WorldWideScience

Sample records for deployable prefabricated structure

  1. Large, Easily Deployable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agan, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Study of concepts for large space structures will interest those designing scaffolding, radio towers, rescue equipment, and prefabricated shelters. Double-fold, double-cell module was selected for further design and for zero gravity testing. Concept is viable for deployment by humans outside space vehicle as well as by remotely operated manipulator.

  2. Prefabricated elements and structures: Developments, tests and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2014-01-01

    Danish concrete structures are often built with prefabricated elements, joined together on the site and this provides a large challenge to constantly improve and optimize the elements, the joints and the models. DTU Byg has been active in the development, testing and modelling of new elements...

  3. Synchronously Deployable Truss Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Structure lightweight, readily deployed, and has reliable joints. New truss concept, designated as "pac truss," developed. Features easy deployment without need for complex mechanisms. Structures of this type deployed in free flight by controlled release of stored energy in torsional springs at selected hinges located throughout structure. Double-folding technique used in beam model applicable to flat planar trusses, allowing structures of large expanse to fold into compact packages and be deployed for space-platform applications.

  4. Deployable geodesic truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, Marvin D. (Inventor); Simonton, J. Wayne (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A deployable geodesic truss structure which can be deployed from a stowed state to an erected state is described. The truss structure includes a series of bays, each bay having sets of battens connected by longitudinal cross members which give the bay its axial and torsional stiffness. The cross members are hinged at their mid point by a joint so that the cross members are foldable for deployment or collapsing. The bays are deployed and stabilized by actuator means connected between the mid point joints of the cross members. Hinged longerons may be provided to also connect the sets of battens and to collapse for stowing with the rest of the truss structure.

  5. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  6. Deployable Soft Composite Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-19

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  7. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Hugo Rodrigue; Sung-Hoon Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and sim...

  8. Synchronously deployable truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, H. G. (Inventor); Mikulas, M., Jr. (Inventor); Wallsom, E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A collapsible-expandable truss structure, including first and second spaced surface truss layers having an attached core layer is described. The surface truss layers are composed of a plurality of linear struts arranged in multiple triangular configurations. Each linear strut is hinged at the center and hinge connected at each end to a nodular joint. A passive spring serves as the expansion force to move the folded struts from a stowed collapsed position to a deployed operative final truss configuration. A damper controls the rate of spring expansion for the synchronized deployment of the truss as the folded configuration is released for deployment by the restrain belts. The truss is synchronously extended under the control of motor driven spools.

  9. Dedicated Deployable Aerobraking Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersch, Louis R.; Knarr, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A dedicated deployable aerobraking structure concept was developed that significantly increases the effective area of a spacecraft during aerobraking by up to a factor of 5 or more (depending on spacecraft size) without substantially increasing total spacecraft mass. Increasing the effective aerobraking area of a spacecraft (without significantly increasing spacecraft mass) results in a corresponding reduction in the time required for aerobraking. For example, if the effective area of a spacecraft is doubled, the time required for aerobraking is roughly reduced to half the previous value. The dedicated deployable aerobraking structure thus enables significantly shorter aerobraking phases, which results in reduced mission cost, risk, and allows science operations to begin earlier in the mission.

  10. Design and Model Test of a Modularized Prefabricated Steel Frame Structure with Inclined Braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modularized prefabricated steel structures have become the preferred design in the industrialization of steel structures due to their advantages of fast construction speed, high degree of industrialization, low labour intensity, and more. Prefabricated steel structures have some engineering applications, but all are low-rise structures with few applications in the field of high-rise buildings. Using finite element analysis with line and solid elements, full-scale experiments were conducted to study the single-span frame, which is the core load-bearing part of a modularized prefabricated high-rise steel frame structure with inclined braces. The mechanical mechanisms, computation methods, and design formulas of truss girders were obtained by comparing the finite element and model experiments and building a theoretical and experimental basis for the compilation of design codes. The mechanical characteristics under design load, the deformation and stress state, the elastic-plastic law of development, and the yield failure mode and mechanism under horizontal ultimate load were also obtained. Based on theoretical analysis, finite element analysis, and experiments, the design method of this frame was summarized and incorporated into the design code.

  11. Thermally stable deployable structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegg, Colleen M.

    1988-01-01

    A deployable structure which meets stringent thermal and strength requirements in a space environment was developed. A mast with a very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was required to limit the movement from thermal distortion over the temperature range of -200 C to 80 C to .064 cm (.025 in). In addition, a high bending strength over the temperature range and weight less than 18.1 kg (40 lbs) was needed. To meet all of the requirements, a composite, near-zero CTE structure was developed. The measured average CTE over the temperature range for the mast was .70 x .000001/C (.38 x .000001/F). The design also has the advantage of being adjustable to attain other specific CTE if desired.

  12. Load-carrying capacity of lightly reinforced, prefabricated walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and evaluates the results of a coordinated testing of prefabricated, lightly reinforced walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure. The coordinated testing covers all wall productions in Denmark and will therefore provide a representative assessment of the qual...... of the quality actually produced. Existing and new formulas for the capacity are evaluated by comparison to the test results and a new model with a good correlation with the test results is presented....

  13. Self-Deployable Membrane Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Witold M.; Willis, Paul B.; Tan, Seng C.

    2010-01-01

    Currently existing approaches for deployment of large, ultra-lightweight gossamer structures in space rely typically upon electromechanical mechanisms and mechanically expandable or inflatable booms for deployment and to maintain them in a fully deployed, operational configuration. These support structures, with the associated deployment mechanisms, launch restraints, inflation systems, and controls, can comprise more than 90 percent of the total mass budget. In addition, they significantly increase the stowage volume, cost, and complexity. A CHEM (cold hibernated elastic memory) membrane structure without any deployable mechanism and support booms/structure is deployed by using shape memory and elastic recovery. The use of CHEM micro-foams reinforced with carbon nanotubes is considered for thin-membrane structure applications. In this advanced structural concept, the CHEM membrane structure is warmed up to allow packaging and stowing prior to launch, and then cooled to induce hibernation of the internal restoring forces. In space, the membrane remembers its original shape and size when warmed up. After the internal restoring forces deploy the structure, it is then cooled to achieve rigidization. For this type of structure, the solar radiation could be utilized as the heat energy used for deployment and space ambient temperature for rigidization. The overall simplicity of the CHEM self-deployable membrane is one of its greatest assets. In present approaches to space-deployable structures, the stow age and deployment are difficult and challenging, and introduce a significant risk, heavy mass, and high cost. Simple procedures provided by CHEM membrane greatly simplify the overall end-to-end process for designing, fabricating, deploying, and rigidizing large structures. The CHEM membrane avoids the complexities associated with other methods for deploying and rigidizing structures by eliminating deployable booms, deployment mechanisms, and inflation and control systems

  14. Self deployable deorbiting space structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    -active or heavy device has to be brought on board the spacecraft for deploying the space structure. Allows the deployed flexible sheet surface higher than the case when SDSS is rigidly linked at the short distance from carrier structure. Ensures a reliable unfolding of deorbiting structures in zero gravity....... Provides the strain energy provoking the deployment without the need of addition of energy to the system. Eliminates the issues around successful unfolding known from other technical solutions as the frame unfolds automatically without using external energy for unfolding by using the accumulated strain...... energy in stressed configuration. Ensures that deorbiting space structure can be efficiently folded without intervention of active unfolding device....

  15. Joint for deployable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, N. D., II; Preliasco, R. J.; Hult, T. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A joint is described for connecting a pair of beams to pivot them between positions in alignment or beside one another, which is of light weight and which operates in a controlled manner. The joint includes a pair of fittings and at least one center link having opposite ends pivotally connected to opposite fittings and having axes that pass through centerplates of the fittings. A control link having opposite ends pivotally connected to the different fittings controls their relative orientations, and a toggle assemly holds the fittings in the deployed configuration wherein they are aligned. The fittings have stops that lie on one side of the centerplane opposite the toggle assembly.

  16. Space deployable truss structure design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyner, J. V., Jr.; Tobey, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The development status of the deployable box truss structure is summarized. Potential applications for this structural system are described. Structural and component design requirements derived from these applications are discussed. Components of prototype 4.6 m cubes which incorporate graphite/epoxy structural members, fittings, and mechanisms are described. The benefits of the component designs and their respective manufacturing processes are presented.

  17. Deployable Composite Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is seeking innovative structure technologies that will advance expandable modules for orbital and surface based habitats. These secondary structures must...

  18. Deployable truss structure advanced technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, J. E.; Dudeck, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    The 5-meter technology antenna program demonstrated the overall feasibility of integrating a mesh reflector surface with a deployable truss structure to achieve a precision surface contour compatible with future, high-performance antenna requirements. Specifically, the program demonstrated: the feasibility of fabricating a precision, edge-mounted, deployable, tetrahedral truss structure; the feasibility of adjusting a truss-supported mesh reflector contour to a surface error less than 10 mils rms; and good RF test performance, which correlated well with analytical predictions. Further analysis and testing (including flight testing) programs are needed to fully verify all the technology issues, including structural dynamics, thermodynamics, control, and on-orbit RF performance, which are associated with large, deployable, truss antenna structures.

  19. Deployable Composite Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is seeking innovative structure technologies that will advance expandable exploration space modules and surface based habitats. To address this need CTD has...

  20. New concepts in deployable beam structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The design of deployable structures involves a complicated tradeoff of packaging efficiency, the overall mechanism associated with deploying and latching beam joints, and the requirements and complexity of the beam deployer/repacker. Three longeron deployable beams, controllable geometry beams, and hybrid deployable/erectable beam concepts are evaluated.

  1. Study of a flowerlike deployable structure:

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Ani; Liu, Heping; Li, Cheng; Wang, Yongfan

    2013-01-01

    A deployable structure is a kind of mechanism that can be folded and deployed automatically. It is able to form required shape or curved surface after deployment. In this paper, a flowerlike deployable structure, which forms a circle plane after deployment, was studied. First, the required circle plane was decomposed to determine the shapes of the members. Then the relation expressions were set up, which include the structural dimensions of the members and how to calculate the volume of the m...

  2. Effects of prefabricated hole structure on cold-pressing joining reliability between dissimilar sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng Chuang; Li, Feng; Wang, Mo Nan; Bao, Ze Ping

    2016-12-01

    The structural form of prefabricated holes is one of the important factors to determine the quality and reliability of cold-pressing joining between dissimilar sheets. Different numbers of holes with the same area will lead to different wall thickness distributions and joining strengths. This paper takes the cold-pressing joining between AA1100 pure aluminum sheet and SS304 stainless steel sheet as an example, the further study results show that the end of aluminum sheet has an increasing tendency along the directions of length and width in the process of cold-pressing joining. The wall thickness of joints shows a symmetrical distribution on both sides and the joining thickness decreases from the center to both sides sequentially. With the continuous increase of the punch loading pressure, the average thinning ratio of the joints becomes larger. By contrast, when the other parameters are all the same, the joining strength is the most ideal when the punch loading pressure is 250 kN. The loading pressure which is too small or large is easy to cause an insufficient joining strength or defects. This paper provides a scientific basis in this aspect for optimizing the cold-pressing joining plan and designing a reasonable joint structure. It can also promote the existing cold-pressing joining technologies to be mature, and enrich the existing solid-state joining technology.

  3. Quasi-static Deployment Simulation for Deployable Space Truss Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈务军; 付功义; 何艳丽; 董石麟

    2004-01-01

    A new method was proposed for quasi-static deployment analysis of deployable space truss structures. The structure is assumed a rigid assembly, whose constraints are classified as three categories:rigid member constraint, joint-attached kinematic constraint and boundary constraint. And their geometric constraint equations and derivative matrices are formulated. The basis of the null space and M-P inverse of the geometric constraint matrix are employed to determine the solution for quasi-static deployment analysis. The influence introduced by higher terms of constraints is evaluated subsequently. The numerical tests show that the new method is efficient.

  4. Deployable and retractable telescoping tubular structure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new deployable and retractable telescoping boom capable of high deployed stiffness and strength is described. Deployment and retraction functions are controlled by simple, reliable, and fail-safe latches between the tubular segments. The latch and a BI-STEM (Storable Tubular Extendible Member) actuator work together to eliminate the need for the segments to overlap when deployed. This yields an unusually lightweight boom and compact launch configuration. An aluminum space-flight prototype with three joints displays zero structural deadband, low hysteresis, and high damping. The development approach and difficulties are discussed. Test results provide a joint model for sizing flight booms of any diameter and length.

  5. Experimental thermal mechanics of deployable boom structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predmore, R.

    1972-01-01

    An apparatus was developed for thermal distortion measurements on deployable boom structures. The calibration procedure and thermal static bending plus twist measurements are considered. The thermal mechanics test facility is described. A table is presented for several examples of spacecraft applications of thermal static distortion measurements on 3-m deployable booms.

  6. Deployable M-braced truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, M. D. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A deployable M-braced truss structure, efficiently packaged into a compact stowed position and expandable to an operative position at the use site is described. The M-braced configuration effectively separates tension compression and shear in the structure and permits efficient structural design. Both diagonals and longerons telescope from an M-braced base unit and deploy either pneumatically, mechanically by springs or cables, or by powered reciprocating mechanisms. Upon full deployment, the diagonals and longerons lock into place with a simple latch mechanism.

  7. Joints in deployable space truss structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M.

    1988-01-01

    Since the response of deployable structural concepts being considered for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) backup structure will be dominated by the response of joints, the joint characteristics are significant. An overview is given of the research activities at LaRC on the static behavior of joints for deployable space truss structures. Since a pin-clevis-type joint will be utilized in deployable structures, an experimental research program to characterize the joint parameters which affect stiffness was conducted. An experimental research program was conducted on a second type of joint, referred to as a near-center latch joint. It was used in the center of members on the deployable truss structure for the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) flight experiment. The test results of the near-center latch joint and the member with the joints indicated that the stiffness of the near-center joint is linear and stiffer than the stiffness of the total member, and that non-linearities in the stiffness characteristics of the total member were due to bending introduced at the ends of the member. The resulting data indicates that stiff linear folding joints can be designed and that bending load paths should be avoided whenever possible. In summary, for deployable structures, special attention to the joint and the structure design is required to minimize the undesirable structural non-linearities.

  8. Designing Planar Deployable Objects via Scissor Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Wang, Shiwei; Chen, Xuejin; Ding, Chao; Jiang, Luo; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Ligang

    2016-02-01

    Scissor structure is used to generate deployable objects for space-saving in a variety of applications, from architecture to aerospace science. While deployment from a small, regular shape to a larger one is easy to design, we focus on a more challenging task: designing a planar scissor structure that deploys from a given source shape into a specific target shape. We propose a two-step constructive method to generate a scissor structure from a high-dimensional parameter space. Topology construction of the scissor structure is first performed to approximate the two given shapes, as well as to guarantee the deployment. Then the geometry of the scissor structure is optimized in order to minimize the connection deflections and maximize the shape approximation. With the optimized parameters, the deployment can be simulated by controlling an anchor scissor unit. Physical deployable objects are fabricated according to the designed scissor structures by using 3D printing or manual assembly. We show a number of results for different shapes to demonstrate that even with fabrication errors, our designed structures can deform fluently between the source and target shapes.

  9. Deployable structures for a human lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Petra; Häuplik, Sandra; Imhof, Barbara; Özdemir, Kürsad; Waclavicek, Rene; Perino, Maria Antoinetta

    2007-06-01

    The study Lunar exploration architecture—deployable structures for a lunar base was performed within the Alcatel Alenia Space “Lunar Exploration Architecture” study for the European Space Agency. The purpose of the study was to investigate bionic concepts applicable to deployable structures and to interpret the findings for possible implementation concepts. The study aimed at finding innovative solutions for deployment possibilities. Translating folding/unfolding principles from nature, candidate geometries were developed and researched using models, drawings and visualisations. The use of materials, joints between structural elements and construction details were investigated for these conceptual approaches. Reference scenarios were used to identify the technical and environmental conditions, which served as design drivers. Mechanical issues and the investigation of deployment processes narrowed the selection down to six chosen concepts. Their applicability was evaluated at a conceptual stage in relation to the timescale of the mission.

  10. Lightweight, Self-Deploying Foam Antenna Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Witold; Levin, Steven; Rand, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight, deployable antennas for a variety of outer-space and terrestrial applications would be designed and fabricated according to the concept of cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) structures, according to a proposal. Mechanically deployable antennas now in use are heavy, complex, and unreliable, and they utilize packaging volume inefficiently. The proposed CHEM antenna structures would be simple and would deploy themselves without need for any mechanisms and, therefore, would be more reliable. The proposed CHEM antenna structures would also weigh less, could be packaged in smaller volumes, and would cost less, relative to mechanically deployable antennas. The CHEM concept was described in two prior NASA Tech Briefs articles: "Cold Hibernated Elastic Memory (CHEM) Expandable Structures" (NPO-20394), Vol. 23, No. 2 (February 1999), page 56; and "Solar Heating for Deployment of Foam Structures" (NPO-20961), Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 36. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The CHEM concept is one of utilizing opencell foams of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) to make lightweight, reliable, simple, and inexpensive structures that can be alternately (1) compressed and stowed compactly or (2) expanded, then rigidified for use. A CHEM structure is fabricated at full size from a block of SMP foam in its glassy state [at a temperature below the glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the SMP]. The structure is heated to the rubbery state of the SMP (that is, to a temperature above Tg) and compacted to a small volume. After compaction, the structure is cooled to the glassy state of the SMP. The compacting force can then be released and the structure remains compact as long as the temperature is kept below Tg. Upon subsequent heating of the structure above Tg, the simultaneous elastic recovery of the foam and its shape-memory effect cause the structure to expand to its original size and shape. Once thus deployed, the structure can be rigidified by

  11. Clevis joint for deployable space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marvin D. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates generally to pin clevis joints, and more particularly, to zero play pin clevis joints for connecting structural members of a deployable space structure. A joint includes a pin, a tang, and a shackle. The pin is tapered at the same angle as the bores extending through the projections of the shackle and the tang. A spring washer biases the tang onto the tapered sidewall of the pin. The invention solves the free play problem associated with deployable space structures by using a tapered pin which is held in tapered holes by the spring washers.

  12. Offloading techniques for large deployable space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Levino; Golob, Alex

    1992-01-01

    The validation and verification of large deployable space structures are continual challenges which face the integration and test engineer today. Spar Aerospace Limited has worked on various programs in which such structure validation was required and faces similar tasks in the future. This testing is reported and the different offloading and deployment methods which were used, as well as the proposed methods which will be used on future programs, are described. Past programs discussed include the Olympus solar array ambient and thermal vacuum deployments, and the Anik-E array and reflector deployments. The proposed MSAT reflector and boom ambient deployment tests, as well as the proposed RADARSAT Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ambient and thermal vacuum deployment tests will also be presented. A series of tests relating to various component parts of the offloading equipment systems was required. These tests included the characterization and understanding of linear bearings and large (180 in-lbf) constant force spring motors in a thermal vacuum environment, and the results from these tests are presented.

  13. Deployable Structural Booms for Large Deployable Solar Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of a new generation of large, high power deployable solar arrays has been identified as the most significant challenge facing the development of...

  14. Structures for remotely deployable precision antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Future space missions such as the Earth Science Geostationary Platform (ESGP) will require highly accurate antennas with apertures that cannot be launched fully formed. The operational orbits are often inaccessible to manned flight and will involve expendable launch vehicles such as the Delta or Titan. There is therefore a need for completely deployable antenna reflectors of large size capable of efficiently handling millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation. The parameters for the type of mission are illustrated. The logarithmic plot of frequency versus aperture diameter shows the regions of interest for a large variety of space antenna applications, ranging from a 1500-meter-diameter radio telescope for low frequencies to a 20-meter-diameter infrared telescope. For the ESGP, a major application is the microwave radiometry at high frequencies for atmospheric sounding. Almost all existing large antenna reflectors for space employ a mesh-type reflecting surface. Examples are shown and discussed which deal with the various structural concepts for mesh antennas. Fortunately, those concepts are appropriate for creating the very large apertures required at the lower frequencies for good resolution. The emphasis is on the structural concepts and technologies that are appropriate to fully automated deployment of dish-type antennas with solid reflector surfaces. First the structural requirements are discussed. Existing concepts for fully deployable antennas are then described and assessed relative to the requirements. Finally, several analyses are presented that evaluate the effects of beam steering and segmented reflector design on the accuracy of the antenna.

  15. FEA of the Variations in Sound Insulation in Nominally Identical Prefabricated Lightweight Timber Panel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The measurements of sound propagation in buildings usually show a variation between nominally identical constructed structures. These variations can be due to variations in structural properties, measurement uncertainties or workmanship related factors. Better knowledge about the source for these......The measurements of sound propagation in buildings usually show a variation between nominally identical constructed structures. These variations can be due to variations in structural properties, measurement uncertainties or workmanship related factors. Better knowledge about the source...

  16. Deployable antenna kinematics using tensegrity structure design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Byron Franklin

    With vast changes in spacecraft development over the last decade, a new, cheaper approach was needed for deployable kinematic systems such as parabolic antenna reflectors. Historically, these mesh-surface reflectors have resembled folded umbrellas, with incremental redesigns utilized to save packaging size. These systems are typically over-constrained designs, the assumption being that high reliability necessary for space operations requires this level of conservatism. But with the rapid commercialization of space, smaller launch platforms and satellite buses have demanded much higher efficiency from all space equipment than can be achieved through this incremental approach. This work applies an approach called tensegrity to deployable antenna development. Kenneth Snelson, a student of R. Buckminster Fuller, invented Tensegrity structures in 1948. Such structures use a minimum number of compression members (struts); stability is maintain using tension members (ties). The novelty introduced in this work is that the ties are elastic, allowing the struts to extend or contract, and in this way changing the surface of the antenna. Previously, the University of Florida developed an approach to quantify the stability and motion of parallel manipulators. This approach was applied to deployable, tensegrity, antenna structures. Based on the kinematic analyses for the 3-3 (octahedron) and 4-4 (square anti-prism) structures, the 6-6 (hexagonal anti-prism) analysis was completed which establishes usable structural parameters. The primary objective for this work was to prove the stability of this class of deployable structures, and their potential application to space structures. The secondary objective is to define special motions for tensegrity antennas, to meet the subsystem design requirements, such as addressing multiple antenna-feed locations. This work combines the historical experiences of the artist (Snelson), the mathematician (Ball), and the space systems engineer

  17. Extendable retractable telescopic mast for deployable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M.; Aguirre, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Extendable and Retractable Mast (ERM) which is presently developed by Dornier in the frame of an ESA-contract, will be used to deploy and retract large foldable structures. The design is based on a telescopic carbon-fiber structure with high stiffness, strength and pointing accuracy. To verify the chosen design, a breadboard model of an ERM was built and tested under thermal vacuum (TV)-conditions. It is planned as a follow-on development to manufacture and test an Engineering Model Mast. The Engineering Model will be used to establish the basis for an ERM-family covering a wide range of requirements.

  18. FEA of the Variations in Sound Insulation in Nominally Identical Prefabricated Lightweight Timber Panel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The measurements of sound propagation in buildings usually show a variation between nominally identical constructed structures. These variations can be due to variations in structural properties, measurement uncertainties or workmanship related factors. Better knowledge about the source for these......The measurements of sound propagation in buildings usually show a variation between nominally identical constructed structures. These variations can be due to variations in structural properties, measurement uncertainties or workmanship related factors. Better knowledge about the source...... in sound transmission due to variation in material properties and geometric properties of the walls. The obtanied results indicate that the sound transmission is sensitive to variations in a material properties and less sensitive to variations in the geometric properties....

  19. Thermal Analysis of a Structural Solution for Sustainable, Modular and Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isopescu, D. N.; Maxineasa, S. G.; Neculai, O.

    2017-06-01

    In the construction field, the design principles for an efficient and operational use of buildings and a minimal impact on the environment are essential aspects of sustainable development. In this regard, several aspects must be taken into consideration, such as: durability, easy maintenance, flexibility in interior design, and reduced energy consumption. Decreasing energy consumption in buildings during the service life (heating / cooling / drinking water / electricity) can mean lower costs, but also a lower impact on the environment. The paper presents the thermal analysis for a GF+1F height structure, consisting of several identical, adjacent and / or overlapped metallic cubic modules. The spaces inside this cubes ensemble solve the functionality of a family home building. The good carrying capacity, the rapidity of execution, the superior degree of thermal insulation and the minimum losses of material in execution were the main advantages provided by this structural solution. Regarding the thermal comfort for the users of this constructive system, the thermal analysis showed that the internal temperatures are constant and uniform, without cold surfaces or temperature fluctuations. In addition, humidity is controlled and there is no risk of condensation.

  20. Deployable structure design for the science and applications space platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    Basic concepts regarding deployable structures design, including systematic design/classification schemes and a deployability criterion, were proposed for use in synthesis, analysis and evaluation of alternative deployable structure designs. Using design guidelines based on SASP requirements and the basic concepts developed, a variety of designs were synthesized, and these along with previously proposed designs were analyzed and evaluated. Recommendations and conclusions regarding optimal deployable structure design were made.

  1. Numerical simulation of deepwater deployment for offshore structures with deploying cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小舟; 刘少军

    2015-01-01

    Deepwater deployment of offshore structures in different sea states was investigated. The whole deployment system was modeled as a lumped mass model, and discretization scheme for cable geometry and methodology for calculating the internal and external force acting on deploying cable were presented. The deployment model suitable for the time-varying length of deploying cable was specified. The free-surface flow fields together with the ship motions were used to calculate dynamic tension in the deploying cable during deployment of the structure. The deployment of deep sea mining system which was a typical subsea working system was employed. Based on lumped mass analysis model and parameters of deep sea mining system, numerical simulations were performed, and dynamic load and dynamic amplification factor (DAF) with different cable parameters, deploying velocities and sea states were obtained. It is shown that cable parameters and amplitudes of ocean waves can significantly influence the dynamic load and DAF, and the time-varying natural period of deploying system is a dominant factor, while the effect of deploying velocity is not obvious.

  2. Self-Deploying Gossamer Support Structure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I results demonstrated the feasibility of using shape memory polymer composites to deploy, tension and support gossamer antennas. Cornerstone Research Group,...

  3. Design and Weaving of Prefabrication of 2.5D Textile Structural Composites%2.5D纺织结构复合材料预制件的设计及织造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红涛; 赵磊

    2011-01-01

    对五层2.5D层间弯交浅联预制件织物组织和各项参数进行了设计,并在SV-111全自动剑杆织样机上进行了试织,以探讨其可织性。%The parameters and the weaving structure of 2.5 D prefabrication of cross curved shallow contact in 5 layers were designed,and the prefabrication was tentatively weaved on the SV-III full automatic rapier loom to research the weavability.

  4. Design and operation of a deployable truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, K.

    1984-01-01

    A concept for the one dimensional deployable truss structure is presented. The deployed configuration of the structure consists of the repetition of a longitudinal octahedral truss module. The principal mechanical feature of the truss is that the lateral members comprising the lateral triangular truss are telescoping beams. Contracting of the lateral members results in the deployment of the truss structure. The geometric transformation of this truss of variable geometry is presented. Both simultaneous and sequential modes of transformation are possible. The validity of the transformation applied to the deployment is verified through design of a conceptual model.

  5. Dynamic analysis of the deployment for mesh reflector deployable antennas with the cable-net structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqun; Li, Na; Yang, Guigeng; Ru, Wenrui

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a dynamic analysis approach for the composite structure of a deployable truss and cable-net system. An Elastic Catenary Element is adopted to model the slack/tensioned cables. Then, from the energy standpoint, the kinetic energy, elasticity-potential energy and geopotential energy of the cable-net structure and deployable truss are derived. Thus, the flexible multi-body dynamic model of the deployable antenna is built based on the Lagrange equation. The effect of the cable-net tension on the antenna truss is discussed and compared with previous publications and a dynamic deployment analysis is performed. Both the simulation and experimental results verify the validity of the method presented.

  6. Deployable robotic woven wire structures and joints for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, MO; Smith, Bradford

    1991-01-01

    Deployable robotic structures are basically expandable and contractable structures that may be transported or launched to space in a compact form. These structures may then be intelligently deployed by suitable actuators. The deployment may also be done by means of either airbag or spring-loaded typed mechanisms. The actuators may be pneumatic, hydraulic, ball-screw type, or electromagnetic. The means to trigger actuation may be on-board EPROMS, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that trigger actuation based on some input caused by the placement of the structure in the space environment. The actuation may also be performed remotely by suitable remote triggering devices. Several deployable woven wire structures are examined. These woven wire structures possess a unique form of joint, the woven wire joint, which is capable of moving and changing its position and orientation with respect to the structure itself. Due to the highly dynamic and articulate nature of these joints the 3-D structures built using them are uniquely and highly expandable, deployable, and dynamic. The 3-D structure naturally gives rise to a new generation of deployable three-dimensional spatial structures.

  7. Synchronously deployable double fold beam and planar truss structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marvin D. (Inventor); Hedgepeth, John M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A deployable structure that synchronously deploys in both length and width is disclosed which is suitable for use as a structural component for orbiting space stations or large satellites. The structure is designed with maximum packing efficiency so that large structures may be collapsed and transported in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The synchronous deployment feature allows the structure to be easily deployed in space by two astronauts, without a complex deployment mechanism. The structure is made up of interconnected structural units, each generally in the shape of a parallelepiped. The structural units are constructed of structural members connected with hinged and fixed connections at connection nodes in each corner of the parallelepiped. Diagonal members along each face of the parallelepiped provide structural rigidity and are equipped with mid-length, self-locking hinges to allow the structure to collapse. The structure is designed so that all hinged connections may be made with simple clevis-type hinges requiring only a single degree of freedom, and each hinge pin is located along the centerline of its structural member for increased strength and stiffness.

  8. New Analysis and Theory of Deployable Folded Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recently developed mathematical theory has great value for deployable space structures and in situ manufacture of large beams, panels, cylinders and other...

  9. Convected transient analysis for large space structures maneuver and deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housner, J.

    1984-01-01

    Convected-transient analysis techniques in the finite-element method are used to investigate the deployment and maneuver of large spacecraft structures with multiple-member flexible trusses and frames. Numerical results are presented for several sample problems.

  10. New Analysis and Theory of Deployable Folded Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recently developed mathematical folding theory has great value for deployable space structures and in situ manufacture of large beams, panels and cylinders. The...

  11. Finite element analysis of a deployable space structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, D. V.

    1982-01-01

    To assess the dynamic characteristics of a deployable space truss, a finite element model of the Scientific Applications Space Platform (SASP) truss has been formulated. The model incorporates all additional degrees of freedom associated with the pin-jointed members. Comparison of results with SPAR models of the truss show that the joints of the deployable truss significantly affect the vibrational modes of the structure only if the truss is relatively short.

  12. Rapidly Deployable Structures in Collective Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Airbeam Structures Vertigo Inc., located in Lake Elsinore , California, has specialized in the design of inflatable composite structures, airdrop systems...STAT) Project Final Report, #1221S-12-0071, Vertigo Inc., Lake Elsinore , CA, September 2002. 17 Krainski, Jr., Walter J.; Investigation of Two

  13. Family of deployable/retractable structures for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unda, J.; Weisz, J.; Rivacoba, J.; Uríen, I. Ruiz; Capitanio, R. S.

    New trends in the frame of space applications lead to the necessity of using deployable/retractable structures, working either as beams (with payloads all along their length) or masts (loaded at their tip). SENER—under ESA/ESTEC and Spanish Space Program contracts—are developing a family of structures with deployment and retraction capabilities (LTS, SENERMAST, CTM) so as to cover all ranges of potential necessities in the space community (antennas, experiment support, solar arrays, heat rejection systems …). This paper consists of a summary of the performances and range of applications of LTS, SENERMAST and CTM, and pays special attention to the large truss structure (LTS) development and verification.

  14. Structural analysis of ITER multi-purpose deployer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuelraj, Manoah Stephen, E-mail: manoah@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Dutta, Pramit; Gotewal, Krishan Kumar; Rastogi, Naveen [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Tesini, Alessandro [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90046, 1306 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Choi, Chang-Hwan, E-mail: chang-hwan.choi@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90046, 1306 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • System modelling for structural analysis of the Multi-Purpose Deployer (MPD). • Finite element modeling of the Multi-Purpose Deployer (MPD). • Static, modal and seismic response analysis of the Multi-Purpose Deployer (MPD). • Iterative structural analysis and design update to satisfy the structural criteria. • Modal analysis for various kinematic configurations. • Reaction force calculations on the interfacing systems. - Abstract: The Multi-Purpose Deployer (MPD) is a general purpose ITER in-vessel remote handling (RH) system. The main handling equipment, known as the MPD Transporter, consists of a series of linked bodies, which provide anchoring to the vacuum vessel port and an articulated multi-degree of freedom motion to perform various in-vessel maintenance tasks. During the in-vessel operations, the structural integrity of the system should be guaranteed against various operational and seismic loads. This paper presents the structural analysis results of the concept design of the MPD Transporter considering the seismic events. Static structural, modal and frequency response spectrum analyses have been performed to verify the structural integrity of the system, and to provide reaction forces to the interfacing systems such as vacuum vessel and cask. Iterative analyses and design updates are carried out based on the reference design of the system to improve the structural behavior of the system. The frequency responses of the system in various kinematics and payloads are assessed.

  15. Design considerations for joints in deployable space truss structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marvin D.

    1986-01-01

    All of the structures considered for the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) flight experiments are deployable truss structures and their response will be dominated by the structural response of the joints. To prepare for these experiments some fundamental research work is being conducted in the Structures and Dynamics Division at LaRC which will provide insight into structurally efficient and predictable deployable truss joints. This work involves generic studies of the static and dynamic response of joints as well as the development of analytical models which can be used to predict the response of a large multijointed truss. In addition to the generic joint studies, the research effort encompasses the design and fabrication of a 20-meter long deployable truss beam for laboratory evaluation of its structural characteristics and correlation with developed prediction methods. The experimental results have indicated the importance of attention to detail in the design and fabrication of joints for deployable truss structures. The dimensional relations and material considerations for efficient pin-clevis joints have been outlined. Results of tests on the near-center latch are discussed.

  16. Structural realism versus deployment realism: A comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Timothy D

    2016-10-01

    In this paper I challenge and adjudicate between the two positions that have come to prominence in the scientific realism debate: deployment realism and structural realism. I discuss a set of cases from the history of celestial mechanics, including some of the most important successes in the history of science. To the surprise of the deployment realist, these are novel predictive successes toward which theoretical constituents that are now seen to be patently false were genuinely deployed. Exploring the implications for structural realism, I show that the need to accommodate these cases forces our notion of "structure" toward a dramatic depletion of logical content, threatening to render it explanatorily vacuous: the better structuralism fares against these historical examples, in terms of retention, the worse it fares in content and explanatory strength. I conclude by considering recent restrictions that serve to make "structure" more specific. I show however that these refinements will not suffice: the better structuralism fares in specificity and explanatory strength, the worse it fares against history. In light of these case studies, both deployment realism and structural realism are significantly threatened by the very historical challenge they were introduced to answer.

  17. A new deployable structure for the nomad art

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Y; Zhang, Q.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a project of the international archtecture and structure competition preparing the annual conference of the IASS 2004 at Montpellier in France. A new kind of depolyable structure is designed to fit the requirements of the nomad art. With a poetical implication and a good assemblage and dismantling, this deployable structure needs an ordered construction procedure. During structure analysis, two phases have been distinguished : the construction phase and the working phase. ...

  18. Modeling and analysis of a large deployable antenna structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhengrong; Deng, Zongquan; Qi, Xiaozhi; Li, Bing

    2014-02-01

    One kind of large deployable antenna (LDA) structure is proposed by combining a number of basic deployable units in this paper. In order to avoid vibration caused by fast deployment speed of the mechanism, a braking system is used to control the spring-actuated system. Comparisons between the LDA structure and a similar structure used by the large deployable reflector (LDR) indicate that the former has potential for use in antennas with up to 30 m aperture due to its lighter weight. The LDA structure is designed to form a spherical surface found by the least square fitting method so that it can be symmetrical. In this case, the positions of the terminal points in the structure are determined by two principles. A method to calculate the cable network stretched on the LDA structure is developed, which combines the original force density method and the parabolic surface constraint. Genetic algorithm is applied to ensure that each cable reaches a desired tension, which avoids the non-convergence issue effectively. We find that the pattern for the front and rear cable net must be the same when finding the shape of the rear cable net, otherwise anticlastic surface would generate.

  19. Lightweight shape memory self-deployable structures for Gossamer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Witold

    2004-01-01

    Currently, existing approaches for producing large, ultra-lightweight, deployable structures in space typically rely upon electro-mechanical mechanisms and mechanically expandable that are heavy, not stowage volume efficient, expensive and complex. Therefore, one of the major efforts at NASA and DoD has been to develop expandable structures characterized by low mass and small launch volume. As a result, space inflatable structures have emerged 9-10 years ago.

  20. Design and stability of a family of deployable structures

    OpenAIRE

    Lessinnes, Thomas; Goriely, Alain

    2016-01-01

    A large family of deployable filamentary structures can be built by connecting two elastic rods along their length. The resulting structure has interesting shapes that can be stabilized by tuning the material properties of each rod. To model this structure and study its stability, we show that the equilibrium equations describing unloaded states can be derived from a variational principle. We then use a novel geometric method to study the stability of the resulting equilibria. As an example w...

  1. Application of the ADAMS program to deployable space truss structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleson, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The need for a computer program to perform kinematic and dynamic analyses of large truss structures while deploying from a packaged configuration in space led to the evaluation of several existing programs. ADAMS (automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems), a generalized program from performing the dynamic simulation of mechanical systems undergoing large displacements, is applied to two concepts of deployable space antenna units. One concept is a one cube folding unit of Martin Marietta's Box Truss Antenna and the other is a tetrahedral truss unit of a Tetrahedral Truss Antenna. Adequate evaluation of dynamic forces during member latch-up into the deployed configuration is not yet available from the present version of ADAMS since it is limited to the assembly of rigid bodies. Included is a method for estimating the maximum bending stress in a surface member at latch-up. Results include member displacement and velocity responses during extension and an example of member bending stresses at latch-up.

  2. System definition study of deployable, non-metallic space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimler, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art for nonmetallic materials and fabrication techniques suitable for future space structures are summarized. Typical subsystems and systems of interest to the space community that are reviewed include: (1) inflatable/rigidized space hangar; (2) flexible/storable acoustic barrier; (3) deployable fabric bulkhead in a space habitat; (4) extendible tunnel for soft docking; (5) deployable space recovery/re-entry systems for personnel or materials; (6) a manned habitat for a space station; (7) storage enclosures external to the space station habitat; (8) attachable work stations; and (9) safe haven structures. Performance parameters examined include micrometeoroid protection; leakage rate prediction and control; rigidization of flexible structures in the space environment; flammability and offgassing; lifetime for nonmetallic materials; crack propagation prevention; and the effects of atomic oxygen and space debris. An expandable airlock for shuttle flight experiments and potential tethered experiments from shuttle are discussed.

  3. Safety concerns related to modular/prefabricated building construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Maryam Mirhadi; Terouhid, Seyyed Amin; Kibert, Charles J; Hakim, Hamed

    2017-03-01

    The US construction industry annually experiences a relatively high rate of fatalities and injuries; therefore, improving safety practices should be considered a top priority for this industry. Modular/prefabricated building construction is a construction strategy that involves manufacturing of the whole building or some of its components off-site. This research focuses on the safety performance of the modular/prefabricated building construction sector during both manufacturing and on-site processes. This safety evaluation can serve as the starting point for improving the safety performance of this sector. Research was conducted based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration investigated accidents. The study found 125 accidents related to modular/prefabricated building construction. The details of each accident were closely examined to identify the types of injury and underlying causes. Out of 125 accidents, there were 48 fatalities (38.4%), 63 hospitalized injuries (50.4%), and 14 non-hospitalized injuries (11.2%). It was found that, the most common type of injury in modular/prefabricated construction was 'fracture', and the most common cause of accidents was 'fall'. The most frequent cause of cause (underlying and root cause) was 'unstable structure'. In this research, the accidents were also examined in terms of corresponding location, occupation, equipment as well as activities during which the accidents occurred. For improving safety records of the modular/prefabricated construction sector, this study recommends that future research be conducted on stabilizing structures during their lifting, storing, and permanent installation, securing fall protection systems during on-site assembly of components while working from heights, and developing training programmes and standards focused on modular/prefabricated construction.

  4. Concepts, analysis and development for precision deployable space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard K.; Thomson, Mark; Hedgepeth, John M.

    1991-01-01

    Several issues surrounding the development of large Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) designs are investigated. The concerns include nonlinear dynamics of large unruly masses such as the multi-layer thermal insulation of sunshades for instruments such as the precision pointing 20-m-diameter Large Deployable Reflector (LDR). A study of the residual oscillations after bang-bang reorientation maneuvers of a rigid satellite with a string appendage is presented. Application is made to the design of a sunshade (thermal blanket) for the LDE satellite. Another concern is the development of a deployable truss that has minimum structural redundancy (such as the tetrahedral truss) and that can be configured with planar and doubly curved geometries. A kinematically synchronized articulation scheme for a deployable tetrahedral truss is presented. Called the Tetrapac, this truss is currently limited to a planar configuration that has two rings. The final concern is the development and demonstration of hardware that enables astronauts to attach large, cumbersome, and fragile precision reflector segments to an erectable truss structure. This task must be accomplished with a high degree of precision and with relative ease. A design for a Panel Attachment Device (PAD) was developed and manufactured for neutral buoyancy simulations to be performed by LaRC.

  5. Deployable-erectable trade study for space station truss structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Wright, A. S., Jr.; Bush, H. G.; Watson, J. J.; Dean, E. B.; Twigg, L. T.; Rhodes, M. D.; Cooper, P. A.; Dorsey, J. T.; Lake, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a trade study on truss structures for constructing the space station are presented. Although this study was conducted for the reference gravity gradient space station, the results are generally applicable to other configurations. The four truss approaches for constructing the space station considered in this paper were the 9 foot single fold deployable, the 15 foot erectable, the 10 foot double fold tetrahedral, and the 15 foot PACTRUSS. The primary rational for considering a 9 foot single-fold deployable truss (9 foot is the largest uncollapsed cross-section that will fit in the Shuttle cargo bay) is that of ease of initial on-orbit construction and preintegration of utility lines and subsystems. The primary rational for considering the 15 foot erectable truss is that the truss bay size will accommodate Shuttle size payloads and growth of the initial station in any dimension is a simple extension of the initial construction process. The primary rational for considering the double-fold 10 foot tetrahedral truss is that a relatively large amount of truss structure can be deployed from a single Shuttle flight to provide a large number of nodal attachments which present a pegboard for attaching a wide variety of payloads. The 15 foot double-fold PACTRUSS was developed to incorporate the best features of the erectable truss and the tetrahedral truss.

  6. COMPUTERIZED KINEMATIC AND DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF LARGE DEPLOYABLE STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡其彪; 关富玲; 侯鹏飞

    2001-01-01

    As Huston's form of Kane's equation cannot be easily applied to large deployable structures, what is needed is further development of Kane's equation as described in this paper. Fully-Cartesian-coordinate (FCC) method uses Cartesian coordinates of points and Cartesian components of unitary vectors as generalized coordinates to describe three-dimension mechanisms. This FCC method avoids the need to consider angular coordinates and the resulting solution is just the space position of the structures. The FCC form of Kane's equation derived in this study is suitable for solution by computer method and is a good base for further simulation research. A numerical example showed that it is effective.

  7. Deployment Simulation Methods for Ultra-Lightweight Inflatable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.; Johnson, Arthur R.

    2003-01-01

    Two dynamic inflation simulation methods are employed for modeling the deployment of folded thin-membrane tubes. The simulations are necessary because ground tests include gravity effects and may poorly represent deployment in space. The two simulation methods are referred to as the Control Volume (CV) method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method. They are available in the LS-DYNA nonlinear dynamic finite element code. Both methods are suitable for modeling the interactions between the inflation gas and the thin-membrane tube structures. The CV method only considers the pressure induced by the inflation gas in the simulation, while the ALE method models the actual flow of the inflation gas. Thus, the transient fluid properties at any location within the tube can be predicted by the ALE method. Deployment simulations of three packaged tube models; namely coiled, Z-folded, and telescopically-folded configurations, are performed. Results predicted by both methods for the telescopically-folded configuration are correlated and computational efficiency issues are discussed.

  8. Mobility analysis of the deployable structure of SLE based on screw theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuantao; Wang, Sanmin; Li, Jianfeng; Zhi, Changjian

    2013-07-01

    Scissor-like element has a number of applications in deployable structures such as planar deployable structure (PDS) and ring deployable structure(RDS). However, the mobility analysis of the multi-loop deployable structures is made more difficulty by the traditional mobility formula, because the deployable structure is a very complex structure with multi-loop. Therefore, On the basis of screw theory, the calculation method of mobility of deployable structures of SLE is thoroughly discussed. In order to investigate the mobility, decomposing and composing structures(DCS) are developed, and the basic units are able to be obtained. On the basis of the deployable structures' geometrical characteristics, there exists a closed-loop quadrilateral structure and some non-closed-loop quadrilateral structures in PDS. Also, a six legs parallel structure is present in RDS. The basic units' mobility can be solved by both the methods of screw theory and topology constraint graphs. Then, composing the related basic units, the formula of planar deployable structures' mobility can be built and solves the mobility of ring deployable structure. The analysis method solves the mobility analysis of the multi-loop deployable structures which is difficulty by the traditional method, and plays an important role in further research about the mobility of other complex deployable structures.

  9. An initial lunar outpost based on deployable inflatable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozette, Stewart

    1990-01-01

    The Great Exploration Plan (GEP) has been proposed as an alternative approach for achieving the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) objectives stated by President Bush on 20 Jul. 1989. The GEP is an evolutionary, end-to-end approach for the establishment bases on the Moon and Mars. The GEP deviates from most other proposed SEI architectures by its extensive use of inflatable structures and by its emphasis on Earth-based assembly and test of all components. The following presentation focuses on the design, development and implementation of an inflatable/deployable Lunar outpost as part of the GEP. Programmatic and technical issues associated with this concept are also addressed.

  10. Conceptual Design of Deployment Structure of Morphing Nose Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For a reusable space vehicle or a missile, the shape of the nose cone has a significant effect on the drag of the vehicle. In this paper, the concept of morphing nose cone is proposed to reduce the drag when the reentry vehicle flies back into the atmosphere. The conceptual design of the structure of morphing nose cone is conducted. Mechanical design and optimization approach are developed by employing genetic algorithm to find the optimal geometric parameters of the morphing structure. An example is analyzed by using the proposed method. The results show that optimal solution supplies the minimum position error. The concept of morphing nose cone will provide a novel way for the drag reduction of reentry vehicle. The proposed method could be practically used for the design and optimization of the deployable structure of morphing nose cone.

  11. Performance analysis, quality function deployment and structured methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M. W.

    Quality function deployment, (QFD), an approach to synthesizing several elements of system modeling and design into a single unit, is presented. Behavioral, physical, and performance modeling are usually considered as separate aspects of system design without explicit linkages. Structured methodologies have developed linkages between behavioral and physical models before, but have not considered the integration of performance models. QFD integrates performance models with traditional structured models. In this method, performance requirements such as cost, weight, and detection range are partitioned into matrices. Partitioning is done by developing a performance model, preferably quantitative, for each requirement. The parameters of the model become the engineering objectives in a QFD analysis and the models are embedded in a spreadsheet version of the traditional QFD matrices. The performance model and its parameters are used to derive part of the functional model by recognizing that a given performance model implies some structure to the functionality of the system.

  12. A deployable structure and solar array controls experiment for STEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, T. S.

    1984-01-01

    A candidate configuration for a controls experiment on the Space Technology Experiments Platform (STEP) is described. The elements of the experiment are the mast, the solar array, and an articulation module between the two. The characteristic dimensions are very compatible for integration on a pallet such a STEP's proposed configuration. The controls' objective would be the measurement of orbiter interaction as well as the system identification of the appendages. The flight experiment configuration would also provide a test bed for various active vibration controls concepts. The instrumentation being considered would measure accelerations, strains, displacements, and temperatures. The deployable mast has eight elements defining a structural bay. Uniaxial measurements would be required to define loads at a cross section of the structure. Displacements due to thermal distortion of the mast and the local state of the solar concentrator may be measured by an optical ranging technique from the orbiter aft flight deck.

  13. Deployment Simulation of Ultra-Lightweight Inflatable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.; Johnson, Arthur R.

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic deployment analyses of folded inflatable tubes are conducted to investigate modeling issues related to the deployment of solar sail booms. The analyses are necessary because ground tests include gravity effects and may poorly represent deployment in space. A control volume approach, available in the LS-DYNA nonlinear dynamic finite element code, and the ideal gas law are used to simulate the dynamic inflation deployment process. Three deployment issues are investigated for a tube packaged in a Z-fold configuration. The issues are the effect of the rate of inflation, the effect of residual air, and the effect of gravity. The results of the deployment analyses reveal that the time and amount of inflation gas required to achieve a full deployment are related to these issues.

  14. The Technology of Precast Prefabricated Concrete Structure Beam-column Joints%预制装配整体式混凝土结构梁柱节点技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄玉海; 叶森; 曾文建; 王可怡

    2011-01-01

    预制装配整体式混凝土结构是工业化生产的建筑结构,与传统现浇结构相比具有建造周期短、节约劳动力和环境效益好等优点。本文指出了节点技术的不完善是制约我国预制装配整体式混凝土结构发展的重要因素,简要阐述了其梁柱节点的构造方式,重点描述了现浇连接和干连接两类连接方式及其特点,介绍了其受力性能,分析了其各自的缺陷。最后提出了预制装配整体式混凝土结构梁柱节点技术的发展趋势及巨大潜力。%Precast prefabricated concrete structure is a construction structure of industrial production. Compared with the traditional cast-in-situ structure, it has superiorities such as short building cycle, saving of labour, protection the environment and so on. This paper points out that the imperfection of node tecbnoXogy is an important factor of restricting the development of precast prefabricated concrete structure in our country, briefly expounds the construction of beam-column joints, illustrates the characteristics of cast-in-situ connection and dry-connection, introductions their mechanical performance, and analyze their shortage, finally proposes the development trend and huge potential of the technology of beam-column ioints.

  15. Mechanism Design and Testing of a Self-Deploying Structure Using Flexible Composite Tape Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footdale, Joseph N.; Murphey, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    The detailed mechanical design of a novel deployable support structure that positions and tensions a membrane optic for space imagining applications is presented. This is a complex three-dimensional deployment using freely deploying rollable composite tape spring booms that become load bearing structural members at full deployment. The deployment tests successfully demonstrate a new architecture based on rolled and freely deployed composite tape spring members that achieve simultaneous deployment without mechanical synchronization. Proper design of the flexible component mounting interface and constraint systems, which were critical in achieving a functioning unit, are described. These flexible composite components have much potential for advancing the state of the art in deployable structures, but have yet to be widely adopted. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and advantages of implementing flexible composite components, including the design details on how to integrate with required traditional mechanisms.

  16. Optimizing Force Deployment and Force Structure for the Rapid Deployment Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    this st. wiIl address only air-deployed, air-supported units. Tf close presence, in a crisis , of logistics ships or Marlr Amphibious units is fortuitous...Intnatneater UTE -at-es are generally less than intertheater UTE Rates +or the same aircraft. At the cargo handling ends of the flight route, critica

  17. Off-Site Prefabrication: What Does it Require from the Trade Contractor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekdik, Baris; Hall, Daniel; Aslesen, Sigmund

    2016-01-01

    understand and improve existing construction processes, relatively few contributions have focused on the opportunities for industrialization from the trade contractor’s perspective. This paper uses an in-depth case study to address the deployment strategy for off-site fabrication techniques and processes...... at only one case study, the conclusions are limited in generalizability to other prefabrication operations. However, it represents an important in-depth case from the trade contractors’ perspective and will contribute to the growing body of research focused on industrialization and prefabrication in lean...... construction. ....

  18. Development of deployable structures for large space platforms. Volume 2: Design development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1983-01-01

    Design evolution, test article design, test article mass properties, and structural analysis of deployable platform systems are discussed. Orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) hangar development, OTV hangar concept selection, and manned module development are discussed. Deployable platform systems requirements, material data base, technology development needs, concept selection and deployable volume enclosures are also discussed.

  19. A Revolute Joint With Linear Load-Displacement Response for Precision Deployable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Mark S.; Warren, Peter A.; Peterson, Lee D.

    1996-01-01

    NASA Langley Research center is developing key structures and mechanisms technologies for micron-accuracy, in-space deployment of future space instruments. Achieving micron-accuracy deployment requires significant advancements in deployment mechanism design such as the revolute joint presented herein. The joint presented herein exhibits a load-cycling response that is essentially linear with less than two percent hysteresis, and the joint rotates with less than one in.-oz. of resistance. A prototype reflector metering truss incorporating the joint exhibits only a few microns of kinematic error under repeated deployment and impulse loading. No other mechanically deployable structure found in literature has been demonstrated to be this kinematically accurate.

