined supports have also been applied at proper occasions, which have provided reliable technical measures for the safe and high effective construction and mining of underground coal mines.

  13. Influence of dynamic pressure on deep underground soft rock roadway support and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qingbin; Han Lijun; Chen Yanlong; Fan Jiadong; Wen Shengyong; Yu Liyuan; Li Hao

    2016-01-01

    Due to high ground stress and mining disturbance, the deformation and failure of deep soft rock roadway is serious, and invalidation of the anchor net-anchor cable supporting structure occurs. The failure char-acteristics of roadways revealed with the help of the ground pressure monitoring. Theoretical analysis was adopted to analyze the influence of mining disturbance on stress distribution in surrounding rock, and the change of stress was also calculated. Considering the change of stress in surrounding rock of bot-tom extraction roadway, the displacement, plastic zone and distribution law of principal stress difference under different support schemes were studied by means of FLAC3D. The supporting scheme of U-shaped steel was proposed for bottom extraction roadway that underwent mining disturbance. We carried out a similarity model test to verify the effect of support in dynamic pressure. Monitoring results demonstrated the change rules of deformation and stress of surrounding rock in different supporting schemes. The supporting scheme of U-shaped steel had an effective control on deformation of surrounding rock. The scheme was successfully applied in underground engineering practice, and achieved good technical and economic benefits.

  14. Life in Inner Space: Subsurface Microbiology Investigations in Underground Research Laboratories and Deep Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Onstott, T. C.; van Heerden, E.; Kieft, T. L.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    extinct life beyond Earth as well, as Mars, like the Precambrian cratons, is dominated by billion year old tectonically quiescent geologic terrains, some with serpentinized ultramafics capable of sustaining production of hydrogen and potentially other reduced gases. Taking advantage of deep boreholes, subsurface mines and deep research laboratories worldwide, researchers in geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, microbiology and genomics are mobilizing to explore Earth's "Inner Space". The presentation will highlight work at underground sites in 2-3 billion year old Precambrian Shield rocks in South Africa, Canada and Finland where isotope geochemistry has identified large accumulations of free H2 gas, methane, higher hydrocarbons and noble gases dissolved in saline fracture waters with residence times on the order of millions of years. Within these fracture waters, a low biomass chemolithotrophic microbial community couples H2 consumption to sulfate-reduction to eke out an existence at maintenance levels in an exotic outpost of life far from the photosphere.

  15. Economic Assessment of SMART Deployment in Korea using DEEP 5.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyu-dong; Roh, Myung-sub [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    SMART is designed to produce 330MW thermal energy and 40,000m{sup 3}/day desalinated water with enhanced safety system. The design acquired the standard design certification from Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) for the first time in the world. Nonetheless, SMART is estimated to have a higher cost of energy compared to other power sources, so investors were restrained from ploughing their asset into construction of the first unit as a demonstration plant. Such a dismal economic outlook discouraged Korean nuclear power industry and potential purchasers from deploying SMART. In this study, economic assessments were conducted to figure out economic competitiveness of SMART. Desalination Economics Evaluation Program (DEEP) software which was developed and distributed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was used to analyze the cost of electricity and water of SMART and other power plants. This study set out to evaluate the economic competitiveness of deploying SMART in Korea. This implies that controlling overnight construction cost is a key factor of the economic competitiveness of SMART. SMART is appropriate for small-medium sized remote electricity demand, so a related case study was conducted. A comparison of economic value between SMART and other alternative power sources were conducted using DEEP software. The alternative power sources were coal power plant and combined cycle gas turbine plant. Assuming those power plants generates certain amount of water to be fairly compared with SMART, DEEP software calculated SMART should be built with maximum 9,000-10,000 $/kWe construction cost. Compared to the plants with CCS facility, allowance of SMART construction cost increases to be 11,000-12,000 $/kWe. Another assumption was considered to highlight the merit of SMART which emits almost zero carbon compounds. Applying carbon tax to the previous study, LCOE of SMART and other power sources was calculated. The result shows that overnight

  16. Economic Evaluation of SMART Deployment in the MENA Region using DEEP 5..0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han-Ok; Lee, Man-Ki; Zee, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Young-In; Kim, Keung Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Some countries have officially announced that the development of atomic energy is essential to meet the growing nation's requirements for energy to generate electricity, produce desalination water, and reduce reliance on depleting hydrocarbon resources. SMART (system-integrated modular advanced reactor) is a small-sized advanced integral reactor with a rated thermal power of 330 MW. It can produce 100 MW of electricity, or 90 MW of electricity and 40,000 tons of desalinated water concurrently, which is sufficient for 100,000 residents. It is an integral type reactor with a sensible mixture of proven technologies and advanced design features. SMART aims at achieving enhanced safety and improved economics; the enhancement of safety and reliability is realized by incorporating inherent safety-improving features and reliable passive safety systems. The improvement in the economics is achieved through a system simplification, component modularization, reduction of construction time, and high plant availability. The standard design approval assures the safety of the SMART system. The economics of SMART are evaluated for the deployment in MENA region in this study. DEEP 5.0 software was selected for the economic evaluation of SMART plant. By using the collected technical and economic data as the input data into DEEP program, the power and water costs are calculated. Electric power and fresh water production costs for the case of SMART deployment at the MENA region is evaluated using the DEEP 5.0 software in this study. Technical input data are prepared on the basis of the local environmental conditions of the MENA region. The results show that the SMART plant can supply 94 MWe to an external grid system with 40,000 m{sup 3}/d of fresh water. The power and water costs are calculated for the various specific construction costs.

  17. Overview of Opportunities in Underground Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nigel

    2016-09-01

    The field of deep underground nuclear physics is within an exciting and burgeoning phase, demonstrated by the recent award of the 2105 Nobel Prize in physics for the observation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino flavor change, with new detector systems in construction and deployment to further develop this scientific field. This talk will overview the current status of the fields within deep underground nuclear physics, focusing on the study of astrophysical neutrino sources, the intrinsic nature of the neutrino, and nuclear astrophysics. The opportunities available in these fields in the near-future will also be discussed.

  18. First deep underground observation of rotational signals from an earthquake at teleseismic distance using a large ring laser gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreino Simonelli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in large ring laser gyroscopes (RLG technologies opened the possibility to observe rotations of the ground with sensitivities up to 10−11 rad/sec over the frequency band of seismological interest (0.01-1Hz, thus opening the way to a new geophysical discipline, i.e. rotational seismology. A measure of rotations in seismology is of fundamental interest for (a the determination of all the six degrees of freedom that characterize a rigid body’s motion, and (b the quantitative estimate of the rotational motions contaminating ground translation measurements obtained from standard seismometers. Within this framework, this paper presents and describes GINGERino, a new large observatory-class RLG located in Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS, one national laboratories of the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. We also report unprecedented observations and analyses of the roto-translational signals from a tele-seismic event observed in such a deep underground environment.

  19. First deep underground observation of rotational signals from an earthquake at teleseismic distance using a large ring laser gyroscope

    CERN Document Server

    Simonelli, Andreino; Beverini, Nicolò; Carelli, Giorgio; Di Virgilio, Angela; Maccioni, Enrico; De Luca, Gaetano; Saccorotti, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in large ring laser gyroscopes (RLG) technologies opened the possibility to observe rotations of the ground with sensitivities up to $10^{-11}$ $\\frac{rad}{s}$ over the frequency band of seismological interest (0.01-1Hz), thus opening the way to a new geophysical discipline, i.e. rotational seismology. A measure of rotations in seismology is of fundamental interest for (a) the determination of all the six degrees of freedom that characterize a rigid body motion, and (b) the quantitative estimate of the rotational motions contaminating ground translation measurements obtained from standard seismometers. Within this framework, this paper presents and describes GINGERino, a new large observatory-class RLG located in Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS), one national laboratories of the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). We also report unprecedented observations and analyses of the roto-translational signals from a tele-seismic event observed in such a deep underground environment.

  20. Seismic Response of a Deep Underground Geologic Repository for Nuclear Waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, P.E.

    1998-11-02

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground nuclear waste repository certified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ,(EPA) to store transuranic defense-related waste contaminated by small amounts of radioactive materials. Located at a depth of about 655 meters below the surface, the facility is sited in southeastern New Mexico, about 40 Department of Energy underground facilities, waste disposal. kilometers east of the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The U.S. (DOE) managed the design and construction of the surface and and remains responsible for operation and closure following The managing and operating contractor for the DOE at the WIPP, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, maintains two rechmiant seismic monitoring systems located at the surface and in the underground. This report discusses two earthquakes detected by the seismic monitoring system, one a duratior magnitude 5.0 (Md) event located approximately 60 km east-southeast of the facility, and another a body-wave magnitude 5.6 (rob) event that occurred approximately 260 kilometers to the south-southeast.

  1. NASA's Space Launch System: Deep-Space Deployment for SmallSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Andy

    2017-01-01

    From its upcoming first flight, NASA's new Space Launch System (SLS) will represent a game-changing opportunity for smallsats. On that launch, which will propel the Orion crew vehicle around the moon, the new exploration-class launch vehicle will deploy 13 6U CubeSats into deep-space, where they will continue to a variety of destinations to perform diverse research and demonstrations. Following that first flight, SLS will undergo the first of a series of performance upgrades, increasing its payload capability to low Earth orbit from 70 to 105 metric tons via the addition of a powerful upper stage. With that change to the vehicle's architecture, so too will its secondary payload accommodation for smallsats evolve, with current plans calling for a change from the first-flight limit of 6U to accommodating a range of sizes up to 27U and potentially ESPA-class payloads. This presentation will provide an overview and update on the first launch of SLS and the secondary payloads it will deploy. Currently, flight hardware has been produced for every element of the vehicle, testing of the vehicle's propulsion elements has been ongoing for years, and structural testing of its stages has begun. Major assembly and testing of the Orion Stage Adapter, including the secondary payload accommodations, will be completed this year, and the structure will then be shipped to Kennedy Space Center for integration of the payloads. Progress is being made on those CubeSats, which will include studies of asteroids, Earth, the sun, the moon, and the impacts of radiation on organisms in deep space. They will feature revolutionary innovations for smallsats, including demonstrations of use of a solar sail as propulsion for a rendezvous with an asteroid, and the landing of a CubeSat on the lunar surface. The presentation will also provide an update on progress of the SLS Block 1B configuration that will be used on the rocket's second flight, a discussion of planned secondary payload accommodations

  2. Three-Dimensional Geologic Modeling of a Prospective Deep Underground Laboratory Site for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. Y.; Lee, S.; Park, S. U.; Kim, J. M.; Kihm, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A series of three-dimensional geologic modeling was performed using a geostatistical geologic model GOCAD (ASGA and Paradigm) to characterize quantitatively and to visualize realistically a prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea. The necessity of a deep underground laboratory arises from its in-situ conditions for related deep scientific experiments. However, the construction and operation of such a deep underground laboratory take great efforts and expenses owing to its larger depth and thus higher geologic uncertainty. For these reasons, quantitative characterization and realistic visualization of geologic formations and structures of a deep underground laboratory site is crucial before its construction and operation. The study area for the prospective deep underground laboratory site is mainly consists of Precambrian metamorphic rocks as a complex. First, various topographic and geologic data of the study area were collected from literature and boreholes and preliminarily analyzed. Based on the preliminary analysis results, a three-dimensional structural model, which consists of the boundaries between the geologic formations and structures, was established, and a three-dimensional grid model, which consists of hexahedral grid blocks, was produced. Three-dimensional geologic formation model was then established by polymerizing these two models. Finally, a series of three-dimensional lithofacies modeling was performed using the sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS). The volume fractions of metamorphic rocks predicted using the TGS are more similar to the actual data observed in boreholes than those predicted using the SIS. These three-dimensional geologic modeling results can improve a quantitative and realistic understanding of geologic characteristics of the prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal and thus can provide

  3. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Successful Integration & Deployment of Technologies Results in Remediated Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, K.; Bolling, D.

    2002-02-27

    This paper presents an overview of the underground technologies deployed during the cleanup of nine large underground storage tanks (USTs) that contained residual radioactive sludge, liquid low-level waste (LLLW), and other debris. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed in 2001, ending with the stabilization of the USTs and the cleanup of the South Tank Farm. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project was the first of its kind completed in the United States of America. The Project integrated robotic and remotely operated technologies into an effective tank waste retrieval system that safely retrieved more than 348 m3 (92,000 gal) of radioactive sludge and 3.15E+15 Bq (85,000 Ci) of radioactive contamination from the tanks. The Project successfully transferred over 2,385 m3 (630,000 gal) of waste slurry to ORNL's active tank waste management system. The project team avoided over $120 Million in costs and shortened the original baseline schedule by over 10 years. Completing the Gunite Tanks Remediation Project eliminated the risks posed by the aging USTs and the waste they contained, and avoid the $400,000 annual costs associated with maintaining and monitoring the tanks.

  4. Experiments in a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) Hosted in Sedimentary Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbey, T. J.; Kimballton, M. O.; Science Team

    2004-12-01

    Sedimentary-rock environments, particularly those dominated by carbonate rock, provide unique opportunities for geoscientists, geobiologists, and geophysicists, to perform revolutionary experiments aimed at answering fundamental science questions and satisfying our societal demands for resources and environmental stewardship. As part of the National Science Foundation's DUSEL initiative, the selected site should offer structurally and biologically diverse environments. At the same time, the site should offer host rock capable of providing safely engineered hallways and laboratories at depths as great as 2,200 m for numerous deep underground physics, engineering, and earth science experiments. An ideal sedimentary-rock environment offers the prospect of highly folded, thrusted, and fractured rocks that allow opportunities to study the 3-D behavior of thrusts that propagate parallel to bedding as well as those that ramp across bedding. Flow dynamics along and across deeply buried faults is poorly understood. Experiments will be developed at various scales to assess flow and transport processes to better quantify hydrogeological mechanisms influencing flow and possible aquifer compartmentalization. Seismic reflection images, vertical seismic profiles, and tomograms will provide details of the fault properties and geometry, which can be verified in-situ. Repeated overthrusted sequences provide opportunities for geobiologists to investigate how microbes in rocks of similar age are affected by differences in pressure, temperature, and depth. Carbonate rocks provide opportunities to study energy sources and adaptations for nutrient acquisition, reproduction, stability, survival, and repair under extreme conditions. Results from these investigations will permit comparisons with other foreland fold-thrust belts worldwide. Fossil fuels remain the world's main energy resource and the large majority of these are hosted in sedimentary rocks. Improved methods for reservoir

  5. Geant4 Simulation Study of Deep Underground Muons: Vertical Intensity and Angular Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Arslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground muon intensities up to 10000 m.w.e. and angular distribution up to 6500 m.w.e. in standard rock have been investigated using Geant4 simulation package. Muons with energies above 100 GeV were distributed from the ground level taking into account the muon charge ratio of ~1.3 at sea level. The simulated differential muon intensities are in good agreement with the intensities given in the literature. Furthermore, the simulation results for the integrated intensities are consistent with the experimental data, particularly at depths above 4000 m.w.e., where the simulation gives slightly smaller intensities than the experimental ones. In addition, the simulated exponent n at different underground depths agrees well with the experimental points, especially above ~2000 m.w.e.

  6. Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) and Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) Conceptual Design Report Volume 1: The LBNF and DUNE Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, R.; Adamowski, M.; Adams, C.; Adamson, P.; Adhikari, S.; Ahmad, Z.; Albright, C.H.; Alion, T.; Amador, E.; Anderson, J.; Anderson, K.; Andreopoulos, C.; Andrews, M.; Andrews, R.; Anghel, I.; Anjos, J. d.; Ankowski, A.; Antonello, M.; Aranda Fernandez, A.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Aristizabal, D.; Arrieta-Diaz, E.; Aryal, K.; Asaadi, J.; Asner, D.; Athar, M.S.; Auger, M.; Aurisano, A.; Aushev, V.; Autiero, D.; Avila, M.; Back, J.J.; Bai, X.; Baibussinov, B.; Baird, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baller, B.; Ballett, P.; Bambah, B.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Barker, G.J.; Barletta, W.A.; Barr, G.; Barros, N.; Bartosz, B.; Bartoszek, L.; Bashyal, A.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Beacom, J.; Behera, B.R.; Bellettini, G.; Bellini, V.; Beltramello, O.; Benekos, N.; Benetti, P.A.; Bercellie, A.; Bergevin, M.; Berman, E.; Berns, H.; Bernstein, R.; Bertolucci, S.; Bhandari, B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bian, J.; Biery, K.; Bishai, M.; Blackburn, T.; Blake, A.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blaufuss, E.; Bleakley, B.; Blucher, E.; Bocean, V.; Boffelli, F.; Boissevain, J.; Bolognesi, S.; Bolton, T.; Bonesini, M.; Boone, T.; Booth, C.; Bordoni, S.; Borysova, M.; Bourguille, B.; Boyd, S.B.; Brailsford, D.; Brandt, A.; Bremer, J.; Brice, S.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brown, G.; Brown, R.; Brunetti, G.; Bu, X.; Buchanan, N.; Budd, H.; Bugg, B.; Calafiura, P.; Calligarich, E.; Calvo, E.; Camilleri, L.; Campanelli, M.; Cantini, C.; Carls, B.; Carr, R.; Cascella, M.; Castromonte, C.; Mur, E.Catano; Cavanna, F.; Centro, S.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Chalifour, M.; Chandratre, V.B.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaussard, L.; Chembra, S.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, M.; Cherdack, D.; Chi, C.; Childress, S.; Choubey, S.; Choudhary, B.C.; Christodoulou, G.; Christofferson, C.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Cline, D.; Coan, T.; Cocco, A.; Coelho, J.; Cole, P.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.; Corey, R.; Corwin, L.; Cranshaw, J.; Crivelli, P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Curioni, A.; Cushing, J.; Adams, D.L.; Dale, D.; Das, S.R.; Davenne, T.; Davies, G.S.; Davies, J.; Dawson, J.; De, K.; de Gouvea, A.; de Jong, J.K.; de Jong, P.; De Lurgio, P.; Decowski, M.; Delbart, A.; Densham, C.; Dharmapalan, R.; Dhingra, N.; Di Luise, S.; Diamantopoulou, M.; Diaz, J.S.; Diaz Bautista, G.; Diwan, M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolph, J.; Drake, G.; Duchesneau, D.; Duvernois, M.; Duyang, H.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dye, S.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Edgecock, R.; Edmunds, D.; Elliott, S.; Elnimr, M.; Emery, S.; Endress, E.; Eno, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escobar, C.O.; Evans, J.; Falcone, A.; Falk, L.; Farbin, A.; Farnese, C.; Farzan, Y.; Fava, A.; Favilli, L.; Felde, J.; Felix, J.; Fernandes, S.; Fields, L.; Finch, A.; Fitton, M.; Fleming, B.; Forest, T.; Fowler, J.; Fox, W.; Fried, J.; Friedland, A.; Fuess, S.; Fujikawa, B.; Gago, A.; Gallagher, H.; Galymov, S.; Gamble, T.; Gandhi, R.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Gardiner, S.; Garvey, G.; Gehman, V.M.; Gendotti, A.; Geronimo, G. d.; Ghag, C.; Ghoshal, P.; Gibin, D.; Gil-Botella, I.; Gill, R.; Girardelli, D.; Giri, A.; Glavin, S.; Goeldi, D.; Golapinni, S.; Gold, M.; Gomes, R.A.; Gomez Cadenas, J.J.; Goodman, M.C.; Gorbunov, D.; Goswami, S.; Graf, N.; Graf, N.; Graham, M.; Gramelini, E.; Gran, R.; Grant, C.; Grant, N.; Greco, V.; Greenlee, H.; Greenler, L.; Greenley, C.; Groh, M.; Grullon, S.; Grundy, T.; Grzelak, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Guarino, V.; Guarnaccia, E.; Guedes, G.P.; Guenette, R.; Guglielmi, A.; Habig, A.T.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Hadavand, H.; Haenni, R.; Hahn, A.; Haigh, M.D.; Haines, T.; Hamernik, T.; Handler, T.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Hartnell, J.; Hasegawa, T.; Hatcher, R.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Hays, S.; Hazen, E.; Headley, M.; Heavey, A.; Heeger, K.; Heise, J.; Hennessy, K.; Hewes, J.; Higuera, A.; Hill, T.; Himmel, A.; Hogan, M.; Holanda, P.; Holin, A.; Honey, W.; Horikawa, S.; Horton-Smith, G.; Howard, B.; Howell, J.; Hurh, P.; Huston, J.; Hylen, J.; Imlay, R.; Insler, J.; Introzzi, G.; Ioanisyan, D.; Ioannisian, A.; Iwamoto, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jackson, C.; Jaffe, D.E.; James, C.; James, E.; Jediny, F.; Jen, C.; Jhingan, A.; Jimenez, S.; Jo, J.H.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, R.; Johnstone, J.; Jones, B.J.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Jung, C.K.; Junk, T.; Kaboth, A.; Kadel, R.; Kafka, T.; Kalousis, L.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Karagiorgi, G.; Karasavvas, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, P.; Kayser, B.; Kazaryan, N.; Kearns, E.; Keener, P.; Kemboi, S.; Kemp, E.; Kettell, S.H.; Khabibullin, M.; Khandaker, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Klein, J.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kohn, S.; Koizumi, G.; Kopylov, A.; Kordosky, M.; Kormos, L.; Kose, U.; Kostelecky, A.; Kramer, M.; Kreslo, I.; Kriske, R.; Kropp, W.; Kudenko, Y.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Kulagin, S.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, G.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kutter, T.; Laminack, A.; Lande, K.; Lane, C.; Lang, K.; Lanni, F.; Learned, J.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, D.; Lee, H.; Lee, K.; Lee, W.M.; Leigui de Oliveira, M.A.; Li, Q.; Li, S.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Libo, J.; Lin, C.S.; Lin, S.; Ling, J.; Link, J.; Liptak, Z.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Lockyer, N.; Loew, T.; Lokajicek, M.; Long, K.; Lopes, M.D.L.; Lopez, J.P.; Losecco, J.; Louis, W.; Lowery, J.; Luethi, M.; Luk, K.; Lundberg, B.; Lundin, T.; Luo, X.; Lux, T.; Lykken, J.; Machado, A.A.; Macier, J.R.; Magill, S.; Mahler, G.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Malhotra, S.; Malon, D.; Mammoliti, F.; Mancina, S.; Mandal, S.K.; Mandodi, S.; Manly, S.L.; Mann, A.; Marchionni, A.; Marciano, W.; Mariani, C.; Maricic, J.; Marino, A.; Marshak, M.; Marshall, C.; Marshall, J.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Albo, J.; Martinez, D.; Matsuno, S.; Matthews, J.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mayilyan, D.; Mazzucato, E.; McCauley, N.; McCluskey, E.; McConkey, N.; McDonald, K.; McFarland, K.S.; McGowan, A.M.; McGrew, C.; McKeown, R.; McNulty, D.; McTaggart, R.; Mefodiev, A.; Mehrian, M.; Mehta, P.; Mei, D.; Mena, O.; Menary, S.; Mendez, H.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Meng, Y.; Mertins, D.; Merritt, H.; Messier, M.; Metcalf, W.; Mewes, M.; Meyer, H.; Miao, T.; Milincic, R.; Miller, W.; Mills, G.; Mineev, O.; Miranda, O.; Mishra, C.S.; Mishra, S.R.; Mitrica, B.; Mladenov, D.; Mocioiu, I.; Mohanta, R.; Mokhov, N.; Montanari, C.; Montanari, D.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C.; Morfin, J.; Morgan, B.; Morris, C.; Morse, W.; Moss, Z.; Mossey, C.; Moura, C.A.; Mousseau, J.; Mualem, L.; Muether, M.; Mufson, S.; Murphy, S.; Musser, J.; Musser, R.; Nakajima, Y.; Naples, D.; Napolitano, J.; Navarro, J.; Navas, D.; Nelson, J.; Nessi, M.; Newcomer, M.; Ng, Y.; Nichol, R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Nikolics, K.; Niner, E.; Norris, B.; Noto, F.; Novakova, P.; Novella, P.; Nowak, J.; Nunes, M.S.; O'Keeffe, H.; Oldeman, R.; Oliveira, R.; Olson, T.; Onishchuk, Y.; Osta, J.; Ovsjannikova, T.; Page, B.; Pakvasa, S.; Pal, S.; Palamara, O.; Palazzo, A.; Paley, J.; Palomares, C.; Pantic, E.; Paolone, V.; Papadimitriou, V.; Park, J.; Parke, S.; Parsa, Z.; Pascoli, S.; Patterson, R.; Patton, S.; Patzak, T.; Paulos, B.; Paulucci, L.; Pavlovic, Z.; Pawloski, G.; Peeters, S.; Pennacchio, E.; Perch, A.; Perdue, G.N.; Periale, L.; Perkin, J.D.; Pessard, H.; Petrillo, G.; Petti, R.; Petukhov, A.; Pietropaolo, F.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potenza, R.; Potukuchi, B.; Poudyal, N.; Prokofiev, O.; Pruthi, N.; Przewlocki, P.; Pushka, D.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Raboanary, R.; Radeka, V.; Radovic, A.; Raffelt, G.; Rakhno, I.; Rakotondramanana, H.T.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramachers, Y.A.; Rameika, R.; Ramsey, J.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.; Ratoff, P.; Rebel, B.; Regenfus, C.; Reichenbacher, J.; Reitzner, D.; Remoto, A.; Renshaw, A.; Rescia, S.; Richardson, M.; Rielage, K.; Riesselmann, K.; Robinson, M.; Rochester, L.; Rodrigues, O.B.; Rodrigues, P.; Roe, B.; Rosen, M.; Roser, R.M.; Ross-Lonergan, M.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rubbia, C.; Rucinski, R.; von Rohr, C.Rudolph; Russell, B.; Ruterbories, D.; Saakyan, R.; Sahu, N.; Sala, P.; Samios, N.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez, M.; Sands, B.; Santana, S.; Santorelli, R.; Santucci, G.; Saoulidou, N.; Scaramelli, A.; Schellman, H.; Schlabach, P.; Schmitt, R.; Schmitz, D.; Schneps, J.; Scholberg, K.; Schukraft, A.; Schwehr, J.; Segreto, E.; Seibert, S.; Sepulveda-Quiroz, J.A.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shahi, J.; Shahsavarani, S.; Shanahan, P.; Shankar, S.U.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, R.K.; Shaw, T.; Shrock, R.; Shyrma, I.; Simos, N.; Sinev, G.; Singh, I.; Singh, J.; Singh, J.; Singh, V.; Sinnis, G.; Sippach, W.; Smargianaki, D.; Smy, M.; Snider, E.; Snopok, P.; Sobczyk, J.; Sobel, H.; Soderberg, M.; Solomey, N.; Sondheim, W.; Sorel, M.; Sousa, A.; Soustruznik, K.; Spitz, J.; Spooner, N.J.; Stancari, M.; Stancu, I.; Stefan, D.; Steiner, H.M.; Stewart, J.; Stock, J.; Stoica, S.; Stone, J.; Strait, J.; Strait, M.; Strauss, T.; Striganov, S.; Sulej, R.; Sullivan, G.; Sun, Y.; Suter, L.; Sutera, C.M.; Svoboda, R.; Szczerbinska, B.; Szelc, A.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Talaga, R.; Tamsett, M.; Tariq, S.; Tatar, E.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, D.; Terao, K.; Thiesse, M.; Thomas, J.; Thompson, L.F.; Thomson, M.; Thorn, C.; Thorpe, M.; Tian, X.; Tiedt, D.; Timm, S.C.; Tonazzo, A.; Tope, T.; Topkar, A.; Torres, F.R.; Torti, M.; Tortola, M.; Tortorici, F.; Toups, M.; Touramanis, C.; Tripathi, M.; Tropin, I.; Tsai, Y.; Tsang, K.V.; Tsenov, R.; Tufanli, S.; Tull, C.; Turner, J.; Tzanov, M.; Tziaferi, E.; Uchida, Y.; Urheim, J.; Usher, T.; Vagins, M.; Vahle, P.; Valdiviesso, G.A.; Valerio, L.; Vallari, Z.; Valle, J.; Van Berg, R.; Van de Water, R.; Van Gemmeren, P.; Varanini, F.; Varner, G.; Vasseur, G.; Vaziri, K.; Velev, G.; Ventura, S.; Verdugo, A.; Viant, T.; Vieira, T.V.; Vignoli, C.; Vilela, C.; Viren, B.; Vrba, T.; Wachala, T.; Wahl, D.; Wallbank, M.; Walsh, N.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, L.; Wang, T.; Warburton, T.K.; Warner, D.; Wascko, M.; Waters, D.; Watson, T.B.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wei, W.; Weinstein, A.; Wells, D.; Wenman, D.; Wetstein, M.; White, A.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.; Wilking, M.; Willhite, J.; Wilson, P.; Wilson, R.J.; Winslow, L.; Wittich, P.; Wojcicki, S.; Wong, H.H.; Wood, K.; Worcester, E.; Worcester, M.; Wu, S.; Xin, T.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, T.; Yarritu, K.; Ye, J.; Yeh, M.; Yershov, N.; Yonehara, K.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zalewska, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zang, L.; Zani, A.; Zani, A.; Zavala, G.; Zeller, G.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C.; Zimmerman, E.D.; Zito, M.; Zwaska, R.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) put forward by an international neutrino community to pursue the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment at the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF/DUNE), a groundbreaking science experiment for long-baseline neutrino oscillation studies and for neutrino astrophysics and nucleon decay searches. The DUNE far detector will be a very large modular liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) located deep underground, coupled to the LBNF multi-megawatt wide-band neutrino beam. DUNE will also have a high-resolution and high-precision near detector.

  7. Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) and Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE): Conceptual Design Report. Volume 1: The LBNF and DUNE Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2016-01-22

    This document presents the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) put forward by an international neutrino community to pursue the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment at the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF/DUNE), a groundbreaking science experiment for long-baseline neutrino oscillation studies and for neutrino astrophysics and nucleon decay searches. The DUNE far detector will be a very large modular liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) located deep underground, coupled to the LBNF multi-megawatt wide-band neutrino beam. DUNE will also have a high-resolution and high-precision near detector.

  8. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Lab: S1 Dark Matter Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerib, Daniel S.; Aprile, E.; /Case Western Reserve U. /Columbia U.; Baltz, E.A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Dragowsky, M.R.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Gaitskell, R.J.; /Brown U.; Gondolo, P.; /Utah U.; Hime, A.; /Los Alamos; Martoff, C.J.; /Temple U.; Mei, D.-M.; /Los Alamos; Nelson, H.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Sadoulet, B.; /UC, Berkeley; Schnee, R.W.; /Case Western; Sonnenschein, A.H.; /Fermilab; Strigari, L.E.; /UC, Irvine

    2006-06-09

    In this report we have described the broad and compelling range of astrophysical and cosmological evidence that defines the dark matter problem, and the WIMP hypothesis, which offers a solution rooted in applying fundamental physics to the dynamics of the early universe. The WIMP hypothesis is being vigorously pursued, with a steady march of sensitivity improvements coming both from astrophysical searches and laboratory efforts. The connections between these approaches are profound and will reveal new information from physics at the smallest scales to the origin and workings of the entire universe. Direct searches for WIMP dark matter require sensitive detectors that have immunity to electromagnetic backgrounds, and are located in deep underground laboratories to reduce the flux from fast cosmic-ray-muon-induced neutrons which is a common background to all detection methods. With US leadership in dark matter searches and detector R&D, a new national laboratory will lay the foundation of technical support and facilities for the next generation of scientists and experiments in this field, and act as magnet for international cooperation and continued US leadership. The requirements of depth, space and technical support for the laboratory are fairly generic, regardless of the approach. Current experiments and upgraded versions that run within the next few years will probe cross sections on the 10{sup -45}-10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} scale, where depths of 3000-4000 m.w.e. are sufficient to suppress the neutron background. On the longer term, greater depths on the 5000-6000 level are desirable as cross sections down to 10{sup -46} cm{sup 2} are probed, and of course, if WIMPs are discovered then building up a statistical sample free of neutron backgrounds will be essential to extracting model parameters and providing a robust solution to the dark matter problem. While most of the detector technologies are of comparable physical scale, i.e., the various liquid and solid

  9. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Lab: S1 Dark Matter Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerib, Daniel S.; Aprile, E.; /Case Western Reserve U. /Columbia U.; Baltz, E.A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Dragowsky, M.R.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Gaitskell, R.J.; /Brown U.; Gondolo, P.; /Utah U.; Hime, A.; /Los Alamos; Martoff, C.J.; /Temple U.; Mei, D.-M.; /Los Alamos; Nelson, H.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Sadoulet, B.; /UC, Berkeley; Schnee, R.W.; /Case Western; Sonnenschein, A.H.; /Fermilab; Strigari, L.E.; /UC, Irvine

    2006-06-09

    In this report we have described the broad and compelling range of astrophysical and cosmological evidence that defines the dark matter problem, and the WIMP hypothesis, which offers a solution rooted in applying fundamental physics to the dynamics of the early universe. The WIMP hypothesis is being vigorously pursued, with a steady march of sensitivity improvements coming both from astrophysical searches and laboratory efforts. The connections between these approaches are profound and will reveal new information from physics at the smallest scales to the origin and workings of the entire universe. Direct searches for WIMP dark matter require sensitive detectors that have immunity to electromagnetic backgrounds, and are located in deep underground laboratories to reduce the flux from fast cosmic-ray-muon-induced neutrons which is a common background to all detection methods. With US leadership in dark matter searches and detector R&D, a new national laboratory will lay the foundation of technical support and facilities for the next generation of scientists and experiments in this field, and act as magnet for international cooperation and continued US leadership. The requirements of depth, space and technical support for the laboratory are fairly generic, regardless of the approach. Current experiments and upgraded versions that run within the next few years will probe cross sections on the 10{sup -45}-10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} scale, where depths of 3000-4000 m.w.e. are sufficient to suppress the neutron background. On the longer term, greater depths on the 5000-6000 level are desirable as cross sections down to 10{sup -46} cm{sup 2} are probed, and of course, if WIMPs are discovered then building up a statistical sample free of neutron backgrounds will be essential to extracting model parameters and providing a robust solution to the dark matter problem. While most of the detector technologies are of comparable physical scale, i.e., the various liquid and solid

  10. Earthquakes: no danger for deep underground nuclear waste repositories; erdbeben: keine gefahr fuer tiefenlager. Themenheft Nr. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    On the Earth, the continental plates are steadily moving. Principally at the plate boundaries such shifts produce stresses which are released in form of earthquakes. The highest the built-up energy, the more violent will be the shaking. Earthquakes accompany mankind from very ancient times on and they disturb the population. Till now nobody is able to predict where and when they will take place. But on the Earth there are regions where, due to their geological situation, the occurrence of earthquakes is more probable than elsewhere. The impact of a very strong earthquake on the structures at the Earth surface depends on several factors. Besides the ground structure, the density of buildings, construction style and materials used play an important role. Construction-related technical measures can improve the safety of buildings and, together with a correct behaviour of the people concerned, save many lives. Earthquakes are well known in Switzerland. Here, the stresses are due to the collision of the African and European continental plates that created the Alps. The impact of earthquake is more limited in the underground than at the Earth surface. There is no danger for deep underground repositories

  11. Deformation and Failure Characteristics of the Rock Masses around Deep Underground Caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The deformation and failure characteristics of deep rock masses are the focus of this study on deep rock mass engineering. The study identifies the deformation and failure characteristics of a deep cavern under different ground stress conditions using model test and theoretical analysis methods. First, the similarity theory for model tests is introduced, and then the scale factors used in the present study are calculated according to the Froude criterion. Based on the study objectives, the details of the study methods (the similarity coefficient, the loading conditions, the test steps, etc. are introduced. Finally, the failure characteristics of the deep cavern and the strain distribution characteristics surrounding the caverns under different ground stress conditions are identified using the model test. It was found that compared with shallow rock masses the rock masses of the deep cavern have a much greater tensile range, which reaches 1.5 times the diameter of the cavern under the conditions established in the present study. Under different ground stress conditions, there are differences in failure characteristics and the reasons of the differences were analyzed. The implication of the test results on the design of support system for deep caverns was presented.