  20. Kinematics and dynamics of deployable structures with scissor-like-elements based on screw theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuantao; Wang, Sanmin; Mills, James K.; Zhi, Changjian

    2014-07-01

    Because the deployable structures are complex multi-loop structures and methods of derivation which lead to simpler kinematic and dynamic equations of motion are the subject of research effort, the kinematics and dynamics of deployable structures with scissor-like-elements are presented based on screw theory and the principle of virtual work respectively. According to the geometric characteristic of the deployable structure examined, the basic structural unit is the common scissor-like-element(SLE). First, a spatial deployable structure, comprised of three SLEs, is defined, and the constraint topology graph is obtained. The equations of motion are then derived based on screw theory and the geometric nature of scissor elements. Second, to develop the dynamics of the whole deployable structure, the local coordinates of the SLEs and the Jacobian matrices of the center of mass of the deployable structure are derived. Then, the equivalent forces are assembled and added in the equations of motion based on the principle of virtual work. Finally, dynamic behavior and unfolded process of the deployable structure are simulated. Its figures of velocity, acceleration and input torque are obtained based on the simulate results. Screw theory not only provides an efficient solution formulation and theory guidance for complex multi-closed loop deployable structures, but also extends the method to solve dynamics of deployable structures. As an efficient mathematical tool, the simper equations of motion are derived based on screw theory.

  1. Prefabricated Stock Trays for Impression of Auricular Region

    OpenAIRE

    Vibha, Shetty; Anandkrishna, G. N.; Anupam, Purwar; Namratha, N.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional methods of impression making for maxillofacial defects are cumbersome and time consuming for both patient and operator. This study focuses upon standardizing and simplifying the impression making methodology for auricular prosthesis with the help of prefabricated stock trays for auricular region. The stock trays were designed on positive replicas of anatomical structures, broadly divided into long and narrow, short and broad and long and broad ear. For each stock tray, impres...

  2. Technical support package: Large, easily deployable structures. NASA Tech Briefs, Fall 1982, volume 7, no. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Design and test data for packaging, deploying, and assembling structures for near term space platform systems, were provided by testing light type hardware in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator. An optimum or near optimum structural configuration for varying degrees of deployment utilizing different levels of EVA and RMS was achieved. The design of joints and connectors and their lock/release mechanisms were refined to improve performance and operational convenience. The incorporation of utilities into structural modules to determine their effects on packaging and deployment was evaluated. By simulation tests, data was obtained for stowage, deployment, and assembly of the final structural system design to determine construction timelines, and evaluate system functioning and techniques.

  3. Measurement and Analysis of Low-Temperature Radiation Heating Structure with Prefabricated and Thin Fabricated Structure%预制轻薄装配式低温辐射供暖构造的实测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱爱明; 尹荣杰; 王鹏; 费玉敏; 王随林

    2015-01-01

    建立了低温辐射供暖系统,研究了预制沟槽硅钙板构造和预制塑料星柱板构造2种轻薄装配式地板构造,对供暖季的室内温度、热量的变化规律进行了实验分析,与其他地板构造方式进行了对比。实验表明,采用新型预制辐射供暖板进行地面供暖的房间室内竖向温度分布均匀,单位面积散热量大、热损失小,且具有安装简单、无施工污染、检修方便等突出优点。%The low-temperature radiation heating system is established, and the variation regularity of indoor temperature and heat about two kinds of thin and precast floor structure, the precast grooved calcium silicon structure and prefabricated plastic star column board, are studied in the heating season, compared with other floor radiation heating methods. The results show the floor heating room with the new type of precast radiant heating structure has more uniform indoor vertical temperature distribution, large heat release per unit area, and less thermal losses. Furthermore, the new type of precast radiant heating method has many advantages, such as simple installation, no construction pollution, convenient maintenance, and so on.

  4. Morphing structures using soft polymers for active deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daynes, Stephen; Grisdale, Amy; Seddon, Annela; Trask, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we take inspiration from morphing strategies observed in nature, origami design and stiffness tailoring principles in engineering, to develop a thin walled, low cost, bistable cell geometry capable of reversibly unfolding from a flat configuration to a highly textured configuration. Finite element analysis was used to model the cell deployment and capture the experimentally observed bistability of the reinforced silicone elastomer. Through the combination of flexible elastomers with locally reinforced regions enables a highly tailorable and controllable deployment response. These cells are bistable allowing them to maintain their shape when either deployed or retracted without sustained actuation. It is proposed that such deployable cells with reversible surfaces and texture change can be used as a means of adaptive camouflage.

  5. The Prefabricated Interior Design Studio: An Exploration into the History and Sustainability of Interior Prefabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Deborah; Freihoefer, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the integration of prefabrication into an interior design studio. A review of the literature revealed that while there is a paucity of categorical research focused on this subject, the subject is historically significant with an abundance of evidence regarding the prefabrication of the interior environment dating back…

  6. The Prefabricated Interior Design Studio: An Exploration into the History and Sustainability of Interior Prefabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Deborah; Freihoefer, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the integration of prefabrication into an interior design studio. A review of the literature revealed that while there is a paucity of categorical research focused on this subject, the subject is historically significant with an abundance of evidence regarding the prefabrication of the interior environment dating back…

  7. Features of the Calculation Deployment Large Transformable Structures of Different Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zimin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant progress achieved in the design of space transformable structures to ensure a smooth and reliable deployment remains an important task. This type of construction can consist of dozens, hundreds or even thousands of interconnected elements. Deployment transformable space structures in orbit to test their performance in orbital conditions are associated with high material costs. Full deploy: experimental development process transformable structures involve a number of fundamental difficulties: It is impossible to eliminate the influence of gravity and resistance forces conditions. Thus, to calculate deploy of large transformable structures of various configurations is an important stage of their creation. Simulation provides an opportunity to analyze various schemes of deploy, to reveal their advantages and possible disadvantages. For numerical analysis of deploy of such structures is necessary to use modern software modeling of the dynamics of multi-component of mechanical systems such as EULER and Adams. Simulation of deployment space transformable structures was performed taking as example folding flat antenna contours diameter of 5 m and 20 m, foldable spatial calibration reflector diameter of 3 m, deployable antenna reflector truss-type aperture 3×6 m.The results of the calculations represent following characteristics: the time of adoption of the working position structures; form intermediate positions structures during deployment; dependence of opening angles and angular velocities of the design links on the time. The parameters of these calculations can be used as input in the development of structural elements providing deployment. They can also be used to prepare stands for experimental testing of disclosure designs in ground conditions. It should be noted that the theoretical models are the only way to analyze the deployment of such structures for possible emergency situations.

  8. Unique Concept for a Low Cost, Light Weight Space Deployable Antenna Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Robert E.; Bilyeu, Gayle D.; Veal, Gordon R.

    1993-01-01

    Large space deployable antennas are needed for a variety of applications that include Mobile Communications, Radiometry, Active Microwave Sensing, Very Long Baseline Interferometry and DoD Space Based Radar. These user requirements identify the need for structures up to tens of meters in size for operation from 1 to 90 GHz, based on different aperture configurations. However, the one thing the users have in common is a concept selection criteria for low cost, light weight and highly reliable deployable structures. Fortunately, a unique class of space structures has recently emerged that have tremendous potential for satisfying these criteria. They are referred to as inflatable deployable structures.

  9. Modeling & Testing of Inflatable Structures for Rapidly Deployable Port Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Rapidly Deployable Port Infrastructures By: Andrew Bloxom Abel Medellin Chris Vince Dr. Solomon Yim N SW C C D -C IS D -2 01...Andrew Bloxom, Abel Medellin , Chris Vince, Dr. Solomon Yim 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...Andrew Bloxom Abel Medellin Chris Vince Dr. Solomon Yim A special thanks to: • Ben Testerman and Dr. Pat

  10. Self Deployable Ultra-Lightweight Modular Unit for Habitat Structural Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space deployable and rigidizable structures which are ultra-lightweight, and have high rigidity, space durability, and high impact resistance are desirable to...

  11. Validation of a unique concept for a low-cost, lightweight space-deployable antenna structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, R. E.; Bilyeu, G. D.; Veal, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    An experiment conducted in the framework of a NASA In-Space Technology Experiments Program based on a concept of inflatable deployable structures is described. The concept utilizes very low inflation pressure to maintain the required geometry on orbit and gravity-induced deflection of the structure precludes any meaningful ground-based demonstrations of functions performance. The experiment is aimed at validating and characterizing the mechanical functional performance of a 14-m-diameter inflatable deployable reflector antenna structure in the orbital operational environment. Results of the experiment are expected to significantly reduce the user risk associated with using large space-deployable antennas by demonstrating the functional performance of a concept that meets the criteria for low-cost, lightweight, and highly reliable space-deployable structures.

  12. Development of deployable structures for large space platform systems, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, R. L.; Nelson, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Eight deployable platform design objectives were established: autodeploy/retract; fully integrated utilities; configuration variability; versatile payload and subsystem interfaces; structural and packing efficiency; 1986 technology readiness; minimum EVA/RMS; and Shuttle operational compatibility.

  13. High-Temperature Superconductors as Electromagnetic Deployment and Support Structures in Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This technique uses the magnetic fields from current passing through coils of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to support spacecraft structures and deploy...

  14. Load behaviors of a prefabricated wood framing house during lifting and transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chuan-shuang; Li Chong-gen; Liao Hong-xia; Li Kai-fu; Dai Na-xin

    2007-01-01

    Lifting for handling and flatbed truck transportation to the job site are important processes during manufacture of prefabricated wooden construction units like mini homes and building modules. Significant damage can occur to sections or components of units during these operations. Although damage usually will not impair its structural safety, it is costly to fix and causes the public to perceive prefabricated wooden buildings as low quality products. Field observations and preliminary numerical models for prefabricated units subject to lifting and transportation forces are summarized here. Once fully developed and verified, models will support the creation of damage mitigation strategies centered on structural details indicating how units are to be supported during lifting and transportation.

  15. High-Temperature Superconductors as Electromagnetic Deployment and Support Structures in Spacecraft. [NASA NIAC Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getliffe, Gwendolyn V.; Inamdar, Niraj K.; Masterson, Rebecca; Miller, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This report, concluding a one-year NIAC Phase I study, describes a new structural and mechanical technique aimed at reducing the mass and increasing the deployed-to-stowed length and volume ratios of spacecraft systems. This technique uses the magnetic fields generated by electrical current passing through coils of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to support spacecraft structures and deploy them to operational configurations from their stowed positions inside a launch vehicle fairing.

  16. Timber Chips as the Insulation Material for Energy Saving in Prefabricated Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research demonstrates the feasibility of a roof insulation method for prefabricated offices that uses vinyl packed timber chips to reduce air conditioning loads (hereinafter referred to as AC loads and which also improves indoor thermal comfort. The advantages of the new roof insulation method were revealed through comparing the impacts of four roof types on prefabricated offices. The AC load and indoor thermal comfort (surface temperature and air temperature were evaluated. The disposal of scrap timber discarded from building construction projects is costing money, and is also a waste of natural resources. The assessment of a new roof insulation method with timber chips demonstrates the advanced usage of timber chips, reducing the environmental load in the building construction process. On the other hand, since prefabricated offices have lower thermal storage capacities and are less airtight than RC (reinforced concrete or S (steel structured buildings, the AC load consumption and indoor thermal comfort exacerbation in prefabricated offices is more serious. Especially in summer, a large amount of solar energy absorption from the roof raises the indoor air temperature and significantly increases the cooling load. This research contributes to the environmental design for prefabricated offices, and develops a method for the reuse of wood chips.

  17. Mechanism design and dynamic analysis of a large-scale spatial deployable structure for space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanling; Lin, Qiuhong; Wang, Xingze; Li, Lin; Cong, Qiang; Pan, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The deployable structure is critical to the overall success of the space mission. This paper introduces a large-scale spatial deployable structure (SDS), which is developed to deploy and support the payload panels in a precise configuration once on the track. And segmental researching in the design, kinematics and dynamics analysis of SDS's prototyping system are presented. Geometric construction method and Bar-groups method are adopted to analysis the dimensions and coordinates of the SDS, which finally construct an well-determined mathematical model to raise the productivity and efficiency during optimization and analysis work. Be reasoned with the large-scale of the truss structures, flexible multibody dynamic simulations are developed, which present much more authentic stress transfer and kinematics behaviors. According to the deployment experiments of SDS's prototyping system, the correctness and validity of the flexible multibody simulation work are well proved.

  18. Structures and Mechanisms Design Concepts for Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Bryan C.; Arnold, James O.; Gage, Peter J.; Mockelman, Jeffrey; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    System studies have shown that large deployable aerodynamic decelerators such as the Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) concept can revolutionize future robotic and human exploration missions involving atmospheric entry, descent and landing by significantly reducing the maximum heating rate, total heat load, and deceleration loads experienced by the spacecraft during entry [1-3]. ADEPT and the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) [4] share the approach of stowing the entry system in the shroud of the launch vehicle and deploying it to a much larger diameter prior to entry. The ADEPT concept provides a low ballistic coefficient for planetary entry by employing an umbrella-like deployable structure consisting of ribs, struts and a fabric cover that form an aerodynamic decelerator capable of undergoing hypersonic flight. The ADEPT "skin" is a 3-D woven carbon cloth that serves as a thermal protection system (TPS) and as a structural surface that transfers aerodynamic forces to the underlying ribs [5]. This paper focuses on design activities associated with integrating ADEPT components (cloth, ribs, struts and mechanisms) into a system that can function across all configurations and environments of a typical mission concept: stowed during launch, in-space deployment, entry, descent, parachute deployment and separation from the landing payload. The baseline structures and mechanisms were selected via trade studies conducted during the summer and fall of 2012. They are now being incorporated into the design of a ground test article (GTA) that will be fabricated in 2013. It will be used to evaluate retention of the stowed configuration in a launch environment, mechanism operation for release, deployment and locking, and static strength of the deployed decelerator. Of particular interest are the carbon cloth interfaces, underlying hot structure, (Advanced Carbon- Carbon ribs) and other structural components (nose cap, struts, and

  19. Self-deployable structure designed for space telescope for microsatellite application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Li, Chuang; Zhou, Nan; Liao, Hongqiang

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual development of micro-satellite technology and the extension of application field of earth observation technology, researchers show more concern and attention on how to obtain high-resolution images with microsatellite platform equipped with space telescope. Such microsatellites require the space telescopes with small volume, low mass, and low cost. Deployable telescope is a good choice to meet these requirements, and it has the same capabilities as the traditional space telescope. We investigate a space telescope with smart self-deployable structure. The telescope is folded before launch, the distance between primary mirror and secondary mirror becomes short and the volume of the telescope becomes small, and the telescope extends to its working configuration after it is in orbit. The deployable structure is one of the key techniques of deployable space telescope, and this paper focuses on the design of a self-deployable structure of the secondary mirror. There are mainly three parts in this paper. Firstly, the optics of the telescope is presented, and a Ritchey-Chretien (RC) type optical system is designed. Secondly, the self-deployable structure is designed and the finite element method (FEM) is used to analyze dynamics of the extended telescope. Thirdly, an adjusting mechanism with six degrees of freedom to correct the misalignment of the secondary mirror is investigated, and the kinematics is discussed.

  20. Stacbeam - An efficient, low-mass, sequentially deployable structure. [for satellite solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    Design features of the stacking triangular articulated compact beam (Stacbeam) as a candidate truss structure for GEOS spacecraft solar power arrays are explored. Solar arrays of increasing size require folding, noninterfering structures, minimal thermal effects, slow and controlled deployment, and a high aspect ratio. The Stacbeam consists of a triangular batten frame perpendicular to the beam axis, three longerons attached at the corners of the batten frame and mounted parallel to the beam axis, and three diagonals to provide shear and torsional stiffness. Locking hinges are installed at the midpoint and ends of each longeron and at the midpoint and ends of each diagonal. The material is graphite/epoxy composite with a 120 GPa modulus and a 1500 kg/sq m density. Successful vertical deployment on the ground has been effected with a prototype deployer, together with horizontal cantilever in a fully deployed configuration.

  1. The pre-fabrication of building facades

    CERN Document Server

    Rangel, Bárbara; Faria, José

    2017-01-01

    This book compares two buildings with different technologies and distinct environment from the combined viewpoints of civil engineering and architecture. The first is the most recent building of Columbia University in New York, the Northwest Science Building, a project designed by Rafael Moneo and Dan Brodkin of Ove Arup. The second one is the Burgo Tower in Oporto, by Eduardo Souto Moura and Rui Furtado of AFA, a building that brings a new perspective to the use of prefabrication technologies with local traditional construction systems. With the detailed analyses of recognized researchers in civil engineering and architecture, this book is a reflection upon the problems and solutions in the design and construction process of a prefabricated building system. This volume, like those to follow, brings together, building research and building design practice to enhance the knowledge of complementarity areas involved in construction, engineering and architecture. This is the first book in a new series "Building R...

  2. Isonemal Prefabrics with No Axes of Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, R S D

    2009-01-01

    This paper refines Richard Roth's taxonomy of isonemal weaving designs through the final types 33--39 in order to complete the solution of three problems for those designs: which designs exist in various sizes, which prefabrics can be doubled and remain isonemal, and which can be halved and remain isonemal. These types have no symmetry axes but have quarter-turn symmetries. Jean Pedersen's problem of woven cubes is also discussed.

  3. PRODUCTION CAPABILITIES EFFICIENCY PREFABRICATION ERECTION OF BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOKOLOV I. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. the largest reserves of increase of efficiency of building production concluded in the decision of problems of ensuring compliance with the technological properties of space-planning and constructive decisions of buildings organizational and technological conditions of manufacturing processes. Tendencies of development of the society determined the growth in construction, complexity of design rhenium building and makes it necessary to reduce the time of construction of buildings and reduce the cost of construction and installation works. In recent years, the architectural and compositional solutions constructed buildings are increasingly conflict with organizational, technological and technical capacity building organizations. This problem is solved by the improvement and development of new technologies of building production, the use of more modern construction machines and mechanisms. The implementation of the tasks can be solved by creating a space-planning and constructive decisions of buildings corresponding possibilities of building organizations and the creation of fundamentally new technologies. Currently, there is no single comprehensive approach allows to establish the extent to which space-constructive decisions of buildings technological possibilities of building production. Imbalance intentions and capabilities results in a significant increase in financial expenses for the construction of the building. The purpose of the article. It is necessary to propose a method of assessing the level of technological prefabrication construction of buildings, the application of which will provide an opportunity to improve the full process of erection of the building and, as a consequence, increase its efficiency by increasing the extent to which the technological properties of space-planning and constructive decisions of buildings organizational and technological conditions of manufacturing processes, pogruzki

  4. Ultra-Lightweight Self-Deployable Nanocomposite Structure for Habitat Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Seng C.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses self-deployable, rigidized structures that are ultra-lightweight and have gas barrier properties, space durability, and high impact resistance. Developed here are microcellular-foamed sandwich structures made from nanocomposite shape memory polymers (SMPs) with Cold-Hibernated Elastic Memory (CHEM) deployed technique for space structural components including space habitats. This type of foam sandwich also does not suffer from the toxicity problems of conventional foams, and has higher mechanical properties than those processed with conventional techniques. This design can be compacted into a very small volume for launch. Once deployed, the microcellular structure can use the heat from the Sun to recover 98 to 100 percent of its shape.

  5. Simulating Nonlinear Dynamics of Deployable Space Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To support NASA's vital interest in developing much larger solar array structures over the next 20 years, MotionPort LLC's Phase I SBIR project will strengthen...

  6. Prefabricated stock trays for impression of auricular region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibha, Shetty; Anandkrishna, G N; Anupam, Purwar; Namratha, N

    2010-06-01

    The conventional methods of impression making for maxillofacial defects are cumbersome and time consuming for both patient and operator. This study focuses upon standardizing and simplifying the impression making methodology for auricular prosthesis with the help of prefabricated stock trays for auricular region. The stock trays were designed on positive replicas of anatomical structures, broadly divided into long and narrow, short and broad and long and broad ear. For each stock tray, impressions of auricle, of patients of different morphology were made with plastic funnels of different shape and size ensuring at least 6 mm of space between the anatomical part and inner surface of funnel and master cast was obtained. Subsequent adaptation of wax was done and fabrications of stock stainless steel trays were done. A standardized stock tray for making of auricular impressions was developed. From this innovative technical procedure it is possible to get an accurate impression of auricular defects now by the use of prefabricated stock trays rather than the cumbersome conventional method.

  7. 工业化装配式高层钢结构体系创新、标准规范编制及产业化关键问题%THE KEY ISSUES OF SYSTEM INNOVATION, DRAWING UP STANDARD AND INDUSTRIALIZATION FOR MODULARIZED PREFABRICATED HIGH-RISE STEEL STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱林

    2014-01-01

    The development of industrial prefabricated steel structure especially conforms to the strategic requirement of dissolving excess production capacity , development of green building and ecological civilization construction in China.It is the only way to truly achieve industrialization and modernization for China's construction industry .It also ensures the quality and speed of post-disaster reconstruction and the urgent request of seismic safety .This paper analyzed the current bottleneck of industrialization of industrial prefabricated steel structure in China .The problems of industrial prefabricated steel structure system and innovation of the joint in the new structure system , standard specification establishment , global optimization of steel structure design of prefabricated steel structure system with diagonal bracing at joints , structural overall stability , the mainboard and column stability , severe earthquake elasto-plastic analysis , experiment of single cross framework , performance experiment of flange bolt connection and beam-column connections , and the safeguard measures of stiffness of the assembled floor are studied . Research achievements have been applied to the pilot project successfully .%发展工业化装配式钢结构建筑特别符合我国化解钢铁产能过剩、发展绿色建筑的战略要求,是我国建筑业真正实现现代化的必由之路,也是保障灾后建筑重建速度和抗震安全的迫切要求。分析目前阻碍我国工业化装配式钢结构实现产业化的瓶颈问题以及学习国际先进经验的必要性,对工业化装配式钢结构体系及节点构造创新、标准规范编制以及装配式斜支撑节点加强型钢结构整体优化设计、整体稳定性、主板和柱子稳定性、罕遇地震弹塑性分析、单榀框架试验、法兰螺栓连接节点及梁柱连接节点性能试验、拼接楼板刚度保障构造等关键问题进行研究,成果成功应用于试点工程。

  8. Analysis of Pretension and Stress Stiffening in a Self-Deployable Deorbiting Space Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Peter Riddersholm; Nikolajsen, Jan Ánike; Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    In the development of the Self-deployable Deorbiting Space Structure (SDSS) [1][2] FEA are used to determine the stress state during the folding process of a given rectangular Highly Flexible Frame (HFF). The rectangular HFF is the load carrying structure in the SDSS. The stress state changes...

  9. Exploring the beliefs of Australian prefabricated house builders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale A Steinhardt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The housing sector accounts for a majority of newly constructed buildings. Prefabrication, defined as the factory construction of houses or significant components, is widely promoted as a means to improve efficiency. This paper focuses on the research questions: RQ1. What are the attitudes of builders towards prefabrication adoption? RQ2. What types of stakeholders do builders believe influence their adoption decisions? RQ3. What types of contextual influences do builders believe impact their adoption decisions? Current prefabrication research has focused on the advantages and disadvantages of prefabrication, without further unpacking the beliefs of stakeholders that underpin them. This paper addresses this gap and increases the understanding of beliefs that can frame interventions to increase the market penetration of prefabrication. Fourteen interviews with Australian prefabricators were undertaken as a Belief Elicitation Study. This qualitative methodology is framed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. Results show that modern high-quality prefabricated housing has struggled to overcome historical stigma; improved construction speed has not and is not likely to translate to reduced totals costs for a majority of firms; and prefabrication adoption has been hindered by an almost completely unsupportive industry infrastructure. Recommendations are made to frame arguments in improving short-term outcomes for an industry driven by practical considerations. Future discourse must focus on cost impacts, financial security and risk reduction. Establishing networks of prefabricators that can build a strong, unified voice for the industry should be prioritised.

  10. Time-resolved measurement of single pulse femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation induced by a pre-fabricated surface groove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, K R P; Austin, D R; Li, H; Yi, A Y; Cheng, J; Chowdhury, E A

    2015-07-27

    Time-resolved diffraction microscopy technique has been used to observe the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) from the interaction of a single femtosecond laser pulse (pump) with a nano-scale groove mechanically formed on a single-crystal Cu substrate. The interaction dynamics (0-1200 ps) was captured by diffracting a time-delayed, frequency-doubled pulse (probe) from nascent LIPSS formation induced by the pump with an infinity-conjugate microscopy setup. The LIPSS ripples are observed to form asynchronously, with the first one forming after 50 ps and others forming sequentially outward from the groove edge at larger time delays. A 1-D analytical model of electron heating including both the laser pulse and surface plasmon polariton excitation at the groove edge predicts ripple period, melt spot diameter, and qualitatively explains the asynchronous time-evolution of LIPSS formation.

  11. Static load test performance of a telescoping structure for an automatically deployable ROPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, J R; Cutlip, R G; Harris, J R; Ronaghi, M; Means, K H; Gillispie, A

    2002-02-01

    The automatically deployable ROPS was developed as part of an innovative project to provide passive protection against overturn fatality to operators of new tractors used in both low-clearance and unrestricted-clearance tasks. The primary objective of this phase of the research was to build a telescoping structure that would prove that a ROPS can be built that will (1) reliably deploy on signal, (2) rise in a sufficiently short amount of time, (3) firmly latch in its deployed position, and (4) satisfy SAE J2194 testing requirements. The two-post structure had previously been found to meet deployment time criteria, and design analyses indicated that neither the slip-fit joint nor the latch pins would fail at test loading. Four directions of static loading were applied to the structure to satisfy SAE requirements. For the series of static loading tests, the raised structure was found to maintain a protective clearance zone after all loads were applied. The structure is overly stiff and should be redesigned to increase its ability to absorb ground-impact energy. Results of dynamic tests and field upset tests are reported in companion articles. The next phase of development is to optimize the structure so that it will plastically deform and absorb energy that would otherwise be transferred to the tractor chassis.

  12. Dynamics of an Unstabilized Spacecraft During the Deployment of an Elastic Pantograph Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzhevskii, A. E.; Khoroshilov, V. S.

    2014-05-01

    An unstabilized spacecraft with a pantograph structure deployed in orbit to carry solar batteries is the subject of study. The objective of the study is to construct a mathematical model of this system taking into account the elastic properties of elements of the pantograph in longitudinal and transverse directions. This model is based on the Lagrangian formalism as applied to a mechanical system with rheonomic constraints. The expressions for the coefficients of the equations of motions are obtained using Mathematica 5©. A Fortran application software package is used for numerical simulation of dynamic processes. This package can be adapted, if necessary, to study other structures. The behavior of the spacecraft during the deployment of the pantograph is numerically analyzed using different values of spacecraft parameters and the parameters of the deployment process in the gravity field.

  13. Auxetic shape memory alloy cellular structures for deployable satellite antennas: design, manufacture and testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Maio D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the production development and experimental tests related to an hybrid honeycomb-truss made of shape memory alloy (Ni48Ti46Cu6, and used as a demonstrator for a deployable antenna in deep-space missions. Specific emphasis is placed on the modal analysis techniques used to test the lightweight SMA structure.

  14. Studies of the Prefabricated Housing Construction Market in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewska-Zielina, Elżbieta; Gleń, Monika

    2014-11-01

    The directions of development of the construction market are not only related to the need to own one's own home but also to increasing functional and economic requirements and conditions of sustainable development. The perception and understanding of prefabrication in housing construction are undoubtedly starting to change. Sustainable construction criteria may constitute a significant turning point and support for the development of new prefabricated housing construction technologies. Entrepreneurs are slowly perceiving an opportunity for the development of prefabrication in the construction market. The implementation and popularisation of ready-made homes will undoubtedly constitute a favourable change in the Polish construction market; however, this will require a modification of habits. This article presents an historical analysis of the development of the prefabricated housing construction market as well as an attempt to answer questions concerning the future of prefabrication in housing construction in Poland based on the conducted studies.

  15. Studies of the Prefabricated Housing Construction Market in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziszewska-Zielina Elżbieta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The directions of development of the construction market are not only related to the need to own one’s own home but also to increasing functional and economic requirements and conditions of sustainable development. The perception and understanding of prefabrication in housing construction are undoubtedly starting to change. Sustainable construction criteria may constitute a significant turning point and support for the development of new prefabricated housing construction technologies. Entrepreneurs are slowly perceiving an opportunity for the development of prefabrication in the construction market. The implementation and popularisation of ready-made homes will undoubtedly constitute a favourable change in the Polish construction market; however, this will require a modification of habits. This article presents an historical analysis of the development of the prefabricated housing construction market as well as an attempt to answer questions concerning the future of prefabrication in housing construction in Poland based on the conducted studies.

  16. Advanced Deployable Shell-Based Composite Booms for Small Satellite Structural Applications Including Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    State of the art deployable structures are mainly being designed for medium to large size satellites. The lack of reliable deployable structural systems for low cost, small volume, rideshare-class spacecraft severely constrains the potential for using small satellite platforms for affordable deep space science and exploration precursor missions that could be realized with solar sails. There is thus a need for reliable, lightweight, high packaging efficiency deployable booms that can serve as the supporting structure for a wide range of small satellite systems including solar sails for propulsion. The National Air and Space Administration (NASA) is currently investing in the development of a new class of advanced deployable shell-based composite booms to support future deep space small satellite missions using solar sails. The concepts are being designed to: meet the unique requirements of small satellites, maximize ground testability, permit the use of low-cost manufacturing processes that will benefit scalability, be scalable for use as elements of hierarchical structures (e.g. trusses), allow long duration storage, have high deployment reliability, and have controlled deployment behavior and predictable deployed dynamics. This paper will present the various rollable boom concepts that are being developed for 5-20 m class size deployable structures that include solar sails with the so-called High Strain Composites (HSC) materials. The deployable composite booms to be presented are being developed to expand the portfolio of available rollable booms for small satellites and maximize their length for a given packaged volume. Given that solar sails are a great example of volume and mass optimization, the booms were designed to comply with nominal solar sail system requirements for 6U CubeSats, which are a good compromise between those of smaller form factors (1U, 2U and 3U CubeSats) and larger ones (12 U and 27 U future CubeSats, and ESPA-class microsatellites). Solar

  17. Research and development of prefabricated terminal cabinet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huawei; Chen, Junjie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Yi; Geng, Yixiao; Huang, Nan; Yin, Yaohua

    2017-04-01

    At present, the terminal Cabinet used in the substation is mostly integral type, the terminal Cabinet adopts fixed wiring mode, the texture is mostly iron, and the few are stainless steel. Inside it, all kinds of air, cable and terminal block are fixed in the terminal Cabinet. Equipment replacement, and technical projects to promote, often need to transform the terminal Cabinet, this time, you need to remove the terminal Cabinet as a whole, the cable cable removed, while replacing the overall terminal block, often replace the terminal block, then the cable Installation, it will cause the terminal block, open space, shell, etc. can not be used twice, resulting in a great waste, while the replacement of power outages for a long time, construction workload, therefore, the team decided to develop a Prefabricated terminal Cabinet, the shell and the internal terminal blocks and empty open modular Prefabricated way, the replacement of the terminal Cabinet, you can easily replace the need to be part of the construction, rather than the terminal Cabinet as a whole construction, reduce power outages, Reduce the workload, saving labor costs, engineering costs.

  18. Damage Detection and Self-Repair in Inflatable/Deployable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Erik; Studor, George; Banks, DAvid; Curry, Mark; Broccato, Robert; Jackson, Tom; Champaigne, Kevin; Sottos, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Inflatable/deployable structures are under consideration for applications as varied as expansion modules for the International Space Station to destinations for space tourism to habitats for the lunar surface. Monitoring and maintaining the integrity of the physical structure is critical, particularly since these structures rely on non-traditional engineering materials such as fabrics, foams, and elastomeric polymers to provide the primary protection for the human crew. The closely related prior concept of monitoring structural integrity by use of built-in or permanently attached sensors has been applied to structures made of such standard engineering materials as metals, alloys, and rigid composites. To effect monitoring of flexible structures comprised mainly of soft goods, however, it will be necessary to solve a different set of problems - especially those of integrating power and data-transfer cabling that can withstand, and not unduly interfere with, stowage and subsequent deployment of the structures. By incorporating capabilities for self-repair along with capabilities for structural health monitoring, successful implementation of these technologies would be a significant step toward semi-autonomous structures, which need little human intervention to maintain. This would not only increase the safety of these structures, but also reduce the inspection and maintenance costs associated with more conventional structures.

  19. Prefabricated Construction using Digitally Integrated Industrial Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Giles

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes research being carried out in relation to prefabricated high density affordablehousing under a grant from the Partnership for the Advancement of Technology in Housing(PATH and the National Science Foundation (NSF in the USA. The objective is to demonstratehow a new paradigm for the conceptualization and construction of buildings can be conceivedof as an entirely factory based process that creates advantages for construction through industrialsystems technology transfer. Our approach is intended to transform design methodologythrough demonstrating how alternative construction concepts, using entirely pre-manufacturedvolumetric units, can be adopted. This involves digital modeling that facilitates parametric variationsfor creating customized prefabricated products from design conceptualization through tofinal product delivery. The paper discusses key areas under investigation in relation to a manufacturingparadigm used in the automotive industry that integrates virtual prototyping and industrialmanufacturing systems. Our research explores a type of monocoque volumetric unit prefabricatedin steel, which will be pre-finished as part of a modular factory-built approach usingindustrialized methodologies that will facilitate customized manufacture of a high quality energyefficient product for affordable housing.The paper addresses the automotive industry methods of manufacture that have served increasedautomobile performance and economics through mass production for over a century. In starkcontrast, the building industry and in particular the housing industry is still a century behind. It issuggested that a move away from tradition will require an industry wide initiative, just like HenryFord led the way with mass production. By embracing the increasing sophistication and capabilitythat digital technology offers, it is shown how digital tools are implemented towards masscustomization in house design using virtual modeling in the

  20. A Method for Assessing the Accuracy of a Photogrammetry System for Precision Deployable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    The measurement techniques used to validate analytical models of large deployable structures are an integral Part of the technology development process and must be precise and accurate. Photogrammetry and videogrammetry are viable, accurate, and unobtrusive methods for measuring such large Structures. Photogrammetry uses Software to determine the three-dimensional position of a target using camera images. Videogrammetry is based on the same principle, except a series of timed images are analyzed. This work addresses the accuracy of a digital photogrammetry system used for measurement of large, deployable space structures at JPL. First, photogrammetry tests are performed on a precision space truss test article, and the images are processed using Photomodeler software. The accuracy of the Photomodeler results is determined through, comparison with measurements of the test article taken by an external testing group using the VSTARS photogrammetry system. These two measurements are then compared with Australis photogrammetry software that simulates a measurement test to predict its accuracy. The software is then used to study how particular factors, such as camera resolution and placement, affect the system accuracy to help design the setup for the videogrammetry system that will offer the highest level of accuracy for measurement of deploying structures.

  1. Prefabricated floor panels composed of fiber reinforced concrete and a steel substructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus H.; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    loading at the serviceability and ultimate limit states. The composite construction concept offers flexibility in the assembly process, the ability to adapt to various load and boundary requirements, and efficient utilization of material properties that result in a light weight prefabricated structural......This paper reports on a study on prefabricated composite and modular floor deck panels composed of relatively thin fiber reinforced concrete slabs connected to steel substructures. The study focuses on the design, manufacturing, structural improvements and behavior of the floor systems during...... detailing of these integrally cast deck panels and to modify them by providing individually cast anchor points in the precast ECC slab, which are subsequently used to attach a steel truss substructure.Full-scale experiments were carried out to verify the structural behavior of the integrally cast panels...

  2. An observer for a deployable antenna. [for large space structure flight experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    An observer is derived for use on an Orbiter-Deployable Antenna configuration. The unique feature of this observer design for this flight experiment is that all the plant inputs are not required to be directly accessible for the observer to ferret out the system states. The observer uses state and rate of the state information to reconstruct the plant states. Results are presented which show how effectively this observer design works for this large space structure flight experiment.

  3. Local deformation method for measuring element tension in space deployable structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the local deformation method to determine the tension of cord and thin membrane elements in space deployable structure as antenna reflector. Possible measuring instrument model, analytical and numerical solutions and experimental results are presented. The boundary effects on measurement results of metallic mesh reflector surface tension are estimated. The study case depicting non-uniform reflector surface tension is considered.

  4. Designing of self-deploying origami structures using geometrically misaligned crease patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Tsukahara, Akira; Okabe, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    Usually, origami-based morphing structures are designed on the premise of 'rigid folding', i.e. the facets and fold lines of origami can be replaced with rigid panels and ideal hinges, respectively. From a structural mechanics viewpoint, some rigid-foldable origami models are overconstrained and have negative degrees of freedom (d.f.). In these cases, the singularity in crease patterns guarantees their rigid foldability. This study presents a new method for designing self-deploying origami using the geometrically misaligned creases. In this method, some facets are replaced by 'holes' such that the systems become a 1-d.f. mechanism. These perforated origami models can be folded and unfolded similar to rigid-foldable (without misalignment) models because of their d.f. focusing on the removed facets, the holes will deform according to the motion of the frame of the remaining parts. In the proposed method, these holes are filled with elastic parts and store elastic energy for self-deployment. First, a new extended rigid-folding simulation technique is proposed to estimate the deformation of the holes. Next, the proposed method is applied on arbitrary-size quadrilateral mesh origami. Finally, by using the finite-element method, the authors conduct numerical simulations and confirm the deployment capabilities of the models.

  5. The Influence of Different Absorbed Coatings on Thermal Effect of Prefabricated Solar Collector Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Qi; Yang Liquan; Yu Miao; Li Song

    2016-01-01

    Prefabricated solar collector panels is a kind of new permeability structure of collector panels. For this test, we adopt a certain proportion of copper oxide, magnesium oxide and iron oxide to enamel paint as absorbed panel coating and make two kinds of collector panels for different forms of color by dark green coating and black coating. By the methods of comparison, the two kinds of panel collector efficiency and heat loss coefficient UL were tested. The results showed that there was a sli...

  6. High-performance deployable structures for the support of high-concentration ratio solar array modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobrem, M.

    1985-01-01

    A study conducted on high-performance deployable structures for the support of high-concentration ratio solar array modules is discussed. Serious consideration is being given to the use of high-concentration ratio solar array modules or applications such as space stations. These concentrator solar array designs offer the potential of reduced cost, reduced electrical complexity, higher power per unit area, and improved survivability. Arrays of concentrators, such as the miniaturized Cassegrainian concentrator modules, present a serious challenge to the structural design because their mass per unit area (5.7 kg/square meters) is higher than that of flexible solar array blankets, and the requirement for accurate orientation towards the Sun (plus or minus 0.5 degree) requires structures with improved accuracy potentials. In addition, use on a space station requires relatively high structural natural frequencies to avoid deleterious interactions with control systems and other large structural components. The objective here is to identify and evaluate conceptual designs of structures suitable for deploying and accurately supporting high-concentration ratio solar array modules.

  7. Surface Control of Cold Hibernated Elastic Memory Self-Deployable Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Witold M.; Ghaffarian, Reza

    2006-01-01

    A new class of simple, reliable, lightweight, low packaging volume and cost, self-deployable structures has been developed for use in space and commercial applications. This technology called 'cold hibernated elastic memory' (CHEM) utilizes shape memory polymers (SMP)in open cellular (foam) structure or sandwich structures made of shape memory polymer foam cores and polymeric composite skins. Some of many potential CHEM space applications require a high precision deployment and surface accuracy during operation. However, a CHEM structure could be slightly distorted by the thermo-mechanical processing as well as by thermal space environment Therefore, the sensor system is desirable to monitor and correct the potential surface imperfection. During these studies, the surface control of CHEM smart structures was demonstrated using a Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuator developed by the NASA LaRC and US Army ARL. The test results indicate that the MFC actuator performed well before and after processing cycles. It reduced some residue compressive strain that in turn corrected very small shape distortion after each processing cycle. The integrated precision strain gages were detecting only a small flat shape imperfection indicating a good recoverability of original shape of the CHEM test structure.

  8. Optimization design combined with coupled structural-electrostatic analysis for the electrostatically controlled deployable membrane reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Yang, Guigeng; Zhang, Yiqun

    2015-01-01

    The electrostatically controlled deployable membrane reflector (ECDMR) is a promising scheme to construct large size and high precision space deployable reflector antennas. This paper presents a novel design method for the large size and small F/D ECDMR considering the coupled structure-electrostatic problem. First, the fully coupled structural-electrostatic system is described by a three field formulation, in which the structure and passive electrical field is modeled by finite element method, and the deformation of the electrostatic domain is predicted by a finite element formulation of a fictitious elastic structure. A residual formulation of the structural-electrostatic field finite element model is established and solved by Newton-Raphson method. The coupled structural-electrostatic analysis procedure is summarized. Then, with the aid of this coupled analysis procedure, an integrated optimization method of membrane shape accuracy and stress uniformity is proposed, which is divided into inner and outer iterative loops. The initial state of relatively high shape accuracy and uniform stress distribution is achieved by applying the uniform prestress on the membrane design shape and optimizing the voltages, in which the optimal voltage is computed by a sensitivity analysis. The shape accuracy is further improved by the iterative prestress modification using the reposition balance method. Finally, the results of the uncoupled and coupled methods are compared and the proposed optimization method is applied to design an ECDMR. The results validate the effectiveness of this proposed methods.

  9. The Construction of Affordable Low Energy Prefabricated Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez; Beim, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...... efficient to operate and valuable for building communities. Herein discussed are two successful examples of low energy prefabricated housing projects built in Copenhagen Denmark, which embraced both the constraints and possibilities offered by prefabrication....

  10. Design and Experimental Verification of Deployable/Inflatable Ultra-Lightweight Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, P. Frank

    2004-01-01

    Because launch cost of a space structural system is often proportional to the launch volume and mass and there is no significant gravity in space, NASA's space exploration programs and various science missions have stimulated extensive use of ultra-lightweight deployable/inflatable structures. These structures are named here as Highly Flexible Structures (HFSs) because they are designed to undergo large displacements, rotations, and/or buckling without plastic deformation under normal operation conditions. Except recent applications to space structural systems, HFSs have been used in many mechanical systems, civil structures, aerospace vehicles, home appliances, and medical devices to satisfy space limitations, provide special mechanisms, and/or reduce structural weight. The extensive use of HFSs in today's structural engineering reveals the need of a design and analysis software and a database system with design guidelines for practicing engineers to perform computer-aided design and rapid prototyping of HFSs. Also to prepare engineering students for future structural engineering requires a new and easy-to- understand method of presenting the complex mathematics of the modeling and analysis of HFSs. However, because of the high flexibility of HFSs, many unique challenging problems in the modeling, design and analysis of HFSs need to be studied. The current state of research on HFSs needs advances in the following areas: (1) modeling of large rotations using appropriate strain measures, (2) modeling of cross-section warpings of structures, (3) how to account for both large rotations and cross- section warpings in 2D (two-dimensional) and 1D structural theories, (4) modeling of thickness thinning of membranes due to inflation pressure, pretension, and temperature change, (5) prediction of inflated shapes and wrinkles of inflatable structures, (6) development of efficient numerical methods for nonlinear static and dynamic analyses, and (7) filling the gap between

  11. The Influence of Different Absorbed Coatings on Thermal Effect of Prefabricated Solar Collector Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prefabricated solar collector panels is a kind of new permeability structure of collector panels. For this test, we adopt a certain proportion of copper oxide, magnesium oxide and iron oxide to enamel paint as absorbed panel coating and make two kinds of collector panels for different forms of color by dark green coating and black coating. By the methods of comparison, the two kinds of panel collector efficiency and heat loss coefficient UL were tested. The results showed that there was a slight difference between the heat loss coefficient of prefabricated solar collector panels, using the panel with dark green coating’s comprehensive thermal effect is well than the panel with black coating. The beautiful appearance color is more suitable for building requirements.

  12. Development of deployable structures for large space platform systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1983-01-01

    The preponderance of study effort was devoted toward the deployable platform systems study which culminated in the detailed design of a ground test article for future development testing. This design is representative of a prototype square-truss, single-fold building-block design that can construct deployable platform structures. This prototype design was selected through a comprehensive and traceable selection process applied to eight competitive designs. The selection process compared the competitive designs according to seven major selection criteria, i.e., design versatility, cost, thermal stability, meteoroid impact significance, reliability, performance predictability, and orbiter integration suitability. In support of the foregoing, a materials data base, and platform systems technology development needs were established. An erectable design of an OTV hangar was selected and recommended for further design development. This design was selected from five study-developed competitive single-fold and double-fold designs including hard-shell and inflatable designs. Also, two deployable manned module configurations, i.e., a hard-shell and an inflatable design were each developed to the same requirements as the composite of two Space station baseline habitat modules.

  13. Modelling and Analysis of the Folding Principle used in Selv-Deployable Deorbiting Space Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Jan Ánike; Lauridsen, Peter Riddersholm; Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    An initial prototype of the Self-deployable Deorbiting Space Structure (SDSS) for semi-controlled debris removal was launched in 2014. The SDSS module consists of 3 main systems, i.e. the Drag Sail Unit (DSU), the Release Unit (RU) and the Housing Unit (HU). In the redesign, a storage lid is intr...... is introduced whereby the folded drag sail is completely separated from the HU during the release process. During the research, an updated version of the SDSS version is made for CubeSat. The prototype is for a CubeSat which will be scalable....

  14. Demonstration of UAV deployment and control of mobile wireless sensing networks for modal analysis of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Hirose, Mitsuhito; Greenwood, William; Xiao, Yong; Lynch, Jerome; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Kamat, Vineet

    2016-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can serve as a powerful mobile sensing platform for assessing the health of civil infrastructure systems. To date, the majority of their uses have been dedicated to vision and laser-based spatial imaging using on-board cameras and LiDAR units, respectively. Comparatively less work has focused on integration of other sensing modalities relevant to structural monitoring applications. The overarching goal of this study is to explore the ability for UAVs to deploy a network of wireless sensors on structures for controlled vibration testing. The study develops a UAV platform with an integrated robotic gripper that can be used to install wireless sensors in structures, drop a heavy weight for the introduction of impact loads, and to uninstall wireless sensors for reinstallation elsewhere. A pose estimation algorithm is embedded in the UAV to estimate the location of the UAV during sensor placement and impact load introduction. The Martlet wireless sensor network architecture is integrated with the UAV to provide the UAV a mobile sensing capability. The UAV is programmed to command field deployed Martlets, aggregate and temporarily store data from the wireless sensor network, and to communicate data to a fixed base station on site. This study demonstrates the integrated UAV system using a simply supported beam in the lab with Martlet wireless sensors placed by the UAV and impact load testing performed. The study verifies the feasibility of the integrated UAV-wireless monitoring system architecture with accurate modal characteristics of the beam estimated by modal analysis.

  15. Adopting Continuous Delivery and Deployment: Impacts on Team Structures, Collaboration and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahin, Mojtaba; Zahedi, Mansooreh; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Context: Continuous Delivery and Deployment (CD) practices aim to deliver software features more frequently and reliably. While some efforts have been made to study different aspects of CD practices, a little empirical work has been reported on the impact of CD on team structures, collaboration...... and team members’ responsibilities. Goal: Our goal is to empirically investigate how Development (Dev) and Operations (Ops) teams are organized in software industry for adopting CD practices. Furthermore, we explore the potential impact of practicing CD on collaboration and team members’ responsibilities....... Method: We conducted a mixed-method empirical study, which collected data from 21 in- depth, semi-structured interviews in 19 organizations and a survey with 93 software practitioners. Results: There are four common types of team structures (i.e., (1) separate Dev and Ops teams with higher collaboration...

  16. The prefabricated scapula flap consists of syngeneic bone, connective tissue, and a self-assembled epithelial coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstfeld, R; Petzelbauer, P; Wickenhauser, G; Schlenz, I; Korak, K; Vinzenz, K; Holle, J

    2001-12-01

    The reconstruction of maxillary defects is a challenge in plastic surgery. The so-called prefabricated scapula flap consists of syngeneic bone covered with syngeneic dermis and is used to reconstruct maxillary defects. After placing these flaps into the oral cavity, they are reepithelialized within a short time period, raising the question of the cellular origin of the "neomucosa." We therefore obtained sequential biopsy samples of the prefabricated flap and of the flap after being placed into the oral cavity and analyzed the keratin expression profile of epithelial cells. We expected that after placing the prefabricated flap into the oral cavity, keratinocytes from adnexal structures of the dermal component of the graft would migrate onto the surface and reepithelialize the flap. Unexpectedly, reepithelialization occurred earlier. The flap had acquired a mucosa-like epithelium at the interface between the Gore-Tex coating and the dermis while still being positioned within the scapular region. The keratin expression profile of this epithelium was very similar to that of mucosal epithelium. Thus, the prefabricated scapula flap not only consisted of bone covered with connective tissue, but was also covered with epithelial cells derived from adnexal structures of the dermal graft. This seems to be the reason for the rapid restoration of an intact mucosa and the excellent outcome achieved with this surgical technique.

  17. The CAD System Development for Power Plants Pipe-Prefabrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUI Xiaoming; MA Zhiyong

    2006-01-01

    An intelligent design software system for the power station pipe-prefabrication (PPDS) has been developed in the paper, which is taking pipe material database as core and developed on the platform of AutoCAD and Borland C++.Whereas design and construction of power plants in China belong to different departments, the input and recognition problem of pipeline system disposition chart must be solved firstly for the prefabrication design. Based on AI technology, the model fast building subsystem (MFBS) was established for entering the 3-D pipeline graph data, so that the problems of reconstruction of pipeline digital model and computer identification of original 2-D design data can be solved. The optimization design scheme in the pipe-prefabrication process has been studied and also the corresponding algorithm put forward. The technique and system mentioned can effectively raise the pipe- prefabrication design quality and efficiency in the construction of large scale power plants, reduce the period of design and the waste of raw material. PPCADS has still offered the functions such as the construction design for pipeline prefabricated process, the detailing drawing for manufacturing pipe section and automatic generating the technical files for the completed project.

  18. Development of deployable structures for large space platform systems, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Generic deployable spacecraft configurations and deployable platform systems concepts were identified. Sizing, building block concepts, orbiter packaging, thermal analysis, cost analysis, and mass properties analysis as related to platform systems integration are considered. Technology needs are examined and the major criteria used in concept selection are delineated. Requirements for deployable habitat modules, tunnels, and OTV hangars are considered.

  19. Energy-Efficient Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Deployment with Multiple Objectives for Structural Health Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyin; Jiang, Zhaoshuo; Wang, Fei; Chen, Hui

    2016-11-06

    Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSNs) are widely adopted in structural health monitoring systems due to their potential for implementing sophisticated algorithms by integrating a diverse set of devices and improving a network's sensing performance. However, deploying such a HWSN is still in a challenge due to the heterogeneous nature of the data and the energy constraints of the network. To respond to these challenges, an optimal deployment framework in terms of both modal information quality and energy consumption is proposed in this study. This framework generates a multi-objective function aimed at maximizing the quality of the modal information identified from heterogeneous data while minimizing the consumption of energy within the network at the same time. Particle swarm optimization algorithm is then implemented to seek solutions to the function effectively. After laying out the proposed sensor-optimization framework, a methodology is present to determine the clustering of the sensors to further conserve energy. Finally, a numerical verification is performed on a four-span pre-stressed reinforced concrete box-girder bridge. Results show that a set of strategically positioned heterogeneous sensors can maintain a balanced trade-off between the modal information accuracy and energy consumption. It is also observed that an appropriate cluster-tree network topology can further achieve energy saving in HWSNs.

  20. Prefabricated composite veneers: historical perspectives, indications and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietschi, Didier; Devigus, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Veneering anterior teeth is a well-established technique, which was brought to Dentistry by Dr Pincus as early as 1937. From the mid-1970s, boosted by the development of composites and adhesive techniques, various concepts emerged including direct composite restorations, prefabricated composite veneers and of course, individualized porcelain indirect veneers. The prefabricated composite veneer option was however soon abandoned due to former technological limitations. Recently, the creation of a new shade guide comprising enamel shells revitalized this "old idea," and in combination with a high pressure and temperature molding process followed by a laser surface vitrification, a novel, improved composite prefabricated system (Venear, Edelweiss Dentistry) was born. This paper provides an overview of the potential indications and clinical protocol of this original veneering technique.

  1. SpRoUTS (Space Robot Universal Truss System): Reversible Robotic Assembly of Deployable Truss Structures of Reconfigurable Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel; Cheung, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Automatic deployment of structures has been a focus of much academic and industrial work on infrastructure applications and robotics in general. This paper presents a robotic truss assembler designed for space applications - the Space Robot Universal Truss System (SpRoUTS) - that reversibly assembles a truss from a feedstock of hinged andflat-packed components, by folding the sides of each component up and locking onto the assembled structure. We describe the design and implementation of the robot and show that the assembled truss compares favorably with prior truss deployment systems.

  2. 装配式钢结构新型轻质叠合楼板设计研究%DESIGH STUDY OF THE NEW LIGHT-WEIGHT COMPOSITE FLOOR OF THE PREFABRICATED STEEL STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱林; 赵越; 刘学春

    2014-01-01

    在新型钢筋桁架发泡水泥夹芯叠合楼板中应用新型材料发泡水泥,能够实现楼板构件更轻、高效保温,且隔热隔声功能也优于钢筋桁架混凝土楼板。利用换算惯性矩方法对叠合楼板在施工阶段的短期刚度进行研究,得到发泡水泥夹芯叠合楼板的短期刚度计算公式,并通过算例对比研究发泡水泥预制层对楼板截面刚度的贡献作用。结果表明,发泡水泥预制层对截面刚度贡献很小,只占总刚度的10%左右,这主要是由于发泡水泥强度小、弹性模量小,所以在实际简化计算分析时,可不考虑发泡水泥预制层的作用。%A new style floor slab by steel truss and foam cement is introduced in this paper .Due to the use of the new light-weight material foam cement , the floor slab has advantage over the traditional steel truss slab with concrete in further light-weight, thermal and sound insulation properties .In this paper, the short-term stiffness of the floor during the construction phase was studied by the effective moment of inertia method , and a formula was presented .The contribution of precast foam cement layer to the stiffness of the floor cross-section was analysed by an example .The result shows that the contribution of the foam cement layer is a small part of 10%, mainly due to the low strength and small elasticity modulus of the foam cement .Therefore, to simplify the calculation and analysis , the role of prefabricated foam cement layer can be ignored .

  3. Correlation between structural changes and acute thrombogenicity in transcatheter pericardium valves after crimping and balloon deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, J-M; Zegdi, R; Lin, J; Wawryko, P; Merhi, Y; Convelbo, C; Mao, J; Fu, Y; Xu, T; Merkel, N O; Wang, L; Germain, L; Zhang, Z; Guidoin, R

    2017-03-01

    Transcathether heart valve replacement has gained considerable acceptance during the last decades. It is now part of the armamentarium for aortic valve replacement. The procedure proved to be highly efficient. However the issues of the blood compatibility and tissue durability were not raised and the adverse events were probably under-reported, according to observations of thrombosis after deployment. Bovine pericardium leaflets were sewn inside a 26mm diameter stainless steel stent to manufacture these valves (one control and two experimental). The correlation between the trauma and the acute thombogenicity of bovine pericardium leaflets, after crimping and ballooning, was investigated via an in vitro blood flow with labeled platelets. These leaflets were processed for histology: scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The control specimens showed a regular pericardium structure with some blood cells deposited on the collagen fibrous surface (inflow) and scarce blood cells deposited on the serous surface (outflow). After crimping and ballooning, the structure of the pericardium was severely injured, eventually with delaminations and ruptures. The blood cell uptake was considerably increased compared to the control. It would therefore be appropriate to pay more attention to the design of the valves. Specifically, the incorporation of a buffer tissue or fabric between the pericardium and the metallic stent is suggested. The issue of ballooning deserves detailed and in depth investigation regarding the lifetime of the device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation on Prefabricated Building System Skilled Component Installers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Rezuana Buyung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of an increasingly challenging era of globalization, skills and new equipments which includes prefabricated building components, known as Industrialized Building System (IBS has been introduced towards achievement of sustainable construction. IBS is a construction system in which the components are manufactured in a factory, on or off site, positioned and assembled into complete structures with minimal additional site work. IBS requires high construction precision and needs a higher skill level of workers. Compared to the conventional construction method, the skill level of IBS workers is more demanding. Although there are a lot benefits in implementing IBS, the construction industry still not rapidly implementing IBS. The IBS method still considered new and even though there are a lot of benefits it still faces barriers. In an IBS construction, the role of the contractor is shifted from a builder to an assembler on the site. Therefore, this requires the contractor to be prepared technologically with IBS knowledge and skills. It is generally perceived that the number of skilled IBS installers in Malaysia is still low even though the system has been implemented for a long time. This research is carried out to find out whether the existing number of IBS installer is sufficient. Primary data was collected by carrying out interviews with the contractors at the IBS construction site in Penang Island in order to get the contractor’s feedback regarding this issue. Meanwhile, the secondary data was collected from government agencies to get the number of existing IBS installer and the number of IBS projects done in government projects. The results from this study indicated that not all categories of skill workers are in shortage. However, the number of precast concrete installer is in a critical shortage.

  5. Analytical and numerical study of the buckling of planar linear array deployable structures based on scissor-like element under its own weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, San-Min; Zhi, Chang-Jian; Xue, Xiang-Zhen; Makis, Viliam

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the buckling load of fully deployed linear array deployable structure based on scissor-like element (SLE) under its own weight. The deployable structure has been widely researched both in geometric configurations and structural dynamic characteristics. However, when the number of elements or degree of deployment exceeds the predetermined range, even if there is no external load, deployable structure will automatically collapse under its own weight. To address this issue, this paper derives a new stability model based on linear elastic analysis and energy method to compute the buckling load caused by its own weight for avoiding the structural instability, which can be applied to a linear array deployable structure with n SLEs. In the process of calculation, the first SLE is taken for mechanical analysis and the results are extended to any unit. In the sequel of this process, the scissor deployable structure is equivalent to a uniform solid column and its buckling condition under self-weight is obtained based on the principle of potential energy. Also, the effect of various parameters that affect the instability of the structure, such as the number of elements, bar length and degree of deployment is investigated, and the results of the theoretical analysis are verified through a comparison with the simulation results in ANSYS, which show that the new stability model proposed here can predict the buckling load of scissor deployable structure.

  6. Nanopods: a new bacterial structure and mechanism for deployment of outer membrane vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameesha Shetty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMV are packets of periplasmic material that, via the proteins and other molecules they contain, project metabolic function into the environment. While OMV production is widespread in proteobacteria, they have been extensively studied only in pathogens, which inhabit fully hydrated environments. However, many (arguably most bacterial habitats, such as soil, are only partially hydrated. In the latter, water is characteristically distributed as films on soil particles that are, on average thinner, than are typical OMV (ca. ≤10 nm water film vs. 20 to >200 nm OMV;. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified a new bacterial surface structure, termed a "nanopod", that is a conduit for projecting OMV significant distances (e.g., ≥6 µm from the cell. Electron cryotomography was used to determine nanopod three-dimensional structure, which revealed chains of vesicles within an undulating, tubular element. By using immunoelectron microscopy, proteomics, heterologous expression and mutagenesis, the tubes were determined to be an assembly of a surface layer protein (NpdA, and the interior structures identified as OMV. Specific metabolic function(s for nanopods produced by Delftia sp. Cs1-4 are not yet known. However, a connection with phenanthrene degradation is a possibility since nanopod formation was induced by growth on phenanthrene. Orthologs of NpdA were identified in three other genera of the Comamonadaceae family, and all were experimentally verified to form nanopods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nanopods are new bacterial organelles, and establish a new paradigm in the mechanisms by which bacteria effect long-distance interactions with their environment. Specifically, they create a pathway through which cells can effectively deploy OMV, and the biological activity these transmit, in a diffusion-independent manner. Nanopods would thus allow environmental bacteria to expand their metabolic

  7. Nanopods: a new bacterial structure and mechanism for deployment of outer membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ameesha; Chen, Shicheng; Tocheva, Elitza I; Jensen, Grant J; Hickey, William J

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are packets of periplasmic material that, via the proteins and other molecules they contain, project metabolic function into the environment. While OMV production is widespread in proteobacteria, they have been extensively studied only in pathogens, which inhabit fully hydrated environments. However, many (arguably most) bacterial habitats, such as soil, are only partially hydrated. In the latter, water is characteristically distributed as films on soil particles that are, on average thinner, than are typical OMV (ca. ≤10 nm water film vs. 20 to >200 nm OMV;). We have identified a new bacterial surface structure, termed a "nanopod", that is a conduit for projecting OMV significant distances (e.g., ≥6 µm) from the cell. Electron cryotomography was used to determine nanopod three-dimensional structure, which revealed chains of vesicles within an undulating, tubular element. By using immunoelectron microscopy, proteomics, heterologous expression and mutagenesis, the tubes were determined to be an assembly of a surface layer protein (NpdA), and the interior structures identified as OMV. Specific metabolic function(s) for nanopods produced by Delftia sp. Cs1-4 are not yet known. However, a connection with phenanthrene degradation is a possibility since nanopod formation was induced by growth on phenanthrene. Orthologs of NpdA were identified in three other genera of the Comamonadaceae family, and all were experimentally verified to form nanopods. Nanopods are new bacterial organelles, and establish a new paradigm in the mechanisms by which bacteria effect long-distance interactions with their environment. Specifically, they create a pathway through which cells can effectively deploy OMV, and the biological activity these transmit, in a diffusion-independent manner. Nanopods would thus allow environmental bacteria to expand their metabolic sphere of influence in a manner previously unknown for these organisms.

  8. Crustal structure and fault geometry of the 2010 Haiti earthquake from temporary seismometer deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douilly, Roby; Haase, Jennifer S.; Ellsworth, William L.; Bouin, Marie‐Paule; Calais, Eric; Symithe, Steeve J.; Armbruster, John G.; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Deschamps, Anne; Mildor, Saint‐Louis; Meremonte, Mark E.; Hough, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Haiti has been the locus of a number of large and damaging historical earthquakes. The recent 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 earthquake affected cities that were largely unprepared, which resulted in tremendous losses. It was initially assumed that the earthquake ruptured the Enriquillo Plantain Garden fault (EPGF), a major active structure in southern Haiti, known from geodetic measurements and its geomorphic expression to be capable of producing M 7 or larger earthquakes. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data, however, showed that the event ruptured a previously unmapped fault, the Léogâne fault, a north‐dipping oblique transpressional fault located immediately north of the EPGF. Following the earthquake, several groups installed temporary seismic stations to record aftershocks, including ocean‐bottom seismometers on either side of the EPGF. We use data from the complete set of stations deployed after the event, on land and offshore, to relocate all aftershocks from 10 February to 24 June 2010, determine a 1D regional crustal velocity model, and calculate focal mechanisms. The aftershock locations from the combined dataset clearly delineate the Léogâne fault, with a geometry close to that inferred from geodetic data. Its strike and dip closely agree with the global centroid moment tensor solution of the mainshock but with a steeper dip than inferred from previous finite fault inversions. The aftershocks also delineate a structure with shallower southward dip offshore and to the west of the rupture zone, which could indicate triggered seismicity on the offshore Trois Baies reverse fault. We use first‐motion focal mechanisms to clarify the relationship of the fault geometry to the triggered aftershocks.

  9. Evolution of prefabricated technologies applied to building schools

    OpenAIRE

    Pons, Oriol

    2010-01-01

    In the past ten years, a lot of school buildings have been built using prefabricated systems all over Spain. For example, more than 200 schools have been successfully industrialized since 2002 in Catalonia. These are modern schools that have been recognized for: their well designed architecture, their respectful relationship with their environs, their education spaces… This article aims to analyze these centers, along with the interesting technologies used to build them. This text is based on...

  10. Concept-Development of a Structure Supported Membrane for Deployable Space Applications - From Nature to Manufacture and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Martin; Belvin, W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Current space applications of membrane structures include large area solar power arrays, solar sails, antennas, and numerous other large aperture devices like the solar shades of the new James Webb Space Telescope. These expandable structural systems, deployed in-orbit to achieve the desired geometry, are used to collect, reflect and/or transmit electromagnetic radiation. This work, a feasibility study supporting a diploma thesis, describes the systematic process for developing a biologically inspired concept for a structure supported (integrated) membrane, that features a rip stop principle, makes self-deployment possible and is part of an ultra-light weight space application. Novel manufacturing of membrane prototypes and test results are presented for the rip-stop concepts. Test data showed that the new membrane concept has a higher tear resistance than neat film of equivalent mass.

  11. Investigation into possible geometrical configurations for scissor-type deployable structures using expandable bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Daniel Sang-Hoon; Jia, Wenwen; Cai, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Leader), Japan and Denmark, expandable bars of two degrees of freedom (1 x translational and 1 x rotational) were developed to achieve the geometrical compatibility of the single-meridian grid deployable system. The objective of the current research is to investigate the further applications...... of the expandable bars for creation of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) space using scissor-type deployable system. The research starts with the detail design and prototype construction of the expandable bars in collaboration between the Royal Danish Academy, School of Architecture in Denmark and School of Civil...

  12. Time-frequency analysis of nonstationary vibration signals for deployable structures by using the constant-Q nonstationary gabor transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Yan, Shaoze; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Deployable structures have been widely used in on-orbit servicing spacecrafts, and the vibration properties of such structures have become increasingly important in the aerospace industry. The constant-Q nonstationary Gabor transform (CQ-NSGT) is introduced in this paper to accurately evaluate the variation in the frequency and amplitude of vibration signals along with time. First, an example signal is constructed on the basis of the vibration properties of deployable structures and is processed by the short-time Fourier transform, Wigner-Ville distribution, Hilbert-Huang transform, and CQ-NSGT. Results show that time and frequency resolutions are simultaneously fine only by employing CQ-NSGT. Subsequently, a zero padding operation is conducted to correct the calculation error at the end of the transform results. Finally, a set of experimental devices is constructed. The vibration signal of the experimental mode is processed by CQ-NSGT. On this basis, the experimental signal properties are discussed. This time-frequency method may be useful for formulating the dynamics for complex deployable structures.

  13. Comparative thermal analysis of the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic deployable boom structure using TRASYS, NEVADA, and SINDA programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Joseph F.; Beach, Duane E.; Armand, Sasan C.

    1989-01-01

    The proposed Space Station Photovoltaic Deployable Boom was analyzed for operating temperatures. The boom glass/epoxy structure design needs protective shielding from environmental degradation. The protective shielding optical properties (solar absorptivity and emissivity) dictate the operating temperatures of the boom components. The Space Station Boom protective shielding must also withstand the effects of the extendible/retractable coiling acting within the mast canister. A thermal analysis method was developed for the Space Station Deployable Boom to predict transient temperatures for a variety of surface properties. The modeling procedures used to evaluate temperatures within the boom structure incorporated the TRASYS, NEVADA, and SINDA thermal analysis programs. Use of these programs led to a comparison between TRASYS and NEVADA analysis methods. Comparing TRASYS and NEVADA results exposed differences in the environmental solar flux predictions.

  14. The development of the 15-Meter Hoop Column deployable antenna system with structural and electromagnetic performance results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Belvin, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the technical results obtained during the development and engineering tests of a 15-Meter Hoop Column deployable antenna system. An important element of the 15-meter antenna program was the structural tests and the characterization of the surface accuracy of the deployed mesh surface. The overall system performance of the 15-meter antenna was obtained during radio frequency tests conducted in the Martin Marietta Near Field Test Laboratory in Denver, CO. The near field tests verified the electromagnetic performance of the structure which exhibited a surface accuracy of 0.061 in (RMS). Radio frequency tests were conducted at 2.3, 4.3, 7.7, and 11.6 GHz. The experiment and analytical results obtained through the 15-meter antenna program will provide new opportunities for the application of large space antennas for future missions.

  15. Structural Design and Simulation of Passive Low Gravity Compensation for the Deployable Arm in the Device of Drilling and Collecting Lunar Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Jianguo; Wang Guoxing; Li Jianyong

    2015-01-01

    As an important constituent part of the sampling device for lunar soil drilling, the deployable arm can help transfer the samples and avoid stretching. According to the ground experimental research requirements for deployable arm, this paper proposed a low-gravity compensation method of passive cam counter weight by establishing a Lagrangian dynamics model of deployable arm. It is emphasized on designing the profile curve of cam mechanism and the mechanical structure of cam component. By usin...

  16. The Air Force Deployment Transition Center: Assessment of Program Structure, Process, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    recently deployed facilitator in the same career field as the group to ensure, among other things, that language and experiences are shared so that the...group facilitators over a four-day period. The training includes direct didactics and observation of a complete group cycle. Training new group

  17. Experimental Characterization of Hysteresis in a Revolute Joint for Precision Deployable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Mark S.; Fung, Jimmy; Gloss, Kevin; Liechty, Derek S.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies of the micro-dynamic behavior of a deployable telescope metering truss have identified instabilities in the equilibrium shape of the truss in response to low-energy dynamic loading. Analyses indicate that these micro-dynamic instabilities arise from stick-slip friction within the truss joints (e.g., hinges and latches). The present study characterizes the low-magnitude quasi-static load cycle response of the precision revolute joints incorporated in the deployable telescope metering truss, and specifically, the hysteretic response of these joints caused by stick-slip friction within the joint. Detailed descriptions are presented of the test setup and data reduction algorithms, including discussions of data-error sources and data-filtering techniques. Test results are presented from thirteen specimens, and the effects of joint preload and manufacturing tolerances are investigated. Using a simplified model of stick-slip friction, a relationship is made between joint load-cycle behavior and micro-dynamic dimensional instabilities in the deployable telescope metering truss.

  18. Deployment of a Smart Structural Health Monitoring System for Long-Span Arch Bridges: A Review and a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zengshun; Zhou, Xiao; Wang, Xu; Dong, Lili; Qian, Yuanhao

    2017-09-19

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for surveillance and evaluation of existing and newly built long-span bridges has been widely developed, and the significance of the technique has been recognized by many administrative authorities. The paper reviews the recent progress of the SHM technology that has been applied to long-span bridges. The deployment of a SHM system is introduced. Subsequently, the data analysis and condition assessment including techniques on modal identification, methods on signal processing, and damage identification were reviewed and summarized. A case study about a SHM system of a long-span arch bridge (the Jiubao bridge in China) was systematically incorporated in each part to advance our understanding of deployment and investigation of a SHM system for long-span arch bridges. The applications of SHM systems of long-span arch bridge were also introduced. From the illustrations, the challenges and future trends for development a SHM system were concluded.

  19. Application of Prefabricated Vertical Drain in Soil Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedjakusuma B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of Prefabricated Vertical Drain (PVD in soil improvement is not new, this paper is interesting since it gives the full spectrum from preliminary design stage; trial embankment and pilot test to final soil improvement. The final installation of the PVD was based on the soil investigation report and the results of instrumentation monitoring. Finally, using back analysis, vertical and horizontal coefficients of consolidation and compression index can be determined, which can be applied to predict a more accurate prediction of settlement.

  20. Parameter estimation of large flexible aerospace structures with application to the control of the Maypole Deployable Reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Systems such as the Maypole deployable reflector have a distributed parameter nature. The flexible column and hoop structure and the circular antenna of 30-100 meter diameter which it supports are described by partial, rather than ordinary, differential equations. Progress completed in reduced order modelling andd controller design and digital parameter estimation and control is summarized. Topics covered include depolyment and on-orbit operation; quasi-static (steady state) operation; dynamic distributed parameter system; autoregressive moving average identification; frequency domain procedures; direct or implicit active control; adaptive observers; parameter estimation using a linear reinforcement learning factor; feedback control; and reduced order modeling for nonlinear systems.

  1. Research on Methods of Topological Synthesis of Space Deployable Structure%空间可展开结构拓扑综合方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李团结; 王尧

    2009-01-01

    The configuration of a space deployable structure is represented by adjacency matrix and the method of topological transformation is used to study the topological synthesis of the space deployable structure. The transformations among different con-figurations are implemented with the metamorphic synthesis methods of inereasing the members, decreasing the members and changing the connection. The hoop truss deployable antenna is taken as an example. Through the eonfignration transformations,the hybrid deployment is different with the synchronous deployment and the configurations of the new deployable structures are ob-tained. The motion simulations demonstrate the validities of the hybrid deployment, the configuration of new deployable structure and the topological synthesis methods of the deployable space structures.%空间可展开结构的构型用邻接矩阵表示,采用拓扑变换的方法来研究空间可展开结构的拓扑综合.通过构件的增加、减少以及连接关系变化的变胞综合方法实现不同构型之间的变换运算.以周边桁架可展开大线结构为例,通过构型变换,得到了不同于目前同步展开/收拢方式的混合展开收拢方式,以及新的可展开结构的构型.通过所得类型的运动仿真,表明了混合展开方式以及新的可展开结构类型的可行性,验证了空间可展开结构拓扑综合的变胞综合方法.

  2. Mechanical analysis of carbon fiber reinforced shape memory polymer composite for self-deployable structure in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok Bin; Ahn, Yong San; Jang, Joon Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Gyun; Goo, Nam Seo; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

    2016-04-01

    Shape memory polymer (SMP) is one of smart polymers which exhibit shape memory effect upon external stimuli. Reinforcements as carbon fiber had been used for making shape memory polymer composite (CF-SMPC). This study investigated a possibility of designing self-deployable structures in harsh space condition using CF-SMPCs and analyzed their shape memory behaviors with constitutive equation model.CF-SMPCs were prepared using woven carbon fabrics and a thermoset epoxy based SMP to obtain their basic mechanical properties including actuation in harsh environment. The mechanical and shape memory properties of SMP and CF-SMPCs were characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and universal tensile machine (UTM) with an environmental chamber. The mechanical properties such as flexural strength and tensile strength of SMP and CF-SMPC were measured with simple tensile/bending test and time dependent shape memory behavior was characterized with designed shape memory bending test. For mechanical analysis of CF-SMPCs, a 3D constitutive equation of SMP, which had been developed using multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient and shape memory strains, was used with material parameters determined from CF-SMPCs. Carbon fibers in composites reinforced tensile and flexural strength of SMP and acted as strong elastic springs in rheology based equation models. The actuation behavior of SMP matrix and CF-SMPCs was then simulated as 3D shape memory bending cases. Fiber bundle property was imbued with shell model for more precise analysis and it would be used for prediction of deploying behavior in self-deployable hinge structure.

  3. 砌体结构外套预制钢筋混凝土墙板加固及隔震加层振动台试验研究%Shaking table test of masonry structures strengthened with external prefabricated reinforced concrete wall and with added story isolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曙光; 苗启松; 刘金龙; 刘伟庆; 杜东升

    2012-01-01

    为研究砌体结构外套预制钢筋混凝土墙板加固技术的加固效果,并探讨在其顶部隔震加层的可行性,进行了3个相似比为1/4模型的振动台对比试验,模型分别是加固砌体结构模型、加固后加层非隔震结构模型和加固后加层隔震结构模型。试验测试了模型结构的动力特性及其在不同地震作用下的动力响应,为了分析结构震损后的动力响应,在试验模型经历罕遇地震作用下的损伤后又继续进行不同水准地震输入试验。试验结果表明:加层非隔震结构的上部钢框架鞭稍效应非常明显;加层隔震结构有效延长了结构自振周期,增大了结构阻尼比。加层隔震结构既有效降低了下部砌体结构的地震响应又降低了上部钢框架的地震响应,其加固效果和抗震性能优越。同时,震损后加层隔震结构的隔震效果明显降低,下部砌体的加速度反应可能大于加固结构和加层非隔震结构,建议在设计时充分考虑这种不利影响。%In order to research the reinforcement effects on masonry structure strengthened with external prefabricated reinforced concrete wall and investigate the possibility of added story isolation on the top of reinforced masonry structure, the shaking table tests of three 1/4. scaled models were conducted. These three models were reinforced masonry structure model, reinforced masonry structure with added story model and reinforced masonry structure with added story isolation model. The dynamic characteristics and seismic response of models were evaluated under different levels of earthquakes. And then, the models subjected to rare seismic cases were tested again to analyze the dynamic responses of damaged structures. The results indicate that added story isolation structure can prolong the structural vibration periods efficiently and increase the damping ratio. Whiplash effect of superstructure of added story non- isolation structure is very

  4. SEISMIC PERFORMANCE RESEARCH ON BEAM-COLUMN SPLICE JOINTS OF PREFABRICATED STEEL FRAMED STRUCTURES WITH BRACES%斜撑对装配式钢框架梁柱拼接节点抗震性能影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱林; 惠怡; 刘学春

    2014-01-01

    针对装配式钢框架带柱座梁柱拼接节点连接受力复杂、强度和刚度影响因素多等问题,应用非线性有限元软件ANSYS对带斜撑和无斜撑的两种节点进行数值模拟,研究斜撑对装配式钢框架梁柱节点的滞回性能、极限承载力、延性系数、破坏模式等抗震性能的影响。结果表明:斜撑的设置,可较大幅度地提高节点的刚度和承载力,对于螺栓型连接的梁柱节点,斜撑的设置使其承载力提高3倍多,焊接节点的承载力提高约50%,延性系数提高约70%;且有效地转移了塑性铰,使节点破坏位置位于斜撑之外的桁架梁上,起到保护节点的作用,符合“强节点,弱构件”的设计要求。同时反复荷载作用下的滞回曲线更加饱满,具有更好的抗震性能。%For column-beam splice joint with flange-column of fabricated steel structure ,the mechanical behavior and connection are very complex ,and there are many influencing factors for its strength and rigidity .ANSYS finite element analysis software was used to analyze and simulate the beam-column's joint of the steel framed structure with or without braces .The seism-resisting behavior of the fabricated steel frame beam-column joints including the hysteretic behavior,ultimate bearing capacity, ductility coefficient, failure mode etc.were studied.The results show that for the fabricated steel frame beam-column joints with supports the joint's rigidity and bearing capacity are increased greatly . To bolt connection of beam-column joints with braces , the bearing capacity is improved by more than three times , and to welded joint , it is improved by about 50 percent ,ductility factor is increased by about 70 percent .Through setting braces, the plastic hinge is transferred effectively , and the failure locations are located on the truss beam outside of the brace, which has played an important role in protecting the connection , and accorded

  5. Performance of Modular Prefabricated Architecture: Case Study-Based Review and Future Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Edmond Boafo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though tightened building energy efficiency standards are implemented periodically in many countries, existing buildings continually consume a momentous quota of the total primary energy. Energy efficiency solutions range from material components to bulk systems. A technique of building construction, referred to as prefabricated architecture (prefab, is increasing in reputation. Prefab encompasses the offsite fabrication of building components to a greater degree of finish as bulk building structures and systems, and their assembly on-site. In this context, prefab improves the speed of construction, quality of architecture, efficiency of materials, and worker safety, while limiting environmental impacts of construction, as compared to conventional site-built construction practices. Quite recently, a 57 story skyscraper was built in 19 days using prefabricated modules. From the building physics point of view, the bulk systems and tighter integration method of prefab minimizes thermal bridges. This study seeks to clearly characterize the levels of prefab and to investigate the performance of modular prefab; considering acoustic constrain, seismic resistance, thermal behavior, energy consumption, and life cycle analysis of existing prefab cases and, thus, provides a dynamic case study-based review. Generally, prefab can be categorized into components, panels (2D, modules (3D, hybrids, and unitized whole buildings. On average, greenhouse gas emissions from conventional construction were higher than for modular construction, not discounting some individual discrepancies. Few studies have focused on monitored data on prefab and occupants’ comfort but additional studies are required to understand the public’s perception of the technology. The scope of the work examined will be of interest to building engineers, manufacturers, and energy experts, as well as serve as a foundational reference for future study.

  6. Reconstruction of Complex Facial Defects Using Cervical Expanded Flap Prefabricated by Temporoparietal Fascia Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Qinghua; Jiang, Haiyue; Liu, Ge; Huang, Wanlu; Dong, Weiwei

    2015-09-01

    Reconstruction of complex facial defects using cervical expanded flap prefabricated by temporoparietal fascia flap. Complex facial defects are required to restore not only function but also aesthetic appearance, so it is vital challenge for plastic surgeons. Skin grafts and traditional flap transfer cannot meet the reconstructive requirements of color and texture with recipient. The purpose of this sturdy is to create an expanded prefabricated temporoparietal fascia flap to repair complex facial defects. Two patients suffered severe burns on the face underwent complex facial resurfacing with prefabricated cervical flap. The vasculature of prefabricated flap, including the superficial temporal vessel and surrounding fascia, was used as the vascular carrier. The temporoparietal fascia flap was sutured underneath the cervical subcutaneous tissue, and expansion was begun in postoperative 1 week. After 4 to 6 months of expansion, the expander was removed, facial scars were excised, and cervical prefabricated flap was elevated and transferred to repair the complex facial defects. Two complex facial defects were repaired successfully by prefabricated temporoparietal fascia flap, and prefabricated flaps survived completely. On account of donor site's skin was thinner and expanded too fast, 1 expanded skin flap was rupture during expansion, but necrosis was not occurred after the 2nd operation. Venous congestion was observed in 1 patient, but after dressing, flap necrosis was not happened. Donor site was closed primarily. Postoperative follow-up 6 months, the color, texture of prefabricated flap was well-matched with facial skin. This method of expanded prefabricated flap may provide a reliable solution to the complex facial resurfacing.

  7. Prefabricated light-polymerizing plastic pattern for partial denture framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Takaichi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to report an application of a prefabricated light-polymerizing plastic pattern to construction of removable partial denture framework without the use of a refractory cast. A plastic pattern for the lingual bar was adapted on the master cast of a mandibular Kennedy class I partially edentulous patient. The pattern was polymerized in a light chamber. Cobalt-chromium wires were employed to minimize the potential distortion of the plastic framework. The framework was carefully removed from the master cast and invested with phosphate-bonded investment for the subsequent casting procedures. A retentive clasp was constructed using 19-gauge wrought wire and was welded to the framework by means of laser welding machine. An excellent fit of the framework in the patient′s mouth was observed in the try-in and the insertion of the denture. The result suggests that this method minimizes laboratory cost and time for partial denture construction.

  8. Assessment of pre-fabricated bathrooms from the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin; Brandt, Erik

    2015-01-01

    -weight assembly kit with fibre reinforced concrete bottoms - Light-weight assembly kit of fibre reinforced concrete elements The use of an inspection scheme implied that a consistent visual assessment of the bathrooms included constructions, installations and measurable conditions, e.g. moisture content and crack...... was to evaluate the performance and durability of the developed prefabricated bathrooms after 15-20 years of use. A systematic condition assessment was developed for the bathrooms inspections. Three bathrooms were investigated for each bathrooms solution: - Heavy-weight whole concrete cabins - Heavy...... sizes, was obtained. Each parameter in the inspection scheme was judged on a 5 step ranking scale of conditions and interrelated degree of consequences. The investigation of the 9 bathrooms indicated a generally high quality of the bathrooms. Many of the registered failures may be eliminated...

  9. Deformation behavior of carbon-fiber reinforced shape-memory-polymer composites used for deployable structures (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xin; Liu, Liwu; Li, Fengfeng; Pan, Chengtong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2017-04-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a new type of smart material, they perform large reversible deformation with a certain external stimulus (e.g., heat and electricity). The properties (e.g., stiffness, strength and other mechanically static or quasi-static load-bearing capacity) are primarily considered for conventional resin-based composite materials which are mainly used for structural materials. By contrast, the mechanical actuating performance with finite deformation is considered for the shape memory polymers and their composites which can be used for both structural materials and functional materials. For shape memory polymers and their composites, the performance of active deformation is expected to further promote the development in smart active deformation structures, such as deployable space structures and morphing wing aircraft. The shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) are also one type of High Strain Composite (HSC). The space deployable structures based on carbon fiber reinforced shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) show great prospects. Considering the problems that SMPCs are difficult to meet the practical applications in space deployable structures in the recent ten years, this paper aims to research the mechanics of deformation, actuation and failure of SMPCs. In the overall view of the shape memory polymer material's nonlinearity (nonlinearity and stress softening in the process of pre-deformation and recovery, relaxation in storage process, irreversible deformation), by the multiple verifications among theory, finite element and experiments, one obtains the deformation and actuation mechanism for the process of "pre-deformation, energy storage and actuation" and its non-fracture constraint domain. Then, the parameters of SMPCs will be optimized. Theoretical analysis is realized by the strain energy function, additionally considering the interaction strain energy between the fiber and the matrix. For the common resin-based or soft

  10. Evaluation of fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated posts and composites with varying quantities of remaining coronal tooth structure Avaliação da resistência à fratura de dentes tratados endodonticamente restaurados com pinos pré-fabricados e resinas compostas variando o remanescente dentário coronal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Pereira de Melo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of remaining coronal tooth structure on endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated posts and two different composites for core build-up: dual-cured resin (Enforce Core and light-cured resin (Z-250. METHODS: Fourty freshly extracted canines were endodontically treated and divided into four groups: Group I - teeth with 3mm remaining coronal structure, restored with Enforce Core; Group II - teeth with 3mm remaining coronal structure, restored with Z-250; Group III - teeth with no remaining coronal structure, restored with Enforce; Group IV - teeth with no remaining coronal structure, restored with Z-250. After restoration, the teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and the fracture resistance was measured on a universal testing machine at 45 degrees to the long axis of the tooth until failure. RESULTS: Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance, which showed significant differences between groups (p=0.00. The Tukey test did not show significant differences between specimens with and without remaining coronal structure. Conversely, significant difference was observed between groups with different core build-up. The highest values of fracture resistance were found in the group restored with light-cured resin. SIGNIFICANCE: The remaining coronal tooth structure did not influence the resistance of endodontically treated teeth; however, the change of core build-up was able to modify this resistence.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a influência do remanescente dentário coronal de dentes tratados endodonticamente, restaurados com pinos pré-fabricados e duas resinas como núcleos de preenchimento, uma de presa dual (Enforce Core e outra fotopolimerizável (Z-250. Foram utilizados 40 caninos superiores humanos extraídos, divididos em quatro grupos de 10 espécimes: Grupo l - com remanescente dentário coronal de 3mm e restaurados com Enforce Core; Grupo ll - com

  11. Foam Sensor Structures Would be Self-Deployable and Survive Hard Landings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Witold; Baumgartmer, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A document proposes systems of sensors encased in cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) structures for exploring remote planets. Lightweight structures that can be compressed for storage and later expanded, then rigidified for use are made from foams of shape-memory polymers (SMPs). According to the instant proposal, a CHEM sensor structure would be fabricated at full size from SMP foam at a temperature below its glass-transition temperature (Tg). It would then be heated above Tg and compacted to a small volume, then cooled below Tg and kept below Tg during launch, flight, and landing. At landing, the inelastic yielding of the rigid compacted foam would absorb impact energy, thereby enabling the structure to survive the landing. The structure would then be solar heated above Tg, causing it to revert to its original size and shape. Finally, the structure would be rigidified by cooling it below Tg by the cold planetary or space environment. Besides surviving hard landing, this sensor system will provide a soft, stick-at-the-impact-site landing to access scientifically and commercially interesting sites, including difficult and hard-to-reach areas.

  12. Structural Design and Simulation of Passive Low Gravity Compensation for the Deployable Arm in the Device of Drilling and Collecting Lunar Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important constituent part of the sampling device for lunar soil drilling, the deployable arm can help transfer the samples and avoid stretching. According to the ground experimental research requirements for deployable arm, this paper proposed a low-gravity compensation method of passive cam counter weight by establishing a Lagrangian dynamics model of deployable arm. It is emphasized on designing the profile curve of cam mechanism and the mechanical structure of cam component. By using ADAMS software, this paper conducted kinematics analogue simulation and obtained the kinematic parameters of deployable arm under the environmental conditions of the lunar surface and of the ground surface. The comparison of the analogue results has verified the necessity and reasonability of this compensation method. At last, this paper reached the conclusions and proposed measures to improve the compensation device. This paper can offer certain technical reference for the ground experiment of the sampling mechanism used for lunar drilling and the engineering implementation.

  13. A comparative study of visual and thermal comfort in prefabricated and classically built kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis a comparative study of visual and thermal comfort in prefabricated and classically built kindergarten in Grosuplje are presented. Visual and thermal comfort in the selected room of classically and prefabricated built kindergarten was estimated by site measuring, calculations and questionnaires. The thesis includes review of legislation in this field, review of existing studies, the methodology and the results of a comparative analysis. Furthermore, proposals for improvements in...

  14. Recent research of shear connection in prefabricated steel-concrete composite beams

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Marko; Spremić, Milan; Marković, Zlatko; Buđevac, Dragan; Veljković, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Prefabrication of steel-concrete composite decks can improve their competitiveness and sustainability. This paper presents recent studies of longitudinal shear connection at the University of Belgrade, Faculty of Civil Engineering. Grouped welded headed studs and bolted shear connectors, suitable for prefabricated composite construction, has been examined in push-out tests. Totally 30 tests were conducted, and advanced FEA were made using Abaqus/Explicit dynamic solver. Based on the experimen...

  15. Thermal Performance of Low-carbon Prefabricated Timber Housing in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Adekunle, Timothy Oluseun

    2014-01-01

    The research investigates thermal performance of prefabricated timber housing in the UK due to a growing concern regarding the increase in summertime temperatures, which are expected to occur regularly as global temperatures increase. Furthermore, modern houses are built to meet improved regulations with additional insulation and are more sensitive to potential summertime overheating than older houses. This study examines three UK prefabricated timber housing developments (Bridport, Oxley Woo...

  16. Structural Analysis and Test Comparison of a 20-Meter Inflation-Deployed Solar Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, David W.; Mann, Troy; Lichodziejewski, David; Derbes, Billy

    2006-01-01

    Under the direction of the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Office, the team of L Garde, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Ball Aerospace, and NASA Langley Research Center has been developing a scalable solar sail configuration to address NASA s future space propulsion needs. Prior to a flight experiment of a full-scale solar sail, a comprehensive test program was implemented to advance the technology readiness level of the solar sail design. These tests consisted of solar sail component, subsystem, and sub-scale system ground tests that simulated the aspects of the space environment such as vacuum and thermal conditions. In July 2005, a 20-m four-quadrant solar sail system test article was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center s Space Power Facility to measure its static and dynamic structural responses. Key to the maturation of solar sail technology is the development of validated finite element analysis (FEA) models that can be used for design and analysis of solar sails. A major objective of the program was to utilize the test data to validate the FEA models simulating the solar sail ground tests. The FEA software, ABAQUS, was used to perform the structural analyses to simulate the ground tests performed on the 20-m solar sail test article. This paper presents the details of the FEA modeling, the structural analyses simulating the ground tests, and a comparison of the pretest and post-test analysis predictions with the ground test results for the 20-m solar sail system test article. The structural responses that are compared in the paper include load-deflection curves and natural frequencies for the beam structural assembly and static shape, natural frequencies, and mode shapes for the solar sail membrane. The analysis predictions were in reasonable agreement with the test data. Factors that precluded better correlation of the analyses and the tests were unmeasured initial conditions in the test set-up.

  17. Symbolic and Graphical Representation Scheme for Sensors Deployed in Large-Scale Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Woon Choi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As wireless sensor network (WSN-based structural health monitoring (SHM systems are increasingly being employed in civil infrastructures and building structures, the management of large numbers of sensing devices and the large amount of data acquired from WSNs will become increasingly difficult unless systematic expressions of the sensor network are provided. This study introduces a practical WSN for SHM that consists of sensors, wireless sensor nodes, repeater nodes, master nodes, and monitoring servers. This study also proposes a symbolic and graphical representation scheme (SGRS for this system, in which the communication relationships and respective location information of the distributed sensing components are expressed in a concise manner. The SGRS was applied to the proposed WSN, which is employed in an actual large-scale irregular structure in which three types of sensors (75 vibrating wire strain gauges, 10 inclinometers, and three laser displacement sensors and customized wireless sensor nodes are installed. The application results demonstrate that prompt identification of sensing units and effective management of the distributed sensor network can be realized from the SGRS. The results also demonstrate the superiority of the SGRS over conventional expression methods in which a box diagram or tree diagram representing the ID of sensors and data loggers is used.

  18. The requirement for designing analyzable space deployable structures. [qualification test program and performance prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, A. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The applied technology satellite parabolic reflector subsystem is one of the first systems designed for space environment with limited terrestrial environmental ability. As a result, the complete performance of the system could not be demonstrated in a terrestrial environment without unacceptable design compromises. This problem was circumvented by developing a test philosophy which relied heavily on analysis to qualify and accept the flight hardware. The test program was successfully concluded and an optimized, low cost structure resulted. It is felt that this test and analysis philosophy can be applied to future space systems, resulting in substantial cost and schedule savings and a mission optimized system.

  19. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    potential future space-based mission through large-scale, ground-based testing. Full-scale deployment testing of two petal segments combined with...capture data for incorporation into larger analysis models. Stability testing of two full-scale composite strongback segments , including in a relevant...errors. The NuSTAR project opted for a metrology and adjustment system, which had many advantages for the project and few disadvantages . Because a

  20. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  1. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  2. Deployment Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    family/unit briefings (to include POA/wills/ consumer law /insurance war clauses) - Provide fill-in-blank sheets to send coordinators of pre- deployment...services. 2. SGLI designations and "By Law" implications. 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. 1-7 B. Typically...Relief Act JA 261 Real Property Guide JA 262 Wills Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal Assistance Office Directory

  3. Resolving complex chromosome structures during meiosis: versatile deployment of Smc5/6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verver, Dideke E; Hwang, Grace H; Jordan, Philip W; Hamer, Geert

    2016-03-01

    The Smc5/6 complex, along with cohesin and condensin, is a member of the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) family, large ring-like protein complexes that are essential for chromatin structure and function. Thanks to numerous studies of the mitotic cell cycle, Smc5/6 has been implicated to have roles in homologous recombination, restart of stalled replication forks, maintenance of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and heterochromatin, telomerase-independent telomere elongation, and regulation of chromosome topology. The nature of these functions implies that the Smc5/6 complex also contributes to the profound chromatin changes, including meiotic recombination, that characterize meiosis. Only recently, studies in diverse model organisms have focused on the potential meiotic roles of the Smc5/6 complex. Indeed, Smc5/6 appears to be essential for meiotic recombination. However, due to both the complexity of the process of meiosis and the versatility of the Smc5/6 complex, many additional meiotic functions have been described. In this review, we provide a clear overview of the multiple functions found so far for the Smc5/6 complex in meiosis. Additionally, we compare these meiotic functions with the known mitotic functions in an attempt to find a common denominator and thereby create clarity in the field of Smc5/6 research.

  4. Assessment of pre-fabricated bathrooms from the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin; Brandt, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In Denmark many older dwellings have or had no proper bathroom. Therefore, a lot of dwellings have been refurbished with bathrooms over the past 40+ years. There is great focus on establishment of bathrooms for several reasons. One is that bathrooms are expensive; one of the most cost-intensive t...... e.g. the above mentioned cracks. Therefore definitive conclusions are difficult to make based on the visual inspection, hence the methodology might be questioned if adequate for a durability assessment....... was to evaluate the performance and durability of the developed prefabricated bathrooms after 15-20 years of use. A systematic condition assessment was developed for the bathrooms inspections. Three bathrooms were investigated for each bathrooms solution: - Heavy-weight whole concrete cabins - Heavy......-weight assembly kit with fibre reinforced concrete bottoms - Light-weight assembly kit of fibre reinforced concrete elements The use of an inspection scheme implied that a consistent visual assessment of the bathrooms included constructions, installations and measurable conditions, e.g. moisture content and crack...

  5. Consolidation by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with a Threshold Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the development of an approximate analytical solution of radial consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains with a threshold gradient. To understand the effect of the threshold gradient on consolidation, a parametric analysis was performed using the present solution. The applicability of the present solution was demonstrated in two cases, wherein the comparisons with Hansbo’s results and observed data were conducted. It was found that (1 the flow with the threshold gradient would not occur instantaneously throughout the whole unit cell. Rather, it gradually occurs from the vertical drain to the outside; (2 the moving boundary would never reach the outer radius of influence if R+1

  6. Prefabricated Refractory Panels for Use in KSC's Flame Deflectors: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Maria; Trejo, David

    2010-01-01

    The launch complexes at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have been used to launch space vehicles for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. NASA is currently designing and developing a new space vehicle. The launch complexes have been in service for a significant duration and the aggressive conditions of the Florida coast and the launches have resulted in failures within the launch complexes. Of particular interests is the performance of the refractory lining that covers the steel base structure for the diversion of the exhaust from the launched vehicles (i.e., the flame deflectors). An unprotected steel base structure would likely experience loss of strength and possible failure when subjected to the high temperatures during launches. The refractory lining is critical for successful launches. The refractory material currently used in the flame trenches was developed in 1959 and is the only refractory material approved for use in these facilities. Significant effort and costs are expended in repairing the lining system after each launch. NASA is currently performing a comprehensive research program to assess and develop refractory materials for improved performance in the flame trenches. However, one challenge associated with the use of refractory materials in the flame trench is that the materials should be cured, dried, and fired to maximize their properties and characteristics. Because of the large size of the deflectors and trenches, drying and firing of the lining system is difficult, if not impossible. Most refractory materials are dried and fired before use. Because the refractory materials used for the deflector lining cannot be dried and fired, the full potential of the materials are not being realized. A system that could use refractory materials that could be cured, dried, and sintered in a controlled environment would likely improve the performance of the lining system. This report evaluates the feasibility of fabricating and placing prefabricated

  7. Flap prefabrication in the head and neck: a 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribaz, J J; Fine, N; Orgill, D P

    1999-03-01

    Tissue neovascularized by implanting a vascular pedicle can be transferred as a "prefabricated flap" based on the blood flow through the implanted pedicle. This technique potentially allows any defined tissue volume to be transferred to any specified recipient site, greatly expanding the armamentarium of reconstructive options. During the past 10 years, 17 flaps were prefabricated and 15 flaps were transferred successfully in 12 patients. Tissue expanders were used as an aid in 11 flaps. Seven flaps were prefabricated at a distant site and later transferred using microsurgical techniques. Ten flaps were prefabricated near the recipient site by either transposition of a local vascular pedicle or the microvascular transfer of a distant vascular pedicle. The prefabricated flaps were subsequently transferred as island pedicle flaps. These local vascular pedicles can be re-used to transfer additional neovascularized tissues. Common pedicles used for neovascularization included the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex, superficial temporal, radial, and thoracodorsal pedicles. Most flaps developed transient venous congestion that resolved in 36 to 48 hours. Venous congestion could be reduced by incorporating a native superficial vein into the design of the flap or by extending the prefabrication time from 6 weeks to several months. Placing a Gore-Tex sleeve around the proximal pedicle allowed for much easier pedicle dissection at the time of transfer. Prefabricated flaps allow the transfer of moderate-sized units of thin tissue to recipient sites throughout the body. They have been particularly useful in patients recovering from extensive burn injury on whom thin donor sites are limited.

  8. Utilization of Construction Waste Composite Powder Materials as Cementitious Materials in Small-Scale Prefabricated Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuizhen Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and demolition wastes have increased rapidly due to the prosperity of infrastructure construction. For the sake of effectively reusing construction wastes, this paper studied the potential use of construction waste composite powder material (CWCPM as cementitious materials in small-scale prefabricated concretes. Three types of such concretes, namely, C20, C25, and C30, were selected to investigate the influences of CWCPM on their working performances, mechanical properties, and antipermeability and antifrost performances. Also the effects of CWCPM on the morphology, hydration products, and pore structure characteristics of the cement-based materials were analyzed. The results are encouraging. Although CWCPM slightly decreases the mechanical properties of the C20 concrete and the 7 d compressive strengths of the C25 and C30 concretes, the 28 d compressive strength and the 90 d flexural strength of the C25 and C30 concretes are improved when CWCPM has a dosage less than 30%; CWCPM improves the antipermeability and antifrost performances of the concretes due to its filling and pozzolanic effects; the best improvement is obtained at CWCPM dosage of 30%; CWCPM optimizes cement hydration products, refines concrete pore structure, and gives rise to reasonable pore size distribution, therefore significantly improving the durability of the concretes.

  9. Design, development and fabrication of a deployable/retractable truss beam model for large space structures application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Louis R.

    1987-01-01

    The design requirements for a truss beam model are reviewed. The concept behind the beam is described. Pertinent analysis and studies concerning beam definition, deployment loading, joint compliance, etc. are given. Design, fabrication and assembly procedures are discussed.

  10. STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY OF CONCRETE CYLINDERS REINFORCED WITH PREFABRICATED STEEL CAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHITHRA R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an experimental and analytical study on behaviour of concrete cylinders confined with prefabricated cage. Totally 75 cylinders of 150mm diameter and 300mm in high confined by prefabricated cage are tested under uniaxial compression loads to obtain the stress strain curves of the cylinders. Test variables include thickness of cage, centre to centre spacing of ties and compressive strength of concrete. Equations to predict the ultimate compressive strength and strain at peak load were developed. A comparison between the experimental results and those of analytical results indicate that the proposed model provides satisfactory predictions of ultimate compressive strength. The study shows that the Mander et al’s model underestimate the strength of concrete confined by prefabricated cage.

  11. Cereal Straw Production Analysis, Availability of Materials, and Provincial Map for Manufacturing of Sustainable Prefabricated Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cobreros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, energy consumption and the demand for resources have gradually increased. The construction industry, by direct or indirect actions, consumes over 50% of the energy produced, is responsible for 30% of the CO2 emissions, and consumes more raw material than any other industrial activity. Architecture alone cannot solve global environmental problems, but it can contribute significantly. A high recyclability rate can be achieved through the management of renewable natural materials or waste. The application of prefabricated building systems can be an economical solution, saving energy and reducing waste. This work presents the prefabricated compressed straw panel as part of a paradigm shift toward sustainable architecture, which offers the opportunity to use new materials and construction systems but takes local and specific circumstances into account. The density of cereal straw for use in prefabricated compressed straw panel production in Badajoz, Spain was also studied.

  12. Comparing material wastage levels between conventional in-situ and prefabrication construction in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivian W Y Tam; C M Tam; L Y Shen

    2004-01-01

    Generation of construction wastes constitutes a major impact to the environment. Studies have beend directed toward reducing wastes of the various construction processes. However, contractors in Hong Kong are rather conservative and lack motivation to develop new technology for waste minimization. This paper examines the benefits of using prefabrication in reducing material wastage levels for some traditional in-situ trades such as concreting, rebar fixing, bricklaying, drywall, plastering, screeding and tiling in Hong Kong. By measuring thirty construction projects, it is been found that waste levels of all major construction trades can be effectively reduced. This is particularly significant in the trade of plastering where 100% saving can be achieved after adopting prefabrication. The standardized design of the building can also be useful in the adoption of prefabrication for private housing projects.

  13. 三杆张拉整体折展过程动力学分析%Dynamic analysis of the three-bar tensegrity deployable structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗阿妮; 李旭; 李全贺; 程建军; 刘贺平

    2016-01-01

    The string drive method is used to deploy the three⁃bar tensegrity structure. Based on the matrixes analy⁃sis, the mathematical model is built up with the generalized node coordinates and connectivity matrixes expressed positions and arrangements of members. The lengths of strings are adjusted with the bars'length constant to deploy the structure. Based on the flexible of the members, shortening the level strings to make the structure fold towards its'axis, it is analyzed that the dynamics of the structure. The simulation proved this deployable method is feasible. The changings of the lengths and inner forces of the members are given. The results show that adjusting the strings lengths could make the structure deployment. This method can be used in the three⁃bar tensegrity deployable struc⁃ture and other structures which build up with the three⁃bar basic units.%本文针对三杆张拉整体结构的折展问题,提出一种索驱动的方法。利用矩阵法分析,使用节点广义坐标和连接矩阵描述结构中各构件的位置和空间分布,建立结构数学模型;通过索构件长度协调变化,杆构件长度不变来分析结构的折展过程。在考虑构件弹性的情况下,对水平索为主动构件实现结构向轴线方向折叠的运动过程进行了动力学分析。通过仿真分析验证了此折叠方案的可行性。并对折展过程中构件的长度和内力的变化进行了分析,分析结果表明:张拉整体结构通过构件长度协调变化可实现折展功能,此方法可使用于三杆张拉整体单元以及以三杆张拉整体单元为基础的复杂张拉整体结构。

  14. Benefits of a two-step cementation procedure for prefabricated fiber posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, L.A.; Bolhuis, P.B.; Pallav, P.; Feilzer, A.J.; Kleverlaan, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether two-step cementation of prefabricated fiber posts leads to higher bond strengths. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight human canine teeth were divided into six groups and fiber posts were cemented with DC Core, RelyX Unicem and Panavia F2.0, according to a one-step or two

  15. Quantifying the waste reduction potential of using prefabrication in building construction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillon, L; Poon, C S; Chiang, Y H

    2009-01-01

    As Hong Kong is a compact city with limited available land and high land prices, the construction of high-rise buildings is prevalent. The construction industry produces a significant amount of building waste. In 2005, about 21.5 million tonnes of construction waste were generated, of which 11% was disposed of in landfills and 89% in public filling areas. At the present rate, Hong Kong will run out of both public filling areas and landfill space within the next decade. The government is taking action to tackle the problem, such as by introducing a construction waste landfill charge, and promoting prefabrication to reduce on-site waste generation. This paper reports an ongoing study on the use of prefabrication in buildings and its impact on waste reduction in Hong Kong. A questionnaire survey was administered to experienced professionals, and case studies of recently completed building projects were conducted. The results revealed that construction waste reduction is one of the major benefits when using prefabrication compared with conventional construction. The average wastage reduction level was about 52%. This implies that a wider use of prefabrication could considerably reduce construction waste generation in Hong Kong and alleviate the burdens associated with its management.

  16. 一种剪式可展结构设计与动力学分析%Design and dynamic analysis of a scissor deployable structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树青; 王兴松; 朱正龙

    2011-01-01

    针对机器人、空间结构等领域的应用,给出了一种三棱柱剪式可展结构的构型设计、传动方案设计及零部件详细设计.建立了考虑节点5个自由度的剪式铰单元有限元模型,对其刚度矩阵和质量矩阵进行了有效缩聚,减少了计算量;把剪式铰单元作为重复的子结构,建立了三棱柱剪式可展结构的有限元模型及其振动方程;在此基础上进行模态分析和仿真,得到前8阶固有频率及相应的振型曲线;并给出了三棱柱剪式可展结构的1阶固有频率随展开角的变化关系,为三棱柱剪式可展结构的优化设计和控制提供了依据.%The configuration design, transmission scheme design and detail design of a triangular prism deployable scissor structure are presented for application in the fields as robot, space structure and etc. The finite element model of scissor hinge unit that takes five dimensions of freedom of each node into consideration is established. The stiffness matrix and mass matrix of scissor hinge u-nit is minimized effectively and the amount of calculation is reduced. By taking the scissor hinge unit as a repetitive substructure, the finite element model and vibration equation of triangular prism scissor deployable structure are constructed. Based on this, the eight step natural frequencies and respective vibration mode curves are obtained after the dynamic analysis and simulated. The relationship between the first step natural frequency and deploy angle of triangular prism scissor deployable structure is provided. The present work has laid a foundation for the design and control of triangular prism scissor deployable structure.