  12. Reflections on the application of deep underground mining technology%深井开采技术应用研究思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章庆松

    2016-01-01

    近年来中国超千米深井不断增加,最深井开拓已超过1500余m.随着矿井向深部开拓延深,高温热害、冲击地压等一系列生产难题凸现,同时深井提升装备及技术的研究和应用也是新的课题.结合南非西北省Mponeng(姆波尼格)金矿深井开采简况,对中国岩金矿山的深井开采技术应用进行深入思考,得出了深井开采的技术特点,并提出了未来发展深井开采技术的建议,供业内同行参考借鉴.%The number of deep mines deeper than 1000 m in China has been increasing over the years and the deepest of them goes more than 1500 m underground.As mines go deeper,a series of production problems like heat hazard ,impact ground pressure and so on stand out ,and with them hoisting equipment and techniques and their appli-cation have become new research subjects .The paper associates the brief case of deep underground mining in Mponeng gold mine in South Africa with Chinese rock gold mines ,reflects on the application of deep underground mining tech-nology in these mines ,summaries technical characteristics of deep underground mining and makes suggestions on fu-ture development of deep underground mining technology ,and can provide references for the indvstry .

  13. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  14. Discovery Mondays: 'The civil engineering genius of the 100-metre deep underground caverns'

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN is first and foremost a place where physicists study particle collisions. But to be able to observe the infinitely small, they need huge pieces of equipment, the accelerators and detectors, whose construction, some 100 metres below the earth's surface calls on the services of other fascinating disciplines. Take civil engineering, for example. For the construction of the LHC some 420 000 cubic metres of rock have had to be excavated for the 6500 metres of tunnel, 6 new shafts and 32 underground chambers and caverns. To avoid disrupting other experiments in progress, the work on these exceptional structures has had to be done without creating vibrations. The ATLAS experiment hall, a huge cathedral-like structure 100 metres below ground, is another mind-blowing feat of civil engineering. Its construction involved the use of ground-breaking technology, such as the system for suspending the ceiling put in place during the excavation work. At the next Discovery Monday, the specialists responsible for...

  15. Large excavations and multi-disciplinary studies in deep underground laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Joseph S.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, we have gathered some information on excavations recently completed, renovated, or planned in Asia, Europe, North and South America. In this review, we presented what we learned on both the large excavations and on multi-disciplinary studies. Large excavations in physics laboratories are driven by the needs associated with designing next generation of experiments to detect rare events. Some existing physics laboratories are interested to use available spaces for geo-sciences studies, including microbiological research for deep life. Summary of recent progress will be discussed.

  16. Hydrogeological Investigations in Deep Wells at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Jacques; Distinguin, Marc

    ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion de Déchets Radioactifs) has developed an integrated approach to characterizing the hydrogeology of the carbonate strata that encase the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite at the Meuse/Haute-Marne Laboratory site. The argillites are difficult to characterize due to their low permeability. The barrier properties of the argillites can be inferred from the flow and chemistry properties of the encasing Oxfordian and Dogger carbonates. Andras deep hole approach uses reverse air circulation drilling, geophysical logging, flow meter logging, geochemical sampling, and analyses of the pumping responses during sampling. The data support numerical simulations that evaluate the argillites hydraulic behaviour.

  17. Underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  18. Analysis of nonlinear dynamic character in the surrounding rock system for deep buried underground engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu; PENG Hai-you

    2010-01-01

    Combining the field monitoring results of a deep-buried tunnel in Chongqing,the dynamic characteristics of the surrounding rock system under high in situ stress was analyzed by phase space reconstruction, calculating correlation dimension, Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponents. Both the Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponents show that the surrounding rock system is a chaotic one. Based on this, a local model was applied to predict surrounding rock displacement, and a nonlinear dynamic model was derived to forecast the interaction of the surrounding rock and support structure. The local method was found to have an extremely small total error. Also, the nonlinear dynamic model forecasting curves agree with the monitoring ones very well. It is proved that the nonlinear dynamic characteristic study is very important in analyzing rock stability and predicting the evolution of rock systems.

  19. From clay bricks to deep underground storage; vom lehmziegel bis zum tiefenlager -- anwendung von ton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    This booklet issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at the use of clay strata for the storage of radioactive wastes in deep-lying repositories. First of all, a geological foray is made concerning the history of the use of clay and its multifarious uses. The characteristics of clay and its composition are examined and its formation in the geological past is explained. In particular Opalinus clay is looked at and the structures to be found are discussed. The clay's various properties and industrial uses are examined and its sealing properties are examined. Also, Bentonite clay is mentioned and work done by Nagra and co-researchers is noted.

  20. First Dark Matter Search Results from a 4-kg CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber Operated in a Deep Underground Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, E.; /Indiana U., South Bend; Behnke, J.; /Indiana U., South Bend; Brice, S.J.; /Fermilab; Broemmelsiek, D.; /Fermilab; Collar, J.I.; /Chicago U., EFI; Conner, A.; /Indiana U., South Bend; Cooper, P.S.; /Fermilab; Crisler, M.; /Fermilab; Dahl, C.E.; /Chicago U., EFI; Fustin, D.; /Chicago U., EFI; Grace, E.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0 kg CF{sub 3}I bubble chamber in the 6800 foot deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of >99.3% rejection of alpha decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. This observation provides world best direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20 GeV/c{sup 2} and demonstrates significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  1. First Dark Matter Search Results from a 4-kg CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber Operated in a Deep Underground Site

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, E; Brice, S J; Broemmelsiek, D; Collar, J I; Conner, A; Cooper, P S; Crisler, M; Dahl, C E; Fustin, D; Grace, E; Hall, J; Hu, M; Levine, I; Lippincott, W H; Moan, T; Nania, T; Ramberg, E; Robinson, A E; Sonnenschein, A; Szydagis, M; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E

    2012-01-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0 kg CF$_{3}$I bubble chamber in the 6800 foot deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of $>$99.3% rejection of alpha decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. This observation provides world best direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses $>$20 GeV/c$^{2}$ and demonstrates significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  2. ProtoDUNE-DP---PROTOtype for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment - Dual Phase detector (Electrostatic Simulations and Performance Studies)

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Pin-Jung

    In search of answers to the biggest missing puzzle in the field of neutrino physics, large- scale Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr-TPCs) have been postulated to be the most attractive instruments for next generation neutrino observations. A state-of-the- art experiment, the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), which will utilize this LAr-TPC technology for the studies of neutrino science and proton decay, is currently in the stage of design and prototyping. This thesis reports on the behavior studies of a 6 × 6 × 6 m^3 prototype, ProtoDUNE, in the context of DUNE from the electrostatic’s point of view. Electrostatic simulations had been performed on the whole detector in order to verify the uniformity of the electric field, and to assure that all local electric fields within the detector are below a certain value to avoid any electrical breakdown phenomena. Additionally, to characterize the performance of the 2D anode used for charge readout in the experiment, some simulations and measur...

  3. Modeling of coulpled deformation and permeability evolution during fault reactivation induced by deep underground injection of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, F.; Rutqvist, J.

    2010-06-01

    The interaction between mechanical deformation and fluid flow in fault zones gives rise to a host of coupled hydromechanical processes fundamental to fault instability, induced seismicity, and associated fluid migration. In this paper, we discuss these coupled processes in general and describe three modeling approaches that have been considered to analyze fluid flow and stress coupling in fault-instability processes. First, fault hydromechanical models were tested to investigate fault behavior using different mechanical modeling approaches, including slip interface and finite-thickness elements with isotropic or anisotropic elasto-plastic constitutive models. The results of this investigation showed that fault hydromechanical behavior can be appropriately represented with the least complex alternative, using a finite-thickness element and isotropic plasticity. We utilized this pragmatic approach coupled with a strain-permeability model to study hydromechanical effects on fault instability during deep underground injection of CO{sub 2}. We demonstrated how such a modeling approach can be applied to determine the likelihood of fault reactivation and to estimate the associated loss of CO{sub 2} from the injection zone. It is shown that shear-enhanced permeability initiated where the fault intersects the injection zone plays an important role in propagating fault instability and permeability enhancement through the overlying caprock.

  4. Making nuclear waste governable. Deep underground disposal and the challenge of reversibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonnot, Francois-Michel; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Aparicio, Luis (ed.) [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean-Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry cedex (France); Barthe, Yannick [Centre de Sociologie de l' Innovation, Mines Paris Tech, 60, Boulevard Saint-Michel 75272 Paris cedex 06 (France); Cezanne-Bert, Pierrick; Chateauraynaud, Francis [Groupe de Sociologie Pragmatique et Reflexive - GSPR, Ecole des hautes etudes en sciences sociales - EHESS, 105 bd Raspail 75006 Paris (France)

    2010-12-15

    This book is the result of a collaboration that began over two years ago between researchers from the social sciences and ANDRA engineers and natural scientists. Contributions to the various chapters have been discussed and enhanced, especially during the workshop and the interdisciplinary conference both held by ANDRA in 2008 and 2009 respectively. The French approach to reversibility will also once again be developed and open to debate during the international conference organised under the aegis of the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in Reims from December 14 to 17, 2010. Devoted to the application of the reversibility principle to radioactive waste management, this work is divided into three chapters. The discussion throughout the chapters deals mainly with the issue of how to implement the 'definitive securing' of the waste, as stated by the French Planning Act dated June 28 2006, while providing a flexible management programme that keeps options open over time to make radioactive waste governable. The originality of this work is, precisely, to focus on the specific operational provisions being considered today to allow present and future generations to ensuring the protection of persons and the environment sustainably. The first chapter was written by Yannick Barthe, researcher at the CNRS and member of the Centre for the Sociology of Innovation at the Mines ParisTech School. He examines the political qualities of technology, analysing the action modes related to the various management solutions being suggested. According to the author, different decision-making models - as well as specific approaches to safety - are inscribed within technical devices. In this regard, the introduction of the reversibility principle appears to be a radical innovation, both in technical and in political terms. The second chapter reports on Andra's current positioning with respect to the project of a reversible deep disposal facility. It presents a recursive

  5. ADDOSS: Autonomously Deployed Deep-ocean Seismic System - Communications Gateway for Ocean Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laske, Gabi; Berger, Jon; Orcutt, John; Babcock, Jeff

    2014-05-01

    We describe an autonomously deployable, communications gateway designed to provide long-term and near real-time data from ocean observatories. The key features of this new system are its abilities to telemeter sensor data from the seafloor to shore without cables or moorings, and to be deployed without a ship, thereby greatly reducing life-cycle costs. The free-floating surface communications gateway utilizes a Liquid Robotics wave glider comprising a surfboard-sized float towed by a tethered, submerged glider, which converts wave motion into thrust. For navigation, the wave glider is equipped with a small computer, a GPS receiver, a rudder, solar panels and batteries, and an Iridium satellite modem. Acoustic communications connect the subsea instruments and the surface gateway while communications between the gateway and land are provided by the Iridium satellite constellation. Wave gliders have demonstrated trans-oceanic range and long-term station keeping capabilities. The acoustics communications package is mounted in a shallow tow body which utilizes a WHOI micro modem and a Benthos low frequency, directional transducer. A matching modem and transducer is mounted on the ocean bottom package. Tests of the surface gateway in 4350 m of water demonstrated an acoustic efficiency of approximately 396 bits/J. For example, it has the ability to send 4 channels of compressed, 1 sample per second data from the ocean bottom to the gateway with an average power draw of approximately 0.15 W and a latency of less than 3 minutes. This gateway is used to send near real-time data from a broadband ocean bottom seismic observatory, first during short week-to-months long test deployments but will ultimately be designed for a two-year operational life. Such data from presently unobserved oceanic areas are critical for both national and international agencies in monitoring and characterizing earthquakes, tsunamis, and nuclear explosions. We present initial results from a two short

  6. Development and deployment of a deep-sea Raman probe for measurement of pore water geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Walz, Peter M.; Kirkwood, William J.; Hester, Keith C.; Ussler, William; Peltzer, Edward T.; Brewer, Peter G.

    2010-02-01

    We have developed, deployed, and tested a novel probe for study of the geochemistry of sediment pore waters based upon Raman spectroscopy. The Raman technique has already been used successfully for in situ measurements of targets of scientific interest including gas and hydrothermal vents and complex gas hydrates, but sediment geochemistry has so far been an intractable problem since the sediments themselves are strongly fluorescent and typically only very small sample volumes are obtainable. The 35 cm long probe extracts pore fluids through a 10 μm sintered metallic frit and draws the sample through a 2 mm diameter channel into a sapphire windowed optical cell within which the laser beam is focused and the spectrum recorded. The dead volume of the system is ˜1 ml and the instrument is ROV deployable with activation of probe insertion and sample withdrawal under direct operator control. The unique features of this mode of detection include observation of the sulfate gradient in marine pore waters as an indicator of diagenesis, direct measurement of the dissolved sulfide species H 2S and HS -, and measurement of dissolved methane; all of which are of primary geochemical interest. Quantitative analysis is achieved by area ratio to known water peaks and from standard calibration curves with a precision of ±5%. We find only very small fluorescence from pore waters measured in situ, but observe rapid increases in fluorescence from cores returned to the surface and exposed to oxygen.

  7. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  8. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  9. Development and deployment of a precision underwater positioning system for in situ laser Raman spectroscopy in the deep ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sheri N.; Kirkwood, William; Sherman, Alana; Brown, Mark; Henthorn, Richard; Salamy, Karen; Walz, Peter; Peltzer, Edward T.; Brewer, Peter G.

    2005-12-01

    The field of ocean geochemistry has recently been expanded to include in situ laser Raman spectroscopic measurements in the deep ocean. While this technique has proved to be successful for transparent targets, such as fluids and gases, difficulty exists in using deep submergence vehicle manipulators to position and control the very small laser spot with respect to opaque samples of interest, such as many rocks, minerals, bacterial mats, and seafloor gas hydrates. We have developed, tested, and successfully deployed by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) a precision underwater positioner (PUP) which provides the stability and precision movement required to perform spectroscopic measurements using the Deep Ocean Raman In situ Spectrometer (DORISS) instrument on opaque targets in the deep ocean for geochemical research. The positioner is also adaptable to other sensors, such as electrodes, which require precise control and positioning on the seafloor. PUP is capable of translating the DORISS optical head with a precision of 0.1 mm in three dimensions over a range of at least 15 cm, at depths up to 4000 m, and under the normal range of oceanic conditions (T, P, current velocity). The positioner is controlled, and spectra are obtained, in real time via Ethernet by scientists aboard the surface vessel. This capability has allowed us to acquire high quality Raman spectra of targets such as rocks, shells, and gas hydrates on the seafloor, including the ability to scan the laser spot across a rock surface in sub-millimeter increments to identify the constituent mineral grains. These developments have greatly enhanced the ability to obtain in situ Raman spectra on the seafloor from an enormous range of specimens.

  10. Recent Advances in Deep-Sea in situ Geochemical Measurements by ROV Deployed Laser Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Henthorn, R.; Hester, K. C.; Kirkwood, W. J.; Rosal, J.; Salamy, K. A.; Scholfield, J.; Shane, F. F.; Sherman, A. D.; Walz, P. M.; Brewer, P. G.

    2007-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a valuable analytical technique for making in situ geochemical measurements. It is applicable to liquids, solids and gases; requires little or no sample preparation; and is rapid with typical analysis times of several minutes or less. These features combine to make it an ideal technique for deployment and use on remotely operated vehicles in a variety of applications. We report results from our second generation laser Raman spectrometer (DORISS2), developed in conjunction with Kaiser Optical Systems, Inc., which is both lighter and more robust than the original design. Packaged within a single titanium pressure housing rated to 4000m, DORISS2 has a floating optical bench which minimizes misalignments and preserves instrument calibration both during and between dives. The pressure compensated fiber optic cables have improved signal strength from 8% to 88% at 1024 m greatly reducing the time required to acquire a sample spectrum and allowing the detection of lower concentrations of trace components. Development of the precision underwater positioner (PUP) has enabled the spectroscopic analysis of opaque targets where a focusing precision of +/- 0.1 mm is required. This has allowed us to investigate the composition of authigenic minerals (such as hydrothermal vent precipitates) and gas hydrates in their native and undisturbed condition, such as the massive outcrops on the seafloor at Barkley Canyon, or to inspect the fine-scale inhomogeneities that occur in seafloor synthesis experiments conducted in Monterey Bay. The recent development of a single axis positioner (SAP) has allowed us to use DORISS2 when payload weight is an issue, in places where the seafloor is too steep to safely deploy PUP, or where operational conditions (such as an overhanging ledge) are too restrictive and where PUP does not fit. The SAP adds a new degree of flexibility we have not previously had and has even permitted the analysis of scale carotenoids in a live rock fish

  11. Deep Fracturing of the Hard Rock Surrounding a Large Underground Cavern Subjected to High Geostress: In Situ Observation and Mechanism Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Pei, Shu-Feng; Jiang, Quan; Zhou, Yang-Yi; Li, Shao-Jun; Yao, Zhi-Bin

    2017-08-01

    Rocks that are far removed from caverns or tunnels peripheries and subjected to high geostress may undergo `deep fracturing'. Deep fracturing of hard rock can cause serious hazards that cause delays and increase the cost of construction of underground caverns with high sidewalls and large spans (especially when subjected to high geostress). To extensively investigate the mechanism responsible for deep fracturing, and the relationship between fracturing and the excavation & support of caverns, this paper presents a basic procedure for making in situ observations on the deep fracturing process in hard rock. The basic procedure involves predicting the stress concentration zones in the surrounding rocks of caverns induced by excavation using geomechanical techniques. Boreholes are then drilled through these stress concentration zones from pre-existing tunnels (such as auxiliary galleries) toward the caverns before its excavation. Continuous observations of the fracturing of the surrounding rocks are performed during excavation using a borehole camera in the boreholes in order to analyze the evolution of the fracturing process. The deep fracturing observed in a large underground cavern (high sidewalls and large span) in southwest China excavated in basalt under high geostress is also discussed. By continuously observing the hard rock surrounding the arch on the upstream side of the cavern during the excavation of the first three layers, it was observed that the fracturing developed into the surrounding rocks with downward excavation of the cavern. Fracturing was found at distances up to 8-9 m from the cavern periphery during the excavation of Layer III. Also, the cracks propagated along pre-existing joints or at the interfaces between quartz porphyry and the rock matrix. The relationship between deep fracturing of the surrounding rocks and the advance of the cavern working faces was analyzed during excavation of Layer Ib. The results indicate that the extent of the

  12. A Global Survey of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D): A Guide to Interactive Global Map Layers, Table Database, References and Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynan, Mark C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Russell, Glenn P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Perry, Frank V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Champenois, Sean T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-13

    These associated tables, references, notes, and report present a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information used to create four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies or disposal facilities 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding “deep underground” facilities, history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database provide each facility’s approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not comprehensive, it is representative of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  13. A new study of the $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na reaction deep underground: Feasibility, setup, and first observation of the 186 keV resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanna, F; Menzel, M -L; Aliotta, M; Anders, M; Bemmerer, D; Broggini, C; Bruno, C G; Caciolli, A; Corvisiero, P; Davinson, T; di Leva, A; Elekes, Z; Ferraro, F; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, Gy; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Alvarez, C Rossi; Scott, D A; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Szücs, T; Trezzi, D

    2014-01-01

    The $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na reaction takes part in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. This cycle is active in asymptotic giant branch stars as well as in novae and contributes to the nucleosythesis of neon and sodium isotopes. In order to reduce the uncertainties in the predicted nucleosynthesis yields, new experimental efforts to measure the $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na cross section directly at the astrophysically relevant energies are needed. In the present work, a feasibility study for a $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na experiment at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 400\\,kV accelerator deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, Italy, is reported. The ion beam induced $\\gamma$-ray background has been studied. The feasibility study led to the first observation of the $E_{\\rm p}$ = 186\\,keV resonance in a direct experiment. An experimental lower limit of 0.12\\,$\\times$\\,10$^{-6}$\\,eV has been obtained for the resonance strength. Informed by the feasibility study,...

  14. Simulation studies of muon-produced background events deep underground and consequences for double beta decay experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarczyk, Ralph; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Cosmic radiation creates a significant background for low count rate experiments. The Majorana demonstrator experiment is located at the Sanford Underground Research Facility at a depth of 4850ft below the surface but it can still be penetrated by cosmic muons with initial energies above the TeV range. The interaction of muons with the rock, the shielding material in the lab and the detector itself can produce showers of secondary particles, like fast neutrons, which are able to travel through shielding material and can produce high-energy γ-rays via capture or inelastic scattering. The energy deposition of these γ rays in the detector can overlap with energy region of interest for the neutrino-less double beta decay. Recent studies for cosmic muons penetrating the Majorana demonstrator are made with the Geant4 code. The results of these simulations will be presented in this talk and an overview of the interaction of the shower particles with the detector, shielding and veto system will be given. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  15. Structural Stability Monitoring of a Physical Model Test on an Underground Cavern Group during Deep Excavations Using FBG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors are comprehensively recognized as a structural stability monitoring device for all kinds of geo-materials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structural entities. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which could accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on the basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Using a physical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station, FBG sensors were used to determine how to model the small displacements of some key monitoring points in the large-scale physical model during excavation. In the process of building the test specimen, it is most successful to embed FBG sensors in the physical model through making an opening and adding some quick-set silicon. The experimental results show that the FBG sensor has higher measuring accuracy than other conventional sensors like electrical resistance strain gages and extensometers. The experimental results are also in good agreement with the numerical simulation results. In conclusion, FBG sensors could effectively measure small displacements of monitoring points in the whole process of the physical model test. The experimental results reveal the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass and make some guidance for the in situ engineering construction.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Blast Vibration and Crack Forming Effect of Rock-Anchored Beam Excavation in Deep Underground Caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinPing Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at surrounding rock damage induced by dynamic disturbance from blasting excavation of rock-anchored beam in rock mass at moderate or far distance in underground cavern, numerical model of different linear charging density and crustal stress in underground cavern is established by adopting dynamic finite element software based on borehole layout, charging, and rock parameter of the actual situation of a certain hydropower station. Through comparison in vibration velocity, contour surface of rock mass excavation, and the crushing extent of excavated rock mass between calculation result and field monitoring, optimum linear charging density of blast hole is determined. Studies are also conducted on rock mass vibration in moderate or far distance to blasting source, the damage of surrounding rock in near-field to blasting source, and crushing degree of excavated rock mass under various in situ stress conditions. Results indicate that, within certain range of in situ stress, the blasting vibration is independent of in situ stress, while when in situ stress is increasing above certain value, the blasting vibration velocity will be increasing and the damage of surrounding rock and the crushing degree of excavated rock mass will be decreasing.

  17. Novel techniques and insights into the deployment of pop-up satellite archival tags on a small-bodied deep-water chondrichthyan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Oliver N.; Howey, Lucy A.; Tolentino, Emily R.; Jordan, Lance K. B.; Brooks, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Acquiring movement data for small-bodied, deep-water chondrichthyans is challenged by extreme effects of capture and handling stress, and post-release predation, however, it is urgently required to examine important fisheries interactions and assess the ecological role of these species within deep-water food webs. Here we suggest a novel release-cage mechanism to deploy pop-up satellite archival tags, as well as present vertical habitat data for a data-deficient, small-bodied, deep-water bycatch species, the Cuban dogfish (Squalus cubensis). Data were gathered from seven of eight High Rate X-Tags deployed on mature Cuban dogfish in the Exuma Sound, The Bahamas. Recovery periods appeared variable between individuals and are likely driven by capture-and-handling stress and tag burden. Application of the cross-correlation function to time-series depth and temperature data indicated three of the seven individuals suffered mortality through predation, which occurred during daytime, and suggests Cuban dogfish may constitute a proportion of deep-water apex predator diet in the Exuma Sound. Two animals were successfully released via a novel release-cage mechanism and displayed either no, or rapid (deep-water taxa, and exhibit a relatively broad temperature and depth range, which may be driven by preference for specific bathymetric structures. These techniques provide an important first step into acquiring and presenting vertical habitat data for small-bodied, deep-water chondrichthyans, which can be directly applied to fisheries and ecosystem-based management approaches.

  18. Discussions on Unified Deployment of Underground Pipe Network Construction%浅析地下管线施工过程各专业间的科学协调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾卫中

    2012-01-01

    Underground pipe network comprehensive deployment in thermal power plant is one of the important parts of the general layout. The underground comprehensive pipeline arrangement layout, vertical layout, traffic and trans- portation and green infrastructure are unified consideration. Made the trench with trench, channel and pipeline, trench and road, between channel and the building to build between the horizontal and vertical coordinate scientifi- cally in the plant area, and reduce contradiction of design and preliminary design. The manpower, material re- sourees, financial resources can be fully utilized and conducive to safe and civilized production, and convenient ma- intenance repair.%地下管线综合部署是火力发电厂总布置的重要组成部分之一.厂区地下管线综合布置应与总平面布置、管线之间竖向布置,以及交通运输与绿化设施统一考虑,使厂区内沟道与沟道之间、沟道与管线之间、沟道与道路之间、沟道与各建(构)筑物之间在平面及竖向上科学协调,紧凑合理,减少后期设计与前期设计的矛盾,使人力、物力、财力得到充分的利用,既有利于安全文明生产,又方便日后维护维修.

  19. Strong ground motion generated by controlled blasting experiments and mining induced seismic events recorded underground at deep level mines in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, A.; Selllers, E.; Skorpen, L.; Scheepers, L.; Murphy, S.; Spottiswoode, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground at deep level gold mines in South Africa in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to strong ground motion. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The simulated rockbursts involved the design of the seismic source, seismic observations in the near and far field, high-speed video filming, a study of rock mass conditions such as fractures, joints, rock strength etc. Knowledge of the site conditions before and after the simulated rockbursts was also gained. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of peak particle velocities, was found to be proportional to R^-1.7. Special investigations were carried out to evaluate the mechanism and the magnitude of damage, as well as the support behaviour under excessive dynamic loading. The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied, as part of this work, not only to characterize the rock mass response, but also to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instrument especially designed for recording strong ground motions was used to create a large database of peak particle velocities measured on stope hangingwalls. A total number of 58 sites located in stopes where the Carbon Leader Reef, Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Vaal Reef and Basal Reef are mined, were monitored. The peak particle velocities were measured at the surface of the excavations to identify the effect of the free surface and the fractures surrounding the underground mining. Based on these measurements the generally accepted velocity criterion of 3 m

  20. Seismic risk mitigation in deep level South African mines by state of the art underground monitoring - Joint South African and Japanese study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, A.; Durrheim, R.; Nakatani, M.; Yabe, Y.; Ogasawara, H.; Naoi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Two underground sites in a deep level gold mine in South Africa were instrumented by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) with tilt meters and seismic monitors. One of the sites was also instrumented by JApanese-German Underground Acoustic emission Research in South Africa (JAGUARS) with a small network, approximately 40m span, of eight Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors. The rate of tilt, defined as quasi-static deformations, and the seismic ground motion, defined as dynamic deformations, were analysed in order to understand the rock mass behavior around deep level mining. In addition the high frequency AE events recorded at hypocentral distances of about 50m located at 3300m below the surface were analysed. A good correspondence between the dynamic and quasi-static deformations was found. The rate of coseismic and aseismic tilt, as well as seismicity recorded by the mine seismic network, are approximately constant until the daily blasting time, which takes place from about 19:30 until shortly before 21:00. During the blasting time and the subsequent seismic events the coseismic and aseismic tilt shows a rapid increase.Much of the quasi-static deformation, however, occurs independently of the seismic events and was described as 'slow' or aseismic events. During the monitoring period a seismic event with MW 2.2 occurred in the vicinity of the instrumented site. This event was recorded by both the CSIR integrated monitoring system and JAGUARS acoustic emotion network. The tilt changes associated with this event showed a well pronounced after-tilt. The aftershock activities were also well recorded by the acoustic emission and the mine seismic networks. More than 21,000 AE aftershocks were located in the first 150 hours after the main event. Using the distribution of the AE events the position of the fault in the source area was successfully delineated. The distribution of the AE events following the main shock was related to after tilt in order to

  1. Underground physics with DUNE

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40 kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this paper we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  2. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB84 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal... training for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of... in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA)...

  3. Why the US Needs a Deep Domestic Research Facility: Owning rather than Renting the Education Benefits, Technology Advances, and Scientific Leadership of Underground Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T

    2013-01-01

    I summarize the status of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota and present connections to Energy and Intensity Frontier that benefit from the establishment of SURF and the staging of US-funded experiments in a domestic facility.

  4. Vertical Evacuation Body in Deep Underground Public Space:Taking Qingdao Underground Civil Defense Engineering as an Example%垂直疏散体在超深地下公共空间的应用研究--以青岛某地下人防工程为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡望社; 李俊钊; 李自力; 崔远

    2015-01-01

    abstract The development and utilization of underground spaces are heavily limited by actual conditions and regulations for fire prevention. The depth of underground spaces, which is over 10 meters, cannot be applied to commercial development due to the problem of personnel emergency evacuation. This paper takes Qingdao underground civil air defense engineering as an example, in which the underground space is buried more than 10 meters depth, with contradiction between the need for crowd escape and high level of elevation difference. This example integrates elevator and stair evacuation, forming an evacuation complex, namely "body vertical evacuation". For the safety evacuation design of super deep underground space, it provides a new train of thought, and enriches the theory of safe evacuation design.%由于自然条件、防火规范的限制,深于10m的地下空间的开发利用面临一个技术瓶颈,即受限于人员应急疏散问题而无法进行商业开发。以青岛某地下人防工程为例,为了解决埋深大于10m的地下公共空间中逃生人数多与垂直高差大的矛盾,考虑将疏散电梯与楼梯整合,形成疏散综合体,即“垂直疏散体”,旨在从建筑设计层面为超深地下公共空间的安全疏散设计提供新的思路,丰富其安全疏散设计的理论。

  5. The use of novel DNA nanotracers to determine groundwater flow paths - a test study at the Grimsel Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG) Laboratory in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittilä, Anniina; Evans, Keith; Puddu, Michela; Mikutis, Gediminas; Grass, Robert N.; Deuber, Claudia; Saar, Martin O.

    2016-04-01

    earlier test. In this study, we present the results of tests of applying novel DNA nanotracers to characterize groundwater flow properties and the flow pathways in a fracture-dominated reservoir in the Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG) Laboratory at the Grimsel Test Site in the Swiss Alps. This study is motivated by subsequent comparisons of similar characterizations of fractured rock masses after hydraulic stimulation. These will take place at the DUG Lab at the end of 2016. The results of the flow-path characterization are also compared with those obtained from classical solute tracer tests.

  6. Underground Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  7. Underground Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    underground explosions has led to significant progress in the development of geomechanics a science studying mechanical properties of rocks and rock...mining industry. One way to improve methods of fragmentation by explosives involves utilizing the geomechanical properties of the rock massif, in...Geomekhanika krupnomasshtabnykh vzryvov ( Geomechanics of large explosions), Nedra, Moscow, 319 pp. [This book in available in electronic format

  8. CO2 storage in deep underground strata. Integrity of deep wells under the influence of CO2; CO{sub 2} Lagerung im Geogrund. Integritaet von Tiefbohrungen unter Einfluss von CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinicke, K.M.; Franz, O. [Technische Univ. Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik; Nangue Donfack, R. [Baker Hughes GmbH, Houston, TX (United States); Shinde, S. [Shell (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    Deep underground storage of CO2 is possible in petroleum reservoirs, gas reservoirs, aquifers and coal seams. Two aspects must be considered for safety: First, the technical integrity of the production and injection systems must be ensured during the operating phase of, typically, 10 to 50 years. Secondly, the technical integrity of the boreholes must be ensured for the whole storage period of 100 to 5000 years in order to prevent release of CO2 through the boreholes after sealing. The industry has long years of experience with injection of CO2 gained in CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR), in the production of high-pressure acid gas from natural gas wells, and in the injection of the acid components H2S and CO2 separated during acid gas production. Completion equipment and components of CO2 EOR and acid gas projects were analyzed, and detailed information on potential failure processes and their consequences. There are no major problems in ensuring safe injection and production during the operating phase. In contrast, the proof of technical stability over a period of 1000 years and more is a challenge as the experience so far covers only a few decades. This is the focus of research projects worldwide. The contribution presents the state of the art and shows how safe storage of CO2 may be possible. The results presented are part of the activities carried out in the CSEGR project (Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas REcovery). The partners of Clausthal University are: Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hanover, EEG - Erdgas Erdoel GmbH Berlin, Wintershall AG Kassel, Vattenfall AB, and E.ON Ruhrgas GmbH, Essen. The project receives BMBF funds from the GEOTECHNOLOGIEN programme. (orig.)

  9. Research on Comprehensive Advanced Geological Prediction Technology of Deep Underground Engineering Construction%深地下工程施工综合超前地质预报技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李二兵; 谭跃虎; 唐曾智; 马聪; 濮仕坤; 段建立

    2016-01-01

    In the process of deep underground engineering construction various unfavorable geological conditions are the factors that affect such constructions.Advanced geological prediction is an important method to explore those conditions in front of tunnel face and reduce construction risks.Based on the in-depth analysis of features in commonly used methods for geological prediction this paper proposes a comprehensive geological prediction technique system of deep underground constructions.Taking a deep underground engineering as an example actual engineering applications are carried out by using the comprehensive geological prediction method of "geological survey +TSP+ground penetrating radar+infrared water detecting".And complex water areas are verified by advanced drilling.The engineering practice shows that the prediction result is consistent with the excavated situation and this technology is of great value to the construction safety of deep underground engineering constructions.%在深地下工程施工过程中,各种不良地质常成为制约深地下工程修建的主要因素。超前地质预报是地下工程探查掌子面前方不良地质、降低施工风险的一项重要技术措施。在深入分析常用地质预报方法特点基础上,提出深地下工程综合超前地质预报技术体系。以某深地下工程为例,采用地质调查法+TSP+地质雷达法+红外探水综合超前预报方法开展实际工程应用,并对复杂含水地带进行超前钻探验证。工程应用实践表明,预报结果与开挖揭露情况吻合较好,该综合超前地质预报技术可为深地下工程施工安全提供技术支撑。

  10. Deep aquifers in Sachsen-Anhalt and their potential for the underground storage; Tiefe Aquifere in Sachsen-Anhalt und ihr Potenzial fuer die Untergrundspeicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhold, Klaus; Schnellenbach, Martin [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Berlin (Germany); Ehling, Bodo-Carlo [Landesamt fuer Geologie und Bergwesen Sachsen-Anhalt (LAGB), Halle (Saale) (Germany); Brandes, Juliane [Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Geologie, Guelzow (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Within the national project Storage Catalogue of Germany, the geological conditions for underground storage have been reviewed and documented for the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt, however, without any site-specific assessment. Within the framework of the national project Storage Catalogue of Germany the geological conditions of underground storage are reviewed and documented by regional-scale maps of Saxony-Anhalt. In the sub-project Saxony-Anhalt, potential reservoir horizons of Upper Rotliegend II, Middle Buntsandstein, Rhaet and Lower Jurassic are documented. Regionally effective barriers are evaporites and shales of Zechstein, Upper Buntsandstein, upper Lower Jurassic and Cretaceous. Regional geological analyses are conducted, for aquifers in individual stratigraphic units, with regard to their potential for underground storage. Mainly in northern Saxony-Anhalt (Altmark-Flaeming-block), there are more favorable geological conditions for geological storage than in the southern area. (orig.)

  11. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  12. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  13. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    ) in the transport sector. We will show how the use of alternative technologies by activist groups provides temporary spatial asylum to groups of immigrants without papers. REVA Spotter, for example, is a tool, a manifesto and a peaceful mean of resistance to the REVA policing methods through continuous Facebook...... infrastructural "underground" consisting of assemblages of technologies, activists, immigrants without papers, texts and emails, homes, smart phones and computers. Investigating the embedded politics of contested spatial arrangements as characteristic of specific societies one can discover not only the uses...

  14. Underground logistics

    CERN Document Server

    Foraz, K; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    More than 80’000 tons of materials have to be transported and installed down into the LHC tunnel. The magnet assemblies which represent about 50’000 tons, will be transported according to the master schedule between March 2005 and November 2006. Considering that these about 1’800 cryo-magnets will be transported at a maximum speed of 3 km/h in a narrow tube (where installation works and hardware commissioning activities are ongoing) this duration of 21 months is a real challenge. This paper aims at describing: - the information flows between the different people involved in the logistics attached to the cryo-magnets, - the organization chosen within the Installation Coordination group, - the problems encountered so far and the solutions adopted. The coordination process with other underground transport and activities, mainly for the QRL will also be presented.

  15. Overview of the European Underground Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pandola, L

    2011-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories are the only places where the extremely low background radiation level required for most experiments looking for rare events in physics and astroparticle physics can be achieved. Underground sites are also the most suitable location for very low background gamma-ray spectrometers, able to assay trace radioactive contaminants. Many operational infrastructures are already available worldwide for science, differing for depth, dimension and rock characteristics. Other underground sites are emerging as potential new laboratories. In this paper the European underground sites are reviewed, giving a particular emphasis on their relative strength and complementarity. A coordination and integration effort among the European Union underground infrastructures was initiated by the EU-funded ILIAS project and proved to be very effective.

  16. Master plan of Mizunami underground research laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    In June 1994, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reformulated the Long-Term Programme for Research, Development and Utilisation of Nuclear Energy (LTP). The LTP (item 7, chapter 3) sets out the guidelines which apply to promoting scientific studies of the deep geological environment, with a view to providing a sound basis for research and development programmes for geological disposal projects. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting scientific studies of the deep geological environment as part of its Geoscientific Research Programme. The LTP also emphasised the importance of deep underground research facilities in the following terms: Deep underground research facilities play an important role in research relating to geological disposal. They allow the characteristics and features of the geological environment, which require to be considered in performance assessment of disposal systems, to be investigated in situ and the reliability of the models used for evaluating system performance to be developed and refined. They also provide opportunities for carrying out comprehensive research that will contribute to an improved overall understanding of Japan's deep geological environment. It is recommended that more than one facility should be constructed, considering the range of characteristics and features of Japan's geology and other relevant factors. It is important to plan underground research facilities on the basis of results obtained from research and development work already carried out, particularly the results of scientific studies of the deep geological environment. Such a plan for underground research facilities should be clearly separated from the development of an actual repository. JNC's Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU) Project will be a deep underground research facility as foreseen by the above provisions of the LTP. (author)

  17. Stability analysis of underground engineering based on multidisciplinary design optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rong; ZHOU Ke-ping; GAO Feng

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at characteristics of underground engineering,analyzed the feasibility of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) used in underground engineering,and put forward a modularization-based MDO method and the idea of MDO to resolve problems in stability analysis,proving the validity and feasibility of using MDO in underground engineering.Characteristics of uncertainty,complexity and nonlinear become bottle-neck to carry on underground engineering stability analysis by MDO.Therefore,the application of MDO in underground engineering stability analysis is still at a stage of exploration,which need some deep research.

  18. Stability analysis of underground engineering based on multidisciplinary design optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rong; ZHOU Ke-ping; GAO Feng

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at characteristics of underground engineering, analyzed the feasibility of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) used in underground engineering, and put forward a modularization-based MDO method and the idea of MDO to resolve problems in stability analysis, proving the validity and feasibility of using MDO in underground engi-neering. Characteristics of uncertainty, complexity and nonlinear become bottle-neck to carry on underground engineering stability analysis by MDO. Therefore, the application of MDO in underground engineering stability analysis is still at a stage of exploration, which need some deep research.

  19. The contribution of diffusion to methane transport in deep underground gas deposits; Der Beitrag der Diffusion zum Methantransport in tiefliegenden Gas-Lagerstaetten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, W. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Optimisation of gas production necessitates accurate knowledge of gas transport mechanisms. In view of the extreme temperatures, pressures, and permeability conditions of underground gas deposits, linear transfer of existing knowledge will be inappropriate. The author therefore uses a simple capillary bundle model with exemplary pressures, temperatures and permeabilities in order to assess the contribution of transport by diffusion. The diffusion coefficients, which are required for this and so far could not be measured under pressure, were determined by a new experimental method whose results will permit a better interpretation of the concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient. The velocity of methane inflow and outflow in the water-filled pore space may provide knowledge on problems of gas storage in the pore space. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer den Foerderprozess und insbesondere seine Optimierung ist eine genaue Kenntnis der Transportmechanismen wesentlich. Unter den drastischen Bedingungen fuer Temperatur, Druck und Permeabilitaet tiefliegender Gas-Lagerstaetten mag die Uebertragung der bisherigen Vorstellungen ueber den Transport in der Lagerstaette zu einer unvollstaendigen Beschreibung fuehren. Unter Anwendung eines einfachen Kapillarbuendelmodells wird mit Beispielen fuer Druck, Temperatur und Permeabilitaet der moegliche Beitrag des Transports durch Diffusion abgeschaetzt. Zur Bestimmung der hierfuer notwendigen und bisher unter Druckbeaufschlagung nicht gemessenen Diffusionskoeffizienten wurde eine neue experimentelle Methode angewandt, deren Ergebnisse eine weiterfuehrende Interpretation der Konzentrationsabhaengigkeit des Diffusionskoeffizienten ermoeglichen. Auch fuer Fragestellungen der Speicherung von Gas im Porenraum kann die Geschwindigkeit der Ein- und Ausloesung von Methan im wasserhaltigen Porenraum von Interesse sein. (orig.)

  20. Underground Layout Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Linden

    2003-09-25

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings.

  1. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  2. Connectivity of Discontinuities of Deep Rock Mass in Water Sealed Underground Storage Cavern%地下水封洞库深部岩体结构面连通性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季惠彬; 宋琨; 吕坤

    2013-01-01

    Water sealed underground storage cavern is the key project of strategic petroleum storage which is ongoing in China. The connectivity of fractured rock mass is the critical issue of oil containment evaluation. Combination of rock mass characteristics of the underground storage cavern, the location and geological characteristics of discontinuities were analyzed by the Borehole Television (BHTV) image. The connective conditions among different boreholes were established. And the geometry connectivity of metamor-phic discontinuities was researched between borehole of ZK11 and ZK12, ZK12 and ZK14. After the relationship of groundwater dropped steeply in boreholes and construction tunnels excavation analyzed, the hydraulic contact of groundwater discharge in tunnels and decline in boreholes was established. And the hydraulic connectivity of the discontinuities was studied. By the comprehensive analysis of the geometry and hydraulic connectivity, the discontinuities connectivity of deep rock mass was determined. The results show that the excavation of construction tunnels caused the groundwater declining significantly, and the hydraulic connection was obvious. The metamorphic discontinuity, J, is satisfied the location, geological feature and hydraulic connectivity in borehole of ZK12, ZK11 and 0 + 379. 424 m of the construction tunnel of NO.1, which is the connective discontinuity. However, the discontinuity, J', is satisfied the location and geological feature, but not fit the hydraulic connectivity in borehole of ZK12 and ZK14. And that is non-connective discontinuity. It has reference value to discontinuities connectivity of deep rock mass in underground engineering projects.%地下水封洞库工程是我国正在大力实施的战略石油储备重点工程,研究建库裂隙岩体的连通性是评价水封效果的关键.结合地下水封洞库工程的岩体特征,以钻孔电视成像技术为手段,通过分析影像中结构面位置、地质特征等,建

  3. Creep characteristics of plagioclase hornblende rock under natural and water-saturated conditions in deep underground%自然与饱水状态下深部斜长角闪岩蠕变特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春阳; 曹平; 汪亦显; 宁果果

    2013-01-01

    通过金川深部斜长角闪岩单轴压缩蠕变实验,选取典型蠕变曲线,发现该岩石黏弹性、黏塑性变形较瞬时变形偏小,卸载后弹性后效不显著.在5.1 MPa轴向应力下,自然状态的岩样近似纯弹性特征.饱水状态下岩样瞬时强度σ’b和长期强度σ’∝总体低于自然状态,且σ’∝已接近深部高地应力,因此,对于深部节理、裂隙很发育的岩体,应特别注意巷道排水,防止围岩因长期强度降低而导致巷道变形和破坏.自然与饱水状态下岩样瞬时弹性应变εme、瞬时塑性应变εmp随应力增大而增加,但增速逐渐放缓,饱水状态下塑性变形更显著;相同应力下,饱水状态岩样蠕变量大于自然状态,应变速率也总体快于自然状态,2种状态的蠕变速率在20~30 h时都逐渐稳定,且速率曲线随应力增大,微裂隙压密,彼此逐渐靠近,岩样处于相对硬化阶段;当轴向应力达到66.3 MPa后,饱水状态蠕变速率有相对加速趋势,速率曲线随应力增大先往左下移动,再朝右上移动,而自然状态蠕变速率曲线总体向右上移动.最后,通过蠕变数据分析,推导γ=ασk型经验方程,对蠕变试验数据进行回归拟合,拟合结果证明该蠕变经验模型的正确性.金川矿区斜长角闪岩蠕变实验研究为分析深部巷道该类围岩流变稳定性及支护方案优化等提供有效帮助.%According to plagioclase-hornblende rock in Jinchuan deep underground mine uniaxial compression creep test results, after selection typical creep curves, it is found that viscoelastic and viscoplastic deformation are significantly less than instantaneous deformation, elastic after-effect is not obvious after unloading. Under 5.1 MPa of uniaxial stress, rock samples show pure elastic properties in natural condition. Under water condition, both instantaneous uniaxial compressive strength σ'b and long-term strength σξx are generally lower than nature condition,

  4. Progress Toward a Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological (THMCB) Experiment in the Homestake Mine Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenthal, E. L.; Maher, K.; Elsworth, D.; Lowell, R. P.; Uzunlar, N.; Mailloux, B. J.; Conrad, M. E.; Olsen, N. J.; Jones, T. L.; Cruz, M. F.; Torchinsky, A.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of performing a long-term hydrothermal experiment in a deep mine is to gain a scientific understanding of the coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes taking place in fractured rock under the influence of mechanical stress, thermal effects, and fluid flow. Only in a controlled experiment in a well-characterized rock mass, can a fractured rock be probed in 3-D through geophysical imaging, in situ measurements, geochemical/biological sampling, and numerical modeling. Our project is focused on the feasibility of a THMCB experiment in the Homestake Mine, South Dakota to study the long-term evolution (10+ years) of a perturbed heterogeneous rock mass. In addition to the experiment as a laboratory for studying crustal processes, it has direct application to Enhanced Geothermal Systems, carbon sequestration, and contaminant transport. Field activities have focused on fracture and feature mapping, flux measurements from flowing fractures, and collection of water and rock samples for geochemical, biological, and isotopic analyses. Fracture mapping and seepage measurements are being used to develop estimates of permeability and fluxes at different length scales and design the location and orientation of the heater array. Fluxes measured up to several liters/minute indicate localized regions of very high fracture permeability, likely in excess of 10-10 m2. Isotopic measurements indicate heterogeneity in the fracture network on the scale of tens of meters in addition to the large-scale geochemical heterogeneity observed in the mine. New methods for sampling and filtering water samples were developed and tested with the goal of performing radiocarbon analyses in DNA and phospholipid fatty acids. Analytical and numerical models of the thermal perturbation have been used to design the heater orientation and spacing. Reaction path and THC simulations were performed to assess geochemical and porosity/permeability changes as a function of the heat input

  5. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    potential future space-based mission through large-scale, ground-based testing. Full-scale deployment testing of two petal segments combined with...capture data for incorporation into larger analysis models. Stability testing of two full-scale composite strongback segments , including in a relevant...errors. The NuSTAR project opted for a metrology and adjustment system, which had many advantages for the project and few disadvantages . Because a

  6. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  7. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  8. Deployment Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    family/unit briefings (to include POA/wills/ consumer law /insurance war clauses) - Provide fill-in-blank sheets to send coordinators of pre- deployment...services. 2. SGLI designations and "By Law" implications. 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. 1-7 B. Typically...Relief Act JA 261 Real Property Guide JA 262 Wills Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal Assistance Office Directory

  9. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi [Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  10. Range-Depth Tracking of Sounds from a Single-Point Deployment by Exploiting the Deep-Water Sound Speed Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    mammal sounds in range and depth from a single mooring or platform (e.g. glider), by exploiting the propagation effects of the deep-water sound...makes mitigation decisions problematic. The range of a marine mammal sound from a compact platform can also be obtained by detecting the same event...remains the same. 9 Figure 9: Evolution of ray arrival angles (top) and relative multipath arrival times (bottom) as a controlled source is winched

  11. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  12. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawatzki, Julia [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E15, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a next-generation medium-baseline reactor neutrino experiment located in southern China, close to Kaiping. The construction of the 700 m deep underground facility already started and the experiment is scheduled to start data-taking in 2020, and is expected to operate for at least 20 years. The 20 kt liquid scintillator detector will detect low-energy neutrinos with an unprecedented energy resolution of 3% (at 1 MeV). The primary experimental goal is the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy at 3σ significance from the measurement of the reactor neutrino energy spectrum. Two nuclear power plants: Yangjiang and Taishan are located at a distance of ∝ 53 km from the detector. Moreover, JUNO will measure the solar neutrino mixing parameters and the atmospheric neutrino squared-mass splitting with a precision < 1%. In addition, supernova neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, sterile neutrinos as well as solar and atmospheric neutrinos can be studied. This talk reviews the status of the project and highlight important scientific objectives.

  13. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A. Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository.

  14. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  15. Numerical simulation of deepwater deployment for offshore structures with deploying cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小舟; 刘少军

    2015-01-01

    Deepwater deployment of offshore structures in different sea states was investigated. The whole deployment system was modeled as a lumped mass model, and discretization scheme for cable geometry and methodology for calculating the internal and external force acting on deploying cable were presented. The deployment model suitable for the time-varying length of deploying cable was specified. The free-surface flow fields together with the ship motions were used to calculate dynamic tension in the deploying cable during deployment of the structure. The deployment of deep sea mining system which was a typical subsea working system was employed. Based on lumped mass analysis model and parameters of deep sea mining system, numerical simulations were performed, and dynamic load and dynamic amplification factor (DAF) with different cable parameters, deploying velocities and sea states were obtained. It is shown that cable parameters and amplitudes of ocean waves can significantly influence the dynamic load and DAF, and the time-varying natural period of deploying system is a dominant factor, while the effect of deploying velocity is not obvious.

  16. Etudes préliminaires à la gazéification souterraine profonde des charbons. Perspectives et problèmes Preliminary Research on the Deep Underground Gasification of Coal. Outlook and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pottier M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après création dans une couche de charbon d'une communication entre deux forages, la gazéification in situ vise à réaliser l'extraction de l'énergie du charbon grâce au soutirage par l'un des puits de gaz combustible résultant de la combinaison du charbon en place avec les réactifs gazeux injectés par l'autre puits. Si une méthode de mise en communication des forages peut être découverte pour des couches de charbon profondes (plus de 800 m il restera à déterminer comment conduire l'opération de gazéification et à évaluer la quantité de gaz, susceptible de méthanation, récupérable, dans un gisement donné, par un doublet de forages ; cette quantité gouverne en effet l'intérêt économique de l'opération. Un recensement des couches de charbon situées en France au delà de 800 m de profondeur, d'épaisseur au moins égale à 2 m et que rien n'empêche actuellement de considérer comme utilisables pour le procédé fournit une estimation totale, avec pondération suivant l'incertitude, de 2 milliards de tonnes. L'ampleur de ces ressources incite sur le plan français à s'efforcer d'établir si le procédé de gazéification souterraine permet leur récupération à un coût acceptable. Sur le plan mondial l'enjeu est, bien entendu, encore plus considérable. After a communication has been created between two boreholes in a Goal bed, insitu gasification is a way of trying to extract the energy contained tn the coal by with-drowing, via one of the wells, the combustible gas resulting from the combination of the Goal in place with gaseous reactants injected via the other well. If a method con be discovered for creating a communication betwen boreholes for deep Goal beds (deeper than 800 m, a method will still have ta be discovered for carrying out the gasification operation and for evaluating the amount of gas available for methanationthot is recoverable in a given deposit via a pair of boreholes. This amount effectively

  17. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strieder, Frank; Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The work of the LUNA Collaboration at the Laboratori Nationali del Gran Sasso demonstrated the research potential of an underground accelerator for the field of nuclear astrophysics. Several key reactions could be studied at LUNA, some directly at the Gamow peak for solar hydrogen burning. The CASPAR (Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research) Collaboration will implement a high intensity 1 MV accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and overcome the current limitation at LUNA. The installation of the accelerator in the recently rehabilitated underground cavity at SURF started in Summer 2015 and first beam should be delivered by the end of the year. This project will primarily focus on the neutron sources for the s-process, e.g. 13C(α , n) 16O and 22Ne(α , n) 25Mg , and lead to unprecedented measurements compared to previous studies. A detailed overview of the science goals of CASPAR will be presented.

  18. Underground gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.

    1986-11-01

    A brief history is given of research in Czechoslovakia, which took 3 main factors into account: environmental protection, geological situation and need to produce gas for use both within the plant and elsewhere. In order to assess economic viability, model studies were performed on following mines: Podlesice (North Bohemia), Vatovce (South Slovakia), Syrenov (East Moravia), Zukovsky Hrbet (Ostrava-Karvina), Stonovska (Ostrava-Karvina) and Merkur (North Bohemia). Figures given in tabular form show that underground gasification at these sites would be cheaper than importing natural gas. Problems are discussed associated with underground gasification and it is concluded that research must be conducted into drilling techniques, drill design, methods of cutting through coal seam between shafts, underground generator design, methods of gasifying several seams with one shaft and methods of dealing with residual pillars.

  19. Progress of Jinping Underground laboratory for Nuclear Astrophysics experiment JUNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    Direct measurement of the cross sections for the key nuclear reactions in hydrostatic stellar evolution within Gamow window, which makes use of low background at deep underground laboratory, is crucial to solve key scientific questions in nuclear astrophysics. JUNA project aims at direct measurement of (α,γ), (α,n) reactions in hydrostatic helium burning and (p, γ), (p, α) reactions in hydrostatic hydrogen burning based on Jinping deep underground laboratory in China. The progress of experimental techniques, which include the accelerator system with high stability and high intensity, the detector system, and the shielding material with low background, will be presented.

  20. Newberry Seismic Deployment Fieldwork Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J; Templeton, D C

    2012-03-21

    This report summarizes the seismic deployment of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Geotech GS-13 short-period seismometers at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration site located in Central Oregon. This Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration project is managed by AltaRock Energy Inc. AltaRock Energy had previously deployed Geospace GS-11D geophones at the Newberry EGS Demonstration site, however the quality of the seismic data was somewhat low. The purpose of the LLNL deployment was to install more sensitive sensors which would record higher quality seismic data for use in future seismic studies, such as ambient noise correlation, matched field processing earthquake detection studies, and general EGS microearthquake studies. For the LLNL deployment, seven three-component seismic stations were installed around the proposed AltaRock Energy stimulation well. The LLNL seismic sensors were connected to AltaRock Energy Gueralp CMG-DM24 digitizers, which are powered by AltaRock Energy solar panels and batteries. The deployment took four days in two phases. In phase I, the sites were identified, a cavity approximately 3 feet deep was dug and a flat concrete pad oriented to true North was made for each site. In phase II, we installed three single component GS-13 seismometers at each site, quality controlled the data to ensure that each station was recording data properly, and filled in each cavity with native soil.

  1. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  2. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves…

  3. Thermal-noise-limited underground interferometer CLIO

    CERN Document Server

    Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu; Kawamura, Seiji; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Miyakawa, Osamu; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Telada, Souichi; Uchiyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    We report on the current status of CLIO (Cryogenic Laser Interferometer Observatory), which is a prototype interferometer for LCGT (Large scale Cryogenic Gravitational-wave Telescope). LCGT is a Japanese next-generation interferometric gravitational wave detector featuring the use of cryogenic mirrors and a quiet underground site. The main purpose of CLIO is to demonstrate a reduction of the mirror thermal noise by cooling the sapphire mirrors. CLIO is located in an underground site of the Kamioka mine, 1000 m deep from the mountain top, to verify its advantages. After a few years of commissioning work, we have achieved a thermal-noise-limited sensitivity at room temperature. One of the main results of noise hunting was the elimination of thermal noise caused by a conductive coil-holder coupled with a pendulum through magnets.

  4. Autonomous Deployment and Restoration of Sensor Network using Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Suzuki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an autonomous deployment and restoration of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN using mobile robots. The authors have been developing an information-gathering system using mobile robots and WSNs in underground spaces in post-disaster environments. In our system, mobile robots carry wireless sensor nodes (SN and deploy them into the environment while measuring Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI values to ensure communication, thereby enabling the WSN to be deployed and restored autonomously. If the WSN is disrupted, mobile robots restore the communication route by deploying additional or alternate SNs to suitable positions. Utilizing the proposed method, a mobile robot can deploy a WSN and gather environmental information via the WSN. Experimental results using a verification system equipped with a SN deployment and retrieval mechanism are presented.

  5. Autonomous Deployment and Restoration of Sensor Network using Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Suzuki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an autonomous deployment and restoration of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN using mobile robots. The authors have been developing an information-gathering system using mobile robots and WSNs in underground spaces in post-disaster environments. In our system, mobile robots carry wireless sensor nodes (SN and deploy them into the environment while measuring Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI values to ensure communication, thereby enabling the WSN to be deployed and restored autonomously. If the WSN is disrupted, mobile robots restore the communication route by deploying additional or alternate SNs to suitable positions. Utilizing the proposed method, a mobile robot can deploy a WSN and gather environmental information via the WSN. Experimental results using a verification system equipped with a SN deployment and retrieval mechanism are presented.

  6. Deployable Pipe-Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a concept of deployable Pipe-Z (dPZ): a modular structural system which takes advantage of the robustness of rigid-panel mechanism and allows to create free-form links which are also reconfigurable and deployable. The concept presented can be applied for building habitats and infrastructures for human exploration of oceans and outer space. dPZ structures can adapt to changing requirements e.g. mission objectives, crew condition and technological developments. Furthermore, such lightweight and adaptable structural concept can assist in sustainable exploration development. After brief introduction, the concept of Pipe-Z (PZ) is presented. Next, the reconfigurability of PZ is explained and illustrated with continuous and collision-free transition from a PZ forming a Trefoil knot to a Figure-eight knot. The following sections introduce, explain and illustrate the folding mechanism of a single foldable Pipe-Z module (fPZM) and entire dPZ structure. The latter is illustrated with asynchronous (delayed) unfolding of a relatively complex Unknot. Several applications of PZ are suggested, namely for underwater and deep-space and surface habitats, for permanent, but in particular, temporary or emergency passages. As an example, a scenario of a failure of one of the modules of the International Space Station is presented where a rigid structure of 40 fPZMs bypasses the "dead link". A low-fidelity prototype of a 6-module octagonal dPZ is presented; several folding schemes including concentric toric rings are demonstrated. Practical issues of pressurization and packing are briefly discussed.

  7. LUNA: Nuclear astrophysics underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy)

    2015-02-24

    Underground nuclear astrophysics with LUNA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso spans a history of 20 years. By using the rock overburden of the Gran Sasso mountain chain as a natural cosmic-ray shield very low signal rates compared to an experiment on the surface can be tolerated. The cross sectons of important astrophysical reactions directly in the stellar energy range have been successfully measured. In this proceeding we give an overview over the key accomplishments of the experiment and an outlook on its future with the expected addition of an additional accelerator to the underground facilities, enabling the coverage of a wider energy range and the measurement of previously inaccessible reactions.

  8. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  9. Underground coal gasification. Gasificacion subterranea del carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Amor, G.; Obis, A. (ITGE, Madrid (Spain))

    1990-07-01

    In spite of the low price of both oil and gas, underground coal gasification is still an attractive option because of the possibility for exploiting coal which it would be uneconomic to mine by conventional methods. New technology has recently made gasification into a reality and methods have been developed to gasify both deep and superficial inclined seams. Recent tests in nearly level seams in the USA have been successful so that the process has become competitive in spite of current oil prices. 3 figs.

  10. Synchronously Deployable Truss Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Structure lightweight, readily deployed, and has reliable joints. New truss concept, designated as "pac truss," developed. Features easy deployment without need for complex mechanisms. Structures of this type deployed in free flight by controlled release of stored energy in torsional springs at selected hinges located throughout structure. Double-folding technique used in beam model applicable to flat planar trusses, allowing structures of large expanse to fold into compact packages and be deployed for space-platform applications.

  11. Solar array deployment mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calassa, Mark C.; Kackley, Russell

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a Solar Array Deployment Mechanism (SADM) used to deploy a rigid solar array panel on a commercial spacecraft. The application required a deployment mechanism design that was not only lightweight, but also could be produced and installed at the lowest possible cost. This paper covers design, test, and analysis of a mechanism that meets these requirements.

  12. Depleted argon from underground sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, H.O.; /Princeton U.; Alton, A.; /Augustana U. Coll.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; /Princeton U.; Kendziora, C.; /Fermilab; Loer, B.; /Princeton U.; Montanari, D.; /Fermilab; Mosteiro, P.; /Princeton U.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  13. Computational Studies for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Dipankar

    2017-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a well proven technology in order to access the coal lying either too deep underground, or is otherwise too costly to be extracted using the conventional mining methods. UCG product gas is commonly used as a chemical feedstock or as fuel for power generation. During the UCG process, a cavity is formed in the coal seam during its conversion to gaseous products. The cavity grows in a three-dimensional fashion as the gasification proceeds. The UCG process is indeed a result of several complex interactions of various geo-thermo-mechanical processes such as the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, water influx, thermo-mechanical failure, and other geological aspects. The rate of the growth of this cavity and its shape will have a significant impact on the gas flow patterns, chemical kinetics, temperature distributions, and finally the quality of the product gas. It has been observed that there is insufficient information available in the literature to provide clear insight into these issues. It leaves us with a great opportunity to investigate and explore the UCG process, both from the experimental as well as theoretical perspectives. In the development and exploration of new research, experiment is undoubtedly very important. However, due to the excessive cost involvement with experimentation it is not always recommended for the complicated process like UCG. Recently, with the advent of the high performance computational facilities it is quite possible to make alternative experimentation numerically of many physically involved problems using certain computational tools like CFD (computational fluid dynamics). In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying physical phenomena, modeling strategies have frequently been utilized for the UCG process. Keeping in view the above, the various modeling strategies commonly deployed for carrying out mathematical modeling of UCG process are described here in

  14. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  15. Correlation Processing Of Local Seismic Data: Applications for Autonomous Sensor Deployments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, D A

    2010-11-16

    Excavation and operation of an underground facility is likely to produce an extensive suite of seismic signals observable at the surface for perhaps several km. Probably a large fraction of such signals will be correlated, so the design of a monitoring framework should include consideration of a correlation processing capability. Correlation detectors have been shown to be significantly more sensitive than beam-forming power detectors. Although correlation detectors have a limited detection footprint, they can be generalized into multi-rank subspace detectors which are sensitive over a much larger range of source mechanisms and positions. Production of subspace detectors can be automated, so their use in an autonomous framework may be contemplated. Waveform correlation also can be used to produce very high precision phase picks which may be jointly inverted to simultaneously relocate groups of events. The relative precision of the resulting hypocenters is sufficient to visualize structural detail at a scale of less than a few tens of meters. Three possible correlation processor systems are presented. All use a subspace signal detection framework. The simplest system uses a single-component sensor and is capable of detection and classification of signals. The most complicated system uses many sensors deployed around the facility, and is capable of detection, classification, and high-precision source location. Data from a deep underground mine are presented to demonstrate the applicability of correlation processing to monitoring an underground facility. Although the source region covers an area of about 600m by 580m, all but two of the events form clusters at a threshold of 0.7. All the events could have been detected and classified by the subspace detection framework, and high-precision picks can be computed for all cluster members.

  16. Deep blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    From southern New Mexico to the Great Slave Lake of Canada, scientists from the United States and Canada recently detonated 10 underground chemical explosions to generate a clearer picture of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. Called Project Deep Probe, the experiment is designed to see through the crust and into the upper mantle to a depth of 300 miles.In the United States, Earth scientists from Rice University, Purdue University, and the University of Oregon are participating in the project. “Researchers hope to get a picture of the upper mantle beneath the Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau, to understand the role the mantle played in formation and uplift,” says Alan Levander of Rice. To enhance that “picture,” 750 portable seismographs were placed along a roughly north-south line extending from Crownpoint, New Mexico to Edmonton, Alberta. The seismic recordings will be used to enhance weak seismic waves that penetrated the upper mantle.

  17. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground...-3 through § 75.1107-16, or be enclosed in a noncombustible structure or area. (b) Underground shops...

  18. Wiener filtering with a seismic underground array at the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael; Christensen, Nelson; Dergachev, Vladimir; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Kandhasamy, Shivaraj; Mandic, Vuk

    2014-01-01

    A seismic array has been deployed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in the former Homestake mine, South Dakota, to study the underground seismic environment. This includes exploring the advantages of constructing a third-generation gravitational-wave detector underground. A major noise source would be Newtonian noise, which is induced by fluctuations in the local gravitational field. The hope is that a combination of a low-noise seismic environment and coherent noise subtraction using seismometers in the vicinity of the detector could suppress the Newtonian noise to required levels. In this paper, we use Wiener filtering techniques to subtract coherent noise in a seismic array in the form of oceanic microseisms. We achieve more than an order of magnitude noise cancellation between about 0.05-0.5 Hz. We examine the variation in the Wiener filter coefficients over the course of the day, showing how local activities impact the filter. We also study the variation in coefficients over the course of a mo...

  19. RP delves underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The LHC’s winter technical stop is rapidly approaching. As in past years, technical staff in their thousands will be flocking to the underground areas of the LHC and the Linac2, Booster, PS and SPS injectors. To make sure they are protected from ionising radiation, members of the Radiation Protection Group will perform an assessment of the levels of radioactivity in the tunnels as soon as the beams have stopped.   Members of the Radiation Protection Group with their precision instruments that measure radioactivity. At 7-00 a.m. on 8 December the LHC and all of the upstream accelerators will begin their technical stop. At 7-30 a.m., members of the Radiation Protection Group will enter the tunnel to perform a radiation mapping, necessary so that the numerous teams can do their work in complete safety. “Before we proceed underground, we always check first to make sure that the readings from the induced radioactivity monitors installed in the tunnels are all normal,&rdqu...

  20. Going Underground in Singapore

    CERN Multimedia

    John Osborne (GS/SEM)

    2010-01-01

    Singapore has plans to build a massive Underground Science City (USC) housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres. A delegation involved in the planning to build the subterranean complex visited CERN on 18 October 2010 to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities.   The delegation from Singapore. The various bodies and corporations working on the USC project are currently studying the feasibility of constructing up to 40 caverns (60 m below ground) similar in size to an LHC experiment hall, in a similar type of rock. Civil engineering and geotechnical experts are calculating the maximum size of the cavern complex that can be safely built. The complex could one day accommodate between 3000 and 5000 workers on a daily basis, so typical issues of size and number of access shafts need to be carefully studied. At first glance, you might not think the LHC has much in common with the USC project; as Rolf Heuer pointed out: &ldq...