  17. 预构皮瓣的研究与应用进展%Advances in the research and application of prefabricated flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇翀; 薛春雨

    2014-01-01

    Prefabricated flap is so named as the skin flap is prepared by prefabricating a circulation-rich skin flap by implanting a named blood vessel or a portion of fascia which is incorporated with rich blood supply.After the flap has been proven as a flap supplied by ample blood supply,it is transplanted to a wound as a local or free transplantation.The core of prefabricated flap is vascularization.Beside the different methods of prefabrication,vascularization can be facilitated by use of growth factors and cytokines,skin and soft tissue expansion technique,and biomaterial.Prefabricated flap is currently widely used in clinic.With the advances in the research of prefabrication technology and advances in its clinical application,prefabricated flap transplantation is becoming a promising strategy in wound healing.

  18. Prefabrication Design Technology for Partition Wall of Lateral Smoke Extraction Channel in Double-Decked Shield Tunnel%双层盾构隧道侧向排烟通道隔墙预制化设计技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊; 赵爽; 李勇; 赵光; 张忠宇; 马明

    2013-01-01

    The Nanjing Wei San River-crossing channel engineering is the longest double-decked shield tunnel. To meet the ventilation requirement, the smoke extraction channel is designed. Cast-in-place formwork method is used while designing the partition wall of the the smoke extraction channel. To increase the construction speed, prefabrication design technology for the partition wall of smoke extraction channel is studied. Design of a prefabrication partition wall, which is constructed by prefabricated concrete panel and supported by steel keel, is used for the smoke extraction channel. Details of the precast partition wall slab and the steel keel support structure are designed. In this paper, the structure of the prefabrication partition wall is analyzed. The deformation, the bearing capacity and the durability of the prefabrication partition wall meet the requirement of normal usage. Compared with the cast-in-place formwork method, the prefabrication partition wall design method has more flexibility of construction, and can effectively increase the construction speed, which brings more technical and economic advantages.%南京市纬三路过江通道是目前国内最长的双管双层盾构隧道,为满足通风及防灾要求,隧道内部设有排烟通道.排烟通道设计时采用了传统现浇混凝土隔墙,现场工作量大,作业人员多,其施工进度是隧道总工期的控制性因素之一.为加快施工速度,本文针对排烟通道隔墙进行了预制化设计研究,提出了采用有钢结构支撑的预制配筋混凝土墙板作为隔墙结构的设计方法,并设计了预制隔墙板和钢龙骨支撑结构.经分析,排烟通道隔墙采用预制化设计技术,满足使用功能、承载力和耐久性要求,可以有效提高施工灵活性,加快施工速度,与现浇混凝土结构相比有较大的技术经济优势.

  19. Deployment analysis of flexible structure based on characteristics of creases%基于折痕特性的柔性结构展开过程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢雅琪; 关富玲

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of creases during deployment were studied and a simple analysis model was discussed based on spring-mass model so that flexible structures were described by particles and springs w hich connected to them .Crease stiffness and the full-deploy shape norm were studied .The topology of the crease-mass model was brought up ,and the motion track of perfect deployment was deduced .A case of square membrane in multi-stretch station was simula-ted though a FORTRAN program using multi modules .The deployment matches well with the perfect deployment track .The effect of crease stiffness was discussed about force and deforma-tion .Some suggestions are brought up for analyzing and simulating flexible structures w hich broad up the range for spring-mass model .%研究展开过程中的折痕特性,并在弹簧质点系统基础上,提出一种基于折痕展开特性的简化分析模型,将平行折叠的柔性结构转化为折痕上的质点及连接的弹簧。分析了折痕刚度对展开的影响,给出完全展开的判定准则及通用拓扑关系,并推导了理想展开时点的运动轨迹。应用本模型对正四边形柔性结构在边框张拉受力下进行展开分析,利用自编程序通过特定功能模块实现非理想展开过程仿真。仿真展开过程与理论轨迹基本相符,验证了分析模型的合理性。并对展开过程中的受力、变形进行分析,探讨了折痕刚度对模型展开的影响。拓展了弹簧质点系统的应用范围,为柔性结构的分析、建模及仿真给出建议。

  20. Influence of custom-made and prefabricated insoles before and after an intense run

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Each time the foot contacts the ground during running there is a rapid deceleration that results in a shock wave that is transmitted from the foot to the head. The fatigue of the musculoskeletal system during running may decrease the ability of the body to absorb those shock waves and increase the risk of injury. Insoles are commonly prescribed to prevent injuries, and both custom-made and prefabricated insoles have been observed to reduce shock accelerations during running. However, no study to date has included a direct comparison of their behaviour measured over the same group of athletes, and therefore great controversy still exists regarding their effectiveness in reducing impact loading during running. The aim of the study was to analyse the acute differences in stride and shock parameters while running on a treadmill with custom-made and prefabricated insoles. Stride parameters (stride length, stride rate) and shock acceleration parameters (head and tibial peak acceleration, shock magnitude, acceleration rate, and shock attenuation) were measured using two triaxial accelerometers in 38 runners at 3.33 m/s before and after a 15-min intense run while using the sock liner of the shoe (control condition), prefabricated insoles and custom-made insoles. No differences in shock accelerations were found between the custom-made and the control insoles. The prefabricated insoles increased the head acceleration rate (post-fatigue, p = 0.029) compared to the control condition. The custom-made reduced tibial (pre-fatigue, p = 0.041) and head acceleration rates (pre-fatigue and post-fatigue, p = 0.01 and p = 0.046) compared to the prefabricated insoles. Neither the stride nor the acceleration parameters were modified as a result of the intense run. In the present study, the acute use of insoles (custom-made, prefabricated) did not reduce shock accelerations compared to the control insoles. Therefore, their effectiveness at protecting against injuries associated with

  1. Deployment simulation of a deployable reflector for earth science application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaokai; Fang, Houfei; Cai, Bei; Ma, Xiaofei

    2015-10-01

    A novel mission concept namely NEXRAD-In-Space (NIS) has been developed for monitoring hurricanes, cyclones and other severe storms from a geostationary orbit. It requires a space deployable 35-meter diameter Ka-band (35 GHz) reflector. NIS can measure hurricane precipitation intensity, dynamics and its life cycle. These information is necessary for predicting the track, intensity, rain rate and hurricane-induced floods. To meet the requirements of the radar system, a Membrane Shell Reflector Segment (MSRS) reflector technology has been developed and several technologies have been evaluated. However, the deployment analysis of this large size and high-precision reflector has not been investigated. For a pre-studies, a scaled tetrahedral truss reflector with spring driving deployment system has been made and tested, deployment dynamics analysis of this scaled reflector has been performed using ADAMS to understand its deployment dynamic behaviors. Eliminating the redundant constraints in the reflector system with a large number of moving parts is a challenging issue. A primitive joint and flexible struts were introduced to the analytical model and they can effectively eliminate over constraints of the model. By using a high-speed camera and a force transducer, a deployment experiment of a single-bay tetrahedral module has been conducted. With the tested results, an optimization process has been performed by using the parameter optimization module of ADAMS to obtain the parameters of the analytical model. These parameters were incorporated to the analytical model of the whole reflector. It is observed from the analysis results that the deployment process of the reflector with a fixed boundary experiences three stages. These stages are rapid deployment stage, slow deployment stage and impact stage. The insight of the force peak distributions of the reflector can help the optimization design of the structure.

  2. Simulation analysis of warship deploy ability with maintenance structures involved%考虑修理结构的舰船部署能力仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宣池; 胡俊波; 张志华

    2015-01-01

    As marine environment becomes increasingly complex, the deployment of warships in different military tasks, including both single warship deployment as well as multi-warship coordination, is often dis-cussed. This paper analyzes the main factors that influence the deploy ability of warships of the same type when the warship comes into service, plans repairing interval, schedules control and etc. Based on the anal-ysis, the measurement indicators for concurrent deploy ability of identical warships are constructed, and the corresponding model and the simulation algorithm is provided. The proposed approach is seen to be a good solution to the difficulties in calculating concurrent deploy ability. Finally, the simulation results suggest that all the factors are of vital significance to the deploy ability;particularly, as the maintenance interval in-creases, the deploy ability shows S-shape growth. In brief, this approach plays a significant role for optimiz-ing maintenance structures, promoting the deploy ability of identical warships and reducing the mainte-nance cost.%海上环境日益复杂,不仅要关心单艘舰船的部署能力,更要关心多艘舰船可同时部署的能力,以满足不同军事任务的用船需求.针对多艘同型舰船的部署能力问题,分析舰船入役时机、计划修理间隔期及修期控制等因素对同型舰船部署能力的影响,并从军事需求出发,提出多艘同型舰船部署能力的度量指标体系.在此基础上,建立多艘同型舰船部署能力的数学模型,给出同型舰船部署能力的仿真算法,较好地解决了同型舰船部署能力计算困难的问题.最后,通过仿真分析发现,舰船入役时机、计划修理间隔期及修期控制对同型舰船的部署能力具有较大影响,尤其是随着舰船计划修理间隔期的延长,其部署能力呈S形增加,对优化舰船修理结构,提高同型舰船部署能力,降低舰船维修保障费用具有重要意义.

  3. Study on Cooperative Mechanism of Prefabricated Producers Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyao Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good cooperation mechanism is an important guarantee for the advancement of industrialization construction. To strengthen the partnership between producers, we analyze the behavior evolution trend of both parties using an evolutionary game theory. Based on the original model, the mechanism of coordination and cooperation between prefabricated producers is explained under the condition of punishment and incentive. The results indicate that stable evolutionary strategies exist under both cooperation and noncooperation, and the evolutionary results are influenced by the initial proportion of both decision-making processes. The government can support the production enterprises to establish a solid partnership through effective punishment and incentive mechanisms to reduce the initial cost in the supply chain of prefabricated construction, resulting in a win-win situation.

  4. Thermal performance of prefabricated multistory house in Tallinn, Estonia, based on IR survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Timo T.; Hyartt, Jarmo; Sasi, Lennart

    1997-04-01

    The paper deals with how to improve the thermal performance of prefabricated multistory houses in Tallinn, Estonia, built in the 1960s and 1970s based on the results of thermal scanning during 1995 - 1996. The thermal scanning was performed by VTT Building Technology and reported by Helsinki Univ. of Technology. Based on the results of the first tests, some light renovation works were made, and the second tests showed how the repair work had succeeded. The aim of the project was to develop and test less-expensive and easy repair methods for large prefabricated multi-story house areas. The houses have been planned based on uniform design, when the existing problems can be generalized.

  5. Experimental Investigation and Analytical Modeling of Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete Sandwich Panels

    OpenAIRE

    BOURNAS DIONYSIOS; TORRISI Gonzalo; CRISAFULLI Francisco; Pavese, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of prefabricated reinforced concrete sandwich panels (RCSPs) was investigated experimentally and analytically in this study. Initially, tests were carried out on single full-scale RCSPs with or without openings, reproducing the behavior of lateral resisting cantilever and fixed-end walls. The performance and failure mode of all panels tested revealed coupling between the flexure and shear response. However due to their well-detailed reinforcement, all panels exhibited a relativel...

  6. The Design of a Semi-Prefabricated LVL-Concrete Composite Floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Yeoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a novel semi-prefabricated LVL-concrete composite floor that has been developed in New Zealand. In this solution, the floor units made from LVL joists and plywood are prefabricated in the factory and transported to the building site. The units are then lifted onto the supports and connected to the main frames of the building and to the adjacent units. Finally, a concrete topping is poured on top of the units in order to form a continuous slab connecting all the units. Rectangular notches cut from the LVL joists and reinforced with coach screws provide the composite action between the concrete slab and the LVL joists. This system proved to be an effective modular solution that ensures rapid construction. A design procedure based on the use of the effective flexural stiffness method, also known as the “gamma method” is proposed for the design of the composite floor at ultimate and serviceability limit states, in the short and long term. By comparison with the experimental results, it is shown that the proposed method leads to conservative design. A step-by-step design worked example of this novel semi-prefabricated composite floor concludes the paper.

  7. Prefabricated Images in Young Children’s Text-Making at School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Engblom

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In classrooms where computers are used as tools for text-making, images and photographs from e.g. Google, here called “prefabricated images”, can be selected and copied into texts and combined with writing. In this article children’s use of prefabricated images as resources for personal texts is investigated with specific focus on cohesion between the modes of image and writing. When prefabricated images occur in combination with writing about a personal experience the specific motifs shown in the image are unrelated to the text-maker, but the results of this study show that cohesion may still be obtained, for example via colour, naturalistic modality or decontextualization of the motif in the image via a close-up or a distant perspective. Copying and recontextualization of photographs are common not only in schools but also in professional settings as image banks supply images to, for example, news editors and journalists, and contemporary text creation is often characterized by “representation-as-selection” (Adami and Kress, 2010. The ability to obtain cohesion across modes can be regarded as a defining feature of success in multimodal text-making (Wyatt-Smith and Kimber, 2009, and also for the interpretation of contemporary texts.

  8. Deployable Pipe-Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a concept of deployable Pipe-Z (dPZ): a modular structural system which takes advantage of the robustness of rigid-panel mechanism and allows to create free-form links which are also reconfigurable and deployable. The concept presented can be applied for building habitats and infrastructures for human exploration of oceans and outer space. dPZ structures can adapt to changing requirements e.g. mission objectives, crew condition and technological developments. Furthermore, such lightweight and adaptable structural concept can assist in sustainable exploration development. After brief introduction, the concept of Pipe-Z (PZ) is presented. Next, the reconfigurability of PZ is explained and illustrated with continuous and collision-free transition from a PZ forming a Trefoil knot to a Figure-eight knot. The following sections introduce, explain and illustrate the folding mechanism of a single foldable Pipe-Z module (fPZM) and entire dPZ structure. The latter is illustrated with asynchronous (delayed) unfolding of a relatively complex Unknot. Several applications of PZ are suggested, namely for underwater and deep-space and surface habitats, for permanent, but in particular, temporary or emergency passages. As an example, a scenario of a failure of one of the modules of the International Space Station is presented where a rigid structure of 40 fPZMs bypasses the "dead link". A low-fidelity prototype of a 6-module octagonal dPZ is presented; several folding schemes including concentric toric rings are demonstrated. Practical issues of pressurization and packing are briefly discussed.

  9. 基于百度PCS实施SaaS架构的应用分析%Applied Analysis of Deploying SaaS Structure Based on Baidu PCS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟

    2015-01-01

    To develop application systems via cloud computing platform is efficient and low-cost. Besides, the best model of constructing the SaaS (Software-as-a-Service) structure enterprise application system is to de-ploy application systems based on the cloud computing platform. Aiming to research the development issues of enterprise SaaS application system based on Baidu PCS (Personal Cloud Storage) platform, the functional ad-vantages of deploying the SaaS structure of application systems based on Baidu PCS was analyzed. On this basis, combined with the Android developing environment, the integrated development method of SaaS struc-ture based on PCS was investigated. With help of SDK (Software Development Kit) offered by PCS, this paper raises a cloud storage solution of realizing structuring data processing and can provide those who develop the application systems with some references.%发挥云计算平台开发应用系统高效率、低成本的优势,基于云计算平台部署应用系统是实施SaaS(Software-as-a-Service软件即服务)架构企业应用系统的最佳模式。为探索基于百度个人云存储PCS(Personal Cloud Storage)平台的企业SaaS应用系统开发问题,文章分析了基于百度PCS实施应用系统SaaS架构的功能优势,在此基础上,结合Android开发环境探讨基于PCS的SaaS架构的集成开发方法,利用PCS所提供的SDK(Software Development Kit),给出了实现结构化数据处理的云存储解决方案。

  10. Solar array deployment mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calassa, Mark C.; Kackley, Russell

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a Solar Array Deployment Mechanism (SADM) used to deploy a rigid solar array panel on a commercial spacecraft. The application required a deployment mechanism design that was not only lightweight, but also could be produced and installed at the lowest possible cost. This paper covers design, test, and analysis of a mechanism that meets these requirements.

  11. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  12. Tow-Dimensionally Deployable "SHDF" Truss

    OpenAIRE

    ONODA, Junjiro; WATANABE, Naoyudi; Ichida, Kazuo; HASHIMOTO, Yasuo; NAKADA, Atsushi; Saito, Hisashi; 小野田, 淳次郎

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes a newly invented two-dimensionally deployable truss structure named SHDF, which has no articulated members. The most significant feature of SHDF truss is the very small number of the mechanisms to be actuated and locked at the deployment. A globally flat functional model actuated by tiny electromagnetic motors was designed and fabricated. The model demonstrated its practicality and virtually synchronized smooth motion in deploy/fold tests. Subsequently, the model w...

  13. Study on Deployable Structure Synchronization Technology Based on Torque Control Method%基于力矩控制法的同步展开技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萌; 周徐斌; 杜三虎; 王智磊

    2016-01-01

    As a typical space structure, multi-link deployable structures use a lot of structural or ca-ble synchronous devices for motion control.To reduce the complexity of deployable structures and a-void the disadvantage of traditional synchronous devices, a new motion control method:torque con-trol method was proposed in this paper.Through the study of three-link system’ s kinematic charac-teristics, driving torque was identified as the key parameter of synchronization.In order to achieve the orderly expansion, three-link system must allocate values for all the driving torques logically. Compared with the traditional mechanical devices’ compelling synchronization, the new torque con-trol method could achieve synchronization by torque value precision design.In the practical applica-tion, in order to simplify the parameter selection, constant-torque spring replaced the Archimedes spiral spring as the driving device.Based on the deployable structure’ s kinematic model, springs’ values were obtained by the design evaluation tool in ADAMS.The final results showed that the a-synchronous deployable time was less than 0.3s, which could meet the application requirement.%多连杆展开结构作为一种典型的空间展开结构,需要通过机械或绳索同步装置进行展开运动控制。为有效降低展开系统的复杂度,避免传统机械同步装置的不足,提出了一种新型运动控制方法:力矩控制法。通过分析3连杆系统的运动特性,确定了系统各展开轴线上的驱动力矩是控制同步性的关键参数。为实现有序展开,3连杆系统需要在运动过程中合理分配各驱动力矩值。传统的机械同步装置是强制保持力矩平衡以实现同步性,而力矩控制法则是通过精确设计各力矩值实现展开同步的。在实际工程应用中,为简化参数选取难度,采用恒力矩驱动弹簧代替阿基米德涡卷弹簧作为系统动力源。在建立展开结构的动力

  14. Prefabricated partial distal urethral in 2-staged repair of proximal hypospadias with severe chordee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Jian-Tao; Huangfu, Xue-Hun; Chen, Guo-Xiao; Hao, Jian-Wei; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a new technique for staged hypospadias repair in which the urethral plate is divided and tubularized transverse island flap prefabricated partial distal urethral at the time of the first stage. Materials and methods: Sixteen patients with proximal hypospadias associated with severe chordee were operated on using a new staged technique. At the time of the first stage, the urethral plate was divided and chordee was corrected. Then tubularized transverse island flap was used to prefabricate partial distal urethra. The defective urethra was repaired using the Thiersch-Duplay principle at the second stage. Results: All participants have completed both stages of the operation. The mean follow-up duration was 18.4 months (range from 6 to 72 months). In the first-stage surgery, the modified tabularized transverse preputial island flap was performed on 6 patients, whereas the modified preputial double-faced island flap was performed on the other 10 patients. All of the prefabricated partial distal neourethras had no evidence of stenosis or scarring. The result of the second-stage procedure was a complete penis with integrated urethral. All patients were satisfied with cosmetic and functional results. Neither stricture nor diverticula was observed. A good urinary stream during the urination was attained in 12 (75.0%) patients. Four cases (25.0%) developed urethrocutaneous fistula after the second stage repair. Conclusions: In our preliminary series, this procedure improved functional and cosmetic results. It may be applicable to most cases of proximal hypospadias. Even when complications occur, they are less severe compared to those of the traditional staged approach. PMID:25932188

  15. Individual prefabricated titanium implants and titanium mesh in skull base reconstructive surgery. A report of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, J; Ridder, G J; Spetzger, U; Teszler, C B; Fradis, M; Maier, W

    2004-05-01

    Titanium implants can be shaped by traditional hand forming, press shaping, modular construction by welding, construction on full-size models shaped from CT coordinates and, most recently, by computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that consist in the direct prefabrication of individual implants by milling them out of a solid block of titanium. The aim of our study was to present a set of preliminary cases of an ongoing program of reconstructive procedures of the skull base using titanium implants. The subjects underwent ablative procedures of the skull base with reconstruction either by titanium mesh or individual prefabricated CAD/CAM implants. Six patients have been operated on successfully since 2000: two received prefabricated CAD/CAM titanium plates and four others underwent reconstruction with titanium mesh. The stability of CAD/CAM plates is superior to that of mesh, thus it is more useful in reconstructing large lesions of the frontal skull base and the temporal and occipital bones. Titanium mesh was successfully used for defects smaller than 100 cm(2) or where selected viscerocranial defects are complicated in design and less reproducible by CAD/CAM. The intraoperative design, shaping and adjustment characteristic of titanium mesh can be dispensed with when CAD/CAM implants are used. The 3-D data set used in the CAD/CAM process also operates in the navigated simulation and planning of the ablation contours, the latter being of great assistance in establishing the optimal future defect. As a disadvantage, CAD/CAM technology is more expensive than titanium mesh, and the process is time-consuming as it is carried out in advance of surgery.

  16. Stability of linear array deployable structures based on structure of scissor-like element%剪式单元直线阵列可展结构的稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 王三民; 袁茹

    2014-01-01

    In order to get the buckling load of deployable structures, stability of linear array deployable structures based on structure of SLE were studied. The paper established a structural instability limit load expression of SLE based on analysis of the elastic deformation of bar, which is applied to the array combination of deployable structure. Then the condition of the stability of this structure is obtained. Results indicate that:Buckling critical load were affected by the bar parameters such as the number of units, bar flexibility and position angle. With the increase of the number of units or the bar flexibility, structural stability gradually reduced;The position angle were affected by unit number, which cannot be used separately as the basis for judging structure instability. Deployable structure stability simulation analysis results and the theoretical analysis results are compared each other, confirming the correctness of the proposed method in this paper because of the experiment data well.%为获得剪式可展结构失稳时的临界载荷,开展剪式单元直线阵列可展结构的稳定性研究。首先基于杆件的弹性变形分析,建立了剪式单元的结构失稳极限载荷表达式,然后将其应用于阵列组合而成的可展结构,获得了这种结构的稳定性条件。结果表明:单元个数、杆件柔度和位置角等参数共同影响结构失稳时的临界载荷,随着单元个数增加或杆件柔度增大,结构稳定性逐渐降低;位置角受到单元个数影响,不能单独作为判断结构失稳的依据。最后进行可展结构稳定性仿真分析,并将仿真结果与理论分析结果对比,两者吻合性较好,证实了本文提出方法的正确性。

  17. Study on dynamic compression performance of K9 glass with prefabricated defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changming; Wang, Xiang; Cai, Lingcang; Liu, Cangli

    2012-03-01

    We conducted several planar impact experiments to study dynamic compression properties of K9 glass on powder gun using Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measure system. Samples are prefabricated some internal meso-defects by laser three-dimensional erosion technique before shock loading. Free surface velocities recorded by high temporal-spatial resolution PDV array or multi-point PDV. All these experimental results show some different properties influenced by evolutions of pre-existed internal defects face on free surface velocity profiles. The critical compression strength and dynamic evolution information of pre-existed internal defects can be derived from the experimental results tentatively.

  18. Custom-made prefabricated titanium miniplates in Le Fort I osteotomies: principles, procedure and clinical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, B

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes a new type of miniplate system that is designed and custom made during virtual surgery planning based on an individual patient's osteotomy. These miniplates are prefabricated with commercially pure porous titanium using direct metal laser sintering. The principles that guide the conception and production of this new miniplate are presented. The surgical procedure from the stage of virtual surgery planning until the final Le Fort I osteotomy and bone fixation are described using a case example. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-deploying photovoltaic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A lightweight flexible photovoltaic (PV) blanket is attached to a support structure of initially stowed telescoping members. The deployment mechanism comprises a series of extendable and rotatable columns. As these columns are extended the PV blanket is deployed to its proper configuration.

  20. Genetic and structural basis for selection of a ubiquitous T cell receptor deployed in Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Miles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ∼10(18 αβ T cell receptor (TCR structures that can be randomly manufactured by the human thymus, some surface more frequently than others. The pinnacles of this distortion are public TCRs, which exhibit amino acid-identical structures across different individuals. Public TCRs are thought to result from both recombinatorial bias and antigen-driven selection, but the mechanisms that underlie inter-individual TCR sharing are still largely theoretical. To examine this phenomenon at the atomic level, we solved the co-complex structure of one of the most widespread and numerically frequent public TCRs in the human population. The archetypal AS01 public TCR recognizes an immunodominant BMLF1 peptide, derived from the ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus, bound to HLA-A*0201. The AS01 TCR was observed to dock in a diagonal fashion, grasping the solvent exposed peptide crest with two sets of complementarity-determining region (CDR loops, and was fastened to the peptide and HLA-A*0201 platform with residue sets found only within TCR genes biased in the public response. Computer simulations of a random V(DJ recombination process demonstrated that both TCRα and TCRβ amino acid sequences could be manufactured easily, thereby explaining the prevalence of this receptor across different individuals. Interestingly, the AS01 TCR was encoded largely by germline DNA, indicating that the TCR loci already comprise gene segments that specifically recognize this ancient pathogen. Such pattern recognition receptor-like traits within the αβ TCR system further blur the boundaries between the adaptive and innate immune systems.

  1. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  2. Prefabrication of axial vascularized tissue engineering coral bone by an arteriovenous loop: A better model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Qingshan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Wuhan 430070 (China); Shang Hongtao; Wu Wei [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Chen Fulin [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Zhang Junrui [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Guo Jiaping [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Wuhan 430070 (China); Mao Tianqiu, E-mail: tianqiumao@126.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2012-08-01

    The most important problem for the survival of thick 3-dimensional tissues is the lack of vascularization in the context of bone tissue engineering. In this study, a modified arteriovenous loop (AVL) was developed to prefabricate an axial vascularized tissue engineering coral bone in rabbit, with comparison of the arteriovenous bundle (AVB) model. An arteriovenous fistula between rabbit femoral artery and vein was anastomosed to form an AVL. It was placed in a circular side groove of the coral block. The complex was wrapped with an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene membrane and implanted beneath inguinal skin. After 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks, the degree of vascularization was evaluated by India ink perfusion, histological examination, vascular casts, and scanning electron microscopy images of vascular endangium. Newly formed fibrous tissues and vasculature extended over the surfaces and invaded the interspaces of entire coral block. The new blood vessels robustly sprouted from the AVL. Those invaginated cavities in the vascular endangium from scanning electron microscopy indicated vessel's sprouted pores. Above indexes in AVL model are all superior to that in AVB model, indicating that the modified AVL model could more effectively develop vascularization in larger tissue engineering bone. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A modified arteriovenous loop (AVL) model in rabbit was developed in this study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Axial prevascularization was induced in a larger coral block by using the AVL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prefabrication of axial vascularized coral bone is superior as vascular carrier.

  3. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This report compiles information and conclusions gathered as part of the “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs” project. The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge in which future research is needed.

  4. A web-deployed interface for performing ab initio molecular dynamics, optimization, and electronic structure in FIREBALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, J. Brandon; Fennick, Jacob R.; Junkermeier, Chad E.; Nelson, Daniel R.; Lewis, James P.

    2009-03-01

    FIREBALL is an ab initio technique for fast local orbital simulations of nanotechnological, solid state, and biological systems. We have implemented a convenient interface for new users and software architects in the platform-independent Java language to access FIREBALL's unique and powerful capabilities. The graphical user interface can be run directly from a web server or from within a larger framework such as the Computational Science and Engineering Online (CSE-Online) environment or the Distributed Analysis of Neutron Scattering Experiments (DANSE) framework. We demonstrate its use for high-throughput electronic structure calculations and a multi-100 atom quantum molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Program summaryProgram title: FireballUI Catalogue identifier: AECF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 279 784 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 836 145 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java Computer: PC and workstation Operating system: The GUI will run under Windows, Mac and Linux. Executables for Mac and Linux are included in the package. RAM: 512 MB Word size: 32 or 64 bits Classification: 4.14 Nature of problem: The set up and running of many simulations (all of the same type), from the command line, is a slow process. But most research quality codes, including the ab initio tight-binding code FIREBALL, are designed to run from the command line. The desire is to have a method for quickly and efficiently setting up and running a host of simulations. Solution method: We have created a graphical user interface for use with the FIREBALL code. Once the user has created the files containing the atomic coordinates for each system that they are

  5. Design aspects of a deployable tensegrity-hollow-rope footbridge

    OpenAIRE

    Rhode-Barbarigos, Landolf; BEL HADJ ALI, Nizar; Motro, René; Smith, Ian F. C.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Tensegrity structures are composed of cables and struts in a pre-stressed self-equilibrium. Although tensegrity first appeared in the 1950s, it is seldom used in civil engineering. This paper focuses on the design aspects of a deployable tensegrity-hollow-rope footbridge. Deployment is usually not a critical design case for traditional deployable structures. However, for tensegrity systems deployment may be critical due to the actuation required. In this paper, deploym...

  6. Cost Benefit Analysis: Closed-Cell Polyurethane Foam Use in DOD Forward-Deployed Structures and As An Alternative Building Material to Reduce Operational Fuel Demand and Associated Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    structure. Improved indoor air quality gives deployed military commanders personnel that are rested and less susceptible to adverse health risks...23 6. Disposal ...............................................................................................23 7. Health Hazards...Kuwait (from AFCESA, 2010)................28 Figure 12. Exterior foam application to Camp Lemonier Gym , Djibouti (from Nolan, 2015

  7. Embedding Quality Function Deployment In Software Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... product development: Marketing, Design. Engineering,. Quality ... The basic Quality Function Deployment methodology involves ... structure and planning approach, requires that more time be ..... process, and strategy. This is ...

  8. Self-Deploying, Composite Habitats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to develop self-deploying, composite structures for lunar habitats, based on CRG's VeritexTM materials. These...

  9. Self-Deploying, Composite Habitats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), proposes to develop self-deploying, composite structures for lunar habitats, based on CRG's Veritex(TM) materials. These...

  10. Prefabricated EPS Elements used as Strip Foundation of a Single-family House with a Double Brick Wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2008-01-01

    A new prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was demonstrated on site as the base of a single-family house with a double brick wall. The element was placed on a stable surface underneath the top soil layer, just 0.25 m underneath the finished ground surface...

  11. 仿生学原理在空间可展开薄膜结构领域的研究进展%A Review of Bionic Design in Deployable Membrane Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨延蕾

    2015-01-01

    空间可展开式薄膜结构以其大口径、易折叠、质量轻、压缩比高、制作成本低、展开可靠性高等优势已成为未来大型空间可展开结构的理想选择。如何将仿生学原理引入空间可展开薄膜结构的研究中,以解决现有空间可展开薄膜结构在型面精度控制、三维折叠优化、展开过程平稳性控制以及薄膜刚化等方面的不足,现已成为国内外学者关注的研究热点。综述了近年来国内外同行在仿生薄膜可展开结构方面的最新研究进展,重点关注了以下三个方面:(1)薄膜结构在折叠方式及展开过程方面的仿生学研究成果;(2)花瓣绽放的形态学变化在降低能耗、优化折叠尺寸方面的仿生学应用;(3)昆虫羽化在结构刚化、薄膜单元形态学分布以及展开驱动力等方面的应用研究。%With the advantages of large aperture, easy folding, light weight, high contraction ratio, high reliability, de-ployable space membrane structure technology has been the ideal choice of the future large deployable structures in space. Bio-inspired deployable membrane structure is developed by many domestic and international scholars for solving a series of technical challenges such as shape precision control, three-dimensional folding optimization, stability control in deployment process and membrane structure rigidization. In this paper, the advances in relevant researches of bionics in deployable membrane structures are reviewed and three aspects are focused as follows: the developments of new fold patterns and de-ployment of thin membrane structures that are genuinely biomimetic, applications of geometric and morphological optimiza-tion from flowers bloom for energy consumption and size reducing, and the bionic research progress in structure rigidization, membrane cell morphology and deployable driving force from the eclosion process of insects.

  12. 敞开式TBM施工铁路隧道仰拱预制块关键设计参数研究%Study on Key Design Parameters of Prefabricated Invert Segment for Open Type TBM Railway Tunnel Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符亚鹏

    2016-01-01

    Based on the load structure design method, a calculation model of tunnel is established with the finite element software ANSYS to study the effects on the deformation and the internal force of the lining structure generated by such parameters as the central angle, the depth and width of the center ditch of the prefabricated invert segment. The results show that the central angle has less effect on the deformation and internal force of the prefabricated invert segment, and the central angle is determined by the technical requirements for segment erection and the track structure. And the distance between the bottom of the central ditch and the bottom of the prefabricated invert segment has bigger effect on the deformation and internal force of the prefabricated invert segment, so the design distance should be greater than the thickness of the composite lining structure. The stress concentration can be reduced by expanding the width of the central ditch. On the basis of the requirement for track structure bearing capacity, the drainage capacity of the tunnel can be increased by expanding properly the width of the central ditch in design.%以敞开式TBM施工特长铁路隧道仰拱预制块结构为研究背景,基于荷载结构设计理论,采用有限元软件ANSYS构建二维平面分析模型,研究了仰拱预制块圆心角、中心水沟沟槽深度、宽度等参数对衬砌结构变形、受力特性的影响规律。研究结果表明:圆心角对仰拱预制块变形、内力影响较小,设计中应根据仰拱预制块拼装技术及轨道结构要求来确定;中心水沟沟槽底至仰拱预制块底部间距h对仰拱预制块变形、内力影响较大,设计中间距h应大于复合式衬砌厚度;扩大中心水沟宽度,可有效降低集中应力值,在满足轨上结构承载能力的前提下,设计中可适当扩大中心水沟宽度来增大隧道排水能力。

  13. 含刚性体可展开结构的展开过程动力学分析方法%Dynamic analysis of deployable structures with rigid bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明儿; 项平

    2011-01-01

    在可展结构中设置刚性体可以有效提高展开效率,保证形状精度,因此含刚性体可展结构具有较高的实用价值。刚性体按需要可为刚性曲板等,一般形状复杂且形式多样,含任意形状刚性体可展结构的展开过程动力学分析比较困难。本文以笛卡尔坐标系下节点坐标及位移为变量,利用广义逆矩阵建立了一种通用的刚性体动力学方程,给出了利用Newmark—β法进行展开过程动力学分析的数值计算方法。通过算例分析及与ADAMS软件结果进行对比,验证了本文方法的正确性。与传统的多体系统动力学方法相比,该分析方法的优点是数学描述简洁明快,包含的未知量少,能够有效地分析含任意形状刚性体的可展开结构动力学问题。%Deployable structures with internal rigid bodies can improve both the deploying efficiency and the deploying precision. Thus, this kind of hybrid deployable structures is of high practical value. The surface of rigid bodies can be curved panels or other shapes. There is no efficient method to analyze the deploying dynamic process of this kind of deployable structure by now because it is difficult to describe the rigid surface in analysis. In this paper, the dynamic equation of rigid body using nodal coordinates and displacements as variables was established at first. Then, the dynamic equation was introduced to the deploying process analysis through using Moore-Penrose generalized inverse matrix method and Newmark numerical integration. In the end, a numerical example was given and the validity of the method was investigated compared with the calculation results of soft package ADAMS. Compared with multi-body system dynamics,the method suggested in this paper is easy in formulation and can be used to analyze the dynamic problems of deployable structures consisting of rigid bodies with arbitrary shapes.

  14. Self deployable deorbiting space structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    NOVELTY - The SDDS has flexible frame which supports at least one flexible sheet. The flexible sheet frame is twistable into at least two loops that are foldable into overlapping configuration. USE - SDDSS for use in e.g. spacecraft, satellites. ADVANTAGE - Reduces or eliminates he need of pyro...

  15. Modeling EERE deployment programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.

  16. Stratospheric Deployment Parafoil Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Stratospheric Deployment Parafoil is a proposed technology that will be designed and tested to provide a greatly superior parachute precision delivery system...

  17. Transparent thermal insulation for prefabricated school buildings; Einsatz transparenter Waermedaemmung an Schulgebaeuden in praefabrizierter Bauweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany). Gruppe Solares Bauen; Buchmann, R. [Leipzigprojekt GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Duesterhoeft, A. [Holz- und Leichtmetallbau GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The existing schools in the new federal states built from prefabricated elements need to be modernized in order to reduce their energy demand. Fitting some 300 square metres of transparent thermal insulation to the south side of a house front may lead to a cut in its thermal energy demand by 74 per cent. This energy consumption is by 12 kWh per square metre lower than the one obtained with opaque thermal insulation. The results of the first demonstration project are described. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die in den neuen Bundeslaendern vorhandenen Schulen in vorgefertigter Bauweise sind energetisch sanierungsbeduerftig. Werden im Rahmen einer Sanierung ca. 300qm transparente Waermedaemmung an der suedorientierten Fassade eingesetzt, so kann der Heizwaermebedarf um 74% herabgesetzt werden. Das sind 12 kWh/qm weniger als bei dem vergleichsweisen Einsatz einer opaken Waermedaemmung. Im Folgenden werden die Ergebnisse des ersten Demonstrationsprojekts beschrieben.

  18. The Effect of Pre-teaching Extended Prefabricated Lexical Bundles on the Writing Development of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiyed Mahdi Araghi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to shed light on how a teacher’s instruction and guidance can cast aside writing inhibitions and bring about remarkable changes in the writing ability of advanced EFL students through the collaborative construction of extended chunks of language with the aim of enhancing lexical density and complexity and consequently injecting into learners a sense of satisfaction with their work. The sample included 40 TOEFL students selected out of 75 TOEFL students on the basis of their scores on a TOEFL test. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups-the control group and experimental group. After 20 instructional sessions both groups were assigned five writing tasks. The results reveal that the participants in experimental group outperformed their counterparts in control group. Overall, it is concluded that pre-teaching extended prefabricated lexical bundles can be a useful means of helping advanced students to improve their writing quality.

  19. [Moisture and mold on the inner walls of prefabricated building slabs--investigating a strange cause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufhold, T; Fiedler, K; Jung, G; Lindner, M; Gassel, R P

    1997-04-01

    Reasons for indoor-moisture beyond the normal level can be caused by penetrating dampness, condensation-water, and apartment misuse. A fall in the air temperature below the dew point in connection with moulding inside buildings becomes evident mostly at places like badly insulated outer-walls or room-corners. In a number of houses built between 1980 and 1983 in the so called "Plattenbauweise" (prefabricated slabs), exclusively the inner-walls were covered in mould around cracks in the walls. Examinations showed connections between the apartment and the outer-corridor with a slight exchange of air through the cracks. Warm, wet air escaped from the apartment into the outer-corridor, and cold air entered the apartment from the outer-corridor. This temporary fall below the dewpoint caused by suitable variation of temperature probably resulted in the building materials and wallpapers becoming damp, as well as the growth of mould.

  20. Modern housing design: prefabricated and modular design in Frank Lloyd Wright's architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tagliari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the residential architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright, especially the designs which were conceived from an idea of prefabricated, modular, low-cost, and high-scale construction. Wright's organic designs originated from a material-based grid, which at the same time organized and provided freedom to create spaces and forms. This study reviews Wright's work, from his first Midwest designs that relied on brick, through an intermediary phase in California when he made intense use of concrete blocks, until his last phase, the usonian houses, which featured wood paneling. During his early career, the concept and the methodology of Wright's ideas greatly contributed to a better understanding of his architecture, his apprentices and his followers. The economy and rationalization found in the projects reviewed are of great importance as the analysis of historical proposals helps us understand the topic in question.

  1. Design and analysis of a deployable mechanism for space condensation structure%用于空间聚光结构的折展机构设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李季; 邢利娜

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at solving the contradiction between the need of large diameter condensation structure for Space Power System and the limitation of the current carrying capacity, a deployable mechanism for the secondary mirror support was designed, based on a two- mirror off- axis condensation system. The major configuration of the deployment mechanism was made of a three- link serial mechanism, with two parallel four- bar mechanisms, which can deploy in the horizontal and vertical directions separately, and ensure that the secondary mirror component remains translational movement during the mechanism deployment. Kinematics equation of deployment was deduced, and the work space was solved to plan the scheme of the mechanism deployment. The position precision and attitude accuracy of the deployment was studied, and the sensitivity of structure parameters was given. Finally, the virtual prototype of the mechanism was built with ADAMS software, and the deployment was simulated to verify the correctness and rationality of the design.%针对空间太阳能电站大口径聚光结构的应用需求与运载条件相矛盾的情况,以离轴式聚光系统为研究基础,设计了一种具有折叠展开功能的次镜支撑机构。机构采用三关节串联结构为主,两组平行四杆机构为辅,可实现水平、竖直的两次展开,并能保证次镜组件在展开过程中始终保持平动状态。通过建立机构折展的运动学方程,对机构的工作空间进行了求解,规划了展开方案;对机构展开的位置、姿态精度进行了研究,分析了展开精度对机构各结构参数的敏感度;最后,在ADAMS软件中建立了折展机构的虚拟样机,对展开过程进行了仿真,验证了机构设计的正确性与合理性。

  2. 多模块可展机构运动学分析及驱动设计%Kinematics analysis and driving design of multi-module deployable structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣强; 金光; 刘兆晶; 张静; 吴楠

    2014-01-01

    Kinematics analysis and driver design of multi- module deployable structure Due to the deployment need of deployable structure in space missions, kinematics analysis and driver design of the structure were important. Based on the studied space multi - module deployable structure with the periodicity characteristics of single module in circumference direction and incompletely periodicity of the multi - module linkage, kinematics modeling of single module was conducted by using plural and decomposed method. At the same time, the kinematics model of multi- module deployable structure was established, which satisfies the aimed surface fitting. Then kinematics analysis of multi - module deployable structure was achieved to get the relationship curve between the location of the moving parts and the deflection of the modules. It was found that the deflections of the modules increase with the displacement of slider and reach 1.22 degrees. Based on the kinematics analysis of structure, the force curves of the sliders and the joints under different driver styles during deploying are given. The diver analysis and driver design with low mass and high reliability for deployable structure which can guarantee the smoothly deploying.%由于可折展机构在空间任务中的展开需要,其运动学分析和驱动设计至关重要。根据空间多模块可展开机构中单个模块的周向周期性及多模块连接的非完全周期性特点,首先基于复数法和机构单元的拆分思想进行了单个模块的运动学建模,同时进行了满足曲面拟合条件的多模块展开机构的几何建模,并进行了多模块可展开机构的运动学分析,得到多模块联动过程中运动部件的位置与模块间偏角的关系曲线,随着滑块位移的增大,外层模块与内层模块的偏角增大,最大值为1.22。。基于可展开机构的运动学分析,得到不同驱动方式下滑块和铰链在机构展开过程中的受力变

  3. Research on lightweight passive deployment mechanism for the secondary mirror in the deployable space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Peifeng; Li, Chuang; Jing, Nan; Chong, Yaqin; Ren, Guorui

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a new type of lightweight passive deployment mechanism based on the tape spring and the shape memory alloy is presented for the secondary mirror of a deployable space telescope. In this passive deployment mechanism for the secondary mirror, the high elastic potential energy of the folded tape springs is used as driving force when the support structure is extended, and the high stiffness characteristics of the circular arc cross section of the tape spring can be used to achieve structure self-locking after deployment. Then a deployable space telescope combined with lightweight passive deployable mechanism for the secondary mirror is designed for applying to nanosatellite imaging. Furthermore, a lock-release device is designed to achieve the function of locking the folded structure and releasing on orbit by taking advantage of the phase transformation characteristics of shape memory alloy with temperature changing. Finally, the correction method for the deployment error of secondary mirror is discussed. The temperature of the tape springs is controlled respectively to make a required length change. This can achieve the purpose of adjusting the position of the secondary mirror and improve the deployment accuracy.

  4. 分层装配式支撑钢结构工业化建筑体系抗震性能试验研究%Experimental research on seismic performance of floor-by-floor assembled steel braced structures for prefabricated buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周青; 王伟; 陈以一; 童乐为; 余亚超; 杨建行; 刘大伟; 古海贤二

    2012-01-01

    A quasi-static experiment was carried out on a full scale two-story by four-span structural system.Lateral force resisting mechanism,failure modes and hysteretic properties of the improved floor-by-floor assembled steel braced structure were investigated,as well as the evolution of the structural stiffness and strength under horizontal earthquake.Test results show that the braces are the primary members to resist the lateral load,the elastic lateral stiffness is exclusively provided by the braces.The developed new braces demonstrate good ductile behavior.The structural damage evolution under cyclic loading includes compression buckling and tension yielding of braces,partial yielding of column base,cyclic deformation of beam flange,weld cracking and plastic hinge formation at the column bases.The beam-column frame can participate in resisting horizontal seismic force under the conditions of large story drift due to the improved beam through connections.Thus,it can be viewed as the second defense of the structural system.It is recommended that a certain magnification factor for seismic action should be considered in the seismic design to compensate the low energy dissipation capacity.%对2层4跨足尺结构进行了拟静力加载试验,考察了分层装配式支撑钢结构在水平地震作用下的抗侧力机制、破坏模式与滞回特性,以及刚度和承载力的变化规律。试验结果表明,支撑是主要抗侧力构件,结构弹性阶段的抗侧刚度几乎完全由支撑提供,研制的新型支撑具有良好的延性工作性能。结构体系在往复荷载下失效演进过程表现为支撑受压失稳、支撑受拉屈服、柱脚截面部分屈服、节点处梁翼缘循环拉压变形、柱脚端板连接焊缝开裂和柱脚全截面屈服形成塑性铰。改进后的梁贯通式节点可以保证框架在塑性大变形阶段分担相当比例的水平地震力,因而可作为该结构的第2道防线。鉴于结构体系耗能能力

  5. Mining Deployment Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čech, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    The deployment problem, researched primarily in the military sector, is emerging in some other industries, mining included. The principal decision is how to deploy some activities in space and time to achieve desired outcome while complying with certain requirements or limits. Requirements and limits are on the side constraints, while minimizing costs or maximizing some benefits are on the side of objectives. A model with application to mining of polymetallic deposit is presented. To obtain quick and immediate decision solutions for a mining engineer with experimental possibilities is the main intention of a computer-based tool. The task is to determine strategic deployment of mining activities on a deposit, meeting planned output from the mine and at the same time complying with limited reserves and haulage capacities. Priorities and benefits can be formulated by the planner.

  6. Deploying OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Pepple, Ken

    2011-01-01

    OpenStack was created with the audacious goal of being the ubiquitous software choice for building public and private cloud infrastructures. In just over a year, it's become the most talked-about project in open source. This concise book introduces OpenStack's general design and primary software components in detail, and shows you how to start using it to build cloud infrastructures. If you're a developer, technologist, or system administrator familiar with cloud offerings such as Rackspace Cloud or Amazon Web Services, Deploying OpenStack shows you how to obtain and deploy OpenStack softwar

  7. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.

    2007-11-08

    The purpose of this report is to compile information and conclusions gathered as part of three separate tasks undertaken as part of the overall project, “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs,” sponsored by the Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation office within the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address improvements to modeling in the near term, and note gaps in knowledge where future research is needed.

  8. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  9. Design of online monitoring and forecasting system for electrical equipment temperature of prefabricated substation based on WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiran; Miao, Hongxia; Miao, Xuejiao; Xiao, Xuanxuan; Yan, Kuo

    2016-10-01

    In order to ensure the safe and stable operation of the prefabricated substations, temperature sensing subsystem, temperature remote monitoring and management subsystem, forecast subsystem are designed in the paper. Wireless temperature sensing subsystem which consists of temperature sensor and MCU sends the electrical equipment temperature to the remote monitoring center by wireless sensor network. Remote monitoring center can realize the remote monitoring and prediction by monitoring and management subsystem and forecast subsystem. Real-time monitoring of power equipment temperature, history inquiry database, user management, password settings, etc., were achieved by monitoring and management subsystem. In temperature forecast subsystem, firstly, the chaos of the temperature data was verified and phase space is reconstructed. Then Support Vector Machine - Particle Swarm Optimization (SVM-PSO) was used to predict the temperature of the power equipment in prefabricated substations. The simulation results found that compared with the traditional methods SVM-PSO has higher prediction accuracy.

  10. 内置筛网预制式太阳能集热板集热效果试验研究%Collecting Efficiency of Built-in Screen Prefabricated Type Solar Heat-collecting Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 杨立权; 于淼; 李松

    2016-01-01

    预制式太阳能集热板是一种新型具有渗透结构的集热板。试验通过有金属筛网和无金属筛网形式制作了2种预制式太阳能集热板,采用对比方法,对2种形式的集热板集热效率、热损失系数UL进行了测试。试验结果表明:2种集热板的热损失系数差异不大,采用有金属筛网渗透结构的集热板比无金属筛网结构的集热板综合集热效果更好。%Prefabricated type solar heat-collecting panel is a kind of heat-collecting panel with new permeability structure. Two kinds of solar heat-collecting panels are manufactured for experiment with or without metal mesh. Both the collecting efficiency and heat loss coefficient UL of these two types of panels are tested through comparison. The experimental results show that there was a slight difference between the heat loss coefficients of prefabricated type solar heat-collecting panels, the panel with metal mesh as permeability structure shows better thermal efficiency than the panel without metal mesh.

  11. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  12. Deploying Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquali, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an intermediate or advanced developer deploying your Node.js applications, then this book is for you. If you have already built a Node application or module and want to take your knowledge to the next level, this book will help you find your way.

  13. Effect of custom-made and prefabricated insoles on plantar loading parameters during running with and without fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Macián-Romero, Cecili; Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Controversy exists whether custom-made insoles are more effective in reducing plantar loading compared to prefabricated insoles. Forty recreational athletes ran using custom-made, prefabricated, and the original insoles of their running shoes, at rest and after a fatigue run. Contact time, stride rate, and plantar loading parameters were measured. Neither the insole conditions nor the fatigue state modified contact time and stride rate. Addressing prevention of running injuries, post-fatigue loading values are of great interest. Custom-made insoles reduced the post-fatigue loading under the hallux (92 vs. 130 kPa, P insoles provoked reductions in post-fatigue loading under the toes (120 vs. 175 kPa, P insoles, custom-made insoles reduced by 31% and 54% plantar loading under the medial and lateral heel compared to the prefabricated insoles. Finally, fatigue state did not influence plantar loading regardless the insole condition. In long-distance races, even a slight reduction in plantar loading at each foot strike may suppose a significant decrease in the overall stress experienced by the foot, and therefore the use of insoles may be an important protective mechanism for plantar overloading.

  14. En bloc prefabrication of vascularized bioartificial bone grafts in sheep and complete workflow for custom-made transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokemüller, H; Jehn, P; Spalthoff, S; Essig, H; Tavassol, F; Schumann, P; Andreae, A; Nolte, I; Jagodzinski, M; Gellrich, N-C

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine, in a new experimental model, whether complex bioartificial monoblocs of relevant size and stability can be prefabricated in a defined three-dimensional design, in which the latissimus dorsi muscle serves as a natural bioreactor and the thoracodorsal vessel tree is prepared for axial construct perfusion. Eighteen sheep were included in the study, with six animals in each of three experimental groups. Vitalization of the β-tricalcium phosphate-based constructs was performed by direct application of unmodified osteogenic material from the iliac crest (group A), in vivo application of nucleated cell concentrate (NCC) from bone marrow aspirate (group B), and in vitro cultivation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) in a perfusion bioreactor system (group C). The contours of the constructs were designed digitally and transferred onto the bioartificial bone grafts using a titanium cage, which was bent over a stereolithographic model of the defined subvolume intraoperatively. At the end of the prefabrication process, only the axial vascularized constructs of group A demonstrated vital bone formation with considerable stability. In groups B and C, the applied techniques were not able to induce ectopic bone formation. The presented computer-assisted workflow allows the prefabrication of custom-made bioartificial transplants.

  15. Dynamics Research of Linear Array Deployable Structures Based on Structure of Scissor-like Element%剪式机构线性阵列可展结构的动力学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙远涛; 王三民; 刘霞

    2012-01-01

    基于笛卡儿坐标系建立了剪式机构线性阵列组成的可展结构动力学模型,利用运动副等约束条件建立了剪式可展结构的运动约束方程.采用Runge-Kutta法进行数值计算,获得了该种机构式结构运动过程中的速度和加速度等规律,绘制了阵列组合机构的运动曲线,为该种结构的应用奠定了基础.结果表明,剪式机构线性阵列在展开过程中具有不一致的水平速度.%Based on the Cartesian frame,the paper established a dynamics model of the linear array deployable structures based on scissor-like element. The motion constraint equations can be established by constraints' conditions such as kinematic pairs. Using Runge-Kutta method for numerical calculation,the laws of the structure,such as velocity and acceleration,can be obtained in motion,and kinematic curve is also able to be drawn,and then it provides the foundation of this structure of the application. The results show that the linear array SLE in an process does not have consistent level speed.