  1. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  2. Deployable geodesic truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, Marvin D. (Inventor); Simonton, J. Wayne (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A deployable geodesic truss structure which can be deployed from a stowed state to an erected state is described. The truss structure includes a series of bays, each bay having sets of battens connected by longitudinal cross members which give the bay its axial and torsional stiffness. The cross members are hinged at their mid point by a joint so that the cross members are foldable for deployment or collapsing. The bays are deployed and stabilized by actuator means connected between the mid point joints of the cross members. Hinged longerons may be provided to also connect the sets of battens and to collapse for stowing with the rest of the truss structure.

  3. DOE Grant to organize "International Symposium on Opportunities in Underground Physics", Asilomar, CA, May 24-27, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Kaladi S. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2015-03-16

    The International Symposium in Opportunities in Underground Physics (ISOUP) was held in Asilomar, CA during May 24-27, 2013. The Symposium brought together scientists from the US and abroad for an open discussion on science opportunities provided by the possibility of a new generation of large underground detectors associated with long baseline neutrino beams. The Symposium was highly successful. The main focus of the Symposium was the science goals that could be achieved by placing such a detector deep underground.

  4. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ilkka Vhaho

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an under-ground master plan (UMP) for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy effi-ciency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century;at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city’s underground con-struction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  5. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  6. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. D.; Doherty, T. J.; Kannberg, L. D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-velocity requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more.

  7. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This report compiles information and conclusions gathered as part of the “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs” project. The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge in which future research is needed.

  8. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  9. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  10. Deployable Soft Composite Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-19

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  11. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  12. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  13. Science underground (Los Alamos, 1982)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, M.M.; Haxton, W.C.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kolb, E.W.; Sandberg, V.D.; Toevs, J.W. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    Topics covered include solar neutrinos, proton decay, cosmic rays, geophysics, gravity waves, double beta decay, and possible future research directions with underground detectors. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  14. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  15. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification,gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  16. Deep geological repositories in the UK. Current underground planning and competency requirements for waste packaging systems; Geologisches Endlager in Grossbritannien. Stand der Planungen unter Tage und Anforderungen an endlagerfaehige Abfallgebinde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messer, Matthias [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany). Projects UK

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear fission has been used for commercial electricity generation in the UK since 1956. This early (and world first) entry into the nuclear energy industry has created a huge challenge in the form of waste disposal and decommissioning, as many of the original facilities have left behind types of waste that by today's standards are both abnormal and also poorly documented. The UK has already agreed on the concept of using deep geological format ions for the permanent storage of this waste, and the material yet to be produced. However, the choice of site is still undecided. This paper outlines the main issues at stake and discusses the previous approach and future proposals for the construction of a permanent waste repository in the United Kingdom.

  17. Modeling EERE deployment programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.

  18. Stratospheric Deployment Parafoil Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Stratospheric Deployment Parafoil is a proposed technology that will be designed and tested to provide a greatly superior parachute precision delivery system...

  19. Promotion for underground coal gassification how basic clean technologies for production of energy

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a potential source of future energy production that is currently receiving an increased level of attention within business, academic and policy communities. The principle of UCG is to access coal which either lies too deep underground, or is economically unattractive to exploit for conventional mining methods. Coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option ...

  20. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Hugo Rodrigue; Sung-Hoon Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and sim...

  1. Mont Terri Project - Heater experiment : rock and bentonite thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in the near field of a thermal source for development of deep underground high level radioactive waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, I.; Alheid, H.-J.; Kaufhold, St.; Naumann, M.; Pletsch, Th.; Plischke, I.; Schnier, H.; Schuster, K.; Sprado, K. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Meyer, T.; Miehe, R.; Wieczorek, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany); Mayor, J.C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J.; Rey, M. [Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales (AITEMIN), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, E.; Lloret, A.; Munoz, J.J. [Centre Internacional de Metodos Numerics en Ingenyeria (CIMNE), Barcelona (Spain); Weber, H. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland); Ploetze, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Institut fuer Geotechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Klubertanz, G. [Colenco Power Engineering Ltd, Baden (Switzerland); Ammon, Ch. [Rothpletz Lienhard und Cie AG, Aarau (Switzerland); Graf, A.; Nussbaum, Ch.; Zingg, A. [Goetechnical Institute Ltd, Saint-Ursanne (Switzerland); Bossart, P. [Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo), Wabern (Switzerland); Buehler, Ch.; Kech, M.; Trick, Th. [Solexperts AG, Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Emmerich, K. [ITC-WGT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fernandez, A. M. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The long-term safety of underground permanent repositories for radioactive waste relies on a combination of several engineered and geological barriers. The interactions between a host rock formation of the type 'Opalinus Clay' and an engineered barrier of the type 'bentonite buffer' are observed in the Heater Experiment (HE) during a hydration and a heating phase. The objective of the experiment is an improved understanding of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in a host rock-buffer system achieved by experimental observations as well as numerical modelling. The basic objectives are in detail: a) Long-term monitoring in the vicinity of the heater during hydration and heating; especially observation and study of coupled THM processes in the near field, i.e. continuous measurements of temperatures, pore pressures, displacements, electric conductivity, and analysis of the gases and water released into the rock by effect of heating; b) Determination of the properties of barrier and host rock done mainly by laboratory and in situ experiments, i.e. general mechanical and mineralogical properties, mechanical state in-situ, and changes induced by the experiment; c) Study of the interaction between host rock and bentonite buffer as well as validation and refinement of existing tools for modelling THM processes; d) Study of the behaviour and reliability of instrumentation and measuring techniques, i.e. inspection of sensors after dismantling the experimental setting. To achieve the objectives, the experiment was accompanied by an extensive programme of continuous monitoring, experimental investigations on-site as well as in laboratories, and numerical modelling of the coupled THM processes. Finally, the experiment was dismantled to provide laboratory specimens of post-heating buffer and host rock material. The continuous monitoring of the experiment by a multitude of sensors (for temperature, pore pressure, total pressure, relative

  2. MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

    2001-02-01

    The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

  3. 以GIS和BIM深度集成应用技术为核心的城市地下管网信息管理模式探讨%Discussion on Information Management Mode of Urban Underground Pipe Network based on GIS and BIM Deep Integrated Application Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋学峰

    2016-01-01

    不同的城市地下管网建设管理部门所采用的信息技术不尽相同,信息管理系统也属于分布式管理系统。各分布式系统之间因应用技术和信息格式不统一而存在信息孤岛现象。以GIS(地理信息系统)和BIM(建筑信息模型)的深度集成应用技术为核心的信息管理传递模式,将上述两种技术从数据和系统层面实现集成应用,解决不同系统之间的数据信息格式的相互转换问题,打破各系统、各部门之间的信息壁垒,实现数据交互与信息共享。基于该集成应用技术的信息管理模式是保障智慧城市地下管网科学、高效、安全运行的有效模式。%Different management departments of urban underground pipe network construction use different in-formation technologies, and information management systems also belong to the distributed management systems. The information island phenomenon is not uniform between the distributed systems because of the application tech-nology and the information format. The information management transmission mode with deep application integration technology of GIS ( Geographic Information System) and BIM ( building information model) as its core realizes inte-grated application of the above two techniques from data and system, solves the problem between different systems of data format conversion, breaks the barriers of information among various systems and various departments, and thus realizes data exchange and information sharing. Information management mode based on the integrated applica-tion technology is an effective model to ensure the scientific, efficient and safe operation of underground pipe net-work in smart city.

  4. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  5. Synchronously deployable truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, H. G. (Inventor); Mikulas, M., Jr. (Inventor); Wallsom, E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A collapsible-expandable truss structure, including first and second spaced surface truss layers having an attached core layer is described. The surface truss layers are composed of a plurality of linear struts arranged in multiple triangular configurations. Each linear strut is hinged at the center and hinge connected at each end to a nodular joint. A passive spring serves as the expansion force to move the folded struts from a stowed collapsed position to a deployed operative final truss configuration. A damper controls the rate of spring expansion for the synchronized deployment of the truss as the folded configuration is released for deployment by the restrain belts. The truss is synchronously extended under the control of motor driven spools.

  6. Mining Deployment Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čech, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    The deployment problem, researched primarily in the military sector, is emerging in some other industries, mining included. The principal decision is how to deploy some activities in space and time to achieve desired outcome while complying with certain requirements or limits. Requirements and limits are on the side constraints, while minimizing costs or maximizing some benefits are on the side of objectives. A model with application to mining of polymetallic deposit is presented. To obtain quick and immediate decision solutions for a mining engineer with experimental possibilities is the main intention of a computer-based tool. The task is to determine strategic deployment of mining activities on a deposit, meeting planned output from the mine and at the same time complying with limited reserves and haulage capacities. Priorities and benefits can be formulated by the planner.

  7. Deploying OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Pepple, Ken

    2011-01-01

    OpenStack was created with the audacious goal of being the ubiquitous software choice for building public and private cloud infrastructures. In just over a year, it's become the most talked-about project in open source. This concise book introduces OpenStack's general design and primary software components in detail, and shows you how to start using it to build cloud infrastructures. If you're a developer, technologist, or system administrator familiar with cloud offerings such as Rackspace Cloud or Amazon Web Services, Deploying OpenStack shows you how to obtain and deploy OpenStack softwar

  8. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.

    2007-11-08

    The purpose of this report is to compile information and conclusions gathered as part of three separate tasks undertaken as part of the overall project, “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs,” sponsored by the Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation office within the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address improvements to modeling in the near term, and note gaps in knowledge where future research is needed.

  9. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  10. Underground test area subproject waste management plan. Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in southern Nevada, was the site of 928 underground nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. The tests were performed as part of the Atomic Energy Commission and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons testing program. The NTS is managed by the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Of the 928 tests conducted below ground surface at the NTS, approximately 200 were detonated below the water table. As an unavoidable consequence of these testing activities, radionuclides have been introduced into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. In the few instances of groundwater sampling, radionuclides have been detected in the groundwater; however, only a very limited investigation of the underground test sites and associated shot cavities has been conducted to date. The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject was established to fill this void and to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at the NTS. One of its primary objectives is to gather data to characterize the deep aquifer underlying the NTS.

  11. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies, such as 25Mg(p,γ)26Al, 19F(p,α)16O, 13C(α,n)16O and 12C(α,γ)16O.

  12. Logistics background study: underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  13. Large, Easily Deployable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agan, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Study of concepts for large space structures will interest those designing scaffolding, radio towers, rescue equipment, and prefabricated shelters. Double-fold, double-cell module was selected for further design and for zero gravity testing. Concept is viable for deployment by humans outside space vehicle as well as by remotely operated manipulator.

  14. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  15. Deploying Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an intermediate or advanced developer deploying your Node.js applications, then this book is for you. If you have already built a Node application or module and want to take your knowledge to the next level, this book will help you find your way.

  16. University of Cambridge deploys Procket Networks' PRO/8801

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Procket Networks, a provider of high performance Internet Protocol (IP) technology and products has announced that the University of Cambridge has deployed the PRO/8801(TM) router into its research network to develop industry-leading deep packet inspection applications. The major application for this deployment is to identify and understand new traffic patterns created by large scale scientific computations and downloads such as the GRID (1 page).

  17. Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1986, Congress created the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund to address releases from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) by amending Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

  18. Fight Against Underground Policies Intensifies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUZHUOQIONG

    2004-01-01

    On May 27, the China Insurance Regulatory Commission (CIRC)called in the chief representatives of foreign life insurers with branches in Hong Kong and Macao for a meeting andasked the companies to get more disciplined and help the government to combat underground policies.

  19. An embedded underground navigation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available GPS. Our research interest is focused on using a lowcost off-the-shelf inertial measurement unit (IMU) to improve the Active Beacon Positioning System (ABPS) developed here at the CSIR. This paper proposes a novel pose estimator, for underground mines...

  20. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  1. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  2. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 57.4761 Section 57.4761... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Ventilation Control Measures § 57.4761 Underground shops. To confine or prevent the spread of...

  3. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance from any other underground structure not associated with...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of underground cable installed in conduit and of...

  5. Risk management in large scale underground infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmholt, K.A.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Underground infrastructures can fail due to ground movements. Due to the underground nature this is difficult to detect above ground. In a collaboration of multiple research institutes a new approach has been developed to estimate the probability of failure using underground position sensors. A Proo

  6. The effect of earthquakes loads on the stability of supported underground openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genis, M.; Oezarslan, A. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University (Turkey)

    2004-07-01

    Underground openings should meet the stability requirements conforming with their function during their service life. In regions with seismic activity, the stability performance of an underground opening under dynamic loads is as important as its performance under static conditions. In the design, therefore, additional effects occurring around the opening due to dynamic loads (e.g. earthquake) should also be considered. In this paper, the effects of static and dynamic loads on the geometry of the failure zone occurring around supported underground openings, excavated in deep and massive rock masses, have been investigated. For this purpose, an elasto-plastic stress analysis of a two-dimensional underground opening, supported with rock bolts, has been investigated. An index determining the relative size of the yield zone around the opening has been used for comparison of instabilities.

  7. Analytical and numerical modeling for the effects of thermal insulation in underground tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu W.V.; Apel D.B.; Bindiganavile V.S.; Szymanski J.K

    2016-01-01

    The heat flow generated from the infinite rock mass surrounding the underground tunnels is a major cause for the increasing cooling demands in deep mine tunnels. Insulation layers with lower thermal con-ductivities on tunnel walls and roof ceilings are believed to supply a thermo-barrier for heat abatement. However, it is found that no systematic theoretical investigations were made to predict and confirm the effectiveness of underground thermal insulation. Specifically, investigations on the underground insula-tion problems involving heat flows through the semi-infinite hot rock mass and insulation layer were not sufficient. Thus, in this paper, the thermal characteristics, accompanied with heat flow through the semi-infinite rock mass and the insulation layer, were modeled by both analytical and numerical meth-ods with focus on underground mine tunnels. The close agreements between models have indicated that the thermal insulation applied on tunnel surfaces is able to provide promising heat abatement effects.

  8. Measurement of Cosmic Ray Flux in China JinPing underground Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yu-Cheng; Yue, Qian; LI, Yuan-Jing; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Kang, Ke-Jun; Chen, Yun-Hua; Li, Jin; Li, Jian-Min; Li, Yu-Lan; Liu, Shu-Kui; Ma, Hao; Ren, Jin-Bao; Shen, Man-Bin; Wang, Ji-Min; Wu, Shi-Yong; Xue, Tao; YI, Nan; Zeng, Xiong-Hui; Zeng, Zhi; Zhu, Zhong-Hua

    2013-01-01

    China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL) is the deepest underground laboratory presently running in the world. In such a deep underground laboratory, the cosmic ray flux is a very important and necessary parameter for rare event experiments. A plastic scintillator telescope system has been set up to measure the cosmic ray flux. The performance of the telescope system has been studied using the cosmic ray on the ground laboratory near CJPL. Based on the underground experimental data taken from November 2010 to December 2011 in CJPL, which has effective live time of 171 days, the cosmic ray muon flux in CJPL is measured to be (2.0+-0.4)*10^(-10)/(cm^2)/(s). The ultra-low cosmic ray background guarantees CJPL's ideal environment for dark matter experiment.

  9. Measurement of cosmic ray flux in the China JinPing underground laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Cheng; Hao, Xi-Qing; Yue, Qian; Li, Yuan-Jing; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Kang, Ke-Jun; Chen, Yun-Hua; Li, Jin; Li, Jian-Min; Li, Yu-Lan; Liu, Shu-Kui; Ma, Hao; Ren, Jin-Bao; Shen, Man-Bin; Wang, Ji-Min; Wu, Shi-Yong; Xue, Tao; Yi, Nan; Zeng, Xiong-Hui; Zeng, Zhi; Zhu, Zhong-Hua

    2013-08-01

    The China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL) is the deepest underground laboratory running in the world at present. In such a deep underground laboratory, the cosmic ray flux is a very important and necessary parameter for rare-event experiments. A plastic scintillator telescope system has been set up to measure the cosmic ray flux. The performance of the telescope system has been studied using the cosmic rays on the ground laboratory near the CJPL. Based on the underground experimental data taken from November 2010 to December 2011 in the CJPL, which has an effective live time of 171 days, the cosmic ray muon flux in the CJPL is measured to be (2.0±0.4)×10-10/(cm2·s). The ultra-low cosmic ray background guarantees an ideal environment for dark matter experiments at the CJPL.

  10. Underground physics without underground labs: large detectors in solution-mined salt caverns

    CERN Document Server

    Monreal, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A number of current physics topics, including long-baseline neutrino physics, proton decay searches, and supernova neutrino searches, hope to someday construct huge (50 kiloton to megaton) particle detectors in shielded, underground sites. With today's practices, this requires the costly excavation and stabilization of large rooms in mines. In this paper, we propose utilizing the caverns created by the solution mining of salt. The challenge is that such caverns must be filled with pressurized fluid and do not admit human access. We sketch some possible methods of installing familiar detector technologies in a salt cavern under these constraints. Some of the detectors discussed are also suitable for deep-sea experiments, discussed briefly. These sketches appear challenging but feasible, and appear to force few major compromises on detector capabilities. This scheme offers avenues for enormous cost savings on future detector megaprojects.

  11. Dedicated Deployable Aerobraking Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersch, Louis R.; Knarr, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A dedicated deployable aerobraking structure concept was developed that significantly increases the effective area of a spacecraft during aerobraking by up to a factor of 5 or more (depending on spacecraft size) without substantially increasing total spacecraft mass. Increasing the effective aerobraking area of a spacecraft (without significantly increasing spacecraft mass) results in a corresponding reduction in the time required for aerobraking. For example, if the effective area of a spacecraft is doubled, the time required for aerobraking is roughly reduced to half the previous value. The dedicated deployable aerobraking structure thus enables significantly shorter aerobraking phases, which results in reduced mission cost, risk, and allows science operations to begin earlier in the mission.

  12. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter I. Program Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    propellant types carrying single and multiple warheads. Basing concepts included those operated on or underground , on or underwater, and in the atmosphere...Spring Clovis. NM Texas, New Valley, NV \\ Mex i’o No Act ion NA NA NA NA k ternat ive r 3623-3 The numbers represent missiles deployed (approximate for...detection and tracking of vehicles and aircraft in and over the cluster complexes. RSS data will be transmitted via underground fiber optic cables to an

  13. Intense rockburst impacts in deep underground construction and their prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Mazaira, A. (Alejandro); P. Koníček

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades, in both mining and civil engineering projects, deeper excavations have been carried out than in the past. With this increase in depth, rocks may overstress and rock failures can occur during excavation. When competent rock strata are encountered under high stress conditions, these failures can vary from superficial spalling to explosive rockburst. Intense rockbursts may cause fatal injuries to workers and significant loss of equipment and time. The occurrence of ro...

  14. Intense rockburst impacts in deep underground construction and their prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Mazaira; P Konicek

    2015-01-01

    .... With this increase in depth, rocks may overstress and rock failures can occur during excavation. When competent rock strata are encountered under high stress conditions, these failures can vary from superficial spalling to explosive rockburst...

  15. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  16. Road construction in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benke, L.; Benkovics, I.

    1985-01-01

    The need and reasons of road construction for rubber-tyre vehicles in various mine sections are examined. A detailed analysis is given of the direct and indirect influences of underground haulage ways and transport roads on the parameters of mine performance. The various mine road construction technologies are overviewed. Experiences are presented with road construction in the Mecsek Ore Mines Company, Plant 3, Hungary. The cost factors of four construction technologies are compared.

  17. The Underground Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground economic activities exist in most countries around the world, and they usually have the same causes: inadequate tax systems, excessive state interference in the economy and the lack of coordination in establishing economic policies. Through this paper, we aim to offer certain recommendations, which, in our opinion, would lead to solving the issue of inadequate allocation of resources and would also contribute to restoration of the worldwide economy.

  18. Methods in mooring deep sea sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkatesan, R.; Fernando, V.; Rajaraman, V.S.; Janakiraman, G.

    The experience gained during the process of deployment and retrieval of nearly 39 sets of deep sea sediment trap moorings on various ships like FS Sonne, ORV Sagarkanya and DSV Nand Rachit are outlined. The various problems encountered...

  19. LEGACY - EOP Temperature data for deep corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Thermographs were deployed opportunistically in patches of deep coral at depths greater than 300 m. Sites included the Makapuu precious coral bed, the Cross Seamount...

  20. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  1. Urban underground network expansion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozic, Z. [Sinclair Knight Merz Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia); Hobson, E. [HI Consulting Services Pty Ltd., Adelaide (Australia)

    1997-03-01

    The authors describe a three step approach to expansion planning of high voltage (HV) urban underground distribution networks. Although the techniques are specifically oriented to underground systems, they are equally applicable to overhead system design. The fundamental engineering problem is how to connect individual high voltage to low voltage substations (HV/LV SS) and zone HV SS into a future urban underground network. The problem is to rearrange the HV network to minimise the cost of expansion subject to provision of an alternative supply, specified load transfer among the neighbouring zone SS, and other general planning constraints such as feeder capacity, voltage regulation, operational requirements and losses. A review of the current state of the art of distribution expansion planning is provided. The normal manual approach is discussed together with more recent research into computer methods. Three lines of computer research are identified and classified as radially constrained, security constrained and utilisation of travelling salesman/vehicle routing problem algorithms (TSP/VRP). The TSP/VRP line of research has been extended here to produce practical techniques for the assistance of network planners. (Author)

  2. The stress and underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  3. Deterministic modeling of the impact of underground structures on urban groundwater temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Winiarski, Thierry; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-12-01

    Underground structures have a major influence on groundwater temperature and have a major contribution on the anthropogenic heat fluxes into urban aquifers. Groundwater temperature is crucial for resource management as it can provide operational sustainability indicators for groundwater quality and geothermal energy. Here, a three dimensional heat transport modeling approach was conducted to quantify the thermally affected zone (TAZ, i.e. increase in temperature of more than +0.5°C) caused by two common underground structures: (1) an impervious structure and (2) a draining structure. These design techniques consist in (1) ballasting the underground structure in order to resist hydrostatic pressure, or (2) draining the groundwater under the structure in order to remove the hydrostatic pressure. The volume of the TAZ caused by these underground structures was shown to range from 14 to 20 times the volume of the underground structure. Additionally, the cumulative impact of underground structures was assessed under average thermal conditions at the scale of the greater Lyon area (France). The heat island effect caused by underground structures was highlighted in the business center of the city. Increase in temperature of more than +4.5°C were locally put in evidence. The annual heat flow from underground structures to the urban aquifer was computed deterministically and represents 4.5GW·h. Considering these impacts, the TAZ of deep underground structures should be taken into account in the geothermal potential mapping. Finally, the amount of heat energy provided should be used as an indicator of heating potential in these areas.

  4. The Video Collaborative Localization of a Miner’s Lamp Based on Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks for Underground Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiming You

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs deployed in an underground coal mine, a miner’s lamp video collaborative localization algorithm was proposed to locate miners in the scene of insufficient illumination and bifurcated structures of underground tunnels. In bifurcation area, several camera nodes are deployed along the longitudinal direction of tunnels, forming a collaborative cluster in wireless way to monitor and locate miners in underground tunnels. Cap-lamps are regarded as the feature of miners in the scene of insufficient illumination of underground tunnels, which means that miners can be identified by detecting their cap-lamps. A miner’s lamp will project mapping points on the imaging plane of collaborative cameras and the coordinates of mapping points are calculated by collaborative cameras. Then, multiple straight lines between the positions of collaborative cameras and their corresponding mapping points are established. To find the three-dimension (3D coordinate location of the miner’s lamp a least square method is proposed to get the optimal intersection of the multiple straight lines. Tests were carried out both in a corridor and a realistic scenario of underground tunnel, which show that the proposed miner’s lamp video collaborative localization algorithm has good effectiveness, robustness and localization accuracy in real world conditions of underground tunnels.

  5. Self-Deployable Membrane Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Witold M.; Willis, Paul B.; Tan, Seng C.

    2010-01-01

    Currently existing approaches for deployment of large, ultra-lightweight gossamer structures in space rely typically upon electromechanical mechanisms and mechanically expandable or inflatable booms for deployment and to maintain them in a fully deployed, operational configuration. These support structures, with the associated deployment mechanisms, launch restraints, inflation systems, and controls, can comprise more than 90 percent of the total mass budget. In addition, they significantly increase the stowage volume, cost, and complexity. A CHEM (cold hibernated elastic memory) membrane structure without any deployable mechanism and support booms/structure is deployed by using shape memory and elastic recovery. The use of CHEM micro-foams reinforced with carbon nanotubes is considered for thin-membrane structure applications. In this advanced structural concept, the CHEM membrane structure is warmed up to allow packaging and stowing prior to launch, and then cooled to induce hibernation of the internal restoring forces. In space, the membrane remembers its original shape and size when warmed up. After the internal restoring forces deploy the structure, it is then cooled to achieve rigidization. For this type of structure, the solar radiation could be utilized as the heat energy used for deployment and space ambient temperature for rigidization. The overall simplicity of the CHEM self-deployable membrane is one of its greatest assets. In present approaches to space-deployable structures, the stow age and deployment are difficult and challenging, and introduce a significant risk, heavy mass, and high cost. Simple procedures provided by CHEM membrane greatly simplify the overall end-to-end process for designing, fabricating, deploying, and rigidizing large structures. The CHEM membrane avoids the complexities associated with other methods for deploying and rigidizing structures by eliminating deployable booms, deployment mechanisms, and inflation and control systems

  6. Joint for deployable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, N. D., II; Preliasco, R. J.; Hult, T. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A joint is described for connecting a pair of beams to pivot them between positions in alignment or beside one another, which is of light weight and which operates in a controlled manner. The joint includes a pair of fittings and at least one center link having opposite ends pivotally connected to opposite fittings and having axes that pass through centerplates of the fittings. A control link having opposite ends pivotally connected to the different fittings controls their relative orientations, and a toggle assemly holds the fittings in the deployed configuration wherein they are aligned. The fittings have stops that lie on one side of the centerplane opposite the toggle assembly.

  7. Cosmic Ray Sun Shadow in Soudan 2 Underground Muon Flux

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, W W M; Ayres, D S; Barrett, W L; Bode, C; Border, P M; Brooks, C B; Cobb, J H; Cotton, R J; Courant, H; Demuth, D M; Fields, T H; Gallagher, H R; García-García, C; Goodman, M C; Gran, R; Joffe-Minor, T M; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M; Leeson, W; Lichtfield, P J; Longley, N P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Milburn, R H; Miller, W H; Mualem, L M; Napier, A; Oliver, W P; Pearce, G F; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Price, L E; Ruddick, K; Sánchez, M; Schneps, J; Schub, M H; Seidlein, R; Stassinakis, A; Thron, J L; Vasilev, V; Villaume, G; Wakely, S P; West, N; Wall, D

    1999-01-01

    The absorption of cosmic rays by the sun produces a shadow at the earth. The angular offset and broadening of the shadow are determined by the magnitude and structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IPMF) in the inner solar system. We report the first measurement of the solar cosmic ray shadow by detection of deep underground muon flux in observations made during the entire ten-year interval 1989 to 1998. The sun shadow varies significantly during this time, with a $3.3\\sigma$ shadow observed during the years 1995 to 1998.

  8. Research on radon detecting technique for locating inaccessible underground heatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jun; XUE Sheng; WANG Gang

    2011-01-01

    The identification of the exact location of the heatings that occur in often inaccessible locations several hundred meters deep in goaf areas is a key to allowing effective control measures to be taken.Radon technique provides the only solution for remotely locating underground sponcom from surface.The results of Chaili mine indicated that a total area of 66 000 m2 has been surveyed and exact locations of spontaneous combustion have been detected.This has enabled the successful implementation of various control measures against spontaneous combustion.

  9. DeepSurveyCam—A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Kwasnitschka; Kevin Köser; Jan Sticklus; Marcel Rothenbeck; Tim Weiß; Emanuel Wenzlaff; Timm Schoening; Lars Triebe; Anja Steinführer; Colin Devey; Jens Greinert

    2016-01-01

    Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor), and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS). The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep ...

  10. Simultaneous Fleet Deployment and Network Design of Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a liner service providers for deep-sea shipping. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub...

  11. Field Deployable DNA analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, E; Christian, A; Marion, J; Sorensen, K; Arroyo, E; Vrankovich, G; Hara, C; Nguyen, C

    2005-02-09

    This report details the feasibility of a field deployable DNA analyzer. Steps for swabbing cells from surfaces and extracting DNA in an automatable way are presented. Since enzymatic amplification reactions are highly sensitive to environmental contamination, sample preparation is a crucial step to make an autonomous deployable instrument. We perform sample clean up and concentration in a flow through packed bed. For small initial samples, whole genome amplification is performed in the packed bed resulting in enough product for subsequent PCR amplification. In addition to DNA, which can be used to identify a subject, protein is also left behind, the analysis of which can be used to determine exposure to certain substances, such as radionuclides. Our preparative step for DNA analysis left behind the protein complement as a waste stream; we determined to learn if the proteins themselves could be analyzed in a fieldable device. We successfully developed a two-step lateral flow assay for protein analysis and demonstrate a proof of principle assay.

  12. Radium removal from mine waters in underground treatment installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnik, Stanislaw; Wysocka, Malgorzata

    2008-10-01

    The underground mining of hard coal is widespread in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (southern Poland). In deep mines, inflows of highly mineralised waters containing radium isotopes are numerous. These waters cause severe damage to the natural environment due to the salinity, but additionally radioactive pollution occurs. The region is densely populated, therefore mitigation methods are very important. The method of radium removal has been applied in full technical scale in two coal mines with very good results--in one of the mines radium-bearing waters are treated at the rate of approximately 0.1 m3 s(-1), while in another mine salty waters are purified at the rate of 0.1 m3 s(-1). The purification takes place in special underground galleries without any contact of the mining crew with the radioactive deposits produced during the process. As a result, release of radium is significantly lower, more than 200 MBq of 226Ra and 228Ra remains underground each day.

  13. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun H. Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  14. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun H; Christopoulos, George I; Kwok, Kian W; Roberts, Adam C; Soh, Chee-Kiong

    2017-01-01

    With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  15. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun H.; Christopoulos, George I.; Kwok, Kian W.; Roberts, Adam C.; Soh, Chee-Kiong

    2017-01-01

    With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges. PMID:28400744

  16. Shaking table tests and numerical simulation of dynamic properties of underground structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lincong; ZHENG Yifeng; PAN Shunchun

    2009-01-01

    It is considered that the damage of the underground structures caused by earthquakes is minor for a long time. However, the catastrophic damages induced by several recent earthquakes (e.g. Kobe earthquake in 1995) revealed that the study on the dynamic properties of the underground structures is indispensable. The dynamic behavior and damage mechanism of underground structure are analyzed by using shaking table tests (both shallow- and deep-buried) and numerical simulation (3D FEM) including horizontal and vertical input motions, individually and simultaneously. From the results, the underground structure collapsed due to strong horizontal forces although vertical deformation is not negligible. The vertical excitation increases the response of structure, especially the stress and shear stress at the upper section; the soil influenced the property of soil-structure system. In the same excitation, the response in shallow-buried test is larger than deep case. Both overburden and vertical earthquake play important roles in the response of structure and those are two critical aspects in the design of the large-span underground structures, such as subway stations.

  17. Ecohydrology of Deep Fractured Rocks at Homestake DUSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, T. L.; Boutt, D. F.; Murdoch, L. C.; Wang, H. F.

    2009-12-01

    The Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at Homestake in SD will provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the terrestrial subsurface. Such a study could fundamentally change the way we view the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, the search for novel materials, and the generation of energy. Knowledge of subsurface life has come from only a few boreholes and deep mines. DUSEL will enable the first detailed study of a deep ecosystem in the context of the hydrology, geochemistry, and rock system state that sustain it. We are guided by the over-arching question: What controls the distribution and evolution of subsurface life? Our hypothesis is that these controls are dominated by processes related to geology, geochemistry, geomechanics, and hydrology. Themes of scaling and the development of facies, or zones of similar characteristics cut across all the processes. The ecohydrologic setting of DUSEL Homestake is characterized by a vast expanse of fractured metamorphic rock cut by 100s of km of tunnels and boreholes. Many km3 of the region have been highly affected by mining activities; adjacent regions are partially desaturated; and more distal regions are pristine and presumed to harbor indigenous microbial ecosystems. Simulations along with descriptions of the mine suggest division into zones, or ecohydrologic facies, where essential characteristics related to the requirements for life are expected to be similar. These ecohydrologic facies are a primary organizing principle for our investigation. The Deep EcoHydrology Experiment will consist of field studies supported by numerical simulations. The experimental activities include a particularly exciting opportunity to probe the lower limits of the biosphere using deep drilling technology deployed from the lowest reaches of the facility (2440 m below the surface). The use of the flooding/dewatering event as a tracer combined with hydrologic and mechanical stressors form a theme that

  18. Background intercomparison with escape-suppressed germanium detectors in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szuecs, Tamas; Bemmerer, Daniel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    A key requirement for underground nuclear astrophysics experiments is the very low background level in germanium detectors underground. The reference for these purposes is the world's so far only underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics, LUNA. LUNA is located deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, shielded from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. The background at LUNA was studied in detail using an escape-suppressed Clover-type HPGe detector. Exactly the same detector was subsequently transported to the Felsenkeller underground laboratory in Dresden, shielded by 45 m of rock, and the background was shown to be only a factor of three higher than at LUNA when comparing the escape-suppressed spectra, with interesting consequences for underground nuclear astrophysics. As the next step of a systematic study of the effects of a combination of active and passive shielding on the cosmic ray induced background, this detector is now being brought to the ''Reiche Zeche'' mine in Freiberg/Sachsen, shielded by 150 m of rock. The data from the Freiberg measurement are shown and discussed.

  19. Review: Impact of underground structures on the flow of urban groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Guillaume; Winiarski, Thierry; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Property economics favours the vertical development of cities but flow of groundwater can be affected by the use of underground space in them. This review article presents the state of the art regarding the impact of disturbances caused by underground structures (tunnels, basements of buildings, deep foundations, etc.) on the groundwater flow in urban aquifers. The structures built in the underground levels of urban areas are presented and organised in terms of their impact on flow: obstacle to the flow or disturbance of the groundwater budget of the flow system. These two types of disturbance are described in relation to the structure area and the urban area. The work reviewed shows, on one hand, the individual impacts of different urban underground structures, and on the other, their cumulative impacts on flow, using real case studies. Lastly, the works are placed in perspective regarding the integration of underground structures with the aim of operational management of an urban aquifer. The literature presents deterministic numerical modelling as a tool capable of contributing to this aim, in that it helps to quantify the effect of an underground infrastructure project on groundwater flow, which is crucial for decision-making processes. It can also be an operational decision-aid tool for choosing construction techniques or for formulating strategies to manage the water resource.

  20. Seismic response and stability of underground rock caverns: a case study of Baihetan underground cavern complex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Zhen; Sheng, Qian; Leng, Xianlun; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The seismic stability of the underground cavern complex, which houses the Baihetan hydropower plant in Yunnan Province, China, currently the world's 2nd largest underground rock cavern group, is studied in this article...

  1. Aguamilpa underground penstocks: Excavation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, F. (Comision Federal de Electricidad, Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico))

    1994-01-01

    The Aguamilpa hydroelectric project is one of a number of hydroelectric schemes currently being constructed along the course of the Santiago River in western Mexico. Aguamilpa will cost US$750 million and includes a 187-m concrete-faced rockfill dam, spillway and diversion tunnels, and a 960 MW underground powerhouse. The underground works include the penstocks, the powerhouse and surge chamber caverns, and the tailrace tunnel. In the initial design, most of the tunnelling work was to have been of a permanent nature. However, as the date of completion was brought forward to June 1993, it became necessary to open up more working faces and, as such, a number of temporary tunnels were started. The sequence of underground penstock excavation is described along with the construction methods developed and the equipment employed. It was originally intended to excavate the upper and lower ends of the penstocks and then raise-bore an initial pilot hole along the whole length. This hole would then be reamed out to the full diameter. To achieve faster completion, it was decided to excavate the lower portion of the penstocks from special access tunnels and to gain access to the top of the penstocks via geological exploration and drainage galleries. The horizontal parts of the penstocks were excavated by drill-and-blast methods, and the sloping parts were constructed by raise-boring a pilot hole and then using drill-and-blast to enlarge the hole in several stages to the full profile. Installation of steel liner sections will proceed upward and outward from the lower elbow section. 3 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Thermally stable deployable structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegg, Colleen M.

    1988-01-01

    A deployable structure which meets stringent thermal and strength requirements in a space environment was developed. A mast with a very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was required to limit the movement from thermal distortion over the temperature range of -200 C to 80 C to .064 cm (.025 in). In addition, a high bending strength over the temperature range and weight less than 18.1 kg (40 lbs) was needed. To meet all of the requirements, a composite, near-zero CTE structure was developed. The measured average CTE over the temperature range for the mast was .70 x .000001/C (.38 x .000001/F). The design also has the advantage of being adjustable to attain other specific CTE if desired.

  3. Forward Deployed Robotic Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendle, Bruce E., Jr.; Bornstein, Jonathan A.

    2000-07-01

    Forward Deployed Robotic Unit (FDRU) is a core science and technology objective of the US Army, which will demonstrate the impact of autonomous systems on all phases of future land warfare. It will develop, integrate and demonstrate technology required to achieve robotic and fire control capabilities for future land combat vehicles, e.g., Future Combat Systems, using a system of systems approach that culminates in a field demonstration in 2005. It will also provide the required unmanned assets and conduct the demonstration. Battle Lab Warfighting Experiments and data analysis required to understand the effects of unmanned assets on combat operations. The US Army Tank- Automotive & Armaments Command and the US Army Research Laboratory are teaming in an effort to leverage prior technology achievements in the areas of autonomous mobility, architecture, sensor and robotics system integration; advance the state-of-the-art in these areas; and to provide field demonstration/application of the technologies.

  4. Complex Deployed Responsive Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Glenn; McLening, Marc; Caldwell, Nigel; Thompson, Rob

    A pizza restaurant must provide product, in the form of the food and drink, and service in the way this is delivered to the customer. Providing this has distinct operational challenges, but what if the restaurant also provides a home delivery service? The service becomes deployed as the customer is no-longer co-located with the production area. The business challenge is complicated as service needs to be delivered within a geographic region, to time or the pizza will be cold, and within a cost that is not ­prohibitive. It must also be responsive to short term demand; needing to balance the number of staff it has available to undertake deliveries against a forecast of demand.

  5. Underground structures increasing the intrinsic vulnerability of urban groundwater: Sensitivity analysis and development of an empirical law based on a groundwater age modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    In a previous paper published in Journal of Hydrology, it was shown that underground structures are responsible for a mixing process between shallow and deep groundwater that can favour the spreading of urban contamination. In this paper, the impact of underground structures on the intrinsic vulnerability of urban aquifers was investigated. A sensitivity analysis was performed using a 2D deterministic modelling approach based on the reservoir theory generalized to hydrodispersive systems to better understand this mixing phenomenon and the mixing affected zone (MAZ) caused by underground structures. It was shown that the maximal extent of the MAZ caused by an underground structure is reached approximately 20 years after construction. Consequently, underground structures represent a long-term threat for deep aquifer reservoirs. Regarding the construction process, draining operations have a major impact and favour large-scale mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. Consequently, dewatering should be reduced and enclosed as much as possible. The role played by underground structures' dimensions was assessed. The obstruction of the first aquifer layer caused by construction has the greatest influence on the MAZ. The cumulative impact of several underground structures was assessed. It was shown that the total MAZ area increases linearly with underground structures' density. The role played by materials' properties and hydraulic gradient were assessed. Hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy and porosity have the strongest influence on the development of MAZ. Finally, an empirical law was derived to estimate the MAZ caused by an underground structure in a bi-layered aquifer under unconfined conditions. This empirical law, based on the results of the sensitivity analysis developed in this paper, allows for the estimation of MAZ dimensions under known material properties and underground structure dimensions. This empirical law can help urban planners assess the area of

  6. Design fires in underground mines

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Rickard

    2010-01-01

    This report deals with the issue on design fires in underground mines. The main purposes of the report are: -          Describe different approaches to describe design fires. -          Develop suitable design fires for different systems, mines, warehouses, workshops etc. -          Discuss the position of the design fires with respect to adjacent installations, egress, interruptions in the production etc. -          Discuss the influence of ventilation on the fire growth and its influence wh...

  7. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  8. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance...

  9. Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Justyn

    2010-05-01

    The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is

  10. CMS software deployment on OSG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B; Avery, P [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Thomas, M [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wuerthwein, F [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail: bockjoo@phys.ufl.edu, E-mail: thomas@hep.caltech.edu, E-mail: avery@phys.ufl.edu, E-mail: fkw@fnal.gov

    2008-07-15

    A set of software deployment tools has been developed for the installation, verification, and removal of a CMS software release. The tools that are mainly targeted for the deployment on the OSG have the features of instant release deployment, corrective resubmission of the initial installation job, and an independent web-based deployment portal with Grid security infrastructure login mechanism. We have been deploying over 500 installations and found the tools are reliable and adaptable to cope with problems with changes in the Grid computing environment and the software releases. We present the design of the tools, statistics that we gathered during the operation of the tools, and our experience with the CMS software deployment on the OSG Grid computing environment.

  11. Cigeo. The French deep geological repository for radioactive waste. Excavation techniques and technologies tested in underground laboratory and forecasted for the future construction of the project; Cigeo. Das franzoesische Tiefenlager fuer radioaktive Abfaelle. Im Untertagelabor getestete und fuer den kuenftigen Bau des Projekts vorgesehene Vortriebstechniken und -technologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvet, Francois [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), Chatenay-Malabry (France). Infrastructure Engineering Dept.; Bosgiraud, Jean-Michel [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), Chatenay-Malabry (France). Technological Development Program

    2015-07-01

    Cigeo is the French project for the repository of the high activity and intermediate long-lived radioactive waste. It will be situated at a depth of 500 m, In a clayish rock formation. An underground laboratory was built in the year 2000 and numerous tests are performed since 15 years, in order to know in detail the behavior of the rock and its ability to confine radioactive elements. In addition, this underground laboratory has brought and will continue to bring many lessons on the excavation methods to be chosen for the construction of Cigeo.

  12. Family Reintegration Following Guard Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    expectations is a key process that has to occur for successful reintegration of the veteran back into the family. Both parties have to work out their...describe veterans and families perceptions of: Aim 1. Their experience with family reintegration and the challenges reintegration presents; Aim 2...deployment, and post deployment shape the degree of challenges with reintegration that a veteran and their family will encounter. Pre-deployment, the

  13. Design optimization of deployable wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Pradeep

    Morphing technology is an important aspect of UAV design, particularly in regards to deployable systems. The design of such system has an important impact on the vehicle's performance. The primary focus of the present research work was to determine the most optimum deployable wing design from 3 competing designs and develop one of the deployable wing designs to test in the research facility. A Matlab code was developed to optimize 3 deployable wing concepts inflatable, inflatable telescopic and rigid-folding wings based on a sequential optimization strategy. The constraints that were part of the code include the packaging constraints during its stowed state, fixed length of the deployed section and the minimum L/D constraint. This code resulted in determining the optimum weight of all the 3 designs, the most optimum weight design is the inflatable wing design. This is a result of the flexible skin material and also due to no rigid parts in the deployed wing section. Another goal of the research involved developing an inflatable telescopic wing. The prototype was tested in a wind tunnel, while the actual wing was tested in the altitude chamber to determine the deployment speed, input pressure, analyze and predict the deployment sequence and behavior of the wing at such high wind speeds and altitudes ranging from 60,000 ft to 90,000 ft. Results from these tests allowed us to conclude the deployment sequence of the telescopic wing followed from the root to the tip section. The results were used to analyze the deployment time of the wing. As expected the deployment time decreased with an increase in input pressure. The results also show us that as the altitude increases, the deployment speed of the wing also increased. This was demonstrated when the wing was tested at a maximum altitude pressure of 90,000ft, well above the design altitude of 60,000ft.

  14. Atmospheric radiation environment analyses based-on CCD camera at various mountain altitudes and underground sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cavoli Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discriminate secondary atmospheric particles and identify muons by measuring the natural radiative environment in atmospheric and underground locations. A CCD camera has been used as a cosmic ray sensor. The Low Noise Underground Laboratory of Rustrel (LSBB, France gives the access to a unique low-noise scientific environment deep enough to ensure the screening from the neutron and proton radiative components. Analyses of the charge levels in pixels of the CCD camera induced by radiation events and cartographies of the charge events versus the hit pixel are proposed.

  15. Processes of heat and mass transfer taking place in underground roadways and their calculation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifka, I.

    1987-01-01

    Advantages and limitations of some methods used for calculating underground climatic conditions are summarized. Measurement data are evaluated concerning the underground climatic conditions of various galleries in a deep ore mine now under construction. The heat amount absorbed by the air flowing in drifts is to be calculated from the rock side by a corrected heat flow factor. The absorption of vapor has to be calculated by a factor that expresses the ratio of heat and vapor absorptions. These latter values have to be determined reliably by in situ measurements.

  16. Underground coal gasification: An overview of groundwater contamination hazards and mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, Joshua A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-13

    Underground coal gasification is the in situ conversion of coal into an energy-rich product gas. It takes place deep underground, using chemical reactions to consume the coal and grow a cavity. Gas wells, drilled into the coal seam, inject reactant air, oxygen, and/or steam to sustain the reactions. Production wells then extract the product gas. Careful analysis and understanding of likely failure modes will help prevent and minimize impacts. This document provides a general description of the relevant processes, potential failure modes, and practical mitigation strategies. It can guide critical review of project design and operations.

  17. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  18. Mastering Hyper-V Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    The only book to take an in-depth look at deploying Hyper-V. Now in its second generation, the popular Hyper-V boasts technical advances that create even more dynamic systems than ever before. This unique resource serves an authoritative guide to deploying Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V comprehensively. Step-by-step instructions demonstrate how to design a Hyper-V deployment, build a Hyper-V host environment, and design a management system with System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2.: Features real-world examples that show you how to design a Hyper-V deployment, build a Hyper-V host env

  19. Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division advances transportation innovation by being leaders in infrastructure technology, including vehicles and...

  20. Stress monitoring versus microseismic ruptures in an active deep mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnellier, Alice; Bouffier, Christian; Bigarré, Pascal; Nyström, Anders; Österberg, Anders; Fjellström, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, underground mining industry has developed high-technology mass mining methods to optimise the productivity at deep levels. Such massive extraction induces high-level stress redistribution generating seismic events around the mining works, threatening safety and economics. For this reason mining irregular deep ore bodies calls for steadily enhanced scientific practises and technologies to guarantee the mine environment to be safer and stable for the miners and the infrastructures. INERIS, within the framework of the FP7 European project I2Mine and in partnership with the Swedish mining company Boliden, has developed new methodologies in order to monitor both quasi-static stress changes and ruptures in a seismic prone area. To this purpose, a unique local permanent microseismic and stress monitoring network has been installed into the deep-working Garpenberg mine situated to the north of Uppsala (Sweden). In this mine, ore is extracted using sublevel stoping with paste fill production/distribution system and long-hole drilling method. This monitoring network has been deployed between about 1100 and 1250 meter depth. It consists in six 1-component and five 3-component microseismic probes (14-Hz geophones) deployed in the Lappberget area, in addition to three 3D stress monitoring cells that focus on a very local exploited area. Objective is three-fold: to quantify accurately quasi-static stress changes and freshly-induced stress gradients with drift development in the orebody, to study quantitatively those stress changes versus induced detected and located microseismic ruptures, and possibly to identify quasi-static stress transfer from those seismic ruptures. Geophysical and geotechnical data are acquired continuously and automatically transferred to INERIS datacenter through the web. They are made available on a secured web cloud monitoring infrastructure called e.cenaris and completed with mine data. Such interface enables the visualisation of the

  1. Deployable Fresnel Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.; Lin, Gregory Y.

    2014-01-01

    Deployable Fresnel rings (DFRs) significantly enhance the realizable gain of an antenna. This innovation is intended to be used in combination with another antenna element, as the DFR itself acts as a focusing or microwave lens element for a primary antenna. This method is completely passive, and is also completely wireless in that it requires neither a cable, nor a connector from the antenna port of the primary antenna to the DFR. The technology improves upon the previous NASA technology called a Tri-Sector Deployable Array Antenna in at least three critical aspects. In contrast to the previous technology, this innovation requires no connector, cable, or other physical interface to the primary communication radio or sensor device. The achievable improvement in terms of antenna gain is significantly higher than has been achieved with the previous technology. Also, where previous embodiments of the Tri-Sector antenna have been constructed with combinations of conventional (e.g., printed circuit board) and conductive fabric materials, this innovation is realized using only conductive and non-conductive fabric (i.e., "e-textile") materials, with the possible exception of a spring-like deployment ring. Conceptually, a DFR operates by canceling the out-of-phase radiation at a plane by insertion of a conducting ring or rings of a specific size and distance from the source antenna, defined by Fresnel zones. Design of DFRs follow similar procedures to those outlined for conventional Fresnel zone rings. Gain enhancement using a single ring is verified experimentally and through computational simulation. The experimental test setup involves a microstrip patch antenna that is directly behind a single-ring DFR and is radiating towards a second microstrip patch antenna. The first patch antenna and DFR are shown. At 2.42 GHz, the DFR improves the transmit antenna gain by 8.6 dB, as shown in Figure 2, relative to the wireless link without the DFR. A figure illustrates the

  2. Productivity Improvement in Underground Coal Mines - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Prasad Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of productivity has become an important goal for today's coal industry in the race to increase price competitiveness. The challenge now lying ahead for the coal industry is to identify areas of waste, meet the market price and maintain a healthy profit. The only way to achieve this is to reduce production costs by improving productivity, efficiency and the effectiveness of the equipment. This paper aims to identify the various factors and problems affecting the productivity of underground coal mines adopting the bord and pillar method of mining and to propose suitable measures for improving them. The various key factors affecting productivity, namely the cycle of operations, manpower deployment, machine efficiency, material handling and management of manpower are discussed. In addition, the problem of side discharge loader (SDL cable handling resulting in the wastage of precious manpower resources and SDL breakdown have also been identified and resolved in this paper.

  3. Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  4. Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  5. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  6. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting underground in hazardous areas. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20031 Blasting underground in hazardous areas. In underground areas where... removed to safe places before blasting....

  7. The Underground Laboratory in South Korea : facilities and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeongduk

    2017-01-01

    We have developed underground physics programs for last 15 years in South Korea. The scientific and technical motivation for this initiative was the lack of local facility of a large accelerator in Korea. Thanks to the large underground electric power generator in Yangyang area, we could construct a deep underground laboratory (Yangyang Laboratory, Y2L) and has performed some pioneering experiments for dark matter search and double beta decay experiments. Since year of 2013, a new research center in the Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Center for Underground Physics (CUP), is approved by the government and Y2L laboratory is managed by CUP. Due to the limited space in Y2L, we are proposing to construct a new deep underground laboratory where we can host larger scale experiments of next generation. The site is in an active iron mine, and will be made in 1100 meter underground with a space of about 2000 m2 by the end of 2019. I will describe the status and future plan for this underground laboratory. CUP has two main experimental programs. (1) Identification of dark matter : The annual modulation signal of DAMA/LIBRA experiment has been contradictory to many other experiments such as XENON100, LUX, and Super CDMS. Yale University and CUP (COSINE-100) experimentalists agreed to do an experiment together at the Y2L and recently commissioned a 100kg scale low background NaI(Tl) crystal experiment. In future, we will develop NaI(Tl) crystals with lower internal backgrounds and try to run identical detectors at both north and south hemisphere. Low mass WIMP search is also planned with a development of low temperature sensors coupled with highly scintillating crystals. (2) Neutrinoless double beta decay search : The mass of the lightest neutrino and the Majorana nature of the neutrinos are not determined yet. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiment can answer both of the questions directly, and ultra-low backgrounds and excellent energy resolution are critical to

  8. Transport model of underground sediment in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jichao, Sun; Guangqian, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Studies about sediment erosion were mainly concentrated on the river channel sediment, the terrestrial sediment, and the underground sediment. The transport process of underground sediment is studied in the paper. The concept of the flush potential sediment is founded. The transport equation with stable saturated seepage is set up, and the relations between the flush potential sediment and water sediment are discussed. Flushing of underground sediment begins with small particles, and large particles will be taken away later. The pore ratio of the soil increases gradually. The flow ultimately becomes direct water seepage, and the sediment concentration at the same position in the water decreases over time. The concentration of maximal flushing potential sediment decreases along the path. The underground sediment flushing model reflects the flushing mechanism of underground sediment.

  9. Device Measures Angle Of Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermakian, Joel B.

    1991-01-01

    Simple electromechanical device indicates angular position of unfolding panel during and after deployment. Resistance of potentiometer gradually increases as unfolding of solar panel about hinge moves wiper of potentiometer. At full deployment, panel pushes and opens normally closed switch. Designed for use on panel of solar photovoltaic cells in spacecraft, modified for use in other, similar position-indicating applications.

  10. Strategic Sealift Supporting Army Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    STRATEGIC SEALIFT SUPPORTING ARMY DEPLOYMENTS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...THOMPSON, MAJ, US ARMY BFA, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana, 1994 Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2016 Approved for...Strategic Sealift Supporting Army Deployments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew

  11. Locomotive track detection for underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhonglei; Lang, Wenhui; Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Xing

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the PC-based track detection system, this paper proposes a method to detect linear track for underground locomotive based on DSP + FPGA. Firstly, the analog signal outputted from the camera is sampled by A / D chip. Then the collected digital signal is preprocessed by FPGA. Secondly, the output signal of FPGA is transmitted to DSP via EMIF port. Subsequently, the adaptive threshold edge detection, polar angle and radius constrain based Hough transform are implemented by DSP. Lastly, the detected track information is transmitted to host computer through Ethernet interface. The experimental results show that the system can not only meet the requirements of real-time detection, but also has good robustness.

  12. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  13. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  14. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a large and high precision liquid scintillator detector under construction in the south of China. With its 20 kt target mass, it aims to achieve an unprecedented 3% energy resolution at 1 MeV. Its main goal is to study the disappearance of reactor antineutrino to determine the neutrino mass ordering, and to precisely measure the mixing parameters $\\theta_{12}$, $\\Delta m^2_{12}$, and $\\Delta m ^2_{ee}$. It also aims to detect neutrinos emitted from radioactive processes taking place within the inner layers of the Earth (geonutrinos), as well as neutrinos produced during rare supernova bursts. Neutrinos emitted in solar nuclear reactions could also be observed, if stringent radiopurity requirements on the scintillator are met. This manuscript provides some highlights of JUNO's Physics Programme, and describes the detector design, as well as the ongoing detector R&D.

  15. Underground gasification of coal pillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.; Haas, K. (Ustav pro Vyzkum a Vyuziti Paliv, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-10-01

    Gives details of a feasibility study of underground gasification of the remaining non-extractable pillars at the Merkur coal mine, Tusimice. Briefly describes geological conditions and explains calculation of amount of heat held in coal pillars: seam is on average 11.7 m thick and generator area contains 7,182,300 t of coal with mean ash content of 29.71% and calorific value of 10.49 MJ/kg. Assuming losses of 15%, generator should be able to produce about 70,000 m{sup 3}/h of gas, equal to a lifetime of 20 years for coal pillars at the Merkur mine. Reviews gasification techniques and describes design of underground generator, which is to produce 70,000 m{sup 3}/h of gas at pressure of 0.4-0.45 MPa, temperature 350 C, humidity up to 0.25 kg/m{sup 3}. Describes equipment for compressing, cleaning and cooling gas and construction of access roads for positioning equipment and pipelines. It would not be viable to transport the type of gas produced over long distances; it should be used within the immediate area, e.g. at the Prunerov II power plant 2 km away. Concludes by calculating manpower required to operate gasification scheme (122) and cost benefit of scheme, which should provide gas at 31.1 Crowns per GJ (town gas currently costs 46.4 Crowns per GJ and imported natural gas costs 35.58 Crowns per GJ). 4 refs.

  16. Deployment simulation of a deployable reflector for earth science application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaokai; Fang, Houfei; Cai, Bei; Ma, Xiaofei

    2015-10-01

    A novel mission concept namely NEXRAD-In-Space (NIS) has been developed for monitoring hurricanes, cyclones and other severe storms from a geostationary orbit. It requires a space deployable 35-meter diameter Ka-band (35 GHz) reflector. NIS can measure hurricane precipitation intensity, dynamics and its life cycle. These information is necessary for predicting the track, intensity, rain rate and hurricane-induced floods. To meet the requirements of the radar system, a Membrane Shell Reflector Segment (MSRS) reflector technology has been developed and several technologies have been evaluated. However, the deployment analysis of this large size and high-precision reflector has not been investigated. For a pre-studies, a scaled tetrahedral truss reflector with spring driving deployment system has been made and tested, deployment dynamics analysis of this scaled reflector has been performed using ADAMS to understand its deployment dynamic behaviors. Eliminating the redundant constraints in the reflector system with a large number of moving parts is a challenging issue. A primitive joint and flexible struts were introduced to the analytical model and they can effectively eliminate over constraints of the model. By using a high-speed camera and a force transducer, a deployment experiment of a single-bay tetrahedral module has been conducted. With the tested results, an optimization process has been performed by using the parameter optimization module of ADAMS to obtain the parameters of the analytical model. These parameters were incorporated to the analytical model of the whole reflector. It is observed from the analysis results that the deployment process of the reflector with a fixed boundary experiences three stages. These stages are rapid deployment stage, slow deployment stage and impact stage. The insight of the force peak distributions of the reflector can help the optimization design of the structure.

  17. Induced caving by blasting: innovative experiments in blasting gallery panels of underground coal mines of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.P.; Sawmliana, C.; Bhagat, N.K.; Madhu, M. [CMRI, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Dept.

    2003-04-01

    Induced caving by blasting during depillaring of panels in underground coal mines has received limited attention. This technique has become an integral part of a mining operation known as the blasting gallery (BG) method in India. Systematical deep hole (16-30 m) blasting has been successfully carried out from underground split galleries in BG panels. A study of drilling and blasting parameters, gas hazards, strata behaviour and ground vibration was undertaken as part of a research project for the Indian Ministry of Coal and Mines. Strata behaviour during blasting and ground movements were critically investigated. All experiments were conducted using newly developed explosive and detonating cord systems. A new blast damage index is proposed for damage assessment of the underground roof and pillars of BG panels. Useful mathematical formulas are described as an aid to future design.

  18. Measurement of cosmic ray flux in the China JinPing underground laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yu-Cheng; HAO Xi-Qing; YUE Qian; LI Yuan-Jing; CHENG Jian-Ping; KANG Ke-Jun; CHEN Yun-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL) is the deepest undcrground laboratory running in the world at present.In such a deep underground laboratory,the cosmic ray flux is a very important and necessary parameter for rare-event experiments.A plastic scintillator telescope system has been set up to measure the cosmic ray flux.The performance of the telescope system has been studied using the cosmic rays on the ground laboratory near the CJPL.Based on the underground experimental data taken from November 2010 to December 2011 in the CJPL,which has an effective live time of 171 days,the cosmic ray muon flux in the CJPL is measured to be (2.0±0.4) ×10-10/(cm2s).The ultra-low cosmic ray background guarantees an ideal environment for dark matter experiments at the CJPL.

  19. Quasi-static Deployment Simulation for Deployable Space Truss Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈务军; 付功义; 何艳丽; 董石麟

    2004-01-01

    A new method was proposed for quasi-static deployment analysis of deployable space truss structures. The structure is assumed a rigid assembly, whose constraints are classified as three categories:rigid member constraint, joint-attached kinematic constraint and boundary constraint. And their geometric constraint equations and derivative matrices are formulated. The basis of the null space and M-P inverse of the geometric constraint matrix are employed to determine the solution for quasi-static deployment analysis. The influence introduced by higher terms of constraints is evaluated subsequently. The numerical tests show that the new method is efficient.

  20. Deployable solar energy generators for deep space cubesats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cubesats require highly compact technologies to maximize their effectiveness. As cubesats are expected to be low-cost and, relative to the space industry, mass...

  1. Underground structure characterization using motor vehicles as passive seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Rector, J.; Vaidya, S.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to detect and characterize underground voids will be critical to the success of On-Site Inspections (OSI) as mandated by the nuclear Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs may be conducted in order to successfully locate the Ground Zero of underground tests as well as infrastructure related to testing. Recently, our team has shown the potential of a new technique to detect underground objects using the amplitude of seismic surface waves generated by motor vehicles. In an experiment conducted in June, 2009 we were able to detect an abandoned railroad tunnel by recognizing a clear pattern in the surface waves scattered by the tunnel, using a signal generated by driving a car on a dirt road across the tunnel. Synthetic experiments conducted using physically realistic wave-equation models further suggest that the technique can be readily applied to detecting underground features: it may be possible to image structures of importance to OSI simply by laying out an array of geophones (or using an array already in place for passive listening for event aftershocks) and driving vehicles around the site. We present evidence from a set of field experiments and from synthetic modeling and inversion studies to illustrate adaptations of the technique for OSI. Signature of an abandoned underground railroad tunnel at Donner Summit, CA. To produce this image, a line of geophones was placed along a dirt road perpendicular to the tunnel (black box) and a single car was driven along the road. A normalized mean power-spectrum is displayed on a log scale as a function of meters from the center of the tunnel. The top of the tunnel was 18m below ground surface. The tunnel anomaly is made up of a shadow (light) directly above the tunnel and amplitude build-up (dark) on either side of the tunnel. The size of the anomaly (6 orders of magnitude) suggests that the method can be extended to find deep structures at greater distances from the source and receivers.

  2. Evaluation of the Deployable Seismic Verification System at the Pinedale Seismic Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.B.

    1993-08-01

    The intent of this report is to examine the performance of the Deployable Seismic Verification System (DSVS) developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) through its national laboratories to support monitoring of underground nuclear test treaties. A DSVS was installed at the Pinedale Seismic Research Facility (PSRF) near Boulder, Wyoming during 1991 and 1992. This includes a description of the system and the deployment site. System performance was studied by looking at four areas: system noise, seismic response, state of health (SOH) and operational capabilities.

  3. Deployable Structural Booms for Large Deployable Solar Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of a new generation of large, high power deployable solar arrays has been identified as the most significant challenge facing the development of...

  4. Novel sensors for underground robotics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 3m) is presented. Machine sensing of both the environment and of humans is critical in a shared working environment. Here we discuss alternatives to the current sensors used above ground for machine perception. In the deep gold mines the geothermal...

  5. Self deployable deorbiting space structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    -active or heavy device has to be brought on board the spacecraft for deploying the space structure. Allows the deployed flexible sheet surface higher than the case when SDSS is rigidly linked at the short distance from carrier structure. Ensures a reliable unfolding of deorbiting structures in zero gravity....... Provides the strain energy provoking the deployment without the need of addition of energy to the system. Eliminates the issues around successful unfolding known from other technical solutions as the frame unfolds automatically without using external energy for unfolding by using the accumulated strain...... energy in stressed configuration. Ensures that deorbiting space structure can be efficiently folded without intervention of active unfolding device....

  6. New concepts in deployable beam structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The design of deployable structures involves a complicated tradeoff of packaging efficiency, the overall mechanism associated with deploying and latching beam joints, and the requirements and complexity of the beam deployer/repacker. Three longeron deployable beams, controllable geometry beams, and hybrid deployable/erectable beam concepts are evaluated.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DIFFICULTY OF EVACUATION FROM UNDERGROUND SPACES UNDER INUNDATED SITUATIONS USING REAL SCALE MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yasuyuki; Ishigaki, Taisuke; Toda, Keiichi; Nakagawa, Hajime

    Many urbanized cities in Japan are located in alluvial plains, and the vulnerability of urbanized areas to flood disaster is highlighted by flood attacks due to heavy rain fall or typhoons. Underground spaces located in the urbanized area are flood-prone areas, and the intrusion of flood watar into underground space inflicted severe damages on urban functions and infrastructures. In a similar way, low-lying areas like "bowl-shaped" depression and underpasses under highway and railroad bridges are also prone to floods. The underpasses are common sites of accidents of submerged vehicles, and severe damage including human damage occasionally occurs under flooding conditions. To reduce the damage due to inundation in underground space, needless to say, early evacuation is one of the most important countermeasures. This paper shows some experimental results of evacuation tests from underground spaces under inundated situations. The difficulities of the evacuation from underground space has been investigated by using real scale models (door, staircase and vehicle), and the limit for safety evacuation is discussed. From the results, it is found that water depth of 0.3 - 0.4m would be a critical situation for the evacuation from underground space through staircases and door and that 0.7 - 0.8m deep on the ground would be also a critical situation for safety evacuation though the doors of the vehicle. These criteria have some possibility to vary according to different inundated situations, and they are also influenced by the individual variation like the difference of physical strength. This means that these criteria requires cautious stance to use although they show a sort of an index of the limitation for saftty evacuation from underground space.

  8. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de

    to offset the specific costs usually stressed by literature on underground production, such as those suggested by Loayza (1994) andAnderberg et al. (2003). Investigating the effects of different fiscal policy interventions,we find that taxation is a critical parameter to define the size of capital...... allocation in the underground production. In fact, a strong and inverse relationship is found, and tax reduction is the best policy to reduce the convenience to produce underground. Wealso confirm the depressing effect on investment of taxation (see, for instance, Summers,1981), so that tax reduction has...

  9. A Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Monitoring System for Roof Safety Control in Underground Coal Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiming; Zhang, Nong; Si, Guangyao

    2016-10-21

    Monitoring of roof activity is a primary measure adopted in the prevention of roof collapse accidents and functions to optimize and support the design of roadways in underground coalmines. However, traditional monitoring measures, such as using mechanical extensometers or electronic gauges, either require arduous underground labor or cannot function properly in the harsh underground environment. Therefore, in this paper, in order to break through this technological barrier, a novel monitoring system for roof safety control in underground coal mining, using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) material as a perceived element and transmission medium, has been developed. Compared with traditional monitoring equipment, the developed, novel monitoring system has the advantages of providing accurate, reliable, and continuous online monitoring of roof activities in underground coal mining. This is expected to further enable the prevention of catastrophic roof collapse accidents. The system has been successfully implemented at a deep hazardous roadway in Zhuji Coal Mine, China. Monitoring results from the study site have demonstrated the advantages of FBG-based sensors over traditional monitoring approaches. The dynamic impacts of progressive face advance on roof displacement and stress have been accurately captured by the novel roadway roof activity and safety monitoring system, which provided essential references for roadway support and design of the mine.

  10. A Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Monitoring System for Roof Safety Control in Underground Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of roof activity is a primary measure adopted in the prevention of roof collapse accidents and functions to optimize and support the design of roadways in underground coalmines. However, traditional monitoring measures, such as using mechanical extensometers or electronic gauges, either require arduous underground labor or cannot function properly in the harsh underground environment. Therefore, in this paper, in order to break through this technological barrier, a novel monitoring system for roof safety control in underground coal mining, using fiber Bragg grating (FBG material as a perceived element and transmission medium, has been developed. Compared with traditional monitoring equipment, the developed, novel monitoring system has the advantages of providing accurate, reliable, and continuous online monitoring of roof activities in underground coal mining. This is expected to further enable the prevention of catastrophic roof collapse accidents. The system has been successfully implemented at a deep hazardous roadway in Zhuji Coal Mine, China. Monitoring results from the study site have demonstrated the advantages of FBG-based sensors over traditional monitoring approaches. The dynamic impacts of progressive face advance on roof displacement and stress have been accurately captured by the novel roadway roof activity and safety monitoring system, which provided essential references for roadway support and design of the mine.

  11. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  12. Deployable Entry-system Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deployable Entry-system ProjecT (ADEPT) will develop requirements for the ADEPT flight test.  Prior entry systems used high mass thermal protection...

  13. Deployment-related Respiratory Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Rawlins, Frederic A; Forbes, Damon A; Skabelund, Andrew J; Lucero, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Military deployment to Southwest Asia since 2003 in support of Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn has presented unique challenges from a pulmonary perspective. Various airborne hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents. These exposures may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and in some instances development of chronic lung disease. While increased respiratory symptoms during deployment are well documented, there is limited data on whether inhalation of airborne particulate matter is causally related to an increase in either common or unique pulmonary diseases. While disease processes such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia and exacerbation of preexisting asthma have been adequately documented, there is significant controversy surrounding the potential effects of deployment exposures and development of rare pulmonary disorders such as constrictive bronchiolitis. The role of smoking and related disorders has yet to be defined. This article presents the current evidence for deployment-related respiratory symptoms and ongoing Department of Defense studies. Further, it also provides general recommendations for evaluating pulmonary health in the deployed military population.

  14. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  15. Region 6 Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is now a storage and retrieval application. Permit information and enforcement information of Underground Injection Wells are scanned and stored as a part of...