  16. Low back injury risks during construction with prefabricated (panelised) walls: effects of task and design factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunwook; Nussbaum, Maury A; Jia, Bochen

    2011-01-01

    New technology designed to increase productivity in residential construction may exacerbate the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among residential construction workers. Of interest here are panelised (prefabricated) wall systems (or panels) and facilitating an ongoing effort to provide proactive control of ergonomic exposures and risks among workers using panels. This study, which included 24 participants, estimated WMSD risks using five methods during common panel erection tasks and the influences of panel mass (sheathed vs. unsheathed) and size (wall length). WMSD risks were fairly high overall; e.g. 34% and 77% of trials exceeded the 'action limits' for spinal compressive and shear forces, respectively. Heavier (sheathed) panels significantly increased risks, although the magnitude of this effect differed with panel size and between tasks. Higher levels of risk were found in tasks originating from ground vs. knuckle height. Several practical recommendations based on the results are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Panelised wall systems have the potential to increase productivity in residential construction, but may result in increased worker injury risks. Results from this study can be used to generate future panel design and construction processes that can proactively address WMSD risks.

  17. Splinting the degenerative basal joint: custom-made or prefabricated neoprene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Susan; Lastayo, Paul; Mills, Amy; Bramlet, Dale

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the objective, subjective, and radiographic responses of patients with carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis (CMCJ-OA) wearing a prefabricated neoprene splint (PFN), which crosses the CMCJ and metacarpophalangeal joint, with those of patients wearing a custom-made thermoplastic short opponens splint (CMT), which crosses only the CMCJ. Patients ( N = 25) with first CMCJ stage I and II osteoarthritis were assigned randomly to wear either the PFN splint or the CMT splint for one week. After one week, the subjects rated their function in the splint and their satisfaction and pain levels on visual analogue scales. Pinch measurements were performed and x-rays were taken to assess carpometacarpal subluxation. The second splint was then applied for one week and all measures were repeated. The subjects rated the PFN splint significantly higher, and most reported that they would choose the PFN splint over the CMT splint for daily and long-term use. Both pain and function were improved with splinting, but the effect was amplified with the PFN splint compared with the CMT splint. Both splints reduced subluxation at the first carpometacarpal joint, but the CMT effect was greater. This study further supports current evidence that subjects with stage I and II first CMCJ-OA will have pain relief with thumb splinting. In addition, the PFN splint will provide greater relief when compared with the CMT splint. Furthermore, this study reveals that patients prefer the PFN splint to the CMT splint.

  18. Effect of surface treatment of prefabricated posts on bonding of resin cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, Alireza; Peutzfeld, Anne; Asmussen, Erik;

    2004-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of various surface treatments of prefabricated posts of titanium alloy (ParaPost XH), glass fiber (ParaPost Fiber White) and zirconia (Cerapost) on the bonding of two resin cements: ParaPost Cement and Panavia F by a diametral tensile strength (DTS) test...... by the application of a primer or in the form of the Cojet system. After surface treatment, the post was embedded in a cylinder of resin cement (diameter = 4.0 mm, height = 4.0 mm). The surface-treated post was centered in the resin cement-filled mold with the aid of fixation apparatus. Fifteen minutes from...... the start of mixing the resin cement, the specimen was freed from the mold and stored in water at 37 degrees C for seven days. Following water storage, the specimen was wet-ground to a final length of approximately 3 mm. The DTS of specimens was determined in a Universal Testing Machine. The bonding...

  19. A custom-made nasal implant: prefabrication from curing of silicone adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K; Kang, J

    1996-02-01

    When nasal augmentation is performed with implants fashioned from a piece of solid silicone block or commercially available prefabricated implants, the precise sculpturing of the ventral surface of the implant in order to conform to the convex contour of the nose is often difficult to achieve, increasing the possibility for malposition and extrusion. We devised two methods of making soft silicone elastomer implants from nasal cast models obtained from alginate impressions of patients' noses: type I, in which the implant is made from the curing of silicone adhesive that is spread on both sides of the sheet blueprint placed on the cast model, and type II, in which the implant is made only from the curing of silicone adhesive. Because these custom-made implants have a ventral surface of exact concave contour conforming to the convex surface of the nasal framework, they blend in nicely with the various configurations of the existing nasal framework and thus minimize malposition and extrusion. These implants also avoid having a prototype nose for everyone and are more cost-effective than commercially available implants.

  20. Nerve Tissue Prefabrication Inside the Rat Femoral Bone: Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Zuhtu; Kocman, Atacan Emre; Ozatik, Orhan; Soztutar, Erdem; Ozkara, Emre; Kose, Aydan; Arslantas, Ali; Cetin, Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether nerve regeneration can be induced in the tubular bone between distal and proximal cut nerve ends. Twenty adult Wistar rats were used for the study. Rats were divided into three groups; femoral bone conduit group, nerve transection group, sham group. The sciatic nerve was surgically cut and from both ends inserted into the adjacent femoral bone tunnel in the femoral bone conduit group. The sciatic nerve was cut transversely in the nerve transection group. In the Sham group, only sciatic nerve exploration was performed, without a nerve cut. The groups were evaluated functionally and morphologically. All results showed that axonal growth existed through the osseous canal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate neural regeneration inside the bone. We can speculate that the bone marrow provides a convenient microenvironment for peripheral nerve regeneration. In addition to prefabricating peripheral nerves, this novel model may help to establish further strategies for engineering of other tissues in the bone marrow.

  1. Improving Attachments of Remotely-Deployed Dorsal Fin-Mounted Tags: Tissue Structure, Hydrodynamics, in situ Performance, and Tagged-Animal Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    alternative method for satellite tagging beluga whales . In: Abstracts of the Cook Inlet Beluga Whale Conference, April 5, 2014. Anchorage, AK. [oral...G.M. Towers, J.R., Pilkington, J.F., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., and Andrews, R.D. (2013). New insights into the northward migration route of gray whales ...our project includes follow-up studies of whales that have been tagged with a remotely-deployed dorsal fin-mounted tag to accurately quantify wound

  2. 软弱地基下大型沉管隧道管段预制关键技术%Key Technology of Prefabrication of Tube Segment Used for Large-Scale Immersed Tube Tunnel with Soft Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代敬辉

    2012-01-01

    Haihe River Tunnel in Tianjin belongs to immerged tube tunnel at high seismic intensity region, so the tube segments need to be prefabricated under effective design and reasonable construction process. Through researching into soft foundation treatment, targe-scale formwork design, concrete anti-cracking, structure durability, geometric size controlling and other aspects were researched, adopting the research method of "experiment first, then guiding construction" , the reasonable construction process and technical measures were summarized, which can ensure the prefabrication quality of the tube segment (its dimensions are 85 mx36. 6 mx9. 65 m, about 30 000 tons in weight) of large-scale immerged tube tunnel.%基于天津市海河隧道位于高震区软弱地基下,进行沉管隧道管段预制设计与施工.通过对坞底软基处理、大型模板设计、混凝土防裂、耐久性能、管段干弦值控制等方面进行研究,采取试验先行,后指导施工的研究方法,总结出合理的施工工艺及技术措施,保证了85 m×36.6 m×9.65 m,重约3万t大型沉管隧道管段制作质量.

  3. 汽油分馏塔现场分段预制组焊质量控制%Quality Control of Sectional Pre-fabrication Fit-up Welding of Gasoline Fractionating Tower at Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭中毅; 李刚

    2012-01-01

    As one of critical equipments-the gasoline fractionating tower, the quality control is very important for an ethylene plant. Based on the fabrication scheme of sectional pre-fabrica-tion fit-up welding at site as well as the characteristic of equipment structure, the quality control key points were worked out. According to quality control measures aimed at the equipment are a-dopted and certain methods were used to ensure the quality of fit-up welding. It provides a reference for quality control of similar equipment for pre-fabrication fit-up welding at site.%作为乙烯装置中的关键设备之一——汽油分馏塔,其制造安装质量的重要性不言而喻.根据设备现场分段预制组焊的制造方案及设备的结构特点提出了汽油分馏塔的质量控制重点,并采取了针对性的措施保证了设备组焊的高质量,此经验可为同类设备现场组焊的质量控制提供一定的借鉴.

  4. A reduced-form approach for representing the impacts of wind and solar PV deployment on the structure and operation of the electricity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nils; Strubegger, Manfred; McPherson, Madeleine; Parkinson, Simon C.; Krey, Volker; Sullivan, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    In many climate change mitigation scenarios, integrated assessment models of the energy and climate systems rely heavily on renewable energy technologies with variable and uncertain generation, such as wind and solar PV, to achieve substantial decarbonization of the electricity sector. However, these models often include very little temporal resolution and thus have difficulty in representing the integration costs that arise from mismatches between electricity supply and demand. The global integrated assessment model, MESSAGE, has been updated to explicitly model the trade-offs between variable renewable energy (VRE) deployment and its impacts on the electricity system, including the implications for electricity curtailment, backup capacity, and system flexibility. These impacts have been parameterized using a reduced-form approach, which allows VRE integration impacts to be quantified on a regional basis. In addition, thermoelectric technologies were updated to include two modes of operation, baseload and flexible, to better account for the cost, efficiency, and availability penalties associated with flexible operation. In this paper, the modeling approach used in MESSAGE is explained and the implications for VRE deployment in mitigation scenarios are assessed. Three important stylized facts associated with integrating high VRE shares are successfully reproduced by our modeling approach: (1) the significant reduction in the utilization of non-VRE power plants; (2) the diminishing role for traditional baseload generators, such as nuclear and coal, and the transition to more flexible technologies; and (3) the importance of electricity storage and hydrogen electrolysis in facilitating the deployment of VRE.

  5. Mesh deployable antenna mechanics testing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li

    Rapid development in spatial technologies and continuous expansion of astronautics applications require stricter and stricter standards in spatial structure. Deployable space structure as a newly invented structural form is being extensively adopted because of its characteristic (i.e. deployability). Deployable mesh reflector antenna is a kind of common deployable antennas. Its reflector consists in a kind of metal mesh. Its electrical properties are highly dependent on its mechanics parameters (including surface accuracy, angle, and position). Therefore, these mechanics parameters have to be calibrated. This paper presents a mesh antenna mechanics testing method that employs both an electronic theodolite and a laser tracker. The laser tracker is firstly used to measure the shape of radial rib deployable antenna. The measurement data are then fitted to a paraboloid by means of error compensation. Accordingly, the focus and the focal axis of the paraboloid are obtained. The following step is to synchronize the coordinate systems of the electronic theodolite and the measured antenna. Finally, in a microwave anechoic chamber environment, the electromechanical axis is calibrated. Testing results verify the effectiveness of the presented method.

  6. Multi-state structural analysis and optimal design for space deployable antennas%空间可展开天线多态结构分析及优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张逸群; 杨东武; 李申

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at multi-state from a stowed state to a deployed one of a deployable space antenna,its static and dynamic structural performances were analyzed and its structural design was concluded into an optimization problem.Via constraining DOFs of active components,the influences of deployment driving were considered.Therefore,the variation laws of instantaneous structural eigenfrequencies in the deployment process were investigated.Then,a multi-state structural optimization model was built,the optimization objective was to minimize the antenna weight,the cross sectional areas of antenna components and the cable tension were selected as the design variables.Under the constraints of the minimum structural eigenfrequency,frequency preserve,and the structural strength,the optimization problem was solved and the optimal structural parameters were obtained.Tests and numerical simulation results demonstrated the correctness of the analysis model and the feasibility of this design method.%针对空间可展开天线从收拢态到展开态的多个工位,进行了动、静力性能分析并将其结构设计问题归纳为一个优化问题。通过主动件相应自由度的约束考虑了展开驱动的影响,从而可以准确获得展开过程不同工位固有频率的变化规律。进而,建立了以可展开天线单元横截面积和索张力为设计变量,以天线结构最低固有频率、频率禁区以及结构强度为约束,以结构重量(或质量)最轻为目标函数的多态结构优化模型。最终求解得到最优的天线结构设计参数。实验及数值分析结果验证了所建立分析模型的准确性和该设计方法的可行性。

  7. Nonlinear dynamics and control of large deployable space structures composed of trusses and meshes%大型网架式可展开空间结构的非线性动力学与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海岩; 田强; 张伟; 金栋平; 胡更开; 宋燕平

    2013-01-01

    The space industry in China is eager to have the advanced technology of large space structures composed of trusses cables and meshes.Such a large space structure,deployed on orbit,may serve as the large antenna for different space missions.The important scientific basis of the technology is the nonlinear dynamics modeling,analysis and control of these space structures during their deployment and service.This review article surveys the advances in relevant researches and proposes three open problems as follows.The first is the flexible multibody dynamics for the deployment of such a space structure,especially the nonlinear dynamics modeling and analysis for the contacts and wraps of mesh under microgravity,the internal impacts in clearance joints,and the coupling between structure deployment and spacecraft attitude.The second is the dynamics analysis of the space structures after deployment and during service,especially the complicated nonlinear vibrations of the flexible structure with numerous backlash joints under periodic thermal impacts.The third is the dynamic control of the space structures after deployment and during service,especially the under-actuated and lower-powered control for structure vibrations and waves.%我国航天工业迫切需要掌握可入轨后展开的大型网架式空间结构技术,以便研制口径十几米、乃至数十米的星载天线.该技术的主要科学基础是这类空间结构展开和服役过程的非线性动力学建模、分析和控制.本文综述了与上述科学基础相关的研究进展,提出应重点关注的3个科学问题:一是大型网架式空间结构展开过程的多柔体系统动力学,尤其是如何对微重力环境下索网的接触和缠绕、运动副内碰撞、结构展开与航天器本体间的耦合等导致的非线性动力学进行建模和分析;二是大型网架式空间结构展开锁定后服役的动力学分析,尤其是如何揭示结构柔性

  8. 基于Kriging模型的环形桁架可展天线结构参数优化方法%Parameters optimization algorithm for ring truss deployable antenna structures based on Kriging model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何星星; 廖瑛

    2012-01-01

    The solution efficiency for the traditional structure dynamic optimization process is relatively low. Based on a discussion of the parameters optimization for the ring truss deployable antenna structures, this research chose the sample points by design of experiment method in the variable parameter space. The response values of the first order natural frequency, total mass, and the maximum deformation with specific loading for the ring truss deployable antenna structures were obtained by the finite element method. The Kriging models, which were established by the relationship between the sample points and response values, were used to find the optimum solution with optimization algorithm. It is required that the optimum solution should satisfy all the constrained conditions. The results showed that the response surfaces of the first order natural frequency, total mass, and the maximum deformation with specific loading for the ring truss deployable antenna structures were nonlinear relationship with the design variable. The structure optimization method with the Kriging approximate model can be used to find the optimum structural parameters of the ring truss deployable antennas accurately.%针对传统结构动力学优化过程中求解效率较低的问题,以环形桁架可展天线结构参数优化为研究背景,在环形桁架可展天线结构的参数变量空间中,以试验设计方法选取样本点,通过有限元方法得到各个样本点的第一阶固有频率、固定载荷最大变形等响应值,利用样本点和响应值的关系建立Kriging近似模型进行优化算法的寻优,得到满足所有约束条件的最优解.结果表明,所得到的环形桁架可展天线第一阶固有频率、固定载荷最大变形的响应面呈现比较明显的非线性关系,基于Kriging模型的结构优化方法能比较准确地对环形桁架可展天线进行寻优设计.

  9. 剪刀机构环形阵列可展结构的运动学与动力学研究%Kinematics and Dynamics Analysis of Ring Array Deployable Structures Based on SLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁茹; 王剑; 王三民; 刘国林

    2014-01-01

    Firstly,by analysing the geometric parameter relationship of SLE,the relationship among the element size,element number and the radius of the ring deployable structures was obtained in deployed and folded configurations.Secondly,according to the characteristics of the ring array de-ployable structure,a method was adopted,which was the combination of unit mechanism method and influence coefficient method,and the kinematics analysis method of the structure was established. Thirdly,the influence coefficient method and the principle of virtual work were combined to form the dynamatics analysis of the structure.At last,the effectiveness of the kinamatics and dynamics meth-ods was confirmed by an example.%通过分析剪刀单元之间几何参数的关系,得到单元尺寸和单元数量与展开和收拢半径之间的约束条件;针对可展结构的组成特点,提出将单元机构法与运动影响系数法相结合,建立可展结构的运动学分析方法;将运动影响系数法与虚功原理相结合,形成了可展结构的动力学分析方法。通过算例证实了所建立的运动学和动力学分析方法的有效性。

  10. Effect of surface treatment of prefabricated teeth on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumerlato, Marina; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli; Osorio, Leandro Berni; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; de Menezes, Luciane Macedo; Rizzatto, Susana Maria Deon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effects of grinding, drilling, sandblasting, and ageing prefabricated teeth (PfT) on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets, as well as the effects of surface treatments on the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Methods: One-hundred-ninety-two PfT were divided into four groups (n = 48): Group 1, no surface treatment was done; Group 2, grinding was performed with a cylindrical diamond bur; Group 3, two drillings were done with a spherical diamond bur; Group 4, sandblasting was performed with 50-µm aluminum oxide. Before the experiment, half of the samples stayed immersed in distilled water at 37oC for 90 days. Brackets were bonded with Transbond XT and shear strength tests were carried out using a universal testing machine. SBS were compared by surface treatment and by ageing with two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s test. ARI scores were compared between surface treatments with Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s test. Results: Surface treatments on PfT enhanced SBS of brackets (p< 0.01), result not observed with ageing (p= 0.45). Groups II, III, and IV showed higher SBS and greater ARI than the Group 1 (p< 0.05). SBS was greater in the groups 3 and 4 (drilling, sandblasting) than in the Group 2 (grinding) (p< 0.05). SBS and ARI showed a positive correlation (Spearman’s R2= 0.57; p< 0.05). Conclusion: Surface treatment on PfT enhanced SBS of brackets, however ageing did not show any relevance. Sandblasting and drilling showed greater SBS than grinding. There was a positive correlation between SBS and ARI.

  11. Marginal Productivity Gained Through Prefabrication: Case Studies of Building Projects in Auckland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajiha Shahzad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have documented benefits of prefabrication system (prefab compared to the traditional building system (TBS. However, the documented benefits have been anecdotal or fragmented with reports of isolated case study projects. Few studies have looked at the objectively quantified benefits from statistical significance point of view and across building types in New Zealand. This study contributes to filling this knowledge gap by analyzing cost and time-savings, and productivity improvement achievable by the use of prefab in place of the TBS. Records of completion times and final contract values of 66 building projects implemented using prefab in Auckland were collected. The building types included commercial, houses, apartments, educational, and community buildings. The project details included final contract sums, completion dates, gross floor areas, and number of floors. Based on these details, the equivalent completion times and the final cost estimates for similar buildings implemented using the TBS were obtained from the Rawlinsons construction data handbook and feedback from some designers and contractors. Marginal productivity outcome for each building project was computed as the product of the cost and time-savings achieved using the prefab. Results showed that the use of prefab in place of TBS resulted in 34% and 19% average reductions in the completion times and costs, respectively. This also translated to overall 7% average improvement in the productivity outcomes in the building projects. Univariate ANOVA-based hypothesis test results showed that ‘building type’ had no significant effects on the cost and productivity improvement outcomes, but had significant effect on the time savings analyzed in the case study projects. The greatest productivity gain of 11% was achieved in house projects. These evidence-based results could guide optimized use of prefab for specific building application. The hypothesis-testing outcome

  12. 形状记忆聚合物复合材料在空间可展结构中的应用研究%Study on Application of Shape-memory Polymer Composites in Space Deployable Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟; 刘立武; 兰鑫; 刘彦菊; 冷劲松

    2016-01-01

    Traditional mechanical deployable structures usually have such drawbacks as the complex configuration, the large mass, and the inevitable vibration during deployment. However, shape memory polymer composites possess many advantages like low cost, low density, high strength⁃weight ratio, steady recovery process, and small vibration, which provides possible solutions to the problems that current deployable structures are facing. In this paper, the recent advances of deploy⁃able structure based on shape memory polymer composites were presented. Considering the simple configuration and small vibration, the shape memory polymer composites are expected to have more applications in space in the near future.%传统的机械式可展开结构往往存在机械结构较复杂、质量较大、展开过程易产生振动的缺点,而形状记忆聚合物复合材料具有低成本、低密度、比强度大,展开过程平缓,振动小的特点,这些特点使其成为解决空间可展开结构现在面临问题的一种可能手段。介绍了基于形状记忆聚合物复合材料的空间可展开结构的发展近况,其结构简单、振动小等特点有望使其在未来的航天领域得到更多的应用。

  13. Field Deployable DNA analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, E; Christian, A; Marion, J; Sorensen, K; Arroyo, E; Vrankovich, G; Hara, C; Nguyen, C

    2005-02-09

    This report details the feasibility of a field deployable DNA analyzer. Steps for swabbing cells from surfaces and extracting DNA in an automatable way are presented. Since enzymatic amplification reactions are highly sensitive to environmental contamination, sample preparation is a crucial step to make an autonomous deployable instrument. We perform sample clean up and concentration in a flow through packed bed. For small initial samples, whole genome amplification is performed in the packed bed resulting in enough product for subsequent PCR amplification. In addition to DNA, which can be used to identify a subject, protein is also left behind, the analysis of which can be used to determine exposure to certain substances, such as radionuclides. Our preparative step for DNA analysis left behind the protein complement as a waste stream; we determined to learn if the proteins themselves could be analyzed in a fieldable device. We successfully developed a two-step lateral flow assay for protein analysis and demonstrate a proof of principle assay.

  14. Design and Analysis Tools for Deployable Solar Array Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, lightweight, deployable solar array structures have been identified as a key enabling technology for NASA with analysis and design of these structures being...

  15. Deployment support leading to implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This quarterly report discusses progress on the following tasks and subtasks: (Task 1)--Field demonstration of prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) technology: Subtask 1.1--Pilot scale demonstration of TCE flushing through PVDs at the DOE/RMI Extrusion Plant; Subtask 1.2--Technical support on surfactants and QA/QC for field operations employing PVDs at the RMI Ashtabula, Ohio, site; Subtask 1.3--Operational support of the PVDs and engineering/design/construction/operations of a wastewater treatment plant for extracted fluids; Subtask 1.4--Installation of PVDs at the RMI Ashtabulah, Ohio, site; and Subtask 1.5--Removal of surfactants and trichloroethylene (TCE) from extracted groundwater at the RMI Ashtabula, Ohio, site; (Task 2)--Watershed economics and overview studies; and (Task 3)--Project management.

  16. Carousel deployment mechanism for coilable lattice truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Robert M.; Jones, P. Alan

    1989-01-01

    The development of a mechanism for instrumentation and solar-array deployment is discussed. One part of the technology consists of a smart motor which can operate in either an analog mode to provide high speed and torque, or in the stepper mode to provide accurate positioning. The second technology consists of a coilable lattice mast which is deployed and rotated about its axis with a common drive system. A review of the design and function of the system is presented. Structural and thermal test data are included.

  17. Challenges to Deploy Service Design in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akasaka, Fumiya; Ohno, Takehiko; Jensen, Mika Yasuoka

    2016-01-01

    More and more companies are applying service design approaches to develop services and products. Not every project, however, has achieved its goals. In many cases, difficulties arise from organizational issues such as organization structure and evaluation system. In this research, we held workshops...... where success and failure factors of service design projects in organization are presented. By analysing the results, we construct a model that explains the “difficulties of deploying the service design approach in organization.” On the basis of the model, this paper discusses the challenges...... to the deployment of the service design approach in organizations....

  18. Forward Deployed Robotic Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendle, Bruce E., Jr.; Bornstein, Jonathan A.

    2000-07-01

    Forward Deployed Robotic Unit (FDRU) is a core science and technology objective of the US Army, which will demonstrate the impact of autonomous systems on all phases of future land warfare. It will develop, integrate and demonstrate technology required to achieve robotic and fire control capabilities for future land combat vehicles, e.g., Future Combat Systems, using a system of systems approach that culminates in a field demonstration in 2005. It will also provide the required unmanned assets and conduct the demonstration. Battle Lab Warfighting Experiments and data analysis required to understand the effects of unmanned assets on combat operations. The US Army Tank- Automotive & Armaments Command and the US Army Research Laboratory are teaming in an effort to leverage prior technology achievements in the areas of autonomous mobility, architecture, sensor and robotics system integration; advance the state-of-the-art in these areas; and to provide field demonstration/application of the technologies.

  19. Complex Deployed Responsive Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Glenn; McLening, Marc; Caldwell, Nigel; Thompson, Rob

    A pizza restaurant must provide product, in the form of the food and drink, and service in the way this is delivered to the customer. Providing this has distinct operational challenges, but what if the restaurant also provides a home delivery service? The service becomes deployed as the customer is no-longer co-located with the production area. The business challenge is complicated as service needs to be delivered within a geographic region, to time or the pizza will be cold, and within a cost that is not ­prohibitive. It must also be responsive to short term demand; needing to balance the number of staff it has available to undertake deliveries against a forecast of demand.

  20. Analysis on the Application Value of BIM Technology in Prefabricated Building%BIM技术在装配式建筑中的应用价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白庶; 张艳坤; 韩凤; 张德海; 李微

    2015-01-01

    Based on the application status of BIM and characteristic of prefabricated building,this paper systematically analyzes the application value of BIM technology on the design stage,the prefabricated components production stage,the construction stage,the facility management stage of prefabricated buildings. The study find that using BIM technology can improve the prefabricated building collaborative design efficiency and reduce design errors,optimize the production process of component,improve component inventory management,imitate and optimize construction process,achieve prefabricated building quality management and energy consumption management for the operation and maintenance phase,so as to improve prefabricated building design,production and use efficiency.%基于BIM技术的应用现状与装配式建筑的特点,系统分析BIM技术在装配式建筑的设计、预制构件生产、施工、后期运维等阶段的全寿命周期的应用价值.研究发现,利用BIM技术可以提高装配式建筑协同设计效率、降低设计误差,优化预制构件的生产流程,改善预制构件库存管理、模拟优化施工流程,实现装配式建筑运维阶段的质量管理和能耗管理,有效提高装配式建筑设计、生产和维护的效率.

  1. Use of dry sludge from waste water treatment plants as an additive in prefabricated concrete brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagüe, A.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry sludge from the Sabadell Water Treatment Plant was used to prepare prefabricated concrete bricks. After characterising the sludge and the manufacturing process used to make the bricks, we define the conditions of addition of the sludges in the manufacture. Reference samples not containing sludge and samples containing 2 % of dry sludge by cement weight were prepared. The variation in density, porosity, absorption coefficient and compressive strength of the bricks with the presence of sludge was determined over time. Leaching of the bricks was determined according to the NEN 7345 standard. In most cases the addition of sludge produces a decrease in porosity and absorption coefficients and an increase in compressive strength, so one could expect these bricks to have greater durability. As regards leaching pollutants in the bricks, they are below the limit of the Dutch NEN standard for construction materials and thus can be classified as inert material.

    El estudio ha consistido en la utilización de lodo seco de origen biológico de la depuradora de aguas residuales de Sabadell (Riu Sec, como adición en la preparación de adoquines de hormigón prefabricado. Después de caracterizar los lodos y el proceso de fabricación de los adoquines que utilizaremos, definimos las condiciones de adición de los lodos en esta fabricación. Se prepararon muestras de referencia, sin adición, y muestras con el 2 % de lodo seco sobrepeso de cemento. Se determinaron cómo variaban en el tiempo, con la presencia de lodos: la densidad, la porosidad y el coeficiente de absorción, y la resistencia mecánica a compresión de los adoquines. También se determinó la lixiviación que estas piezas presentaban de acuerdo a la norma NEN 7345. La adición de lodos produce, en la mayoría de los casos, una disminución de las porosidades y de los coeficientes de absorción y un aumento en las resistencias mecánicas, por lo que cabe esperar una mayor

  2. CMS software deployment on OSG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B; Avery, P [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Thomas, M [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wuerthwein, F [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail: bockjoo@phys.ufl.edu, E-mail: thomas@hep.caltech.edu, E-mail: avery@phys.ufl.edu, E-mail: fkw@fnal.gov

    2008-07-15

    A set of software deployment tools has been developed for the installation, verification, and removal of a CMS software release. The tools that are mainly targeted for the deployment on the OSG have the features of instant release deployment, corrective resubmission of the initial installation job, and an independent web-based deployment portal with Grid security infrastructure login mechanism. We have been deploying over 500 installations and found the tools are reliable and adaptable to cope with problems with changes in the Grid computing environment and the software releases. We present the design of the tools, statistics that we gathered during the operation of the tools, and our experience with the CMS software deployment on the OSG Grid computing environment.

  3. Family Reintegration Following Guard Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    expectations is a key process that has to occur for successful reintegration of the veteran back into the family. Both parties have to work out their...describe veterans and families perceptions of: Aim 1. Their experience with family reintegration and the challenges reintegration presents; Aim 2...deployment, and post deployment shape the degree of challenges with reintegration that a veteran and their family will encounter. Pre-deployment, the

  4. Design optimization of deployable wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Pradeep

    Morphing technology is an important aspect of UAV design, particularly in regards to deployable systems. The design of such system has an important impact on the vehicle's performance. The primary focus of the present research work was to determine the most optimum deployable wing design from 3 competing designs and develop one of the deployable wing designs to test in the research facility. A Matlab code was developed to optimize 3 deployable wing concepts inflatable, inflatable telescopic and rigid-folding wings based on a sequential optimization strategy. The constraints that were part of the code include the packaging constraints during its stowed state, fixed length of the deployed section and the minimum L/D constraint. This code resulted in determining the optimum weight of all the 3 designs, the most optimum weight design is the inflatable wing design. This is a result of the flexible skin material and also due to no rigid parts in the deployed wing section. Another goal of the research involved developing an inflatable telescopic wing. The prototype was tested in a wind tunnel, while the actual wing was tested in the altitude chamber to determine the deployment speed, input pressure, analyze and predict the deployment sequence and behavior of the wing at such high wind speeds and altitudes ranging from 60,000 ft to 90,000 ft. Results from these tests allowed us to conclude the deployment sequence of the telescopic wing followed from the root to the tip section. The results were used to analyze the deployment time of the wing. As expected the deployment time decreased with an increase in input pressure. The results also show us that as the altitude increases, the deployment speed of the wing also increased. This was demonstrated when the wing was tested at a maximum altitude pressure of 90,000ft, well above the design altitude of 60,000ft.

  5. 关于管道预制的质量控制%About the Quality Control of Piping Prefabrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆寒

    2014-01-01

    管道安装工程是电力、化工等行业建设中的一项重要工程,而管道预制是安装的重要基础和配套工程,质量问题直接关系到能否达到安装工程建设目的。本文从工程的事先、事中、事后几方面,对车间管道预制的质量控制进行了探讨。%Pipe instal ation engineering is an important engi-neering in electric power and chemical industry construction. And the piping prefabrication is an important basis and sup-porting project of instal ation, the quality problem directly relates to achieve the purpose of instal ation project constru-ction. This paper from the aspects of beforehand, several approaches and after-hand of engineering to discuss the quality control of workshop piping prefabrication.

  6. Assembly of smart adaptronic piezo-metal composites by use of prefabricated batches of piezoceramic micro parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Reimund; Koriath, Hans-Joachim; Müller, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Current technologies for smart sheet metal part production base upon adhesive bonding of piezo-patches to the surface. A novel concept and process chain is the assembly of piezoceramic micro parts into local microstructures of metal sheets and subsequent joining by forming. This results in a full functional integration of the piezoceramic in the metal for sensor and actuator purposes. Mechanical coupling is non-positive without elastic interlayers and the electrical coupling is characterized by the metal being the ground electrode of the sensor. The paper describes the design, methods and tolerance management to overcome the challenges for reliable parallel microassembly and joining of prefabricated batches of 10 piezoceramic fibers with dimensions of 0.267 × 0.250 × 10 mm3 and nominal assembly clearances of +/-0.018 mm. The prefabrication of the batches is achieved by stacking and dicing of piezoceramic plates. Both the principles of precision machining and elastic averaging are applied for reliable production and joining of the batches. In experiments, equally spaced piezoceramic fibers within the batches were achieved. Prototypes were assembled and joined by forming achieving functional piezo-metal composites. With the given tolerances of the parts and the microstructure a statistical tolerance analysis has been performed in order to determine the maximum allowable position uncertainty of the microassembly system. An assembly yield of > 95% is expected for future scaled up high volume assembly of piezo-metal composites.

  7. Mastering Hyper-V Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    The only book to take an in-depth look at deploying Hyper-V. Now in its second generation, the popular Hyper-V boasts technical advances that create even more dynamic systems than ever before. This unique resource serves an authoritative guide to deploying Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V comprehensively. Step-by-step instructions demonstrate how to design a Hyper-V deployment, build a Hyper-V host environment, and design a management system with System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2.: Features real-world examples that show you how to design a Hyper-V deployment, build a Hyper-V host env

  8. Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division advances transportation innovation by being leaders in infrastructure technology, including vehicles and...

  9. Deployable Fresnel Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.; Lin, Gregory Y.

    2014-01-01

    Deployable Fresnel rings (DFRs) significantly enhance the realizable gain of an antenna. This innovation is intended to be used in combination with another antenna element, as the DFR itself acts as a focusing or microwave lens element for a primary antenna. This method is completely passive, and is also completely wireless in that it requires neither a cable, nor a connector from the antenna port of the primary antenna to the DFR. The technology improves upon the previous NASA technology called a Tri-Sector Deployable Array Antenna in at least three critical aspects. In contrast to the previous technology, this innovation requires no connector, cable, or other physical interface to the primary communication radio or sensor device. The achievable improvement in terms of antenna gain is significantly higher than has been achieved with the previous technology. Also, where previous embodiments of the Tri-Sector antenna have been constructed with combinations of conventional (e.g., printed circuit board) and conductive fabric materials, this innovation is realized using only conductive and non-conductive fabric (i.e., "e-textile") materials, with the possible exception of a spring-like deployment ring. Conceptually, a DFR operates by canceling the out-of-phase radiation at a plane by insertion of a conducting ring or rings of a specific size and distance from the source antenna, defined by Fresnel zones. Design of DFRs follow similar procedures to those outlined for conventional Fresnel zone rings. Gain enhancement using a single ring is verified experimentally and through computational simulation. The experimental test setup involves a microstrip patch antenna that is directly behind a single-ring DFR and is radiating towards a second microstrip patch antenna. The first patch antenna and DFR are shown. At 2.42 GHz, the DFR improves the transmit antenna gain by 8.6 dB, as shown in Figure 2, relative to the wireless link without the DFR. A figure illustrates the

  10. 《预制组合立管技术规范》GB50682-2011编制与介绍%Compilation and Introduction of Technical Code for Pre.fabricated United Pipe Risers GB50682-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 叶永杨; 尹奎; 蒋隆

    2011-01-01

    高层建筑高度高,管井管道密集,传统管井技术已不能满足管线布置要求.住房和城乡建设部建标[ 2009]88号文件将《预制组合立管技术规范》GB50682-2011列入国家规范编制计划,由中建三局第一建设工程有限责任公司、同济大学等单位编制,将于2012年1月1日实施.介绍了规范编制思路与主要内容,指出预制组合立管技术的适用条件、预制组合立管的设计原则与方法、预制组合立管设计的荷载计算、预制组合立管管道与其支架的制作和安装工艺,以及预制立管试验与验收方法等.该规范独创了密集立管与主体结构同步安装的施工体系,可加快施工速度、降低管井作业风险、提高工程质量.%The traditional pipe riser technology can not meet requirements of pipelines arrangement of tall buildings because of the large height and dense pipelines. According to the file of No. [2009] 88 from the Ministry of Housing and Urban-rural Development, the National Code of Technical Code for Pre-fabricated ?United Pipe Risers GB50682-2011 is compiled by the First Construction Limited Company of China Construction Third Engineering Bureau, Tongji University and some other related companies. It will implement on January 1, 2012. The compiling thinking and main contents of the code are introduced such as applicable conditions, design principle, loads calculation of pre-fabricated united pipe risers, fabrication and assembly of the pipe and support frame, as well as test and acceptance of pre-fabricated unit pipes. The code originally created synchronizing assembly of dense pipes and main structure to shorten the construction time, lower work risks and improve project quality.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AND CONSTRUCTION OF PREFABRICATED BAMBOO POLE DEMONSTRATION HOUSE%圆竹装配式房屋的试验研究和实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单波; 高黎; 李智; 肖岩

    2015-01-01

    圆竹材因其特殊的外形和结构性不适应建筑工程的要求,因而在建筑结构领域内的研究和应用基本上处于空白状态。以我国丰富的毛竹作为结构材料,对其进行大量的材性试验和分析。研究结果表明,经过合理选材,圆竹的基本力学指标高于TC13级针叶木材,可以作为结构材料使用。通过设计的几种圆竹构件和结构的金属连接件,基本实现了圆竹构件加工的标准化和施工的预制化。对2个圆竹墙体进行抗侧力试验,圆竹墙体的抗侧向承载能力约为同类型轻型木结构墙体的65%。对3个圆竹屋架进行了静载试验,屋架的极限承载力由变形控制,平均值为12.3 kN。根据试验结果和GB/T 50329—2002《木结构设计规范》,设计和建造了一个约50 m2的圆竹预制房屋示范建筑,验证了圆竹预制房屋技术的可行性和适用性。%Because of the special shape and structure, bamboo pole is not fit to the requirements of construction industry and therefore its research and use are rare in the field of building structures.Moso bamboo, a kind of rich forest resource in China, was selected as building material and tested.The test results showed that the main mechanical properties of bamboo pole were better than those of coniferous wood of TC13 grade and could be used as structural material.Several types of metal connections were presented for connecting bamboo poles with other materials and it was realized basically the manufacture standardization and prefabrication of bamboo members.The lateral resistance tests of two pieces of shear walls made by bamboo poles were conducted.The lateral resistance capacity of this kind of shear wall was about 65%of that of the same wall of light wood structure.The static tests of three pieces of bamboo pole roof trusses were done and the average ultimate loading capacity was 12.3 kN.A prefabricated bamboo pole demonstration house with

  12. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.

    2014-03-01

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  13. High-Performance Elastically Self-Deployed Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an ultra-lightweight elastically self-deployable roll-out solar array (ROSA) structural platform that when combined with...

  14. Device Measures Angle Of Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermakian, Joel B.

    1991-01-01

    Simple electromechanical device indicates angular position of unfolding panel during and after deployment. Resistance of potentiometer gradually increases as unfolding of solar panel about hinge moves wiper of potentiometer. At full deployment, panel pushes and opens normally closed switch. Designed for use on panel of solar photovoltaic cells in spacecraft, modified for use in other, similar position-indicating applications.

  15. Strategic Sealift Supporting Army Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    STRATEGIC SEALIFT SUPPORTING ARMY DEPLOYMENTS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...THOMPSON, MAJ, US ARMY BFA, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana, 1994 Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2016 Approved for...Strategic Sealift Supporting Army Deployments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew

  16. Comparison of the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated posts and composite resin cores with different post lenghts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Accácio Lins do Valle

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the fracture strengths of endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated posts with different post lengths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty freshly extracted canines were endodontically treated. They were randomly divided into groups of 10 teeth and prepared according to 3 experimental protocols, as follows; Group 1/3 PP: teeth restored with prefabricated post and composite resin core (Z250 with post length of 5.0mm; Group 1/2 PP and Group 2/3 PP: teeth restored with prefabricated post and composite resin core (Z250 with different combinations of post length of 7.5mm and 10mm, respectively. All teeth were restored with full metal crowns. The fracture resistance (N was measured in a universal testing machine (crosshead speed 0.5mm/min at 45 degrees to the tooth long axis until failure. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (alpha=.05. RESULTS: The one-way analysis of variance demonstrated no significant difference among the different post lengths (P>.05 (Groups 1/3 PP = 405.4 N, 1/2 PP = 395.6 N, 2/3 PP = 393.8 N. Failures occurred mainly due to core fracture. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that an increased post length in teeth restored with prefabricated posts did not significantly increase the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

  17. An Outrigger Component for a Deployable Occulter System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Roccor, LLC, propose the development of a highly novel and structurally efficient outrigger strut design feature that efficiently integrates with a large deployable...

  18. 基于能量动量方法的空间薄膜结构的展开分析%ENERGY-MOMENTUM BASED APPROACH FOR DEPLOYMENT ANALYSIS OF SPACE MEMBRANE STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖潇; 关富玲; 程亮

    2011-01-01

    基于能量、动量以及动量矩(角动量)守恒定律,该文对传统的拉格朗日方程进行了修正,将能量动量法应用于空间薄膜结构的展开分析中,该方法不仅保证了计算的精度和数值积分的稳定,而且在薄膜的非线性变形分析中,将小刚度模型引入薄膜的褶皱松弛分析,同时考虑了气体的热力学性能、气体与薄膜的耦合作用以及薄膜的自接触等问题.通过对充气管的展开分析,将模拟结果与文献实验结果进行了比较,发现充气管各个时刻的展开形态与实验结果吻合良好,且气压和体积随时间的变化与基本理论相符,从而验证了这种方法在模拟空间薄膜结构的展开分析中的可行性.最后运用能量动量法对一些典型的空间薄膜结构进行了数值分析.与传统的有限元分析方法相比,能量动量法能保证时间积分和迭代的稳定性,能有效地分析空间薄膜结构的展开,是一种比较精确的模拟方法.%The energy-momentum method based on a modifying conventional Lagrange equation and the conservation of energy/momentum and angular momentum is applied for the deployment analysis of space membrane structures, and it achieves computation accuracy and the unconventionally stable time integration.During non-linear deformation analysis, a stiffness reduction model of membrane wrinkle and slack is introduced,and the thermodynamic property of gas, the interaction between gas and membrane, self-contact of the membrane and so on are taken into account. Results of a micro gravity experiment are presented for the deployment of an inflatable tube. The simulation results obtained from the proposed numerical method agree with the experimental results very well, the variation of pressure and volume according to the basic theory, which shows the proposed numerical method, is suitable for the deployment analysis of the space membrane structures. Finally, numerical analyses of some typical

  19. A comparison of customised and prefabricated insoles to reduce risk factors for neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration: a participant-blinded randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paton Joanne S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration may be prevented if the mechanical stress transmitted to the plantar tissues is reduced. Insole therapy is one practical method commonly used to reduce plantar loads and ulceration risk. The type of insole best suited to achieve this is unknown. This trial compared custom-made functional insoles with prefabricated insoles to reduce risk factors for ulceration of neuropathic diabetic feet. Method A participant-blinded randomised controlled trial recruited 119 neuropathic participants with diabetes who were randomly allocated to custom-made functional or prefabricated insoles. Data were collected at issue and six month follow-up using the F-scan in-shoe pressure measurement system. Primary outcomes were: peak pressure, forefoot pressure time integral, total contact area, forefoot rate of load, duration of load as a percentage of stance. Secondary outcomes were patient perceived foot health (Bristol Foot Score, quality of life (Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life. We also assessed cost of supply and fitting. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results There were no differences between insoles in peak pressure, or three of the other four kinetic measures. The custom-made functional insole was slightly more effective than the prefabricated insole in reducing forefoot pressure time integral at issue (27% vs. 22%, remained more effective at six month follow-up (30% vs. 24%, p=0.001, but was more expensive (UK £656 vs. £554, p Conclusion The custom-made insoles are more expensive than prefabricated insoles evaluated in this trial and no better in reducing peak pressure. We recommend that where clinically appropriate, the more cost effective prefabricated insole should be considered for use by patients with diabetes and neuropathy. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov (NCT00999635. Note: this trial was registered on completion.

  20. Resistencia de dientes restaurados con postes prefabricados ante cargas de máxima intercuspidación, masticación y bruxismo Resistance of teeth restored with prefabricated posts to maximum intercuspidation loads, mastication and bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Correa Vélez

    2013-03-01

    teeth restored with prefabricated posts to maximum static intercuspidation loads, cyclical mastication loads and bruxism, and analyze the effect of periodontal loss on resistance by restorations. Methods: using the finite element method, an in vitro study was conducted of teeth with periodontal loss rehabilitated with prefabricated glass fiber, carbon and titanium posts. Reconstruction of the teeth was based on tomographic images from a periodontically healthy patient. Results: it was shown that rehabilitations did not tend to yield to static loads, irrespective of post material or the degree of periodontal loss. For bruxism and 4 mm periodontal loss, dentin durability was 60 000 cycles, irrespective of post material. For mastication loads and a healthy periodont, dentin failure occurs at 100 000 cycles with titanium posts, 200 000 cycles with carbon fiber posts, and 1 100 000 cycles with glass fiber posts. For 2 mm periodontal loss, dentin durability decreased to 4 000 cycles with titanium posts, 5 000 cycles with carbon fiber posts, and 7 000 cycles with glass fiber posts. For 4 mm periodontal loss, dentin durability is estimated at 1 000 cycles, irrespective of post material. Conclusions: restorations with glass fiber, carbon and titanium prefabricated posts do not yield to maximum static intercuspidation loads, irrespective of the degree of periodontal loss. Prefabricated posts exhibit endless resistance to cyclic loads. Dentin is the structure most severely affected by such events.

  1. Heat Storage Performance of the Prefabricated Hollow Core Concrete Deck Element with Integrated Microencapsulated Phase Change Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    of thermal properties of standard concrete material and pure PCM. Consequently, the numerical models of the decks were updated with the experimentally determined thermal properties of PCM concrete after these two materials have been combined into one material. Finally, the heat storage of the decks......The paper presents the numerically calculated dynamic heat storage capacity of the prefabricated hollow core concrete deck element with and without microencapsulated phase change material (PCM). The reference deck is the ordinary deck made of standard concrete material and that is broadly used...... in many emerging buildings. The new concrete deck with microencapsulated PCM is the standard deck on which one more layer with PCM concrete was added and at the same time the latent heat storage was introduced to the construction. The challenge to simulate the performance of the new deck with PCM concrete...

  2. Flap prefabrication and stem cell-assisted tissue expansion: how we acquire a monoblock flap for full face resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingfeng; Zan, Tao; Li, Haizhou; Zhou, Shuangbai; Gu, Bin; Liu, Kai; Xie, Feng; Xie, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Total face skin and soft-tissue defects remain one of the biggest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Reconstruction of the entire face with uniform coverage and delicate features is difficult to achieve. To avoid the patchwork result seen in multiple flaps and skin grafts, 1 monoblock flap that has similar color, texture, and thickness might be an ideal option to minimize the incisional scars and several surgical procedures but is unavailable with current approaches because of the lack of sufficient matched tissue and the unreliable blood supply for such a large flap. To acquire a monoblock flap for full face reconstruction, we combine the prefabricated flaps, skin overexpansion, and bone marrow mononuclear stem cell transplantation for total facial resurfacing. In this article, we present our experience from our case series that provides universally matched skin and near-normal facial contour. It is a reliable and an excellent reconstructive option for massive facial skin defect.

  3. Solar array deployment qualification for the LMX of buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy

    2005-07-01

    The solar array deployment system for the LMX line of buses deploys rigid Solar Array Wing Assemblies (SAWAs). Each SAWA has a set of Solar Array Deployment Mechanisms (SADM), which consists of two hinges, a strut, and two Hold Down Release Mechanisms (HDRMs). To qualify the SADM for flight, each mechanism component was qualified individually, then assembled to a qualification SAWA on Special Test Equipment (STE) and deployed in a thermal vacuum chamber at ambient, hot, and cold temperatures. These mechanisms were designed, built, and tested by the Power and Mechanisms part of the Power, Thermal, Structures & Mechanisms Product Center, which develops products for both internal and external customers. This paper will discuss the qualification effort for the LMX Solar Array deployment, including qualification hardware and STE. It will focus on unique challenges presented by each aspect of the qualification, and lessons learned from the hardware integration and the qualification testing.

  4. Deployable Entry-system Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deployable Entry-system ProjecT (ADEPT) will develop requirements for the ADEPT flight test.  Prior entry systems used high mass thermal protection...

  5. Design of an inflatable and deployable space reflecting concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Benxin; Yang, Zhao; Mao, Bingjing; Zhang, Tianxiang; Feng, Yukun

    2008-03-01

    An inflatable and deployable reflecting concentrator has been designed based on the Advanced Technology of Inflatable and Deployable Space Structure to concentrate solar energy. Around the focal area, a conversion plate made of thermoelectric semiconductor is set to convert the solar energy gathered into electricity to drive various spacecrafts. The whole system will be made mainly of polyester membrane. In pursuit of steady performance, solidify-technology is applied to solidify the structure after it is deployed. The membrane structure boasts the following advantages: lightweight, high efficiency, easy deployment and low cost. Those are of great importance in resolving the contradiction of launch vehicle's limit capability and the growing size of space equipments. Its efficiency and manufacturability have been analyzed and proved. The result shows that it has great business value. Several plans of its application in the aerospace engineering are also presented in this paper.

  6. Deployment-related Respiratory Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Rawlins, Frederic A; Forbes, Damon A; Skabelund, Andrew J; Lucero, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Military deployment to Southwest Asia since 2003 in support of Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn has presented unique challenges from a pulmonary perspective. Various airborne hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents. These exposures may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and in some instances development of chronic lung disease. While increased respiratory symptoms during deployment are well documented, there is limited data on whether inhalation of airborne particulate matter is causally related to an increase in either common or unique pulmonary diseases. While disease processes such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia and exacerbation of preexisting asthma have been adequately documented, there is significant controversy surrounding the potential effects of deployment exposures and development of rare pulmonary disorders such as constrictive bronchiolitis. The role of smoking and related disorders has yet to be defined. This article presents the current evidence for deployment-related respiratory symptoms and ongoing Department of Defense studies. Further, it also provides general recommendations for evaluating pulmonary health in the deployed military population.

  7. An innovative bio-engineering retaining structure for supporting unstable soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Bella

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new prefabricated bio-engineering structure for the support of unstable soil. This prefabricated structure is made of a steel frame which is completely filled with soil and a face made of tree trunks among which scions or autochthonous bushes are planted. Due to the difficulties in interpreting the complex interaction between soil and structure during the installation and lifetime, an in situ test was carried out in order to evaluate the state of stress in the steel frame and to understand the global behavior of the structure under service loads. On the basis of the obtained results, a procedure for checking the structure safety was proposed and discussed. An easy design method was developed during the research. Moreover, the use of this type of prefabricated structure shows several advantages, such as good performances in terms of stabilizing effects, and easy assembly and transport.

  8. A Mission Control Architecture for robotic lunar sample return as field tested in an analogue deployment to the sudbury impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, John E.; Francis, Raymond; Mader, Marianne; Osinski, G. R.; Barfoot, T.; Barry, N.; Basic, G.; Battler, M.; Beauchamp, M.; Blain, S.; Bondy, M.; Capitan, R.-D.; Chanou, A.; Clayton, J.; Cloutis, E.; Daly, M.; Dickinson, C.; Dong, H.; Flemming, R.; Furgale, P.; Gammel, J.; Gharfoor, N.; Hussein, M.; Grieve, R.; Henrys, H.; Jaziobedski, P.; Lambert, A.; Leung, K.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; McManus, C.; Neish, C. D.; Ng, H. K.; Ozaruk, A.; Pickersgill, A.; Preston, L. J.; Redman, D.; Sapers, H.; Shankar, B.; Singleton, A.; Souders, K.; Stenning, B.; Stooke, P.; Sylvester, P.; Tornabene, L.

    2012-12-01

    A Mission Control Architecture is presented for a Robotic Lunar Sample Return Mission which builds upon the experience of the landed missions of the NASA Mars Exploration Program. This architecture consists of four separate processes working in parallel at Mission Control and achieving buy-in for plans sequentially instead of simultaneously from all members of the team. These four processes were: science processing, science interpretation, planning and mission evaluation. science processing was responsible for creating products from data downlinked from the field and is organized by instrument. Science Interpretation was responsible for determining whether or not science goals are being met and what measurements need to be taken to satisfy these goals. The Planning process, responsible for scheduling and sequencing observations, and the Evaluation process that fostered inter-process communications, reporting and documentation assisted these processes. This organization is advantageous for its flexibility as shown by the ability of the structure to produce plans for the rover every two hours, for the rapidity with which Mission Control team members may be trained and for the relatively small size of each individual team. This architecture was tested in an analogue mission to the Sudbury impact structure from June 6-17, 2011. A rover was used which was capable of developing a network of locations that could be revisited using a teach and repeat method. This allowed the science team to process several different outcrops in parallel, downselecting at each stage to ensure that the samples selected for caching were the most representative of the site. Over the course of 10 days, 18 rock samples were collected from 5 different outcrops, 182 individual field activities - such as roving or acquiring an image mosaic or other data product - were completed within 43 command cycles, and the rover travelled over 2200 m. Data transfer from communications passes were filled to 74

  9. Newberry Seismic Deployment Fieldwork Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J; Templeton, D C

    2012-03-21

    This report summarizes the seismic deployment of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Geotech GS-13 short-period seismometers at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration site located in Central Oregon. This Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration project is managed by AltaRock Energy Inc. AltaRock Energy had previously deployed Geospace GS-11D geophones at the Newberry EGS Demonstration site, however the quality of the seismic data was somewhat low. The purpose of the LLNL deployment was to install more sensitive sensors which would record higher quality seismic data for use in future seismic studies, such as ambient noise correlation, matched field processing earthquake detection studies, and general EGS microearthquake studies. For the LLNL deployment, seven three-component seismic stations were installed around the proposed AltaRock Energy stimulation well. The LLNL seismic sensors were connected to AltaRock Energy Gueralp CMG-DM24 digitizers, which are powered by AltaRock Energy solar panels and batteries. The deployment took four days in two phases. In phase I, the sites were identified, a cavity approximately 3 feet deep was dug and a flat concrete pad oriented to true North was made for each site. In phase II, we installed three single component GS-13 seismometers at each site, quality controlled the data to ensure that each station was recording data properly, and filled in each cavity with native soil.