  16. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  17. The underground municipal information system (UMIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mulder, E.F.J.; Baardman, B.A.M. [Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Haarlem (Netherlands); Ten Kate, A.M. [Schiedamseweg, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the general trend towards digital storage of spatial data, Dutch municipalities are currently showing increased interest in digital storage and retrieval of underground geo scientific data. To meet this demand, the Geological Survey of the Netherlands has developed the Underground Municipal Information System (UMIS). This System consists of a database of underground data, a related Geographical Information System, and several modules for the preduction of thematic maps (showing foundation depth, potential settlement, subsurface distribution of aggregates, groundwater conditions, potential pathways for underground spreading of pollution sources, etc.). The Geological Survey is currently advertising UMIS among Dutch municipalities and cities abroad by distributing a free demonstration CD (in Dutch), presentations, and publications. Once UMIS is installed in a municipality, more Urban Geological research can be conducted by incorporating economic and legislative aspects in thematic geo scientific maps and by strengthening geo scientific aspects in Decision Support System.

  18. Systematic classification of hazards in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryncarz, T.

    1983-01-01

    Hazards in underground coal mines are analyzed. A general definition of a hazard is given as a physical process or interaction between environment and men which can harm miners. The following classification of mine environment is given: lithosphere, atmosphere, and so-called technosphere (equipment, machines and processes associated with mining operations in underground mines). It is stated that the traditional classification of hazards in underground mining which divides the hazards into two groups: natural hazards and other hazards, is not precise. The hazards classification proposed by the author uses three criteria: criterion of mining environment (lithosphere, atmosphere and technosphere), criterion of physical process development (mechanical process, thermal process), and criterion of process intensity (slow or rapid flow). The classification, presented in a table, covers all hazards in underground mining such as rock bursts, water influx, fires, dusts, rock falls etc. Practical use of the classification system in coal mining is discussed. 3 references.

  19. The First Great Migration: The Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Underground Railroad, a loosely organized system used by runaway Southern slaves to reach freedom in the North. Discusses the role of "conductors," who acted as guides and offered shelter along the route. (FMW)

  20. Improving underground ventilation conditions in coal mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, CF

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available projects could be initiated by miningtek in co-operation with different mines. This report deals with the findings of this project and also deals with the future of research within Miningtek with regard to underground ventilation....

  1. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small quantities...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and (b...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance work...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of combustible liquids underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... combustible liquids underground. The requirements of this standard apply to underground areas only. (a...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire... underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  6. Engineering geology of underground movements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, F.G.; Culshaw, M.G.; Cripps, J.C.; Lovell, M.A. (eds.) (Teeside Polytechnic, Middlesbrough (UK). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1988-01-01

    39 papers are presented under the following session headings: introduction; ground movements due to tunnelling; ground movements due to deep excavations; ground movements and construction operations; ground movements due to abandoned mine workings; ground movements due to longwall mining; abandoned limestone mines in the West Midlands; investigation of ground movements; ground movements due to the abstraction or injection of fluids; and induced seismicity. Each session is followed by a discussion.

  7. Spectrum of underground coal gasification in Tianjin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yongsheng; Bai Xiaohong [Tianjin Urban Construction Inst. (China)

    1997-12-31

    A feasibility study on underground coal gasification in Tianjin is conducted and a program for exploitation of these coal reserves with UCG techniques is suggested. Some issues, such as the coal resources in Tianjin, the geological features of the selected for UCG trial, the characteristics of local coal deposits and the coal quality are discussed. A proposal for a combination of the production of coalbed methane and underground coal gas was summarized.

  8. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Rabdall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  9. Low background germanium detectors: From environmental laboratory to underground counting facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceuppens, M. [Canberra Semiconductor N.V., Geel (Belgium)]|[Canberra Industries, Inc., Meriden (United States); Verplancke, J. [Canberra Semiconductor N.V., Geel (Belgium)]|[Canberra Industries, Inc., Meriden (United States); Tench, O. [Canberra Semiconductor N.V., Geel (Belgium)]|[Canberra Industries, Inc., Meriden (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Presentation and overview of different Low Level measuring systems ranging from the environmental lab to low-background detection systems and to the deep underground counting facility. Examples and performances for each of these will be given. Attention will be given to the standardised ultra low-background detectors and shields which provide excellent performance without the high cost in time and money associated with custom designed systems. (orig./DG)

  10. Monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, G.S.; Chernis, P.J.; Bushman, A.T.; Spinney, M.H.; Backer, R.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a customer oriented monitoring and information management system at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba. The system is used to monitor instruments and manage, process, and distribute data. It consists of signal conditioners and remote loggers, central schedule and control systems, computer aided design and drafting work centres, and the communications linking them. The monitoring and communications elements are designed to meet the harsh demands of underground conditions while providing accurate monitoring of sensitive instruments to rigorous quality assured specifications. These instruments are used for testing of the concept for the deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Many of the tests are done in situ and at full-scale. The monitoring and information management system services engineering, research, and support staff working to design, develop, and demonstrate and present the concept. Experience gained during development of the monitoring and information management system at the URL, can be directly applied at the final disposal site. (author)

  11. Underground Searches for Cold Relics of the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Baudis, L

    2005-01-01

    We have strong evidence on all cosmic scales, from galaxies to the largest structures ever observed, that there is more matter in the universe than we can see. Galaxies and clusters would fly apart unless they would be held together by material which we call dark, because it does not shine in photons. Although the amount of dark matter and its distribution are fairly well established, we are clueless regarding its composition. Leading candidates are Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which are 'cold' thermal relics of the Big Bang, ie moving non-relativistically at the time of structure formation. These particles can be detected via their interaction with nuclei in deep-underground, low-background detectors. Experiments dedicated to observe WIMP interactions for the first time reach sensitivities allowing to probe the parameter space predicted by supersymmetric theories of particle physics. Current results of high sensitivity direct detection experiments are discussed and the most promising project...

  12. An energy-efficient underground localization system based on heterogeneous wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yazhou; Chen, Cailian; Guan, Xinping; Yang, Qiuling

    2015-05-26

    A precision positioning system with energy efficiency is of great necessity for guaranteeing personnel safety in underground mines. The location information of the miners' should be transmitted to the control center timely and reliably; therefore, a heterogeneous network with the backbone based on high speed Industrial Ethernet is deployed. Since the mobile wireless nodes are working in an irregular tunnel, a specific wireless propagation model cannot fit all situations. In this paper, an underground localization system is designed to enable the adaptation to kinds of harsh tunnel environments, but also to reduce the energy consumption and thus prolong the lifetime of the network. Three key techniques are developed and implemented to improve the system performance, including a step counting algorithm with accelerometers, a power control algorithm and an adaptive packets scheduling scheme. The simulation study and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the implementation.

  13. An Energy-Efficient Underground Localization System Based on Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A precision positioning system with energy efficiency is of great necessity for guaranteeing personnel safety in underground mines. The location information of the miners’ should be transmitted to the control center timely and reliably; therefore, a heterogeneous network with the backbone based on high speed Industrial Ethernet is deployed. Since the mobile wireless nodes are working in an irregular tunnel, a specific wireless propagation model cannot fit all situations. In this paper, an underground localization system is designed to enable the adaptation to kinds of harsh tunnel environments, but also to reduce the energy consumption and thus prolong the lifetime of the network. Three key techniques are developed and implemented to improve the system performance, including a step counting algorithm with accelerometers, a power control algorithm and an adaptive packets scheduling scheme. The simulation study and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the implementation.

  14. The Meuse-Haute Marne underground research laboratory. A scientific research tool for the study of deep geologic disposal of radioactive wastes; Le Laboratoire de Recherche souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne. Un outil de recherche scientifique pour etudier le stockage geologique profond de dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Meuse-Haute Marne underground research laboratory, is an essential scientific tool for the achievement of one of the ANDRA's mission defined in the framework of the law from December 30, 1991 about the long-term management of high-level and long-living radioactive wastes. This document presents this laboratory: site characterization, characteristics of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay, and laboratory creation, coordinated experiments carried out at the surface and in depth, and the results obtained (published in an exhaustive way in the 'Clay 2005' dossier). (J.S.)

  15. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall... condition. Dust collectors approved under Part 33—Dust Collectors for Use in Connection with Rock Drilling... the purpose of this section. (c) Water control. Water used to control dust from drilling rock shall...

  16. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance...

  17. A research on the excavation and maintenance of underground energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee-Soon; Chung, So-Keul; Ryu, Chang-Ha [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    CAES which is called as a compressed air energy storage was firstly developed at Huntorf, Gen-nan in 1978. The capacity of that system was 290MW, and it can be treated as a first commercial power plant. CAES has a lot of merits, such as saving the unit price of power generation, averaging the peak demand, improvement of maintenance, enlarging the benefit of dynamic use. According to the literature survey, the unlined rock cavern should be proposed to be a reasonable storing style as a method of compressed air storage in Korea. In this study, the most important techniques were evaluated through the investigation of the foreign construction case studies, especially on the unlined rock caverns in hard rock mass. We decided the hill of the Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials as CAES site. If we construct the underground spaces in this site, the demand for electricity nearby Taejon should be considered. So we could determine the capacity of the power plant as a 350MW. This capacity needs a underground space of 200,000, and we can conclude 4 parallel tunnels 550m deep from the surface through the numerical studies. Design parameters were achieved from 300m depth boring job and image processing job. Moreover the techniques for determination of joint characteristics from the images could be obtained. Blasting pattern was designed on the underground spaces, and automatic gas control system and thermomechanical characteristics on caverns were also studied. And finally the following research items could be proposed for future researches. (1) Establishment of criteria for selection of optimal tunnel type. (2) Evaluation of water tightening ability. (3) Investigation of Lining type. (4) Development of techniques for site investigation in deep underground project. (5) Evaluation of construction techniques for underground space and shaft. (6) Investigation of long-term maintenance for pressured tunnel. (author). 14 refs.

  18. Deployable truss structure advanced technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, J. E.; Dudeck, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    The 5-meter technology antenna program demonstrated the overall feasibility of integrating a mesh reflector surface with a deployable truss structure to achieve a precision surface contour compatible with future, high-performance antenna requirements. Specifically, the program demonstrated: the feasibility of fabricating a precision, edge-mounted, deployable, tetrahedral truss structure; the feasibility of adjusting a truss-supported mesh reflector contour to a surface error less than 10 mils rms; and good RF test performance, which correlated well with analytical predictions. Further analysis and testing (including flight testing) programs are needed to fully verify all the technology issues, including structural dynamics, thermodynamics, control, and on-orbit RF performance, which are associated with large, deployable, truss antenna structures.

  19. NESTOR Deep Sea Neutrino Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    NESTOR Collaboration; Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Ball, A. E.; Bourlis, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Leisos, A.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Staveris-Polikalas, A.; Tsagli, V.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Zhukov, V. A.

    2006-01-01

    One module of NESTOR, the Mediterranean deep-sea neutrino telescope, was deployed at a depth of 4000m, 14km off the Sapienza Island, off the South West coast of Greece. The deployment site provides excellent environmental characteristics. The deployed NESTOR module is constructed as a hexagonal star like latticed titanium star with 12 Optical Modules and an one-meter diameter titanium sphere which houses the electronics. Power and data were transferred through a 30km electro-optical cable to the shore laboratory. In this report we describe briefly the detector and the detector electronics and discuss the first physics data acquired and give the zenith angular distribution of the reconstructed muons.

  20. The MEUST deep sea infrastructure in the Toulon site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamare Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The MEUST infrastructure (Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies is a permanent deep sea cabled infrastructure currently being deployed off shore of Toulon, France. The design and the status of the infrastructure are presented.

  1. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  2. OMV multiple deployments of lightsats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William L.; Walker, James D.

    1988-06-01

    The design and capabilities of the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) are reviewed, and the potential value of the Shuttle-borne OMV for deploying lightweight satellites (lightsats) into different orbits is discussed and illustrated with extensive drawings and diagrams. Assuming 100-lb lightsats in extended GAS canisters, the OMV could separate from the Orbiter at 16 nmi and deploy six lightsats each at altitudes 430, 700, and 970 nmi before rejoining the Orbiter at 160 nmi. Also considered are configurations with 8 or 12 200-lb lightsats and the fittings for Titan-4 launch of OMV/lightsat packages.

  3. IPv6 deployment and management

    CERN Document Server

    Dooley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A guide for understanding, deploying, and managing Internet Protocol version 6 The growth of the Internet has created a need for more addresses than are available with Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)-the protocol currently used to direct almost all Internet traffic. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)-the new IP version intended to ultimately succeed IPv4-will expand the addressing capacity of the Internet to support the explosive growth of users and devices on the Internet as well as add flexibility to allocating addresses and efficiency for routing traffic. IPv6 Deploy

  4. Department of Defense, Deployment Health Clinical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related to deployment health assessments, combat and operational stress programs, deployment-limiting health conditions and deployment-related exposures. Learn More In the News Experts Explore How Combat Roles May Affect Women’s Psychological Health Deployments can be 'significant stressor' ...

  5. Measurement of the Surface and Underground Neutron Spectra with the UMD/NIST Fast Neutron Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Thomas J.

    The typical fast neutron detector falls into one of two categories, Bonner sphere spectrometers and liquid scintillator proton recoil detectors. These two detector types have traditionally been used to measure fast neutrons at the surface and in low background environments. The cosmogenic neutron spectrum and flux is an important parameter for a number of experimental efforts, including procurement of low background materials and the prediction of electronic device faults. Fast neutrons can also cause problems for underground low-background experiments, through material activation or signals that mimic rare events. Current detector technology is not sufficient to properly characterize these backgrounds. To this end, the University of Maryland and the National Institute of Standards and Technology designed, developed, and deployed two Fast Neutron Spectrometers (FaNS) comprised of plastic scintillator and 3He proportional counters. The detectors are based upon capture-gated spectroscopy, a technique that demands a delayed coincidence between a neutron scatter and the resulting neutron capture after thermalization. This technique provides both particle identification and knowledge that the detected neutron fully thermalized. This improves background rejection capabilities and energy resolution. Presented are the design, development, and deployment of FaNS-1 and FaNS-2. Both detectors were characterized using standard fields at NIST, including calibrated 252Cf neutron sources and two monoenergetic neutron generators. Measurements of the surface fast neutron spectrum and flux have been made with both detectors, which are compared with previous measurements by traditional detectors. Additionally, FaNS-1 was deployed at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) in Ripplemead, VA. A measurement of the fast neutron spectrum and flux at KURF is presented as well. FaNS-2 is currently installed in a shallow underground laboratory where it is measuring the muon

  6. Study of a flowerlike deployable structure:

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Ani; Liu, Heping; Li, Cheng; Wang, Yongfan

    2013-01-01

    A deployable structure is a kind of mechanism that can be folded and deployed automatically. It is able to form required shape or curved surface after deployment. In this paper, a flowerlike deployable structure, which forms a circle plane after deployment, was studied. First, the required circle plane was decomposed to determine the shapes of the members. Then the relation expressions were set up, which include the structural dimensions of the members and how to calculate the volume of the m...

  7. Space deployable truss structure design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyner, J. V., Jr.; Tobey, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The development status of the deployable box truss structure is summarized. Potential applications for this structural system are described. Structural and component design requirements derived from these applications are discussed. Components of prototype 4.6 m cubes which incorporate graphite/epoxy structural members, fittings, and mechanisms are described. The benefits of the component designs and their respective manufacturing processes are presented.

  8. A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System Gareth R. Thomas1 and Bernard J. Sia2 1ATA Engineering, 11995 El Camino Real, San Diego, CA 92130; PH (858) 480...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) ATA Engineering,11995 El Camino Real,San Diego,CA,92130 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  9. OMV Deployed From Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    In this 1986 artist's concept, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), at right, prepares to reboost the Hubble Space Telescope after being deployed from an early Space Station configuration (left). As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  10. Underground nuclear astrophysics at the Dresden Felsenkeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel; Ilgner, Christoph; Junghans, Arnd R.; Mueller, Stefan; Rimarzig, Bernd; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas E.; Gohl, Stefan; Grieger, Marcel; Reinicke, Stefan; Roeder, Marko; Schmidt, Konrad; Stoeckel, Klaus; Takacs, Marcell P.; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background underground, accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear astrophysics reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies, as well as the continuation of solar fusion studies. As a result, NuPECC strongly recommended the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators. Such a project is underway in Dresden. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator is currently being refurbished by installing an ion source on the high voltage terminal, enabling intensive helium beams. The preparation of the underground site is funded, and the civil engineering project is being updated. The science case, operational strategy and project status are reported.

  11. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germata, Daniel Thomas [Wadsworth, IL

    2009-02-24

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.

  12. The Mimetic Principle in the Underground Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Voicu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been in the recent years an increased preoccupation at international level for the research of the mechanism of development of the underground economy. The numerous vain attempts to measure the dimension of the underground economy persuaded us to embark on a qualitative research of this economic phenomenon. In our investigation on the roots of the underground economy we drew very close to the psychological and sociological aspects of the phenomenon itself. The process of humanizing that has at its origin components of the mimetic principle, like acquisitive mimesis, prompt us to ponder over J.M. Keynes’ words: „The avoidance of taxes is the only intellectual ambition that one feels rewarded for.”

  13. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft inter

  14. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft inter

  15. Deep learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language proces...

  16. Malaysian alternative to international reference bentonite buffer in underground nuclear waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadza, Mohd Yuhyi Mohd; Azmi, Nor Syafiqah Mohd; Mustapha, Roslanzairi; Desa, Nor Dalilah; Samuding, Kamarudin

    2017-01-01

    The performance of bentonite as buffer material in underground nuclear waste repository has been extensively being investigated all over the world. Over the years, almost exclusively, naturally occurring Wyoming sodium based bentonite (MX80) was tested as a reference buffer material. Other alternatives such as calcium and mixed based bentonites from all over the world were also examined for this specific application in respective countries. In Malaysia, the potential of naturally occurring bentonites have not clearly documented and may be considered for the application of buffer material in underground nuclear waste repository. In the context of underground radioactive waste storage, bentonite from Sabah volcanic formation, namely Andrassy bentonite was characterized in the laboratory and compared with MX80 and Deponit Ca-N bentonites. The geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, particle size distribution, specific gravity, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area and swelling potential were carefully determined. In addition, the water retention characteristics were established using a chilled-mirror dew-point potentiometer. Test results indicated that the Andrassy bentonite may be selected as the key component in the country's future development of deep underground radioactive waste facilities.

  17. Geological Feasibility of Underground Oil Storage in Jintan Salt Mine of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilin Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of large underground oil storage spaces will be constructed in deep salt mines in China in the coming years. According to the general geological survey, the first salt cavern oil storage base of China is planned to be built in Jintan salt mine. In this research, the geological feasibility of the salt mine for oil storage is identified in detail as follows. (1 The characteristics of regional structure, strata sediment, and impermeable layer distribution of Jintan salt mine were evaluated and analyzed. (2 The tightness of cap rock was evaluated in reviews of macroscopic geology and microscopic measuring. (3 According to the geological characteristics of Jintan salt mine, the specific targeted formation for building underground oil storage was chosen, and the sealing of nonsalt interlayers was evaluated. (4 Based on the sonar measuring results of the salt caverns, the characteristics of solution mining salt caverns were analyzed. In addition, the preferred way of underground oil storage construction was determined. (5 Finally, the results of closed well observation in solution mining salt caverns were assessed. The research results indicated that Jintan salt mine has the basic geological conditions for building large-scale underground oil storage.

  18. Public outreach at the Soudan Underground Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, Richard

    2016-04-01

    There are many facets to the outreach program at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, currently host to the MINOS neutrino oscillation experiment and the Cryogenic Dark Matter experiment, plus a number of smaller experiments in the Low Background Counting Facility. The main focus is on twice daily public tours, operated in coordination with the Soudan Underground State Park and Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, who also operate undergound tours of the historical iron mining area. Another important component is the undergraduate interns and high school teachers who lead the tours. They also participate in the operation and/or analysis of the experiments hosted at the mine.

  19. Black Hills State University Underground Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Brianna J; Thomas, Keenan J; Oliver-Mallory, Kelsey C; Lesko, Kevin T; Schnee, Richard W; Henning, Reyco; MacLellan, Ryan F; Guerra, Marcelo B B; Busch, Matthew; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann D; Wilkerson, J F; Xu, Wenqin; Mei, Dongming

    2017-08-01

    The Black Hills State University Underground Campus (BHUC) houses a low background counting facility on the 4850' level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility. There are currently four ultra-low background, high-purity germanium detectors installed in the BHUC and it is anticipated four more detectors will be installed within a year. In total, the BHUC will be able to accommodate up to twelve detectors with space inside a class 1000 cleanroom, an automated liquid nitrogen fill system, on-site personnel assistance and other required utilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment JUNA in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. P.

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. A 400 kV high current accelerator with an ECR source and γ , neutron and charged particle detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution near their Gamow window energies such as 25Mg(p, γ )26Al, 19F(p, α )16O, 13C(α , n)16O, and 12C(α , γ )16O, by the end of 2019.

  1. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de

    In this paper we investigate the effects of different fiscal policies on the firm choice to produce underground. We consider a tax evading firm operating simultaneously both in the regular and in the underground economy. We suggest that such a kind of firm, referred to as moonlighting firm, is able......, in this specifictypology of firm, some unexpected effects, causing, together with a positive investment process, also an increase in the share of irregularity. This finding could explain, in amicroeconomic framework, the evidence of Italian southern regions, where high incentivesare combined with high irregularity ratios....

  2. Is Multitask Deep Learning Practical for Pharma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsundar, Bharath; Liu, Bowen; Wu, Zhenqin; Verras, Andreas; Tudor, Matthew; Sheridan, Robert P; Pande, Vijay

    2017-08-28

    Multitask deep learning has emerged as a powerful tool for computational drug discovery. However, despite a number of preliminary studies, multitask deep networks have yet to be widely deployed in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. This lack of acceptance stems from both software difficulties and lack of understanding of the robustness of multitask deep networks. Our work aims to resolve both of these barriers to adoption. We introduce a high-quality open-source implementation of multitask deep networks as part of the DeepChem open-source platform. Our implementation enables simple python scripts to construct, fit, and evaluate sophisticated deep models. We use our implementation to analyze the performance of multitask deep networks and related deep models on four collections of pharmaceutical data (three of which have not previously been analyzed in the literature). We split these data sets into train/valid/test using time and neighbor splits to test multitask deep learning performance under challenging conditions. Our results demonstrate that multitask deep networks are surprisingly robust and can offer strong improvement over random forests. Our analysis and open-source implementation in DeepChem provide an argument that multitask deep networks are ready for widespread use in commercial drug discovery.

  3. The deep subterranean biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose with this review is to summarise present research on the microbiology of deep subterranean environments, deeper than 50-100 m. Included are mainly studies where drilling, excavation, core sampling and ground water sampling have been made for research. Studies done in environments penetrated for commercial purposes, such as water wells, mining, oil recovery etc., have been dismissed because of the obvious risk for contamination during the penetration. Different measures that can be applied to reduce the risk of microbial contamination of sampled specimens by the access operations are discussed. The requirement for reliable estimations of the present microbial biomass, its activity and diversity in subterranean ecosystems, is fundamental. An array of different methods to achieve this goal are presented. The depth limit for subterranean life is suggested to be set by temperature, provided there is energy available for microbial life. If so, it should be possible to enrich thermophilic bacteria from deep hot ground waters which also has been done. There are only a few sites where the subterranean microbiology has been studied in multidisiplinary programs including chemistry and geology. The two most extensively published sites are the sediments of the Atlantic coastal plain of South Carolina, USA, studied in a subsurface program, initiated and sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, and crystalline bed-rock in Sweden studied in a program concerning the safety of future underground repositories for nuclear waste. This review presents an array of independent reports suggesting that microbial life is widespread at depth in the crust of earth—the deep subterranean biosphere. The obvious consequences is that microbes may be involved in many subterranean geochemical processes, such as diagenesis, weathering, precipitation, and in oxidation or reduction reactions of metals, carbon, nitrogen and sulfur—just as they are in most terranean environments.

  4. Bootstrapping Deep Lexical Resources: Resources for Courses

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    We propose a range of deep lexical acquisition methods which make use of morphological, syntactic and ontological language resources to model word similarity and bootstrap from a seed lexicon. The different methods are deployed in learning lexical items for a precision grammar, and shown to each have strengths and weaknesses over different word classes. A particular focus of this paper is the relative accessibility of different language resource types, and predicted ``bang for the buck'' associated with each in deep lexical acquisition applications.

  5. On the Variable Dilatancy Angle in Rocks Around Underground Galleries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehnia, Fatemeh; Collin, Frédéric; Charlier, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Correct estimation of the dilatant behavior of a rock has an essential role in a realistic numerical simulation of the fracturing threshold during the rock deformation process and its post-failure response, based on experimental and field observations. This importance has been poorly treated in most of the numerical analyses dealing with the rock engineering common problems such as deep excavations. The dilatancy angle as a commonly used parameter for describing the dilatation response of a rock is mostly simplified to be a constant value. Contrarily, a literature review declares the inadequacy of this approach in those rock mechanics applications. In the present paper, a new formula for considering the variable dilatancy angle is presented which relates this parameter to the plastic shear strain in the course of a loading procedure. It is aimed at characterizing an evolution of the dilatant or contracting volumetric response of a rock as well as giving the possibility to simulate a dilatant/contracting transitional behavior. The model is applied to simulate the development of strain localization, in shear band mode, within the inevitable excavation damaged zone created around an underground opening in rock. It is illustrated that using the model of variable dilatancy angle in a deep excavation modeling could help to better reproduce the fractures development around the opening in the course of tunneling.

  6. Assessment of condition of underground collector lines situated inside the technological complexes of underground storage facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Misany

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of status of underground gas pipeline systems operating for several decades becomes a decisive factor of the decision making for their further safe and reliable operation. The decision becomes crucial especially in cases when piping is installed within a facility without the cathodic protection. The evaluation and inspection of underground gas manifolds requires a specific approach tailored for the respective manifolds.In 2003 NAFTA, the company initiated an extensive plan of the underground gas manifolds diagnostics and evaluation. The results were presented within the Working Committee WOC2 at the 23rd World Gas Congress in Amsterdam.

  7. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  8. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...

  9. Wages, unemployment, and the underground economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2003-01-01

    the impact of higher punishmentrates and a higher audit rate on labour market performance. We findthat a higher punishment rate reduces the size of the informal sectorand reduces unemployment. A higher audit rate has an ambiguousimpact on unemployment, and may actually increase the size of theunderground...... economy.JEL-codes: H26Keywords: Tax evasion, underground economy, matching, bargaining,unemployment....

  10. Underground Energy Storage Program. 1983 annual summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-06-01

    The Underground Energy Storage Program approach, structure, history, and milestones are described. Technical activities and progress in the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage and Compressed Air Energy Storage components of the program are then summarized, documenting the work performed and progress made toward resolving and eliminating technical and economic barriers associated with those technologies. (LEW)

  11. Nõukogudemaa underground bootleg'id / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2008-01-01

    DVDst "Päratrusti pärand" - ENSV Riikliku Kultuurijäätmete Töötlemise Artelli "Päratrust" kultusfilmide kogumikust. Mustvalged underground-lühimängufilmid "Tsarli läheb Tallinna", "Tsaar Muhha", "Neurootiline pärastlõuna", "Kalkar", "Päratee" jt. aastatest 1980 -1983, filmid on taashelindatud 2007. aastal

  12. A Comprehensive Study of Underground Animals Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klokov, A. V.; Zapasnoy, A. S.; Mironchev, A. S.; Yakubov, V. P.; Shipilova, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a method of studying the natural habitats of underground animals by the example of zokor. The purpose of the research is to find habitation of animals using unmanned aircraft and investigate networks of tunnels and burrows with ground penetrating radar "OKO-2". Geolocation data were processed by techniques developed by the authors.

  13. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work and findings of a PhD project focused on accurate high frequency modelling of long High Voltage AC Underground cables. The project is cooperation between Aalborg University and Energinet.dk. The objective of the project is to investigate the accuracy of most up to date...

  14. Nõukogudemaa underground bootleg'id / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2008-01-01

    DVDst "Päratrusti pärand" - ENSV Riikliku Kultuurijäätmete Töötlemise Artelli "Päratrust" kultusfilmide kogumikust. Mustvalged underground-lühimängufilmid "Tsarli läheb Tallinna", "Tsaar Muhha", "Neurootiline pärastlõuna", "Kalkar", "Päratee" jt. aastatest 1980 -1983, filmid on taashelindatud 2007. aastal

  15. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Geology: Geological studies of the jobsite, particularly involving the soil type and its permeability; (3... atmosphere in all underground work areas shall be tested quantitatively for carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide... shall be operated at the face with the sensor(s) placed as high and close to the front of the...

  16. Underground navigation and localisation using RFID tags

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues in the field of mobile robotics is localisation and navigation in an unknown environment. These tasks become even more challenging in an underground environment where no GPS signals or stationary landmark towers are available...

  17. Underground mining robot: a CSIR project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in South Africa is currently developing a robot for the inspection of the ceiling (hanging-wall) in an underground gold mine. The robot autonomously navigates the 30 meter long by 3 meter...

  18. Lighting underground%"照亮"地下

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英

    2009-01-01

    本文介绍利用地震角度偏移法实现照亮地下的理论构想,并做了大量的研究工作,说明地震波角度偏移法在地下空间探测中的巨大作用和应用前景.研究中利用仿生学眼睛的功能,阐述了照亮地下的理论和方法技术,特别研究了眼睛的形觉、光觉、色觉、立体觉与地下空问探测的对比关系.最后结合研究的实测结果说明照亮地下理论的可实现性及效果.%This paper introduces the theory conceive of lighting underground by the seismic angle offset method, and explains great affect and application prospect by doing lots of research work. Making use of bionics eye function elaborate theory, method and technology of lighting underground, it specially performs comparison between shape sense, light sense, color sense, three-dimensional sense of eyes and underground space detection. Finally, it combines research fruit to show feasibility and effectiveness of the lighting underground theory.

  19. Freedom Train: Building an Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity called the "Freedom Train": a simulation for eighth grade students that enables them to gain an understanding of the importance and dangers of the Underground Railroad. Explains that the project encourages students to work cooperatively while also reinforcing their research and map skills. Provides follow-up…

  20. Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Mary; Ruthsdotter, Mary

    Suitable for elementary level students, this study unit helps increase students' comprehension of the risks involved in a black person's flight from slavery and of Harriet Tubman's success in leading more than 300 slaves to freedom via the Underground Railroad. Five activity suggestions are followed by a reading on the life of Harriet Tubman.…

  1. A Walk on the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Describes one historian's search for information on the Underground Railroad, retracing on foot one of the routes formerly traveled by fugitives, seeking historical societies and libraries in each town, and interviewing descendants of slaves. He also had himself boxed up and smuggled onto a train to simulate the situation of one fugitive. A…

  2. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

  3. 76 FR 51970 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground... Drinking Water/Drinking Water Protection Division/Underground Injection Control Program, Mailcode: 4606M... owners and operators of underground injection wells, State Underground Injection Control (UIC) primacy...

  4. Lifecycle Readiness and Ship Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The physical fatigue associated with ship motions has significant consequences for today’s minimally manned ships. “Because of minimally sized...a deployment. The inefficiencies in performance may develop from lack of training, different personal aptitude, and individual’s mental or physical ...exacerbation of symptoms known as the avalanche phenomenon follows which includes: increased salivation, bodily warmth , and light- headedness” (Stevens

  5. Underground physics and the barometric pumping effect observed for thermal neutron flux underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenkin, Yu. V.; Alekseenko, V. V.; Gromushkin, D. M.; Sulakov, V. P.; Shchegolev, O. B.

    2017-05-01

    It is known that neutron background is a major problem for low-background experiments carrying out underground, such as dark matter search, double-beta decay searches and other experiments known as Underground Physics. We present here some results obtained with the en-detector of 0.75 m2, which is running for more than 4 years underground at a depth of 25 m water equivalent in Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University. Some spontaneous increases in thermal neutron flux up to a factor of 3 were observed in delayed anti-correlation with barometric pressure. The phenomenon can be explained by the radon barometric pumping effect resulting in similar effect in neutron flux being produced in (α, n)-reactions by alpha-decays of radon and its daughters in surrounding rock. This is the first demonstration of the barometric pumping effect observed in thermal neutron flux underground.

  6. Underground reconnaissance and environmental monitoring related to geologic CO2 sequestration studies at the DUSEL Facility, Homestake Mine, South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Salve, Rohit

    2009-11-20

    Underground field reconnaissance was carried out in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) to identify potential locations for the planned geologic carbon sequestration experimental facility known as DUSEL CO{sub 2}. In addition, instrumentation for continuous environmental monitoring of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity was installed at various locations within the Homestake mine. The motivation for this work is the need to locate and design the DUSEL CO{sub 2} facility currently being planned to host CO{sub 2} and water flow and reaction experiments in long column pressure vessels over large vertical length scales. Review of existing geologic data and reconnaissance underground revealed numerous potential locations for vertical experimental flow columns, with limitations of existing vertical boreholes arising from limited vertical extent, poor continuity between drifts, and small diameter. Results from environmental monitoring over 46 days reveal spatial and temporal variations related to ventilation, weather, and ongoing dewatering of the mine.

  7. Deep Learning and Bayesian Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosper, Harrison B.

    2017-03-01

    A revolution is underway in which deep neural networks are routinely used to solve diffcult problems such as face recognition and natural language understanding. Particle physicists have taken notice and have started to deploy these methods, achieving results that suggest a potentially significant shift in how data might be analyzed in the not too distant future. We discuss a few recent developments in the application of deep neural networks and then indulge in speculation about how such methods might be used to automate certain aspects of data analysis in particle physics. Next, the connection to Bayesian methods is discussed and the paper ends with thoughts on a significant practical issue, namely, how, from a Bayesian perspective, one might optimize the construction of deep neural networks.

  8. Deep Learning and Bayesian Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper Harrison B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A revolution is underway in which deep neural networks are routinely used to solve diffcult problems such as face recognition and natural language understanding. Particle physicists have taken notice and have started to deploy these methods, achieving results that suggest a potentially significant shift in how data might be analyzed in the not too distant future. We discuss a few recent developments in the application of deep neural networks and then indulge in speculation about how such methods might be used to automate certain aspects of data analysis in particle physics. Next, the connection to Bayesian methods is discussed and the paper ends with thoughts on a significant practical issue, namely, how, from a Bayesian perspective, one might optimize the construction of deep neural networks.

  9. Underground Physics in Spain; La Fisica subterranea en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puimedon Santolaria, J.

    2005-07-01

    Underground laboratories provide the low background environment necessary to the search for extremely rare phenomena like neutrino oscillations, double deta decay or dark matter. There are only four underground infrastructures available in the Europe Union, one of them is in Spain: the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. (Author)

  10. 30 CFR 57.4505 - Fuel lines to underground areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel lines to underground areas. 57.4505... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4505 Fuel lines to underground areas. Fuel...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4161 - Use of fire underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of fire underground. 57.4161 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4161 Use of fire underground. Fires shall not...

  12. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting the...

  13. Entrepreneurial Opportunity in Denmark’s Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Dana, L-P; Vang, Jan

    Based on interviews with immigrants to Denmark, meetings with stakeholders and with experts in the field, this article addresses issues regarding the underground economy in Denmark. What circumstances and factors characterise specific sectors or breaches to the ones in which undocumented immigrants...... participate in underground economic activities? Is the underground economy a pull factor for irregular/undocumented migration?...

  14. 30 CFR 816.79 - Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of underground mining. 816.79... ACTIVITIES § 816.79 Protection of underground mining. No surface mining activities shall be conducted closer than 500 feet to any point of either an active or abandoned underground mine, except to the extent that...

  15. Investigating movement of heat and water generators at work underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  16. 30 CFR 57.4260 - Underground self-propelled equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground self-propelled equipment. 57.4260... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4260 Underground self-propelled equipment. (a) Whenever self-propelled equipment is used underground, a fire extinguisher shall be on the equipment....

  17. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section... Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or blasting agents in... explosives or blasting agents taken to an underground loading area shall not exceed the amount estimated to...

  18. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  19. Polysubstance Use Patterns in Underground Rave Attenders: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Calderon, Fermin; Lozano, Oscar M.; Vidal, Claudio; Ortega, Josefa Gutierrez; Vergara, Esperanza; Gonzalez-Saiz, Francisco; Bilbao, Izaskun; Caluente, Marta; Cano, Tomas; Cid, Francisco; Dominguez, Celia; Izquierdo, Emcarni; Perez, Maria I.

    2011-01-01

    Drug use in mainstream rave parties has been widely documented in a large number of studies. However, not much is known about drug use in underground raves. The purpose of this study is to find out the polysubstance use patterns at underground raves. Two hundred and fifty-two young people between the ages of 18 and 30 who went to underground raves…

  20. 47 CFR 32.6422 - Underground cable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground cable expense. 32.6422 Section 32.6422 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Underground cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with underground cable....

  1. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 153... 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB84 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and... alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit...

  2. Underground Storage Tanks - UST_IDEM_IN: Underground Storage Tanks in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — UST_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains regulated underground storage tank locations (including leaking underground storage tanks) in Indiana, provided by...

  3. Feasibility of low energy radiative capture experiments at the LUNA underground accelerator facility

    CERN Document Server

    Bemmerer, D; Lemut, A; Bonetti, R; Broggini, C; Corvisiero, P; Costantini, H; Cruz, J; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Z; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, G; Imbriani, G; Jesus, A P; Junker, M; Limata, B; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Roca, V; Rogalla, D; Rolfs, C; Romano, M; Alvarez, C R; Schumann, F; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P; Vomiero, A; Fulop, Zs.; Gyurky, Gy.

    2005-01-01

    The LUNA (Laboratory Underground for Nuclear Astrophysics) facility has been designed to study nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest. It is located deep underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy. Two electrostatic accelerators, with 50 and 400 kV maximum voltage, in combination with solid and gas target setups allowed to measure the total cross sections of the radiative capture reactions $^2$H(p,$\\gamma$)3He and $^{14}$N(p,$\\gamma$)$^{15}$O within their relevant Gamow peaks. We report on the gamma background in the Gran Sasso laboratory measured by germanium and bismuth germanate detectors, with and without an incident proton beam. A method to localize the sources of beam induced background using the Doppler shift of emitted gamma rays is presented. The feasibility of radiative capture studies at energies of astrophysical interest is discussed for several experimental scenarios.

  4. Hierarchical Orbital Observatory Deployable Shroud (HOODS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large deployable telescopes such as NASA's 9.2m and 16.8m segmented ATLAST systems require commensurately large deployable sunshades for thermal control and to...

  5. Lunar Underground Mining and Construction : A Terrestrial Vision enabling Space Exploration and Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Greg; Grenier, Louis; Blair, Brad

    As the Space Shuttle, Candarm and Space Station near their useful extended lives before the end of this decade, the question "What will be the next frontier for humans and robots to explore and how will we get there?" needs to be considered. Several countries are planning their next take on the exploration of the solar system. The moon is still a viable destination for several countries for two main reasons: the recent discovery of water improves the prospects of a basic infrastructure capability that would enable future commercial interests to drive the impetus to deploy profitable operations in the near future. The commercial appeal to establish a permanent lunar base should rise in this decade with the prospect of using natural resources available, in particular recently found water. The ability to break water into hydrogen and oxygen for providing the main necessities of life, rocket fuel and air to breathe make this permanent base feasible. Furthermore, several significant environmental issues will force this permanent base underground. These issues include lunar radiation, solar flares, temperature extremes and micro-meteorites. Lunar radiation alone will force this move to rock shielding protection of astronauts as at least 10 metres of rock cover will be required to protect human, animals and plants. As early as 1959 the placecountry-regionUS army considered a permanent underground base on the moon. While the original underground idea has merit space pioneers have strayed from this sensible safe concept. Furthermore, advances in proven telerobotic min-ing technology for terrestrial purposes can provide the opportunity for the commercial interests and perhaps government space programs to consider the concept, design, build and implement an underground lunar habitat and a mining and processing operation from basic infrastructure to commercial deployment of profitable operations. This paper discusses a Canadian concept behind a permanent manned outpost on the

  6. Summary of the LLNL gasoline spill demonstration - dynamic underground stripping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmark, R.L.; Aines, R.D.

    1995-04-03

    Underground spills of volatile hydrocarbons (solvents or fuels) can be difficult to clean up when the hydrocarbons are present both above and below the water table and are found in relatively impermeable clays. Years of groundwater pumping may not completely remove the contamination. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the College of Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) have collaborated to develop a technique called Dynamic Underground Stripping to remove localized underground spills in a relatively short time. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has sponsored a full-scale demonstration of this technique at the LLNL gasoline spill site. When highly concentrated contamination is found above the standing water table, vacuum extraction has been very effective at both removing the contaminant and enhancing biological remediation through the addition of oxygen. Below the water table, however, these advantages cannot be obtained. For such sites where the contamination is too deep for excavation, there are currently no widely applicable cleanup methods. Dynamic Underground Stripping removes separate-phase organic contaminants below the water table by heating the subsurface above the boiling point of water, and then removing both contaminant and water by vacuum extraction. The high temperatures both convert the organic to vapor and enhance other removal paths by increasing diffusion and eliminating sorption. Because this method uses rapid, high-energy techniques in cleaning the soil, it requires an integrated system of underground monitoring and imaging methods to control and evaluate the process in real time.

  7. Security Support in Continuous Deployment Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Faheem; Raft, Adam Johannes; Shahin, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Continuous Deployment (CD) has emerged as a new practice in the software industry to continuously and automatically deploy software changes into production. Continuous Deployment Pipeline (CDP) supports CD practice by transferring the changes from the repository to production. Since most of the C...

  8. Examples of Department of Energy Successes for Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater: Permeable Reactive Barrier and Dynamic Underground Stripping ASTD Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, C.; Gerdes, K.; Aljayoushi, J.; Kaback, D.; Ivory, T.

    2002-02-27

    Since 1998, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has funded the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Program to expedite deployment of alternative technologies that can save time and money for the environmental cleanup at DOE sites across the nation. The ASTD program has accelerated more than one hundred deployments of new technologies under 76 projects that focus on a broad spectrum of EM problems. More than 25 environmental restoration projects have been initiated to solve the following types of problems: characterization of the subsurface using chemical, radiological, geophysical, and statistical methods; treatment of groundwater contaminated with DNAPLs, metals, or radionuclides; and other projects such as landfill covers, purge water management systems, and treatment of explosives-contaminated soils. One of the major goals of the ASTD Program is to deploy a new technology or process at multiple DOE sites. ASTD projects are encouraged to identify subsequent deployments at other sites. Some of the projects that have successfully deployed technologies at multiple sites focusing on cleanup of contaminated groundwater include: Permeable Reactive Barriers (Monticello, Rocky Flats, and Kansas City), treating uranium and organics in groundwater; and Dynamic Underground Stripping (Portsmouth, and Savannah River), thermally treating DNAPL source zones. Each year more and more new technologies and approaches are being used at DOE sites due to the ASTD program. DOE sites are sharing their successes and communicating lessons learned so that the new technologies can replace the baseline or standard approaches at DOE sites, thus expediting cleanup and saving money.

  9. NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF THE UNDERGROUND EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević-Zelić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Underground exploitation of dimension stone is spreading lately for three main reasons; economy, organisation and environment. Moreover, underground openings can be used for many purposes. Underground exploitation is different from surface quarrying only in the first stage, the removal of top slice, descending slices are worked as in conventional quarries. In underground stone quarries, stability problems require adequate studies in order to avoid expensive artificial support measures, The article presents numerical analyses of an underground stone quarry made using of the finite difference code FLAC (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communications Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Carr, J.; Boyd, D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication.

  11. RSG Deployment Case Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

    2005-09-01

    The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

  12. DeepSurveyCam—A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kwasnitschka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor, and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS. The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor.

  13. DeepSurveyCam--A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, Tom; Köser, Kevin; Sticklus, Jan; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Weiß, Tim; Wenzlaff, Emanuel; Schoening, Timm; Triebe, Lars; Steinführer, Anja; Devey, Colin; Greinert, Jens

    2016-01-28

    Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor), and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS). The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers) in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor.

  14. DeepSurveyCam—A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, Tom; Köser, Kevin; Sticklus, Jan; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Weiß, Tim; Wenzlaff, Emanuel; Schoening, Timm; Triebe, Lars; Steinführer, Anja; Devey, Colin; Greinert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor), and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS). The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers) in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor. PMID:26828495

  15. Deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecun, Yann; Bengio, Yoshua; Hinton, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech.

  16. Energy R and D. Geothermal energy and underground reservoirs; R et D energie. Geothermie et reservoirs souterrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Geothermal energy appears as a viable economic alternative among the different renewable energy sources. The French bureau of geological and mining researches (BRGM) is involved in several research and development programs in the domain of geothermal energy and underground reservoirs. This document presents the content of 5 programs: the deep hot dry rock system of Soultz-sous-Forets (construction and testing of the scientific pilot, modeling of the reservoir structure), the development of low and high enthalpy geothermal energy in the French West Indies, the comparison of the geothermal development success of Bouillante (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) with the check of the geothermal development of Nyssiros (Greece) and Pantelleria (Italy), the development of the high enthalpy geothermal potentialities of Reunion Island, and the underground storage of CO{sub 2} emissions in geologic formations (deep aquifers, geothermal reservoirs, abandoned mines or oil reservoirs). (J.S.)

  17. Underground nuclear astrophysics studies with CASPAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The drive of low-energy nuclear astrophysics laboratories is to study the reactions of importance to stellar burning processes and elemental production through stellar nucleosynthesis, over the energy range of astrophysical interest. As laboratory measurements approach the stellar burning window, the rapid drop off of cross-sections is a significant barrier and drives the need to lower background interference. The natural background suppression of underground accelerator facilities enables the extension of current experimental data to lower energies. An example of such reactions of interest are those thought to be sources of neutrons for the s-process, the major production mechanism for elements above the iron peak. The reactions 13C(α,n16O and 22Ne(α,n25Mg are the proposed initial focus of the new nuclear astrophysics accelerator laboratory (CASPAR currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota

  18. Underground nuclear astrophysics studies with CASPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Strieder, Frank; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The drive of low-energy nuclear astrophysics laboratories is to study the reactions of importance to stellar burning processes and elemental production through stellar nucleosynthesis, over the energy range of astrophysical interest. As laboratory measurements approach the stellar burning window, the rapid drop off of cross-sections is a significant barrier and drives the need to lower background interference. The natural background suppression of underground accelerator facilities enables the extension of current experimental data to lower energies. An example of such reactions of interest are those thought to be sources of neutrons for the s-process, the major production mechanism for elements above the iron peak. The reactions 13C(α,n)16O and 22Ne(α,n)25Mg are the proposed initial focus of the new nuclear astrophysics accelerator laboratory (CASPAR) currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota

  19. Gel fire suppressants for controlling underground heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng-gen; XUE Sheng

    2011-01-01

    One of the major safety issues in coal mining is heatings and the resultant spontaneous combustion in underground coal mines.CSIRO researchers have developed a number of polymer gels suitable for controlling heatings in coal mines.These gels were developed to meet strict selection criteria including easy preparation,no or low toxicity,controllable gelation time,adaptable to mine water chemistry,adjustable viscosity,relatively long gel life,thermally and chemically stable and low cost.The HPAM-Aluminum Citrate gel system was identified to be the most favourable gel system for fire suppression in underground coal mines.These gels can be applied to the areas undergoing coal heating or gas leakage at a controllable gelation time and impermeable gel barriers can be formed in the areas to block ingress of air.

  20. Underground void filling by cemented mill tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choudhary Bhanwar Singh; Kumar Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Underground mining always create voids. These voids can cause subsidence of surface. So it is always a demand to fill the void in such a manner that the effect of underground mining can be minimized. Void filling using mill tailings especially in metal mining is one of the best techniques. The tailings produced in milling process have traditionally been disposed in tailing ponds creating a waste disposal and environ-mental problems in terms of land degradation, air and water pollution, etc. This disposal practice is more acute in the metal milling industry where the fine grinding, required for value liberation, results in the production of very fine tailings in large percentage. This paper includes discussions on the effectiveness of different paste mixes with varying cement contents in paste backfilling operations. The results revealed that material composition and use of super plasticizer strongly influenced the strength of cemented backfill.

  1. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossum, A.F. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

  2. Underground nuclear astrophysics: Why and how

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, A.; Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Caciolli, A. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, Gy. [Institute for Nuclear Research (MTA Atomki), Debrecen (Hungary); Napolitani, E. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Legnaro (Italy); Rigato, V. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Legnaro (Italy); Roca, V. [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Szuecs, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The goal of nuclear astrophysics is to measure cross-sections of nuclear physics reactions of interest in astrophysics. At stars temperatures, these cross-sections are very low due to the suppression of the Coulomb barrier. Cosmic-ray-induced background can seriously limit the determination of reaction cross-sections at energies relevant to astrophysical processes and experimental setups should be arranged in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Placing experiments in underground sites, however, reduces this background opening the way towards ultra low cross-section determination. LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) was pioneer in this sense. Two accelerators were mounted at the INFN National Laboratories of Gran Sasso (LNGS) allowing to study nuclear reactions close to stellar energies. A summary of the relevant technology used, including accelerators, target production and characterisation, and background treatment is given. (orig.)

  3. Underground nuclear astrophysics: why and how

    CERN Document Server

    Best, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gyürky, Gy; Laubenstein, M; Napolitani, E; Rigato, V; Roca, V; Szücs, T

    2016-01-01

    The goal of nuclear astrophysics is to measure cross sections of nuclear physics reactions of interest in astrophysics. At stars temperatures, these cross sections are very low due to the suppression of the Coulomb barrier. Cosmic ray induced background can seriously limit the determination of reaction cross sections at energies relevant to astrophysical processes and experimental setups should be arranged in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Placing experiments in underground sites, however, reduces this background opening the way towards ultra low cross section determination. LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) was pioneer in this sense. Two accelerators were mounted at the INFN National Laboratories of Gran Sasso (LNGS) allowing to study nuclear reactions close to stellar energies. A summary of the relevant technology used, including accelerators, target production and characterisation, and background treatment is given.

  4. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William E. (Durham, CT); Perry, Carl A. (Middletown, CT); Wassell, Mark E. (Kingwood, TX); Barbely, Jason R. (Middletown, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Cobern, Martin E. (Cheshire, CT)

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  5. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  6. Heavy context dependence --- decisions of underground soldiers

    CERN Document Server

    Kułakowski, K; Krawczyk, M J

    2015-01-01

    An attempt is made to simulate the disclosure of underground soldiers in terms of theory of networks. The coupling mechanism between the network nodes is the possibility that a disclosed soldier is going to disclose also his acquaintances. We calculate the fraction of disclosed soldiers as dependent on the fraction of those who, once disclosed, reveal also their colleagues. The simulation is immersed in the historical context of the Polish Home Army under the communist rule in 1946-49.

  7. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  8. Underground Muon Physics with the MACRO experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sioli, M

    2000-01-01

    Underground muon events detected by the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso havebeen studied for different purposes. The studies include the vertical muonintensity measurement, multiplicity distribution, lateral and angular muondistribution and searches for substructures inside muon bundles. These analyseshave contributed to bring new insights in cosmic ray physics, in particular inthe framework of primary cosmic ray composition studies. Moreover, thisactivity allows the testing and tuning of Monte Carlo simulations, inparticular for aspects associated with models of hadronic interactions and muonpropagation through the rock.

  9. Giant CMS magnet goes underground at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists of the US CMS collaboration joined colleagues around the world in announcing today (February 28) that the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid particle detector has begun the momentous journey into its experimental cavern 100 meters underground. A huge gantry crne is slowly lowering the CMS detector's preassembled central section into place in the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland." (1 page)

  10. Auxetic shape memory alloy cellular structures for deployable satellite antennas: design, manufacture and testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Maio D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the production development and experimental tests related to an hybrid honeycomb-truss made of shape memory alloy (Ni48Ti46Cu6, and used as a demonstrator for a deployable antenna in deep-space missions. Specific emphasis is placed on the modal analysis techniques used to test the lightweight SMA structure.

  11. Fleet deployment, network design and hub location of liner shipping companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a deep-sea liner service provider. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub location problem...

  12. Fleet deployment, network design and hub location of liner shipping companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a deep-sea liner service provider. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub location problem...

  13. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics - from LUNA to CASPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strieder, Frank; Caspar Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    It is in the nature of astrophysics that many of the processes and objects are physically inaccessible. Thus, it is important that those aspects that can be studied in the laboratory are well understood. Nuclear reactions are such quantities that can be partly measured in the laboratory. These reactions influence the nucleosynthesis of the elements in the Big Bang as well as in all objects formed thereafter, and control the associated energy generation and evolution of stars. Since 20 years LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) has been measuring cross sections relevant for hydrogen burning in the Gran Sasso Laboratory and demonstrated the research potential of an underground accelerator facility. Unfortunately, the number of reactions is limited by the energy range accessible with the 400 kV LUNA accelerator. The CASPAR (Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research) Collaboration will implement a high intensity 1 MV accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and overcome the current limitation at LUNA. This project will primarily focus on the neutron sources for the so-called s-process, e.g. 13 C(α , n) 16 O and 22 Ne(α , n) 25 Mg , and lead to unprecedented measurements compared to previous studies.

  14. Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In situ coal gasification poses a potential environmental risk to groundwater pollution although it depends mainly on local hydrogeological conditions.In our investigation, the possible processes of groundwater pollution originating from underground coal gasification (UCG) were analyzed.Typical pollutants were identified and pollution control measures are proposed.Groundwater pollution is caused by the diffusion and penetration of contaminants generated by underground gasification processes towards surrounding strata and the possible leaching of underground residue by natural groundwater flow after gasification.Typical organic pollutants include phenols, benzene, minor components such as PAHs and heterocyclics.Inorganic pollutants involve cations and anions.The natural groundwater flow after gasification through the seam is attributable to the migration of contaminants, which can be predicted by mathematical modeling.The extent and concentration of the groundwater pollution plume depend primarily on groundwater flow velocity, the degree of dispersion and the adsorption and reactions of the various contaminants.The adsorption function of coal and surrounding strata make a big contribution to the decrease of the contaminants over time and with the distance from the burn cavity.Possible pollution control measures regarding UCG include identifying a permanently, unsuitable zone, setting a hydraulic barrier and pumping contaminated water out for surface disposal.Mitigation measures during gasification processes and groundwater remediation after gasification are also proposed.

  15. Intelligent Scheduling for Underground Mobile Mining Equipment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Song

    Full Text Available Many studies have been carried out and many commercial software applications have been developed to improve the performances of surface mining operations, especially for the loader-trucks cycle of surface mining. However, there have been quite few studies aiming to improve the mining process of underground mines. In underground mines, mobile mining equipment is mostly scheduled instinctively, without theoretical support for these decisions. Furthermore, in case of unexpected events, it is hard for miners to rapidly find solutions to reschedule and to adapt the changes. This investigation first introduces the motivation, the technical background, and then the objective of the study. A decision support instrument (i.e. schedule optimizer for mobile mining equipment is proposed and described to address this issue. The method and related algorithms which are used in this instrument are presented and discussed. The proposed method was tested by using a real case of Kittilä mine located in Finland. The result suggests that the proposed method can considerably improve the working efficiency and reduce the working time of the underground mine.

  16. Modelling of Train Noise in Underground Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.

    1996-08-01

    TNS, a computer model for predicting the temporal and spatial distribution of train noise in underground stations, is developed. The train is regarded as a series of sections, and the train noise distribution in a station is calculated by inputting the sound attenuation from a train section source in the underground system (i.e., the station and tunnel). This input can be obtained by physical scale modelling. The prediction by TNS in an underground station in London shows good agreement with site measurements. A series of computations in the station demonstrates that: (1) the overall level of the train noise in the area near the end walls is slightly less than the other areas; (2) some conventional architectural acoustic treatments in the station are effective when a train is still in the tunnel but not as helpful when the train is already in the station; and (3) train noise has a significant effect on the speech intelligibility of public address systems as measured by the Speech Transmission Index (STI).

  17. Deep Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  18. High resolution seismic reflection, an exploration tool within an underground environment (example from Zimbabwe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutyorauta, J. J.

    Metallurgical grade chromite ore in Zimbabwe is mined from two underground mines, Peak Mine and Railway Block Mine, in Shurugwi. Peak Mine is at present just over 800 m deep. In the search for new chromite ore bodies, such a depth limits the application of the conventional geophysical exploration tools. Exploration diamond drilling is becoming more and more an expensive resort. Alternative and effective geophysical techniques are therefore being actively sought after. The high resolution seismic reflection technique, carried out right within Peak Mine, has the potential to become a useful exploration tool.

  19. Broadband records of earthquakes in deep gold mines and a comparison with results from SAFOD, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, A.; Boettcher, M.; Fletcher, Joe B.; Sell, R.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Durrheim, R.; Spottiswoode, S.; Milev, A.

    2009-01-01

    For one week during September 2007, we deployed a temporary network of field recorders and accelerometers at four sites within two deep, seismically active mines. The ground-motion data, recorded at 200 samples/sec, are well suited to determining source and ground-motion parameters for the mining-induced earthquakes within and adjacent to our network. Four earthquakes with magnitudes close to 2 were recorded with high signal/noise at all four sites. Analysis of seismic moments and peak velocities, in conjunction with the results of laboratory stick-slip friction experiments, were used to estimate source processes that are key to understanding source physics and to assessing underground seismic hazard. The maximum displacements on the rupture surfaces can be estimated from the parameter Rv, where v is the peak ground velocity at a given recording site, and R is the hypocentral distance. For each earthquake, the maximum slip and seismic moment can be combined with results from laboratory friction experiments to estimate the maximum slip rate within the rupture zone. Analysis of the four M 2 earthquakes recorded during our deployment and one of special interest recorded by the in-mine seismic network in 2004 revealed maximum slips ranging from 4 to 27 mm and maximum slip rates from 1.1 to 6:3 m=sec. Applying the same analyses to an M 2.1 earthquake within a cluster of repeating earthquakes near the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth site, California, yielded similar results for maximum slip and slip rate, 14 mm and 4:0 m=sec.

  20. An Easy to Deploy Street Light Control System Based on Wireless Communication and LED Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Villadangos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent streetlight management system based on LED lamps, designed to facilitate its deployment in existing facilities. The proposed approach, which is based on wireless communication technologies, will minimize the cost of investment of traditional wired systems, which always need civil engineering for burying of cable underground and consequently are more expensive than if the connection of the different nodes is made over the air. The deployed solution will be aware of their surrounding’s environmental conditions, a fact that will be approached for the system intelligence in order to learn, and later, apply dynamic rules. The knowledge of real time illumination needs, in terms of instant use of the street in which it is installed, will also feed our system, with the objective of providing tangible solutions to reduce energy consumption according to the contextual needs, an exact calculation of energy consumption and reliable mechanisms for preventive maintenance of facilities.

  1. A routing and positioning algorithm based on a K-barrier for use in an underground wireless sensor network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ke; Wang Qianping; Jiang Dong; Xu Qin

    2011-01-01

    Deployment of nodes based on K-barrier coverage in an underground wireless sensor network is described.The network has automatic routing recovery by using a basic information table (BIT) for each node.An RSSI positioning algorithm based on a path loss model in the coal mine is used to calculate the path loss in real time within the actual lane way environment.Simulation results show that the packet loss can be controlled to less than 15% by the routing recovery algorithm under special recovery circumstances.The location precision is within 5 m,which greatly enhances performance compared to traditional frequency location systems.This approach can meet the needs for accurate location underground.

  2. Deployable Propulsion and Power Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout reconnaissance mission will demonstrate solar sail propulsion on a 6U CubeSat interplanetary spacecraft and lay the groundwork for their future use in deep space science and exploration missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high delta V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) is a launch stowed, orbit deployed array on which thin-film photovoltaic and antenna elements are embedded. Inherently, small satellites are limited in surface area, volume, and mass allocation; driving competition between power, communications, and GN&C (guidance navigation and control) subsystems. This restricts payload capability and limits the value of these low-cost satellites. LISA-T is addressing this issue, deploying large-area arrays from a reduced volume and mass envelope - greatly enhancing power generation and communications capabilities of small spacecraft. The NEA Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the solar sail as its primary propulsion system, allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 sq m solar sail and will weigh less than 12 kilograms. NEA Scout will be launched on the first flight of the Space Launch System in 2018. Similar in concept

  3. Pre-deployment Year Mental Health Diagnoses and Treatment in Deployed Army Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Nikki R; Adams, Rachel Sayko; Mohr, Beth A; Jeffery, Diana D; Funk, Wendy; Williams, Thomas V; Larson, Mary Jo

    2016-07-01

    We estimated the prevalence of select mental health diagnoses (MHDX) and mental health treatment (MHT), and identified characteristics associated with MHT during the pre-deployment year (365 days before deployment) in active duty Army women (N = 14,633) who returned from Iraq or Afghanistan deployments in FY2010. Pre-deployment year prevalence estimates were: 26.2 % for any select MHDX and 18.1 % for any MHT. Army women who had physical injuries since FY2002 or any behavioral health treatment between FY2002 and the pre-deployment year had increased odds of pre-deployment year MHT. During the pre-deployment year, a substantial percentage of Army women had MHDX and at least one MHT encounter or stay. Future research should determine if pre-deployment MHDX among Army women reflect vulnerability to future MHDX, or if pre-deployment MHT results in protection from chronic symptoms.

  4. Deep Learning and Music Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kereliuk, Corey Mose; Sturm, Bob L.; Larsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    the minimal perturbation of the input image such that the system misclassifies it with high confidence. We adapt this approach to construct and deploy an adversary of deep learning systems applied to music content analysis. In our case, however, the system inputs are magnitude spectral frames, which require...... compared to systems based on a majority vote over individually classified audio frames. Furthermore, we experiment with a new system that integrates an adversary into the training loop, but do not find that this improves the resilience of the system to new adversaries....

  5. Modelling an in-situ ventilation test in the Andra Underground Research Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastes resulting from the nuclear electricity production have to be isolated from the biosphere for a very long period of time. For this purpose, deep underground repository in weak permeable geological layers is considered as a reliable solution for the nuclear waste storage. It is however well established that during excavation, the underground drilling process engenders cracks and eventually fractures [1] that deteriorate the hydro-mechanical properties of the surrounding host material in the so-called Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ. The EDZ behaviour is a major issue because it may constitute a preferential flow path for radionuclide migration. Consequently, the characterisation of the material transport properties and of the transfer kinetics that occur around galleries still need to be investigated. The EDZ properties may be also affected by host rock-gallery air interactions. Ventilation induced drying may also provoke additional cracking, which potentially alters the transport properties of the damaged zone. Large-scale air ventilation experiments are performed in Underground Research Laboratories (URL that have been constructed to check the feasibility of the repository. A numerical modelling of the SDZ air ventilation test (Andra URL performed in a low permeability rock is proposed in order to both predict the development of the EDZ during excavation and study the air interaction with the host formation during maintenance phases.

  6. Tow-Dimensionally Deployable "SHDF" Truss

    OpenAIRE

    ONODA, Junjiro; WATANABE, Naoyudi; Ichida, Kazuo; HASHIMOTO, Yasuo; NAKADA, Atsushi; Saito, Hisashi; 小野田, 淳次郎

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes a newly invented two-dimensionally deployable truss structure named SHDF, which has no articulated members. The most significant feature of SHDF truss is the very small number of the mechanisms to be actuated and locked at the deployment. A globally flat functional model actuated by tiny electromagnetic motors was designed and fabricated. The model demonstrated its practicality and virtually synchronized smooth motion in deploy/fold tests. Subsequently, the model w...

  7. Phoenix Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative Evaluation Report

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, C; Marks, J.; Jenq, J.; Cluett, Chris; DeBlasio, Allan; Lappin, Jane; Rakha, Hesham A.; Wunderlich, K

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the evaluation results of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative (MMDI). The MMDI was a three-year program of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Joint Program Office of the U.S. Department of Transportation. It focused on aggressive deployment of ITS at four sites across the United States, including the metropolitan areas of San Antonio, Seattle, NY/NJ/Connecticut as well as Phoenix. The focus of the deployments was on integration of exist...

  8. Deployment, Design, and Commercialization of Carbon-Negative Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel Lucio

    . Here, firms can embrace a gradual transition pathway to deep decarbonization, limiting economic dislocation and increasing transfer of knowledge between the fossil and renewable sectors. Global cumulative capital investment needs for BECCS through 2050 are over 1.9 trillion (2015$, 4% real interest rate) for scenarios likely to limit global warming to 2 °C. This scenario envisions deployment of as much as 24 GW/yr of BECCS by 2040 in the electricity sector. To achieve theses rates of deployment within 15-20 years, governments and firms must commit to research, development, and deployment on an unprecedented scale. Three primary issues complicate emissions accounting for BECCS: cross-sector CO2 accounting, regrowth, and timing. Switchgrass integration decreases lifecycle greenhouse gas impacts of co-conversion systems with CCS, across a wide range of land-use change scenarios. Risks at commercial scale include adverse effects on food security, land conservation, social equity, and biodiversity, as well as competition for water resources. This dissertation argues for an iterative risk management approach to BECCS sustainability, with standards being updated as more knowledge is gained through deployment. Sustainability impacts and public opposition to BECCS may be reduced with transparent measurement and communication. Commercial-scale deployment is dependent on the coordination of a wide range of actors, many with different incentives and worldviews. Despite this problem, this dissertation challenges governments, industry incumbents, and emerging players to research, support, and deploy BECCS.

  9. Packaging, deployment, and panel design concepts for a truss-stiffened 7-panel precision deployable reflector with feed boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Collins, Timothy J.; Dyess, James W.; Kenner, Scott; Bush, Harold G.

    1993-01-01

    A concept is presented for achieving a remotely deployable truss-stiffened reflector consisting of seven integrated sandwich panels that form the reflective surface, and an integrated feed boom. The concept has potential for meeting aperture size and surface precision requirements for some high-frequency microwave remote sensing applications. The packaged reflector/feed boom configuration is a self-contained unit that can be conveniently attached to a spacecraft bus. The package has a cylindrical envelope compatible with typical launch vehicle shrouds. Dynamic behavior of a deployed configuration having a 216-inch focal length and consisting of 80-inch-diameter, two-inch-thick panels is examined through finite-element analysis. Results show that the feed boom and spacecraft bus can have a large impact on the fundamental frequency of the deployed configuration. Two candidate rib-stiffened sandwich panel configurations for this application are described, and analytical results for panel mass and stiffness are presented. Results show that the addition of only a few rib stiffeners, if sufficiently deep, can efficiently improve sandwich panel stiffness.

  10. Estimating the capital cost of underground car parking projects

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Mónica; Ribeiro, F. Loforte; Teixeira, José M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    Underground parking projects are expansive. The capital cost of underground parking project has been, and still is, one of the promoter's main economic concerns. Therefore, the capital cost estimation is an essential taskin the early stages pf underground parking projcts. In this context, the promoters mainly use cost estimation models, most of them produced by methodologies with lack of precision and with low performances. Over the last yeras Portugal has embarked ona a large programme of...

  11. Cascade recursion models of computing the temperatures of underground layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Liqun; BI; Siwen; SONG; Shixin

    2006-01-01

    An RBF neural network was used to construct computational models of the underground temperatures of different layers, using ground-surface parameters and the temperatures of various underground layers. Because series recursion models also enable researchers to use above-ground surface parameters to compute the temperatures of different underground layers, this method provides a new way of using thermal infrared remote sensing to monitor the suture zones of large areas of blocks and to research thermal anomalies in geologic structures.

  12. Deployable and retractable telescoping tubular structure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new deployable and retractable telescoping boom capable of high deployed stiffness and strength is described. Deployment and retraction functions are controlled by simple, reliable, and fail-safe latches between the tubular segments. The latch and a BI-STEM (Storable Tubular Extendible Member) actuator work together to eliminate the need for the segments to overlap when deployed. This yields an unusually lightweight boom and compact launch configuration. An aluminum space-flight prototype with three joints displays zero structural deadband, low hysteresis, and high damping. The development approach and difficulties are discussed. Test results provide a joint model for sizing flight booms of any diameter and length.

  13. Rigidizing Inflatable Deployable Dwelling (RIDD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — By combining thin thermoplastic films, woven Vectran reinforcements, and heat a reliable, deployable, rigidizing space habitat can be created. Although much research...

  14. Low Mass Aeroshell Deployment Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop new shape memory polymer (SMP) deployment mechanisms for actuating thermal protection system (TPS) panels to...

  15. Low Mass Aeroshell Deployment Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop new shape memory polymer (SMP) deployment mechanisms for actuating thermal protective systems (TPS) panels to...

  16. Self-Deploying Gossamer Support Structure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I results demonstrated the feasibility of using shape memory polymer composites to deploy, tension and support gossamer antennas. Cornerstone Research Group,...