  10. Graphene-based structure, method of suspending graphene membrane, and method of depositing material onto graphene membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Meyer, Jannik Christian

    2013-04-02

    An embodiment of a method of suspending a graphene membrane across a gap in a support structure includes attaching graphene to a substrate. A pre-fabricated support structure having the gap is attached to the graphene. The graphene and the pre-fabricated support structure are then separated from the substrate which leaves the graphene membrane suspended across the gap in the pre-fabricated support structure. An embodiment of a method of depositing material includes placing a support structure having a graphene membrane suspended across a gap under vacuum. A precursor is adsorbed to a surface of the graphene membrane. A portion of the graphene membrane is exposed to a focused electron beam which deposits a material from the precursor onto the graphene membrane. An embodiment of a graphene-based structure includes a support structure having a gap, a graphene membrane suspended across the gap, and a material deposited in a pattern on the graphene membrane.

  11. Deployment of Globus tools at St.Petersburg(Russia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AndreiE.Chevel; VladimirKorhkov; 等

    2001-01-01

    In this report we intend to discuss a deployment of the Globus toolkits in regional grid structure devoted for LHC physics analysis,One of our peculiarities is poor network connectivity in between two parts of experimental computing nodes,In early stage of deployment we met several technical difficulties due to several bugs and malfunctions.At PNPI the own Certificate Authority(CA) was created.

  12. Node Deployment and the Impact of Relay Nodes in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudranath Mitra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Node deployment is a fundamental issue to be solved in wireless sensor network. A proper node deployment can reduce the complexity of problems in WSN as for eg, routing, data fusion, communication etc. Different node deployment models have been proposed to reduce the complexity. In this paper we will discuss about the three models- Tri-hexagon-tiling (THT, Uniform Random and Square Grid. The nature of deployment of sensor nodes depend on the type of sensors, application and the environment where the networks will operate. Deployment of sensor nodes can be random or pre-determined. In random deployment nodes are deployed in a random manner. In pre-determined deployment, location of the nodes are specified. Most commonly used cell structure is Regular Hexagonal Cell Architecture. Here we will discuss the concept of relay nodes and its impact in sensor nodes

  13. OMV multiple deployments of lightsats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William L.; Walker, James D.

    1988-06-01

    The design and capabilities of the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) are reviewed, and the potential value of the Shuttle-borne OMV for deploying lightweight satellites (lightsats) into different orbits is discussed and illustrated with extensive drawings and diagrams. Assuming 100-lb lightsats in extended GAS canisters, the OMV could separate from the Orbiter at 16 nmi and deploy six lightsats each at altitudes 430, 700, and 970 nmi before rejoining the Orbiter at 160 nmi. Also considered are configurations with 8 or 12 200-lb lightsats and the fittings for Titan-4 launch of OMV/lightsat packages.

  14. IPv6 deployment and management

    CERN Document Server

    Dooley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A guide for understanding, deploying, and managing Internet Protocol version 6 The growth of the Internet has created a need for more addresses than are available with Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)-the protocol currently used to direct almost all Internet traffic. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)-the new IP version intended to ultimately succeed IPv4-will expand the addressing capacity of the Internet to support the explosive growth of users and devices on the Internet as well as add flexibility to allocating addresses and efficiency for routing traffic. IPv6 Deploy

  15. Department of Defense, Deployment Health Clinical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related to deployment health assessments, combat and operational stress programs, deployment-limiting health conditions and deployment-related exposures. Learn More In the News Experts Explore How Combat Roles May Affect Women’s Psychological Health Deployments can be 'significant stressor' ...

  16. Prefabricated modular district heating station is available rapidly. Welded transfer station DSP Midi; Vorgefertigte, modulare Fernwaermestation ist schnell verfuegbar. Geschweisste Uebergabestation DSP Midi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Joern [Danfoss GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). District Energy Div.

    2012-03-15

    Danfoss GmbH (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) has developed a modular, standardized approach for welded district heating stations. The prefabricated transfer stations with a capacity up to 250 kW can be supplied in a compact frame. These stations have short delivery times and are extremely flexible: DSP MIDI systems have a modular design and adapters. Thus, DSP MIDI systems cover about 90 % of the technical connection requirements in Germany.

  17. Long Cable Deployments During Martian Touchdown: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Michael W.; Sell, Steven W.

    2009-01-01

    The launch of NASA/JPL's next generation Mars rover is planned for the fall of 2011. The landing scheme chosen for this rover represents a step forward in unmanned payload delivery. The rover will be lowered from a rocket powered descent stage and then placed onto the surface while hanging from three bridles. During this touchdown event, the communication between the rover and descent stage is maintained by an electrical umbilical cable which is deployed in parallel with the structural bridles. During the development of the deployment device for the electrical umbilical, many obstacles were identified and overcome. Many of these challenges were due in large part to the helical nature of the packing geometry of the umbilical cable. And although none of these issues resulted in the failure of the design, they increased both development and assembly time. Many of the issues and some of the benefits of a helical deployment were not immediately apparent during the trade studies carried out during the deployment selection process. Tests were conducted upon completion of the device in order to characterize both the deployment and separation characteristics of the cable. Extraction loads were needed for inputs to touchdown models and separation dynamics were required to assess cable-rover recontact risk. Understanding the pros and cons surrounding the deployment of a helically packed cable would most certainly influence the outcome of future trade studies surrounding the selection of cable deployment options.

  18. Development of a technology of completely prefabricated heat-isolating facade panels; Fassadendaemm- und Sanierungstechnik mit vorgefertigten Komplettplatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyer, E.; Bamberger, C.; Sieder, M. [Fakultaet fuer Bauingenieurwesen, Inst. fuer Konstruktiven Ingenieurbau, Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Bochum (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    Due to rising prices of energy, worldwide efforts to reduce the CO{sub 2}-emission and sustainable use of decreasing energy resources, the reduction of - for our buildings required - heat energy is getting more and more important. So the ministry of urban development and house building, culture and sport (MSWKS) of the federal state Nordrhein-Westfalen promoted the research project ''Development of a technology of completely prefabricated heat-isolating facade panels - called complete panel''. In the context of this research project an innovative technology of facade insulation and renovation was developed. The Complete-Panel-technology is based on completely in factory prefabricated (therefore the designation ''Complete Panel'') facade panels with high heat insulation for the use in new and old house building facades. The craftsmanlike application of ''Complete Panels'' depends on a plug-in technology based on a bar-shaped fasteners at the wall. As main advantages offers the Complete-Panel-technology high production quality, low construction time and low restrictions on the occupant during the redevelopment measure of the frontage of the buildings. This summary of indicates the essential aspects of the Complete-Panel-technology. (orig.) [German] Aufgrund steigender Energiepreise, weltweiter Bestrebungen zur Reduzierung des CO{sub 2}-Ausstosses und zum nachhaltigen Umgang mit den begrenzten Energieressourcen gewinnt die Reduzierung des Heizenergiebedarfs unserer Gebaeude staendig an Bedeutung. Vor diesem Hintergrund foerderte das Ministerium fuer Staedtebau und Wohnen, Kultur und Sport (MSWKS) des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen das Forschungsvorhaben Entwicklung einer Fassadendaemm- und Sanierungstechnik mit vorgefertigten Komplettplatten. Im Rahmen dieses Forschungsvorhabens wurde eine innovative Fassadendaemm- und Sanierungstechnik auf der Basis werkseitig voellig vorgefertigter (daher die Bezeichnung &apos

  19. Dual Delivery of EPO and BMP2 from a Novel Modular Poly-ɛ-Caprolactone Construct to Increase the Bone Formation in Prefabricated Bone Flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Janki Jayesh; Modes, Jane E; Flanagan, Colleen L; Krebsbach, Paul H; Edwards, Sean P; Hollister, Scott J

    2015-09-01

    Poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) is a biocompatible polymer that has mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering; however, it must be integrated with biologics to stimulate bone formation. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) delivered from PCL produces bone when implanted subcutaneously, and erythropoietin (EPO) works synergistically with BMP2. In this study, EPO and BMP2 are adsorbed separately on two 3D-printed PCL scaffold modules that are assembled for codelivery on a single scaffold structure. This assembled modular PCL scaffold with dual BMP2 and EPO delivery was shown to increase bone growth in an ectopic location when compared with BMP2 delivery along a replicate scaffold structure. EPO (200 IU/mL) and BMP2 (65 μg/mL) were adsorbed onto the outer and inner portions of a modular scaffold, respectively. Protein binding and release studies were first quantified. Subsequently, EPO+BMP2 and BMP2 scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in mice for 4 and 8 weeks, and the regenerated bone was analyzed with microcomputed tomography and histology; 8.6±1.4 μg BMP2 (22%) and 140±29 IU EPO (69.8%) bound to the scaffold and EPO was released in 7 days. Increased endothelial cell proliferation on EPO-adsorbed PCL discs indicated protein bioactivity. At 4 and 8 weeks, dual BMP2 and EPO delivery regenerated more bone (5.1±1.1 and 5.5±1.6 mm(3)) than BMP2 alone (3.8±1.1 and 4.3±1.7 mm(3)). BMP2 and EPO scaffolds had more ingrowth (1.4%±0.6%) in the outer module when compared with BMP2 (0.8%±0.3%) at 4 weeks. Dual delivery produced more dense cellular marrow, while BMP2 had more fatty marrow. Dual EPO and BMP2 delivery is a potential method to regenerate bone faster for prefabricated flaps.

  20. 矿物绝缘预分支电缆施工要点%Key Construction Points of Mineral Insulated Prefabricated Branch Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏矿

    2016-01-01

    针对矿物绝缘预分支电缆电气施工中的防潮难点,结合在施工中遇到的问题,从施工工艺及施工原理着手,总结矿物绝缘预分支电缆施工中的电缆敷设、电缆中间接头、终端头制作和临时密封等工序的注意事项,以及剥除铜护层、核对电缆相序、终端头的制作、电缆中间接头制作等施工要点。%Regarding the moisture proof difficulties encountered in the electrical construction of mineral insulated prefabricated branch cable, as well as the problems during construction process, this article summaries the precautions during cable installation, cable intermediate head and terminal head production, temporary seal process etc. of mineral insulated prefabricated branch cable construction. Key construction points in mineral insulated prefabricated branch cable copper sheath removal, cable phase sequence check, terminal head production, and intermediate head production are also covered.

  1. Exploration of Prefabricated Station%全预制装配式车站节点的连接方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟春玲; 李雷

    2015-01-01

    A prefabricated joints are discussed in changchun for the construction of the subway station as engineer-ing background. Preliminary discussion on the whole prefabricated subway station with the domestic existing fabrica-ted new node connection comparison and analysis, research the reality of the new node. A new method and thought are provided to explore the joint connection method suitable for prefabricated underground station performance.%以长春某装配式地铁车站的建造为工程背景,对装配式地铁车站节点进行探索. 通过对比和分析全预制装配式地铁车站新型节点与国内已有的装配式节点的连接,研究这种新型节点的现实实用性,为探索出能够适合地下装配式车站节点连接的方法和对其抗震性能提供了新的方法和思路.

  2. Multiobjective Shape Optimization for Deployment and Adjustment Properties of Cable-Net of Deployable Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on structural features of cable-net of deployable antenna, a multiobjective shape optimization method is proposed to help to engineer antenna’s cable-net structure that has better deployment and adjustment properties. In this method, the multiobjective optimum mathematical model is built with lower nodes’ locations of cable-net as variables, the average stress ratio of cable elements and strain energy as objectives, and surface precision and natural frequency of cable-net as constraints. Sequential quadratic programming method is used to solve this nonlinear mathematical model in conditions with different weighting coefficients, and the results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method and model.

  3. Deployment Effects of Marin Renewable Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Polagye; Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, marine and hydrokinetic technologies could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood, due to a lack of technical certainty. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based approach to the emerging wave and tidal technology sectors in order to evaluate the impact of these technologies on the marine environment and potentially conflicting uses. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios will capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental impacts and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders onto the critical issues that need to be addressed. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two other project teams funded by DoE which are focused on regulatory and navigational issues. The results of this study are structured into three reports: 1. Wave power scenario description 2. Tidal power scenario description 3. Framework for

  4. A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System Gareth R. Thomas1 and Bernard J. Sia2 1ATA Engineering, 11995 El Camino Real, San Diego, CA 92130; PH (858) 480...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) ATA Engineering,11995 El Camino Real,San Diego,CA,92130 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  5. OMV Deployed From Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    In this 1986 artist's concept, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), at right, prepares to reboost the Hubble Space Telescope after being deployed from an early Space Station configuration (left). As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  6. Static analysis of synchronism deployable antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Fu-ling; SHOU Jian-jun; HOU Guo-yong; ZHANG Jing-jie

    2006-01-01

    A 3D synchronism deployable antenna was designed, analyzed, and manufactured by our research group. This antenna consists oftetrahedral elements from central element. Because there are springs at the ends of some of the rods, spider joints are applied. For analysis purpose, the structure is simplified and modelled by using 2D beam elements that have no bending stiffness. Displacement vectors are defined to include two translational displacements and one torsional displacement. The stiffness matrix derived by this method is relatively simple and well defined. The analysis results generated by using software developed by our research group agreed very well with available test data.

  7. The Influence of a Prefabricated Foot Orthosis on Lower Extremity Mechanics During Running in Individuals With Varying Dynamic Foot Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonroeder, Thomas G; Benson, Lauren C; O'Connor, Kristian M

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, cross-sectional. Background Orthotic prescription is often based on the premise that the mechanical effects will be more prominent in individuals with greater calcaneal eversion. Objective To compare the effects of a prefabricated foot orthosis on lower extremity kinematics and kinetics between recreational athletes with high and low calcaneal eversion during running. Methods Thirty-one recreational athletes were included in this study. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected while running with and without a foot orthosis. Participants were grouped based on the degree of calcaneal eversion during the running trials relative to a standing trial (dynamic foot motion). The effects of the orthosis on the frontal and transverse plane angles and moments of the hip and knee were compared between the 10 participants with the greatest and least amount of dynamic foot motion. Results There were no significant interactions (group by orthotic condition) for any of the kinematic or kinetic variables of interest. Conclusion The effects of an orthosis on the mechanics of the hip and knee do not appear to be dependent on an individual's dynamic foot motion. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):749-755. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6253.

  8. Discomfort, expectations, and experiences during treatment of large overjet with Andresen Activator or Prefabricated Functional Appliance: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čirgić, Emina; Kjellberg, Heidrun; Hansen, Ken

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the amount of functional and social discomfort experienced after 1 and 6 months of appliance wear, comparing a slightly modified Andresen Activator (AA) and a Prefabricated Functional Appliance (PFA). Ninety-seven patients randomly selected by lottery in an AA (40 subjects), and a PFA (57 subjects) group, with an Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion, were eligible for the study. One month and 6 months after start of treatment, a questionnaire, addressing discomfort, perception of treatment need and outcome, was used. The response rate was 69% after 1 month, and 45% after 6 months. The most common discomfort reported was the 'appliance falling out during sleep' followed by 'difficulties in remembering it'. The only difference was for pain, which was experienced more extensively in the AA group after 1 month of treatment. The dentist appeared to have the greatest impact on the decision to initiate treatment. Teasing, because of appearance, occurred in 13% of the cases. No difference could be seen between groups for the experience of functional or social discomfort after 6 months of appliance use. Adequate time should be allowed for clarifying treatment difficulties, using treatment need as motivation. The PFA eliminates the need for taking impressions. Furthermore, it can be economically advantageous to both patients and clinicians.

  9. A prospective study comparing attempted weight bearing in fiberglass below-knee casts and prefabricated pneumatic braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lyndon W; Dodds, Alex

    2010-04-01

    Partial weight bearing is commonly advised after fracture of the lower extremity. Research has determined this to be inaccurate both in its instruction and its reproducibility. Many trauma departments are commonly using alternatives to plaster in the splintage of fractures, such as fiberglass and the prefabricated pneumatic braces. This study's null hypothesis is that there is no difference between partial weight bearing through a fiberglass cast as compared with a pneumatic walker. A prospective study was conducted in our department including all patients who had metatarsal or ankle fractures and could partially weight bear. Patients were excluded if they were not allowed to bear weight, had received operative fixation of their fracture, or were younger than age 16 years. The patients' total weight was measured first, and then they were trained to place 50% of their weight through the splinted limb. Three measurements were taken of their attempted weight bearing at 50%, and they were blinded to the results. Over a 16-month period, 117 patients were enrolled for this study: 72 in the pneumatic walker group and 45 in the fiberglass group. There was no significant difference in sex, age, or fracture type. There was a significant difference in percentage of weight placed through the splinted limb, with the pneumatic brace group placing much greater force than the fiberglass group. This may have been caused by altered proprioception from the walker. It is important to realize this when prescribing partial weight bearing in a particular splint as this may result in avoidable complications.

  10. Dynamic analysis and test research of double-ring deployable truss structure%双环可展桁架结构动力学分析与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关富玲; 戴璐

    2012-01-01

    基于广义逆矩阵方法分析双环可展桁架的运动过程,通过数值仿真,得出双环可展桁架在展开过程中的各个状态.经过对比分析可知,对于大口径天线,双环可展桁架的刚度可以比同口径单环可展桁架明显增加.利用上述仿真程序输出的几何模型,进一步对50 m双环可展桁架原型建立有限元模型,并进行展开过程中各状态的振动模态分析.对2 m天线试验样机采取悬挂法消除重力影响并进行振动模态试验,且将其与有限元计算结果对比,结果表明两者的频率较为接近,验证了有限元动力学分析的正确性.%The moving process of the double-ring deployable space truss was analyzed with the Moore-Pen-rose generalized inverse matrix method, and each state of the double-ring deployable space truss in the deploying process was obtained by numerical simulation. Comparative analysis shows that, for large caliber antennas, the stiffness of the double-ring deployable truss is obviously stronger than that of the common single-ring deployable truss with the same caliber. With the geometrical models of the deployable truss prototype, which were output by the above-mentioned simulation program, finete element models of 50 m deployable truss were established, and also the dynamic vibration during the deploying process of the double-ring deployable truss was analyzed. Vibration test was carried out on the 2 m test modal of the double-ring deployable truss by suspension, in order to eliminate the influence of the gravity's effect. In addition, the result of the test was contrasted with that of the finite element analysis of the double-ring deployable truss, finding out that two of them were approximately the same, to make verification to finite element dynamic analysis.

  11. PC装配式墙体相关集成技术研究%Research The Related Integration Technology in the System of PC Prefabricated Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪力; 樊骅

    2015-01-01

    文章分析研究PC装配式墙体系统中的相关集成技术,包括保温技术、外墙装饰技术、墙体门窗一体化技术、水电管线技术、预制整体卫浴技术、防水技术等。其中,保温技术包括预制夹心保温墙体和预制外墙外保温墙体;外墙装饰技术包括瓷砖饰面和石材饰面;墙体门窗一体化技术包括实心墙体门窗一体化和叠合墙体门窗一体化;水电管线技术是通过BIM技术预先确定穿墙管线位置;预制整体卫浴技术包括“钢筋混凝土”整体卫浴、“SMC”整体卫浴、“轻钢龙骨”整体卫浴;防水技术包括成型胶防水和非成型胶防水。应用上述相关集成技术的目的在于提高装配式建筑工业化程度,加快施工效率,保证工程质量。%This paper analyzed the related integration technology in the system of PC prefabricated wall, including thermal insulation technology, exterior wall decoration, wall windows integration technology, water pipeline technology, prefabricated whole wei yu, waterproof technology etc. Among them, the thermal insulation technology included the prefabrication sandwich insulation wall body and the exterior insulation wall. Exterior wall decoration techniques included the tile and stone veneer. Wall doors and windows integrated technology included the solid wall doors and windows integration and integration of composite wall doors and windows. Water pipeline technology is predetermined by BIM technology wall pipe position. Prefabricated whole wei yu technology included "reinforced concrete whole wei yu", "SMC whole wei yu", "light steel keel whole wei yu". Waterproof technology including the molding rubber waterproof and non waterproof glue. The purpose of the related integration technology is to increase the degree of prefabricated construction industrialization, speed up the construction efficiency and ensure the engineering quality.

  12. Deployment and post-deployment experiences in OEF/OIF veterans: relationship to gray matter volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L Aupperle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combat-related PTSD has been associated with reduced gray matter volume in regions of the prefrontal and temporal cortex, hippocampus, insula, and amygdala. However, the relationship between gray matter volume and specific deployment and post-deployment experiences has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to delineate how such experiences may contribute to structural brain changes for combat veterans. METHODS: Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans (N = 32 completed magnetic resonance imaging, the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and Clinical Administered PTSD Scale. Voxel-wise Huber robust multiple regressions were used to quantify the relationship between gray matter volume and deployment experiences (combat experiences, military social support and post-deployment symptoms (PTSD, alcohol use. RESULTS: There was an interaction between severity of combat experiences and military social support for orbitofrontal gyrus gray matter volume. Specifically, individuals with more orbitofrontal gyrus gray matter volume reported less combat experiences and higher unit support. Individuals with more severe PTSD symptoms showed reduced gray matter volume within a large temporal region (inferior temporal and parahippocampal gyrus. CONCLUSIONS: The identified association between unit support and orbitofrontal gyrus volume supports two potential resilience mechanisms to be delineated with future longitudinal studies. First, individuals with larger orbitofrontal gyrus may engage in greater quality of social interactions and thus experience combat as less stressful. Second, individuals who experience greater unit support may preserve a larger orbitofrontal gyrus, serving to "protect" them from aversive consequences of combat.

  13. 'Post-deployment appraisal' and the relationship with stress and psychological health in Australian veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Breanna; Forbes, Andrew; Kelsall, Helen; Clarke, David; Ikin, Jill; Sim, Malcolm

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how veterans appraise their post-deployment experiences could provide insight into better assisting their deployment transitions. We aimed to assess the factor structure of positive and negative post-deployment appraisals in Australian veterans and to examine the resultant factors in their relationship with military stress and psychological health. Questions capturing post-deployment attitudes were developed by the researchers in collaboration with veterans. The questions were administered to 1938 veterans and the results factor analysed. The relationships between post-deployment appraisal, military stress and psychological health were examined using Structural Equation Modelling. A three-factor solution was found for the post-deployment appraisal questions; representing personal development, lack of recognition, and appreciation of life and country. Military stress was associated with the three factors and psychological health. The three factors were weakly to moderately associated with psychological health. Mediation between military stress and psychological health by any post-deployment appraisal factor was minimal. Post-deployment appraisal measures three important attitudes and concerns of veterans after deployment. Military stress is associated with the post-deployment appraisal factors. However, the factors did not mediate the relationship between military stress and psychological health. These factors provide insight into how veterans appraise their complex array of post-deployment experiences, and may provide useful in regard to transitions and integration into civilian life.

  14. Lifecycle Readiness and Ship Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The physical fatigue associated with ship motions has significant consequences for today’s minimally manned ships. “Because of minimally sized...a deployment. The inefficiencies in performance may develop from lack of training, different personal aptitude, and individual’s mental or physical ...exacerbation of symptoms known as the avalanche phenomenon follows which includes: increased salivation, bodily warmth , and light- headedness” (Stevens

  15. Deployment Effects of Marin Renewable Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Polagye; Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, marine and hydrokinetic technologies could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood, due to a lack of technical certainty. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based approach to the emerging wave and tidal technology sectors in order to evaluate the impact of these technologies on the marine environment and potentially conflicting uses. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios will capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental impacts and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders onto the critical issues that need to be addressed. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two other project teams funded by DoE which are focused on regulatory and navigational issues. The results of this study are structured into three reports: 1. Wave power scenario description 2. Tidal power scenario description 3. Framework for

  16. EXPERIMENT STUDIES ON BEARING CAPACITY OF PREFABRICATED STEEL FRAME WITH INCLINED BRACES%装配式斜支撑钢框架承载力性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱林; 马靖; 刘学春

    2014-01-01

    New Industrial prefabricated steel frame with diagonal brace is consists of steel truss beam , steel column and steel diagonal brace .The truss beam and diagonal brace are different from the traditional one , whose transferring way of force , mechanical behavior and failure mechanism are not examined .The static test and finite element analysis were done for the single span , single cross and single deck steel frame , aims to study the ultimate bearing capacity of horizontal load , deformation characteristics , failure mechanism and ductility performance .The results of test and analysis show that prefabricated brace frame has strong ability to withstand the horizontal load , the power transmission path is clear , and the damage is located at the mid web member of truss beam .While truss beam is damaged , the frame column and the nodes are in elastic state .The frame can meet the structural requirements of “strong jiont , weak components” and “strong column,weak beam” seismic design requirements .%新型工业化装配式斜支撑钢框架由钢桁架梁、钢立柱、钢斜支撑等构件所组成,该框架的桁架梁和斜支撑不同于传统框架,其传力路径、受力性能、破坏机理未经考证。通过对单榀单跨斜支撑钢框架进行静力试验及有限元模拟分析,旨在研究分析其水平荷载极限承载能力、变形特性、破坏机理及延性性能。试验及分析结果表明:装配式斜支撑钢框架承受水平荷载能力较强,斜支撑将水平荷载传递到桁架梁中部的耗能梁段,传力路径明确合理,破坏位置发生在桁架梁中部腹杆,且破坏时框架柱处于弹性工作状态,满足“强节点,弱构件”及“强柱弱梁”的建筑结构设计要求。

  17. Hierarchical Orbital Observatory Deployable Shroud (HOODS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large deployable telescopes such as NASA's 9.2m and 16.8m segmented ATLAST systems require commensurately large deployable sunshades for thermal control and to...

  18. Investigation of the possibilities of phosphogypsum application for building partitioning Walls - elements of a prefabricated house

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.; Tošković Dragan V.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a waste product in the manufacture of phosphoric acid from phosphorite and sulphuric acid by so-called "wet process" and represents a refuse that is as such simply thrown away. Phosphogypsum which is produced by "dihydrating procedure" contains not only various impurties but also radionuclides, which limits its construction use. Performed testings point to the complexity of phosphogypsum structure and composition while the electron microscope's pictures showed its different c...

  19. Prefabrication of 3D cartilage contructs: towards a tissue engineered auricle--a model tested in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim von Bomhard

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of an auricle for congenital deformity or following trauma remains one of the greatest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Tissue-engineered (TE three-dimensional (3D cartilage constructs have proven to be a promising option, but problems remain with regard to cell vitality in large cell constructs. The supply of nutrients and oxygen is limited because cultured cartilage is not vascular integrated due to missing perichondrium. The consequence is necrosis and thus a loss of form stability. The micro-surgical implantation of an arteriovenous loop represents a reliable technology for neovascularization, and thus vascular integration, of three-dimensional (3D cultivated cell constructs. Auricular cartilage biopsies were obtained from 15 rabbits and seeded in 3D scaffolds made from polycaprolactone-based polyurethane in the shape and size of a human auricle. These cartilage cell constructs were implanted subcutaneously into a skin flap (15 × 8 cm and neovascularized by means of vascular loops implanted micro-surgically. They were then totally enhanced as 3D tissue and freely re-implanted in-situ through microsurgery. Neovascularization in the prefabricated flap and cultured cartilage construct was analyzed by microangiography. After explantation, the specimens were examined by histological and immunohistochemical methods. Cultivated 3D cartilage cell constructs with implanted vascular pedicle promoted the formation of engineered cartilaginous tissue within the scaffold in vivo. The auricles contained cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM components, such as GAGs and collagen even in the center oft the constructs. In contrast, in cultivated 3D cartilage cell constructs without vascular pedicle, ECM distribution was only detectable on the surface compared to constructs with vascular pedicle. We demonstrated, that the 3D flaps could be freely transplanted. On a microangiographic level it was evident that all the skin flaps

  20. Security Support in Continuous Deployment Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Faheem; Raft, Adam Johannes; Shahin, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Continuous Deployment (CD) has emerged as a new practice in the software industry to continuously and automatically deploy software changes into production. Continuous Deployment Pipeline (CDP) supports CD practice by transferring the changes from the repository to production. Since most of the C...

  1. System deployment optimization in architecture design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxue Zhang; Shu Tang; Aimin Luo; Xueshan Luo

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of architecture design has recently drawn research interest. System deployment optimization (SDO) refers to the process of optimizing systems that are being deployed to activi-ties. This paper first formulates a mathematical model to theorize and operationalize the SDO problem and then identifies optimal so-lutions to solve the SDO problem. In the solutions, the success rate of the combat task is maximized, whereas the execution time of the task and the cost of changes in the system structure are mini-mized. The presented optimized algorithm generates an optimal solution without the need to check the entire search space. A novel method is final y proposed based on the combination of heuristic method and genetic algorithm (HGA), as wel as the combination of heuristic method and particle swarm optimization (HPSO). Experi-ment results show that the HPSO method generates solutions faster than particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algo-rithm (GA) in terms of execution time and performs more efficiently than the heuristic method in terms of determining the best solution.

  2. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Mai, T.; Mowers, M.; Uriarte, C.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.; Martinez, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a deterministic optimization model of the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States into the future. The model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, is designed to analyze the critical energy issues in the electric sector, especially with respect to potential energy policies, such as clean energy and renewable energy standards or carbon restrictions. ReEDS provides a detailed treatment of electricity-generating and electrical storage technologies and specifically addresses a variety of issues related to renewable energy technologies, including accessibility and cost of transmission, regional quality of renewable resources, seasonal and diurnal generation profiles, variability of wind and solar power, and the influence of variability on the reliability of the electrical grid. ReEDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit statistical treatment of the variability in wind and solar output over time, and consideration of ancillary services' requirements and costs.

  3. RSG Deployment Case Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

    2005-09-01

    The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

  4. The Clinical Application of Preexpanded and Prefabricated Super-Thin Skin Perforator Flap for Reconstruction of Post-Burn Neck Contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunmei; Zhang, Junyi; Yang, Sifen; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Song, Ping; Pu, Lee L Q

    2016-02-01

    Based on our previous animal study, we applied the "bridging effect" to the neighboring axial flap through preexpansion and prefabrication of a skin perforator flap as a new method to reconstruct a large skin defect after release of severe neck burn scar contracture. Twelve patients suffering from severe post-burn cervical contractures underwent reconstruction of large skin defects after surgical release of severe scar contractures with preexpanded and prefabricated super-thin skin perforator flaps supplied primarily by a number of perforators via the "bridging effect" from the branches of the adjacent arteries as 2-stage procedures. During the first-stage operation, 2 tissue expanders were placed accordingly, and this was followed by a subsequent second-stage procedure where an expanded super-thin skin perforator flap was transposed to reconstruct a large neck skin defect. Follow-up was between 6 months and 3 years in this series. All super-thin skin perforator flaps survived in this series with primary healing except one with a distal flap necrosis that was treated with a subsequent skin graft. All patients have had a good contour with improved range of motion in the neck. The preexpansion and prefabrication of a super-thin skin perforator flap can possibly improve the anastomoses between neighboring subdermal vascular plexuses and extend the supplying area of these vessels to the flap. This method may provide a favorable super-thin skin flap that can be used for reconstruction of large neck defects after release of post-burn cervical scar contracture as demonstrated in this case series.

  5. 基于BIM的预制装配建筑体系应用技术%Application Technology of BIM-based Prefabricated Building System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许杰峰; 鲍玲玲; 马恩成; 夏绪勇; 姜立

    2016-01-01

    本项目根据预制装配式建筑全产业链的需求,基于自主BIM 平台,开展预制装配式建筑设计、生产、运输和施工各环节协同工作关键技术研究,建立基于BIM的预制装配式建筑全流程集成应用体系,并进行工程示范应用。通过本项目实施,完成自主知识产权装配式建筑BIM平台、软件、系统及标准,为装配式建筑全过程应用提供技术支撑。项目充分挖掘BIM技术信息集成优势,提高预制装配式建筑设计效率20%以上,降低80%的拼装检测的人工量,降低工程成本,产生明显的社会经济效益,从而促进建筑产业化的可持续发展。%According to the demand of the whole industry chain of prefabricated building, and based on the in-dependent BIM platform, this project carries out the key technology research on the collaborative work of the pre-fabricated building design, production, transport and construction, establishes the BIM-based whole process ap-plication system of the prefabricated building, and applies it to the demonstration project application. Through the implementation of this project, independent intellectual property BIM platform, software, systems and standards are developed to provide technical support for the whole process application of the prefabricated building. The project fully explores the advantages of BIM technology information integration, improves design efficiency by more than 20%, and reduces 80% manual test and measurement, greatly reduces engineering cost, which has obvious social and economic benefits and promotes the sustainable development of the construction industry.

  6. 大型原油储罐构件预制方法%Method on Units Prefabrication for Large Crude Oil Tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁继彪

    2016-01-01

    对构件进行预制可以提高施工效率、缩短工期,是目前大型原油储罐建造的常用方法。对照阿布扎比原油管道项目16×104 m3浮顶储罐建造案例,以大型原油储罐的构件预制过程为基础,对清扫孔和有罐嘴的罐壁板的预制方法、检验步骤和热处理过程进行详细分析,大型储罐底板、壁板等主要构件需要按照合理的工作流程进行预制,并进行适当的热处理和检测,以提高制造精度。采用构件预制方法,可以保证大型浮顶储罐的构件预制深度,提高大型储罐的建造效率,节约时间成本和施工成本。%Prefabrication of units is one of the most commonly used construction method for large storage tanks because of high efficiency and short construction duration. The key pro-cesses of the crude oil tank units prefabrication were discussed based on the construction of 16×104 m3 tank in Abu Dhabi pipeline main terminal station. The prefabrication, testing pro-cedure and heat-treating process of cleanout door and shell plate shall follow the normal pro-cedures with high accuracy, before the PWHT and inspection. The optimized procedures can ensure the units prefabrication quality,provide comprehensive and detailed technique in-struction, improve the construction efficiency, and shorten the time costs and construction costs.

  7. Experimental Research and Application of Prefabricated Bamboo Pole House%预制装配式圆竹结构房屋的试验与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单波; 高黎; 肖岩; 王正

    2013-01-01

    Moso bamboo,a kind of rich forest resource in China,was selected as the building material and tested.The physical and mechanical properties have been tested,and the results show that the main mechanical properties of bamboo pole are better than those of TC13 grade of coniferous wood.So Moso bamboo poles can be used as a structural material.Several types of metal connections were presented to connect bamboo poles with other materials,and the processing standardization has been almost fulfilled by utilizing the metal connections.Two pieces of shear walls made of bamboo poles were conducted through lateral resistance tests.The lateral resistance capacity of this kind of shear wall is about 65 %,compared with the same wall of light wood structure.Three pieces of bamboo pole trusses were tested,and the ultimate loading capacity is 12.3 kN.A prefabricated bamboo pole demonstration house with a construction area of 50 m2 was designed and constructed according to the testing results and the code for the design of timber structures.The demonstration house has been used for about three years and its condition is desirable.%选用我国丰富的毛竹作为结构材料,对圆竹的主要物理力学指标进行了试验与分析.研究结果表明,圆竹的基本力学指标高于TC13级针叶木材,可以作为结构材料使用.设计了几种圆竹构件和结构的金属连接件,基本实现了圆竹构件加工的标准化和施工的预制化.设计了基于墙板模数的圆竹墙体单元,并对2片墙体进行了抗侧力试验,圆竹墙体的抗侧力性能与U型连接件密切相关,抗侧向能力约为同类型轻型木结构墙体的65%.进行了3个圆竹屋架的静载试验,结果表明屋架的极限承载力由变形控制,平均值为12.3 kN.根据试验结果和木结构设计规范,设计和建造了一个约50 m2的预制装配式圆竹房屋示范建筑,验证了该技术的可行性和适用性.示范建筑已使用3年多,目前状况良好.

  8. Shielding evaluation and acceptance testing of a prefabricated, modular, temporary radiation therapy treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzell, Gary A

    2004-01-01

    We have recently commissioned a temporary radiation therapy facility that is novel in two aspects: it was constructed using modular components, and the LINAC was installed in one of the modular sections before it was lifted into position. Additional steel and granular fill was added to the modular sections on-site during construction. The building will be disassembled and removed when no longer needed. This paper describes the radiation shielding specifications and survey of the facility, as well as the ramifications for acceptance testing occasioned by the novel installation procedure. The LINAC is a Varian 21EX operating at 6 MV and 18 MV. The radiation levels outside the vault satisfied the design criteria, and no anomalous leakage was detected along the joints of the modular structure. At 18 MV and 600 monitor units (MU) per minute, the radiation level outside the primary barrier walls was 8.5 micro Sv/h of photons; there were no detectable neutrons. Outside the direct-shielded door, the levels were 0.4 micro Sv/h of photons and 3.0 micro Sv/h of neutrons. The isocentricity of the accelerator met the acceptance criteria and was not affected by its preinstallation into an integrated baseframe and subsequent transport to the building site.

  9. Identification of a supplier network through Quality Function Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Preben Sander; Holmen, Elsebeth

    1994-01-01

    During 1993-94 the authors followed a product development process in a Danish Butter Cookie company. The process was structured according to the Quality Function Deployment technique House of Quality. Customer attributes were derived from a discus a diabetics end-user focus group. During a series...

  10. Forecasting Demand for KC-135 Sorties: Deploy to Dwell Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Without the predictability, structure, and rule sets that the AEF construct provides, individual crewmembers suffer a perceived unsystematic assignment to...Enablers. It explained why deploy to dwell ratio is more than a quality of life issue and outlined some of the risks of sustained high operations

  11. Optimization of Hydroacoustic Equipment Deployment at Foster Dam, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, James S.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the fixed-location hydroacoustic systems at Foster Dam (FOS) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods that minimized structural, electrical, and acoustic interference. Optimization of the hydroacoustic systems will establish methodology for sampling by active acoustic methods during this year-long evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage at FOS.

  12. Optimization of Hydroacoustic Equipment Deployment at Foster Dam, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, James S.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the fixed-location hydroacoustic systems at Foster Dam (FOS) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods that minimized structural, electrical, and acoustic interference. Optimization of the hydroacoustic systems will establish methodology for sampling by active acoustic methods during this year-long evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage at FOS.

  13. Investigation of the possibilities of phosphogypsum application for building partitioning Walls - elements of a prefabricated house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum is a waste product in the manufacture of phosphoric acid from phosphorite and sulphuric acid by so-called "wet process" and represents a refuse that is as such simply thrown away. Phosphogypsum which is produced by "dihydrating procedure" contains not only various impurties but also radionuclides, which limits its construction use. Performed testings point to the complexity of phosphogypsum structure and composition while the electron microscope's pictures showed its different crystal composition compared to the natural gypsum. The calcined and refined phosphogypsum can be used for partition walls manufacture. To avoid the danger of the possible presence of radionuclides it is better to use the mixture of natural gypsum and phosphogypsum for this purpose. Substantial saving of materials and economic effect can be achieved in this way. The analyse performed in this work have shown significant presence of radionuclides in phosphogypsum. Gammaspectrometric measurements of radioactivity have determined substantial radioactivity of phosphogypsum. Using the maximum tolerated level values that are legally accepted, as well as equations to calculate indexes of tolerated radionuclide presence, an index of 2.23 has been determined for interiors and 1.13 for exteriors, i.e. 0.64 in case of roads. On the basis of the maximum tolerated level of radioactive building materials contamination (< 1, forbiden is the use of phosphogypsum in interiors, allowed (≈ 1 in exteriors and roads. The tests of heavy metal components in phosphogypsum have proved their presence in the amounts potentially producing consequences if present in closed spaces. That is conditioned by the phosphogypsum quantity, as well as by the area of space partitioned.

  14. HABITAR Y TECNOLOGÍA EN LA VIVIENDA PREFABRICADA CONTEMPORÁNEA / Living and technology in the contemporary prefabricated home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Guerra de Hoyos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El texto revisa las relaciones entre tecnología, habitar y contexto sociocultural a lo largo del ciclo de lo moderno, indagando en la situación actual de los mismos. Si lo que caracteriza el pensamiento contemporáneo es la comprensión y la revisión del periodo de la modernidad, debemos extender ese procedimiento a la arquitectura si pretendemos integrar las herramientas y las soluciones habitacionales y constructivas de nuestra tradición disciplinar en el presente. Trata de realizar un repaso genealógico que quiere recordar la utilidad y el sentido que términos como cabaña, máquina o caravana, pueden tener para la comprensión de la vivienda prefabricada contemporánea. También se procura el acercamiento a dos casos concretos, la casa de los Eames y el pabellón solar de los Smithson, para explorar la superación de algunas de los problemas básicos detectados en la temática de estudio. Por último, y a modo de conclusiones, se abordan algunas líneas de dilatación en los modos de hacer y pensamiento contemporáneos. SUMMARY The paper reviews the relationship between technology, living and socio-cultural context, during the modern cycle, delving into their current states. If understanding and review of the period of modernity characterize contemporary thought, we must extend this procedure to architecture if we expect to integrate the tools and housing and construction solutions of our disciplinary tradition into the present. A genealogical review is made to recall the utility and meaning that terms such as cabin, machine or caravan may have for understanding the contemporary prefabricated home. Also, two specific cases are approached, the Eames House and the Smithson's Solar Pavilion, in an effort to explore how some of the basic problems identified in the subject matter are overcome. Finally, some aspects of contemporary methods of production and thought are expanded upon as a conclusion.

  15. Base Station Antenna Pattern Distortion in Practical Urban Deployment Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2014-01-01

    In real urban deployments, base station antennas are typically not placed in free space conditions. Therefore, the radiation pattern can be affected by mounting structures and nearby obstacles located in the proximity of the antenna (near-field), which are often not taken into consideration. Also...... the intrinsic propagation mechanisms of the urban environment (far-field) can contribute to the distortion of the radiation pattern observed in a practical deployment scenario, especially when comparing it to the antenna pattern provided by the manufacturer and typically measured in free space. This paper...... presents a combination of near-field and far-field simulations aimed to provide an overview of the distortion experienced by the base station antenna pattern in two different urban deployment scenarios: rooftop and telecommunications tower. The study illustrates how, in comparison with the near...

  16. Gossamer-1: Mission concept and technology for a controlled deployment of gossamer spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Patric; Spietz, Peter; Sproewitz, Tom; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hillebrandt, Martin; Hobbie, Catherin; Ruffer, Michael; Straubel, Marco; Tóth, Norbert; Zander, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Gossamer structures for innovative space applications, such as solar sails, require technology that allows their controlled and thereby safe deployment. Before employing such technology for a dedicated science mission, it is desirable, if not necessary, to demonstrate its reliability with a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six or higher. The aim of the work presented here is to provide reliable technology that enables the controlled deployment and verification of its functionality with various laboratory tests, thereby qualifying the hardware for a first demonstration in low Earth orbit (LEO). The development was made in the Gossamer-1 project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). This paper provides an overview of the Gossamer-1 mission and hardware development. The system is designed based on the requirements of a technology demonstration mission. The design rests on a crossed boom configuration with triangular sail segments. Employing engineering models, all aspects of the deployment were tested under ambient environment. Several components were also subjected to environmental qualification testing. An innovative stowing and deployment strategy for a controlled deployment, as well as the designs of the bus system, mechanisms and electronics are described. The tests conducted provide insights into the deployment process and allow a mechanical characterization of that deployment process, in particular the measurement of the deployment forces. Deployment on system level could be successfully demonstrated to be robust and controllable. The deployment technology is on TRL four approaching level five, with a qualification model for environmental testing currently being built.

  17. The occlusion-adjusted prefabricated 3D mirror image templates by computer simulation: the image-guided navigation system application in difficult cases of head and neck reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsu-Tang; Wu, Chao-I; Tseng, Ching-Shiow; Chen, Hung-Chi; Lee, Wu-Song; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Chang, Sophia Chia-Ning

    2009-11-01

    Computer applications in head and neck reconstruction are rapidly emerging and create not only a virtual environment for presurgical planning, but also help in image-guided navigational surgery. This study evaluates the use of prefabricated 3-dimensional (3D) mirror image templates made by computer-simulated adjusted occlusions to assist in microvascular prefabricated flap insertion during reconstructive surgery. Five patients underwent tumor ablation surgery in 1999 and survived for 8 years. Four of the patients with malignancy received radiation therapy. All patients in this study suffered from severe malocclusion causing trismus, headache, temporomandibular joint pain, an unsymmetrical face, and the inability of further osseointegrated teeth insertion. They underwent a 3D computer tomography examination and the nonprocessed raw data were sent for computer simulation in adjusting occlusion; thus, a mirror image template could be fabricated for microsurgical flap guidance. The computer simulated occlusion was acceptable and facial symmetry obtained. The use of the template resulted in a shorter operation time and recovery was as expected. The computer-simulated occlusion-adjusted 3D mirror image templates aid in the use of free vascularized bone flaps for restoring continuity to the mandible. The coordinated arch will help with further osseointegration teeth insertion.

  18. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of prefabricated reinforced-concrete modules for an LHC access shaft

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply and installation of 33 prefabricated reinforced-concrete modules for the PX15 access shaft. Following a market survey carried out among 39 firms in fourteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2714/ST/LHC) was sent on 22 May 2000 to seven firms and one consortium consisting of four firms in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received five tenders from four firms and one consortium in five Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium JOINT VENTURE CCC (CH-DE-AT), the lowest bidder after realignment, for the supply and installation of prefabricated reinforced-concrete modules for the PX15 access shaft for a total amount of 988 915 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: DE-89%; CH-6%; AT-5%.

  19. Pre-deployment Year Mental Health Diagnoses and Treatment in Deployed Army Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Nikki R; Adams, Rachel Sayko; Mohr, Beth A; Jeffery, Diana D; Funk, Wendy; Williams, Thomas V; Larson, Mary Jo

    2016-07-01

    We estimated the prevalence of select mental health diagnoses (MHDX) and mental health treatment (MHT), and identified characteristics associated with MHT during the pre-deployment year (365 days before deployment) in active duty Army women (N = 14,633) who returned from Iraq or Afghanistan deployments in FY2010. Pre-deployment year prevalence estimates were: 26.2 % for any select MHDX and 18.1 % for any MHT. Army women who had physical injuries since FY2002 or any behavioral health treatment between FY2002 and the pre-deployment year had increased odds of pre-deployment year MHT. During the pre-deployment year, a substantial percentage of Army women had MHDX and at least one MHT encounter or stay. Future research should determine if pre-deployment MHDX among Army women reflect vulnerability to future MHDX, or if pre-deployment MHT results in protection from chronic symptoms.

  20. Dynamic performance of the mechanism of an automatically deployable ROPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, J R; Cutlip, R G; Harris, J R; Ronaghi, M; Means, K H; Howard, S

    2002-02-01

    The mechanism for an automatically deployable ROPS (AutoROPS) has been designed and tested. This mechanism is part of an innovative project to provide passive protection against rollover fatality to operators of new tractors used in both low-clearance and unrestricted-clearance tasks. The device is a spring-action, telescoping structure that releases on signal to pyrotechnic squibs that actuate release pins. Upper post motion begins when the release pins clear an internal piston. The structure extends until the piston impacts an elastomeric ring and latches at the top position. In lab tests the two-post structure consistently deployed in less than 0.3 s and latched securely. Static load tests of the telescoping structure and field upset tests of the fully functional AutoROPS have been successfully completed.

  1. Post-launch analysis of the deployment dynamics of a space web sounding rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huina; Sinn, Thomas; Vasile, Massimiliano; Tibert, Gunnar

    2016-10-01

    Lightweight deployable space webs have been proposed as platforms or frames for a construction of structures in space where centrifugal forces enable deployment and stabilization. The Suaineadh project was aimed to deploy a 2 × 2m2 space web by centrifugal forces in milli-gravity conditions and act as a test bed for the space web technology. Data from former sounding rocket experiments, ground tests and simulations were used to design the structure, the folding pattern and control parameters. A developed control law and a reaction wheel were used to control the deployment. After ejection from the rocket, the web was deployed but entanglements occurred since the web did not start to deploy at the specified angular velocity. The deployment dynamics was reconstructed from the information recorded in inertial measurement units and cameras. The nonlinear torque of the motor used to drive the reaction wheel was calculated from the results. Simulations show that if the Suaineadh started to deploy at the specified angular velocity, the web would most likely have been deployed and stabilized in space by the motor, reaction wheel and controller used in the experiment.

  2. Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of deployable structures with joints and cables based on incremental harmonic balance method%基于增量谐波平衡法的含索铰可折展桁架非线性动力学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 刘荣强; 郭宏伟; 邓宗全

    2014-01-01

    A purely bending dynamic model considering clearance,stiffness and damping of joints and nonlinear cables was established to show the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of jointed deployable structures.Taylor series expansion of variables for the nonlinear differential equation and harmonic description of parameters were used to convert the nonlinear dynamic equation to a nonlinear algebraic one.The dynamic response of a deployable structure was computed with the iteration method.The numerical analysis with Runge-Kutta method for a deployable structure was performed,its results were compared with those using the incremental harmonic balance (IHB)method.The comparison showed the correctness of the IHB method.The IHB method was used to analyze the response stability for a deployable structure when exciting frequency changed using the nonlinear dynamic model.The stability of the deployable structure response was presented in a frequency range when clearance and stiffness of joints,exciting force and cable changed.It was shown that the IHB method is very effective for dynamic analysis of deployable structures with multi-DOF,and it provided a basis for further study of large-scale deployable structures with joints and cables.%为了揭示含索铰可折展桁架的非线性动力学行为,建立了考虑铰链间隙、刚度和阻尼及索非线性特性的可折展桁架纯弯曲动力学模型。对非线性动力学方程进行一次泰勒展开和参量的多次谐波描述,实现了非线性动力学方程到代数方程的转化,通过迭代进行非线性动力学系统的响应计算。并利用龙格库塔方法对非线性系统进行数值分析,与增量谐波平衡(IHB)法进行对比,验证了IHB法计算的正确性。以激振频率为变化参数,对悬臂支撑的含索铰桁架结构进行解的稳定性分析,得到铰链间隙、铰链刚度、激振力和索对结构响应稳定性的影响。基于IHB

  3. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment by Federal Government Agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Coggeshall, C.; Coughlin, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2009-07-01

    The goal of this report is to examine how federal agencies can finance on-site PV projects. It explains state-level cash incentives available, the importance of solar renewable energy certificate revenues (in certain markets), existing financing structures, as well as innovative financing structures being used by federal agencies to deploy on-site PV. Specific examples from the DOD, DOE, and other federal agencies are highlighted to explain federal project financing in detail.

  4. Phoenix Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative Evaluation Report

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, C; Marks, J.; Jenq, J.; Cluett, Chris; DeBlasio, Allan; Lappin, Jane; Rakha, Hesham A.; Wunderlich, K

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the evaluation results of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative (MMDI). The MMDI was a three-year program of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Joint Program Office of the U.S. Department of Transportation. It focused on aggressive deployment of ITS at four sites across the United States, including the metropolitan areas of San Antonio, Seattle, NY/NJ/Connecticut as well as Phoenix. The focus of the deployments was on integration of exist...

  5. Rigidizing Inflatable Deployable Dwelling (RIDD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — By combining thin thermoplastic films, woven Vectran reinforcements, and heat a reliable, deployable, rigidizing space habitat can be created. Although much research...

  6. Low Mass Aeroshell Deployment Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop new shape memory polymer (SMP) deployment mechanisms for actuating thermal protection system (TPS) panels to...

  7. Low Mass Aeroshell Deployment Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop new shape memory polymer (SMP) deployment mechanisms for actuating thermal protective systems (TPS) panels to...

  8. Electromagnetic panel deployment and retraction using the geomagnetic field in LEO satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamori, Takaya; Sugawara, Yoshiki; Satou, Yasutaka

    2015-12-01

    Increasingly, spacecraft are installed with large-area structures that are extended and deployed post-launch. These extensible structures have been applied in several missions for power generation, thermal radiation, and solar propulsion. Here, we propose a deployment and retraction method using the electromagnetic force generated when the geomagnetic field interacts with electric current flowing on extensible panels. The panels are installed on a satellite in low Earth orbit. Specifically, electrical wires placed on the extensible panels generate magnetic moments, which interfere with the geomagnetic field. The resulting repulsive and retraction forces enable panel deployment and retraction. In the proposed method, a satellite realizes structural deployment using simple electrical wires. Furthermore, the satellite can achieve not only deployment but also retraction for avoiding damage from space debris and for agile attitude maneuvers. Moreover, because the proposed method realizes quasi-static deployment and the retraction of panels by electromagnetic forces, low impulsive force is exerted on fragile panels. The electrical wires can also be used to detect the panel deployment and retraction and generate a large magnetic moment for attitude control. The proposed method was assessed in numerical simulations based on multibody dynamics. Simulation results shows that a small cubic satellite with a wire current of 25 AT deployed 4 panels (20 cm × 20 cm) in 500 s and retracted 4 panels in 100 s.