  17. Personal Dosimetry Enhancement for Underground Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thinová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal dosimetry for underground workers mainly concerns measurement of the concentration of radon (and its daughters and the correct application of the data in dose calculation, using a biokinetic model for lung dosimetry. A conservative approach for estimating the potential dose in caves (or underground is based on solid state alpha track detector measurements. The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose in agreement with the ICRP recommendations using the “cave factor”, the value of which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached and the attached fraction and on the equilibrium factor. The main difference between apartments and caves is the absence of aerosol sources, high humidity, low ventilation rate and the uneven surface in caves. A more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies or on restricting the time workers stay underground. In order to determine  how the effective dose is calculated, it is necessary to divide these areas into distinct categories by the following measuring procedures: continual radon measurement (to capture the differences in EERC between working hours and night-time, and also between daily and seasonal radon concentration variations; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoils and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; aerosol particle-size spectrum measurements to determine the free fraction; monitoring the behaviour of guides and workers to record the actual time spent in the cave, in relation to the continuously monitored levels of Rn concentration. 

  18. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  19. Bioclimatic underground architecture: Development and principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal idea of paper lies in analyzing contemporary architectural challenges, concerning climate changes, global warming, renewable energy deficiency and population growth. The relevant examples and principles of sustainable and selfsustainable architecture development throughout history are presented. Underground structures as passive solar systems, vegetation used as insulation, ventilation and isolation are given as one of possible solutions for this global phenomenon. By studying the model of Nature, certain solutions imitating systems and laws of flora and fauna are given that will insure the necessary savings of non-renewable energy during the building construction and their later energy consumption.

  20. temperature distribution in underground cable system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerak Monika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model of heat transfer in the underground cable system. The computations were performed for flat formation of power cables buried in the ground at a depth of 2 meters. The model allows determining the two-dimensional temperature distribution in the soil, thermal backfill and power cables. The simulations studied the effect of soil thermal conductivity on the maximum temperature of the cable conductor. Furthermore, the effect of thermal backfill soil conductivity on the cable conductor temperature was studied. Numerical analyses were performed based on a program written in MATLAB.

  1. Thermal analysis of underground power cable system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerak, Monika; Ocłoń, Paweł

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the application of Finite Element Method in thermal analysis of underground power cable system. The computations were performed for power cables buried in-line in the ground at a depth of 2 meters. The developed mathematical model allows determining the two-dimensional temperature distribution in the soil, thermal backfill and power cables. The simulations studied the effect of soil and cable backfill thermal conductivity on the maximum temperature of the cable conductor. Also, the effect of cable diameter on the temperature of cable core was studied. Numerical analyses were performed based on a program written in MATLAB.

  2. Forest as Underground-Closed Dendrocenoecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As a result of quantitative «microecosystem» analysis of structural and functional relationships between biogeocenosis components in coniferous forests, the leading role of stand-edificator's root competition factor has been identified in determining the undergrowth and lower layer plant’s growth, compared with its «light» competition. Considering the dominant role of a tree stand root competition in the formation of other forest biogeocenosis components, new definition of «forest» as «underground-closed dendrocenoecosystem» have been proposed.

  3. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory: Status and Prospectives

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a 20 kton liquid scintillator (LS) detector, which is planed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and measure the oscillation parameters at the sub-percent level using reactor antineutrino oscillations. As a multipurpose neutrino experiment, JUNO is also capable of measuring supernova burst neutrinos, the diffuse supernova neutrino background, geo-neutrinos, solar neutrinos and atmospheric neutrinos. After a brief introduction to the physics motivation, we discuss the status of the JUNO project, including the design of the detector systems. Finally the latest civil progress and future prospectives are also highlighted.

  4. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein ... the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem ...

  5. Simultaneous seismic and magnetic measurements in the Low-Noise Underground Laboratory (LSBB) of Rustrel, France, during the 2001 January 26 Indian earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffet, S.; Guglielmi, Y.; Virieux, J.; Waysand, G.; Chwala, A.; Stolz, R.; Emblanch, C.; Auguste, M.; Boyer, D.; Cavaillou, A.

    2003-12-01

    Since the decommission of the underground launching control room of the ground-based component of the French nuclear missile system, the whole installation has been turned into a cross-disciplinary underground laboratory. The LSBB is a unique low-noise underground laboratory because of its initial military conception and its location in the regional park of Luberon far from large cities, industry and heavy traffic. The deepest point is 500 m below the surface. At this depth a huge and non-conventional shielded cylindrical capsule is installed with no μ-metal, 1268 m3 in volume, with a residual electromagnetic noise lower than 2 fT Hz-1/2 above 10 Hz. As a result, fluctuations of the Earth's magnetic field under 10 Hz can be recorded at a very low-noise level with a low-Tc SQUID 3-D magnetometer. Taking advantage of the main gallery topology, a broad-band underground seismic array has been deployed since 2001. An analysis of data recorded simultaneously by the seismic underground array and by the magnetometer sensors during the Indian earthquake of 2001 January 26 is presented. Evidence of a magnetic field perturbation induced by the seismic waves at teleseismic distance (6250 km) is supported by a polarization analysis of seismic and magnetic signals. Spectral analysis shows specific frequency bands of perturbation related to physical processes such as ground water flow acceleration within the mountain structure.

  6. Concurrent engineering: effective deployment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unny Menon

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive insight into current trends and developments in Concurrent Engineering for integrated development of products and processes with the goal of completing the entire cycle in a shorter time, at lower overall cost and with fewer engineering design changes after product release. The evolution and definition of Concurrent Engineering are addressed first, followed by a concise review of the following elements of the concurrent engineering approach to product development: Concept Development: The Front-End Process, identifying Customer Needs and Quality Function Deployment, Establishing Product Specifications, Concept Selection, Product Architecture, Design for Manufacturing, Effective Rapid Prototyping, and The Economics of Product Development. An outline of a computer-based tutorial developed by the authors and other graduate students funded by NASA ( accessible via the world-wide-web . is provided in this paper. A brief discussion of teamwork for successful concurrent engineering is included, t'ase histories of concurrent engineering implementation at North American and European companies are outlined with references to textbooks authored by Professor Menon and other writers. A comprehensive bibliography on concurrent engineering is included in the paper.

  7. Advancing Underground Nuclear Astrophysics with CASPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Strieder, Frank; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The advancement of experimental nuclear astrophysics techniques and the requirement of astrophysical network models for further nuclear data over greater energy ranges, has led to the requirement for the better understanding of nuclear reactions in stellar burning regimes. For those reactions of importance to stellar burning processes and elemental production through stellar nucleosynthesis, the energy range of astrophysical interest is always problematic to probe. As reaction measurements approach the burning window of interest, the rapid drop off in cross-section hampers laboratory investigation. The natural background suppression of underground accelerator facilities enables the extension of current experimental data to lower energies. An example of such reactions of interest are those thought to be sources of neutrons for the s-process, the major production mechanism for elements above the iron peak. The reactions 13 C(α,n)16 O and 22 Ne(α,n)25 Mg are the proposed initial focus of the new nuclear astrophysics accelerator laboratory (CASPAR) currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, SD. With thanks to funding provided by South Dakota Science and Technology Authority and the NSF under Grant Number PHY-1419765.

  8. Exploration for the Newlands underground mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, T. [MIM Holdings Limited, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Seedsman, R. [Coffey Partners International Ltd., (Australia); Whitby, K. [McElroy Bryan Geological Services Pty Ltd., (Australia); Bowen Basin Geologists Group, QLD (Australia); Geological Society of Australia Inc., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1995-10-01

    The Newlands Coal Pty Ltd open cut coal mining operations are located approximately 200 km by road west of Mackay, in Central Queensland. The issues of increasing depth of overburden and limited overburden, coal quality and its impact on yield are effecting the operational costs and future strategies of the mine . The longer term future of Newlands is dependent on the viability of an underground mine down-dip in the main deposit. This paper discusses the exploration programs and how the geological and geotechnical issues have been incorporated into the mine plan. A number of longwall panel layouts were considered giving due respect to the known faults encountered. The current layout has panels which run approximately North-South and average 1800 m in length with a 250 m face width. Panels have been limited in the South by the Ironbark and Blackbutt faults. In the North, the panel lengths are limited by the Ramp 3 fault. Not all faults present will have been located. In order to gain a better understanding of the geology, Newlands plan to extend the exploration underground using a continuous miner and shuttle cars. Mine plans are dynamic and change as additional information comes to hand. The exploration program has emphasized the need for a flexible approach to mine planning. (author). 4 figs.

  9. The purely functional software deployment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolstra, E.

    2006-01-01

    Software deployment is the set of activities related to getting software components to work on the machines of end users. It includes activities such as installation, upgrading, uninstallation, and so on. Many tools have been developed to support deployment, but they all have serious limitations wi

  10. Self-deploying photovoltaic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A lightweight flexible photovoltaic (PV) blanket is attached to a support structure of initially stowed telescoping members. The deployment mechanism comprises a series of extendable and rotatable columns. As these columns are extended the PV blanket is deployed to its proper configuration.

  11. Experimental thermal mechanics of deployable boom structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predmore, R.

    1972-01-01

    An apparatus was developed for thermal distortion measurements on deployable boom structures. The calibration procedure and thermal static bending plus twist measurements are considered. The thermal mechanics test facility is described. A table is presented for several examples of spacecraft applications of thermal static distortion measurements on 3-m deployable booms.

  12. Seismic SMHD -- Rotational Sensor Development and Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates; Pierson, Bob [Applied Technology Associates; Brune, Bob [Consultant

    2016-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding development and deployment of a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, high dynamic range, low noise floor, proven ruggedness, and high repeatability. This paper presents current status of sensor development and deployment opportunities.

  13. Users speak out on technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Mark; Prochaska, Marty; Cromer, Paul; Zewatsky, Jennifer

    2001-02-25

    This report summarizes user feedback data collected during a recent Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project: the Fluor Fernald ASTD Technology Deployment Project from May, 1999 through September, 2000. The main goal of the ASTD project was to use the ''Fernald approach'' to expedite the deployment of new or innovative technologies with superior safety, cost, and/or productivity benefits to Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Fernald approach targets technology end-users and their managers and directly involves them with hands-on demonstrations of new or innovative technologies during technology transfer sessions. The two technologies deployed through this project were the Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS) and the oxy-gasoline torch. Participants of technology transfer sessions were requested to complete feedback surveys. Surveys evaluated the effectiveness of the Fernald approach to technology deployment and assessed the responsiveness of employees to new technologies. This report presents the results of those surveys.

  14. A Survey of IPv6 Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal M. Alhassoun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The next-generation Internet protocol (IPv6 was designed to overcome the limitation in IPv4 by using a 128-bit address instead of a 32-bit address. In addition to solving the address the limitations, IPv6 has many improved features. This research focused to survey IPv6 deployment all around the world. The objectives of this survey paper are to highlight the issues related to the IPv6 deployment and to look into the IPv4 to IPv6 transition mechanisms. Furthermore, provide insight on the global effort around the world to contribute in IPv6 deployment. In addition, identify the potential solutions or suggestions that could improve the IPv6 deployment rate. In order to achieve the said objectives we survey number of papers on IPv6 deployment from different countries and continents.

  15. Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

  16. Development of JavaScript-based deep learning platform and application to distributed training

    OpenAIRE

    Hidaka, Masatoshi; Miura, Ken; Harada, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning is increasingly attracting attention for processing big data. Existing frameworks for deep learning must be set up to specialized computer systems. Gaining sufficient computing resources therefore entails high costs of deployment and maintenance. In this work, we implement a matrix library and deep learning framework that uses JavaScript. It can run on web browsers operating on ordinary personal computers and smartphones. Using JavaScript, deep learning can be accomplished in wi...

  17. Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, K.R.; Mayes, E.L.

    1994-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. This work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

  18. Connected Cities: Guide to good practice underground space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.; Hobma, W.

    2007-01-01

    This guide to good practice underground space is developed within the framework of the EU-funded INTERREG IIIC project ‘Connected Cities’. It focuses on how a strategic use of underground space can facilitate sustainable modes of transportation and mobility in urban and rural areas. Twelve strategic

  19. Underground haulage by diesel and storage battery locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The operation and maintenance of underground locomotives which operate on conventional or asymmetrical rails are covered. The transport of persons underground or in walkable outlets to the surface by locomotive haulage is also included in this code. Training of personnel, design requirements, signalling and communications, safety devices, ventilation, operation, brake testing and maintenance are all discussed.

  20. Urban Underground Pipelines Mapping Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaw, S. W.; M, Hashim

    2014-02-01

    Underground spaces are now being given attention to exploit for transportation, utilities, and public usage. The underground has become a spider's web of utility networks. Mapping of underground utility pipelines has become a challenging and difficult task. As such, mapping of underground utility pipelines is a "hit-and-miss" affair, and results in many catastrophic damages, particularly in urban areas. Therefore, this study was conducted to extract locational information of the urban underground utility pipeline using trenchless measuring tool, namely ground penetrating radar (GPR). The focus of this study was to conduct underground utility pipeline mapping for retrieval of geometry properties of the pipelines, using GPR. In doing this, a series of tests were first conducted at the preferred test site and real-life experiment, followed by modeling of field-based model using Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD). Results provide the locational information of underground utility pipelines associated with its mapping accuracy. Eventually, this locational information of the underground utility pipelines is beneficial to civil infrastructure management and maintenance which in the long term is time-saving and critically important for the development of metropolitan areas.

  1. The Stranger Within: Dostoevsky's Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In Fyodor Dostoevsky's influential novel "Notes from underground", we find one of the most memorable characters in nineteenth century literature. The Underground Man, around whom everything else in this book revolves, is in some respects utterly repugnant: he is self-centred, obsessive and cruel. Yet he is also highly intelligent,…

  2. Magneto-Inductive Underground Communications in a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility of underground data communications is investigated by employing magnetic induction as the key technology at physical layer. Realizing an underground wireless sensor network for a district heating plant motivates this research problem. The main contribution of the paper is to find...

  3. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  4. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for information...) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension gives interested parties additional... for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period had been scheduled to close on October 7, 2013....

  5. 78 FR 73471 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for information...) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension gives interested parties additional... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period was originally scheduled to close on October...

  6. Indiana Underground Railroad Folklore: Western Route and Daviess County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Lois G.

    Materials for teaching a unit about the Underground Railroad (the system set up to assist fleeing, runaway slaves heading north) in Indiana are presented. Specifically, the Western Route that passed through Daviess County in Indiana is examined. The materials provide background on the Underground Railroad and the Western Route, plans for teaching…

  7. An empirical study of the underground economy in the Kingdom of Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco; Dana, Léo-Paul

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the underground economy in Belgium. Although several government initiatives are attempting to combat underground economic activities, we found illegal foreign workers identifying opportunities and fulfilling market needs. Underground employment thus thrives in a variety...

  8. 75 FR 22763 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information: Underground Railroad Educational and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information: Underground Railroad Educational and Cultural... I. Funding Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The purpose of the Underground Railroad Educational and Cultural (URR) Program is to preserve the Underground Railroad's legacy and to demonstrate how...

  9. Numerical survey of pressure wave propagation around and inside an underground cavity with high order FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhazy, Sofi; Schneider, Felix; Schöberl, Joachim; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    OSI field deployment and create solid observational strategies for detecting the presence of an underground (nuclear) cavity.

  10. A Routing Protocol for Multisink Wireless Sensor Networks in Underground Coalmine Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional underground coalmine monitoring systems are mainly based on the use of wired transmission. However, when cables are damaged during an accident, it is difficult to obtain relevant data on environmental parameters and the emergency situation underground. To address this problem, the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs has been proposed. However, the shape of coalmine tunnels is not conducive to the deployment of WSNs as they are long and narrow. Therefore, issues with the network arise, such as extremely large energy consumption, very weak connectivity, long time delays, and a short lifetime. To solve these problems, in this study, a new routing protocol algorithm for multisink WSNs based on transmission power control is proposed. First, a transmission power control algorithm is used to negotiate the optimal communication radius and transmission power of each sink. Second, the non-uniform clustering idea is adopted to optimize the cluster head selection. Simulation results are subsequently compared to the Centroid of the Nodes in a Partition (CNP strategy and show that the new algorithm delivers a good performance: power efficiency is increased by approximately 70%, connectivity is increased by approximately 15%, the cluster interference is diminished by approximately 50%, the network lifetime is increased by approximately 6%, and the delay is reduced with an increase in the number of sinks.

  11. A Routing Protocol for Multisink Wireless Sensor Networks in Underground Coalmine Tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xu; Chen, Zhigang; Liu, Hui; Wang, Huihui; Zeng, Feng

    2016-11-30

    Traditional underground coalmine monitoring systems are mainly based on the use of wired transmission. However, when cables are damaged during an accident, it is difficult to obtain relevant data on environmental parameters and the emergency situation underground. To address this problem, the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been proposed. However, the shape of coalmine tunnels is not conducive to the deployment of WSNs as they are long and narrow. Therefore, issues with the network arise, such as extremely large energy consumption, very weak connectivity, long time delays, and a short lifetime. To solve these problems, in this study, a new routing protocol algorithm for multisink WSNs based on transmission power control is proposed. First, a transmission power control algorithm is used to negotiate the optimal communication radius and transmission power of each sink. Second, the non-uniform clustering idea is adopted to optimize the cluster head selection. Simulation results are subsequently compared to the Centroid of the Nodes in a Partition (CNP) strategy and show that the new algorithm delivers a good performance: power efficiency is increased by approximately 70%, connectivity is increased by approximately 15%, the cluster interference is diminished by approximately 50%, the network lifetime is increased by approximately 6%, and the delay is reduced with an increase in the number of sinks.

  12. Overview of Deployed EDS Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, H E; Crawford, C

    2009-09-24

    The term explosive detection system (EDS) is used by the TSA to describe equipment that is certified to detect explosives in checked bags. The EDS, as certified, by the TSL must consist of device for interrogating a bag and an automated detection algorithm (ATD) for evaluating the results of the interrogation. We only consider CT as the interrogation device in this report. A schematic drawing of a CT-based EDS is shown in Figure 2. The output of the ATD is the binary decision of alarm or non-alarm. Alarms may true- or false-positives. Non-alarms may be true- or false-negatives. False positives are also denoted false alarms. The true detection means that the ATD reports an alarm when a threat is present in the scanned bag. The probability of detecting a threat given that a threat is present is denoted the probability of detection (PD). The probability of false alarm (PFA) is the case when an alarm is reported when a threat is not present in a bag. Certification in this context means passing tests for PD and PFA at the TSL. The results of the EDS include CT cross-sectional images of the bag and specifics about the alarmed objects generated by ATD. These results are presented on a display so that a person may override the decision of ATD and declare the alarm to be a non-alarm. This process is denoted clearing. Bags that are not cleared by the person are sent to a secondary inspection process. Here the bags may be opened or assessed with explosive trace detection (ETD) in order to clear the bags. Bags that are not cleared at this point are evaluated by an ordinance disposal team. The CT scanner along with ATD is denoted Level 1 screening. The process of clearing on a display is denoted Level 2 screening. Secondary inspection is denoted Level 3 screening. Vendors of the deployed EDSs supply the TSA with equipment for all three levels. Therefore, the term EDS may include the equipment provided for Levels 1, 2 and 3. A schematic diagram of an EDS and the levels of

  13. Quantum cryptography over underground optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.

    1996-05-01

    Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generated shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light whose security is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. An adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg`s uncertainty principle. In this paper the authors describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from their experimental system with which they are generating key material over 14-km of underground optical fiber. These results show that optical-fiber based quantum cryptography could allow secure, real-time key generation over ``open`` multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links between secure ``islands.``

  14. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  15. A Fast Neutron Spectrometer for Underground Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Thomas; Beise, Elizabeth; Breuer, Herbert; Erwin, Dylan; Bass, Christopher; Heimbach, Craig; Nico, Jeff

    2010-02-01

    The characterization of the fast neutron fluence has become a critical issue for experiments that require extreme low-background environments, such as neutrino-less double-beta decay, dark matter searches, and solar neutrino experiments. In such experiments, fast neutrons may be the dominant and a potentially irreducible background, thus necessitating precise information about the fast neutron fluence and energy spectrum. The most reasonable approach to addressing the problem is through the complete characterization of the neutrons through both site-specific measurement and benchmarking of simulation codes. We will discuss the progress toward the development of a large-volume, segmented detector consisting of plastic scintillator and ^3He proportional counters. The detector will be placed in an underground environment to measure the fast neutron flux and energy spectrum. A prototype detector has been constructed and testing is in progress. We will discuss the status of the project and present data from the prototype detector. )

  16. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Akerib, D S; Bedikian, S; Bernard, E; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Byram, D; Cahn, S B; Camp, C; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Carr, D; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A; Chiller, C; Clark, K; Classen, T; Coffey, T; Curioni, A; Dahl, E; Dazeley, S; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dragowsky, E; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M; Hall, C; Hanhardt, M; Holbrook, B; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Knoche, R; Kyre, S; Kwong, J; Lander, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Leonard, D S; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lyashenko, A; Malling, D C; Mannino, R; Marquez, Z; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D -M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morii, M; Nelson, H; Neves, F; Nikkel, J A; Pangilinan, M; Parker, P D; Pease, E K; Pech, K; Phelps, P; Rodionov, A; Roberts, P; Shei, A; Shutt, T; Silva, C; Skulski, W; Solovov, V N; Sofka, C J; Sorensen, P; Spaans, J; Stiegler, T; Stolp, D; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D; Thomson, J; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, D; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Wlasenko, M; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2012-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles(WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross section per nucleon of $2\\times 10^{-46}$ cm$^{2}$, equivalent to $\\sim$1 event/100 kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have $<$1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector.

  17. NECESSITY FOR UNDERGROUND RESEARCH LABORATORY IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želimir Vejnović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plant (NPP Krško has a license to operate until 2023, and under the current agreement between the Republic of Slovenia and the Republic of Croatia, countries are bound to dispose one half of radioactive waste produced during the operation time and after decommissioning of NPP each. Safe long-term management of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel represents one of the most important issues of the modern world. The best way to provide practical demonstration of repository’s safety, which will be one of convincing arguments in the process of licensing future repository, is developed underground research laboratory (URL. Existence of URL open to international co-operation would certainly improve the international recognition and credibility of Croatian programme, as well as allow dissemination of scientific research results to a broader scientific community (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. System for fracturing an underground geologic formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Tappan, Bryce C.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.

    2017-03-14

    An explosive system for fracturing an underground geologic formation adjacent to a wellbore can comprise a plurality of explosive units comprising an explosive material contained within the casing, and detonation control modules electrically coupled to the plurality of explosive units and configured to cause a power pulse to be transmitted to at least one detonator of at least one of the plurality of explosive units for detonation of the explosive material. The explosive units are configured to be positioned within a wellbore in spaced apart positions relative to one another along a string with the detonation control modules positioned adjacent to the plurality of explosive units in the wellbore, such that the axial positions of the explosive units relative to the wellbore are at least partially based on geologic properties of the geologic formation adjacent the wellbore.

  19. DEALING WITH TOPOLOGICAL RELATIONS IN UNDERGROUND NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lacroix

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago, 25 people died and more than 150 were seriously injured in Ghislenghien (Belgium because of construction damage to a high pressure gas pipeline. Urban networks are invisible because usually buried between 1 and 1.5 meter underground. They should be identified to prevent such accidents which involve workers and public as well. Rural and urban districts, networks concessionary and contractors; everyone could benefit from their networks becoming safer. To develop software which evaluates the risks in managing both uncertainties and topology is the focus of attention. That’s the reason why we firstly propose to determine the topological relationships between networks; secondly we propose to compute the risks taking into account the various uncertainties such as the security radius or the coordinates accuracy, before giving the different required standards for an artificial intelligence tool in order to obtain high security level.

  20. Civil Engineering Construction of Underground Works

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    1999-01-01

    For the first time at CERN, new shafts and caverns will be excavated inside a surface building. The LHC civil engineering construction for the ATLAS experiment has been designed such that the experimental hall will be completed to the extent that it can provide a secure, weatherproof and sound insulated covering to the shaft excavation area. The construction of the two access shafts and the experimental cavern will follow and will be carried out inside the building. This unconventional method of working allows the excavation of the Molasse rock in the dry, which is essential for this type of rock, and ensures reduced environmental pollution by noise and dust. The paper will present the technical infrastructure required for this particular construction method, explain its advantages and disadvantages, and compare it with a conventional method of underground excavations to be used on the same work site for the construction of the service cavern.

  1. System for fracturing an underground geologic formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Tappan, Bryce C.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.

    2017-03-14

    An explosive system for fracturing an underground geologic formation adjacent to a wellbore can comprise a plurality of explosive units comprising an explosive material contained within the casing, and detonation control modules electrically coupled to the plurality of explosive units and configured to cause a power pulse to be transmitted to at least one detonator of at least one of the plurality of explosive units for detonation of the explosive material. The explosive units are configured to be positioned within a wellbore in spaced apart positions relative to one another along a string with the detonation control modules positioned adjacent to the plurality of explosive units in the wellbore, such that the axial positions of the explosive units relative to the wellbore are at least partially based on geologic properties of the geologic formation adjacent the wellbore.

  2. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  3. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  4. Development of GIS-Based Decision Support System for Optimizing Transportation Cost in Underground Limestone Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sungchan; Park, Jihwan; Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Sangho; Choi, Youngmin

    2014-05-01

    In mining industry, large amount of cost has been invested in early stages of mine development such as prospecting, exploration, and discovery. Recent changes in mining, however, also raised the cost in operation, production, and environmental protection because ore depletion at shallow depth caused large-scale, deep mining. Therefore, many mining facilities are installed or relocated underground to reduce transportation cost as well as environmental pollution. This study presents GIS-based decision support system that optimizes transportation cost from various mining faces to mine facility in underground mines. The development of this system consists of five steps. As a first step, mining maps were collected which contains underground geo-spatial informations. In mine maps, then, mine network and contour data were converted to GIS format in second step for 3D visualization and spatial analysis. In doing so, original tunnel outline data were digitized with ground level, and converted to simplified network format, and surface morphology, contours were converted to digital elevation model (DEM). The next step is to define calculation algorithm of transportation cost. Among the many component of transportation cost, this study focused on the fuel cost because it can be easily estimated if mining maps are available by itself. The cost were calculated by multiplication of the number of blasting, haulage per blasting, distance between mining faces to facility, fuel cost per liter, and two for downhill and uphill, divided by fuel efficiency of mining trucks. Finally, decision support system, SNUTunnel was implemented. For the application of SNUTunnel in actual underground mine, Nammyeong Development Corporation, Korea, was selected as study site. This mine produces limestone with high content of calcite for paper, steel manufacture, or desulfurization, and its development is continuously ongoing to reach down to deeper calcite ore body, so the mine network is expanding

  5. Deployable M-braced truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, M. D. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A deployable M-braced truss structure, efficiently packaged into a compact stowed position and expandable to an operative position at the use site is described. The M-braced configuration effectively separates tension compression and shear in the structure and permits efficient structural design. Both diagonals and longerons telescope from an M-braced base unit and deploy either pneumatically, mechanically by springs or cables, or by powered reciprocating mechanisms. Upon full deployment, the diagonals and longerons lock into place with a simple latch mechanism.

  6. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE MOBILE ARM RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (MARS) - 12187

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURKE CA; LANDON MR; HANSON CE

    2012-01-30

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing and deploying Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) technologies solutions to support retrieval of radioactive and chemical waste from underground single shell storage tanks (SST) located at the Hanford Site, which is near Richland, Washington. WRPS has developed the MARS using a standardized platform that is capable of deploying multiple retrieval technologies. To date, WRPS, working with their mentor-protege company, Columbia Energy and Environmental Services (CEES), has developed two retrieval mechanisms, MARS-Sluicing (MARS-S) and MARS-Vacuum (MARS-V). MARS-S uses pressurized fluids routed through spray nozzles to mobilize waste materials to a centrally located slurry pump (deployed in 2011). MARS-V uses pressurized fluids routed through an eductor nozzle. The eductor nozzle allows a vacuum to be drawn on the waste materials. The vacuum allows the waste materials to be moved to an in-tank vessel, then extracted from the SST and subsequently pumped to newer and safer double shell tanks (DST) for storage until the waste is treated for disposal. The MARS-S system is targeted for sound SSTs (i.e., non leaking tanks). The MARS-V is targeted for assumed leaking tanks or those tanks that are of questionable integrity. Both versions of MARS are being/have been developed in compliance with WRPS's TFC-PLN-90, Technology Development Management Plan. TFC-PLN-90 includes a phased approach to design, testing, and ultimate deployment of new technologies. The MARS-V is scheduled to be deployed in tank 241-C-105 in late 2012.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE MOBILE ARM RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (MARS) - 12187

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURKE CA; LANDON MR; HANSON CE

    2011-11-08

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing and deploying Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) technologies solutions to support retrieval of radioactive and chemical waste from underground single shell storage tanks (SST) located at the Hanford Site, which is near Richland, Washington. WRPS has developed the MARS using a standardized platform that is capable of deploying multiple retrieval technologies. To date, WRPS, working with their mentor-protege company, Columbia Energy and Environmental Services (CEES), has developed two retrieval mechanisms, MARS-Sluicing (MARS-S) and MARS-Vacuum (MARS-V). MARS-S uses pressurized fluids routed through spray nozzles to mobilize waste materials to a centrally located slurry pump (deployed in 2011). MARS-V uses pressurized fluids routed through an eductor nozzle. The eductor nozzle allows a vacuum to be drawn on the waste materials. The vacuum allows the waste materials to be moved to an in-tank vessel, then extracted from the SST and subsequently pumped to newer and safer double shell tanks (DST) for storage until the waste is treated for disposal. The MARS-S system is targeted for sound SSTs (i.e., non leaking tanks). The MARS-V is targeted for assumed leaking tanks or those tanks that are of questionable integrity. Both versions of MARS are beinglhave been developed in compliance with WRPS's TFC-PLN-90, Technology Development Management Plan [1]. TFC-PLN-90 includes a phased approach to design, testing, and ultimate deployment of new technologies. The MARS-V is scheduled to be deployed in tank 241-C-105 in late 2012.

  9. Development and Deployment of the Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) - 12187

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Christopher A.; Landon, Matthew R. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Hanson, Carl E. [AREVA Federal Services, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing and deploying Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) technologies solutions to support retrieval of radioactive and chemical waste from underground single shell storage tanks (SST) located at the Hanford Site, which is near Richland, Washington. WRPS has developed the MARS using a standardized platform that is capable of deploying multiple retrieval technologies. To date, WRPS, working with their mentor-protege company, Columbia Energy and Environmental Services (CEES), has developed two retrieval mechanisms, MARS-Sluicing (MARS-S) and MARS-Vacuum (MARS-V). MARS-S uses pressurized fluids routed through spray nozzles to mobilize waste materials to a centrally located slurry pump (deployed in 2011). MARS-V uses pressurized fluids routed through an eductor nozzle. The eductor nozzle allows a vacuum to be drawn on the waste materials. The vacuum allows the waste materials to be moved to an in-tank vessel, then extracted from the SST and subsequently pumped to newer and safer double shell tanks (DST) for storage until the waste is treated for disposal. The MARS-S system is targeted for sound SSTs (i.e., non leaking tanks). The MARS-V is targeted for assumed leaking tanks or those tanks that are of questionable integrity. Both versions of MARS are being/have been developed in compliance with WRPS's TFC-PLN-90, Technology Development Management Plan [1]. TFC-PLN-90 includes a phased approach to design, testing, and ultimate deployment of new technologies. The MARS-V is scheduled to be deployed in tank 241-C-105 in late 2012. (authors)

  10. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  11. Field guide to quick deployment thermocouples

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for quick deployment of thermocouples to measure fire intensity at Kulm Wetland Management District as part of the Fire Intensity Monitoring survey....

  12. Embedding Quality Function Deployment In Software Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... product development: Marketing, Design. Engineering,. Quality ... The basic Quality Function Deployment methodology involves ... structure and planning approach, requires that more time be ..... process, and strategy. This is ...

  13. High Efficiency, Deployable Solar Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ultrathin, lightweight, flexible, and easily deployable solar cell (SC) capable of specific power greater than 1kW/kg are at an early stage of development for...

  14. Self-Deploying, Composite Habitats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to develop self-deploying, composite structures for lunar habitats, based on CRG's VeritexTM materials. These...

  15. Self-Deploying, Composite Habitats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to develop self-deploying, composite structures for lunar habitats, based on CRG's Veritex(TM) materials. These...

  16. Surface Optimization Techniques for Deployable Reflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this and several other programs, CTD has developed TEMBOREG deployable solid-surface reflectors (TEMBOREG Reflectors) to provide future NASA and Air Force...

  17. Office of Civilian Response Deployment Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The purpose of OCR DTS is to establish, manage and track relevant Civilian Response Corps teams for deployment by sector experience, training, education etc.

  18. Deployable structures for a human lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Petra; Häuplik, Sandra; Imhof, Barbara; Özdemir, Kürsad; Waclavicek, Rene; Perino, Maria Antoinetta

    2007-06-01

    The study Lunar exploration architecture—deployable structures for a lunar base was performed within the Alcatel Alenia Space “Lunar Exploration Architecture” study for the European Space Agency. The purpose of the study was to investigate bionic concepts applicable to deployable structures and to interpret the findings for possible implementation concepts. The study aimed at finding innovative solutions for deployment possibilities. Translating folding/unfolding principles from nature, candidate geometries were developed and researched using models, drawings and visualisations. The use of materials, joints between structural elements and construction details were investigated for these conceptual approaches. Reference scenarios were used to identify the technical and environmental conditions, which served as design drivers. Mechanical issues and the investigation of deployment processes narrowed the selection down to six chosen concepts. Their applicability was evaluated at a conceptual stage in relation to the timescale of the mission.

  19. DBAS: A Deployable Bandwidth Aggregation System

    CERN Document Server

    Habak, Karim; Harras, Khaled A

    2012-01-01

    The explosive increase in data demand coupled with the rapid deployment of various wireless access technologies have led to the increase of number of multi-homed or multi-interface enabled devices. Fully exploiting these interfaces has motivated researchers to propose numerous solutions that aggregate their available bandwidths to increase overall throughput and satisfy the end-user's growing data demand. These solutions, however, have faced a steep deployment barrier that we attempt to overcome in this paper. We propose a Deployable Bandwidth Aggregation System (DBAS) for multi-interface enabled devices. Our system does not introduce any intermediate hardware, modify current operating systems, modify socket implementations, nor require changes to current applications or legacy servers. The DBAS architecture is designed to automatically estimate the characteristics of applications and dynamically schedule various connections or packets to different interfaces. Since our main focus is deployability, we fully i...

  20. Extreme Environment Sampling System Deployment Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Venus or Comet mission architectures may feature robotic sampling systems comprised of a Sampling Tool and Deployment Mechanism. Since 2005, Honeybee has been...