  9. Concurrent engineering: effective deployment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unny Menon

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive insight into current trends and developments in Concurrent Engineering for integrated development of products and processes with the goal of completing the entire cycle in a shorter time, at lower overall cost and with fewer engineering design changes after product release. The evolution and definition of Concurrent Engineering are addressed first, followed by a concise review of the following elements of the concurrent engineering approach to product development: Concept Development: The Front-End Process, identifying Customer Needs and Quality Function Deployment, Establishing Product Specifications, Concept Selection, Product Architecture, Design for Manufacturing, Effective Rapid Prototyping, and The Economics of Product Development. An outline of a computer-based tutorial developed by the authors and other graduate students funded by NASA ( accessible via the world-wide-web . is provided in this paper. A brief discussion of teamwork for successful concurrent engineering is included, t'ase histories of concurrent engineering implementation at North American and European companies are outlined with references to textbooks authored by Professor Menon and other writers. A comprehensive bibliography on concurrent engineering is included in the paper.

  10. The purely functional software deployment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolstra, E.

    2006-01-01

    Software deployment is the set of activities related to getting software components to work on the machines of end users. It includes activities such as installation, upgrading, uninstallation, and so on. Many tools have been developed to support deployment, but they all have serious limitations wi

  11. Seismic SMHD -- Rotational Sensor Development and Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates; Pierson, Bob [Applied Technology Associates; Brune, Bob [Consultant

    2016-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding development and deployment of a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, high dynamic range, low noise floor, proven ruggedness, and high repeatability. This paper presents current status of sensor development and deployment opportunities.

  12. Fracture strength and nanoleakage of weakened roots reconstructed using relined glass fiber-reinforced dowels combined with a novel prefabricated core system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rania A; Mandour, Mona H; Abd El-Ghany, Ossama Saleh

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture strength and nanoleakage of endodontically treated weakened teeth after being restored with relined glass fiber-reinforced dowels and two types of cores. Sixty sound human decoronated and endodontically treated teeth were embedded in epoxy resin blocks, then divided into three groups (n = 20) according to the method of root reconstruction. Group 1 (control): nonweakened roots were restored with glass fiber-reinforced dowels (UNIC); group 2: weakened roots restored with glass fiber-reinforced dowels relined with composite resin; group 3: weakened roots restored with glass fiber-reinforced dowels and a thick layer of luting cement. Dowels were cemented using Corposit, a dual-cured adhesive resin cement, then each group was assigned into two subgroups (n = 10) according to the type of core used; subgroup a: custom-made core using the same luting cement, subgroup b: prefabricated glass fiber-reinforced core (UNIC). Half the specimens of each subgroup were individually mounted at 45° angles and statically compressed until fracture at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed with a 5 kN load cell. The type of failure was assessed using a magnification lens. The other half of the specimens were removed from the block, placed in silver nitrate solution for 24 hours followed by photo developer for 8 hours, then examined using environmental scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive analytical X-ray for nanoleakage evaluation. Data were statistically analyzed. The nonweakened group recorded the highest fracture strength values. The composite relined group showed significantly higher fracture strength values than the cement group. The prefabricated core yielded higher fracture strength values than the custom-made core. All groups showed a degree of nanoleakage, with higher scores recorded for the composite group. The fracture resistance of wide root canals can be improved by using glass fiber-reinforced dowels relined with composite

  13. Design and analysis of a deployable truss for the large modular mesh antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Akira

    This paper describes the design and deployment analysis for large deployable modular mesh antennas. Key design criteria are deployability, and the driving force and latching moment requirements. Reaction forces and moments due to mesh and cable network seriously influence the driving force. These forces and moments can be precisely estimated by means of analyzing the cable network using Cable Structure Analyzer (CASA). Deployment analysis is carried out using Dynamic Analysis and Design System (DADS). The influence of alignment errors on the driving reaction force can be eliminated by replacing the joint element with a spring element. The joint slop is also modeled using a discontinuous spring elements. Their design approach for three types of deployable modules and the deployment characterstics of three Bread-Board Models based on those designs are also presented. In order to study gravity effects on the deployment characteristics and the effects of the gravity compensation method, ground deployment analysis is carried out. A planned deployment test that will use aircraft parabolic flight to simulate a micro-gravity environment is also described.

  14. Users speak out on technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Mark; Prochaska, Marty; Cromer, Paul; Zewatsky, Jennifer

    2001-02-25

    This report summarizes user feedback data collected during a recent Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project: the Fluor Fernald ASTD Technology Deployment Project from May, 1999 through September, 2000. The main goal of the ASTD project was to use the ''Fernald approach'' to expedite the deployment of new or innovative technologies with superior safety, cost, and/or productivity benefits to Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Fernald approach targets technology end-users and their managers and directly involves them with hands-on demonstrations of new or innovative technologies during technology transfer sessions. The two technologies deployed through this project were the Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS) and the oxy-gasoline torch. Participants of technology transfer sessions were requested to complete feedback surveys. Surveys evaluated the effectiveness of the Fernald approach to technology deployment and assessed the responsiveness of employees to new technologies. This report presents the results of those surveys.

  15. A Survey of IPv6 Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal M. Alhassoun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The next-generation Internet protocol (IPv6 was designed to overcome the limitation in IPv4 by using a 128-bit address instead of a 32-bit address. In addition to solving the address the limitations, IPv6 has many improved features. This research focused to survey IPv6 deployment all around the world. The objectives of this survey paper are to highlight the issues related to the IPv6 deployment and to look into the IPv4 to IPv6 transition mechanisms. Furthermore, provide insight on the global effort around the world to contribute in IPv6 deployment. In addition, identify the potential solutions or suggestions that could improve the IPv6 deployment rate. In order to achieve the said objectives we survey number of papers on IPv6 deployment from different countries and continents.

  16. Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

  17. A Microseismometer for Penetrometer Deployment in the Jupiter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, William; Standley, Ian; Karl, Werner; Delahunty, Aifric; Calcutt, Simon

    2010-05-01

    The internal structure of the moons of Jupiter is an area of great interest. Seismic investigations, either in the long-period band of 0.1 to 1 Hz, or at shorter periods of 1 to 100 Hz, have been studied as a means to determine the depth of subsurface liquid water with a single, triaxial seismometer. A penetrometer would be an ideal deployment for such an instrument as it would ensure excellent coupling, minimise thermal variations, and substantially reduce the radiation environment during operation. A microseismometer is under development which combines the required sensitivity for identification of the ambient seismicity with the robustness to survive the shock of deployment. At the heart of the instrument is a single-crystal silicon suspension machined through the full thickness of a wafer resulting in a very high quality factor. The movement of the proof mass is determined by extremely sensitive capacitive array transducer. This transducer is coupled to readout and feedback electronics which are designed for very low power operation. A unique combination of open and closed loop feedback enables the instrument to operate over a wide range of tilt angles, a vital consideration for a penetrometer deployment. The current measured noise is 3 ng/sqrtHz at 20 s, with the capability of a further order of magnitude improvement. The suspension has been tested on rocket-sled impacts to simulate a penetrometer deployment, surviving shocks up to 14,000 g with suitable encapsulation. Such an instrument would have the capability for deployment on the surface of Europa or Ganymede and should provide vital information on the internal structure of these bodies.

  18. 翻译式二语预制语块模式在英语教学中的运用%A Study on L2 Prefabricated Chunks Translation Approach in CET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶翠英

    2016-01-01

    二语习得研究发现,语块能力是二语综合能力的一个重要指标。利用预制语块进行语言教学,不但能克服只重视语言结构或者只重视语言交际这两个极端,更有助于提高学习者的语言流利性及积极性。根据学习者对语言形式的输入和输出的差异性,把模块教学应用到翻译教学中。运用立体互动、经验模块、时间模块、理论模块等,能够极大地减少搭配错误的出现,提高学生的翻译能力。%The study of Second Language Acquisition( SLA) has found that chunk competence can serve as an important indicator of Sec-ond Language proficiency. Using prefabricated chunks in language teaching can avoid these two extremes of laying stress between lan-guage structure and language communication. Also, it can help to improve the learners’ language fluency and enthusiasm. According to the learners’ difference for the input and output of the language form, the module teaching is applied to the translation teaching . The collocation error can be reduced greatly so as to improve the learners translation proficiency, by the application of mixed interaction, the experience module, time module and the theory module.

  19. The Prefabricated Installation Construction of the Collar Beam Pile Head on the Sea%海上系梁桩顶预制安装施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文生; 王迎松

    2014-01-01

    This article combines with the successful constr-uction case of colar beam on the sea of Kuwait Mubarak. Bil Kay Railway Bridge and introduces a new method of colar beam construction technolog--prefabricated pile head instal-ation on the sea, in order to provide reference for the similar colar beam construction.%本文结合科威特穆巴拉克。凯比尔铁路桥海上系梁成功施工案例,介绍了一种全新的海上系梁施工工艺--桩顶预制安装,可供同类系梁施工参考。

  20. Effect of post length and type of luting agent on the dislodging time of metallic prefabricated posts by using ultrasonic vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi Dastgurdi, Maziar; Khabiri, Masud; Khademi, Abbasali; Zare Jahromi, Maryam; Hosseini Dastnaei, Peimaneh

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the times needed to dislodge prefabricated titanium posts of different luting lengths with various cements. Eighty-one intact extracted, single-canal human teeth were selected and endodontically treated. Specimens were randomly divided into 9 groups, which were arranged according to the post space length (5, 7, and 9 mm) and cement type (zinc phosphate, glass ionomer, and resin cement). Titanium posts were cemented into the post spaces, and after 1 week of storage they were subjected to ultrasonic vibration. The dislodging times were recorded and analyzed by using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (P ultrasonic device. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultra-Lightweight Self-Deployable SMP Nanocomposite Sandwich for Habitat Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space deployable and rigidizable structures that are ultra-lightweight, and have gas barrier property, space durability, and high impact resistance are desirable to...

  2. Precision Mobile-Joint and Latching Technologies for Deployable Optical Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planned future NASA missions in astrophysics will push the state of the art in current opto-mechanical technologies. Specifically, precision deployable structures...

  3. The Value of SPECT/CT in Monitoring Prefabricated Tissue-Engineered Bone and Orthotopic rhBMP-2 Implants for Mandibular Reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Zhou

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering shows good prospects for mandibular reconstruction. In recent studies, prefabricated tissue-engineered bone (PTEB by recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs applied in vivo has found to be an effective alternative for autologous bone grafts. However, the optimal time to transfer PTEB for mandibular reconstruction is still not elucidated. Thus, here in an animal experiment of rhesus monkey, the suitable transferring time for PTEB to reconstruct mandibular defects was evaluated by 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT, and its value in monitoring orthotopic rhBMP-2 implants for mandibular reconstruction was also evaluated. The result of SPECT/CT showed higher 99mTc-MDP uptake, indicating osteoinductivity, in rhBMP-2 incorporated demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA and coralline hydroxyapatite (CHA implants than those without BMP stimulation. 99mTc-MDP uptake of rhBMP-2 implant peaked at 8 weeks following implantation while CT showed the density of these implants increased after 13 weeks' prefabrication. Histology confirmed that mandibular defects were repaired successfully with PTEB or orthotopically rhBMP-2 incorporated CHA implants, in accordance with SPECT/CT findings. Collectively, data shows 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT is a sensitive and noninvasive tool to monitor osteoinductivity and bone regeneration of PTEB and orthotopic implants. The PTEB achieved peak osteoinductivity and bone density at 8 to 13 weeks following ectopic implantation, which would serve as a recommendable time frame for its transfer to mandibular reconstruction.

  4. 原竹预制构件房屋设计与制造技术%Design and manufacture technology of prefabricated bamboo house

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高黎; 王正; 王戈; 程海涛

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a design and manufacture technology of prefabricated modular bamboo house, which can meet the modern residential requirements. Firstly,Moso bamboo ( Phyllostachys pubescens) was conditioned to approximate constant mass in atmospheric conditions,then main physical-mechanical properties were tested and design stresses were calculated. After that,modular construction components including trusses and walls were assembled by using special connections and joints to combine and reinforce bamboo together. The truss was tested safe enough under specified load; lateral bearing capacity of the wall was 0. 78 t and could be used as load-bearing wall in two-storey building. Based on the experiments,a modular bamboo house was built up with the designed components. The results show that it is technically feasible to use bamboo as main materials in modern prefabricated house.%以原竹为主要原料设计与制造符合现代居住要求的预制构件房屋,内容包括毛竹的处理与设计强度计算,建筑构件的连接、模块化设计与性能测试,以及预制构件房屋的建造等。结果表明:屋架在实际使用载荷下具有足够的安全性能;墙体的抗侧承载力为0.78t,可用作1—2层住宅承重墙体。通过建设示范房屋证明利用原竹进行现代房屋的设计建造是完全可行的。

  5. Fiber Composite Material Application on Prefabricated Fragment Projectile%复合纤维材料在预制破片弹上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽俊; 毛亮

    2013-01-01

    为提高预制破片弹丸携带的有效载荷量,增强其综合毁伤威力,采用理论与试验相结合的方法对复合纤维材料代替金属材料作为预制破片包覆层的发射强度进行了计算分析.结果表明,在高过载条件下,碳纤维T700S和钢材料作为包覆层材料均能满足强度要求,而E玻璃纤维作为包覆层材料则不能满足.此外,使用复合纤维材料的成本也比钢材料要低.研究结果对复合纤维材料在相关弹药上的应用前景具有重要的参考意义.%In order to increase the effective payload of the prefabricated fragment projectile and enhance the comprehensive damage power,this paper studies the launching strength of the prefabricated fragment covering layer using fiber composite materials instead of metal materials both theoretically and experimentally.The results show that the covering layer using the carbon fiber T700S and the steel can satisfy the strength requirements,but not by using the E glass fiber under the high overload.By the way,the cost of fiber composite materials is lower than that of the steel The research result can be used to evaluate the application prospect of the correlation ammunition using the fiber composite materials.

  6. Digitally planned, immediately loaded dental implants with prefabricated prostheses in the reconstruction of edentulous maxillae: a 1-year prospective, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Björn; Friberg, Bertil; Nilson, Hans

    2009-09-01

    The introduction of digital planning programs has made it possible to place dental implants in preplanned positions and being immediately functionally loaded by using prefabricated prostheses. The aim of this multicenter study was to describe the 1-year results of digitally planned, immediately loaded edentulous maxillae. A total of 312 implants (Brånemark System, TiUnite RP, Nobel Biocare, Göteborg, Sweden) in 52 patients from eight Scandinavian clinics were digitally planned, surgically as well as prosthetically, by using the NobelGuide (Nobel Biocare AB, Göteborg, Sweden) and received prefabricated, immediately loaded fixed prosthetic constructions in the maxillae. Individual implant stability was manually tested at 1-year follow-up. All patients received a Procera Implant Bridge (Nobel Biocare AB); however, in two cases, the bridges were reconstructed due to misfit. In five patients, difficulties in getting the surgical guide completely in position, and in five patients, getting the prostheses completely seated, were noted. All but four patients fulfilled the 1-year follow-up. Two implants were lost during the study period, resulting in a cumulative survival rate of 99.4%. The mean marginal bone resorption from implant placement to the 1-year follow-up was 1.3 mm (SD 1.28). More than 2 mm of marginal resorption was noted in 19% of the implants at this instant. The most frequently reported complications during the first year were gingival hyperplasia and prosthesis-related problems (prosthesis screw loosening, occlusal fractures, and occlusal adjustments). The 1-year results in this multicenter are promising regarding implant and bridge stability; however, the study is planned to be running for at least 3 years.

  7. Overview of Deployed EDS Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, H E; Crawford, C

    2009-09-24

    The term explosive detection system (EDS) is used by the TSA to describe equipment that is certified to detect explosives in checked bags. The EDS, as certified, by the TSL must consist of device for interrogating a bag and an automated detection algorithm (ATD) for evaluating the results of the interrogation. We only consider CT as the interrogation device in this report. A schematic drawing of a CT-based EDS is shown in Figure 2. The output of the ATD is the binary decision of alarm or non-alarm. Alarms may true- or false-positives. Non-alarms may be true- or false-negatives. False positives are also denoted false alarms. The true detection means that the ATD reports an alarm when a threat is present in the scanned bag. The probability of detecting a threat given that a threat is present is denoted the probability of detection (PD). The probability of false alarm (PFA) is the case when an alarm is reported when a threat is not present in a bag. Certification in this context means passing tests for PD and PFA at the TSL. The results of the EDS include CT cross-sectional images of the bag and specifics about the alarmed objects generated by ATD. These results are presented on a display so that a person may override the decision of ATD and declare the alarm to be a non-alarm. This process is denoted clearing. Bags that are not cleared by the person are sent to a secondary inspection process. Here the bags may be opened or assessed with explosive trace detection (ETD) in order to clear the bags. Bags that are not cleared at this point are evaluated by an ordinance disposal team. The CT scanner along with ATD is denoted Level 1 screening. The process of clearing on a display is denoted Level 2 screening. Secondary inspection is denoted Level 3 screening. Vendors of the deployed EDSs supply the TSA with equipment for all three levels. Therefore, the term EDS may include the equipment provided for Levels 1, 2 and 3. A schematic diagram of an EDS and the levels of

  8. Technology Status and the Future of Large Deployable Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Akira; Harada, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Hironori; Tsunoda, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Mitsunobu; Mizuno, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    the number of cables in the conventional S-band antenna reflector. An equilibrium shape analysis confirms that the surface error of better than 0.4 mmRMS can be achieved. reliability in defining the difficulty index of ground deployment testing for large deployable antennas. The relationship between the index value and the accuracy of results from ground deployment testing has been estimated by deployment testing of a simple deployment truss structure under both full and micro- gravity conditions. We found that the deployment reliability of a deployable structure can not be evaluated with adequate accuracy if its size exceeds 10 m.The structure must be divided into modules ofappropriate size. Basic studies on inflatable structures and flexible patch elements for future large aperture, sophisticated direct radiation array antennas are underway. Inflatable structures, which consist of rigidized materials and flexible patch elements for feed elements, are interesting candidates. In addition to these studies, distributed sensor/actuator location, non-linear vibration control method, and optimum design methods are also being addressed. They are key technologies for high performance, highly stable, and re-configurable antenna systems.

  9. Using mechanical produced TI-moduls with a favourable facade construction for prefabricated building with light concrete slabs. Final report; Einsatz maschinell gefertigter TWD-Module in einer optimierten Fassadenkonstruktion an Montagebauten mit Leichtbetonelementen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Klinkert, V. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Kultur Leipzig (F.H.) (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The existing building stock is characterized by high energy related carbon emissions due to high demands of fossil fuels. The present project investigates how well various solar systems succeeded at reducing the high energy consumption in a retrofitted school building in Wurzen, Germany. The renovated school building is highly representative for Eastern Germany, as it is mainly constructed out of prefabricated building elements. 300 m{sup 2} of transparently insulation were integrated into the Southern facade at comparably moderate system costs since the external shading device for the TI-wall and the windows were integrated into a single unit. Other features of the renovation were improved opaque insulation, new double-glazed windows with a low emissive coat and a new heating system. The new controlling system of the central heating is running on a central computer and is based on indoor room temperatures and the time table of the school. Buildings which are constructed out of prefabricated, light concrete building elements - like the one investigated in this project - require specially construction to attach the TI-moduls to the external building wall. For the investigated building, an energy yield of the TI-facade of 76 kWh/m{sup 2} facade area has been achieved. A solar-thermal system efficiency of 18% was observed and the specific heating demand was reduced from 170 kWh/m{sup 2} to 53 kWh/m{sup 2} after renovation which corresponds to a reduction of 69%. The system costs of the TI-wall consisted of 62% from TI-moduls, 14% for the shading device, 14% for the supporting structure and 10% for the installation. The equivalent energy costs archived in this project, related of the whole renovation, were 0.45 DM/kWh without subsides, and 0.24 DM/kWh with subsides. These results demonstrate, that the energy yields of a transparently insulated solar mass wall can balance out heat transmission and ventilation losses in middle European climate. (orig.) [German] In der

  10. Using mechanical produced TI-moduls with a favourable facade construction for prefabricated building with light concrete slabs. Final report; Einsatz maschinell gefertigter TWD-Module in einer optimierten Fassadenkonstruktion an Montagebauten mit Leichtbetonelementen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Klinkert, V. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Kultur Leipzig (F.H.) (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The existing building stock is characterized by high energy related carbon emissions due to high demands of fossil fuels. The present project investigates how well various solar systems succeeded at reducing the high energy consumption in a retrofitted school building in Wurzen, Germany. The renovated school building is highly representative for Eastern Germany, as it is mainly constructed out of prefabricated building elements. 300 m{sup 2} of transparently insulation were integrated into the Southern facade at comparably moderate system costs since the external shading device for the TI-wall and the windows were integrated into a single unit. Other features of the renovation were improved opaque insulation, new double-glazed windows with a low emissive coat and a new heating system. The new controlling system of the central heating is running on a central computer and is based on indoor room temperatures and the time table of the school. Buildings which are constructed out of prefabricated, light concrete building elements - like the one investigated in this project - require specially construction to attach the TI-moduls to the external building wall. For the investigated building, an energy yield of the TI-facade of 76 kWh/m{sup 2} facade area has been achieved. A solar-thermal system efficiency of 18% was observed and the specific heating demand was reduced from 170 kWh/m{sup 2} to 53 kWh/m{sup 2} after renovation which corresponds to a reduction of 69%. The system costs of the TI-wall consisted of 62% from TI-moduls, 14% for the shading device, 14% for the supporting structure and 10% for the installation. The equivalent energy costs archived in this project, related of the whole renovation, were 0.45 DM/kWh without subsides, and 0.24 DM/kWh with subsides. These results demonstrate, that the energy yields of a transparently insulated solar mass wall can balance out heat transmission and ventilation losses in middle European climate. (orig.) [German] In der

  11. 应用预成弹性印模桩临床制取桩核印模的初步观察%Preliminary observation of using prefabricated elastomeric post for post and core impression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琼; 施生根; 张凯; 牛忠英; 洪彪; 闫澍

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the application of a proprietary preformed elastomeric post on preparation of post and core impression in clinical practice. Methods:Seventy endodontically treated single-root canal teeth with large defects of tooth structure were enrolled. The method of using the prefabricated elastomeric impression post proprietarily developed by our research group (experimental group) and the traditional method (control group) were used and evaluated on prepara-tion of post and core impression, respectively. Result: The impression defects in experimental and control groups were 44.29%and 74.29%, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). The apical impression defects in experimental and control groups were 2.96%and 41.43%, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). The post body defects in experimental and control groups were 4.29%and 35.71%, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). The available rate in experiment group was significantly higher than the control (93.75%vs 60.00%). Conclusion:The propri-etary prefabricated elastomeric impression post could improve post and core impression integrity during clinical practice.%目的:评估本课题组自主研制的预成弹性印模桩临床制取桩核印模的效果。方法:用预成弹性印模桩法(实验组)和传统方法(对照组)分别对70颗牙体大面积缺损、根管治疗后要求桩核冠修复的单根管患牙各制取桩核印模,观察两种方法制取桩核印模的完整性。结果:实验组和对照组印模桩核区印模缺陷的发生率分别为44.29%、74.29%,两者之间的差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);实验组和对照组印模缺陷在根尖部的发生率分别为2.96%、41.43%,两者之间的差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);实验组和对照组印模缺陷在桩体部的发生率分别为4.29%、35.71%,两者之间的差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);实验组和对照组桩

  12. Effect of interference on transmission for newly deployed wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jin; Huang Zailu

    2007-01-01

    The co-channel interference (collisions) seriously affect the transmission for the newly deployed wireless sensor networks since there is no structure at that phase. In this paper, the interference of the whole network is analyzed based on the SNIR model. The new concept of critical transmitting range is proposed, based on which the transmission theorem is obtained and proved. The results provide the theoretical ground to set up the primary structure of newly deployed networks.

  13. A bionic approach to mathematical modeling the fold geometry of deployable reflector antennas on satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, C. M.; Liu, T. S.

    2014-10-01

    Inspired from biology, this study presents a method for designing the fold geometry of deployable reflectors. Since the space available inside rockets for transporting satellites with reflector antennas is typically cylindrical in shape, and its cross-sectional area is considerably smaller than the reflector antenna after deployment, the cross-sectional area of the folded reflector must be smaller than the available rocket interior space. Membrane reflectors in aerospace are a type of lightweight structure that can be packaged compactly. To design membrane reflectors from the perspective of deployment processes, bionic applications from morphological changes of plants are investigated. Creating biologically inspired reflectors, this paper deals with fold geometry of reflectors, which imitate flower buds. This study uses mathematical formulation to describe geometric profiles of flower buds. Based on the formulation, new designs for deployable membrane reflectors derived from bionics are proposed. Adjusting parameters in the formulation of these designs leads to decreases in reflector area before deployment.

  14. TQM and lean strategy deployment in Italian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, Andrea; Baccarani, Claudio

    2016-10-03

    Purpose This paper aims to contribute to the debate concerning total quality management (TQM)-Lean strategy in public healthcare by analyzing the deployment path for implementation, the possible benefits that can be achieved and the encountered pitfalls. Design/methodology/approach Three case studies are drawn from three large Italian hospitals with more than 500 beds each and structured with many departments. The hospitals are located in Tuscany, Italy. These three hospitals have embraced TQM and Lean, starting from strategic objectives and their deployment. At the same time, they have also implemented many TQM-Lean tools. The case studies are based on interviews held with four managers in each of these three public hospitals. Findings Results from the interviews show that there is a specific deployment path for TQM-Lean implementation. The hospitals have also achieved benefits linked to patient satisfaction and improved organizational performances. Problems related to organizational and cultural issues, such as senior managers' commitment, staff management, manufacturing culture and tools adaptation, could affect the benefits. Research limitations/implications The research has been carried out in just three Italian public hospitals. Hence, similar investigations could be managed in other countries. Researchers could also use a larger sample and investigate these issues by means of quantitative inquiry. Practical implications Practitioners could try to apply the deployment path revealed by these case studies in other public and private hospitals. Originality/value The results of this research show that there is a specific, new deployment path for implementing TQM-Lean strategy in some public hospitals.

  15. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  16. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  17. Field guide to quick deployment thermocouples

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions for quick deployment of thermocouples to measure fire intensity at Kulm Wetland Management District as part of the Fire Intensity Monitoring survey....

  18. High Efficiency, Deployable Solar Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ultrathin, lightweight, flexible, and easily deployable solar cell (SC) capable of specific power greater than 1kW/kg are at an early stage of development for...

  19. Surface Optimization Techniques for Deployable Reflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this and several other programs, CTD has developed TEMBOREG deployable solid-surface reflectors (TEMBOREG Reflectors) to provide future NASA and Air Force...

  20. Office of Civilian Response Deployment Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The purpose of OCR DTS is to establish, manage and track relevant Civilian Response Corps teams for deployment by sector experience, training, education etc.

  1. DBAS: A Deployable Bandwidth Aggregation System

    CERN Document Server

    Habak, Karim; Harras, Khaled A

    2012-01-01

    The explosive increase in data demand coupled with the rapid deployment of various wireless access technologies have led to the increase of number of multi-homed or multi-interface enabled devices. Fully exploiting these interfaces has motivated researchers to propose numerous solutions that aggregate their available bandwidths to increase overall throughput and satisfy the end-user's growing data demand. These solutions, however, have faced a steep deployment barrier that we attempt to overcome in this paper. We propose a Deployable Bandwidth Aggregation System (DBAS) for multi-interface enabled devices. Our system does not introduce any intermediate hardware, modify current operating systems, modify socket implementations, nor require changes to current applications or legacy servers. The DBAS architecture is designed to automatically estimate the characteristics of applications and dynamically schedule various connections or packets to different interfaces. Since our main focus is deployability, we fully i...

  2. Extreme Environment Sampling System Deployment Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Venus or Comet mission architectures may feature robotic sampling systems comprised of a Sampling Tool and Deployment Mechanism. Since 2005, Honeybee has been...

  3. Demonstration and Deployment Strategy Workshop: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-05-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Demonstration and Deployment Strategy Workshop, held on March 12–13, 2014, at Argonne National Laboratory.

  4. Spacecraft Dynamic Characteristics While Deploying Flexible Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程绪铎; 李俊峰; 樊勇; 王照林

    2002-01-01

    The attitude dynamic equations of a spacecraft while deploying two flexible beams and the beam equations were developed from momentum theory. The dynamic equations were solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta method to calculate the vibration amplitudes of the flexible beams and the attitude angular velocity. The results show that the vibration amplitudes increase as the beam length increases or as the initial attitude angular velocity increases. The results also show that the vibration amplitudes decrease as the deployment velocity increases.

  5. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, T. [State of Illinois Washington Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  6. Deploying Renewables - Best and Future Policy Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-23

    The global energy system faces urgent challenges. Concerns about energy security are growing, as highlighted by the recent political turmoil in Northern Africa and the nuclear incident in Fukushima. At the same time, the need to respond to climate change is more critical than ever. Against this background, many governments have increased efforts to promote deployment of renewable energy -- low-carbon sources that can strengthen energy security. This has stimulated unprecedented rise in deployment, and renewables are now the fastest growing sector of the energy mix. This 'coming of age' of renewable energy also brings challenges. Growth is focused on a few of the available technologies, and rapid deployment is confined to a relatively small number of countries. In more advanced markets, managing support costs and system integration of large shares of renewable energy in a time of economic weakness and budget austerity has sparked vigorous political debate. The IEA's new report, Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice: - Provides a comprehensive review and analysis of renewable energy policy and market trends; - Analyses in detail the dynamics of deployment and provides best-practice policy principles for different stages of market maturity; - Assesses the impact and cost-effectiveness of support policies using new methodological tools and indicators; - Investigates the strategic reasons underpinning the pursuit of RE deployment by different countries and the prospects for globalisation of RE. This new book builds on and extends a 2008 IEA publication, drawing on recent policy and deployment experience world-wide. It provides guidance for policy makers and other stakeholders to avoid past mistakes, overcome new challenges and reap the benefits of deploying renewables -- today and tomorrow.

  7. Deployable radiator with flexible line loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Bryan V. (Inventor); Lehtinen, Arthur Mathias (Inventor); McGee, Billy W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Radiator assembly (10) for use on a spacecraft (12) is provided including at least one radiator panel assembly (26) repeatably movable between a panel stowed position (28) and a panel deployed position (36), at least two flexible lines (40) in fluid communication with the at least one radiator panel assembly (26) and repeatably movable between a stowage loop (42) and a flattened deployed loop (44).

  8. A stowing and deployment strategy for large membrane space systems on the example of Gossamer-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Patric

    2017-09-01

    Deployment systems for innovative space applications such as solar sails require a technique for a controlled and autonomous deployment in space. The deployment process has a strong impact on the mechanism and structural design and sizing. On the example of the design implemented in the Gossamer-1 project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), such a stowing and deployment process is analyzed. It is based on a combination of zig-zag folding and coiling of triangular sail segments spanned between crossed booms. The deployment geometry and forces introduced by the mechanism considered are explored in order to reveal how the loads are transferred through the membranes to structural components such as the booms. The folding geometry and force progressions are described by function compositions of an inverse trigonometric function with the considered trigonometric function itself. If these functions are evaluated over several periods of the trigonometric function, a non-smooth oscillating curve occurs. Depending on the trigonometric function, these are often vividly described as zig-zag or sawtooth functions. The developed functions are applied to the Gossamer-1 design. The deployment geometry reveals a tendency that the loads are transferred along the catheti of the sail segments and therefore mainly along the boom axes. The load introduced by the spool deployment mechanism is described. By combining the deployment geometry with that load, a prediction of the deployment load progression is achieved. The mathematical description of the stowing and deployment geometry, as well as the forces inflicted by the mechanism provides an understanding of how exactly the membrane deploys and through which edges the deployment forces are transferred. The mathematical analysis also gives an impression of sensitive parameters that could be influenced by manufacturing tolerances or unsymmetrical deployment of the sail segments. While the mathematical model was applied on the design of

  9. 78 FR 77550 - Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Federal Highway Administration Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants AGENCY: Federal... is extending the application period for the Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants... Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants. The purpose of this notice was to invite States...

  10. ELECTROSPUN MESOFIBERS, A NOVEL BIODEGRADABLE PHEROMONE DISPENSER TECHNOLOGY, ARE COMBINED WITH MECHANICAL DEPLOYMENT FOR EFFICIENT IPM OF LOBESIA BOTRANA IN VINEYARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Hans E; Langner, S S; Breuer, M

    2015-01-01

    Behaviour modifying pheromones are well known agents for disrupting mating communication of pest insects. For optimal activity, they must be dispensed in time and space at a quantitatively measurable, predetermined release rate covering the flight period of the target species. Pheromones appeal to environmentally conscientious entomologists for their biodegradability, non-toxicity and ecological compatibility. In attempts of combining the virtues of pheromones, suitable slow release dispensers, and their mechanical deployment, an ecologically sensible, reasonably priced and patented procedure was developed and tested with the vineyard pest Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae). It is characterized by (1) Electrospun mesofibers with diameters ranging from 0.6 to 3.5 micrometres, containing disruptants and dispensing it by slow release diffusion into the crop, (2) simultaneous application of the fully biodegradable combination of pheromone with Ecoflex polyester mesofiber, (3) combination of mechanical deployment by multi-purpose cultivators of the prefabricated pheromone dispensers with other simultaneous cultivation measures, and thus further reducing labour time and treatment costs. The dispensers are biodegradable within half a year without leaving any objectionable residues. In the standard eco-toxicology tests pheromone dispensers are harmless to non-target organisms. The disruptive effect of one treatment lasts for seven weeks which covers well one of several flight periods of L. botrana.

  11. Deploying process modeling and attitude control of a satellite with a large deployable antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigang Xing; Gangtie Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Modeling and attitude control methods for a satellite with a large deployable antenna are studied in the present paper. Firstly, for reducing the model dimension, three dynamic models for the deploying process are developed, which are built with the methods of multi-rigid-body dynamics, hybrid coordinate and substructure. Then an attitude control method suitable for the deploying process is proposed, which can keep stability under any dynamical parameter variation. Subsequently, this attitude...

  12. Design and Thermal Analysis for Space Deployable Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fu-Ling; Huang, Jiang; Zhang, Shu-Jie

    2002-01-01

    sensibility and thermal stability. But deployable antenna always enters into and leaves the earth shadow periodically when it orbits the earth, and it is affected by the shadows of itself Thus a key design for the antenna structure is to control its deformation in a limited range. Obviously, thermal analysis is very important for such structure to maintain its high thermal stability. of a supported backbone (deployable truss) and a reflector surface (flexible mesh). All analysis in this dissertation is based on this model, such as temperature field analysis, thermal deformation analysis, thermal stress analysis, thermal vibration analysis, and so on. tetrahedral element, is discussed. And the mechanism of spider nodes, middle nodes and torsion springs in these nodes are also illustrated. 6-node triangular membrane element are deduced. A temperature analysis procedure has been programmed. The obvious change in temperature happens when the antenna enter into the earth shadow, so this case should be studied to decide whether the temperature of the structure and its components are in the limited range or not. membrane element are put forward. According to the stiffness matrix of these elements and the structural equilibrium equations, thermal deformation and thermal stress of the structure can be computed. The results show that either the thermal deformation or the thermal stress is in the desired range, they have little effect on the shape and stiffness of the entire structure. vibration. The thermally vibration responses of the antenna are studied when it enters into the earth shadow from sunshine and when it enters into sunshine from the earth shadow. The results show that in both cases, there is no vibration in Y direction. The velocity and acceleration in X direction and Z direction are both small, but the displacement in X direction is large, the maximum is 6.5mm. Keyword: Deployable antenna; self-shadow; thermal deformation; thermal stress

  13. A small deployable infrared diffractive membrane imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Jin, Jiangao; Wang, Baohua; Wu, Peng; Jiao, Jianchao; Su, Yun

    2016-10-01

    Diffractive membrane imaging can be widely used in infrared band due to its longer minimum linewidth and loose requirement of RMS to fabricate more easily and reduce production period and manufacturing cost than used in visible band. A deployable infrared diffractive membrane imaging system was designed, consisting of Φ200mm imaging aperture (actual aperture is Φ500mm) and deployable structure that supports the infrared membrane under tension. Its spectral band width is >1.2μm, field of view is >1°, and diffractive efficiency can be >60%. Stowed size is 150mm×150mm×400mm. Research result of this project can promote the application of diffractive membrane imaging in infrared band and provide an effective and feasible means for achieving extremely large optical primary mirror from compact, lightweight payload.

  14. Cathodic Protection Deployment on Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Lee M.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion protection of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters incorporates the use of cathodic protection(anodes) in concert with several coatings systems. The SRB design has large carbon/carbon composites(motor nozzle) electrically connected to an aluminum alloy structure. Early in the STS program, the aluminum structures incurred tremendous corrosive attack due primarily to the galvanic couple to the carbon/carbon nozzle at coating damage locations. Also contributing to the galvanic corrosion problem were stainless steel and titanium alloy components housed within the aluminum structures and electrically connected to the aluminum structures. This paper will highlight the evolution in the protection of the aluminum structures, providing historical information and summary data from the operation of the corrosion protection systems. Also, data and information will be included regarding the evaluation and deployment of inorganic zinc rich primers as anode area on the aluminum structures.

  15. IEA Wind Task 23 Offshore Wind Technology and Deployment. Subtask 1 Experience with Critical Deployment Issues. Final Technical Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    The final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports: Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). The Subtask 1 report included here provides background...... information and objectives of Task 23. It specifically discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration and offshore wind, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. The Subtask 2 report covers OC3 background information and objectives of the task, OC3 benchmark exercises...... of aero-elastic offshore wind turbine codes, monopile foundation modeling, tripod support structure modeling, and Phase IV results regarding floating wind turbine modeling....

  16. Parametric Study of the Elementary Segment of an Antiprismatic Pop-Up Deployable Lattice Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedman Noémi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the primary segment of an antiprismatic pop-up mast is analyzed, that can be applied for largely flexible architectural designs, like deployable bridges or transportable look-out towers. This deployable column, consisting of rigid plates, rigid and elastic bars, is characterized by its selfdeploying behavior due to the energy accumulated from lengthening the elastic bars during packing. The main goal of this paper is to prepare the analysis of the complex structure by a herein detailed investigation of the behavior of one, basic element of the deployable mast. After the analytical examination of the general behavior of the basic segment a geometrically nonlinear finite element formulation is used to trace the force-displacement diagram. Besides the parametric study, approximations of main mechanical parameters are herein given for facilitating preliminary design of such deployable structures.

  17. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  18. Colgajo prefabricado occipital para cobertura de exposición ósea craneal Prefabricated occipital flap to cover craneal bone exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rivas León

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La exposición del cráneo tras un tratamiento quirúrgico oncológico agresivo es un desafió reconstructivo para el cirujano plástico; los defectos pueden variar en dimensiones y complejidad, desde pequeños defectos, que pueden ser cubiertos con injertos dérmicos o colgajos locales, a defectos más extensos que requerirán de un colgajo libre para su cobertura. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 39 años de edad que presentó un defecto biparietal posterior a radioterapia y resección por carcinoma. El defecto fue cubierto con un colgajo prefabricado axial, tomado del área antebraquial e implantado bajo la piel cabelluda occipital, para posteriormente ser llevado al sitio del defecto. El colgajo axial occipital evolucionó satisfactoriamente y logramos cubrir el defecto en su totalidad, sin complicaciones. En conclusión, el colgajo prefabricado occipital aporta suficiente piel cabelluda con patrón vascular axial para cubrir hueso craneal expuesto, cuando no hay una mejor opción cosmética.Cranial bone exposition after an aggressive oncological treatment is a challenge for plastic surgeon; defects can range in size and complexity, from small defects which can be covered only with skin graft or local flaps, to extensive defects that will require a free flap cover. We report a case of a 39 years-old man, who presented soft tissue defect of biparietal area following to radiotherapy and carcinoma resection. This defect was covered by prefabricated axial flap, which was harvest of forearm area and implanted under occipital hair skin and subsequently transported to the defect. The axial occipital flap healed uneventfully with a good outcome; we managed to cover the scalp defect completely without complications. As a conclusion, prefabricated occipital flap provides enough hair skin, with axial vascularity pattern to cover cranial bone exposed, when there is not a better cosmetical option.

  19. Optimization of Hydroacoustic Equipment Deployments at Lookout Point and Cougar Dams, Willamette Valley Project, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.

    2010-08-18

    The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the fixed-location hydroacoustic systems at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) and the acoustic imaging system at Cougar Dam (CGR) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods that minimized structural, electrical, and acoustic interference. The general approach was a multi-step process from mount design to final system configuration. The optimization effort resulted in successful deployments of hydroacoustic equipment at LOP and CGR.

  20. Deployment Instabilities of Lobed-Pumpkin Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi

    A lobed-pumpkin balloon, currently being developed in ISAS/JAXA as well as in NASA, is a promising vehicle for long duration scientific observations in the stratosphere. Recent ground and flight experiments, however, have revealed that the balloon has deployment instabilities under certain conditions. In order to overcome the instability problems, a next generation SPB called 'tawara' type balloon has been proposed, in which an additional cylindrical part is appended to the standard lobed-pumpkin balloon. The present study investigates the deployment stability of tawara type SPB in comparison to that of standard lobed-pumpkin SPB through eigenvalue analysis on the basis of finite element methods. Our numerical results show that tawara type SPB enjoys excellent deployment performance over the standard lobed-pumpkin SPBs.

  1. Service Creation and Deployment in Converged Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, José

    This monograph (Early Experiences related to Service Creation & Deployment in Converged Networks) presents different experiences related to architectures and mechanisms for deployment of telephony services, understood as especial features complementing the basic voice service. The context...... for these experiences is the transition of telecommunication (telephony) networks from circuit switched based systems towards packet based ones. The text of this monograph proceeds, unaltered for the most, from the author’s PhD thesis “Framework for Deployment of Advanced Telecommunication Services in Current...... and Future Converged Networks”, carried out at the Technical University of Denmark in the period [April 2002-April 2005]. Even though the technologies presented in the text have evolved from that period until now, the presented scenarios and setups are still valid as interesting initial steps in the realm....

  2. Deploying Embodied AI into Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, David J. H.

    The last two years have seen the start of commercial activity within virtual worlds. Unlike computer games where Non-Player-Character avatars are common, in most virtual worlds they are the exception — and until recently in Second Life they were non-existent. However there is real commercial scope for Als in these worlds — in roles from virtual sales staff and tutors to personal assistants. Deploying an embodied AI into a virtual world offers a unique opportunity to evaluate embodied Als, and to develop them within an environment where human and computer are on almost equal terms. This paper presents an architecture being used for the deployment of chatbot driven avatars within the Second Life virtual world, looks at the challenges of deploying an AI within such a virtual world, the possible implications for the Turing Test, and identifies research directions for the future.

  3. Performance of an automatically deployable ROPS on ASAE tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, J R; Harris, J R; Etherton, J R; Snyder, K A; Ronaghi, M; Newbraugh, B H

    2001-02-01

    In the U.S., approximately 132 agricultural tractor overturn fatalities occur per year. The use of rollover protective structures (ROPS), along with seat belts, is the best-known method for preventing these fatalities. However, one impediment to ROPS use is low-clearance situations, such as orchards and animal confinement buildings. To address the need for ROPS that are easily adapted to low-clearance situations, the Division of Safety Research, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, developed a prototype automatically deploying, telescoping ROPS (AutoROPS). The NIOSH AutoROPS consists of two subsystems. The first is a retractable ROPS that is normally latched in its lowered position for day-to-day use. The second subsystem is a sensor that monitors the operating angle of the tractor. If an overturn condition is detected by the sensor, the retracted ROPS will deploy and lock in the full upright position before ground contact. Static load testing and field upset tests of the NIOSH AutoROPS have been conducted in accordance with SAE standard J2194. Additionally, timed trials of the AutoROPS deployment mechanism were completed. The results of these tests show that the NIOSH AutoROPS has significant potential to overcome the limitations of current ROPS designs for use in low clearance as well as unrestricted clearance operations.

  4. 预制T梁钢筋定位安装与保护层控制技术%Prefabricated T beam reinforced positioning installation and control technology of protection layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮秦

    2012-01-01

    Combining with the reinforced construction examples of a section of prefabricated T beam of Yong-Ning highway,through the development of QC technology research activities,this paper researched the positioning installation technology of highway prefabricated T beam reinforced and control technology of protective layers,greatly improving the construction quality and efficiency of prefabricated T beam reinforcement,the experience and results obtained had very referential reference value for the future similar engineering construction.%结合永宁高速公路某标段预制T梁钢筋施工实例,通过开展QC技术攻关活动,研究改进了公路预制T梁钢筋定位安装工艺和保护层控制技术,大大提高了预制T梁钢筋施工质量和功效;所取得的经验和成果对今后类似工程施工非常有借鉴参考价值。

  5. 预制线性排水系统与常见室外排水系统比较%Comparison of Prefabricated Linear Drainage System and Conventional Outdoor Drainage System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 陆烨

    2012-01-01

    通过室外场地排水的常见解决方案的比较,以及对树脂混凝土预制线性排水系统(以下简称预制线性排水系统)水力性能、载重能力、材质的分析,特别在美观实用上,认为预制线性排水系统比常见的点式雨水口排水及现浇现筑式线性排水系统更具优势,可广泛应用于公共建筑、砖石铺装地面、景观构造地面、机场、工业场地、卸货场等重荷载交通区域、亦适用于道路路面排水.%Prefabricated linear drainage system was found with more advantages than common point-type rain water inlet drainage system and cast-in-situ lype linear conduit drainage system according to the comparison of common solutions to outdoor drainage system and hydranlic characteristic, carrying capacity, material, especially in aesthetics and practical of prefabricated linear drainage system. Research result shows that prefabricated linear drainage system can be widely used in public buildings, brick grounds, landscape grounds, airports, industry aeras, unload fields, heavy 5oad traffic areas and road drainage systems as well.

  6. Industrial deployment of system engineering methods

    CERN Document Server

    Romanovsky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A formal method is not the main engine of a development process, its contribution is to improve system dependability by motivating formalisation where useful. This book summarizes the results of the DEPLOY research project on engineering methods for dependable systems through the industrial deployment of formal methods in software development. The applications considered were in automotive, aerospace, railway, and enterprise information systems, and microprocessor design.  The project introduced a formal method, Event-B, into several industrial organisations and built on the lessons learned to

  7. Development of Norms for the Post-deployment Reintegration Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    perspective. Recognizing the importance of successful post-deployment reintegration to optimal operational readiness, Canadian military researchers...of successful post-deployment reintegration to optimal operational readiness, Canadian military researchers developed the Army Post- Deployment... successful post-deployment reintegration to optimal operational readiness, and attempting to address the gaps and limitations of existing

  8. Beam white dot prevention of box beam prefabrication%箱梁预制过程中梁体白点的防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保敏

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rapid development of high speed railway,bridge construction has come to a stage of rapid develop-ment.Combining with mark box beam prefabrication of Hang -Yong HYZQ -3,the concrete construction technology is briefly stated,and beam white dot problem is analyzed in detail.By improving vibrating spear,the white dot problem is well solved and it brings economic benefits and social benefits.%由于高速铁路的迅速发展,桥梁建设也进入快速发展阶段。结合杭甬客运专线 HYZQ -3标的32/24 m 简支整孔箱梁预制工程,就混凝土施工工艺进行了简要介绍,并重点对梁体白点问题进行了分析研究,通过改良振动棒,有效防治了白点问题,带来了经济和社会效益。

  9. Heel raises versus prefabricated orthoses in the treatment of posterior heel pain associated with calcaneal apophysitis (Sever's Disease: a randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Cylie M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posterior Heel pain can present in children of 8 to 14 years, associated with or clinically diagnosed as Sever's disease, or calcaneal apophysitis. Presently, there are no comparative randomised studies evaluating treatment options for posterior heel pain in children with the clinical diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis or Sever's disease. This study seeks to compare the clinical efficacy of some currently employed treatment options for the relief of disability and pain associated with posterior heel pain in children. Method Design: Factorial 2 × 2 randomised controlled trial with monthly follow-up for 3 months. Participants: Children with clinically diagnosed posterior heel pain possibly associated with calcaneal apophysitis/Sever's disease (n = 124. Interventions: Treatment factor 1 will be two types of shoe orthoses: a heel raise or prefabricated orthoses. Both of these interventions are widely available, mutually exclusive treatment approaches that are relatively low in cost. Treatment factor 2 will be a footwear prescription/replacement intervention involving a shoe with a firm heel counter, dual density EVA midsole and rear foot control. The alternate condition in this factor is no footwear prescription/replacement, with the participant wearing their current footwear. Outcomes: Oxford Foot and Ankle Questionnaire and the Faces pain scale. Discussion This will be a randomised trial to compare the efficacy of various treatment options for posterior heel pain in children that may be associated with calcaneal apophysitis also known as Sever's disease. Trial Registration Trial Number: ACTRN12609000696291 Ethics Approval Southern Health: HREC Ref: 09271B

  10. Los Alamos National Laboratory Tritium Technology Deployments Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFee, J.; Blauvelt, D.; Stallings, E.; Willms, S.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the organization, planning and initial implementation of a DOE OST program to deploy proven, cost effective technologies into D&D programs throughout the complex. The primary intent is to accelerate closure of the projects thereby saving considerable funds and at the same time being protective of worker health and the environment. Most of the technologies in the ''toolkit'' for this program have been demonstrated at a DOE site as part of a Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP). The Mound Tritium D&D LSDDP served as the base program for the technologies being deployed in this project but other LSDDP demonstrated technologies or ready-for-use commercial technologies will also be considered. The project team will evaluate needs provided by site D&D project managers, match technologies against those needs and rank deployments using a criteria listing. After selecting deployments the project will purchase the equipment and provide a deployment engineer to facilitate the technology implementation. Other cost associated with the use of the technology will be borne by the site including operating staff, safety and health reviews etc. A cost and performance report will be prepared following the deployment to document the results.

  11. Deployment Strategies and Clustering Protocols Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérif Diallo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks face significant design challenges due to limited computing and storage capacities and, most importantly, dependence on limited battery power. Energy is a critical resource and is often an important issue to the deployment of sensor applications that claim to be omnipresent in the world of future. Thus optimizing the deployment of sensors becomes a major constraint in the design and implementation of a WSN in order to ensure better network operations. In wireless networking, clustering techniques add scalability, reduce the computation complexity of routing protocols, allow data aggregation and then enhance the network performance. The well-known MaxMin clustering algorithm was previously generalized, corrected and validated. Then, in a previous work we have improved MaxMin by proposing a Single- node Cluster Reduction (SNCR mechanism which eliminates single-node clusters and then improve energy efficiency. In this paper, we show that MaxMin, because of its original pathological case, does not support the grid deployment topology, which is frequently used in WSN architectures. The unreliability feature of the wireless links could have negative impacts on Link Quality Indicator (LQI based clustering protocols. So, in the second part of this paper we show how our distributed Link Quality based d- Clustering Protocol (LQI-DCP has good performance in both stable and high unreliable link environments. Finally, performance evaluation results also show that LQI-DCP fully supports the grid deployment topology and is more energy efficient than MaxMin.

  12. Hepatitis B infection following deployment to Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, A M; Ollerton, J E; Fear, N T

    2008-01-01

    We describe the clinical illness and long-term follow up of two British personnel who acquired hepatitis B infection during a 3-month UN mission to Angola. Medical officers need to be familiar with this viral illness, which may present in military personnel after any exercise in or deployment to the tropics or subtropics.

  13. Diogenes, Dogfaced Soldiers, and Deployment Music Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Geoffrey; Williamson, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This webtext explores the cynical/kynical humor of soldier videos, suggesting that amateur videos paradoxically both undercut authority and honor effective leaders, both make light of and also publicly reveal deployment hardships, both distance the performers from military groupthink and celebrate unit camaraderie.

  14. Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager advanced deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Coupland, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    If you are an experienced Configuration Manager administrator looking to advance your career or get more from your current environment, then this book is ideal for you. Prior experience of deploying and managing a Configuration Manager site would be helpful in following the examples throughout this book.

  15. Decreasing Non-Deployables: A Critical Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    scheduled for ETS/retirement; 203 were non-deployable for parenthood issues ( parenthood is defined as a military mother of a new born or one parent of a...personnel policies during contingency operations into a single document. Based on the vast number of personnel changes during the Global War on

  16. ELFms deployment in- and outside CERN CC

    CERN Document Server

    Cancio, G

    2004-01-01

    ELFms (http://cern.ch/elfms) stands for Extremely Large Fabric management system, and comprises tools for fabric configuration and installation (Quattor), monitoring (Lemon), and hardware/state management (LEAF). In this talk, I will describe the ELFms modules and overall architecture, as well as the integration/deployment status at CERN-CC and other sites/projects.

  17. Investigating Veterans' Pre-, Peri-, and Post-Deployment Experiences as Potential Risk Factors for Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Seth W; Potenza, Marc N; Park, Crystal L; McKee, Sherry A; Mazure, Carolyn M; Hoff, Rani A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Gambling disorder and its comorbid diagnoses are observed at higher rates in military veterans than in the general population. A significant research gap exists regarding the relationships of veterans' life and service experiences to problematic gambling. The present study explored pre-, peri-, and post-deployment factors associated with problem gambling in veterans. Methods Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (n = 738; 463 males, and 275 females) completed questionnaires via structured telephone interview. We conducted bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses exploring associations among problem-gambling severity and socio-demographic variables, psychiatric comorbidities, and 10 scales of the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory measuring experiences pre-, peri-, and post-deployment. Results Approximately 4.2% of veterans indicated at-risk or probable pathological gambling (ARPG) post-deployment (two or more DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling). Bivariate analyses found more severe gambling in males, higher frequencies of post-traumatic stress disorder, substance dependence, traumatic brain injury, panic disorder, and depression in veterans with ARPG, and higher general harassment during deployment, and lower social support and more stressful life events post-deployment in those with ARPG. In multivariable models, both post-deployment factors remained significantly associated with ARPG. Discussion The study suggests that problem gambling among veterans is related to service experiences, and particularly to life experiences post-deployment. Conclusions Adverse service and life experiences and lack of social support may contribute to the risk of problem gambling in military veterans. Investigation of how Veterans Affairs clinical settings may serve veterans following deployment to prevent behavioral addictions is warranted.

  18. The Effect of Dimension and Geometrical Shape of Prefabricated Post and the Material of Crown on the Stress Levels and Distributions in the Root of Restored Molar Tooth Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Researchers are often looking for appropriate treatments while considering esthetic aspects and health. In endodontically treated teeth afflicted with severe damage or complete loss of the coronal structure, a post is usually inserted in the root canal to provide intra-canal retention of the restorations. Therefore, it seems that it is necessary to investigate the stress distribution in the restored teeth with different post algorithms.Purpose: In this study, the effects of post geometry and its dimensions on the stress distributions and levels in the root of molar teeth repaired by post-core crown (Ceramic, Alumina and Nickel-chrome were studied using finite element method. Materials and Method: An extracted intact mandibular second molar tooth was embedded in a cylindrical acrylic resin mould and then were sliced. The sections generated in this way were photographed and the images were transferred into the Solidworks software. After tooth modeling, Posts and crowns were designed. Then, the samples were exposed to a uniform distributed load of 240 N with the load angle of 45 degree which was applied over the occlusal area. In order to simulate the surrounding area of the tooth and also the periodontal ligament space, the bone was also modeled.Results: Numerical results revealed that in the prefabricated post restoration, there was a stress concentration in the cervical region. The maximum value of normal stress (32.3 MPa was seen in the parallel post with 1.4 diameter (D1.4, and the minimum value (26.7 MPa was observed in the double tapered post (N0.1. It was observed that the increase in the modulus of elasticity from 100 to 300 causes an increase in normal stress from 69.5 to 38.5 MPa and in tensile stress from 69.5 to 38.5 MPa.Conclusion: Numerical analysis showed that the maximum stress concentration in post core crown restoration increased when the posts with 1.4 mm diameter or post with double taper were used. The

  19. Testing and Deployment of Software Systems (in practice)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Mads; Høgh, Stig

    2014-01-01

    received very little focus, since this is probably the most difficult part to implement in a university environment. Because of this observation, in 2011 we decided to launch a new elective course, ‘Testing and deployment of software systems (in practice)’, focusing entirely on the ‘O’ part in CDIO....... The aim of this paper is to describe: • the unified software development process and compare this with CDIO. • the activities covering the ‘O’ part in software engineering. • the course structure and schedule. • the evaluations and comments received from students. The paper concludes that: It is possible...

  20. Quality Function Deployment – QFD As a Strategic Marketing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumeninng Abrantes dos Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Quality Function Deployment (QFD is a structured method that aims to convert the needs and desires of customers in product quality characteristics. From its origins, more than forty years ago, it has been applied in various organizations in product development and improvement of existing products. This paper aims to show how QFD can be used as a strategic marketing tool. The research method is qualitative with bibliographical research. The results indicate that the use of the attributes of the "House of Quality" in the various sales stages is a market differentiation strategy and a wide applicability of QFD in marketing, transcending the boundaries of product design and production areas.

  1. Design, deployment and performance of 4G-LTE networks a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    ElNashar, Ayman; Sherif, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an insight into the key practical aspects and best practice of 4G-LTE network design, performance, and deployment Design, Deployment and Performance of 4G-LTE Networks addresses the key practical aspects and best practice of 4G networks design, performance, and deployment. In addition, the book focuses on the end-to-end aspects of the LTE network architecture and different deployment scenarios of commercial LTE networks. It describes the air interface of LTE focusing on the access stratum protocol layers: PDCP, RLC, MAC, and Physical Layer. The air interface described in this book covers the concepts of LTE frame structure, downlink and uplink scheduling, and detailed illustrations of the data flow across the protocol layers. It describes the details of the optimization process including performance measurements and troubleshooting mechanisms in addition to demonstrating common issues and case studies based on actual field results. The book provides detailed performance analysis of key fe...

  2. Carotid artery stent continued expansion days after deployment, without post stent deployment angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Qazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a carotid artery stent (CAS case report, which avoids post-stent deployment angioplasty (Post-SDA, with duplex confirmed continued stent expansion at 1, 3 and 30-day post deployment. This report confirms that self-expanding nitinol stents in the carotid artery may not require Post-SDA. We believe CAS can be performed without Post-SDA, which helps reduce the occurrence of intraoperative hemodynamic depression.

  3. Parametric analysis and temperature effect of deployable hinged shells using shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Yang, Qing-Sheng; He, Xiao-Qiao; Liew, Kim-Meow

    2016-11-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of intelligent materials, which are defined by their capacity to store a temporary shape and recover an original shape. In this work, the shape memory effect of SMP deployable hinged shell is simulated by using compiled user defined material subroutine (UMAT) subroutine of ABAQUS. Variations of bending moment and strain energy of the hinged shells with different temperatures and structural parameters in the loading process are given. The effects of the parameters and temperature on the nonlinear deformation process are emphasized. The entire thermodynamic cycle of SMP deployable hinged shell includes loading at high temperature, load carrying with cooling, unloading at low temperature and recovering the original shape with heating. The results show that the complicated thermo-mechanical deformation and shape memory effect of SMP deployable hinge are influenced by the structural parameters and temperature. The design ability of SMP smart hinged structures in practical application is prospected.

  4. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. Underwater Stilling Basin Repair Techniques Using Precast or Prefabricated Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Stilling Basins* Training Wall Estimated Low Height Water Depth** Dam ft ft Old River Low Sill Structure 45 16 Arkabutla Dam 29 Enid Dam 30 Pomme De... Terre Dam 32 Pomona Dam 20 ruttle Creek Dam 48 18t Curwensville Lake Dam 32 28 Lac Qui Parle Dam 23 Chief Joseph Dam - 26 Libby Dam 69 20t Dworshak Dam 67

  5. 装配式FRP筋混凝土节点研究%Prefabricated FRP Tendons Concrete Node Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志威

    2016-01-01

    为了解决钢筋锈蚀的问题,研究人员提出采用 FRP 筋来替代钢筋使用到腐蚀环境中。由于 FRP 筋成型之后无法进行焊接和机械加工,文中提出在使用 FRP 筋混凝土时采用装配式的结构形式进行施工,之后对装配式FRP筋混凝土节点进行设计,再通过有限元模拟分析节点的力学性能。%In the island of engineering structure,reinforcement corrosion is a major problem affecting the safety of structure.In order to solve this problem,researchers put forward using FRP reinforcement to replace the steel used in corrosion environment.The FRP material is a thermosetting material,the anisotropy is serious,so it can not be welded and mechanical processing,so the assembly structure will be more convenient.This paper mainly puts forward the structure form of FRP reinforced concrete node,through the finite element simulation analysis of mechanical properties of the node.

  6. Community integration after deployment to Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Andersen, Søren B.

    2015-01-01

    of Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 (N = 743), we assessed community reintegration difficulties 2.5 years after home coming (study sample: N = 454). Furthermore, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assessed before, during, and after deployment. Trajectories of PTSD symptoms...... from a previously published latent growth mixture modeling analysis were used to address whether community reintegration difficulties differ as a result of course and level of PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: Between 3.6 and 18.0 % reported to have some, a lot, or extreme difficulties in reintegration domains...... such as interpersonal functioning, productivity, community involvement, and self-care. Mean level of reintegration difficulties differed significantly across six PTSD symptom trajectories (range 6.35-36.00); with more symptomatic trajectories experiencing greater community reintegration difficulties. CONCLUSIONS...

  7. Advanced deployable reflectors for communications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Elvin; Josephs, Michael; Hedgepeth, John

    1993-02-01

    This paper discusses a concept for a deployable mesh reflector for large spacecraft antennas and the processes used in design, fabrication and testing. A set of overall reflector requirements such as stowed volume, deployed diameter and RF loss derived from system specifications are presented. The development of design and analysis tools to allow parametric studies such as facet size, number of ribs and number of rib segments is discussed. CATIA (a commercially available three-dimensional design and analysis tool) is used to perform kinematic analyses as well as to establish the database to be used by the several groups participating in the development is examined. Results of trade studies performed to reduce cost with minimum risk to product delivery are included. A thirty foot reflector has been built and tested.

  8. Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01

    If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

  9. Integrated personal health and care services deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villalba, E.; Casas, I.; Abadie, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The deployment and adoption of Integrated Personal Health and Care Services in Europe has been slow and fragmented. There have been many initiatives and projects of this kind in different European regions, many of which have not gone beyond the pilot stage. We investigated the necessary...... conditions for mainstreaming these services into care provision. Methods: We conducted a qualitative analysis of 27 Telehealth, Telecare and Integrated Personal Health System projects, implemented across 20 regions in eight European countries. The analysis was based on Suter’s ten key principles...... for successful health systems integration. Results: Out of the 27 cases, we focused on 11 which continued beyond the pilot stage. The key facilitators that are necessary for successful deployment and adoption in the European regions of our study are reorganisation of services, patient focus, governance...

  10. Form-finding methods for deployable mesh reflector antennas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Tuanjie; Jiang Jie; Deng Hanqing; Lin Zhanchao; Wang Zuowei

    2013-01-01

    Deployable high-frequency mesh reflector antennas for future communications and obser-vations are required to obtain high gain and high directivity. In order to support these new missions, reflectors with high surface accuracy are widely required. The form-finding analysis of deployable mesh reflector antennas becomes more vital which aims to determine the initial surface profile formed by the equilibrium prestress distribution in cables to satisfy the surface accuracy requirement. In this paper, two form-finding methods for mesh reflector antennas, both of which include two steps, are pro-posed. The first step is to investigate the prestress design only for the cable net structure as the circum-ferential nodes connected to the supporting truss are assumed fixed. The second step is to optimize the prestress distribution of the boundary cables connected directly to the supporting truss considering the elastic deformation of the antenna structure. Some numerical examples are carried out and the simu-lation results demonstrate the proposed form-finding methods can warrant the deformed antenna reflector surface matches the one by design and the cable tension forces fall in a specified range.

  11. Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    characteristics, and difficulty with reintegration . Our recruitment procedures were so successful that we are working to double our sample to take...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0131 TITLE: Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Leanne K...TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE July 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1July2014 - 30June2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reintegration

  12. Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Gates Views Growth Under Way in Guam,” American Forces Press Service, May 30, 2008. 2 Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, speech at Shangri-La Hotel ...crises; and sea lines of communication (SLOCs), particularly through the Straits of Malacca . Combat aircraft on Guam can reach Taiwan, Japan, Philippines...Remarks by retired Lieutenant General, USMC, George Trautman III, at Heritage Foundation, May 3, 2012. Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments Congressional

  13. Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    data from a fairly large and geographically dispersed cohort, but it prevented us from probing people’s answers. Interview procedures such as the ones...2010), then our data may understate the issues military couples face during their first deployment. Future work should seek more heterogeneous ...Valdez, Geena Wakeley, and Lauren Whalley for their help with recruitment and coding. Funding This research was supported by a seed grant from the

  14. Domain Name Server Security (DNSSEC) Protocol Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    was a 10-year effort to promote adoption of the DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC), a method of cryptography securing domain name system ( DNS ) lookups...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED i 1. SUMMARY The DNSSEC Deployment Initiative was a 10-year effort to promote adoption of the DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC), a...method of cryptographically securing domain name system ( DNS ) lookups. This paper describes the latter five years of the Initiative’s work, which

  15. Dynamical simulation of tether in orbit deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Demyanov, Yu. A.; Zvyaguin, A. V.; Malashin, A. A.; Luzhin, A. A.

    2010-08-01

    The paper is aimed at studying the peculiarities of dynamical behavior of tether in its deployment in low Earth orbit during YES2 experiment in Foton-M3 mission, and performing flight data analysis with account of these effects. The analysis in the first part of the paper uses as input a pre-provided tension profile for the mission (resulting from a simulation to be independently validated). With this input it then performs an open-loop simulation which explains the sensitivity to the initial parameters. For the actual flight design a feedback mechanism and algorithm was used in order to control the deployment speed along a nominal profile, minimizing sensitivity to conditions such as initial velocity and endmass value. The paper provides solutions accounting for final velocities of wave propagation in tether, which is especially important for such stages of the deployment as sharp changing of the velocity direction and intensive braking. Moreover the YES2 data is used to validate the theoretical derivations.

  16. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  17. Intelligent transportation infrastructure deployment analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathi, A.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Harding, J.A. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Much of the work on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to date has emphasized technologies, standards/protocols, architecture, user services, core infrastructure requirements, and various other technical and institutional issues. ITS implementations in the United States and elsewhere in the world have demonstrated benefits in the areas of safety, productivity, efficiency, and environmental impact. However, quantitative benefits and satisfactory cost estimates are not available or cannot be derived for many components of the ITS, whether deployed individually or in some integrated fashion. The limitations of existing analysis and evaluation capabilities coupled with the lack of strong empirical evidence presents a major knowledge and data gap for infrastructure investment decisions involving ITS alternatives. This paper describes the over-arching issues and requirements associated with the analysis capabilities required for a systematic, faithful, and rigorous evaluation of the impacts of deploying ITS in a metropolitan area. It then describes the conceptual framework of a modeling system that will provide a preliminary analysis capability to support ITS deployment analysis and evaluation.

  18. Investigation on design and reliability analysis of a new deployable and lockable mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing; Nie, Hong; Ren, Jie; Chen, Jinbao

    2012-04-01

    The traditional structure of the deployable and lockable mechanism on soft-landing gear system is complicated and unreliable. To overcome the defects, a new deployable and lockable mechanism for planetary probes is developed. The compression assembly shares a set of new mechanism with the deployment assembly and locking assembly. The new mechanism shows some advantages: more steady deployment, simpler mechanism and higher reliability. This paper presents an introduction of the deployment and locking theory of the new mechanism, and constitutes the fault tree, which would contribute to qualitative and quantitative analyses. In addition, probability importance and criticality importance of the new mechanism are derived and calculated. The reliability modeling and analysis of the mechanism are accomplished from static torque margin, torque and the work by torque. In investigation results, reliability rate that the new mechanism could deploy successfully is 0.999334. The crucial problems concentrate on the insufficiency of storage force torque of high strength spring, the lubrication failure between the inner cylinder and the outer cylinder of the strut and the stuck soft-landing gear system. And then, the paper presents some improvement approaches and suggestions according to the problems discussed above.

  19. Advances in clinical research of prefabricated fiber posts%预成纤维桩的临床应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯乾乾

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, post-and-core systems have become an important technology of prosthodontics. Clinically, post -and -core crowns are used to restore teeth which have received perfect root canal treatment, ut cannot achieve good retention. In a few decades, metal posts have held an important place in clinical application. But the elastic modulus of metal posts is higher than that of dentin, contributing to severe root fractures. Since the elastic modulus is similar to the dentin, fiber posts can reduce root fractures. They can also be easily taken out after fractures. Owing to these advantages, fiber posts have been accepted by dentists since 90 years of 20 century. This review aims to introduce advanced studies of prefabricated fiber posts in terms of classification, properties and clinical application.%桩核系统目前已成为一种重要的牙体修复技术,临床上桩核冠多用于修复经过完善根管治疗但无法取得良好固位的牙齿.长期以来,金属桩核在临床上占据了重要的地位,但其弹性模量远高于牙本质,易致严重的根折.由于纤维桩的弹性模量与牙本质相似,可以减少根折,以及断裂后易取出等优点,自20世纪90年代问世以来,便备受临床医生的青睐.本文从预成纤维桩的分类、性能、临床适应证等应用的研究进展方面作一综述.

  20. A Generic Deployment Framework for Grid Computing and Distributed Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flissi, Areski

    2006-01-01

    Deployment of distributed applications on large systems, and especially on grid infrastructures, becomes a more and more complex task. Grid users spend a lot of time to prepare, install and configure middleware and application binaries on nodes, and eventually start their applications. The problem is that the deployment process is composed of many heterogeneous tasks that have to be orchestrated in a specific correct order. As a consequence, the automatization of the deployment process is currently very difficult to reach. To address this problem, we propose in this paper a generic deployment framework allowing to automatize the execution of heterogeneous tasks composing the whole deployment process. Our approach is based on a reification as software components of all required deployment mechanisms or existing tools. Grid users only have to describe the configuration to deploy in a simple natural language instead of programming or scripting how the deployment process is executed. As a toy example, this framew...

  1. Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an affordable and ultra-lightweight elastically self-deployable Roll-Out Boom technology that provides affordability and...

  2. SECURITY FOR DEVOPS DEPLOYMENT PROCESSES: DEFENSES, RISKS, RESEARCH DIRECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Wilde; Brian Eddy; Khyati Patel; Nathan Cooper; Valeria Gamboa; Bhavyansh Mishra; Keenal Shah

    2016-01-01

    DevOps is an emerging collection of software management practices intended to shorten time to market for new software features and to reduce the risk of costly deployment errors. In this paper we examine thesecurity implications of two of the key DevOps practices, automation of the deployment pipeline using adeployment toolchain and infrastructure-as-code to specify the environment of the deployed software. Wefocus on identifying what changes when an organization moves from manual deployments...

  3. Distributed Deployment Scheme for Homogeneous Distribution of Randomly Deployed Mobile Sensor Nodes in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Sharma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most active research areas in wireless sensor networks is the coverage. The efficiency of the sensor network is measured in terms of the coverage area and connectivity. Therefore these factors must be considered during the deployment. In this paper, we have presented a scheme for homogeneous distribution of randomly distributed mobile sensor nodes (MSNs in the deployment area. The deployment area is square in shape, which is divided into number of concentric regions centered at Base Station, these regions are separated by half of the communication range and further deployment area is divided in to numbers of regular hexagons. To achieve the maximum coverage and better connectivity MSNs will set themselves at the center of the hexagon on the instruction provided by the BS which is located at one of the corner in the deployment area. The simulation results shows that the presented scheme is better than CPVF and FLOOR schemes in terms of number of MSNs required for same coverage area and average movement required by MSNs to fix themselves at the desired location and energy efficiency.

  4. Early identification of posttraumatic stress following military deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Statnikov, Alexander; Andersen, Søren B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre-deployment identification of soldiers at risk for long-term posttraumatic stress psychopathology after home coming is important to guide decisions about deployment. Early post-deployment identification can direct early interventions to those in need and thereby prevents the develo...

  5. Supporting Military Families with Young Children throughout the Deployment Lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    deployments. Prolonged separation can constitute a developmental crisis for babies, toddlers and preschool -aged children, although the homefront parent...prevention) with a new population (families with young children). Necessarily, staff and clinicians are acquiring new expertise in child development ...resilience and child well-being, Soldier and non-deploying parents must successfully meet the challenges of caregiving throughout the deployment cycle

  6. EDITORIAL Wireless sensor networks: design for real-life deployment and deployment experiences Wireless sensor networks: design for real-life deployment and deployment experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaura, Elena; Roedig, Utz; Brusey, James

    2010-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are among the most promising technologies of the new millennium. The opportunities afforded by being able to program networks of small, lightweight, low-power, computation- and bandwidth-limited nodes have attracted a large community of researchers and developers. However, the unique set of capabilities offered by the technology produces an exciting but complex design space, which is often difficult to negotiate in an application context. Deploying sensing physical environments produces its own set of challenges, and can push systems into failure modes, thus revealing problems that can be difficult to discover or reproduce in simulation or the laboratory. Sustained efforts in the area of wireless networked sensing over the last 15 years have resulted in a large number of theoretical developments, substantial practical achievements, and a wealth of lessons for the future. It is clear that in order to bridge the gap between (on the one hand) visions of very large scale, autonomous, randomly deployed networks and (on the other) the actual performance of fielded systems, we need to view deployment as an essential component in the process of developing sensor networks: a process that includes hardware and software solutions that serve specific applications and end-user needs. Incorporating deployment into the design process reveals a new and different set of requirements and considerations, whose solutions require innovative thinking, multidisciplinary teams and strong involvement from end-user communities. This special feature uncovers and documents some of the hurdles encountered and solutions offered by experimental scientists when deploying and evaluating wireless sensor networks in situ, in a variety of well specified application scenarios. The papers specifically address issues of generic importance for WSN system designers: (i) data quality, (ii) communications availability and quality, (iii) alternative, low-energy sensing

  7. Quality Function Deployment: Application to Chemotherapy Unit Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Hashemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today’s healthcare organizations are challenged by pressures to meet growing population demands and enhance community health through improving service quality. Quality function deployment is one of the widely-used customerdriven approaches for health services development. In the current study, quality function deployment is used to improve the quality of chemotherapy unit services. Methods: First, we identified chemotherapy outpatient unit patients as chemotherapy unit customers. Then, the Delphi technique and component factor analysis with orthogonal rotation was employed to determine their expectations. Thereafter, data envelopment analysis was performed to specify user priorities. We determined the relationships between patients’ expectations and service elements through expert group consensus using the Delphi method and the relationships between service elements by Pearson correlation. Finally, simple and compound priorities of the service elements were derived by matrix calculation. Results: Chemotherapy unit patients had four main expectations: access, suitable hotel services, satisfactory and effective relationships, and clinical services. The chemotherapy unit has six key service elements of equipment, materials, human resources, physical space, basic facilities, and communication and training. There were four-level relationships between the patients’ expectations and service elements, with mostly significant correlations between service elements. According to the findings, the functional group of basic facilities was the most critical factor, followed by materials. Conclusion: The findings of the current study can be a general guideline as well as a scientific, structured framework for chemotherapy unit decision makers in order to improve chemotherapy unit services.

  8. Deployment of the CMS software on the WLCG Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Behrenhoff, Wolf

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Experiment is taking high energy collision data at CERN. The computing infrastructure used to analyse the data is distributed round the world in a tiered structure. In order to use the 7 Tier-1 sites, the 50 Tier-2 sites and a still growing number of about 30 Tier-3 sites, the CMS software has to be available at those sites. Except for a very few sites the deployment and the removal of CMS software is managed centrally. Since the deployment team has no local accounts at the remote sites all installation jobs have to be sent via Grid jobs. Via a VOMS role the job has a high priority in the batch system and gains write privileges to the software area. Due to the lack of interactive access the installation jobs must be very robust against possible failures, in order not to leave a broken software installation. The CMS software is packaged in RPMs that are installed in the software area independent of the host OS. The apt-get tool is used to resolve package dependencies. This paper reports about the recen...

  9. Solar Thermal Vacuum Test of Deployable Astromesh Reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    On September 10, 2008, a 36-hour Solar Thermal Vacuum Test of a 5m deployable mesh reflector was completed in JPL's 25' Space Simulator by the Advanced Deployable Structures Group at JPL. The testing was performed under NASA's Innovative Partnership Program (IPP) as a risk reduction effort for two JPL Decadal Survey Missions: DESDynI and SMAP. The 5.0 m aperture Astromesh reflector was provided by Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) Astro Aerospace, our IPP industry partner. The testing utilized a state-of-the-art photogrammetry system to measure deformation of the reflector under LN2 cold soak, 0.25 Earth sun, 0.5 sun and 1.0 sun. An intricate network of thermocouples (approximately 200 in total) was used to determine the localized temperature across the mesh as well as on the perimeter truss of the reflector. Half of the reflector was in a fixed shadow to maximize thermal gradients. A mobility system was built for remotely actuating the cryo-vacuum capable photogrammetry camera around the circumference of the Solar Simulator. Photogrammetric resolution of 0.025 mm RMS (0.001") was achieved over the entire 5 meter aperture for each test case. The data will be used for thermo-elastic model correlation and validation, which will benefit the planned Earth Science Missions.

  10. Communication tools between Grid virtual organisations, middleware deployers and sites

    CERN Document Server

    Dimou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Grid Deployment suffers today from the difficulty to reach users and site administrators when a package or a configuration parameter changes. Release notes, twiki pages and news’ broadcasts are not efficient enough. The interest of using GGUS as an efficient and effective intra-project communication tool is the message to the user community presented here. The purpose of GGUS is to bring together End Users and Supporters in the Regions where the Grid is deployed and in operation. Today’s Grid usage is still very far from the simplicity and functionality of the web. While pressing for middleware usability, we try to turn the Global Grid User Support (GGUS) into the central tool for identifying areas in the support environment that need attention. To do this, we exploit GGUS' capacity to expand, by including new Support Units that follow the project's operational structure. Using tailored GGUS database searches we obtain concrete results that prove where we need to improve procedures, Service Level Agreemen...

  11. Successful Starshade Petal Deployment Tolerance Verification in Support of NASA's Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D.; Kasdin, N. J.; Lisman, D.; Shaklan, S.; Thomson, M.; Cady, E.; Marks, G. W.; Lo, A.

    2014-01-01

    A Starshade is a sunflower-shaped satellite with a large inner disk structure surrounded by petals that flies in formation with a space-borne telescope, creating a deep shadow around the telescope over a broad spectral band to permit nearby exoplanets to be viewed. Removing extraneous starlight before it enters the observatory optics greatly loosens the tolerances on the telescope and instrument that comprise the optical system, but the nature of the Starshade dictates a large deployable structure capable of deploying to a very precise shape. These shape requirements break down into key mechanical requirements, which include the rigid-body position and orientation of each of the petals that ring the periphery of the Starshade. To verify our capability to meet these requirements, we modified an existing flight-like Astromesh reflector, provided by Northrup Grumman, as the base ring to which the petals attach. The integrated system, including 4 of the 30 flight-like subscale petals, truss, connecting spokes and central hub, was deployed tens of times in a flight-like manner using a gravity compensation system. After each deployment, discrete points in prescribed locations covering the petals and truss were measured using a highly-accurate laser tracker system. These measurements were then compared against the mechanical requirements, and the as-measured data shows deployment accuracy well within our milestone requirements and resulting in a contrast ratio consistent with exoplanet detection and characterization.

  12. Project ADIOS: Aircraft Deployable Ice Observation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    Regions of the Antarctic that are of scientific interest are often too heavily crevassed to enable a plane to land, or permit safe access from a field camp. We have developed an alternative strategy for instrumenting these regions: a sensor that can be dropped from an overflying aircraft. Existing aircraft deployable sensors are not suitable for long term operations in areas where snow accumulates, as they are quickly buried. We have overcome this problem by shaping the sensor like an aerodynamic mast with fins and a small parachute. After being released from the aircraft, the sensor accelerates to 42m/s and stabilizes during a 10s descent. On impact with the snow surface the sensor package buries itself to a depth of 1m then uses the large surface area of the fins to stop it burying further. This leaves a 1.5m mast protruding high above the snow surface to ensure a long operating life. The high impact kinetic energy and robust fin braking mechanism ensure that the design works in both soft and hard snow. Over the past two years we have developed and tested our design with a series of aircraft and wind tunnel tests. Last season we used this deployment strategy to successfully install a network of 31 single band GPS sensors in regions where crevassing has previously prevented science operations: Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, and Scar Inlet, Antarctic Peninsula. This season we intend to expand on this network by deploying a further 25 single and dual band GPS sensors on Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica.

  13. Quality function deployment: application to rehabilitation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einspruch, E M; Omachonu, V K; Einspruch, N G

    1996-01-01

    Describes how the challenge of providing rehabilitative services at reasonable costs is beginning to mount. The management of quality in rehabilitative services is therefore gaining increasing attention in the health care arena. States that if a link is implied between the above stated goal and customer satisfaction, it is imperative to evaluate quality or customer satisfaction in the context of the patient's experience. Describes the quality function deployment (QFD) system and how it leads to a better understanding of the customer's needs and wants. Explores the process of applying the concept of QFD to physical therapy.

  14. Reservists in a postconflict zone: deployment stressors and the deployment experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Geoffrey J; Kehoe, E James

    2014-02-01

    In postconflict zones, both aid and military personnel face chronic stress, including boredom, isolation, family separation, and difficult living conditions, plus the intra-organizational and interpersonal frictions found in all work settings. Australian Army reservists (N = 350) were surveyed during and after peacekeeping in the Solomon Islands. Most respondents reported having a positive experience (66%) and fewer reported their experience was neutral (16%) or negative (17%). The stressors reported by reservists predominately emanated from work-related sources rather than from separation or the operational environment. The discussion considers leadership factors, especially the role of organizational justice in deployed organizations, that may influence the deployment experience.

  15. Based on the Force Deployment Model of Unascertained Expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we utilize the unascertained mathematics method to give the unascertained number of countermeasure of anti-terrorism strategic force deployment and unknown event. It has been defined the situation sets of force deployment, condition density and mathematical expectation of density model. It has been given the unascertained parameters Cij which decide and direct the force deployment. Find out the condition density matrix of force deployment, further get the conditional density of single target force deployment, using the maximum density mathematical expectation in order to get the optimal mathematical model of multiple target force deployment. Analyzing the coefficient of model and provide two kinds of discussed computing method. The model overcomes the limitation of past deterministic thinking method which study the force deployment and provide the decision maker a relative substantial theory evidence.

  16. The effect of military deployment on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; W. Jepsen, Peter

    In this paper we estimate the causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health. To handle the selection bias problem, we use longitudinal data for deployed and non-deployed eligible men in a difference-in-differences setting. Using pair-wise matching, we impute deployment dates...... for important variables like intelligence tests and family background. We find significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use. Highlights: - Causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ use of mental health service - Using a difference-in-differences approach...... - First evidence relying on administrative records of measures of mental health service use - Significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use....

  17. The effect of military deployment on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; W. Jepsen, Peter

    In this paper we estimate the causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health. To handle the selection bias problem, we use longitudinal data for deployed and non-deployed eligible men in a difference-in-differences setting. Using pair-wise matching, we impute deployment dates...... for important variables like intelligence tests and family background. We find significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use. Highlights: - Causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ use of mental health service - Using a difference-in-differences approach...... - First evidence relying on administrative records of measures of mental health service use - Significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use....

  18. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-06-01

    The goal of this work is to create an integrated framework for forecasting the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER), both by electricity customers and by the various institutions within the industry itself, and for evaluating the effect of this adoption on the power system, particularly on the overall reliability and quality of electrical service to the end user. This effort and follow on contributions are intended to anticipate and explore possible patterns of DER deployment, thereby guiding technical work on microgrids towards the key technical problems. An early example of this process addressed is the question of possible DER adopting customer disconnection. A deployment scenario in which many customers disconnect from their distribution company (disco) entirely leads to a quite different set of technical problems than a scenario in which customers self generate a significant share or all of their on-site electricity requirements and additionally buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) locally and/or into wider markets. The exploratory work in this study suggests that the economics under which customers disconnect entirely are unlikely.

  19. Integrated personal health and care services deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villalba, E.; Casas, I.; Abadie, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The deployment and adoption of Integrated Personal Health and Care Services in Europe has been slow and fragmented. There have been many initiatives and projects of this kind in different European regions, many of which have not gone beyond the pilot stage. We investigated the necessa...... of Integrated Personal Health and Care Services in European regions has increased. Further research will reveal the weight of each facilitator and which combinations of facilitators lead to rapid adoption.......Objectives: The deployment and adoption of Integrated Personal Health and Care Services in Europe has been slow and fragmented. There have been many initiatives and projects of this kind in different European regions, many of which have not gone beyond the pilot stage. We investigated the necessary...... conditions for mainstreaming these services into care provision. Methods: We conducted a qualitative analysis of 27 Telehealth, Telecare and Integrated Personal Health System projects, implemented across 20 regions in eight European countries. The analysis was based on Suter’s ten key principles...

  20. SMUD Community Renewable Energy Deployment Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sison-Lebrilla, Elaine [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Tiangco, Valentino [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lemes, Marco [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Ave, Kathleen [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    This report summarizes the completion of four renewable energy installations supported by California Energy Commission (CEC) grant number CEC Grant PIR-11-005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Assistance Agreement, DE-EE0003070, and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) Community Renewable Energy Deployment (CRED) program. The funding from the DOE, combined with funding from the CEC, supported the construction of a solar power system, biogas generation from waste systems, and anaerobic digestion systems at dairy facilities, all for electricity generation and delivery to SMUD’s distribution system. The deployment of CRED projects shows that solar projects and anaerobic digesters can be successfully implemented under favorable economic conditions and business models and through collaborative partnerships. This work helps other communities learn how to assess, overcome barriers, utilize, and benefit from renewable resources for electricity generation in their region. In addition to reducing GHG emissions, the projects also demonstrate that solar projects and anaerobic digesters can be readily implemented through collaborative partnerships. This work helps other communities learn how to assess, overcome barriers, utilize, and benefit from renewable resources for electricity generation in their region.

  1. Open architecture for rapid deployment of capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Modern warfare has drastically changed from conventional to non-conventional and from fixed threats to dynamic ones over the past several decades. This unprecedented fundamental shift has now made our adversaries and their weapons more nebulous and ever changing. Our current acquisition system however is not suited to develop, test and deploy essential capability to counter these dynamic threats in time to combat them. This environment requires a new infrastructure in our system design to rapidly adopt capabilities that we do not currently plan for or even know about. The key to enabling this rapid implementation is Open Architecture in acquisition. The DoD has shown it can rapidly prototype capabilities such as unmanned vehicles but has severely struggled in moving from the prototyping to deployment. A major driver of this disconnect is the lack of established infrastructure to employ said capability such as launch and recovery systems and command and control. If we are to be successful in transitioning our rapid capability to the warfighter we must implement established well defined interfaces and enabling technologies to facilitate the rapid adoption of capability so the warfighter has the tools to effectively counter the threat.

  2. Forecasting residential solar photovoltaic deployment in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Changgui; Sigrin, Benjamin; Brinkman, Gregory

    2017-04-01

    Residential distributed photovoltaic (PV) deployment in the United States has experienced robust growth, and policy changes impacting the value of solar are likely to occur at the federal and state levels. To establish a credible baseline and evaluate impacts of potential new policies, this analysis employs multiple methods to forecast residential PV deployment in California, including a time-series forecasting model, a threshold heterogeneity diffusion model, a Bass diffusion model, and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's dSolar model. As a baseline, the residential PV market in California is modeled to peak in the early 2020s, with a peak annual installation of 1.5-2 GW across models. We then use the baseline results from the dSolar model and the threshold model to gauge the impact of the recent federal investment tax credit (ITC) extension, the newly approved California net energy metering (NEM) policy, and a hypothetical value-of-solar (VOS) compensation scheme. We find that the recent ITC extension may increase annual PV installations by 12%-18% (roughly 500 MW, MW) for the California residential sector in 2019-2020. The new NEM policy only has a negligible effect in California due to the relatively small new charges (< 100 MW in 2019-2020). Furthermore, impacts of the VOS compensation scheme ($0.12 per kilowatt-hour) are larger, reducing annual PV adoption by 32% (or 900-1300 MW) in 2019-2020.

  3. 100G Deployment@(DE-KIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Bruno; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) has been involved fairly early in 100GE network technology. Initiated by DFN1 (the German NREN), a first 100GE wide area network testbed over a distance of approx. 450 km was deployed between the national research organizations KIT and FZ-Jülich in 2010. Three years later in 2013. KIT joined the Caltech SuperComputing 2013 (SC132) 100GE "show floor" initiative using the transatlantic ANA-100GE link to transfer LHC data from a storage at DE-KIT (GridKa) in Europe to hard disks at the show floor of SC13 in Denver (USA). The network infrastructure of KIT as well as of the German Tier-1 installation DE-KIT (GridKa). however. is still based on 10Gbps. As highlighted in the contribution "Status and Trends in Networking at LHC Tier1 Facilities" to CHEP 2012. proactive investment is required at the Tier-1 sites. Bandwidth requirements will grow beyond current capacity and the required upgrades are expected in 2015. In close cooperation with DFN. KIT drives the upgrade from 10GE to 100GE. The process is divided into several phases. due to upgrade costs and differing requirements in different parts of the network infrastructure. The requirements of the different phases as well as the planned topology will be described. Some of the obstacles we discovered during the deployment will be discussed and solutions or workarounds presented.

  4. Sensor Deployment and Relocation: A Unified Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michele Garetto; Marco Gribaudo; Carla-Fabiana Chiasserini; Emilio Leonardi

    2008-01-01

    Sensor networks are envisioned to revolutionize our daily life by ubiquitously monitoring our environment and/or adjusting it to suit our needs. Recent progress in robotics and low-power embedded systems has made it possible to add mobility to small, light, low-cost sensors to be used in teams or swarms. Augmenting static sensor networks with mobile nodes addresses many design challenges that exist in traditional static sensor networks. This paper addresses the problem of topology control in mobile wireless networks. Limitations in communication, computation and energy capabilities push towards the adoption of distributed, energy-efficient solutions to perform self-deployment and relocation of the nodes. We develop a unified, distributed algorithm that has the following features. During deployment, our algorithm yields a regular tessellation of the geographical area with a given node density, called monitoring configuration. Upon the occurrence of a physical phenomenon, network nodes relocate themselves so as to properly sample and control the event, while maintaining the network connectivity. Then, as soon as the event ends, all nodes return to the monitoring configuration. To achieve these goals, we use a virtual force-based strategy which proves to be very effective even when compared to an optimal centralized solution. We assess the performance of our approach in the presence of events with different shapes, and we investigate the transient behavior of our algorithm. This allows us to evaluate the effectiveness and the response time of the proposed solution under various environmental conditions.

  5. Expert Oracle SQL optimization, deployment, and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hasler, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Expert Oracle SQL: Optimization, Deployment, and Statistics is about optimizing individual SQL statements, especially on production database systems. This Oracle-specific book begins by assuming you have already identified a particular SQL statement and are considering taking steps to improve its performance. The book describes a systematic process by which to diagnose a problem statement, identify a fix, and to implement that fix safely in a production system. You'll learn not only to improve performance when it is too slow, but also to stabilize performance when it is too variable. You'll learn about system statistics and how the Cost-Based Optimizer uses them to determine a suitable execution plan for a given statement. That knowledge provides the foundation from which to identify the root cause, and to stabilize and improve performance. Next after identifying a problem and the underlying root cause is to put in place a solution. Expert Oracle SQL: Optimization, Deployment, and Statistics explains how to ...

  6. Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies: Wave Energy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    other project teams funded by DoE which are focused on regulatory issues (Pacific Energy Ventures) and navigational issues (PCCI). The results of this study are structured into three reports: (1) Wave power scenario description (2) Tidal power scenario description (3) Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns This is the first report in the sequence and describes the results of conceptual feasibility studies of wave power plants deployed in Humboldt County, California and Oahu, Hawaii. These two sites contain many of the same competing stakeholder interactions identified at other wave power sites in the U.S. and serve as representative case studies. Wave power remains at an early stage of development. As such, a wide range of different technologies are being pursued by different manufacturers. In order to properly characterize potential effects, it is useful to characterize the range of technologies that could be deployed at the site of interest. An industry survey informed the process of selecting representative wave power devices. The selection criteria requires that devices are at an advanced stage of development to reduce technical uncertainties, and that enough data are available from the manufacturers to inform the conceptual design process of this study. Further, an attempt is made to cover the range of different technologies under development to capture variations in potential environmental effects. Table 1 summarizes the selected wave power technologies. A number of other developers are also at an advanced stage of development, but are not directly mentioned here. Many environmental effects will largely scale with the size of the wave power plant. In many cases, the effects of a single device may not be measurable, while larger scale device arrays may have cumulative impacts that differ significantly from smaller scale deployments. In order to characterize these effects, scenarios are established at three deployment scales which nominally represent

  7. Treatment of large overjet in Angle Class II: division 1 malocclusion with Andresen activators versus prefabricated functional appliances-a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čirgić, Emina; Kjellberg, Heidrun; Hansen, Ken

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness in reducing large overjet between a prefabricated functional appliance (PFA) and a slightly modified Andresen activator (AA). Public Dental Service, Gothenburg, Sweden. A multicentre, prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted with patients from 12 general dental practices. One hundred and five patients with an Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion and an overjet of ≥6mm were eligible for the study. Eight patients were excluded due to various reasons and the sample consisted thus of 97 subjects (44 girls, 53 boys) with a mean age of 10.3 years. The study was designed as intention to treat and the patients were randomly allocated by lottery to treatment with either a PFA or an AA. The PFA and AA group consisted of 57 subjects (28 girls, 29 boys) and 40 subjects (16 girls, 24 boys), respectively. Overjet, overbite, lip seal, and sagittal molar relationship were recorded before, at the end of treatment and 1-year post-treatment. Blinding was not performed. The endpoint of treatment was set to overjet ≤3mm and after this a 6 months retention period followed. No significant difference was found in overjet, overbite, sagittal relation, and lip seal between the two groups for the total observation period. The treatment of 40 (70 per cent) patients with PFA and 21 (53 per cent) with AA were considered unsuccessful mainly due to poor compliance. No cephalometric records were taken as only patient-centred clinical outcome were used as an indicator for treatment success. The criteria of reduction of overjet to as low as 3mm could have affected the success rate. No difference in effectiveness could be shown between PFAs and AAs in correcting overjet, overbite, sagittal molar relation, and lip seal. The success rate in treatment with both appliances is, however, low. This trial was registered in "FoU i Sverige" (http://www.fou.nu/is/sverige), registration number: 97131. The protocol was not

  8. Dynamics Analysis Method Study Based on Linear Array Deployable Structure Symmetry of Scissor-Like Element%基于剪式线性阵列可展结构对称性的动力学分析方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 王三民; 袁茹; 智常建

    2015-01-01

    In order to research the dynamic characteristics of the scissor linear array deployable structure, the e⁃quivalent mass matrix of scissor unit is established based on linkage energy functional, which is assembled to obtain the equivalent mass matrix of the scissor pantographic structure. The dynamic model of scissor linear array deploy⁃able structure established is applied to any unit number using the augmented method of mechanical system dynamics equation. We use a high accuracy direct default correction method to modify the coordinates and speed of the system and avoid the divergence of numerical results. We use variable step Runge⁃Kutta method for numerical calculation;the laws of the structure, such as velocity and acceleration, can be obtained. The results show that the nodes of scissor deployable structure have good symmetrical performance along the array direction because of the influence of the geometric constraints and external load; meanwhile, all nodes at the side of the force, the dynamic change is obvious, without force side, however, only a small change along the x axis in speed, acceleration and other physi⁃cal quantities.%为了研究剪式线性对称阵列可展结构的动力学特性,基于杆系能量泛函,建立剪式单元的等效质量矩阵,继而组装得到剪式可展结构的等效质量矩阵。考虑剪式铰的基本约束关系,利用机械系统动力学方程的增广法建立了适用于任意单元个数的剪式线性阵列可展结构的动力学模型。采用一种高精确度的直接违约校正法对系统的坐标和速度进行修正,避免了数值结果的发散。最后通过多步长 Runge⁃Kutta 法完成数值仿真,获得了该机构运动过程中各节点位置、速度及加速度随时间变化的曲线。结果表明:由于剪式可展结构的几何约束以及外载的影响,导致各节点沿阵列方向其对称特性表现较好;同时,在受力一侧,各节点沿 x 轴

  9. How Military Families Respond Before, During and After Deployment: Findings from the RAND Deployment Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    applied only to children younger than 11, not to teenagers . Neither teens’ parents nor the youths themselves reported behavioral difficulties. But...engage in different behaviors around deployments. These associations emerged even after controlling for family characteristics at the time of...rather than self -reported symptoms, might help mitigate problems before they can affect multiple family members. • Addressing problems around the time

  10. Testing the Deployment Repeatability of a Precision Deployable Boom Prototype for the Proposed SWOT Karin Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnes, Gregory S.; Waldman, Jeff; Hughes, Richard; Peterson, Lee D.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's proposed Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, scheduled to launch in 2020, would provide critical information about Earth's oceans, ocean circulation, fresh water storage, and river discharge. The mission concept calls for a dual-antenna Ka-band radar interferometer instrument, known as KaRIn, that would map the height of water globally along two 50 km wide swaths. The KaRIn antennas, which would be separated by 10 meters on either side of the spacecraft, would need to be precisely deployable in order to meet demanding pointing requirements. Consequently, an effort was undertaken to design build and prototype a precision deployable Mast for the KaRIn instrument. Each mast was 4.5-m long with a required dilitation stability of 2.5 microns over 3 minutes. It required a minimum first mode of 7 Hz. Deployment repeatability was less than +/- 7 arcsec in all three rotation directions. Overall mass could not exceed 41.5 Kg including any actuators and thermal blanketing. This set of requirements meant the boom had to be three times lighter and two orders of magnitude more precise than the existing state of the art for deployable booms.

  11. A Computational Method for Evaluating Modular Prefabricated Structural Element for Rapid Construction of Facilities, Barriers, and Revetments to Resist Modern Conventional Weapons Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    strong concrete (6500 psi). Bazant and Byong (Reference 59) extended the data base by combining the results from several studies (including Watstein’s...Force Base, NM, Jan . 1982. 21. Mattock, A. H., Discussion of "Rotational Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams"! by W. G. Corley, ASCE Journal of the... Bazant , Z., P., and Byung, H. 0., "Strain Rate Effect in Rapid Triaxial Loading of Concretei" ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics Division, Vol

  12. 西北戈壁滩地区冬期混凝土涵节预制质量监控%On quality inspection measures for concrete culvert section prefabricating during winter period gibi deserts of Northwest in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张选锋

    2014-01-01

    From the internal and external factors of concrete,the paper analyzes the reasons for the quality common diseases of the concrete cul-vert section prefabricating during winter period gibi deserts of Northwest in China,mainly explores the construction control measures,and illus-trates the construction difficulties and main points,construction organization and arrangement,and factual measures for the culvert prefabricating of winter period,so as to provide some scientific reference for construction.%从混凝土的内在因素与外界因素两个角度分析了西北戈壁滩地区冬期混凝土涵节预制的质量通病原因,着重对施工控制措施进行了探讨,阐述了冬期涵节预制的施工重难点、施工组织安排及具体措施,为顺利施工提供了科学依据。

  13. Deployable pressurized cell structure for a micrometeoroid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinard, W. H. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    This disclosure comprises a plurality of individual pressurized cells which are caused to leak in response to a micrometeoroid penetration, the leak being sensed by appropriate instrumentation. The plurality of cells may be rolled into a compact arrangement such that the volume of the micrometeoroid detector is small and therefore readily packed in a payload of a launch vehicle. Once the payload is placed in orbit, the rolled up cells can be released, pressurized and provide a relatively rigid, large surface area for detecting micrometeoroid penetration.

  14. Thermally-Stable High Strain Deployable Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is for the development of a thermally-stable composite made of carbon fibers and elastomeric resin. This combination of materials will allow...

  15. Mechanical behaviour of tape springs used in the deployment of reflectors around a solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewalque, Florence; Collette, Jean-Paul; Brüls, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    In order to increase the production of power on small satellites, solar panels are commonly deployed and, in some cases, reflectors are added to improve the concentration factor on solar cells. In this work, reflectors are deployed by the means of compliant mechanisms known as tape springs. Their attractive characteristics are, among others, their passive behaviour, their self-locking capacity, their elastic deformations and their robustness. However, their mechanical behaviour is highly nonlinear and requires thorough analyses in order to develop predictive numerical models. It is shown here through parametric studies that the nonlinear behaviour of a tape spring is mainly governed by its geometry. Thus, for each specific application, its dimensions can be determined in order to minimise two critical features: the maximum stress affecting the structure and the maximum motion amplitude during deployment. In this paper, an optimisation procedure is proposed to meet these requirements.

  16. Finding Their Way Back In: Family Reintegration Following Guard Deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messecar, Deborah C

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe deployed National Guard members' and their families' perceptions of their experience with family reintegration, and the causes and conditions of challenges reintegration presents after deployment. A total of 26 National Guard members and 19 family members participated in individual (n = 22), couples (n = 6), or focus group (n = 17) interviews. In-depth interviews were used to assess needs and maximize input from military families regarding deployment-related experiences and reintegration issues. Qualitative coding and analysis of data were completed using NVivo. Finding their way back in is the key process that the military members must complete to successfully reestablish their desired social connections with the family and reclaim their place within the family. Several conditions shape the degree of challenges with reintegration that veterans and their family will encounter. These include preparation for deployment, length and type of deployment, communication during deployment, and finally, awareness of how deployment changes the military member and the family. Support resources dedicated to providing National Guard members and their families with assistance in preparing for deployments and educating them about the importance of communication during deployment should be maintained and expanded. Broader educational efforts that increase awareness of what to expect regarding how deployment changes the military member and the family are needed. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Understanding the elevated suicide risk of female soldiers during deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, A. E.; Gilman, S. E.; Rosellini, A. J.; Stein, M. B.; Bromet, E. J.; Cox, K. L.; Colpe, L. J.; Fullerton, C. S.; Gruber, M. J.; Heeringa, S. G.; Lewandowski-Romps, L.; Little, R. J. A.; Naifeh, J. A.; Nock, M. K.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoenbaum, M.; Ursano, R. J.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) has found that the proportional elevation in the US Army enlisted soldier suicide rate during deployment (compared with the never-deployed or previously deployed) is significantly higher among women than men, raising the possibility of gender differences in the adverse psychological effects of deployment. Method Person-month survival models based on a consolidated administrative database for active duty enlisted Regular Army soldiers in 2004–2009 (n = 975 057) were used to characterize the gender × deployment interaction predicting suicide. Four explanatory hypotheses were explored involving the proportion of females in each soldier’s occupation, the proportion of same-gender soldiers in each soldier’s unit, whether the soldier reported sexual assault victimization in the previous 12 months, and the soldier’s pre-deployment history of treated mental/behavioral disorders. Results The suicide rate of currently deployed women (14.0/100 000 person-years) was 3.1–3.5 times the rates of other (i.e. never-deployed/previously deployed) women. The suicide rate of currently deployed men (22.6/100 000 person-years) was 0.9–1.2 times the rates of other men. The adjusted (for time trends, sociodemographics, and Army career variables) female:male odds ratio comparing the suicide rates of currently deployed v. other women v. men was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1–6.8), became 2.4 after excluding soldiers with Direct Combat Arms occupations, and remained elevated (in the range 1.9–2.8) after adjusting for the hypothesized explanatory variables. Conclusions These results are valuable in excluding otherwise plausible hypotheses for the elevated suicide rate of deployed women and point to the importance of expanding future research on the psychological challenges of deployment for women. PMID:25359554

  18. Stochastic Optimization for Nuclear Facility Deployment Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Ross Daniel

    Single-use, low-enriched uranium oxide fuel, consumed through several cycles in a light-water reactor (LWR) before being disposed, has become the dominant source of commercial-scale nuclear electric generation in the United States and throughout the world. However, it is not without its drawbacks and is not the only potential nuclear fuel cycle available. Numerous alternative fuel cycles have been proposed at various times which, through the use of different reactor and recycling technologies, offer to counteract many of the perceived shortcomings with regards to waste management, resource utilization, and proliferation resistance. However, due to the varying maturity levels of these technologies, the complicated material flow feedback interactions their use would require, and the large capital investments in the current technology, one should not deploy these advanced designs without first investigating the potential costs and benefits of so doing. As the interactions among these systems can be complicated, and the ways in which they may be deployed are many, the application of automated numerical optimization to the simulation of the fuel cycle could potentially be of great benefit to researchers and interested policy planners. To investigate the potential of these methods, a computational program has been developed that applies a parallel, multi-objective simulated annealing algorithm to a computational optimization problem defined by a library of relevant objective functions applied to the Ver ifiable Fuel Cycle Simulati on Model (VISION, developed at the Idaho National Laboratory). The VISION model, when given a specified fuel cycle deployment scenario, computes the numbers and types of, and construction, operation, and utilization schedules for, the nuclear facilities required to meet a predetermined electric power demand function. Additionally, it calculates the location and composition of the nuclear fuels within the fuel cycle, from initial mining through

  19. Rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Joseph V; Tibrea, Steven L; Shull, Davis J; Coleman, Jerry T; Shuler, James M

    2015-04-28

    A rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system and associated methods of operation are provided. An exemplary system includes a central command, a wireless backhaul network, and a remote monitoring unit. The remote monitoring unit can include a positioning system configured to determine a position of the remote monitoring unit based on one or more signals received from one or more satellites located in Low Earth Orbit. The wireless backhaul network can provide bidirectional communication capability independent of cellular telecommunication networks and the Internet. An exemplary method includes instructing at least one of a plurality of remote monitoring units to provide an alert based at least in part on a location of a hazard and a plurality of positions respectively associated with the plurality of remote monitoring units.

  20. Rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, Joseph V; Tibrea, Steven L; Shull, Davis J; Coleman, Jerry T; Shuler, James M

    2015-04-28

    A rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system and associated methods of operation are provided. An exemplary system includes a central command, a wireless backhaul network, and a remote monitoring unit. The remote monitoring unit can include a positioning system configured to determine a position of the remote monitoring unit based on one or more signals received from one or more satellites located in Low Earth Orbit. The wireless backhaul network can provide bidirectional communication capability independent of cellular telecommunication networks and the Internet. An exemplary method includes instructing at least one of a plurality of remote monitoring units to provide an alert based at least in part on a location of a hazard and a plurality of positions respectively associated with the plurality of remote monitoring units.